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Sample records for prostatic carcinoma dosimetry

  1. Prostate PDT dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We provide a review of the current state of dosimetry in prostate photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT of the human prostate has been performed with a number of different photosensitizers and with a variety of dosimetry schemes. The simplest clinical light dose prescription is to quantify the total light energy emitted per length (J/cm) of cylindrical diffusing fibers (CDF) for patients treated with a defined photosensitizer injection per body weight. However, this approach does not take into account the light scattering by tissue and usually underestimates the local light fluence rate, and consequently the fluence. Techniques have been developed to characterize tissue optical properties and light fluence rates in vivo using interstitial measurements during prostate PDT. Optical methods have been developed to characterize tissue absorption and scattering spectra, which in turn provide information about tissue oxygenation and drug concentration. Fluorescence techniques can be used to quantify drug concentrations and photobleaching rates of photosensitizers. PMID:25046988

  2. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate gland

    PubMed Central

    Hoof, Pamela; Tsai-Nguyen, Ginger; Paulson, Scott; Syed, Almas

    2016-01-01

    Small cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC) has a clinical course and prognosis that is markedly different from that of common adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The patient in this case presented with fever of unknown origin, dyspnea, and near spinal cord compression. He was subsequently found to have widely metastatic high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostatic origin. This case emphasizes that despite the commonality of prostate cancer, there are rare presentations of this common disease. PMID:26722176

  3. Virtual HDR{sup SM} CyberKnife Treatment for Localized Prostatic Carcinoma: Dosimetry Comparison With HDR Brachytherapy and Preliminary Clinical Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Donald B. Naitoh, John; Lee, Charles; Hardy, Steven C.; Jin, Haoran

    2008-04-01

    Background: We tested our ability to approximate the dose (38 Gy), fractionation (four fractions), and distribution of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for prostate cancer with CyberKnife (CK) stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plans. We also report early clinical observations of CK SBRT treatment. Methods and Materials: Ten patients were treated with CK. For each CK SBRT plan, an HDR plan was designed using common contour sets and simulated HDR catheters. Planning target volume coverage, intraprostatic dose escalation, and urethra, rectum, and bladder exposure were compared. Results: Planning target volume coverage by the prescription dose was similar for CK SBRT and HDR plans, whereas percent of volume of interest receiving 125% of prescribed radiation dose (V125) and V150 values were higher for HDR, reflecting higher doses near HDR source dwell positions. Urethra dose comparisons were lower for CK SBRT in 9 of 10 cases, suggesting that CK SBRT may more effectively limit urethra dose. Bladder maximum point doses were higher with HDR, but bladder dose falloff beyond the maximum dose region was more rapid with HDR. Maximum rectal wall doses were similar, but CK SBRT created sharper rectal dose falloff beyond the maximum dose region. Second CK SBRT plans, constructed by equating urethra radiation dose received by point of maximum exposure of volume of interest to the HDR plan, significantly increased V125 and V150. Clinically, 4-month post-CK SBRT median prostate-specific antigen levels decreased 86% from baseline. Acute toxicity was primarily urologic and returned to baseline by 2 months. Acute rectal morbidity was minimal and transient. Conclusions: It is possible to construct CK SBRT plans that closely recapitulate HDR dosimetry and deliver the plans noninvasively.

  4. Steroid hormone receptors in prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khalid, B A; Nurshireen, A; Rashidah, M; Zainal, B Y; Roslan, B A; Mahamooth, Z

    1990-06-01

    One hundred and six prostatic tissue samples obtained from transurethral resection were analysed for androgen and estrogen receptors. In 62 of these, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors were also assayed. Steroid receptors were assayed using single saturation dose 3H-labelled ligand assays. Ninety percent of the 97 prostatic hyperplasia tissues and six of the nine prostatic carcinoma tissues were positive for androgen receptors. Estrogen receptors were only present in 19% and 33% respectively. Progesterone receptors were present in 70% of the tissues, but glucocorticoid receptors were present in only 16% of prostatic hyperplasia and none in prostatic carcinoma. PMID:1725553

  5. [Management of neuroendocrine prostate carcinoma: Literature review].

    PubMed

    Yossi, S; Brahmi, T; Enachescu, C; Selmaji, I; Lapierre, A; Samlali, H; Chapet, O

    2016-06-01

    Neuroendocrine prostate carcinoma is a rare entity causing both diagnostic and therapeutic issues. There are basically four histological forms (adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, carcinoid tumors, small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas), which can be pure or mixed associated with prostatic carcinoma. There is no consensus on the management or the prognosis of these various tumor subtypes. We conducted a literature review aiming to determine the potential therapeutic implications. PMID:27340027

  6. Poor Predictive Value of Intraoperative Real-Time Dosimetry for Prostate Seed Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Igidbashian, Levon; Donath, David; Carrier, Jean-Francois; Lassalle, Stephanie; Hervieux, Yannick; David, Sandrine; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Taussky, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To identify dosimetric parameters predictive of a good prostate seed I{sup 125} quality implant. We analyzed preimplant and postimplant realtime dosimetry in patients treated with intraoperative (IO) inverse planning. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 127 consecutively treated patients with primarily low-risk prostate carcinoma who underwent prostate permanent seed I{sup 125} brachytherapy using an IO planning approach. The implant was done using the three-dimensional transrectal ultrasound (PRE-TRUS)-guided IO interactive inverse preplanning system. The TRUS was repeated in the operating room after the implant procedure was complete (POST-TRUS). The prostate was recontoured and postimplant dosimetry was calculated. Each patient underwent computed tomography scan on Day 28 (CT-D28) to evaluate implant quality. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) was evaluated for models predictive of a V100 of {>=}90% and a D90 of {>=}140 Gy on the basis of CT-D28 values. Results: On CT-D28, 72.4% of patients had a V100 of {>=}90% and 74.8% had a D90 of {>=}140 Gy. AUROC for a V100 of {>=}90% was 0.665 (p = 0.004) on PRE-TRUS and 0.619 (p = 0.039) on POST-TRUS. AUROC for D90 of {>=}140 Gy was 0.602 (p = 0.086) on PRE-TRUS and 0.614 (p = 0.054) on POST-TRUS. Using PRE-TRUS V100 cutoff of >97% gives sensitivity of 88% and a false-positive rate of 63%. A POST-TRUS D90 cutoff of >170 Gy resulted in a sensitivity of 62% and a false-positive rate of 34%. Conclusions: Because of unacceptably high false-positive rates, IO preimplant and postimplant TRUS-based dosimetry are not accurate tools to predict for postimplant computed tomography-based dosimetry.

  7. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  8. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Meghan E; Giannico, Giovanna A; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903) and no expression of P501S. The patient's previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors. PMID:27429817

  9. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland

    PubMed Central

    Kapp, Meghan E.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903) and no expression of P501S. The patient's previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors. PMID:27429817

  10. Effect of histone deacetylase on prostate carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanfeng; Xu, Qingchun; Liu, Guoyuan; Huang, Hong; Lin, Weiqiang; Huang, Yueying; Chi, Zepai; Chen, Shaochuan; Lan, Kaijian; Lin, Jiahua; Zhang, Yonghai

    2015-01-01

    Commonly occurred in aged males, the incidence of prostate carcinoma is increasing by years. Histone deacetylase (HDACs) as one key enzyme in regulating gene transcription has been found to be related with cancer occurrence. Trichostatin A (TSA) is one HDAC inhibitor for suppressing tumor growth. This study thus treated prostate carcinoma cell line PC3 with TSA, to analyze the effect of HDAC on the occurrence and progression of HDAC. PC3 cells were treated with gradient concentrations of TSA. MTT assay was employed to detect the proliferation of PC3 cells, while flow cytometry was used to detect the cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Apoptotic proteins including caspase-3, caspase-9 and bcl-2 were further quantified by Western blotting. MTT assays showed a dose- and time-dependent manner of TSA in inhibiting PC3 cell proliferation. Most of PC3 cells were arrested at G1 phase after treating with TSA. The apoptotic ratio of cells was also elevated by higher concentrations of drugs. Apoptotic proteins including caspase-3, caspase-9 and bcl-2 were all up-regulated by TSA. HDAC inhibitor can effectively suppress the proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells, which can be arrested at G1 phase. The elevated apoptotic ratio was caused by up-regulation of apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, caspase-9 and bcl-2, in both dose- and time-dependent manners. PMID:26823840

  11. Percutaneous transperineal placement of gold 198 seeds for treatment of carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Crusinberry, R.A.; Kramolowsky, E.V.; Loening, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-one patients have been treated for carcinoma of the prostate with /sup 198/Au seeds placed transperineally using transrectal ultrasonic guidance. Twenty patients have been followed postoperatively for periods ranging from 3 to 31 months, with an average follow-up time of 12 months. Cumulative dose of radiation to the prostate calculated by dosimetry was either 9000 rads or 15,000 rads. Serial transrectal ultrasound examinations performed on these patients showed a decrease in prostate size in all patients within 6 months of treatment, with a statistically significant decrease observed between the third and sixth months. No significant difference in amount or rate of tumor regression was noted when tumor stage and grade were correlated to volume decrease after treatment. Patients who received the larger doses of radiation (15,000 rads) showed a significantly greater rate of decline in prostatic volume than those who received 9000 rads. Seven patients underwent prostate biopsy between 12 and 18 months after treatment; six biopsies showed residual tumor. Complications after treatment included urinary retention because of prostatic edema (three), radiation urethritis (three), and rectal ulceration (one). Transperineal placement of /sup 198/Au is well tolerated and offers an alternative to external beam radiation for treatment of carcinoma of the prostate.

  12. Metastatic brain tumor from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Kohei; Oda, Masashi; Koyanagi, Masaomi; Saiki, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urothelial carcinoma occurs in the bladder, upper urinary tract, and lower urinary tract, including prostatic urethra. A majority of the reported cases of intracranial metastasis from urothelial carcinoma originates from the bladder and upper urinary tract. Brain metastasis from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra has not yet been reported in the literature. Case Description: A 72-year-old male presented with a metastatic brain tumor and a 3-year history of urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra treated with cystourethrectomy and chemotherapy with gemcitabine-cisplatin. Pathological diagnosis for tumor removal was compatible with metastatic brain tumor from urothelial carcinoma. Conclusion: Brain metastasis from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra has not yet been reported in the literature. It is an extremely rare case, however, we should be careful of brain metastasis during follow-up for urothelial carcinoma in the lower urinary tract. PMID:27512612

  13. Comparison of Real-Time Intraoperative Ultrasound-Based Dosimetry With Postoperative Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry for Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, Subir; Shi Peipei; Liu Bingren; Gupta, Nilendu; Bahnson, Robert R.; Wang, Jian Z.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether real-time intraoperative ultrasound (US)-based dosimetry can replace conventional postoperative computed tomography (CT)-based dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between December 2001 and November 2002, 82 patients underwent {sup 103}Pd prostate brachytherapy. An interplant treatment planning system was used for real-time intraoperative transrectal US-guided treatment planning. The dose distribution was updated according to the estimated seed position to obtain the dose-volume histograms. Postoperative CT-based dosimetry was performed a few hours later using the Theraplan-Plus treatment planning system. The dosimetric parameters obtained from the two imaging modalities were compared. Results: The results of this study revealed correlations between the US- and CT-based dosimetry. However, large variations were found in the implant-quality parameters of the two modalities, including the doses covering 100%, 90%, and 80% of the prostate volume and prostate volumes covered by 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescription dose. The mean relative difference was 38% and 16% for doses covering 100% and 90% of the prostate volume and 10% and 21% for prostate volumes covered by 100% and 150% of the prescription dose, respectively. The CT-based volume covered by 200% of the prescription dose was about 30% greater than the US-based one. Compared with CT-based dosimetry, US-based dosimetry significantly underestimated the dose to normal organs, especially for the rectum. The average US-based maximal dose and volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose for the rectum was 72 Gy and 0.01 cm{sup 3}, respectively, much lower than the 159 Gy and 0.65 cm{sup 3} obtained using CT-based dosimetry. Conclusion: Although dosimetry using intraoperative US-based planning provides preliminary real-time information, it does not accurately reflect the postoperative CT-based dosimetry. Until studies have determined whether US-based dosimetry

  14. Cyclin D1 expression in prostate carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, R.A.; Ravinal, R.C.; Costa, R.S.; Lima, M.S.; Tucci, S.; Muglia, V.F.; Reis, R.B. Dos; Silva, G.E.B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ≤5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (≥7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness. PMID:24820071

  15. Prostatic edema in {sup 125}I permanent prostate implants: Dynamical dosimetry taking volume changes into account

    SciTech Connect

    Leclerc, Ghyslain; Lavallee, Marie-Claude; Roy, Rene; Vigneault, Eric; Beaulieu, Luc

    2006-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of edema on the dose delivered to the target volume. An evaluation of the edema characteristics was first made, and then a dynamical dosimetry algorithm was developed and used to compare its results to a standard clinical (static) dosimetry. Source positions and prostate contours extracted from 66 clinical cases on images taken at different points in time (planning, implant day, post-implant evaluation) were used, via the mean interseed distance, to characterize edema [initial increase ({delta}r{sub 0}), half-life ({tau})]. An algorithm was developed to take into account the edema by summing a time series of dose-volume histograms (DVHs) with a weight based on the fraction of the dose delivered during the time interval considered. The algorithm was then used to evaluate the impact of edema on the dosimetry of permanent implants by comparing its results to those of a standard clinical dosimetry. The volumetric study yielded results as follows: the initial prostate volume increase was found to be 1.58 (ranging from 1.15 to 2.48) and the edema half-life, approximately 30 days (range: 3 to 170 days). The dosimetric differences in D{sub 90} observed between the dynamic dosimetry and the clinical one for a single case were up to 15 Gy and depended on the edema half-life and the initial volume increase. The average edema half-life, 30 days, is about 3 times longer than the previously reported 9 days. Dosimetric differences up to 10% of the prescription dose are observed, which can lead to differences in the quality assertion of an implant. The study of individual patient edema resorption with time might be necessary to extract meaningful clinical correlation or biological parameters in permanent implants.

  16. Prostatic carcinoma: limited field irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rounsaville, M.C.; Green, J.P.; Vaeth, J.M.; Purdon, R.P.; Heltzel, M.M.

    1987-07-01

    This is a retrospective study of 251 patients with histologically proven adenocarcinoma treated primarily with limited field radiotherapy techniques, under the principle direction of authors JMV and JPG, between 1968 and 1981 in San Francisco, California. All patients are followed for a minimum of 3 years; mean follow-up is 7.3 years. Routine clinical staging procedures included: HandP, digital prostate exam, cystoscopy, biopsy, blood studies including serum acid phosphatase, and imaging studies including chest X ray, IVP, bone survey or radionucleotide bone scan, and in recent years, pelvic CT scans. Twelve patients are Stage A1, 37-Stage A2, 50-Stage B, 140-Stage C1 and 12-Stage C2. Ninety percent of all cases and 85% of Stage C patients were treated with limited fields to the prostate and periprostatic volume only. Total doses were prescribed at midplane or isocenter and were generally 6500-7000 cGy, daily doses of 180-200 cGy, 5 days per week. Actuarial 5- and 10-year survival rates are: entire population-69% and 47%; Stage A1-74% and 50%; Stage A2-81% and 67%; Stage B-84% and 53%; Stage C1-63% and 42%; Stage C2-32% and 11%. The 5- and 10-year disease-free actuarial survivals are: entire population-71% and 50%; Stage A1-89% and 74%; Stage A2-82% and 69%; Stage B-71% and 52%; Stage C1-67% and 44%; Stage C2-0%. Sites of recurrence, alone or as a component of the failure pattern are: 37 (15%) local, 11 (4%) symptomatic regional recurrence (lower extremity edema, pelvic pain/sciatica, hydroureteronephrosis), and 87 (35%) distant metastasis. Seven (3%) had unknown sites of failure. Local-regional failure occurred in 42% of Stage C2 patients.

  17. Prostatic carcinoma: rectal bleeding after radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, A.R.; Steckel, R.J.

    1981-06-01

    A 64-year-old man had a prostatic nodule on routine physical examination; per-rectal needle biopsies revealed a single focus of well differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient had no history of urinary obstruction or of bowel difficulties. Accordingly, this was clinical stage II carcinoma of the prostate. The patient chose to receive external radiation therapy and was given small-field rotational treatment to a dose of 7000 rad (70 Gy) at a rate of 800 rad (8 Gy) weekly. Late in treatment, he experienced transitory diarrhea with flatulence, but this cleared with completion of treatment. Twenty months later he began to note frequent soft bowel movements, occasionally with red blood. At sigmoidoscopy 24 months after completion of treatment, the rectal mucosa was noted to be friable with minimal bleeding, presumably the result of radiation proctitis.

  18. Dosimetry Modeling for Focal Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Qaisieh, Bashar; Mason, Josh; Bownes, Peter; Henry, Ann; Dickinson, Louise; Ahmed, Hashim U.; Emberton, Mark; Langley, Stephen

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Focal brachytherapy targeted to an individual lesion(s) within the prostate may reduce side effects experienced with whole-gland brachytherapy. The outcomes of a consensus meeting on focal prostate brachytherapy were used to investigate optimal dosimetry of focal low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy targeted using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and transperineal template prostate mapping (TPM) biopsy, including the effects of random and systematic seed displacements and interseed attenuation (ISA). Methods and Materials: Nine patients were selected according to clinical characteristics and concordance of TPM and mp-MRI. Retrospectively, 3 treatment plans were analyzed for each case: whole-gland (WG), hemi-gland (hemi), and ultra-focal (UF) plans, with 145-Gy prescription dose and identical dose constraints for each plan. Plan robustness to seed displacement and ISA were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Results: WG plans used a mean 28 needles and 81 seeds, hemi plans used 17 needles and 56 seeds, and UF plans used 12 needles and 25 seeds. Mean D90 (minimum dose received by 90% of the target) and V100 (percentage of the target that receives 100% dose) values were 181.3 Gy and 99.8% for the prostate in WG plans, 195.7 Gy and 97.8% for the hemi-prostate in hemi plans, and 218.3 Gy and 99.8% for the focal target in UF plans. Mean urethra D10 was 205.9 Gy, 191.4 Gy, and 92.4 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Mean rectum D2 cm{sup 3} was 107.5 Gy, 77.0 Gy, and 42.7 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Focal plans were more sensitive to seed displacement errors: random shifts with a standard deviation of 4 mm reduced mean target D90 by 14.0%, 20.5%, and 32.0% for WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. ISA has a similar impact on dose-volume histogram parameters for all plan types. Conclusions: Treatment planning for focal LDR brachytherapy is feasible. Dose constraints are easily met with a notable

  19. Clinical and in vitro magnetic resonance imaging of prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Buonocore, E.; Hesemann, C.; Pavlicek, W.; Montie, J.E.

    1984-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate was accomplished in 10 patients who subsequently had surgical exploration for histological confirmation and tumor staging. Eight patients were found to have carcinoma of the prostate. Two resected prostates with carcinoma and one normal prostate were available for in vitro MRI in a clinical magnetic resonance unit. The MRI finding of prostatic carcinoma was heterogeneous signal patterns, seen best on T2-weighted studies. There was a homogeneous MRI signal pattern of the normal prostate gland examined in vitro. In two instances, the MRI studies were accurate for the identification of tumor spread to the seminal vesicles, not diagnosed at the time of surgical resection. Microscopic metastatic disease of the lymph nodes in four patients was not identified by MRI.

  20. Lymphoepithelioma-like Carcinoma (LELC) of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Eisa, Waleed; Kheyfets, Steven; Walton, John; Zhu, Shaobo; Garg, Tullika

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is an aggressive tumor that rarely affects the prostate. Few cases are reported in the literature. We present a case report, pathologic description and review of the literature. PMID:26977409

  1. Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy caused by prostate carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuriyama, Keiko; Kinoshita, Tatsuya; Nagai, Keisuke; Hongyo, Hidenari; Kishimoto, Kentaro; Inoue, Atsuo; Takamura, Manabu; Choi, Soomi

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) is a fatal malignancy-related condition that involves rapidly progressing hypoxia and pulmonary hypertension. We report a case of PTTM caused by prostate carcinoma, which was diagnosed before autopsy in an 81-year-old man. Computed tomography showed diffuse ground-glass opacities, consolidation, and small nodules in the peripheral regions of the lung. Autopsy showed adenocarcinoma cells embolizing small pulmonary arteries with fibrocellular intimal proliferation, which was consistent with PTTM caused by prostate carcinoma.

  2. Prostate brachytherapy postimplant dosimetry: Automatic plan reconstruction of stranded implants

    SciTech Connect

    Chng, N.; Spadinger, I.; Morris, W. J.; Usmani, N.; Salcudean, S.

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Plan reconstruction for permanent implant prostate brachytherapy is the process of determining the correspondence between planned and implanted seeds in postimplant analysis. Plan reconstruction informs many areas of brachytherapy quality assurance, including the verification of seed segmentation, misplacement and migration assessment, implant simulations, and the dosimetry of mixed-activity or mixed-species implants. Methods: An algorithm has been developed for stranded implants which uses the interseed spacing constraints imposed by the suture to improve the accuracy of reconstruction. Seventy randomly selected clinical cases with a mean of 23.6 (range 18-30) needles and mean density of 2.0 (range 1.6-2.6) 2.0 (range 1.6-2.6) seeds/cm{sup 3} were automatically reconstructed and the accuracy compared to manual reconstructions performed using a custom 3D graphical interface. Results: Using the automatic algorithm, the mean accuracy of the assignment relative to manual reconstruction was found to be 97.7{+-}0.5%. Fifty-two of the 70 cases (74%) were error-free; of seeds in the remaining cases, 96.7{+-}0.3% were found to be attributed to the correct strand and 97.0{+-}0.3% were correctly connected to their neighbors. Any necessary manual correction using the interface is usually straightforward. For the clinical data set tested, neither the number of seeds or needles, average density, nor the presence of clusters was found to have an effect on reconstruction accuracy using this method. Conclusions: Routine plan reconstruction of stranded implants can be performed with a high degree of accuracy to support postimplant dosimetry and quality analyses.

  3. Mixed adenocarcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the prostate: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZHONGFU; WANG, YADONG; ZHAO, QING; LI, GANHONG; ZHAO, XINGQI; LI, JUN; LI, XIANXIN

    2014-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) and sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) of the prostate are rare, but highly aggressive tumors. The occurrence of mixed carcinomas in the prostate is even more rarely reported. The present study reports the case of a 62-year-old male who was diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma accompanied by multiple bone metastases, as shown by a needle biopsy and skeletal computed tomography scan. The patient was treated with hormonal therapy, but thereafter, specimens from a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) were found to be composed of three histologically distinct elements: ASC, SC and adenocarcinoma. The level of p53 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in detail, and it was found that this was significantly increased in the TURP samples compared with the needle biopsy samples. The abnormal level of p53 was likely associated with the prognosis of the patient; the patient succumbed to prostate carcinoma two months after the confirmation of the diagnosis. PMID:25295118

  4. Solitary Spinal Epidural Metastasis from Prostatic Small Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maeng, Young Hee

    2016-01-01

    Solitary, spinal epidural metastasis (SEM) that is not related to vertebral metastasis is very rare. And solitary SEM from prostatic cancer is rarely found in previously published reports. However, it is clinically significant due to the possibility of neurologic dysfunction, and it can be assessed by MRI. In this report, we show a case of solitary SEM arising from prostatic small cell carcinoma detected by MRI. PMID:27413569

  5. Online dosimetry for temoporfin-mediated interstitial photodynamic therapy using the canine prostate as model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartling, Johannes; Höglund, Odd V.; Hansson, Kerstin; Södersten, Fredrik; Axelsson, Johan; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie

    2016-02-01

    Online light dosimetry with real-time feedback was applied for temoporfin-mediated interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT) of dog prostate. The aim was to investigate the performance of online dosimetry by studying the correlation between light dose plans and the tissue response, i.e., extent of induced tissue necrosis and damage to surrounding organs at risk. Light-dose planning software provided dose plans, including light source positions and light doses, based on ultrasound images. A laser instrument provided therapeutic light and dosimetric measurements. The procedure was designed to closely emulate the procedure for whole-prostate PDT in humans with prostate cancer. Nine healthy dogs were subjected to the procedure according to a light-dose escalation plan. About 0.15 mg/kg temoporfin was administered 72 h before the procedure. The results of the procedure were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, and gross pathology and histopathology of excised tissue. Light dose planning and online dosimetry clearly resulted in more focused effect and less damage to surrounding tissue than interstitial PDT without dosimetry. A light energy dose-response relationship was established where the threshold dose to induce prostate gland necrosis was estimated from 20 to 30 J/cm2.

  6. Online dosimetry for temoporfin-mediated interstitial photodynamic therapy using the canine prostate as model.

    PubMed

    Swartling, Johannes; Höglund, Odd V; Hansson, Kerstin; Södersten, Fredrik; Axelsson, Johan; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie

    2016-02-01

    Online light dosimetry with real-time feedback was applied for temoporfin-mediated interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT) of dog prostate. The aim was to investigate the performance of online dosimetry by studying the correlation between light dose plans and the tissue response, i.e., extent of induced tissue necrosis and damage to surrounding organs at risk. Light-dose planning software provided dose plans, including light source positions and light doses, based on ultrasound images. A laser instrument provided therapeutic light and dosimetric measurements. The procedure was designed to closely emulate the procedure for whole-prostate PDT in humans with prostate cancer. Nine healthy dogs were subjected to the procedure according to a light-dose escalation plan. About 0.15 mg/kg temoporfin was administered 72 h before the procedure. The results of the procedure were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, and gross pathology and histopathology of excised tissue. Light dose planning and online dosimetry clearly resulted in more focused effect and less damage to surrounding tissue than interstitial PDT without dosimetry. A light energy dose-response relationship was established where the threshold dose to induce prostate gland necrosis was estimated from 20 to 30  J/cm2. PMID:26886806

  7. Intraductal Carcinoma of the Prostate Gland: Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Divatia, Mukul K; Ro, Jae Y

    2016-09-01

    Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) is characterized by prostatic carcinoma involving ducts and/or acini. The presence of IDC-P is usually associated with a high-grade Gleason score, large tumor volume, and adverse prognostic parameters, including extraprostatic extension and seminal vesicle invasion. When present, IDC-P is associated with worse outcomes, regardless of treatment status. IDC-P is included in a broader diagnostic category of atypical cribriform lesions of the prostate gland. This category of lesions also includes high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), urothelial carcinoma involving prostatic ducts or acini, and prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma, amongst other intraductal proliferations. Differentiating between these entities is important as they have differing therapeutic and prognostic implications for patients, although differential diagnosis thereof is not always straightforward. The present review discusses IDC-P in regards to its morphological characteristics, molecular features, and clinical outcomes. Given the current state of knowledge, the presence of IDC-P should be evaluated and documented correctly in both radical prostatectomy and needle biopsy specimens, and the clinical implications thereof should be taken into consideration during treatment and follow up. PMID:27401634

  8. Comparison of CT and MR-CT Fusion for Prostate Post-Implant Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Maletz, Kristina L.; Ennis, Ronald D.; Ostenson, Jason; Pevsner, Alexander; Kagen, Alexander; Wernick, Iddo

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: The use of T2 MR for postimplant dosimetry (PID) after prostate brachytherapy allows more anatomically accurate and precise contouring but does not readily permit seed identification. We developed a reproducible technique for performing MR-CT fusion and compared the resulting dosimetry to standard CT-based PID. Methods and Materials: CT and T1-weighted MR images for 45 patients were fused and aligned based on seed distribution. The T2-weighted MR image was then fused to the aligned T1. Reproducibility of the fusion technique was tested by inter- and intraobserver variability for 13 patients. Dosimetry was computed for the prostate as a whole and for the prostate divided into anterior and posterior sectors of the base, mid-prostate, and apex. Results: Inter- and intraobserver variability for the fusion technique showed less than 1% variation in D90. MR-CT fusion D90 and CT D90 were nearly equivalent for the whole prostate, but differed depending on the identification of superior extent of the base (p = 0.007) and on MR/CT prostate volume ratio (p = 0.03). Sector analysis showed a decrease in MR-CT fusion D90 in the anterior base (ratio 0.93 {+-}0.25, p < 0.05) and an increase in MR-CT fusion D90 in the apex (p < 0.05). The volume of extraprostatic tissue encompassed by the V100 is greater on MR than CT. Factors associated with this difference are the MR/CT volume ratio (p < 0.001) and the difference in identification of the inferior extent of the apex (p = 0.03). Conclusions: We developed a reproducible MR-CT fusion technique that allows MR-based dosimetry. Comparing the resulting postimplant dosimetry with standard CT dosimetry shows several differences, including adequacy of coverage of the base and conformity of the dosimetry around the apex. Given the advantage of MR-based tissue definition, further study of MR-based dosimetry is warranted.

  9. Triple cancer: chronic lymphocytic leukemia with bladder and prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gajendra, Smeeta; Sharma, Rashi; Sahoo, Manas Kumar

    2015-08-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) is a common lymphoproliferative disorder with an increased risk of developing subsequent neoplasms of epithelial and mesenchymal origin. The decreased immunity and B-cell dysfunction in CLL probably accounts for this emergence of second malignancies. We report a case of synchronous bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and prostatic carcinoma with CLL. A 74-year-old male who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia 2 years before, presented with recurrent urinary tract infection. Peripheral blood smear revealed leukocytosis with absolute lymphocytosis (absolute lymphocyte count: 37870 cells/mm³). Flow cytometric immunophenotyping revealed 75% abnormal lymphoid cells which were positive for CD 19, CD5, CD23, CD22, CD200, CD20 (moderate) with lambda light chain restriction and negative for CD3, CD10, FMC7, CD38, CD138, IgM, CD103, CD123. F Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) showed increased metabolic activity of the left lateral wall of the urinary bladder extending to the left UV junction, adjacent part of trigone and bladder neck region along with multiple heterogeneous enhancing areas with increased FDG avidity within the prostate. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumour by cystoscopy was performed. Histopathology showed high grade, muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma. Due to presence of uptake in the prostate, transurethral resection of the prostate was done and histopathology revealed adenocarcinoma of prostate (prostate specific antigen- positive), Gleason grade III+III and Gleason score 6. A high index of suspicion is required to detect synchronous and metachronous malignancies. Ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and PET/CT are often essential for detection and an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26277675

  10. A subset of prostatic basal cell carcinomas harbor the MYB rearrangement of adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Yonescu, Raluca; Epstein, Jonathan I; Westra, William H

    2015-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a basaloid tumor consisting of myoepithelial and ductal cells typically arranged in a cribriform pattern. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is generally regarded as a form of salivary gland carcinoma, but it can arise from sites unassociated with salivary tissue. A rare form of prostate carcinoma exhibits ACC-like features; it is no longer regarded as a true ACC but rather as prostatic basal cell carcinoma (PBCC) and within the spectrum of basaloid prostatic proliferations. True ACCs often harbor MYB translocations resulting in the MYB-NFIB fusion protein. MYB analysis could clarify the true nature of prostatic carcinomas that exhibit ACC features and thus help refine the classification of prostatic basaloid proliferations. Twelve PBCCs were identified from the pathology consultation files of Johns Hopkins Hospital. The histopathologic features were reviewed, and break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYB was performed. All 12 cases exhibited prominent basaloid histology. Four were purely solid, 7 exhibited a cribriform pattern reminiscent of salivary ACC, and 1 had a mixed pattern. The MYB rearrangement was detected in 2 (29%) of 7 ACC-like carcinomas but in none (0%) of the 5 PBCCs with a prominent solid pattern. True ACCs can arise in the prostate as is evidenced by the presence of the characteristic MYB rearrangement. When dealing with malignant basaloid proliferations in the prostate, recommendations to consolidate ACCs with other tumor types may need to be reassessed, particularly in light of the rapidly advancing field of biologic therapy where the identification of tumor-specific genetic alterations presents novel therapeutic targets. PMID:26089205

  11. System for interstitial photodynamic therapy with online dosimetry: first clinical experiences of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartling, Johannes; Axelsson, Johan; Ahlgren, Göran; Kälkner, Karl Mikael; Nilsson, Sten; Svanberg, Sune; Svanberg, Katarina; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    The first results from a clinical study for Temoporfin-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) of low-grade (T1c) primary prostate cancer using online dosimetry are presented. Dosimetric feedback in real time was applied, for the first time to our knowledge, in interstitial photodynamic therapy. The dosimetry software IDOSE provided dose plans, including optical fiber positions and light doses based on 3-D tissue models generated from ultrasound images. Tissue optical property measurements were obtained using the same fibers used for light delivery. Measurements were taken before, during, and after the treatment session. On the basis of these real-time measured optical properties, the light-dose plan was recalculated. The aim of the treatment was to ablate the entire prostate while minimizing exposure to surrounding organs. The results indicate that online dosimetry based on real-time tissue optical property measurements enabled the light dose to be adapted and optimized. However, histopathological analysis of tissue biopsies taken six months post-PDT treatment showed there were still residual viable cancer cells present in the prostate tissue sections. The authors propose that the incomplete treatment of the prostate tissue could be due to a too low light threshold dose, which was set to 5 J/cm2.

  12. Results from a multicenter prostate IMRT dosimetry intercomparison for an OCOG-TROG clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, B.; Frantzis, J.; Murry, R.; Martin, J.; Plank, A.; Middleton, M.; Catton, C.; Kron, T.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: A multi-institution dosimetry intercomparison has been undertaken of prostate intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery. The dosimetry intercomparison was incorporated into the quality assurance for site credentialing for the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Prostate Fractionated Irradiation Trial 08.01 clinical trial.Methods: An anthropomorphic pelvic phantom with realistic anatomy was used along with multiplanar dosimetry tools for the assessment. Nineteen centers across Australia and New Zealand participated in the study.Results: In comparing planned versus measured dose to the target at the isocenter within the phantom, all centers were able to achieve a total delivered dose within 3% of planned dose. In multiplanar analysis with radiochromic film using the gamma analysis method to compare delivered and planned dose, pass rates for a 5%/3 mm criterion were better than 90% for a coronal slice through the isocenter. Pass rates for an off-axis coronal slice were also better than 90% except for one instance with 84% pass rate.Conclusions: Strengths of the dosimetry assessment procedure included the true anthropomorphic nature of the phantom used, the involvement of an expert from the reference center in carrying out the assessment at every site, and the ability of the assessment to detect and resolve dosimetry discrepancies.

  13. Effect of Edema on Postimplant Dosimetry in Prostate Brachytherapy Using CT/MRI Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Osamu Hayashi, Shinya; Matsuo, Masayuki; Nakano, Masahiro; Uno, Hiromi; Ohtakara, Kazuhiro; Miyoshi, Toshiharu; Deguchi, Takashi; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the time course of prostatic edema and the effect on the dose-volume histograms of the prostate for patients treated with brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 74 patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in this prospective study. A transrectal ultrasound-based preplan was performed 4 weeks before implantation and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging fusion-based postimplant dosimetry was performed on the day after implantation (Day 1) and 30 days after implantation (Day 30). The prostate volume, prostate volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose (V{sub 100}), and dose covering 90% of the prostate (D{sub 90}) were evaluated with prostatic edema over time. Results: Prostatic edema was greatest on Day 1, with the mean prostate volume 36% greater than the preplan transrectal ultrasound-based volume; it thereafter decreased over time. It was 9% greater than preplan volume on Day 30. The V{sub 100} increased 5.7% from Day 1 to Day 30, and the D{sub 90} increased 13.1% from Day 1 to Day 30. The edema ratio (postplan/preplan) on Day 1 of low-quality implants with a V{sub 100} of <80% was significantly greater than that of intermediate- to high-quality implants (>80% V{sub 100}; p = 0.0272). The lower V{sub 100} on Day 1 showed a greater increase from Day 1 to Day 30. A V{sub 100} on Day 1 of >92% is unlikely to increase >0% during the interval studied. Conclusion: Low-quality implants on Day 1 were highly associated with edema; however, such a low-quality implant on Day 1, with significant edema, tended to improve by Day 30. If a high-quality implant (V100 >92%) can be obtained on Day 1, a re-examination is no longer necessary.

  14. 125-iodine reimplantation for locally progressive prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, K.E.; Nori, D.; Morse, M.J.; Sogani, P.C.; Whitmore, W.F.; Fuks, Z. )

    1990-09-01

    We treated 13 patients with a second 125-iodine implant for local recurrence of prostatic carcinoma. All patients had biopsy proved palpable recurrence without evidence of distant metastases. Full doses of irradiation were used (median matched peripheral dose 170 Gy.). Six patients had complete regression of palpable recurrence, 2 had partial regression, 2 had no apparent response and 3 were unevaluable for local response. Actuarial freedom from local disease progression at 5 years was 51%. Despite a relatively high rate of local disease control the actuarial rate of distant metastases reached 100% at 6 years after reimplantation. There were 2 severe rectal complications and 4 instances of mild to moderate urinary incontinence among the 13 patients. Local regression of recurrent prostatic carcinoma may be achieved with 125-iodine reimplantation but most patients still had distant metastases.

  15. Carcinoma of the prostate: results of post-irradiation biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Freiha, F.S.; Bagshaw, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and forty-six patients with clinically localized carcinoma of the prostate were surgically staged and treated with external beam irradiation to the prostate and to the lymph node-bearing areas. Sixty-four (44%) of these patients had needle biopsy of the prostate 18 months or more following completion of therapy. Thirty-nine (61%) of the biopsies were interpreted as positive and 25 (39%) as negative. Twenty-eight (72%) of the 39 patients with a positive biopsy have subsequently developed metastases as compared to only 6 of 25 (24%) of the patients with a negative biopsy. It is concluded that an apparently positive postirradiation biopsy is likely to indicate active disease and identifies patients at a higher risk for development of metastases. Other details of staging, grading, and outcomes that compare these two groups are discussed.

  16. Prostate specific antigen levels after definitive irradiation for carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Schellhammer, P.F.; Schlossberg, S.M.; el-Mahdi, A.M.; Wright, G.L.; Brassil, D.N. )

    1991-05-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were determined in 78 patients judged clinically to be free of disease at intervals of 36 or more months (range 38 to 186 months, median 87 months) after completion of irradiation therapy by 125-iodine implantation or external beam radiation. Of this select group of patients 38% had undetectable serum PSA levels (0.5 ng./ml. or less) and 38% had PSA levels that were within normal limits (4.0 ng./ml. or less). All stages and grades were represented. Undetectable PSA levels were only rarely found (3%) in patients with carcinoma of the prostate before treatment. In 24 of these 78 patients a negative biopsy of the irradiated prostate had been obtained 18 to 42 months after treatment. When the PSA level was drawn, which ranged from 7 to 16 years after treatment, an equal percentage of these biopsied patients had either an undetectable, normal or elevated level. Irradiation is able to decrease PSA to undetectable levels in some patients with prostatic carcinoma. Whether this reflects suppression of marker production alone or, more importantly, ablation of prostate cancer producing that marker remains to be determined.

  17. [A case of dermatomyositis associated with prostatic carcinoma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yoshitaka; Kubota, Yutaka; Kurihara, Jun

    2004-02-01

    We report a case of dermatomyositis associated with prostatic carcinoma. A 69-year-old male was admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine with the chief complaint of general fatigue, appetite loss and facial anthema. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated swollen periaortic lymph nodes and the margin of prostate was unclear. Prostatic carcinoma was suspected based on digital rectal examination, so he was admitted to our department. Serum prostate specific antigen level was 190 ng/ml. He was examined by a dermatologist because of deterioration of anthema. Dermatomyocitis was demonstrated by dermatoses (edema erythema at face, neck and limbs, nail fold thrombosis and poikiloderma), high serum level of creatine phosphokinase and a decrease in muscular strength (especially at the proximal musculus). There was no interstitial pneumonitis or malignancy of the digestive system. On needle biopsy of the prostate and quadriceps femoris muscle, prostatic carcinoma (poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, Gleason score 5 + 5) and myositis were suspected. The stage of prostatic carcinoma was T4N1M1. The patient was treated by administration of diethylstilbestrol phosphate and prednisolone for prostatic carcinoma and dermatomyositis, respectively, but he died of multiple metastasis of the tumor 1 year and 5 months later. Dermatomyocitis is associated with malignancy more frequently than any other collagen disease. In Japan, it is frequently complicated by gastric, lung and mammory cancers, but rarely by prostatic carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the fourth case of prostatic carcinoma associated with dermatomyocitis in Japan. PMID:15101164

  18. Measurement uncertainty analysis of low-dose-rate prostate seed brachytherapy: post-implant dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Kent J; Pattison, John E; Bibbo, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    The minimal dose covering 90 % of the prostate volume--D 90--is arguably the most important dosimetric parameter in low-dose-rate prostate seed brachytherapy. In this study an analysis of the measurement uncertainties in D 90 from low-dose-rate prostate seed brachytherapy was conducted for two common treatment procedures with two different post-implant dosimetry methods. The analysis was undertaken in order to determine the magnitude of D 90 uncertainty, how the magnitude of the uncertainty varied when D 90 was calculated using different dosimetry methods, and which factors were the major contributors to the uncertainty. The analysis considered the prostate as being homogeneous and tissue equivalent and made use of published data, as well as original data collected specifically for this analysis, and was performed according to the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). It was found that when prostate imaging and seed implantation were conducted in two separate sessions using only CT images for post-implant analysis, the expanded uncertainty in D 90 values were about 25 % at the 95 % confidence interval. When prostate imaging and seed implantation were conducted during a single session using CT and ultrasound images for post-implant analysis, the expanded uncertainty in D 90 values were about 33 %. Methods for reducing these uncertainty levels are discussed. It was found that variations in contouring the target tissue made the largest contribution to D 90 uncertainty, while the uncertainty in seed source strength made only a small contribution. It is important that clinicians appreciate the overall magnitude of D 90 uncertainty and understand the factors that affect it so that clinical decisions are soundly based, and resources are appropriately allocated. PMID:25555753

  19. [Basal cell carcinoma of prostate: a report of three cases].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Ma, L L; Zhang, S D; Lu, M; Tian, Y; He, Q; Jin, J

    2016-02-18

    To explore the clinical pathological characteristics and improve the recognition in the diagnosis and treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of prostate. Three cases of BCC of prostate were reported and the relevant literature was reviewed to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. We analyzed three cases of prostatic BCC. Their ages were within a range of 57 to 83 years. One of them complained of hematuria and two complained of dysuria. All of them presented with prostatic hyperplasia. Two of them presented with high prostate specific antigen (PSA) and one with normal PSA. Case 1 had prostate cancer invasion of bladder, rectal fascia, with lymph node metastasis, bone metastasis and lung metastases. The patient received bladder resection+bilateral ureteral cutaneous ureterostomy+lymph node dissection on November 2, 2014 . Postoperative pathological diagnosis showed BCC. Reexamination of pelvic enhanced MRI in January 8, 2015 suggested pelvic recurrence. Abdominal enhanced CT showed multiple liver metastases and pancreatic metastasis on July 11, 2015. Prostate cancer specific death occurred in October 2015. Case 2 was diagnosed as BCC in prostate biopsy on March 27, 2015. Positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) showed pulmonary metastasis and bone metastasis. Then the patient received chemotherapy, endocrine therapy and local radiation therapy. Reexamination of PET-CT on January 11, 2016 showed that the lung metastase tumors and bone metastase tumors were larger than before. Up to January 10, 2016, the patient was still alive. Postoperative pathological changes of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) in case 3 showed BCC might be considered. The PET-CT suggested residual prostate cancer, which might be associated with bilateral pelvic lymph node metastasis. In April 20, 2016, the review of PET-CT showed pelvic huge irregular hybrid density shadow, about 14.5 cm×10.0 cm×12.9 cm in size, and tumor recurrence was

  20. Testosterone metabolism of fibroblasts grown from prostatic carcinoma, benign prostatic hyperplasia and skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Schweikert, H.U.; Hein, H.J.; Romijn, J.C.; Schroeder, F.H.

    1982-02-01

    The metabolism of (1,2,6,7-3H)testosterone was assessed in fibroblast monolayers derived from tissue of 5 prostates with benign hyperplasia (BPH), 4 prostates with carcinoma (PC), and 3 biopsy samples of skin, 2 nongenital skin (NG) and 1 genital skin. The following metabolites could be identified: androstanedione androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, epiandrosterone, androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol and androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. Testosterone was metabolized much more rapidly in fibroblasts originating from prostatic tissue than in fibroblasts derived from NG. A significantly higher formation of 5 alpha-androstanes and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids could be observed in fibroblasts from BPH as compared to PC. 17-ketosteroid formation exceeded 5 alpha-androstane formation in BPH, whereas 5 alpha-reduction was the predominant pathway in fibroblasts grown from PC and NG. Since testosterone metabolism in fibroblasts of prostatic origin therefore resembles in many aspects that in whole prostatic tissue, fibroblasts grown from prostatic tissues might be a valuable tool for further investigation of the pathogenesis of human BPH and PC.

  1. Skin metastasis, an uncommon course of prostate carcinoma: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Telis, L; Wolf, V; Yaskiv, O; Pearson, B J; Katsigeorgis, M; Jazayeri, S B; Samadi, D B; Unger, P D

    2016-08-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men worldwide and in the USA. Most prostate cancer progression either locally invades to seminal vesicles or metastasizes distally to bone. Skin is not a common site of metastasis for the majority of malignancies including prostate cancer. This paper reports two extremely rare cases of prostate carcinoma metastatic to the skin: a 74-year-old man previously treated with radiation for prostate cancer with cutaneous metastases to the shoulder and a 68-year-old man with prostate adenocarcinoma and cutaneous metastases to the groin. Both patients were diagnosed with skin punch biopsy and later confirmed with immunohistochemical staining for PSA and prostate specific acid phosphatase, specific for prostatic carcinoma. Although unusual, development of multiple skin lesions in patients with prostate adenocarcinoma should raise the flags of cutaneous metastases. PMID:27568675

  2. Metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma mimicking inflammatory breast carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Njiaju, Uchenna O; Truica, Cristina I

    2010-02-01

    Prostate adenocarcinoma can manifest as a fairly indolent tumor or as a very aggressive cancer with significant invasive and metastatic potential. Common metastatic sites include bone, liver, lymph nodes, and adrenal glands. Dermatologic manifestations are rare. We present a case of a man who presented with breast skin changes that mimicked inflammatory breast carcinoma with specialized testing ultimately giving a diagnosis of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. A 78-year-old man presented with left breast redness and swelling. Examination revealed an erythematous rash with subcutaneous edema over the left hemithoracic area. A breast ultrasound showed no focal mass, and a breast core biopsy had no evidence of tumor. A skin biopsy showed metastatic carcinoma in dermal lymphatics, and the tumor was found to have no estrogen or progesterone receptors or HER2 expression. Computed tomography scans, positron emission tomography, and a nuclear bone scan revealed widespread skeletal metastases. The patient received a 3-month course of capecitabine and cyclophosphamide with no improvement in his skin lesions. Subsequent immunohistochemical staining on the tumor specimen was positive for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and alpha-methyl-CoA-racemase, confirming a diagnosis of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. He received leuprolide and bicalutamide and demonstrated significant improvement with near-complete resolution of his skin lesions and a decrease in his PSA level. Prostatic adenocarcinoma presenting initially as a breast malignancy is a rarely recognizable clinical event. Undoubtedly, increased awareness and recognition of the rare entity described herein will allow for the prompt initiation of specific therapies, which might be of benefit to many patients. PMID:20133250

  3. Percutaneous fine-needle biopsy of radiographically normal lymph nodes in the staging of prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Gothlin, J.H.; Hoiem, L.

    1981-11-01

    Bipedal lymphography was interpreted as normal in 24 patients with low-grade prostatic carcinoma. Six to ten pelvic lymph nodes in each patient were biopsied transperitoneally under local anesthesia during fluoroscopy, revealing metastases in 6 patients. This method may replace surgery and internal biopsy in staging not only prostatic carcinoma but also other urogenital tumors.

  4. Improved dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy using high resolution contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Morancy, Tye; Kaplan, Irving; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Rofksy, Neil M.; Holupka, Edward; Oismueller, Renee; Hawliczek, Robert; Helbich, Thomas H.; Bloch, B. Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess detailed dosimetry data for prostate and clinical relevant intra- and peri-prostatic structures including neurovascular bundles (NVB), urethra, and penile bulb (PB) from postbrachytherapy computed tomography (CT) versus high resolution contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (HR-CEMRI). Material and methods Eleven postbrachytherapy prostate cancer patients underwent HR-CEMRI and CT imaging. Computed tomography and HR-CEMRI images were randomized and 2 independent expert readers created contours of prostate, intra- and peri-prostatic structures on each CT and HR-CEMRI scan for all 11 patients. Dosimetry data including V100, D90, and D100 was calculated from these contours. Results Mean V100 values from CT and HR-CEMRI contours were as follows: prostate (98.5% and 96.2%, p = 0.003), urethra (81.0% and 88.7%, p = 0.027), anterior rectal wall (ARW) (8.9% and 2.8%, p < 0.001), left NVB (77.9% and 51.5%, p = 0.002), right NVB (69.2% and 43.1%, p = 0.001), and PB (0.09% and 11.4%, p = 0.005). Mean D90 (Gy) derived from CT and HR-CEMRI contours were: prostate (167.6 and 150.3, p = 0.012), urethra (81.6 and 109.4, p = 0.041), ARW (2.5 and 0.11, p = 0.003), left NVB (98.2 and 58.6, p = 0.001), right NVB (87.5 and 55.5, p = 0.001), and PB (11.2 and 12.4, p = 0.554). Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that HR-CEMRI facilitates accurate and meaningful dosimetric assessment of prostate and clinically relevant structures, which is not possible with CT. Significant differences were seen between CT and HR-CEMRI, with volume overestimation of CT derived contours compared to HR-CEMRI. PMID:25834576

  5. Triple course external beam radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    El-Mahdi, A.M.; Turalba, C.I.C.; Schellhammer, P.F.; Peeples, W.J.

    1984-04-01

    In 1976 this hospital began using a triple-course technique of external beam irradiation for localized carcinoma of the prostate. The treatment consisted of 2 courses of 20 Gy in 2 weeks to the pelvis and a third course of 20-25 Gy in 2-2 1/2 weeks as a boost to the prostate. A 2 week rest followed the first and second courses. The results of this treatment technique are reported on the first 50 patients who had been followed for at least 3 years. Although 96% of these patients developed bladder and/or bowel reactions, the majority of the symptoms were in the very mild to mild category, with only 2% severe reactions referrable to each organ. The incidence of late complications in this series compared favorably to those reported by other authors. Clinical local control was 96% while postreatment needle biopsy performed on 22/50 patients yielded a negative rate of 86%. This study has shown that with triple course external beam irradiation, excellent control of localized carcinoma of the prostate can be achieved with minimal acute morbidity.

  6. Novel trends in transrectal ultrasound imaging of prostate gland carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Andrzej; Záťura, František; Gołąbek, Tomasz; Chłosta, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoma of the prostate gland is the most common neoplasm in men. Its treatment depends on multiple factors among which local staging plays a significant role. The basic method is transrectal ultrasound imaging. This examination enables imaging of the prostate gland and its abnormalities, but it also allows ultrasound-guided biopsies to be conducted. A conventional gray-scale ultrasound examination enables assessment of the size, echostructure and outlines of the anatomic capsule, but in many cases, neoplastic lesions cannot be observed. For this reason, new sonographic techniques are implemented in order to facilitate detectability of cancer. The usage of contrast agents during transrectal ultrasound examination must be emphasized since, in combination with color Doppler, it facilitates detection of cancerous lesions by visualizing flow which is not observable without contrast enhancement. Elastography, in turn, is a different solution. It uses the differences in tissue elasticity between a neoplastic region and normal prostatic parenchyma that surrounds it. This technique facilitates detection of lesions irrespective of their echogenicity and thereby supplements conventional transrectal examinations. However, the size of the prostate gland and its relatively far location from the transducer may constitute limitations to the effectiveness of elastography. Moreover, the manner of conducting such an examination depends on the examiner and his or her subjective assessment. Another method, which falls within the novel, popular trend of combining imaging methods, is fusion of magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal sonography. The application of multidimensional magnetic resonance imaging, which is currently believed to be the best method for prostate cancer staging, in combination with the availability of a TRUS examination and the possibility of monitoring biopsies in real-time sonography is a promising alternative, but it is associated with higher costs and

  7. Lymphatic drainage and CTV in carcinoma of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Cellini, Numa; Luzi, Stefano; Mantini, Giovanna; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Morganti, Alessio G; Digesù, Cinzia; Bavasso, Antonella; Deodato, Francesco; Smaniotto, Daniela; Valentini, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    The prostate lymphatics drain into the periprostatic subcapsular network, from which 3 groups of ducts originate: the ascending ducts from the cranial prostate draining into the external iliac lymph nodes, the lateral ducts running to the hypogastric lymph nodes and the posterior ducts draining from the caudal prostate to the subaortic sacral lymph nodes of the promontory. Internal, external iliac and obturator lymph nodes are the most frequently involved by prostate carcinoma. Metastases to presacral and common iliac lymph nodes are rare. For the limited staging accuracy, present indications for seminal vesicle irradiation and pelvic node prohylactic irradiation are essentially based on risk categories and estimation algorithms; the latter while are widely used in international studies are not free of limitations as stressed since they were introduced. A method to deliver high doses to the tumor while limiting the irradiation of critical organs might be the delivery of a boost to the tumor only. This approach could become increasingly feasible with the diffusion of imaging procedures able to better define tumor extension. PMID:15018322

  8. Prostate carcinoma mimicking a sphenoid wing meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Lucas H.; Burton, Matthew; Gokden, Murat; Serletis, Demitre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We report here on a rare case of a large, lateral sphenoid wing tumor with radiographic and intraoperative findings highly suggestive of meningioma, yet pathology was in fact consistent with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. Presentation of case An 81 year-old male presented with expressive dysphasia, right-sided weakness and headaches. Imaging revealed a heterogeneously-enhancing lesion based on the left lateral sphenoid wing. The presumed diagnosis was strongly in favor of meningioma, and the patient underwent complete resection of the dural-based lesion. Final pathology confirmed the unexpected finding of a metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. Although he tolerated surgery well, the patient was subsequently referred for palliative therapy given findings of widespread systemic disease. Discussion Intracranial metastases may involve the dura, at times presenting with rare radiographic features highly suggestive for meningioma, as in our case here. This makes differentiation, at least based on imaging, a challenge. Elderly patients presenting with neurological deficits secondary to a newly-diagnosed, dural-based lesion should thus be considered for metastasis, prompting additional imaging studies (including body CT, MRI or PET) to rule out a primary lesion elsewhere. In some cases, this may affect the overall decision to proceed with surgical resection, or alternatively, to proceed directly to palliative therapy (the latter decision made in the context of widespread metastatic disease). Conclusion We conclude that dural-based metastatic lesions may mimic meningiomas, warranting thorough pre-operative work-up to exclude the possibility of metastasis. In certain cases, identification of widespread disease might preclude surgery and favor palliation, instead. PMID:26318129

  9. Adipocyte Secreted Factors Enhance Aggressiveness of Prostate Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Ângela; Pereira, Sofia S.; Costa, Madalena; Morais, Tiago; Pinto, Ana; Fernandes, Rúben; Monteiro, Mariana P.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased incidence and risk of mortality of prostate cancer. One of the proposed mechanisms underlying this risk association is the change in adipokines expression that could promote the development and progression of the prostate tumor cells. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of preadipocyte and adipocyte secretome in the proliferation, migration and invasion of androgen independent prostate carcinoma cells (RM1) and to assess cell proliferation in the presence of the adiposity signals leptin and insulin. RM1 cells were co-cultured in with preadipocytes, adipocytes or cultured in their respective conditioned medium. Cell proliferation was assessed by flow cytometry and XTT viability test. Cell migration was evaluated using a wound healing injury assay of RM1 cells cultured with conditioned media. Cellular invasion of RM1 cells co-cultured with adipocytes and preadipocytes was assessed using matrigel membranes. Preadipocyte conditioned medium was associated with a small increase in RM1 proliferation, while adipocytes conditioned media significantly increased RM1 cell proliferation (p<0.01). Adipocytes also significantly increased the RM1 cells proliferation in co-culture (p <0.01). Cell migration was higher in RM1 cells cultured with preadipocyte and adipocyte conditioned medium. RM1 cell invasion was significantly increased after co-culture with preadipocytes and adipocytes (p <0.05). Insulin also increased significantly the cell proliferation in contrast to leptin, which showed no effect. In conclusion, prostate carcinoma cells seem to be influenced by factors secreted by adipocytes that are able to increase their ability to proliferate, migrate and invade. PMID:25928422

  10. Widespread Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma Shown by 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Soydal, Cigdem; Ozkan, Elgin; Yerlikaya, Halis; Utkan, Gungor; Kucuk, Ozlem Nuriye

    2016-06-01

    We present the F-FDG and Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT images of a 61-year-old patient with a newly diagnosed prostate carcinoma (4 + 4 Gleason score) and high serum prostate-specific antigen levels (460 ng/mL). In F-FDG PET/CT, minimal uptake was demonstrated in the prostatic mass without any accompanying pathological uptake. However, Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT revealed multiple pathological uptake in the lung nodules, mediastinal nodes, abdominal-pelvic lymph nodes, bone lesions, and prostatic mass. PMID:26909710

  11. Seed-based transrectal ultrasound-fluoroscopy registration method for intraoperative dosimetry analysis of prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tutar, Ismail B.; Gong Lixin; Narayanan, Sreeram; Pathak, Sayan D.; Cho, Paul S.; Wallner, Kent; Kim, Yongmin

    2008-03-15

    Prostate brachytherapy is an effective treatment option for early-stage prostate cancer. During a prostate brachytherapy procedure, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and fluoroscopy imaging modalities complement each other by providing good visualization of soft tissue and implanted seeds, respectively. Therefore, the registration of these two imaging modalities, which are readily available in the operating room, could facilitate intraoperative dosimetry, thus enabling physicians to implant additional seeds into the underdosed portions of the prostate while the patient is still on the operating table. It is desirable to register TRUS and fluoroscopy images by using the seeds as fiducial markers. Although the locations of all the implanted seeds can be reconstructed from three fluoroscopy images, only a fraction of these seeds can be located in TRUS images. It is challenging to register the TRUS and fluoroscopy images by using the identified seeds, since the correspondence between them is unknown. Furthermore, misdetection of nonseed structures as seeds can lead to the inclusion of spurious points in the data set. We developed a new method called iterative optimal assignment (IOA) to overcome these challenges in TRUS-fluoroscopy registration. By using the Hungarian method in an optimization framework, IOA computes a set of transformation parameters that yield the one-to-one correspondence with minimum cost. We have evaluated our registration method at varying noise levels, seed detection rates, and number of spurious points using data collected from 25 patients. We have found that IOA can perform registration with an average root mean square error of about 0.2 cm even when the seed detection rate is only 10%. We believe that IOA can offer a robust solution to seed-based TRUS-fluoroscopy registration, thus making intraoperative dosimetry possible.

  12. Greater Postimplant Swelling in Small-Volume Prostate Glands: Implications for Dosimetry, Treatment Planning, and Operating Room Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Stenmark, Matthew H.; Evans, Cheryl; Narayana, Vrinda; McLaughlin, Patrick W.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Postimplant prostatic edema has been implicated in suboptimal permanent implants, and smaller prostates have been reported to have worse dosimetric coverage. In this study we compare the degree of postimplant edema between larger and smaller prostates and examine the effects of prostate size on the dose delivered to 90% of the prostate (D90). Methods and Materials: From September 2003 to February 2006, 105 hormone-naive patients underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy with {sup 125}I Rapid Strand (Oncura Inc., Arlington Heights, IL). All patients underwent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 3 weeks before implant, transrectal ultrasound at the time of implant, and both computed tomography and MRI 2.5 to 3 weeks after implant. Prostates were divided into 5 subgroups based on preimplant MRI volumes: less than 25 mL, 25 to 35 mL, 35 to 45 mL, 45 to 55 mL, and greater than 55 mL. Prostate swelling was assessed by use of preimplant and postimplant MRI volumes. Postimplant dosimetry was determined by MRI and compared between the subgroups. Results: All prostates showed postimplant swelling on MRI when compared with preimplant MRI, with a mean increase of 31% {+-} 31% (p < 0.0001). The greatest swelling was noted in small prostates (volume less than 25 mL), with a mean increase of 70% {+-} 36%. The degree of swelling in the group with a volume less than 25 mL was significantly larger than the degree of swelling in all other prostate subgroups (p < 0.003). Transrectal ultrasound significantly overestimates the prostate volume when compared with MRI by a mean of 15% {+-} 25% (p = 0.0006) and is more pronounced for smaller prostates. Although prostates with volumes less than 25 mL did not have significantly worse D90 compared with larger prostates, they had the largest percent of suboptimal implants by the standard ratio of D90 divided by the prescription dose. Conclusions: Although small prostates have the greatest postimplant edema, planning

  13. Postoperative irradiation in carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Pilepich, M.V.; Walz, B.J.; Baglan, R.J.

    1984-10-01

    Twenty-eight patients received postoperative radiotherapy with curative intent following either radical prostatectomy (18 patients) or enucleative prostatectomy (10 patients). In patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, the indications for postoperative radiotherapy included positive margins in 13, close margins in 2, and seminal vesicle involvement in 3 patients. The majority of patients (82%) received total dose to the prostatic bed in excess of 6500 rad. In over 80% of the patients, the pelvic lymphatics are also treated (to a total dose of 4000-5000 rad). All of the patients irradiated after radical prostatectomy clinically remained disease-free locally. Approximately one-half of the patients in both the enucleation and radial prostatectomy groups developed evidence of distant metastases. The complications of treatment have been comparable to those in patients treated with radiotherapy only. The continence status has not been affected significantly. All patients with incontinence following completion of radiotherapy had documented impairment of continence prior to radiotherapy. Postoperative radiotherapy administered following either radical or enucleative prostatectomy was tolerated well and resulted in excellent local control.

  14. Sequential Comparison of Seed Loss and Prostate Dosimetry of Stranded Seeds With Loose Seeds in {sup 125}I Permanent Implant for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Saibishkumar, Elantholi P.; Borg, Jette; Yeung, Ivan; Cummins-Holder, Cheryl; Landon, Angela; Crook, Juanita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To compare stranded seeds (SSs) with loose seeds (LSs) in terms of prostate edema, dosimetry, and seed loss after {sup 125}I brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Two prospective cohorts of 20 men participated in an institutional review board-approved protocols to study postimplant prostate edema and its effect on dosimetry. The LS cohort underwent brachytherapy between September 2002 and July 2003 and the SS cohort between April 2006 and January 2007. Both cohorts were evaluated sequentially using computed tomography-magnetic resonance imaging fusion-based dosimetry on Days 0, 7, and 30. No hormonal therapy or supplemental beam radiotherapy was used. Results: Prostate edema was less in the SS cohort at all points (p = NS). On Day 0, all the prostate dosimetric factors were greater in the LS group than in the SS group (p = 0.003). However, by Days 7 and 30, the dosimetry was similar between the two cohorts. No seeds migrated to the lung in the SS cohort compared with a total of five seeds in 4 patients in the LS cohort. However, the overall seed loss was greater in the SS cohort (24 seeds in 6 patients; 1.1% of total vs. 0.6% for LSs), with most seeds lost through urine (22 seeds in 5 patients). Conclusion: Despite elimination of venous seed migration, greater seed loss was observed with SSs compared with LSs, with the primary site of loss being the urinary tract. Modification of the technique might be necessary to minimize this. Prostate dosimetry on Days 7 and 30 was similar between the SS and LS cohorts.

  15. Bony expansion in skeletal metastases from carcinoma of the prostate as seen by bone scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Resnik, C.S.; Garver, P.; Resnick, D.

    1984-10-01

    Carcinoma of the prostate often metastasizes to the skeletal system, the usual radiologic pattern being widespread patchy areas of increased density without change in the contour of the involved bones. Radionuclide correlation generally shows multiple foci of increased tracer activity. Less commonly, there is bony sclerosis with expansion of the diameter of the involved bone. Several cases of expansile skeletal metastases from carcinoma of the prostate have appeared in the literature but we know of no published descriptions of the radionuclide findings. We present three patients with carcinoma of the prostate who had skeletal metastases with evidence of bony expansion on both roentgenographic and radionuclide examination. 15 references, 8 figures.

  16. High-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy Consistently Results in High Quality Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    White, Evan C.; Kamrava, Mitchell R.; Demarco, John; Park, Sang-June; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kayode, Oluwatosin; Steinberg, Michael L.; Demanes, D. Jeffrey

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: We performed a dosimetry analysis to determine how well the goals for clinical target volume coverage, dose homogeneity, and normal tissue dose constraints were achieved with high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Cumulative dose-volume histograms for 208 consecutively treated HDR prostate brachytherapy implants were analyzed. Planning was based on ultrasound-guided catheter insertion and postoperative CT imaging; the contoured clinical target volume (CTV) was the prostate, a small margin, and the proximal seminal vesicles. Dosimetric parameters analyzed for the CTV were D90, V90, V100, V150, and V200. Dose to the urethra, bladder, bladder balloon, and rectum were evaluated by the dose to 0.1 cm{sup 3}, 1 cm{sup 3}, and 2 cm{sup 3} of each organ, expressed as a percentage of the prescribed dose. Analysis was stratified according to prostate size. Results: The mean prostate ultrasound volume was 38.7 {+-} 13.4 cm{sup 3} (range: 11.7-108.6 cm{sup 3}). The mean CTV was 75.1 {+-} 20.6 cm{sup 3} (range: 33.4-156.5 cm{sup 3}). The mean D90 was 109.2% {+-} 2.6% (range: 102.3%-118.4%). Ninety-three percent of observed D90 values were between 105 and 115%. The mean V90, V100, V150, and V200 were 99.9% {+-} 0.05%, 99.5% {+-} 0.8%, 25.4% {+-} 4.2%, and 7.8% {+-} 1.4%. The mean dose to 0.1 cm{sup 3}, 1 cm{sup 3}, and 2 cm{sup 3} for organs at risk were: Urethra: 107.3% {+-} 3.0%, 101.1% {+-} 14.6%, and 47.9% {+-} 34.8%; bladder wall: 79.5% {+-} 5.1%, 69.8% {+-} 4.9%, and 64.3% {+-} 5.0%; bladder balloon: 70.3% {+-} 6.8%, 59.1% {+-} 6.6%, and 52.3% {+-} 6.2%; rectum: 76.3% {+-} 2.5%, 70.2% {+-} 3.3%, and 66.3% {+-} 3.8%. There was no significant difference between D90 and V100 when stratified by prostate size. Conclusions: HDR brachytherapy allows the physician to consistently achieve complete prostate target coverage and maintain normal tissue dose constraints for organs at risk over a wide range of target volumes.

  17. Detailed urethral dosimetry in the evaluation of prostate brachytherapy-related urinary morbidity

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Zachariah A.; Merrick, Gregory S. . E-mail: gmerrick@wheelinghospital.com; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Kurko, Brian; Anderson, Richard L.; Murray, Brian C.; Galbreath, Robert W.

    2005-07-15

    blockers and strict adherence to urethral-sparing techniques, detailed urethral dosimetry did not substantially improve the ability to predict urinary morbidity. Neither the average dose to the prostatic urethra nor urethral doses stratified into base, midprostate, apex, or urogenital diaphragm segments predicted for IPSS normalization. Radiation doses of 100%-140% minimum peripheral dose are well tolerated by all segments of the prostatic urethra with resultant tumorcidal doses to foci of periurethral cancer.

  18. Renal-type clear cell carcinoma of the prostate: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Patne, Shashikant C U; Johri, Nidhi; Katiyar, Richa; Trivedi, Sameer; Dwivedi, Uday Shankar

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old male presented with urinary symptoms. His serum prostate specific antigen level was 65.2 ng/ml. His radical prostatectomy specimen showed clear cell lesion reminiscent of the clear cell renal cell carcinoma along with acinar type of prostatic adenocarcinoma, Gleason score 4 + 4. The lesional clear cells were positive for pancytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, CD10, vimentin, and AMACR while negative for 34βE12, CK7, prostate specific antigen, and PAX8. The final diagnosis was renal-type clear cell carcinoma of the prostate. A follow-up of 20 months did not show metastasis. We herein report fifth case of renal-type clear cell carcinoma of the prostate. PMID:26498435

  19. Renal-type clear cell carcinoma of the prostate: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QIULAN; XUE, YONGJIE

    2015-01-01

    Renal-type clear cell carcinoma of the prostate is a rare and novel tumor that has only been identified in recent years. The present study describes a lesion in the prostate of a 64-year-old male with a two-year history of urinary frequency, urgency and difficulty, who was admitted to the San Ai Tang Hospital for benign prostatic hyperplasia, and subsequently underwent transurethral resection of the prostate. In total, 12 g of tissue was resected, which demonstrated morphological and immunohistochemical similarities to clear cell carcinoma of the kidney. Ultrasound inspection and computed tomography revealed prostate enlargement. Although no renal-enclosed mass was identified, metastatic lesions were revealed in the lungs, sternum and clavicles. In addition, right pleural thickening and a small amount of effusion in the pleural cavity were detected. Clear cell carcinoma was identified throughout the prostate, with surrounding regions of ordinary-type prostatic adenocarcinoma (Gleason score, 4+4). The urinary bladder exhibited no dysplasia or neoplasia. It was therefore concluded that the tumor represented a primary renal-type clear cell carcinoma that had arisen in the prostate. To the best of our knowledge, this type of extra-renal tumor has only been reported in three other previous studies. PMID:26137029

  20. [Intraoperative and post-implant dosimetry in patients treated with permanent prostate implant brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Herein, András; Ágoston, Péter; Szabó, Zoltán; Jorgo, Kliton; Markgruber, Balázs; Pesznyák, Csilla; Polgár, Csaba; Major, Tibor

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of our work was to compare intraoperative and four-week post-implant dosimetry for loose and stranded seed implants for permanent prostate implant brachytherapy. In our institute low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy is performed with encapsulated I-125 isotopes (seeds) using transrectal ultrasound guidance and metal needles. The SPOT PRO 3.1 (Elekta, Sweden) system is used for treatment planning. In this study the first 79 patients were treated with loose seed (LS) technique, the consecutive patients were treated with stranded seed (SS) technique. During intraoperative planning the dose constraints were the same for both techniques. All LSs were placed inside the prostate capsule, while with SS a 2 mm margin around the prostate was allowed for seed positioning. The prescribed dose for the prostate was 145 Gy. This study investigated prostate dose coverage in 30-30 randomly selected patients with LS and SS. Four weeks after the implantation native CT and MRI were done and CT/MRI image fusion was performed. The target was contoured on MRI and the plan was prepared on CT data. To assess the treatment plan dose-volume histograms were used. For the target coverage V100, V90, D90, D100, for the dose inhomogeneity V150, V200, and the dose-homogeneity index (DHI), for dose conformality the conformal index (COIN) were calculated. Intraoperative and postimplant plans were compared. The mean V100 values decreased at four-week plan for SS (97% vs. 84%) and for LS (96% vs. 80%) technique, as well. Decrease was observed for all parameters except for the DHI value. The DHI increased for SS (0.38 vs. 0.41) and for LS (0.38 vs. 0.47) technique, as well. The COIN decreased for both techniques at four-week plan (SS: 0.63 vs. 0.57; LS: 0.67 vs. 0.50). All differences were significant except for the DHI value at SS technique. The percentage changes were not significant, except the COIN value. The dose coverage of the target decreased significantly at four-week plans

  1. Perturbation of NK cell peripheral homeostasis accelerates prostate carcinoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Lu, Shengjun; Wang, Xuanjun; Page, Stephanie T; Higano, Celestia S; Plymate, Stephen R; Greenberg, Norman M; Sun, Shaoli; Li, Zihai; Wu, Jennifer D

    2013-10-01

    The activating receptor NK cell group 2 member D (NKG2D) mediates antitumor immunity in experimental animal models. However, whether NKG2D ligands contribute to tumor suppression or progression clinically remains controversial. Here, we have described 2 novel lines of "humanized" bi-transgenic (bi-Tg) mice in which native human NKG2D ligand MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B (MICB) or the engineered membrane-restricted MICB (MICB.A2) was expressed in the prostate of the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model of spontaneous carcinogenesis. Bi-Tg TRAMP/MICB mice exhibited a markedly increased incidence of progressed carcinomas and metastasis, whereas TRAMP/MICB.A2 mice enjoyed long-term tumor-free survival conferred by sustained NKG2D-mediated antitumor immunity. Mechanistically, we found that cancer progression in TRAMP/MICB mice was associated with loss of the peripheral NK cell pool owing to high serum levels of tumor-derived soluble MICB (sMICB). Prostate cancer patients also displayed reduction of peripheral NK cells and high sMIC levels. Our study has not only provided direct evidence in "humanized" mouse models that soluble and membrane-restricted NKG2D ligands pose opposite impacts on cancer progression, but also uncovered a mechanism of sMIC-induced impairment of NK cell antitumor immunity. Our findings suggest that the impact of soluble NKG2D ligands should be considered in NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy and that our unique mouse models should be valuable for therapy optimization. PMID:24018560

  2. Image-guided in vivo dosimetry for quality assurance of IMRT treatment for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wertz, Hansjoerg . E-mail: hansjoerg.wertz@radonk.ma.uni-heidelberg.de; Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Walter, Cornelia; Dobler, Barbara; Mai, Sabine; Wenz, Frederik; Lohr, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and especially in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the accuracy of the dose distribution in the patient is of utmost importance. It was investigated whether image guided in vivo dosimetry in the rectum is a reliable method for online dose verification. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one dose measurements were performed with an ionization chamber in the rectum of 7 patients undergoing IMRT for prostate cancer. The position of the probe was determined with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The point of measurement was determined relative to the isocenter and relative to an anatomic reference point. The dose deviations relative to the corresponding doses in the treatment plan were calculated. With an offline CT soft-tissue match, patient positioning after ultrasound was verified. Results: The mean magnitude {+-} standard deviation (SD) of patient positioning errors was 3.0 {+-} 2.5 mm, 5.1 {+-} 4.9 mm, and 4.3 {+-} 2.4 mm in the left-right, anteroposterior and craniocaudal direction. The dose deviations in points at corresponding positions relative to the isocenter were -1.4 {+-} 4.9% (mean {+-} SD). The mean dose deviation at corresponding anatomic positions was 6.5 {+-} 21.6%. In the rare event of insufficient patient positioning, dose deviations could be >30% because of the close proximity of the probe and the posterior dose gradient. Conclusions: Image-guided dosimetry in the rectum during IMRT of the prostate is a feasible and reliable direct method for dose verification when probe position is effectively controlled.

  3. Prostate brachytherapy postimplant dosimetry: Seed orientation and the impact of dosimetric anisotropy in stranded implants

    SciTech Connect

    Chng, Nicholas; Spadinger, Ingrid; Rasoda, Rosey; Morris, W. James; Salcudean, Septimiu

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: In postimplant dosimetry for prostate brachytherapy, dose is commonly calculated using the TG-43 1D formalism, because seed orientations are difficult to determine from CT images, the current standard for the procedure. However, the orientation of stranded seeds soon after implantation is predictable, as these seeds tend to maintain their relative spacing, and orient themselves along the implant trajectory. The aim of this study was to develop a method for determining seed orientations from reconstructed strand trajectories, and to use this information to investigate the dosimetric impact of applying the TG-43 2D formalism to clinical postimplant analysis. Methods: Using in-house software, the preplan to postimplant seed correspondence was determined for a cohort of 30 patients during routine day-0 CT-based postimplant dosimetry. All patients were implanted with stranded-seed trains. Spline curves were fit to each set of seeds composing a strand, with the requirement that the distance along the spline between seeds be equal to the seed spacing within the strand. The orientations of the seeds were estimated by the tangents to the spline at each seed centroid. Dose distributions were then determined using the 1D and 2D TG-43 formalisms. These were compared using the TG-137 recommended dose metrics for the prostate, prostatic urethra, and rectum. Results: Seven hundred and sixty one strands were analyzed in total. Defining the z-axis to be cranial-positive and the x-axis to be left-lateral positive in the CT coordinate system, the average seed had an inclination of 21 deg. {+-} 10 deg. and an azimuth of -81 deg. {+-} 57 deg. These values correspond to the average strand rising anteriorly from apex to base, approximately parallel to the midsagittal plane. Clinically minor but statistically significant differences in dose metrics were noted. Compared to the 2D calculation, the 1D calculation underestimated prostate V100 by 1.1% and D90 by 2.3 Gy, while

  4. Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor (c-MET) in prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, P. A.; Zhu, X.; Zarnegar, R.; Swanson, P. E.; Ratliff, T. L.; Vollmer, R. T.; Day, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (scatter factor) and its receptor, the c-met proto-oncogene product (c-MET), have been implicated in embryogenesis, tissue reorganization, and tumor progression. Little is known, however, of the expression and functional significance of these molecules in prostatic cells and tissue. In this investigation, we assessed the expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and c-MET in prostatic tissues and cell lines and also determined the effect of purified recombinant HGF on cell proliferation and scattering of prostatic carcinoma cell lines. HGF was expressed by human prostatic stromal myofibroblasts in primary culture but not by three human prostatic carcinoma cell lines (LNCaP, DU 145, and PC-3) as assessed by Northern blot analysis. HGF was also detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in both benign and malignant tissues from radical prostatectomy specimens. c-MET transcripts were identified by Northern blot in two androgen-insensitive human prostatic carcinoma cell lines (DU 145 and PC-3) but not the androgen-sensitive LNCaP cell line. Additional evidence of linkage of androgen responsiveness and c-MET was provided by experiments in which androgen deprivation of normal rat prostates via castration produced a marked up-regulation of c-MET expression as determined by Northern blot and immunohistochemistry. c-MET protein was detected by immunohistochemical analysis in a substantial percentage (58 of 128 or 45%) of prostatic carcinomas and was found more often in metastatic growths of human prostatic carcinoma (15 of 20 patients) compared with primary tumors (43 of 108 patients; P < 0.005). Moreover, in Dunning R-3327 rat prostatic carcinoma cell lines, c-MET expression was highest in the androgen-insensitive subline with the highest metastatic capacity. Purified recombinant human HGF induced dose-dependent cellular proliferation and scattering in the DU 145 carcinoma cell line. These data indicate that HGF may function in

  5. Correlation of digital rectal examination, prostate specific antigen, and transrectal ultrasound in prostate carcinoma in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, R. I.; Sibley, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    Since there is general agreement that screening for prostate cancer should be carried out, at least for high-risk individuals, there should be little debate that African-American men should be screened. Current screening guidelines include the two most cost-effective methods of early detection, digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen. The use of transrectal ultrasound and guided biopsy improves the yield. This article reports on the findings of 50 African-American patients with prostatic carcinoma diagnosed by sonographically guided biopsy in a single, community urology practice. Overall, prostate specific antigen was elevated in 94%, digital rectal examination was positive in 60%, and transrectal ultrasound was positive in 78%. A focal hypoechoic lesion was demonstrated in 58%. When the site of tumor, as specified in the pathology report, was correlated with the findings on digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound, both digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound were positive in 45%. Transrectal ultrasound was positive when digital rectal examination was negative in 30%. Digital rectal examination was positive when ultrasound was not in 14%. Random biopsy revealed areas of carcinoma that were not detected by digital rectal examination nor ultrasound in 40%. We conclude that even though random biopsy significantly improves the detection of prostate carcinoma, sonographic guidance is beneficial to systematically biopsy the gland and to avoid omission of characteristic lesions during random samplings. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9170832

  6. Comparison of 3 different postimplant dosimetry methods following permanent {sup 125}I prostate seed brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Marcu, Loredana G.; Gowda, Raghu

    2013-10-01

    Postimplant dosimetry (PID) after Iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) implant of the prostate should offer a reliable qualitative assessment. So far, there is no consensus regarding the optimum PID method, though the latest literature is in favor of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aims to simultaneously compare 3 PID techniques: (1) MRI-computed tomography (CT) fusion; (2) ultrasound (US)-CT fusion; and (3) manual target delineation on CT. The study comprised 10 patients with prostate cancer. CT/MR scans with urinary catheters in place for PID were done either on day 0 or day 1 postimplantation. The main parameter evaluated and compared among methods was target D90. The results show that CT-based D90s are lower than US-CT D90s (median difference,−6.85%), whereas MR-CT PID gives higher D90 than US-CT PID (median difference, 4.25%). Manual contouring on CT images tends to overestimate the prostate volume compared with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) (median difference, 23.33%), whereas on US images the target is overestimated compared with MR-based contouring (median difference, 13.25%). Although there are certain differences among the results given by various PID techniques, the differences are statistically insignificant for this small group of patients. Any dosimetric comparison between 2 PID techniques should also account for the limitations of each technique, to allow for an accurate quantification of data. Given that PID after permanent radioactive seed implant is mandatory for quality assurance, any imaging method–based PID (MR-CT, US-CT, and CT) available in a radiotherapy department can be indicative of the quality of the procedure.

  7. Renal-type Clear Cell Carcinoma Occurring in the Prostate With Zinner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuichi; Kataoka, Masao; Hata, Junya; Akaihata, Hidenori; Ogawa, Soichiro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of clear cell carcinoma occurring in the prostate with Zinner syndrome in a 64-year-old man. Based on the immunohistochemical findings, it was concluded that this tumor represented primary renal-type clear cell carcinoma arising in the prostate. After receiving radical cystoprostatectomy, he was treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for local recurrence in accordance with the protocol of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment, because microarray cluster analysis using a resected sample demonstrated that the present case belonged to the cluster group of RCC. PMID:26793589

  8. Renal-type Clear Cell Carcinoma Occurring in the Prostate With Zinner Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuichi; Kataoka, Masao; Hata, Junya; Akaihata, Hidenori; Ogawa, Soichiro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of clear cell carcinoma occurring in the prostate with Zinner syndrome in a 64-year-old man. Based on the immunohistochemical findings, it was concluded that this tumor represented primary renal-type clear cell carcinoma arising in the prostate. After receiving radical cystoprostatectomy, he was treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for local recurrence in accordance with the protocol of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment, because microarray cluster analysis using a resected sample demonstrated that the present case belonged to the cluster group of RCC. PMID:26793589

  9. Clinical experience with EPID dosimetry for prostate IMRT pre-treatment dose verification.

    PubMed

    McDermott, L N; Wendling, M; van Asselen, B; Stroom, J; Sonke, J J; van Herk, M; Mijnheer, B J

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate how dosimetry with an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (a-Si EPID) replaced film and ionization chamber measurements for routine pre-treatment dosimetry in our clinic. Furthermore, we described how EPID dosimetry was used to solve a clinical problem. IMRT prostate plans were delivered to a homogeneous slab phantom. EPID transit images were acquired for each segment. A previously developed in-house back-projection algorithm was used to reconstruct the dose distribution in the phantom mid-plane (intersecting the isocenter). Segment dose images were summed to obtain an EPID mid-plane dose image for each field. Fields were compared using profiles and in two dimensions with the y evaluation (criteria: 3%/3 mm). To quantify results, the average gamma (gamma avg), maximum gamma (gamma max), and the percentage of points with gamma < 1(P gamma < 1) were calculated within the 20% isodose line of each field. For 10 patient plans, all fields were measured with EPID and film at gantry set to 0 degrees. The film was located in the phantom coronal mid-plane (10 cm depth), and compared with the back-projected EPID mid-plane absolute dose. EPID and film measurements agreed well for all 50 fields, with (gamma avg) =0.16, (gamma max)=1.00, and (P gamma < 1)= 100%. Based on these results, film measurements were discontinued for verification of prostate IMRT plans. For 20 patient plans, the dose distribution was re-calculated with the phantom CT scan and delivered to the phantom with the original gantry angles. The planned isocenter dose (plan(iso)) was verified with the EPID (EPID(iso)) and an ionization chamber (IC(iso)). The average ratio, (EPID(iso)/IC(iso)), was 1.00 (0.01 SD). Both measurements were systematically lower than planned, with (EPID(iso)/plan(iso)) and (IC(iso)/plan(iso))=0.99 (0.01 SD). EPID mid-plane dose images for each field were also compared with the corresponding plane derived from the three dimensional

  10. Dosimetric differences between intraoperative and postoperative plans using Cs-131 in transrectal ultrasound–guided brachytherapy for prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Andrew; Treas, Jared; Yavoich, Brian; Dean, Douglas; Danella, John; Yumen, Omar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the differences between intraoperative and postoperative dosimetry for transrectal ultrasound–guided transperineal prostate implants using cesium-131 ({sup 131}Cs). Between 2006 and 2010, 166 patients implanted with {sup 131}Cs had both intraoperative and postoperative dosimetry studies. All cases were monotherapy and doses of 115 were prescribed to the prostate. The dosimetric properties (D{sub 90}, V{sub 150}, and V{sub 100} for the prostate) of the studies were compared. Two conformity indices were also calculated and compared. Finally, the prostate was automatically sectioned into 6 sectors (anterior and posterior sectors at the base, midgland, and apex) and the intraoperative and postoperative dosimetry was compared in each individual sector. Postoperative dosimetry showed statistically significant changes (p < 0.01) in every dosimetric value except V{sub 150}. In each significant case, the postoperative plans showed lower dose coverage. The conformity indexes also showed a bimodal frequency distribution with the index indicating poorer dose conformity in the postoperative plans. Sector analysis revealed less dose coverage postoperatively in the base and apex sectors with an increase in dose to the posterior midgland sector. Postoperative dosimetry overall and in specific sectors of the prostate differs significantly from intraoperative planning. Care must be taken during the intraoperative planning stage to ensure complete dose coverage of the prostate with the understanding that the final postoperative dosimetry will show less dose coverage.

  11. Dosimetry estimation on variations of patient size in prostate volumetric-modulated arc therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, James C.L.; Jiang, Runqing

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the dosimetric variations of the target and critical organs of patients who had weight loss associated with prostate volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Five patients with prostate volumes ranging from 32–86.5 cm{sup 3} were selected from a group of 30 patients. Prostate VMAT plans were carried out on each patient using the 6-MV photon beam with a single 360° arc. Decrease of patient size as a result of weight loss was mimicked by contracting the patient's external contour in the anterior, left, and right directions with depths from 0.5–2 cm. Soft tissue excluded by the contracted external contour was replaced by air and the dose distribution was recalculated using the same beam geometry and dose prescription. Dose-volume histograms and dose-volume points such as D99% and D5% for the planning target volume (PTV), clinical target volume (CTV), rectum, bladder, and femoral heads were calculated with variations of reduced depth. In addition, the minimum, maximum, and mean doses for the target and critical organs were determined. PTV and CTV D99% were found to have increased 2.86 ± 0.30% per cm and 2.75 ± 0.38% per cm of reduced depth ranging from 0.5–2 cm. Moreover, the rectal and bladder D30% increased 2.20 ± 0.20% per cm and 2.31 ± 0.83% per cm, and the femoral head D5% increased 3.30 ± 0.11% per cm of reduced depth. Results from variations of the minimum, maximum, and mean doses of the PTV, CTV, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads showed that there was a >5% increase of dose when the reduced depth reached 2 cm. This study provided dosimetry estimation for radiation oncology staff to justify dose variations of the target and critical organs when patients' weight loss occurred in prostate VMAT. Dose variations >5% were seen when the patients' reduced depth was equal to 2 cm.

  12. Metastatic superscan in prostate carcinoma on gallium-68-prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Tripathi, Madhavi; Kumar, Rajeev; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    We describe the imaging features of a metastatic superscan on gallium-68 Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys-(Ahx)-[Ga-68(HBED-CC)], abbreviated as gallium-68-prostate-specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging. 68Ga-PSMA is novel radiotracer undergoing evaluation for PET/CT imaging of prostate carcinoma. This patient had a superscan of metastases on conventional bone scintigraphy and was referred for 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT to evaluate the feasibility of 177Lu-PSMA therapy. PMID:27095868

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate: long-term survival after combined chemo-radiation

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Fernando; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Ciammella, Patrizia; Clerico, Mario; Giudici, Mauro; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Ricardi, Umberto

    2007-01-01

    Background Carcinoma of the prostate gland is the most frequent malignant tumour affecting male population. While the large majority of tumours is represented by adenocarcinoma, pure squamous cell carcinoma comprises only 0,5–1% of all prostate neoplastic lesions. It is characterised by a high degree of malignancy, commonly metastasising to the bone (mainly with osteolytic lesions), liver and lungs with a median survival time of 14 months. Several therapeutic approaches have been employed in the effort to treat prostate pure squamous cell carcinoma, including radical surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. All of them mostly failed to gain a significant survival benefit. Case report We herein report on a case of pure squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate approached with combined-modality treatment, with the administration of 3 courses of cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 and continous infusion 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m2 on day 1 to 5 and, subsequently, radiotherapy, with the delivery of a total dose of 46 Gy to the whole pelvis, with additional boost doses of 20 Gy to the prostatic bed and adjunctive 6 Gy to the prostate gland (72 Gy in total). The patient remained free of disease for 5 years, finally experiencing local relapse and, subsequently, dying of acute renal failure due to bilateral uretero-hydro-nephrosis. In addition, we provide a complete overview of all reported cases available within the medical literature. Conclusion Since it remains questionable which should be the most appropriate therapeutic approach towards prostate pure squamous cell carcinoma, our report demonstrates that a prolonged disease control, with a consistent survival time, may be achieved by the combination of an effective local treatment such as radiotherapy with systemic infusion of chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:17407588

  14. Dynamic dosimetry and edema detection in prostate brachytherapy: a complete system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, A.; Deguet, A.; Iordachita, I.; Chintalapani, G.; Blevins, J.; Le, Y.; Armour, E.; Burdette, C.; Song, D.; Fichtinger, G.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy (radioactive seed insertion) has emerged as one of the most effective treatment options for patients with prostate cancer, with the added benefit of a convenient outpatient procedure. The main limitation in contemporary brachytherapy is faulty seed placement, predominantly due to the presence of intra-operative edema (tissue expansion). Though currently not available, the capability to intra-operatively monitor the seed distribution, can make a significant improvement in cancer control. We present such a system here. Methods: Intra-operative measurement of edema in prostate brachytherapy requires localization of inserted radioactive seeds relative to the prostate. Seeds were reconstructed using a typical non-isocentric C-arm, and exported to a commercial brachytherapy delivery system. Technical obstacles for 3D reconstruction on a non-isocentric C-arm include pose-dependent C-arm calibration; distortion correction; pose estimation of C-arm images; seed reconstruction; and C-arm to TRUS registration. Results: In precision-machined hard phantoms with 40-100 seeds and soft tissue phantoms with 45-87 seeds, we correctly reconstructed the seed implant shape with an average 3D precision of 0.35 mm and 0.24 mm, respectively. In a DoD Phase-1 clinical trial on 6 patients with 48-82 planned seeds, we achieved intra-operative monitoring of seed distribution and dosimetry, correcting for dose inhomogeneities by inserting an average of 4.17 (1-9) additional seeds. Additionally, in each patient, the system automatically detected intra-operative seed migration induced due to edema (mean 3.84 mm, STD 2.13 mm, Max 16.19 mm). Conclusions: The proposed system is the first of a kind that makes intra-operative detection of edema (and subsequent re-optimization) possible on any typical non-isocentric C-arm, at negligible additional cost to the existing clinical installation. It achieves a significantly more homogeneous seed distribution, and has the potential to

  15. Expression of hedgehog pathway components in prostate carcinoma microenvironment: shifting the balance towards autocrine signalling

    PubMed Central

    Tzelepi, Vassiliki; Karlou, Maria; Wen, Sijin; Hoang, Anh; Logothetis, Christopher; Troncoso, Patricia; Efstathiou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    Aims The hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis and aggressiveness of prostate cancer through epithelial–mesenchymal interactions. The aim of this study was to elucidate the cell-type partitioned expression of the Hh pathway biomarkers in the non-neoplastic and tumour microenvironments and to correlate it with the grade and stage of prostate cancer. Methods and results Expression of the Hh pathway components (Shh, Smo, Ptch, Gli1) in the microenvironment of non-neoplastic peripheral zone (n = 119), hormone-naive primary prostate carcinoma (n = 141) and castrate-resistant bone marrow metastases (n = 53) was analysed using immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays and bone marrow sections. Results showed that epithelial Shh, Smo and Ptch expression was up-regulated, whereas stromal Smo, Ptch, and Gli1 expression was down-regulated in prostate carcinomas compared to non-neoplastic peripheral zone tissue. Ptch expression was modulated further in high-grade and high-stage primary tumours and in bone marrow metastases. Hh signalling correlated with ki67 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) but not with CD31 expression. Conclusion Our results highlight the importance of Hh-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in the non-neoplastic prostate and imply that shifting the balance from paracrine towards autocrine signalling is important in the pathogenesis and progression of prostate carcinoma. PMID:21707705

  16. Lack of detection of human papillomavirus DNA in prostate carcinomas in patients from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Neto, Ari P; Ferreira-Fernandes, Hygor; Amaral, Carolina M M; Santos, Lina G; Freitas, Antônio C; Silva-Neto, Jacinto C; Rey, Juan A; Burbano, Rommel R; Silva, Benedito B da; Yoshioka, France K N; Pinto, Giovanny R

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men in western populations, and despite its high mortality, its etiology remains unknown. Inflammatory processes are related to the etiology of various types of tumors, and prostate inflammation, in particular, has been associated with prostate cancer carcinogenesis and progression. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with benign and malignant lesions in the anogenital tract of both females and males. The possible role of HPV in prostate carcinogenesis is a subject of great controversy. In this study, we aimed to examine the prevalence of HPV infections in prostate carcinomas of patients from northeastern Brazil. This study included 104 tissue samples from primary prostate carcinoma cases. HPV DNA was purified and then amplified using MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+ degenerate primer sets that detect a wide range of HPV types, and with specific PCR primers sets for E6 and E7 HPV regions to detect HPV 16. None of the samples showed amplification products of HPV DNA for primer sets MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+, or the specific primer set for the E6 and E7 HPV regions. HPV infection, thus, does not seem to be one of the causes of prostate cancer in the population studied. PMID:27007894

  17. Lack of detection of human papillomavirus DNA in prostate carcinomas in patients from northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Araujo-Neto, Ari P.; Ferreira-Fernandes, Hygor; Amaral, Carolina M.M.; Santos, Lina G.; Freitas, Antônio C.; Silva-Neto, Jacinto C.; Rey, Juan A.; Burbano, Rommel R.; da Silva, Benedito B.; Yoshioka, France K.N.; Pinto, Giovanny R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men in western populations, and despite its high mortality, its etiology remains unknown. Inflammatory processes are related to the etiology of various types of tumors, and prostate inflammation, in particular, has been associated with prostate cancer carcinogenesis and progression. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with benign and malignant lesions in the anogenital tract of both females and males. The possible role of HPV in prostate carcinogenesis is a subject of great controversy. In this study, we aimed to examine the prevalence of HPV infections in prostate carcinomas of patients from northeastern Brazil. This study included 104 tissue samples from primary prostate carcinoma cases. HPV DNA was purified and then amplified using MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+ degenerate primer sets that detect a wide range of HPV types, and with specific PCR primers sets for E6 and E7 HPV regions to detect HPV 16. None of the samples showed amplification products of HPV DNA for primer sets MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+, or the specific primer set for the E6 and E7 HPV regions. HPV infection, thus, does not seem to be one of the causes of prostate cancer in the population studied. PMID:27007894

  18. Biodistribution and Radiation Dosimetry for a Probe Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen for Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Ken; Bluemel, Christina; Weineisen, Martina; Schottelius, Margret; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Czernin, Johannes; Eberlein, Uta; Beykan, Seval; Lapa, Constantin; Riedmiller, Hubertus; Krebs, Markus; Kropf, Saskia; Schirbel, Andreas; Buck, Andreas K.; Lassmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising target for diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. EuK-Subkff-68Ga-DOTAGA (68Ga-PSMA Imaging & Therapy [PSMA I&T]) is a recently introduced PET tracer for imaging PSMA expression in vivo. Whole-body distribution and radiation dosimetry of this new probe were evaluated. Methods Five patients with a history of prostate cancer were injected intravenously with 91–148 MBq of 68Ga-PSMA I&T (mean ± SD, 128 ± 23 MBq). After an initial series of rapid whole-body scans, 3 static whole-body scans were acquired at 1, 2, and 4 h after tracer injection. Time-dependent changes of the injected activity per organ were determined. Mean organ-absorbed doses and effective doses were calculated using OLINDA/EXM. Results Injection of 150 MBq of 68Ga-PSMA I&T resulted in an effective dose of 3.0 mSv. The kidneys were the critical organ (33 mGy), followed by the urinary bladder wall and spleen (10 mGy each), salivary glands (9 mGy each), and liver (7 mGy). Conclusion 68Ga-PSMA I&T exhibits a favorable dosimetry, delivering organ doses that are comparable to (kidneys) or lower than those delivered by 18F-FDG. PMID:25883128

  19. SU-D-BRF-07: Ultrasound and Fluoroscopy Based Intraoperative Image-Guidance System for Dynamic Dosimetry in Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, N; Le, Y; Deguet, A; Prince, J; Song, D; Lee, J; Dehghan, E; Burdette, E; Fichtinger, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Prostate brachytherapy is a common treatment method for low-risk prostate cancer patients. Intraoperative treatment planning is known to improve the treatment procedure and the outcome. The current limitation of intraoperative treatment planning is the inability to localize the seeds in relation to the prostate. We developed an image-guidance system to fulfill this need to achieve intraoperative dynamic dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy. Methods: Our system is based on standard imaging equipments available in the operating room, including the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and the mobile C-arm. A simple fiducial is added to compute the C-arm pose. Three fluoroscopic images and an ultrasound volume of the seeds and the prostate are acquired and processed by four image processing algorithms: seed segmentation, fiducial detection with pose estimation, seed reconstruction, and seeds-to-TRUS registration. The updated seed positions allow the physician to assess the quality of implantation and dynamically adjust the treatment plan during the course of surgery to achieve improved exit dosimetry. Results: The system was tested on 10 phantoms and 37 patients. Seed segmentation resulted in a 1% false negative and 2% false positive rates. Fiducial detection with pose estimation resulted in a detection rate of 98%. Seed reconstruction had a mean reconstruction error of 0.4 mm. Seeds-to-TRUS registration had a mean registration error of 1.3 mm. The total processing time from image acquisition to registration was approximately 1 minute. Conclusion: We present an image-guidance system for intraoperative dynamic dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy. Using standard imaging equipments and a simple fiducial, our system can be easily adopted in any clinics. Robust image processing algorithms enable accurate and fast computation of the delivered dose. Especially, the system enables detection of possible hot/cold spots during the surgery, allowing the physician to address these

  20. Collagen cross-link metabolites in urine as markers of bone metastases in prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K K; McSherry, S A; Robins, S P; Besterman, J M; Mohler, J L

    1994-04-01

    The efficacy of radionuclide bone scans in monitoring metastatic bone activity remains controversial. Objective measurement of bone tumor burden would be useful for the evaluation of new therapies for metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. The recent discovery of the urinary excretion of pyridinoline (cross-link of mature collagen found in cartilage and bone) and deoxypyridinoline (collagen cross-link specific to bone) measured by high pressure liquid chromatography has provided sensitive specific indexes of cartilage and bone breakdown in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and metabolic bone diseases. We compared the urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline,pyridinoline and hydroxyproline relative to urinary creatinine (nmol./mmol.creatinine) in 27 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (patient age 70.0 +/- 8.5 years, standard deviation), 29 with clinically confined prostate cancer (age 70.2 +/- 9.7 years), and 26 with prostate cancer and bone metastases (age 71.1 +/- 7.7 years). No diurnal variation of deoxypyridinoline or pyridinoline urinary excretion was detected in 5 patients with metastases. Urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline was significantly greater in patients with metastatic carcinoma of the prostate compared with patients with either benign prostatic hyperplasia (Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon rank sum analysis, p < 0.00004 and 0.002, respectively) or localized prostate cancer (Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon, p < 0.00001 and 0.00005, respectively). Urinary hydroxyproline levels failed to separate the 3 groups. Pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline excretion in prostate cancer patients with metastases directly correlated with bone scan Soloway scores (r = 0.55, p < 0.005 and r = 0.57, p < 0.004 respectively), whereas serum prostate specific antigen did not (r = 0.36, p = 0.08). Serial measurements of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline progressively increased in 3 patients with clinical progression documented by new metastatic lesions by bone scan

  1. Some Observations on Carcinoma of the Prostate, with Special Reference to Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Feilden, F. E.

    1934-01-01

    It is thought that valuable data should be obtained from a correlation of the clinical and histological features, when dealing with a large number of cases of carcinoma of the prostate. As a result it should be possible to elaborate a system of grouping, each group being characterized by a definite clinical syndrome, pathological features and individual prognosis. To be of value, a record of the end-results of treatment should be on this basis. Malignant disease of the prostate is not infrequently associated with benign hypertrophy, and not infrequently arises in a lateral or median lobe. Cystoscopy may be of definite value in the diagnosis of carcinoma of the prostate. The perineal method of approach is the operation of choice in the small fibrous type of prostate, especially that which is suspected of being malignant. The results so far recorded in this country, in the treatment of carcinoma of the prostate by radium, are not encouraging. As a palliative method of treatment, trans-urethral diathermy should seldom be employed. The most satisfactory palliative method of treatment is a suprapubic cystostomy. Under certain circumstances, a radical perineal excision is justifiable and satisfactory results may be anticipated. PMID:19989820

  2. [177Lu-PSMA-617 therapy, dosimetry and follow-up in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Fendler, Wolfgang P; Kratochwil, Clemens; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Rahbar, Kambiz; Baum, Richard P; Schmidt, Matthias; Pfestroff, Andreas; Lützen, Ulf; Prasad, Vikas; Heinzel, Alexander; Heuschkel, Martin; Ruf, Juri; Bartenstein, Peter; Krause, Bernd J

    2016-06-28

    Radioligand therapy (RLT) using 177Lu labelled inhibitors of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (177Lu-PSMA) is performed in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) after exhaustion of other options. German University Clinics offer RLT since 2013 on a compassionate use basis. The present consensus document includes recommendations for RLT with 177Lu-PSMA-617. These consensus statements were developed by an expert panel formed by the German Society of Nuclear Medicine (DGN) in December 2015. Statements include recommendations for indication, baseline tests, therapy protocol, concomitant therapy, dosimetry, and follow-up. Consensus recommendations aim to inform the attending medical staff, standardize 177Lu-PSMA-617 RLT, and improve quality of individual patient care. PMID:27350005

  3. Investigation of a MOSFET dosimetry system for midpoint dose verification in prostate 3D CRT/IMRT.

    PubMed

    Wiese, T; Bezak, E; Nelligan, R

    2008-09-01

    The suitability of MOSFETs (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors) for use in in-vivo dosimetry for IMRT prostate treatment and patient setup errors has been investigated in this work. MOSFETs were placed on entrance and exit surfaces of a number of different phantoms (with varying complexities from homogeneous to anthropomorphic). Dose measurements were then used to calculate a midpoint dose, which was compared with an IC placed at the isocentre. The agreements found between the calculated (MOSFETs) and the measured midpoint dose (IC) was: 0.7% for a prostate treatment verification and 3.5% for an IMRT treatment. MOSFETs placed on entry and exit surfaces can detect patient setup offsets of 2 cm, but do not have the sensitivity to confidently detect offsets of 1 cm or smaller. PMID:18946975

  4. Collision metastasis of bladder and prostate carcinoma to a single pelvic lymph node.

    PubMed

    Ergen, A; Balbay, M D; Irwin, M; Torno, R

    1995-01-01

    Genitourinary organs are at greater risk for multiple primary malignant neoplasms because of the high incidence of these tumours as primaries among all other organs. We present a case of prostate and bladder carcinoma metastasized to a single pelvic lymph node, called a "collision" metastasis, in a patient with four primary tumours. PMID:8725040

  5. Analysis of iodine-125 interstitial therapy in the treatment of localized carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Gomella, L.G.; Steinberg, S.M.; Ellison, M.F.; Reeves, W.W.; Flanigan, R.C.; McRoberts, J.W. )

    1991-04-01

    Definitive treatment of localized carcinoma of the prostate has included radical surgery, external beam radiation therapy, and interstitial radiation therapy. The interstitial agent most commonly used is Iodine-125. Forty-eight patients were treated with interstitial radiation therapy using Iodine-125 implants with a median follow-up of 55 months. Forty-three percent of the evaluable patients had progressive disease with approximately 50% progressing at 5 years by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Overall actuarial survival in the group was 80% at 5 years. This and several other studies suggest that control of prostate cancer with Iodine-125 seeds may be suboptimal as compared with other treatment modalities, especially the radical retropubic prostatectomy. Analysis of treatment parameters is presented along with a discussion of the current status and future prospects for treatment of localized carcinoma of the prostate with interstitial radiation therapy.

  6. Ultrasonically guided 125iodine seed implantation with external radiation in management of localized prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, P.; Bak, M.; Juul, N.; Laursen, F.; von der Maase, H.; Nielsen, L.; Rasmussen, F.; Torp-Pedersen, S.; Holm, H.H. )

    1989-10-01

    Thirty-three patients with localized prostatic carcinoma (16 poorly differentiated) were treated with transperineal 125Iodine seed implantation (160 Gy) guided by transrectal ultrasonography and subsequent external beam irradiation (47.4 Gy). The observation time was six to sixty-eight months with a median follow-up of thirty-five months. Median change in prostatic volume was a reduction of 35 percent. Re-biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate was performed in 25 patients after one to two years, revealing still malignant histology in 12 (48%). Development of distant metastases occurred in 14 patients (44%), and 8 have died of prostatic cancer. Fourteen patients suffered from late complications of which surgical intervention was indicated in 3 cases.

  7. Small Cell Prostate Carcinoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Demirtaş, Abdullah; Şahin, Nurettin; Öztürk, Figen; Akınsal, Emre Can; Demirtaş, Türev; Ekmekçioğlu, Oguz; Tatlışen, Atila

    2013-01-01

    Small cell prostate cancer constitutes less than 1% of all prostate cancers and has a poor prognosis. A 60-year-old male patient presented with dysuria, pollakiuria, and nocturia of about 1-year duration.The total PSA level at admission was 47.50 ng/mL. The prostate needle biopsy result was reported as adenocarcinoma Gleason 5 + 3. The patient underwent transurethral prostate resection (TUR-P) and bilateral orchiectomy. The TUR-P pathology result was consistent with small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. He was offered systemic chemotherapy but refused it. Examinations and tests at the third postoperative month showed diffuse liver metastasis and vertebral bone metastasis. He died at the 6 months after surgery. PMID:23533928

  8. [Clinical significance of tumor markers in prostatic carcinoma--comparative study of prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate specific antigen and gamma-seminoprotein].

    PubMed

    Yoshiki, T; Okada, K; Oishi, K; Yoshida, O

    1987-12-01

    We measured the prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), gamma-Seminoprotein (gamma-Sm) and prostate specific antigen (PA) in the serum of 862 patients with various urologic diseases including 89 patients with prostatic cancer. We used a PAP radioimmunoassay kit, gamma-Sm enzyme immunoassay kit, Markit-F-PA enzyme immunoassay kit and PA test Wako enzyme immunoassay kit. Serum PA level in advanced prostatic carcinoma (stage C, D) tended to be higher than that in early stage cancer (stage A, B). The Wako kit gave a higher PA than the Markit-F in each stage. The sensitivity rate of Wako PA test was the highest (81%) of all kits. The specificity rate of PAP was the highest (83%), and the accuracy rate of Markit-F PA was the highest (79%). The positive rate in the combined assay of PAP, gamma-Sm and PA in prostatic cancer was higher than that in the single assay of each tumor marker. We regarded PAP, gamma-Sm and PA as clinically different tumor markers, because their serum level did not correlate definitely. No apparent correlation was found between histopathological grade and the level of each tumor marker. The level of PAP, gamma-Sm and PA in the reactivated patients was significantly higher than that of the well-controlled patients. In the reactivated patients, the positive rate of Markit-F PA was the highest (89%) of all the kits. PMID:2452559

  9. [Penile metastasis of prostatic carcinoma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Musci, R; Del Boca, C; Ferrari, C; Grignani, G C

    1991-03-01

    Penile metastases are uncommon lesions: most often secondary to a primary pelvic cancer (prostate, bladder and rectum) they have a unfavourable prognosis. The appearance of disseminations is still controversial and there is not an efficacious therapy. Priapism may be present or not. The Authors report their experience on a penile metastasis secondary to prostatic cancer and about the evolution of this pathology. A review of the Literature is done. PMID:1830411

  10. Human prostatic carcinoma in tissue culture: correlations between histological diagnosis and in vitro parameters.

    PubMed

    Bologna, M; Vicentini, C; Festuccia, C; Muzi, P; Angeletti, P V; Miano, L

    1985-01-01

    Prostatic cell biology is still largely unknown so that even the natural history of prostatic carcinoma is unpredictable. In order to correlate new observations with the prognosis of patients with prostatic carcinoma of various grades, we followed up 24 in vitro samples from surgical specimens of prostatic carcinoma. Fragments from 7 grade-I, 10 grade-II, 6 grade-III; and 1 grade-IV tumors were cultivated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, 10% horse serum and 50 ng/ml each of hydrocortisone and insulin. Epithelial cells grown from the explants continued to grow for a maximum of 120 days and their morphology varied from a fairly regular monolayer of polygonal cells to irregular patterns of overlapping growth with many giant multinucleated cells. Although our data need a longer clinical follow-up time and larger numbers to achieve any statistical significance, the present findings seem to indicate rather clearly that a short life span in culture, a regular growth and a positive secretion activity is typical of low-grade tumors and that a longer life span, an irregular growth and a negative secretion in vitro are characteristics of high-grade tumors. A longer clinical follow-up of these patients will be important in the future to indicate whether these findings can be of any real prognostic value. PMID:4076272

  11. Dosimetry of permanent interstitial prostate brachytherapy for an interoperative procedure, using O-arm based CT and TRUS

    PubMed Central

    Sekiguchi, Akane; Satoh, Takefumi; Tsumura, Hideyasu; Takenaka, Kouji; Kawakami, Shogo; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this report is dosimetric evaluation for an intraoperative fusion computed tomography (CT) as a superior predictor of 1-month CT based dosimetry in comparison to transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) in permanent interstitial prostate brachytherapy. Material and methods Data of 65 patients treated with seed implantation were analyzed. All procedures has been performed with patients in the lithotomy position inside the O-arm system. An end-fine probe is used as a landmark to fuse TRUS and O-arm-based CT images. There was no difference in the patient's position, probe position, and timing of image acquisition between the two imaging modalities. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters such as the dose to 90% of prostate volume (D90) has been analyzed. Results The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic tended to be larger on fusion CT than on TRUS for most DVH parameters (71.85% vs. 59.59% for D90; p = 0.07). Significant relationships between fusion CT and 1-month CT were confirmed using Pearson's correlation coefficients for most DVH parameters (R = 0.48, p < 0.01 for D90), although the relationship between TRUS and 1-month CT was poor. Large dose reduction (35 Gy for D90) was seen from TRUS to fusion CT, especially in patients with high body weight and small prostate volume. Conclusions Intraoperative fusion CT appears to have higher predictive power for 1-month CT-based dosimetry than TRUS. A prospective trial using fusion CT-based planning is warranted. PMID:26985192

  12. Potential clinical relevance of Eph receptors and ephrin ligands expressed in prostate carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fox, Brian P; Tabone, Christopher J; Kandpal, Raj P

    2006-04-21

    The family of Eph and ephrin receptors is involved in a variety of functions in normal cells, and the alterations in their expression profiles have been observed in several cancers. We have compared the transcripts for Eph receptors and ephrin ligands in cell lines established from normal prostate epithelium and several carcinoma cell lines isolated from prostate tumors of varying degree of metastasis. These cell lines included NPTX, CTPX, LNCaP, DU145, PC-3, and PC-3ML. The cell lines displayed characteristic pattern of expression for specific Eph receptors and ephrin ligands, thus allowing identification of Eph receptor signatures for a particular cell line. The sensitivity of these transcripts to genome methylation is also investigated by treating the cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. The comparison of expression profiles revealed that normal prostate and primary prostate tumor cell lines differ in the expression of EphA3, EphB3, and ephrin A3 that are over-expressed in normal prostate. Furthermore, the transcript levels for EphA1 decrease progressively from normal prostate to primary prostate tumor cell line and metastatic tumor cells. A converse relationship was observed for ephrin B2. The treatment of cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine revealed the sensitivity of EphA3, EphA10, EphB3, and EphB6 to methylation status of genomic DNA. The utility of methylation specific PCR to identify prostate tumor cells and the importance of specific Eph receptors and ephrin ligands in initiation and progression of prostate tumor are discussed. PMID:16516143

  13. Metastasis in urothelial carcinoma mimicking prostate cancer metastasis in Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a case of synchronous malignancy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manoj; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Gurudutt; Gandhi, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in man. It commonly presents with urinary symptoms, bone pain, or diagnosed with elevated prostate-specific antigen.(PSA) levels. Correct staging and early diagnosis of recurrence by a precise imaging tool are the keys for optimum management. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer with Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen.(PSMA), positron emission tomography-computed tomography.(PET-CT) has recently received significant attention and frequently used with a signature to prostate cancer-specific remark. However, this case will highlight the more cautious use of it. A-72-year-old male treated earlier for synchronous double malignancy.(invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma right ureter and carcinoma prostate) presented with rising PSA.(0.51.ng/ml) and referred for Ga-68 PSMA PET-CT, which showed a positive enlarged left supraclavicular lymph node. Lymph node biopsy microscopic and immunohistochemistry examination revealed metastatic carcinoma favoring urothelial origin. Specificity of PSMA scan to prostate cancer has been seen to be compromised in a certain situation mostly due to neoangiogenesis, and false positives emerged in renal cell cancer, differentiated thyroid cancer, glioblastoma, breast cancer brain metastasis, and paravertebral schwannomas. Understanding the causes of false positive will further enhance the confidence of interpretating PSMA scans. PMID:27385897

  14. Metastasis in urothelial carcinoma mimicking prostate cancer metastasis in Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a case of synchronous malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Manoj; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Gurudutt; Gandhi, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in man. It commonly presents with urinary symptoms, bone pain, or diagnosed with elevated prostate-specific antigen.(PSA) levels. Correct staging and early diagnosis of recurrence by a precise imaging tool are the keys for optimum management. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer with Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen.(PSMA), positron emission tomography-computed tomography.(PET-CT) has recently received significant attention and frequently used with a signature to prostate cancer-specific remark. However, this case will highlight the more cautious use of it. A-72-year-old male treated earlier for synchronous double malignancy.(invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma right ureter and carcinoma prostate) presented with rising PSA.(0.51.ng/ml) and referred for Ga-68 PSMA PET-CT, which showed a positive enlarged left supraclavicular lymph node. Lymph node biopsy microscopic and immunohistochemistry examination revealed metastatic carcinoma favoring urothelial origin. Specificity of PSMA scan to prostate cancer has been seen to be compromised in a certain situation mostly due to neoangiogenesis, and false positives emerged in renal cell cancer, differentiated thyroid cancer, glioblastoma, breast cancer brain metastasis, and paravertebral schwannomas. Understanding the causes of false positive will further enhance the confidence of interpretating PSMA scans. PMID:27385897

  15. Role of computed tomography in the evaluation and management of carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Giri, P.G.S.; Walsh, J.W.; Hazra, T.A.; Texter, J.H.; Koontz, W.W.

    1982-02-01

    Between January 1978 to March 1980, 25 patients with biopsy-proven prostate carcinoma were evaluated by computerized tomography (CT). CT differed from clinical stage in 7 of 25 patients (28%). In 6 of the 7 patients, change in stage resulted because of demonstration of extracapsular extension and/or pelvic lymph node involvement. Twelve of the 25 patients (48%) underwent surgery with histological confirmation of CT findings. CT identified nodal involvement accurately in 10 of 12 patients (83%). We recommend use of CT for initial staging, treatment planning and assessment of response in the management of prostate cancer.

  16. Conversion of Prostate Adenocarcinoma to Small Cell Carcinoma-Like by Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gisely T; Vêncio, Eneida F; Quek, Sue-Ing; Chen, Adeline; Salvanha, Diego M; Vêncio, Ricardo Z N; Nguyen, Holly M; Vessella, Robert L; Cavanaugh, Christopher; Ware, Carol B; Troisch, Pamela; Liu, Alvin Y

    2016-09-01

    The lineage relationship between prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma was studied by using the LuCaP family of xenografts established from primary neoplasm to metastasis. Expression of four stem cell transcription factor (TF) genes, LIN28A, NANOG, POU5F1, SOX2, were analyzed in the LuCaP lines. These genes, when force expressed in differentiated cells, can reprogram the recipients into stem-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Most LuCaP lines expressed POU5F1, while LuCaP 145.1, representative of small cell carcinoma, expressed all four. Through transcriptome database query, many small cell carcinoma genes were also found in stem cells. To test the hypothesis that prostate cancer progression from "differentiated" adenocarcinoma to "undifferentiated" small cell carcinoma could involve re-expression of stem cell genes, the four TF genes were transduced via lentiviral vectors into five adenocarcinoma LuCaP lines-70CR, 73CR, 86.2, 92, 105CR-as done in iPS cell reprogramming. The resultant cells from these five transductions displayed a morphology of small size and dark appearing unlike the parentals. Transcriptome analysis of LuCaP 70CR* ("*" to denote transfected progeny) revealed a unique gene expression close to that of LuCaP 145.1. In a prostate principal components analysis space based on cell-type transcriptomes, the different LuCaP transcriptome datapoints were aligned to suggest a possible ordered sequence of expression changes from the differentiated luminal-like adenocarcinoma cell types to the less differentiated, more stem-like small cell carcinoma types, and LuCaP 70CR*. Prostate cancer progression can thus be molecularly characterized by loss of differentiation with re-expression of stem cell genes. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2040-2047, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26773436

  17. Localization of linked {sup 125}I seeds in postimplant TRUS images for prostate brachytherapy dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Jinyu . E-mail: Jinyu.Xue@mail.tju.edu; Waterman, Frank; Handler, Jay; Gressen, Eric

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that {sup 125}I seeds can be localized in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images obtained with a high-resolution probe when the implant is performed with linked seeds and spacers. Adequate seed localization is essential to the implementation of TRUS-based intraoperative dosimetry for prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Thirteen preplanned peripherally loaded prostate implants were performed using {sup 125}I seeds and spacers linked together in linear arrays that prevent seed migration and maintain precise seed spacing. A set of two-dimensional transverse images spaced at 0.50-cm intervals were obtained with a high-resolution TRUS probe at the conclusion of the procedure with the patient still under anesthesia. The image set extended from 1.0 cm superior to the base to 1.0 cm inferior to the apex. The visible echoes along each needle track were first localized and then compared with the known construction of the implanted array. The first step was to define the distal and proximal ends of each array. The visible echoes were then identified as seeds or spacers from the known sequence of the array. The locations of the seeds that did not produce a visible echo were interpolated from their known position in the array. A CT scan was obtained after implantation for comparison with the TRUS images. Results: On average, 93% (range, 86-99%) of the seeds were visible in the TRUS images. However, it was possible to localize 100% of the seeds in each case, because the locations of the missing seeds could be determined from the known construction of the arrays. Two factors complicated the interpretation of the TRUS images. One was that the spacers also produced echoes. Although weak and diffuse, these echoes could be mistaken for seeds. The other was that the number of echoes along a needle track sometimes exceeded the number of seeds and spacers implanted. This was attributed to the overall length of the array, which was approximately 0.5 cm

  18. Comparison of Combined X-Ray Radiography and Magnetic Resonance (XMR) Imaging-Versus Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry for the Evaluation of Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy Implants

    SciTech Connect

    Acher, Peter Rhode, Kawal; Morris, Stephen; Gaya, Andrew; Miquel, Marc; Popert, Rick; Tham, Ivan; Nichol, Janette; McLeish, Kate; Deehan, Charles; Dasgupta, Prokar; Beaney, Ronald; Keevil, Stephen F.

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To present a method for the dosimetric analysis of permanent prostate brachytherapy implants using a combination of stereoscopic X-ray radiography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (XMR) in an XMR facility, and to compare the clinical results between XMR- and computed tomography (CT)-based dosimetry. Methods and Materials: Patients who had received nonstranded iodine-125 permanent prostate brachytherapy implants underwent XMR and CT imaging 4 weeks later. Four observers outlined the prostate gland on both sets of images. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were derived, and agreement was compared among the observers and between the modalities. Results: A total of 30 patients were evaluated. Inherent XMR registration based on prior calibration and optical tracking required a further automatic seed registration step that revealed a median root mean square registration error of 4.2 mm (range, 1.6-11.4). The observers agreed significantly more closely on prostate base and apex positions as well as outlining contours on the MR images than on those from CT. Coefficients of variation were significantly higher for observed prostate volumes, D90, and V100 parameters on CT-based dosimetry as opposed to XMR. The XMR-based dosimetry showed little agreement with that from CT for all observers, with D90 95% limits of agreement ranges of 65, 118, 79, and 73 Gy for Observers 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Conclusions: The study results showed that XMR-based dosimetry offers an alternative to other imaging modalities and registration methods with the advantages of MR-based prostate delineation and confident three-dimensional reconstruction of the implant. The XMR-derived dose-volume histograms differ from the CT-derived values and demonstrate less interobserver variability.

  19. External beam radiotherapy for palliation of pain from metastatic carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, R.C. Jr.; Hasan, S.M.; Jones, A.G.; Schlise, S.

    1982-01-01

    Radiotherapy often is used for palliation of bone pain from metastatic cancer of the prostate but an objective evaluation of its efficacy in a large series of patients is unavailable. We report the results of external beam irradiation in 62 patients who had bone pain secondary to stage D carcinoma of the prostate. The variables used to judge pain before and after radiotherapy included subjective evaluation of pain, status of activity and quantitation of analgesic use. Complete relief of pain was achieved in 26 patients (42 per cent), partial relief in 22 (35 per cent) and no relief in 14 (23 per cent). On the basis of our experience external beam irradiation is useful palliative therapy for pain from metastatic cancer of the prostate.

  20. Iodine-125 prostate implants for recurrent carcinomas after external beam irradiation: preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Goffinet, D.R.; Martinez, A.; Freiha, F.; Pooler, D.M.; Pistenma, D.A.; Cumes, D.; Bagshaw, M.A.

    1980-06-01

    Fourteen patients with locally recurrent prostate carcinomas after external beam irradiation received /sup 125/I seed implants at Stanford between 1975 and 1979. Clinical local control was obtained in 11 of the 14 patients for follow-up periods of 6 to 36 months. Eight remain without evidence of disease, but 2 of the 3 patients whose pelvic lymph nodes were involved by carcinoma have developed distant metastases. Complications, consisting of either cystoproctitis, urinary incontinence, or the development of a vesicorectal fistula occurred in 4 of the 14 patients. These complications were noted only in those patients who had implantation of high intensity /sup 125/I seeds (>0.50 mCi) into large prostatic volumes (greater than or equal to 50cc). No complications occurred in patients who received lower intensity /sup 125/I seed implants in smaller prostatic volumes. We conclude that /sup 125/I seed implants may be used in a second attempt to obtain local control after a local relapse following external beam irradiation, if the use of high intensity /sup 125/I sources and/or the implantation of large prostate volumes are avoided.

  1. Intra-operative prostate brachytherapy dosimetry based on partial seed localization in ultrasound and registration to C-arm fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mehdi; Mahdavi, Sara S; Deshmukh, Sanchit; Lobo, Julio; Dehghan, Ehsan; Fichtinger, Gabor; Morris, William J; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2011-01-01

    Intraoperative dosimetry during prostate brachytherapy is a long standing clinical problem. We propose a novel framework to address this problem by reliable detection of a subset of seeds from 3D transrectal ultrasound and registration to fluoroscopy. Seed detection in ultrasound is achieved through template matching in the RF ultrasound domain followed by thresholding and spatial filtering based on the fixed distance between stranded seeds. This subset of seeds is registered to the complete reconstruction of the implant in C-arm fluoroscopy. We report results, validated with a leave-one-needle-out approach, both in a phantom (average post-registration seed distance of 2.5 mm) and in three clinical patient datasets (average error: 3.9 mm over 113 seeds). PMID:22003629

  2. [Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Prostate in which Docetaxel Therapy was Effective : A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Hiroyuki; Kajiwara, Mitsuru; Yonehara, Shuji

    2016-05-01

    The patient was a 73-year-old man who visited our hospital with asymptomatic gross hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a bladder tumor in two places. Serum prostatic specific antigen was normal (2.535 ng/ml). Transurethral resection of bladder tumors was performed. In order to complete resection of bladder tumor, transurethral resection of right lobe of the prostate whitch had protruded into the bladder, was needed. Histology of the prostatic tissue revealed squamous cell carcinoma with no grandular and acinar structures. Serum SCC-antigen level was evaluated (6.2 ng/ml) after establishment of the diagnosis. Thoraco-abdominal computed tomography and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/ computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) showed prostate cancer and multiple metastases in the lymph nodes, such as right external iliac, right common iliac, para-aortic and left supraclavicular region. The patient received external radiation therapy to the prostate and underwent systemic chemotherapy using docetaxel. After 2 courses of docetaxel therapy, multiple lymph nodes metastases were reduced and serum SCC-antigen level was normalized. Docetaxel therapy could not be continued because of a side effect of interstitial pneumonia. PMID:27320118

  3. An evaluation of the contouring abilities of medical dosimetry students for the anatomy of a prostate cancer patient

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Kevin S.

    2012-10-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common diseases treated in a radiation oncology department. One of the major predictors of the treatment outcome and patient side effects is the accuracy of the anatomical contours for the treatment plan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine which anatomical structures are most often contoured correctly and incorrectly by medical dosimetry students. The author also wanted to discover whether a review of the contouring rules would increase contouring accuracy. To achieve this, a male computed tomography dataset consisting of 72 transverse slices was sent to students for contouring. The students were instructed to import this dataset into their treatment planning system and contour the following structures: skin, bladder, rectum, prostate, penile bulb, seminal vesicles, left femoral head, and right femoral head. Upon completion of the contours, the contour file was evaluated against a 'gold standard' contour set using StructSure software (Standard Imaging, Inc). A review of the initial contour results was conducted and then students were instructed to contour the dataset a second time. The results of this study showed significant differences between contouring sessions. These results and the standardization of contouring rules should benefit all individuals who participate in the treatment planning of cancer patients.

  4. Accuracy of dose planning for prostate radiotherapy in the presence of metallic implants evaluated by electron spin resonance dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Alves, G.G.; Kinoshita, A.; de Oliveira, H.F.; Guimarães, F.S.; Amaral, L.L.; Baffa, O.

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the main approaches to cure prostate cancer, and its success depends on the accuracy of dose planning. A complicating factor is the presence of a metallic prosthesis in the femur and pelvis, which is becoming more common in elderly populations. The goal of this work was to perform dose measurements to check the accuracy of radiotherapy treatment planning under these complicated conditions. To accomplish this, a scale phantom of an adult pelvic region was used with alanine dosimeters inserted in the prostate region. This phantom was irradiated according to the planned treatment under the following three conditions: with two metallic prostheses in the region of the femur head, with only one prosthesis, and without any prostheses. The combined relative standard uncertainty of dose measurement by electron spin resonance (ESR)/alanine was 5.05%, whereas the combined relative standard uncertainty of the applied dose was 3.35%, resulting in a combined relative standard uncertainty of the whole process of 6.06%. The ESR dosimetry indicated that there was no difference (P>0.05, ANOVA) in dosage between the planned dose and treatments. The results are in the range of the planned dose, within the combined relative uncertainty, demonstrating that the treatment-planning system compensates for the effects caused by the presence of femur and hip metal prostheses. PMID:26017344

  5. Real-time in vivo rectal wall dosimetry using plastic scintillation detectors for patients with prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, Landon; Kudchadker, Rajat; Lee, Andrew; Beddar, Sam

    2014-02-01

    We designed and constructed an in vivo dosimetry system using plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) to monitor dose to the rectal wall in patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Five patients were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board-approved protocol for twice weekly in vivo dose monitoring with our system, resulting in a total of 142 in vivo dose measurements. PSDs were attached to the surface of endorectal balloons used for prostate immobilization to place the PSDs in contact with the rectal wall. Absorbed dose was measured in real time and the total measured dose was compared with the dose calculated by the treatment planning system on the daily computed tomographic image dataset. The mean difference between measured and calculated doses for the entire patient population was -0.4% (standard deviation 2.8%). The mean difference between daily measured and calculated doses for each patient ranged from -3.3% to 3.3% (standard deviation ranged from 5.6% to 7.1% for four patients and was 14.0% for the last, for whom optimal positioning of the detector was difficult owing to the patient's large size). Patients tolerated the detectors well and the treatment workflow was not compromised. Overall, PSDs performed well as in vivo dosimeters, providing excellent accuracy, real-time measurement and reusability.

  6. Antagonists of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are potent growth inhibitors of prostate carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, L A; Krinks, C H Van; Durham, J; Tomkins, S E; Burnett, R D; Jones, E L; Chandraratna, R A S; Brown, G

    2001-01-01

    Novel synthetic antagonists of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) have been developed. To avoid interference by serum retinoids when testing these compounds, we established serum-free grown sub-lines (>3 years) of the prostate carcinoma lines LNCaP, PC3 and DU145. A high affinity pan-RAR antagonist (AGN194310, Kd for binding to RARs = 2–5 nM) inhibited colony formation (by 50%) by all three lines at 16–34 nM, and led to a transient accumulation of flask-cultured cells in G1 followed by apoptosis. AGN194310 is 12–22 fold more potent than all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) against cell lines and also more potent in inhibiting the growth of primary prostate carcinoma cells. PC3 and DU145 cells do not express RARβ, and an antagonist with predominant activity at RARβ and RARγ (AGN194431) inhibited colony formation at concentrations (∼100 nM) commensurate with a Kd value of 70 nM at RARγ. An RARα antagonist (AGN194301) was less potent (IC50 ∼200 nM), but was more active than specific agonists of RARα and of βγ. A component(s) of serum and of LNCaP-conditioned medium diminishes the activity of antagonists: this factor is not the most likely candidates IGF-1 and EGF. In vitro studies of RAR antagonists together with data from RAR-null mice lead to the hypothesis that RARγ-regulated gene transcription is necessary for the survival and maintenance of prostate epithelium. The increased potencies of RAR antagonists, as compared with agonists, suggest that antagonists may be useful in the treatment of prostate carcinoma. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11487280

  7. Tissue composition and density impact on the clinical parameters for (125)I prostate implants dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Susana Maria; Teixeira, Nuno José; Fernandes, Lisete; Teles, Pedro; Vieira, Guy; Vaz, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    The MCNPX code was used to calculate the TG-43U1 recommended parameters in water and prostate tissue in order to quantify the dosimetric impact in 30 patients treated with (125)I prostate implants when replacing the TG-43U1 formalism parameters calculated in water by a prostate-like medium in the planning system (PS) and to evaluate the uncertainties associated with Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. The prostate density was obtained from the CT of 100 patients with prostate cancer. The deviations between our results for water and the TG-43U1 consensus dataset values were -2.6% for prostate V100, -13.0% for V150, and -5.8% for D90; -2.0% for rectum V100, and -5.1% for D0.1; -5.0% for urethra D10, and -5.1% for D30. The same differences between our water and prostate results were all under 0.3%. Uncertainties estimations were up to 2.9% for the gL(r) function, 13.4% for the F(r,θ) function and 7.0% for Λ, mainly due to seed geometry uncertainties. Uncertainties in extracting the TG-43U1 parameters in the MC simulations as well as in the literature comparison are of the same order of magnitude as the differences between dose distributions computed for water and prostate-like medium. The selection of the parameters for the PS should be done carefully, as it may considerably affect the dose distributions. The seeds internal geometry uncertainties are a major limiting factor in the MC parameters deduction. PMID:25239870

  8. Biochemical and pathological response of prostate cancer in a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma on sunitinib treatment.

    PubMed

    Song, Ik Chan; Lim, Jae Sung; Yun, Hwan Jung; Kim, Samyong; Kang, Dae Young; Lee, Hyo Jin

    2009-12-01

    Sunitinib is a small molecular inhibitor of tyrosine kinases and is used to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour after disease progression or intolerance to imatinib therapy. Here, we describe biochemical and pathological response of prostate cancer in a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma during sunitinib treatment. A 62-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a mass in the scalp. He was diagnosed with left renal cell carcinoma with right renal and scalp metastases. In addition, synchronous prostate cancer involving less than one-half of the right lobe was found with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value of 23.4 ng/ml. Treatment was begun with sunitinib (50 mg daily, 4 weeks on and 2 weeks off). Regarding the prostate cancer, active monitoring was planned considering the far advanced renal cell carcinoma. Surprisingly, the PSA level was 3.4 ng/ml at week 6 and 0.2 ng/ml at week 12, and it subsequently remained normal. At the time of writing (cycle 6 of sunitinib therapy), the prostate nodule significantly decreased in size. Furthermore, a 12-core re-biopsy revealed pathological evidence of regression with sunitinib treatment, with control of his renal cell carcinoma. PMID:19773269

  9. Prophylactic pelvic girdle irradiation in the treatment of prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, T.A.; Giri, S.

    1981-06-01

    This is a report of a pilot study of the effectiveness of irradiation therapy to the pelvic girdle in decreasing the incidence of bony metastases in patients with prostatic cancer. Thirty-two patients were entered in the study; none of them failed in the pelvic bones and four failed outside the pelvis. A total tumor dose of 6800 rad was delivered, the pelvic nodes received 5000 rad and the pelvic girdle 800 rad. The non-conventional fractionation scheme used in this study diminishes the incidence of osseous metastases but produces unacceptable bowel injury. Forty-three percent of patients had proctitis and 20% of the patients required colostomy.

  10. Bifunctional Phage-Based Pretargeted Imaging of Human Prostate Carcinoma Bifunctional Phage Based Pretargeted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Newton-Northup, Jessica R.; Figueroa, Said D.; Quinn, Thomas P.; Deutscher, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Two-step and three-step pretargeting systems utilizing biotinylated prostate tumor-homing bacteriophage (phage) and 111In-radiolabeled- streptavidin or biotin were developed for use in cancer radioimaging. The in vivo selected prostate carcinoma-specific phage (G1) displaying up to five copies of the peptide IAGLATPGWSHWLAL, was the focus of the present study. Methods The ability of G1 phage to extravasate and target prostate tumor cells was investigated using immunohistochemistry. G1 phage were biotinylated, streptavidin was conjugated to diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and biotin was conjugated to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). Biodistribution studies and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging of xenografted PC-3 tumors via two-step pretargeted 111In-labeled streptavidin and three-step pretargeted 111In-labeled biotin were performed in SCID mice to determine the optimal pretargeting method. Results The ability of G1 phage to extravasate the vasculature and bind directly to human PC-3 prostate carcinoma tumor cells in vivo was demonstrated via immunocytochemical analysis. Comparative biodistribution studies of the two-step and three-step pretargeting strategies indicated increased PC-3 human prostate carcinoma tumor uptake in SCID mice of 4.34 ±0.26 %ID/g at 0.5 hours post-injection of 111In radiolabeled biotin (utilized in a three-step protocol) compared to that of 0.67 ±0.06 %ID/g at twenty four hour postinjection of 111In radiolabeled streptavidin (employed in a two-step protocol). In vivo SPECT/CT imaging of xenografted PC-3 tumors in SCID mice with the three-step pretargeting method was superior to that of the two-step pretargeting method, and, importantly, blocking studies demonstrated specificity of tumor uptake of 111In-labeled biotin in the three-step pretargeting scheme. Conclusion This study demonstrates the use of multivalent bifunctional phage in a three

  11. Potential impact of prostate edema on the dosimetry of permanent seed implants using the new {sup 131}Cs (model CS-1) seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhe; Deng Jun; Roberts, Kenneth; Nath, Ravinder

    2006-04-15

    Our aim in this work was to study the potential dosimetric effect of prostate edema on the accuracy of conventional pre- and post-implant dosimetry for prostate seed implants using the newly introduced {sup 131}Cs seed, whose radioactive decay half-life ({approx}9.7 days) is directly comparable to the average edema resolution half-life ({approx}10 days) observed previously by Waterman et al. for {sup 125}I implants [Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 41, 1069-1077 (1998)]. A systematic calculation of the relative dosimetry effect of prostate edema on the {sup 131}Cs implant was performed by using an analytic solution obtained previously [Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 47, 1405-1419 (2000)]. It was found that conventional preimplant dosimetry always overestimates the true delivered dose as it ignores the temporary increase of the interseed distance caused by edema. The overestimation for {sup 131}Cs implants ranged from 1.2% (for a small edema with a magnitude of 10% and a half-life of 2 days) to approximately 45% (for larger degree edema with a magnitude of 100% and a half-life of 25 days). The magnitude of pre- and post-implant dosimetry error for {sup 131}Cs implants was found to be similar to that of {sup 103}Pd implants for typical edema characteristics (magnitude <100%, and half-life <25 days); both of which are worse compared to {sup 125}I implants. The preimplant dosimetry error for {sup 131}Cs implants cannot be compensated effectively without knowing the edema characteristics before the seed implantation. On the other hand, the error resulted from a conventional post-implant dosimetry can be minimized (to within {+-}6%) for {sup 131}Cs implants if the post-implant dosimetry is performed at 10{+-}2 days post seed implantation. This 'optimum' post-implant dosimetry time is shorter than those determined previously for the {sup 103}Pd and {sup 125}I implants at 16{+-}4 days and 6{+-}1 weeks, respectively.

  12. Carcinoma of the prostate: the treatment of bone metastases by radiophosphorus.

    PubMed

    Glaser, M G; Howard, N; Waterfall, N

    1981-11-01

    Osseous deposits secondary to advanced carcinoma of the prostate are a common feature of the disease. These deposits are most often seen in the lumbar spine and pelvis and cause severe and intractable pain, often requiring large quantities of strong analgesia for alleviation of pain. Relief of pain can be achieved by external irradiation of these deposits, but this relief may not be permanent and the disease may be so widespread that it is impracticable to treat all the deposits by irradiation. Deposits from carcinoma of the prostrate are usually multiple and all may cause pain at the same time. A method of delivering the radiation to all the deposits at the same time has been sought. Previous studies have shown that radioactive phosphorus (P32) can be used to obtain this localisation of radioactivity at sites of osseous activity. In this study 24 patients with bone metastases from carcinoma of the prostate were treated with radiophosphorus and methyl testosterone, or radiophosphorus with parathormone and calcium. An overall response rate of 58% shows this to be an effective palliative treatment. The results suggest there is a greater response when P32 is used in conjunction with parathormone and calcium, than with methyl testosterone. PMID:7307444

  13. Radiotherapy of prostatic carcinoma: long- or short-term efficacy (Stanford University experience)

    SciTech Connect

    Bagshaw, M.A.; Ray, G.R.; Cox, R.S.

    1985-02-01

    Results of a study that began at Stanford in 1956 demonstrate that long-term, disease-free survival can be achieved following appropriate irradiation in patients with prostatic carcinoma. However, the investigation has also uncovered several powerful prognostic indicators, such as the extent of anatomic involvement, histologic pattern, particularly as described by Gleason; and presence or absence of lymphnode metastases. To illustrate the importance of these parameters, the author presents data that correlate survival with the anatomic extent of the primary tumor and the Gleason pattern scores. Of the staged patients, 64 have been subjected to post-therapeutic biopsy of the prostate 18 months or more following therapy. A correlation also seems to exist among clinical stage, lymph node involvement, and subsequent biopsy status. The implication of this finding in the development of more aggressive therapeutic approaches will be discussed.

  14. In Vivo Dosimetry Using a Linear Mosfet-Array Dosimeter to Determine the Urethra Dose In {sup 125}I Permanent Prostate Implants

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemen-van Gurp, Esther J. Murrer, Lars H.P.; Haanstra, Bjoerk K.C.; Gils, Francis C.J.M. van; Dekker, Andre L.A.J.; Mijnheer, Ben J.; Lambin, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In vivo dosimetry during brachytherapy of the prostate with {sup 125}I seeds is challenging because of the high dose gradients and low photon energies involved. We present the results of a study using metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters to evaluate the dose in the urethra after a permanent prostate implantation procedure. Methods and Materials: Phantom measurements were made to validate the measurement technique, determine the measurement accuracy, and define action levels for clinical measurements. Patient measurements were performed with a MOSFET array in the urinary catheter immediately after the implantation procedure. A CT scan was performed, and dose values, calculated by the treatment planning system, were compared to in vivo dose values measured with MOSFET dosimeters. Results: Corrections for temperature dependence of the MOSFET array response and photon attenuation in the catheter on the in vivo dose values are necessary. The overall uncertainty in the measurement procedure, determined in a simulation experiment, is 8.0% (1 SD). In vivo dose values were obtained for 17 patients. In the high-dose region (> 100 Gy), calculated and measured dose values agreed within 1.7% {+-} 10.7% (1 SD). In the low-dose region outside the prostate (< 100 Gy), larger deviations occurred. Conclusions: MOSFET detectors are suitable for in vivo dosimetry during {sup 125}I brachytherapy of prostate cancer. An action level of {+-} 16% (2 SD) for detection of errors in the implantation procedure is achievable after validation of the detector system and measurement conditions.

  15. Pathophysiology and Natural History of Anorectal Sequelae Following Radiation Therapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, Eric K.; Holloway, Richard H.; Fraser, Robert J.; Botten, Rochelle J.; Di Matteo, Addolorata C.; Butters, Julie

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To characterize the prevalence, pathophysiology, and natural history of chronic radiation proctitis 5 years following radiation therapy (RT) for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Studies were performed in 34 patients (median age 68 years; range 54-79) previously randomly assigned to either 64 Gy in 32 fractions over 6.4 weeks or 55 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks RT schedule using 2- and later 3-dimensional treatment technique for localized prostate carcinoma. Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (Modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic scales including effect on activities of daily living [ADLs]); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before RT, at 1 month, and annually for 5 years after its completion. Results: Total GI symptom scores increased after RT and remained above baseline levels at 5 years and were associated with reductions in (1) basal anal pressures, (2) responses to squeeze and increased intra-abdominal pressure, (3) rectal compliance and (4) rectal volumes of sensory perception. Anal sphincter morphology was unchanged. At 5 years, 44% and 21% of patients reported urgency of defecation and rectal bleeding, respectively, and 48% impairment of ADLs. GI symptom scores and parameters of anorectal function and anal sphincter morphology did not differ between the 2 RT schedules or treatment techniques. Conclusions: Five years after RT for prostate carcinoma, anorectal symptoms continue to have a significant impact on ADLs of almost 50% of patients. These symptoms are associated with anorectal dysfunction independent of the RT schedules or treatment techniques reported here.

  16. Disturbed Colonic Motility Contributes to Anorectal Symptoms and Dysfunction After Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, Eric K.; Bartholomeusz, Dylan L.; Holloway, Richard H.; Fraser, Robert J.; Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata; Moore, James W.; Schoeman, Mark N.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of colonic motility in the pathogenesis of anorectal symptoms and dysfunction after radiotherapy (RT) for carcinoma of the prostate. Patients and Methods: Thirty-eight patients, median age 71 (range, 50-81) years with localized prostate carcinoma randomized to one of two radiation dose schedules underwent colonic transit scintigraphy and assessment of anorectal symptoms (questionnaire), anorectal function (manometry), and anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and at 1 month and 1 year after RT. Results: Whole and distal colonic transit increased 1 month after RT, with faster distal colonic transit only persisting at 1 year. Frequency and urgency of defecation, fecal incontinence, and rectal bleeding increased 1 month after RT and persisted at 1 year. Basal anal pressures remained unchanged, but progressive reductions occurred in anal squeeze pressures and responses to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Rectal compliance decreased progressively in the patients, although no changes in anorectal sensory function ensued. Radiotherapy had no effect on the morphology of the internal and external anal sphincters. Distal colonic retention was weakly related to rectal compliance at 1 month, but both faster colonic transit and reduced rectal compliance were more frequent with increased fecal urgency. At 1 year, a weak inverse relationship existed between colonic half-clearance time and frequency of defecation, although both faster whole-colonic transit and reduced rectal compliance occurred more often with increased stool frequency. Conclusion: Colonic dysmotility contributes to anorectal dysfunction after RT for carcinoma of the prostate. This has implications for improving the management of anorectal radiation sequelae.

  17. Anorectal Function After Three- Versus Two-Dimensional Radiation Therapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, Eric K. Holloway, Richard H.; Fraser, Robert J.; Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata; Moore, James W.; Schoeman, Mark N.; Bartholomeusz, Dylan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of (three-dimensional) 3D vs. two-dimensional (2D) radiation therapy (RT) for carcinoma of the prostate on the prevalence and pathophysiology of anorectal dysfunction. Methods and Materials: Anorectal symptoms, motility, sensory function, and anal sphincter morphology were evaluated before and up to 2 years after randomly assigned hypofractionated vs. conventionally fractionated RT in 67 patients (median age, 69 years; range, 54-82 years) with localized prostate carcinoma, using either a 3D (n = 29) or 2D (n = 38) treatment technique. Results: Anorectal symptoms increased 4 to 6 weeks after RT and persisted in both patient groups. At 2 years, abnormalities included increased stool frequency (55% vs. 53%, p = NS), urgency of defecation (72% vs. 47%, p < 0.05), fecal incontinence (28% vs. 26%, p = NS), and rectal bleeding (38% and 42%, p = NS). Anorectal motility and sensory function deteriorated after RT in both groups with reductions in basal anal pressures, anal pressures in response to squeeze, rectal compliance, and rectal volumes associated with the desire to defecate. External but not internal sphincter thickness changed in the treatment groups although in different directions. However no differences in motility or sensory function were detected between the groups. Baseline anorectal motility but not treatment technique and the hypofracionated schedule were of independent prognostic significance for anorectal motor dysfunction and rectal bleeding respectively at 2 years. Conclusion: The prevalence and pathophysiology of anorectal dysfunction 2 years after RT for prostate carcinoma was largely independent of the treatment techniques used in this study.

  18. Interstitial photodynamic therapy for primary prostate cancer incorporating real-time treatment dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Ann; Axelsson, Johan; Swartling, Johannes; Johansson, Thomas; Pålsson, Sara; Stensson, Johan; Einarsdóttír, Margret; Svanberg, Katarina; Bendsoe, Niels; Kälkner, Karl Mikael; Nilsson, Sten; Svanberg, Sune; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2007-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of prostate cancer has been demonstrated to be a safe treatment option capable of inducing tissue necrosis and decrease in prostate specific antigen (PSA). Research groups report on large variations in treatment response, possibly due to biological variations in tissue composition and short-term response to the therapeutic irradiation. Within our group, an instrument for interstitial PDT on prostate tissue that incorporates realtime treatment feedback is being developed. The treatment protocol consists of two parts. The first part incorporates the pre-treatment plan with ultrasound investigations, providing the geometry for the prostate gland and surrounding risk organs, an iterative random-search algorithm to determine near-optimal fiber positions within the reconstructed geometry and a Block-Cimmino optimization algorithm for predicting individual fiber irradiation times. During the second part, the therapeutic light delivery is combined with measurements of the light transmission signals between the optical fibers, thus monitoring the tissue effective attenuation coefficient by means of spatially resolved spectroscopy. These data are then used as input for repeated runs of the Block-Cimmino optimization algorithm. Thus, the irradiation times for individual fibers are updated throughout the treatment in order to compensate for the influence of changes in tissue composition on the light distribution at the therapeutic wavelength.

  19. Effects of external beam radiotherapy on endocrine function in patients with carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, P.W.; Perez, C.A.

    1986-04-01

    Serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones were determined prospectively in 59 patients with carcinoma of the prostate treated curatively with external beam radiotherapy. Hormone levels were determined before the initiation of therapy and up to 2 years following completion of therapy. Testosterone levels remained unchanged but dihydrotestosterone levels decreased slightly. Follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormone levels increased significantly during therapy and remained elevated for up to 2 years after therapy. These findings are consistent with low dose irradiation of the testis.

  20. ERG oncoprotein expression in prostate carcinoma patients of different ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, GREGORY M.; KONG, YINK HEAY; DOBI, ALBERT; SRIVASTAVA, SHIV; SESTERHENN, ISABELL A.; PATHMANATHAN, RAJADURAI; TAN, HUI MENG; TAN, SHYH-HAN; CHEONG, SOK CHING

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of the erythroblast transformation-specific-related gene (ERG) oncoprotein due to transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-ERG fusion, the most prevalent genomic alteration in prostate cancer (CaP), is more frequently observed among Caucasian patients compared to patients of African or Asian descent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the prevalence of ERG alterations in a multiethnic cohort of CaP patients. A total of 191 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy specimens, collected from 120 patients treated at the Sime Darby Medical Centre, Subang Jaya, Malaysia, were analyzed for ERG protein expression by immunohistochemistry using the anti-ERG monoclonal antibody 9FY as a surrogate for the detection of ERG fusion events. The overall frequency of ERG protein expression in the population evaluated in this study was 39.2%. Although seemingly similar to rates reported in other Asian communities, the expression of ERG was distinct amongst different ethnic groups (P=0.004). Malaysian Indian (MI) patients exhibited exceedingly high expression of ERG in their tumors, almost doubling that of Malaysian Chinese (MC) patients, whereas ERG expression was very low amongst Malay patients (12.5%). When collectively analyzing data, we observed a significant correlation between younger patients and higher ERG expression (P=0.04). The prevalence of ERG expression was significantly different amongst CaP patients of different ethnicities. The higher number of ERG-expressing tumors among MI patients suggested that the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion may be particularly important in the pathogenesis of CaP amongst this group of patients. Furthermore, the more frequent expression of ERG among the younger patients analyzed suggested an involvement of ERG in the early onset of CaP. The results of this study underline the value of using ERG status to better understand the differences in the etiology

  1. ERG oncoprotein expression in prostate carcinoma patients of different ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gregory M; Kong, Yink Heay; Dobi, Albert; Srivastava, Shiv; Sesterhenn, Isabell A; Pathmanathan, Rajadurai; Tan, Hui Meng; Tan, Shyh-Han; Cheong, Sok Ching

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of the erythroblast transformation-specific-related gene (ERG) oncoprotein due to transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-ERG fusion, the most prevalent genomic alteration in prostate cancer (CaP), is more frequently observed among Caucasian patients compared to patients of African or Asian descent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the prevalence of ERG alterations in a multiethnic cohort of CaP patients. A total of 191 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy specimens, collected from 120 patients treated at the Sime Darby Medical Centre, Subang Jaya, Malaysia, were analyzed for ERG protein expression by immunohistochemistry using the anti-ERG monoclonal antibody 9FY as a surrogate for the detection of ERG fusion events. The overall frequency of ERG protein expression in the population evaluated in this study was 39.2%. Although seemingly similar to rates reported in other Asian communities, the expression of ERG was distinct amongst different ethnic groups (P=0.004). Malaysian Indian (MI) patients exhibited exceedingly high expression of ERG in their tumors, almost doubling that of Malaysian Chinese (MC) patients, whereas ERG expression was very low amongst Malay patients (12.5%). When collectively analyzing data, we observed a significant correlation between younger patients and higher ERG expression (P=0.04). The prevalence of ERG expression was significantly different amongst CaP patients of different ethnicities. The higher number of ERG-expressing tumors among MI patients suggested that the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion may be particularly important in the pathogenesis of CaP amongst this group of patients. Furthermore, the more frequent expression of ERG among the younger patients analyzed suggested an involvement of ERG in the early onset of CaP. The results of this study underline the value of using ERG status to better understand the differences in the etiology

  2. Regulation of mRNA and Protein Levels of β1 Integrin Variants in Human Prostate Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Perlino, Elda; Lovecchio, Mariarosaria; Vacca, Rosa A.; Fornaro, Mara; Moro, Loredana; Ditonno, Pasquale; Battaglia, Michele; Selvaggi, Francesco P.; Mastropasqua, Mauro G.; Bufo, Pantaleo; Languino, Lucia R.

    2000-01-01

    Alterations of integrin expression levels in cancer cells correlate with changes in invasiveness, tumor progression, and metastatic potential. The β1C integrin, an alternatively spliced form of the human β1 integrin, has been shown to inhibit prostate cell proliferation. Furthermore, β1C protein levels were found to be abundant in normal prostate glandular epithelium and down-regulated in prostatic adenocarcinoma. To gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying abnormal cancer cell proliferation, we have studied β1C and β1 integrin expression at both mRNA and protein levels by Northern and immunoblotting analysis using freshly isolated neoplastic and normal human prostate tissue specimens. Steady-state mRNA levels were evaluated in 38 specimens: 33 prostatic adenocarcinomas exhibiting different Gleason’s grade and five normal tissue specimens that did not show any histological manifestation of benign prostatic hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate that β1C mRNA is expressed in normal prostate and is significantly down-regulated in neoplastic prostate specimens. In addition, using a probe that hybridizes with all β1 variants, mRNA levels of β1 are found reduced in neoplastic versus normal prostate tissues. We demonstrate that β1C mRNA down-regulation does not correlate with either tumor grade or differentiation according to Gleason’s grade and TNM system evaluation, and that β1C mRNA levels are not affected by hormonal therapy. In parallel, β1C protein levels were analyzed. As expected, β1C is found to be expressed in normal prostate and dramatically reduced in neoplastic prostate tissues; in contrast, using an antibody to β1 that recognizes all β1 variants, the levels of β1 are comparable in normal and neoplastic prostate, thus indicating a selective down-regulation of the β1C protein in prostate carcinoma. These results demonstrate for the first time that β1C and β1 mRNA expression is down-regulated in prostate carcinoma

  3. Evaluation of radioactive phosphorus in the palliation of metastatic bone lesions from carcinoma of the breast and prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, A.; Driedger, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive phosphorus effected substantial palliation of intractable bone pain in 17 of 33 (51.5%) women with metastatic carcinoma of the breast and in 14 of 15 (93.3%) men with metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. No significant difference in the overall response rate was found between androgen and paralthormone priming prior to radiophosphorus therapy. The degree of response was not dependent on total dose of /sup 32/P within the range of 9 to 18 mCi (333 to 666 MPq). Myelosuppression was a transient complication in 9 of 33 patients with metastatic breast carcinoma and in 7 of 15 patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma. Symptomatic hypercalcemia was an infrequent complication of radiophosphorus therapy irrespective of the priming regimen.

  4. Monte Carlo Simulations for Dosimetry in Prostate Radiotherapy with Different Intravesical Volumes and Planning Target Volume Margins

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wei; Yu, Dong; He, Hengda; Liu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    In prostate radiotherapy, the influence of bladder volume variation on the dose absorbed by the target volume and organs at risk is significant and difficult to predict. In addition, the resolution of a typical medical image is insufficient for visualizing the bladder wall, which makes it more difficult to precisely evaluate the dose to the bladder wall. This simulation study aimed to quantitatively investigate the relationship between the dose received by organs at risk and the intravesical volume in prostate radiotherapy. The high-resolution Visible Chinese Human phantom and the finite element method were used to construct 10 pelvic models with specific intravesical volumes ranging from 100 ml to 700 ml to represent bladders of patients with different bladder filling capacities during radiotherapy. This series of models was utilized in six-field coplanar 3D conformal radiotherapy simulations with different planning target volume (PTV) margins. Each organ’s absorbed dose was calculated using the Monte Carlo method. The obtained bladder wall displacements during bladder filling were consistent with reported clinical measurements. The radiotherapy simulation revealed a linear relationship between the dose to non-targeted organs and the intravesical volume and indicated that a 10-mm PTV margin for a large bladder and a 5-mm PTV margin for a small bladder reduce the effective dose to the bladder wall to similar degrees. However, larger bladders were associated with evident protection of the intestines. Detailed dosimetry results can be used by radiation oncologists to create more accurate, individual water preload protocols according to the patient’s anatomy and bladder capacity. PMID:27441944

  5. Topoisomerase inhibitors modulate gene expression of B-cell translocation gene 2 and prostate specific antigen in prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) and doxorubicin (DOX) have been demonstrated to have potent anti-tumor activity. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. We evaluated the molecular mechanisms of CPT and DOX on cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2 and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma cells. Our results indicated that CPT or DOX treatments induced Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in LNCaP cells and apoptosis at higher dosage. Immunoblot and transient gene expression assay indicated that CPT or DOX treatments induced p53 and BTG2 gene expression, with the later effect dependent on the p53 response element within BTG2 promoter area since mutation of the p53 response element from GGGAAAGTCC to GGAGTCC or from GGCAGAGCCC to GGCACC by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of CPT or DOX on the BTG2 promoter activity, which is also supported by our results that cotreatments of pifithrin-α, an inhibitor of p53 dependent transcriptional activation, blocked the induction of CPT or DOX on BTG2 gene expression. CPT or DOX also downregulated the protein expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and PSA. Transient gene expression assays suggested that CPT or DOX's attenuation of PSA promoter activity is dependent on both the androgen and p53 response elements within of the PSA promoter. Our results indicated that CPT and DOX attenuate cell proliferation via upregulation of BTG2 gene expression through the p53-dependent pathway. The CPT and DOX block the PSA gene expression by upregulation of p53 activity and downregulation of androgen receptor activity. PMID:24586533

  6. Topoisomerase Inhibitors Modulate Gene Expression of B-Cell Translocation Gene 2 and Prostate Specific Antigen in Prostate Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) and doxorubicin (DOX) have been demonstrated to have potent anti-tumor activity. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. We evaluated the molecular mechanisms of CPT and DOX on cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2 and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma cells. Our results indicated that CPT or DOX treatments induced Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in LNCaP cells and apoptosis at higher dosage. Immunoblot and transient gene expression assay indicated that CPT or DOX treatments induced p53 and BTG2 gene expression, with the later effect dependent on the p53 response element within BTG2 promoter area since mutation of the p53 response element from GGGAAAGTCC to GGAGTCC or from GGCAGAGCCC to GGCACC by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of CPT or DOX on the BTG2 promoter activity, which is also supported by our results that cotreatments of pifithrin-α, an inhibitor of p53 dependent transcriptional activation, blocked the induction of CPT or DOX on BTG2 gene expression. CPT or DOX also downregulated the protein expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and PSA. Transient gene expression assays suggested that CPT or DOX’s attenuation of PSA promoter activity is dependent on both the androgen and p53 response elements within of the PSA promoter. Our results indicated that CPT and DOX attenuate cell proliferation via upregulation of BTG2 gene expression through the p53-dependent pathway. The CPT and DOX block the PSA gene expression by upregulation of p53 activity and downregulation of androgen receptor activity. PMID:24586533

  7. A Network Biology Approach Identifies Molecular Cross-Talk between Normal Prostate Epithelial and Prostate Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Victor; Cassese, Alberto; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Herbert, John; Antzack, Philipp; Clarke, Kim; Davies, Nicholas; Rahman, Ayesha; Campbell, Moray J; Guindani, Michele; Bicknell, Roy; Vannucci, Marina; Falciani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The advent of functional genomics has enabled the genome-wide characterization of the molecular state of cells and tissues, virtually at every level of biological organization. The difficulty in organizing and mining this unprecedented amount of information has stimulated the development of computational methods designed to infer the underlying structure of regulatory networks from observational data. These important developments had a profound impact in biological sciences since they triggered the development of a novel data-driven investigative approach. In cancer research, this strategy has been particularly successful. It has contributed to the identification of novel biomarkers, to a better characterization of disease heterogeneity and to a more in depth understanding of cancer pathophysiology. However, so far these approaches have not explicitly addressed the challenge of identifying networks representing the interaction of different cell types in a complex tissue. Since these interactions represent an essential part of the biology of both diseased and healthy tissues, it is of paramount importance that this challenge is addressed. Here we report the definition of a network reverse engineering strategy designed to infer directional signals linking adjacent cell types within a complex tissue. The application of this inference strategy to prostate cancer genome-wide expression profiling data validated the approach and revealed that normal epithelial cells exert an anti-tumour activity on prostate carcinoma cells. Moreover, by using a Bayesian hierarchical model integrating genetics and gene expression data and combining this with survival analysis, we show that the expression of putative cell communication genes related to focal adhesion and secretion is affected by epistatic gene copy number variation and it is predictive of patient survival. Ultimately, this study represents a generalizable approach to the challenge of deciphering cell communication networks

  8. A Network Biology Approach Identifies Molecular Cross-Talk between Normal Prostate Epithelial and Prostate Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Trevino, Victor; Cassese, Alberto; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Herbert, John; Antzack, Philipp; Clarke, Kim; Davies, Nicholas; Rahman, Ayesha; Campbell, Moray J.; Bicknell, Roy; Vannucci, Marina; Falciani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The advent of functional genomics has enabled the genome-wide characterization of the molecular state of cells and tissues, virtually at every level of biological organization. The difficulty in organizing and mining this unprecedented amount of information has stimulated the development of computational methods designed to infer the underlying structure of regulatory networks from observational data. These important developments had a profound impact in biological sciences since they triggered the development of a novel data-driven investigative approach. In cancer research, this strategy has been particularly successful. It has contributed to the identification of novel biomarkers, to a better characterization of disease heterogeneity and to a more in depth understanding of cancer pathophysiology. However, so far these approaches have not explicitly addressed the challenge of identifying networks representing the interaction of different cell types in a complex tissue. Since these interactions represent an essential part of the biology of both diseased and healthy tissues, it is of paramount importance that this challenge is addressed. Here we report the definition of a network reverse engineering strategy designed to infer directional signals linking adjacent cell types within a complex tissue. The application of this inference strategy to prostate cancer genome-wide expression profiling data validated the approach and revealed that normal epithelial cells exert an anti-tumour activity on prostate carcinoma cells. Moreover, by using a Bayesian hierarchical model integrating genetics and gene expression data and combining this with survival analysis, we show that the expression of putative cell communication genes related to focal adhesion and secretion is affected by epistatic gene copy number variation and it is predictive of patient survival. Ultimately, this study represents a generalizable approach to the challenge of deciphering cell communication

  9. Primary Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma of the Prostate Gland: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2016-01-01

    Background. Primary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the prostate gland (PLELCP) is rare with hardly any information on its diagnostic features and biological behaviour. Aim. To review the literature. Method. Various Internet data bases were searched. Literature Review. PLELCP is extremely rare and there are hardly any pictures of the tumour involving the prostate; hence it would appear that clinicians would need to use their knowledge of the microscopic and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumour in the nasopharynx and urinary bladder as diagnostic aid. PLELCP on microscopy mimics nasopharyngeal LELC. The LELC component of the tumour is characterized by indistinct cytoplasmic borders and a syncytial growth pattern. The stroma may be densely infiltrated by lymphoid cells admixed with some plasma cells and neutrophils and at times prominent infiltration of eosinophils. PLELCPs tend to have adenocarcinoma, either as the only pattern or with additional ductal components or adenosquamous carcinoma. PLELCPs stain positively with PSA, PSAP, AMACR/P504S, EMA, and cytokeratins AE1/AE3, 7, 8, and 20. There is no consensus on treatment of PLECP. The reported prognosis has been poor. Conclusions. PLELCPs should be entered into a multicenter trial to determine the biological behaviour and to find the best treatment option that would improve the prognosis. PMID:26881187

  10. Uncovering potential downstream targets of oncogenic GRPR overexpression in prostate carcinomas harboring ETS rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joana; Mesquita, Diana; Barros-Silva, João D; Jerónimo, Carmen; Henrique, Rui; Morais, António; Paulo, Paula; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2015-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is known to be overexpressed in several human malignancies, including prostate cancer, and has been implicated in multiple important neoplastic signaling pathways. We recently have shown that GRPR is an ERG and ETV1 target gene in prostate cancer, using a genome-wide scale and exon-level expression microarray platform. Due to its cellular localization, the relevance of its function and the availability of blocking agents, GRPR seems to be a promising candidate as therapeutic target. Our present work shows that effective knockdown of GRPR in LNCaP and VCaP cells attenuates their malignant phenotype by decreasing proliferation, invasion and anchorage-independent growth, while increasing apoptosis. Using an antibody microarray we were able to validate known and identify new targets of GRPR pathway, namely AKT1, PKCε, TYK2 and MST1. Finally, we show that overexpression of these GRPR targets is restricted to prostate carcinomas harboring ERG and/or ETV1 rearrangements, establishing their potential as therapeutic targets for these particular molecular subsets of the disease. PMID:26097883

  11. Strontium-89 therapy for the treatment of huge osseous metastases in prostate carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, WENJIE; ZHAO, WEIWEI; JIA, ZHIYUN; DENG, HOUFU

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a growing public health problem. The palliation of pain in patients with painful bone metastases is of primary importance in the clinical management of advanced cancer. Internal therapy with radionuclides, which concentrate at sites of increased bone turnover, is used to control pain and improve quality of life as an alternative to conventional therapies. In the present study, we report the case of a 52-year-old male who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer. The patient presented with severe pain in multiple areas, but particularly in the right hip. A whole-body bone scan revealed that the right hip, ilium and ischium were covered with huge metastatic lesions. Treatment with radionuclide strontium-89 chloride (89Sr) resulted in a partial response which was confirmed by the successful relief of pain and other imaging modalities. No significant change in the leukocyte or thrombocyte levels was observed. The results of the present study indicate that systemic radionuclide therapy using 89Sr is an effective, well-tolerated and safe palliative treatment in patients with huge osseous metastases in prostate carcinoma. PMID:23404044

  12. [Giant Prostate Carcinoma : A Case Report and Long-Term Outcomes in Japanese Patients].

    PubMed

    Furumido, Jun; Abe, Takashige; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Miyajima, Naoto; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Maruyama, Satoru; Shinohara, Nobuo

    2016-07-01

    A 79-year-old male was referred to the Department of Gastroenterology in our hospital due to a large palpable abdominal mass, with the suspicion of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. An abdominal computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed a huge mass of 270×208×144 mm which occupied the entire pelvic cavity. Since the specimens obtained by an endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration via lower intestinal tract revealed a Gleason score 4+4 prostate adenocarcinoma, he was then referred to our department. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was elevated to 3,087 ng/ml, and positron emission tomography-CT revealed right obturator lymph node metastasis and bone metastasis of the left 5th rib. Degarelix was administered as an androgen deprivation therapy, and the PSA level had decreased to 62.4 ng/ml one month later. At the last follow-up, the PSA level was 0.67 ng/ml and the tumorsize had decreased to 88×83×110 mm. Next, we conducted a follow-up survey by mail of 20 reported Japanese cases of a giant prostate carcinoma, and data on 17 cases were available for analysis. In the total of 18 cases, including the present case, with a median follow-up time of 26 months, the 2-year overall survival rate was 85.7% for patients without metastasis, and 65.6% forthose with metastasis. PMID:27569357

  13. Uncovering potential downstream targets of oncogenic GRPR overexpression in prostate carcinomas harboring ETS rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Joana; Mesquita, Diana; Barros-Silva, João D.; Jerónimo, Carmen; Henrique, Rui; Morais, António; Paulo, Paula; Teixeira, Manuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is known to be overexpressed in several human malignancies, including prostate cancer, and has been implicated in multiple important neoplastic signaling pathways. We recently have shown that GRPR is an ERG and ETV1 target gene in prostate cancer, using a genome-wide scale and exon-level expression microarray platform. Due to its cellular localization, the relevance of its function and the availability of blocking agents, GRPR seems to be a promising candidate as therapeutic target. Our present work shows that effective knockdown of GRPR in LNCaP and VCaP cells attenuates their malignant phenotype by decreasing proliferation, invasion and anchorage-independent growth, while increasing apoptosis. Using an antibody microarray we were able to validate known and identify new targets of GRPR pathway, namely AKT1, PKCε, TYK2 and MST1. Finally, we show that overexpression of these GRPR targets is restricted to prostate carcinomas harboring ERG and/or ETV1 rearrangements, establishing their potential as therapeutic targets for these particular molecular subsets of the disease. PMID:26097883

  14. Perforation of an Occult Carcinoma of the Prostate as a Rare Differential Diagnosis of Subcutaneous Emphysema of the Leg

    PubMed Central

    Hockertz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of subcutaneous emphysema caused by perforation of the rectum due to a carcinoma of the prostate. Although rare, an abdominal cause must always be considered as a rare differential diagnosis of subcutaneous emphysema. As a matter of fact adequate diagnostic with rapid treatment is essential for the outcome. PMID:27597913

  15. Perforation of an Occult Carcinoma of the Prostate as a Rare Differential Diagnosis of Subcutaneous Emphysema of the Leg.

    PubMed

    Velickovic, Mirko; Hockertz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of subcutaneous emphysema caused by perforation of the rectum due to a carcinoma of the prostate. Although rare, an abdominal cause must always be considered as a rare differential diagnosis of subcutaneous emphysema. As a matter of fact adequate diagnostic with rapid treatment is essential for the outcome. PMID:27597913

  16. Deletion of antigens of the Lewis a/b blood group family in human prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Young, W. W.; Mills, S. E.; Lippert, M. C.; Ahmed, P.; Lau, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    The expression of antigens of the blood group Lewis a/b family were studied in a series of 42 prostatectomy specimens from patients with adenocarcinoma clinically confined to the prostate; 19 of these were later reclassified as pathologic Stage C. Staining of normal or hyperplastic versus neoplastic epithelium was assessed in routinely processed, paraffin-embedded tissue using murine monoclonal antibodies and an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase technique. Antigens screened and the antibodies used to recognize them were Lewis a (CF4C4), Lewis b and Type 1 H (NS10), monosialosyl Lewis a I (19.9), and disialosyl Lewis a and monosialosyl Lewis a II (FH7). FH7 strongly stained the benign epithelium of all 39 Lewis positive cases, suggesting that the sialyltransferase responsible for synthesis of FH7-reactive determinants is highly active in benign prostatic tissue. When compared to the reactivity of benign epithelium in Lewis positive cases, the staining of the carcinomas was markedly reduced in 18 cases (46%) and absent in 16 cases (41%). This reduction or loss of staining of the malignant epithelium was observed for all antibodies that stained the corresponding benign epithelium of each case. In only five of the cases (13%) was the intensity of staining in the carcinoma equal to that of the surrounding benign epithelium. No cases in this latter group had recurrence of disease, whereas in the other staining groups 25-33% of the cases had recurrences; median follow-up for the entire group was 78 months. No correlation was apparent between Gleason score and the staining pattern with these antigens. In summary, antigens of the Lewis a/b family are deleted in a high percentage of cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2454582

  17. The Effect of Pro-Qura Case Volume on Post-Implant Prostate Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, Gregory S.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Grimm, Peter; Sylvester, John; Butler, Wayne M.; Allen, Zachariah A.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of prostate brachytherapy case volume on postimplant dosimetric quality in Pro-Qura proctored programs. Methods and Materials: From August 1999 to December 2008, the computed tomography datasets for 6,600 prostate implants performed by 129 brachytherapists were submitted to Pro-Qura for dosimetric analysis. Brachytherapists were divided into three roughly equal-sized terciles based on total case volume. Postimplant computed tomography scans were obtained at a median of 30 days. Excellent target coverage was defined by a V100 {>=}90% and D90 {>=}100% minimum prescribed peripheral dose. To determine if the number of excellent implants improved with increasing case numbers, each brachytherapist's series of implants was bisected into early and late experience by a moveable critical point. Results: For the entire cohort, the mean V100 and D90 were 89.2% and 102.8%, respectively, with 47.7% of the implants scored as excellent. Brachytherapists in the highest-case tercile had a significantly greater fraction of excellent target coverage (57.9%) than did those in the two lower terciles (39.5% and 45.7%, p = 0.015). Twenty-one (25.6%) of the 82 brachytherapists with sufficient case volume for dosimetric improvement analyses demonstrated quality improvement over time. Although there was no significant difference between prostate volume and seed strength, the number of seeds used was significantly greater in adequate implants. Conclusions: The highest-volume brachytherapists were most likely to obtain excellent target coverage. We are encouraged that in general practice, nearly 48% of all implants were scored excellent. It is conceivable that with greater expert third-party involvement, an even greater percentage of cases with excellent target coverage will become reality.

  18. Hypofractionated Versus Conventionally Fractionated Radiotherapy for Prostate Carcinoma: Final Results of Phase III Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, Eric E.; Botten, Rochelle J.; Butters, Julie; Di Matteo, Addolorata C.; Holloway, Richard H.; Fowler, Jack

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and toxicity of a hypofractionated (55 Gy in 20 fractions within 4 weeks) vs. a conventionally fractionated (64 Gy in 32 fractions within 6.5 weeks) dose schedule for radiotherapy (RT) for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: A total of 217 patients were randomized to either the hypofractionated (n = 108) or the conventional (n = 109) dose schedule. Most patients (n = 156) underwent RT planning and RT using a two-dimensional computed tomography method. Efficacy using the clinical, radiologic, and prostate-specific antigen data in each patient was evaluated before RT and at predetermined intervals after RT until death. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity using the modified Late Effect in Normal Tissue - Subjective Objective Management Analytic (LENT-SOMA) scales was also evaluated before and at intervals after RT to 60 months. Results: The whole group has now been followed for a median of 90 months (range, 3-138). Of the 217 patients, 85 developed biochemical relapse (nadir prostate-specific antigen level + 2 {mu}g/L), 36 in the hypofractionated and 49 in the conventional group. The biochemical relapse-free, but not overall, survival at 90 months was significantly better with the hypofractionated (53%) than with the conventional (34%) schedule. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity persisted 60 months after RT and did not differ between the two dose schedules. Multivariate analyses revealed that the conventional schedule was of independent prognostic significance, not only for biochemical failure, but also for an increased risk of worse genitourinary symptoms at 4 years. Conclusions: A therapeutic advantage of the hypofractionated compared with the conventional dose schedule for RT of prostate cancer was evident at 90 months in the present study.

  19. Dosimetry verification on VMAT and IMRT radiotherapy techniques: In the case of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulana, A.; Pawiro, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    Radiotherapy treatment depends on the accuracy of the dose delivery to patients, the purpose of the study is to verify the dose in IMRT and VMAT technique in prostate cancer cases correspond to TPS dose using phantom base on ICRU No.50. The dose verification of the target and OAR was performed by placing the TLD Rod LiF100 and EBT2 Gafchromic film at slab hole of pelvic part of the Alderson RANDO phantom for prostate cancer simulation. The Exposed TLDs was evaluated using the TLD Reader Harshaw while EBT2 film was scanned using Epson scanner. The point dose measurements were compared between planned dose and measured dose at target volume and OAR. The result is the dose difference at target volume, bladder and rectum for IMRT and VMAT are less than 5%. On the other hand, the dose difference at the Femoral head is more than 5% for both techniques because the location of OAR already in low gradient dose. Furthermore, the difference dose of the target volume for IMRT technique tends to be smaller than VMAT either for TLD and EBT2 film detectors. From the measurement showed that the delivered dose on the phantom simulation match with ICRU No.50 criteria.

  20. Genetic polymorphisms of estrogen receptor alpha and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes in Turkish patients with familial prostate carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pazarbasi, Ayfer; Yilmaz, M. Bertan; Alptekin, Davut; Luleyap, Umit; Tansug, Zuhtu; Ozpak, Lutfiye; Izmirli, Muzeyyen; Onatoglu-Arikan, Dilge; Kocaturk-Sel, Sabriye; Erkoc, Mehmet Ali; Turgut, Ozgur; Bereketoglu, Ceyhun; Tunc, Erdal; Akbal, Eylul

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Estrogen is one of the most crucial hormones participating in the proliferation and carcinogenesis of the prostate glands. Genetic polymorphisms in the estrogen metabolism pathway might be involved in the risk of prostate carcinoma development. We evaluated the association between genetic polymorphisms in estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes and the risk of developing familial prostate carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 34 cases with prostate carcinoma whose first-degree relatives had prostate carcinoma and 30 healthy age-matched male controls were enrolled. The genotypes of ESR1 and COMT genes were analyzed employing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. 34 cases with prostate carcinoma, whose first degree relatives had prostate carcinoma and 14 age-matched male controls were enrolled to analyze the genotype of these two genes. RESULTS: Among control patients, the ESR1 PvuII genotypes of C/C, C/T and T/T were observed in 37%, 26% and 37%, respectively, whereas the C/C, C/T and T/T genotypes were observed in 18%, 41% and 41% of case patients, respectively. Among controls, the ESR1 PvuII allele frequencies of C and T were equally observed, whereas the C and T allele frequencies were observed in 38% and 62% of patients, respectively. Among ESR1 PvuII genotypes there were not any significant difference in terms of genotype (P = 0.199) and allele (P = 0.181) frequencies. Among controls, the ESR1 XbaI genotypes of G/G, G/A and A/A were observed in 33%, 37% and 33%, respectively, whereas the G/G, G/A and A/A genotypes were observed in 12%, 47% and 41% of patients, respectively. Among controls, the ESR1 XbaI allele frequencies of A and G were observed equally, respectively, whereas the A and G frequencies were observed in 65% and 35% of patients, respectively. Among ESR1 Χ baI, there was not any significant difference in terms of genotype (P = 0.111) and allele (P = 0

  1. Preclinical Evaluation of 86Y-Labeled Inhibitors of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen for Dosimetry Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Foss, Catherine A.; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Wang, Yuchuan; Srinivasan, Senthamizhchelvan; Hobbs, Robert F.; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Mease, Ronnie C.; Sgouros, George; Pomper, Martin G.

    2016-01-01

    86Y (half-life = 14.74 h, 33% β+) is within an emerging class of positron-emitting isotopes with relatively long physical half-lives that enables extended imaging of biologic processes. We report the synthesis and evaluation of 3 low-molecular-weight compounds labeled with 86Y for imaging the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) using PET. Impetus for the study derives from the need to perform dosimetry estimates for the corresponding 90Y-labeled radiotherapeutics. Methods Multistep syntheses were used in preparing 86Y-4–6. PSMA inhibition constants were evaluated by competitive binding assay. In vivo characterization using tumor-bearing male mice was performed by PET/CT for 86Y-4–6 and by biodistribution studies of 86Y-4 and 86Y-6 out to 24 h after injection. Quantitative whole-body PET scans were recorded to measure the kinetics for 14 organs in a male baboon using 86Y-6. Results Compounds 86Y-4–6 were obtained in high radiochemical yield and purity, with specific radioactivities of more than 83.92 GBq/µmol. PET imaging and biodistribution studies using PSMA-positive PC-3 PIP and PSMA-negative PC-3 flu tumor-bearing mice revealed that 86Y-4–6 had high site-specific uptake in PSMA-positive PC-3 PIP tumor starting at 20 min after injection and remained high at 24 h. Compound 86Y-6 demonstrated the highest tumor uptake and retention, with 32.17 ± 7.99 and 15.79 ± 6.44 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g) at 5 and 24 h, respectively. Low activity concentrations were associated with blood and normal organs, except for the kidneys, a PSMA-expressing tissue. PET imaging in baboons reveals that all organs have a 2-phase (rapid and slow) clearance, with the highest uptake (8 %ID/g) in the kidneys at 25 min. The individual absolute uptake kinetics were used to calculate radiation doses using the OLINDA/EXM software. The highest mean absorbed dose was received by the renal cortex, with 1.9 mGy per MBq of 86Y-6. Conclusion Compound 86Y-6 is a promising

  2. In vivo endorectal dosimetry of prostate tomotherapy using dual MOSkin detectors.

    PubMed

    Alnaghy, Sarah J; Deshpande, Shrikant; Cutajar, Dean L; Berk, Kemal; Metcalfe, Peter; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

    2015-01-01

    Verification of dose to the anterior rectal wall in helical tomotherapy to the prostate is important due to the close proximity of the rectal wall to the treatment field. The steep dose gradient makes these measurements challenging. A phantom-based study was completed, aimed at developing a system for measurement of anterior rectal wall doses during hypofractionated prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) utilizing tomotherapy delivery. An array of four dual MOSkinTM dosimeters, spaced 1 cm apart, was placed on a replica Rectafix® immobilization spacer device. This Perspex probe is a more rigid alternative to rectal balloons, to improve geometric reproducibility. The doses at each point were measured in real time and compared to doses calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). Additionally, distance-to-agreement (DTA) measurements were acquired to assist in the comparison of measured and predicted doses. All dual MOSkin detectors measured dose to within ± 5% of the TPS at the anterior rectal wall. Whilst several points were outside of experimental error, the largest deviation from the TPS predicted dose represented a DTA of only 1.3 mm, within the acceptable DTA tolerance of 3 mm. Larger deviations of up to -11.9% were observed for the posterior and side walls; however, if acceptable DTA measurements are accounted for, then an agreement of 75% was observed. Although larger differences were observed at the other rectal wall locations, the overall effect of dose at these points was not as significant, given the lower doses. Despite the very high-dose gradient region, real-time measurements of the anterior rectal wall doses were within acceptable limits of TPS-predicted doses. The differences between measured and planned data were due to difficulties in precisely locating each detector on the TPS dose grid, which presented large variations in dose between CT voxels in regions of steep dose gradients. The dual MOSkin system would, therefore, be a

  3. Proton Radiotherapy for Pediatric Bladder/Prostate Rhabdomyosarcoma: Clinical Outcomes and Dosimetry Compared to Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cotter, Shane E.; Herrup, David A.; Friedmann, Alison; Macdonald, Shannon M.; Pieretti, Raphael V.; Robinson, Gregoire; Adams, Judith; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: In this study, we report the clinical outcomes of 7 children with bladder/prostate rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated with proton radiation and compare proton treatment plans with matched intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans, with an emphasis on dose savings to reproductive and skeletal structures. Methods and Materials: Follow-up consisted of scheduled clinic appointments at our institution or direct communication with the treating physicians for referred patients. Each proton radiotherapy plan used for treatment was directly compared to an IMRT plan generated for the study. Clinical target volumes and normal tissue volumes were held constant to facilitate dosimetric comparisons. Each plan was optimized for target coverage and normal tissue sparing. Results: Seven male patients were treated with proton radiotherapy for bladder/prostate RMS at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 2002 and 2008. Median age at treatment was 30 months (11-70 months). Median follow-up was 27 months (10-90 months). Four patients underwent a gross total resection prior to radiation, and all patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Radiation doses ranged from 36 cobalt Gray equivalent (CGE) to 50.4 CGE. Five of 7 patients were without evidence of disease and with intact bladders at study completion. Target volume dosimetry was equivalent between the two modalities for all 7 patients. Proton radiotherapy led to a significant decrease in mean organ dose to the bladder (25.1 CGE vs. 33.2 Gy; p = 0.03), testes (0.0 CGE vs. 0.6 Gy; p = 0.016), femoral heads (1.6 CGE vs. 10.6 Gy; p = 0.016), growth plates (21.7 CGE vs. 32.4 Gy; p = 0.016), and pelvic bones (8.8 CGE vs. 13.5 Gy; p = 0.016) compared to IMRT. Conclusions: This study provides evidence of significant dose savings to normal structures with proton radiotherapy compared to IMRT and is well tolerated in this patient population. The long-term impact of these reduced doses can be tested in future studies

  4. Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Seminal Vesicles and Prostate Demonstrated on 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizipour, Amir Iravani; Shen, Lily; Mansberg, Robert; Chuong, Bui

    2016-01-01

    Extrapulmonary primary small cell carcinomas arising from the urogenital tract is infrequent. It can rarely arise from the prostate and even more rarely from the seminal vesicles. We present a 79-year-old male who was admitted due to acute renal failure with a history of radical radiotherapy for prostate adenocarcinoma 13 years ago. The prostate specific antigen level was not elevated. An abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan showed markedly enlarged seminal vesicles causing bilateral ureteral obstruction and a mildly enlarged prostate. Further evaluation with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (0F-FDG) positron emission tomography/CT demonstrated extensive 18F-FDG uptake in the pelvis with diffuse involvement of both seminal vesicles and the prostate without pathologic uptake in the lungs or elsewhere in the body. Core biopsies of the prostate and both seminal vesicles revealed diffuse involvement by small cell carcinoma. Therapy could not be instituted due to a rapid deterioration in the patient’s clinical condition.

  5. Interphase cytogenetics of prostatic carcinoma in fine needle aspirate smears of radical prostatectomy specimens: A practical screening tool?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, R.Y.; Troncoso, P.; El-Naggar, A.K.

    1994-09-01

    Identification of chromosomal aberrations that may be used for diagnostic or prognostic evaluation of prostatic adenocarcinoma has been the subject of great interest. In a previous study, we applied the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method on paraffin-embedded material to show that trisomy 7 was associated with the progression of human prostate cancer. In this study, we attempted to assess the utility of the FISH technique in detecting aneuploidy in fine needle aspirate (FNA) smears of prostatic tissues and to compare FISH results with that of DNA flow cytometry (FCM). Paired samples of normal and tumor FNA smears were obtained from 10 radical prostatectomy specimens. Dual-color chromosomes 7 and 9-specific centromeric DNA probes were used for FISH. FISH analysis demonstrated increased frequencies of trisomy 7 cells in all 10 tumors studied when compared with the paired normals. In contrast, 6 of 10 tumors were determined to be diploid by FCM. Our results show that FNA of radical prostatectomy specimens is a practical method for obtaining suitable material for both FISH and FCM analyses of prostate carcinoma. Thus, interphase FISH may be a practical screening tool to determine aneuploidy in FNA smears of prostatic carcinoma.

  6. Effects of herbal preparation Equiguard on hormone-responsive and hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma cells: mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Tze-Chen; Lu, Xiaohua; Guo, Junqiao; Xiong, Wen; Kunicki, Jan; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Wu, Joseph M

    2002-04-01

    The Equiguard is a dietary supplement comprised of standardized extracts from nine herbs, respectively, Herba epimedium brevicornum Maxim (stem and leaves), Radix morindae officinalis (root), Fructus rosa laevigatae michx (fruit), Rubus chingii Hu (fruit), Schisandra chinensis (Turz.) Baill (fruit), Ligustrum lucidum Ait (fruit), Cuscuta chinensis Lam (seed), Psoralea corylifolia L. (fruit), and Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge (root). This proprietary product, formulated according to Chinese traditional medicinal concepts, is aimed at restoring harmony in the of the kidney, an organ which Chinese medicinal principles consider to be vital for invigorating as well as maintaining balance of the entire urological system. As the prostate is an integral component of the urological system, we performed in vitro studies to test the effects of ethanol extracts of Equiguard to modulate prostate growth and gene expression. These studies used prostate cancer cells mimicking the androgen-dependent (AD) and androgen-independent (AI) states of prostate carcinogenesis. Results show that Equiguard significantly reduced cancer cell growth, induced apoptosis, suppressed expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and lowered intracellular and secreted prostate specific antigen (PSA), and almost completely abolished colony forming abilities of prostate cancer cells. These data support the interpretation that this herbal formulation contains ingredients that collectively may be efficacious in preventing or treating AD and AI prostate carcinoma. The anti-prostatic activities of Equiguard may stem from its complex composition capable of targeting multiple signal transduction/metabolic pathways, to effectively correct, counteract or circumvent the impaired or dysfunctional mechanisms accompanying different stages of prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:11894110

  7. Preoperative irradiation, lymphadenectomy, and 125iodine implantation for patients with localized carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    DeLaney, T.F.; Shipley, W.U.; O'Leary, M.P.; Biggs, P.J.; Prout, G.R. Jr.

    1986-10-01

    Fifty-four patients with clinically and surgically localized prostatic carcinoma were treated with low-dose preoperative irradiation (1050 cGy), pelvic lymphadenectomy, and interstitial /sup 125/Iodine implantation. The follow-up range is 2 to 9 years with a median follow-up of 5 years. Overall local tumor control is 92%. Actuarial 5-year survival is 86% and the actuarial disease-free survival at 5 years is 73%. Patients with poorly differentiated tumors have a significantly worse actuarial survival (62%) at 5 years than patients with well (95%) or moderately well differentiated tumors (93%), p = 0.04. Disease-free survival at 5 years was influenced by grade: well (100%), moderate (60%), and poor (48%), p = 0.03. Multivariate regression analysis indicates that only the degree of differentiation (p = 0.05) significantly impacts on survival. Both degree of differentiation (p = 0.04) and nodal status (p = 0.03) significantly influence disease-free survival. Potency has been maintained in 71% of patients potent at the time of implantation. Late reactions have been acceptable to date: bladder outlet obstruction (13%), mild proctitis (13%), cystourethritis (6%), incontinence (2%), and prostatic calculi (2%).

  8. [Clodronate in the palliative therapy of bone-metastasized prostatic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Vorreuther, R; Klotz, T; Engelking, R

    1992-03-01

    Activity and side-effects of clodronate (Ostac), an inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resorption, were recorded in an open prospective uncontrolled study on 35 patients with metastatic prostatic cancer. All patients had progressive symptomatic bone metastases despite prior hormone therapy. Clodronate was initially administered i.v. for 8 days with 300 mg/day. This was followed by a daily oral administration of 1600 mg. The analgesic effect was evaluated by using a visual analogue scale and by recording the daily consumption of analgesic drugs. Karnofsky index and routine blood examinations, including PSA, were assessed. Repeated bone scans and radiological evaluations were performed. An improvement in pain was observed in 71% of the patients. The mean duration of improvement was 4 weeks. Average survival time was 12 weeks. There were no side-effects after i.v. administration. Slight gastrointestinal discomfort was observed in 3 patients after oral administration. No effect was observed on the extent or biology of the metastases. Clodronate is an effective drug for palliative treatment of symptomatic bone metastases of prostatic carcinoma. It causes fewer and less pronounced side effects than other palliative drug therapies. PMID:1373255

  9. Fast dose kernel interpolation using Fourier transform with application to permanent prostate brachytherapy dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Derek Sloboda, Ron S.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Boyer and Mok proposed a fast calculation method employing the Fourier transform (FT), for which calculation time is independent of the number of seeds but seed placement is restricted to calculation grid points. Here an interpolation method is described enabling unrestricted seed placement while preserving the computational efficiency of the original method. Methods: The Iodine-125 seed dose kernel was sampled and selected values were modified to optimize interpolation accuracy for clinically relevant doses. For each seed, the kernel was shifted to the nearest grid point via convolution with a unit impulse, implemented in the Fourier domain. The remaining fractional shift was performed using a piecewise third-order Lagrange filter. Results: Implementation of the interpolation method greatly improved FT-based dose calculation accuracy. The dose distribution was accurate to within 2% beyond 3 mm from each seed. Isodose contours were indistinguishable from explicit TG-43 calculation. Dose-volume metric errors were negligible. Computation time for the FT interpolation method was essentially the same as Boyer's method. Conclusions: A FT interpolation method for permanent prostate brachytherapy TG-43 dose calculation was developed which expands upon Boyer's original method and enables unrestricted seed placement. The proposed method substantially improves the clinically relevant dose accuracy with negligible additional computation cost, preserving the efficiency of the original method.

  10. The use of gel dosimetry for verification of electron and photon treatment plans in carcinoma of the scalp.

    PubMed

    Trapp, J V; Partridge, M; Hansen, V N; Childs, P; Bedford, J; Warrington, A P; Leach, M O; Webb, S

    2004-05-01

    In recent years there has been a large amount of research into the potential use of radiation sensitive gels for three-dimensional verification of clinical radiotherapy doses. In this paper we report the use of a MAGIC gel dosimeter (Fong et al 2001 Phys. Med. Biol. 46 3105) for the verification of a specific patient's radiation therapy dose distribution. A 69-year-old male patient presented with a squamous cell carcinoma extending approximately 180 degrees across the top of the scalp (anterior to posterior) and from just over midline to 90 degrees left of the skull. The patient's treatment was commenced using two electron fields. For gel dosimetry, phantoms were produced in which the outer surface spatially corresponded to the outer contours of the patient's anatomy in the region of irradiation. The phantoms were treated with either electrons or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with photons. The results identified a hot spot between the matched electron fields and confirmed the more homogeneous dose distribution produced by the IMRT planning system. The IMRT plan was then clinically implemented. The application of a clinical dose to a phantom shaped to a specific patient as well as the ability to select a slice at will during phantom imaging means that gel dosimetry can no longer be considered to simply have potential alone, but is now in fact a useful dosimetric tool. PMID:15152920

  11. The use of gel dosimetry for verification of electron and photon treatment plans in carcinoma of the scalp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapp, J. V.; Partridge, M.; Hansen, V. N.; Childs, P.; Bedford, J.; Warrington, A. P.; Leach, M. O.; Webb, S.

    2004-05-01

    In recent years there has been a large amount of research into the potential use of radiation sensitive gels for three-dimensional verification of clinical radiotherapy doses. In this paper we report the use of a MAGIC gel dosimeter (Fong et al 2001 Phys. Med. Biol. 46 3105) for the verification of a specific patient's radiation therapy dose distribution. A 69-year-old male patient presented with a squamous cell carcinoma extending approximately 180° across the top of the scalp (anterior to posterior) and from just over midline to 90° left of the skull. The patient's treatment was commenced using two electron fields. For gel dosimetry, phantoms were produced in which the outer surface spatially corresponded to the outer contours of the patient's anatomy in the region of irradiation. The phantoms were treated with either electrons or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with photons. The results identified a hot spot between the matched electron fields and confirmed the more homogeneous dose distribution produced by the IMRT planning system. The IMRT plan was then clinically implemented. The application of a clinical dose to a phantom shaped to a specific patient as well as the ability to select a slice at will during phantom imaging means that gel dosimetry can no longer be considered to simply have potential alone, but is now in fact a useful dosimetric tool.

  12. Multi-institutional retrospective analysis of learning curves on dosimetry and operation time before and after introduction of intraoperatively built custom-linked seeds in prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Satoh, Takefumi; Yorozu, Atsunori; Saito, Shiro; Kataoka, Masaaki; Hashine, Katsuyoshi; Nakamura, Ryuji; Tanji, Susumu; Masui, Koji; Okihara, Koji; Ohashi, Toshio; Momma, Tetsuo; Aoki, Manabu; Miki, Kenta; Kato, Masako; Morita, Masashi; Katayama, Norihisa; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kawanaka, Takashi; Fukumori, Tomoharu; Ito, Fumitaka; Shiroki, Ryoichi; Baba, Yuji; Inadome, Akito; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Takayama, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    This multi-institutional retrospective analysis examined learning curves for dosimetric parameters and operation time after introduction of intraoperatively built custom-linked (IBCL) seeds. Data from consecutive patients treated with seed implantation before and after introduction of IBCL seeds (loose seed, n = 428; IBCL seed, n = 426) were collected from 13 centers. Dose-volume histogram parameters, operation times, and seed migration rates were compared before and after introduction of IBCL seeds. At the 1-month CT analysis, no significant differences were seen in dose to 90% of prostate volume between before and after IBCL seed introduction. No learning curve for dosimetry was seen. Prostate and rectal volume receiving at least 150% of prescription dose (V150 and RV150) were higher in the loose-seed group than in the IBCL-seed group. Operation time was extended by up to 10 min when IBCL seeds were used, although there was a short learning curve of about five patients. The percentage of patients with seed migration in the IBCL-seed group was one-tenth that in the loose-seed group. Our study revealed no dosimetric demerits, no learning curve for dosimetry, and a slightly extended operation time for IBCL seeds. A significant reduction in the rate of seed migration was identified in the IBCL-seed group. PMID:26494116

  13. Multi-institutional retrospective analysis of learning curves on dosimetry and operation time before and after introduction of intraoperatively built custom-linked seeds in prostate brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Satoh, Takefumi; Yorozu, Atsunori; Saito, Shiro; Kataoka, Masaaki; Hashine, Katsuyoshi; Nakamura, Ryuji; Tanji, Susumu; Masui, Koji; Okihara, Koji; Ohashi, Toshio; Momma, Tetsuo; Aoki, Manabu; Miki, Kenta; Kato, Masako; Morita, Masashi; Katayama, Norihisa; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kawanaka, Takashi; Fukumori, Tomoharu; Ito, Fumitaka; Shiroki, Ryoichi; Baba, Yuji; Inadome, Akito; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Takayama, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    This multi-institutional retrospective analysis examined learning curves for dosimetric parameters and operation time after introduction of intraoperatively built custom-linked (IBCL) seeds. Data from consecutive patients treated with seed implantation before and after introduction of IBCL seeds (loose seed, n = 428; IBCL seed, n = 426) were collected from 13 centers. Dose–volume histogram parameters, operation times, and seed migration rates were compared before and after introduction of IBCL seeds. At the 1-month CT analysis, no significant differences were seen in dose to 90% of prostate volume between before and after IBCL seed introduction. No learning curve for dosimetry was seen. Prostate and rectal volume receiving at least 150% of prescription dose (V150 and RV150) were higher in the loose-seed group than in the IBCL-seed group. Operation time was extended by up to 10 min when IBCL seeds were used, although there was a short learning curve of about five patients. The percentage of patients with seed migration in the IBCL-seed group was one-tenth that in the loose-seed group. Our study revealed no dosimetric demerits, no learning curve for dosimetry, and a slightly extended operation time for IBCL seeds. A significant reduction in the rate of seed migration was identified in the IBCL-seed group. PMID:26494116

  14. Vaccine Therapy and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Hormone-Resistant, Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-22

    Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Bone; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Soft Tissues; Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  15. Small cell carcinoma of the prostate presenting with Cushing Syndrome. A narrative review of an uncommon condition.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Camino, José Antonio; Losada-Vila, Beatriz; De Ancos-Aracil, Cristina Lucía; Rodríguez-Lajusticia, Laura; Tardío, Juan Carlos; Zapatero-Gaviria, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the prostate is an uncommon condition; there are very few cases in which presenting symptoms are consistent with Cushing Syndrome (CS). We report a new case in which CS triggers the suspicion of an SCC of the prostate and a review of the published cases of SCC of the prostate presenting with CS. The origin of these neoplasms is still unclear. It may be suspected when laboratory features appear in patients diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma which becomes resistant to specific therapy. SCC usually occurs after the 6th decade. Patients suffering SCC of the prostate presenting with CS usually present symptoms such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, alkalosis or hypokalemia; cushingoid phenotype is less frequent. Cortisol and ACTH levels are often high. Prostatic-specific antigen levels are usually normal. CT scan is the preferred imaging test to localize the lesion, but its performance may be improved by adding other tests, such as FDG-PET scan. All patients have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Lymph nodes, liver and bone are the most frequent metastases sites. Surgery and Ketokonazole are the preferred treatments for CS. The prognosis is very poor: 2- and 5-year survival rates are 27.5 and 14.3%, respectively. Key messages When a patient presents with ectopic Cushing Syndrome but lungs are normal, an atypical localization should be suspected. We should suspect a prostatic origin if Cushing Syndrome is accompanied by obstructive inferior urinary tract symptoms or in the setting of a prostatic adenocarcinoma with rapid clinical and radiological progression with relatively low PSA levels. Although no imaging test is preferred to localize these tumors, FDG-PET-TC can be very useful. Hormone marker scintigraphy (e.g. somatostatin) could be used too. As Cushing Syndrome is a paraneoplastic phenomenon, treatment of the underlying disease may help control hypercortisolism manifestations. These tumors are usually metastatic by the

  16. Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate: interobserver reproducibility survey of 39 urologic pathologists.

    PubMed

    Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Egevad, Lars; Ma, Jun; Harding-Jackson, Nicholas; Algaba, Ferran; Billis, Athanase; Camparo, Philippe; Cheng, Liang; Clouston, David; Comperat, Eva M; Datta, Milton W; Evans, Andrew G; Griffiths, David F; Guo, Charles C; Hailemariam, Seife; Huang, Wei; Humphrey, Peter A; Jiang, Zhong; Kahane, Hillel; Kristiansen, Glen; La Rosa, Francisco G; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; MacLennan, Gregory T; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Merrimen, Jennifer; Montironi, Rodolfo; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Picken, Maria M; Rao, Nagarjun; Shah, Rajal B; Shanks, Jonathan H; Shen, Steven S; Tawfik, Ossama W; True, Lawrence D; Van der Kwast, Theodorus; Varma, Murali; Wheeler, Thomas M; Zynger, Debra L; Sahr, Natasha; Bostwick, David G

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of intraductal carcinoma (IDC) of the prostate remains subjective because 3 sets of diagnostic criteria are in use. An internet survey was compiled from 38 photomicrographs showing duct proliferations: 14 signed out as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), 17 IDC, and 7 invasive cribriform/ductal carcinoma. Each image was assessed for the presence of 9 histologic criteria ascribed to IDC. Thirty-nine respondents were asked to rate images as (1) benign/reactive, (2) HGPIN, (3) borderline between HGPIN and IDC, (4) IDC, or (5) invasive cribriform/ductal carcinoma. Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.68. There was 70% overall agreement with HGPIN, 43% with IDC, and 73% with invasive carcinoma (P < .001, χ(2)). Respondents considered 19 (50%) of 38 cases as IDC candidates, of which 5 (26%) had a two-thirds consensus for IDC; two-thirds consensus for either borderline or IDC was reached in 9 (47%). Two-thirds consensus other than IDC was reached in the remaining 19 of 38 cases, with 15 supporting HGPIN and 4 supporting invasive carcinoma. Findings that differed across diagnostic categories were lumen-spanning neoplastic cells (P < .001), 2× benign duct diameters (P < .001), duct space contours (round, irregular, and branched) (P < .001), papillary growth (P = .048), dense cribriform or solid growth (both P = .023), and comedonecrosis (P = .015). When the 19 of 38 images that attained consensus for HGPIN or invasive carcinoma were removed from consideration, lack of IDC consensus was most often attributable to only loose cribriform growth (5/19), central nuclear maturation (5/19), or comedonecrosis (3/19). Of the 9 histologic criteria, only 1 retained significant correlation with a consensus diagnosis of IDC: the presence of solid areas (P = .038). One case that attained IDC consensus had less than 2× duct enlargement yet still had severe nuclear atypia and nucleomegaly. Six fold nuclear enlargement was not significant (P = .083

  17. Biphosphonates as an adjunct to palliative therapy of bone metastases from prostatic carcinoma. A pilot study on clodronate.

    PubMed

    Vorreuther, R

    1993-11-01

    Clodronate (Ostac) is a specific inhibitor of osteolysis from the group of biphosphonates. The efficacy and side effects of palliative treatment with the substance were investigated in an open prospective non-controlled pilot study in 41 patients with advanced, progressive, hormone-resistant prostatic carcinoma. All patients suffered from symptomatic bone metastases. Initially, they underwent an 8-day saturation course with 300 mg clodronate i.v. per day. A good to very good analgesic effect was achieved within 3 to 5 days in 29 patients (71%). The mean duration of action was 7 weeks and the mean survival time 12 weeks. There were no side effects after i.v. administration. Slight gastrointestinal discomfort was reported in 3 patients following oral administration. Delayed progression of the metastases was not observed. Clodronate is a promising addition to the other therapeutic possibilities in hormone-resistant prostatic carcinoma. PMID:7506626

  18. Demonstration of synchrotron x-ray phase contrast imaging computed tomography of infiltrative transitional cell carcinoma of the prostatic urethra in a dog.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, James E; Wesolowski, Michal J; Wolkowski, Bailey; Chibbar, Rajni; Snead, Elisabeth C R; Singh, Jaswant; Pettitt, Murray; Malhi, Pritpal S; Barboza, Trinita; Adams, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic urethral transitional cell carcinoma with prostatic invasion in a dog was imaged with abdominal radiography and abdominal ultrasonography antemortem. Synchrotron in-line x-ray phase contrast imaging computed tomography (XPCI-CT) was performed on the prostate ex vivo at the Canadian Light Source Synchrotron and compared to histology. XPCI-CT imaging provides greater soft tissue contrast than conventional absorption-based x-ray imaging modalities, permitting visualization of regions of inflammatory cell infiltration, differentiation of invasive versus noninvasive tumor regions, and areas of necrosis and mineralization. This represents the first report of XPCI-CT images of an invasive prostatic urothelial neoplasm in a dog. PMID:27014719

  19. CRIPTO overexpression promotes mesenchymal differentiation in prostate carcinoma cells through parallel regulation of AKT and FGFR activities

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Stéphane; El-Sayed, Ihsan Y.; Destouches, Damien; Maillé, Pascale; Nicolaiew, Nathalie; Ploussard, Guillaume; Semprez, Fannie; Pimpie, Cynthia; Beltran, Himisha; Londono-Vallejo, Arturo; Allory, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Members of the EGF-CFC (Cripto, FRL-1, Cryptic) protein family are increasingly recognized as key mediators of cell movement and cell differentiation during vertebrate embryogenesis. The founding member of this protein family, CRIPTO, is overexpressed in various human carcinomas. Yet, the biological role of CRIPTO in this setting remains unclear. Here, we find CRIPTO expression as especially high in a subgroup of primary prostate carcinomas with poorer outcome, wherein resides cancer cell clones with mesenchymal traits. Experimental studies in PCa models showed that one notable function of CRIPTO expression in prostate carcinoma cells may be to augment PI3K/AKT and FGFR1 signaling, which promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and sustains a mesenchymal state. In the observed signaling events, FGFR1 appears to function parallel to AKT, and the two pathways act cooperatively to enhance migratory, invasive and transformation properties specifically in the CRIPTO overexpressing cells. Collectively, these findings suggest a novel molecular network, involving CRIPTO, AKT, and FGFR signaling, in favor of the emergence of mesenchymal-like cancer cells during the development of aggressive prostate tumors. PMID:25596738

  20. The Inhibition of the Highly Expressed Mir-221 and Mir-222 Impairs the Growth of Prostate Carcinoma Xenografts in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mercatelli, Neri; Coppola, Valeria; Bonci, Desirée; Miele, Francesca; Costantini, Arianna; Guadagnoli, Marco; Bonanno, Elena; Muto, Giovanni; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; De Maria, Ruggero; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Farace, Maria Giulia; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna

    2008-01-01

    Background MiR-221 and miR-222 are two highly homologous microRNAs whose upregulation has been recently described in several types of human tumors, for some of which their oncogenic role was explained by the discovery of their target p27, a key cell cycle regulator. We previously showed this regulatory relationship in prostate carcinoma cell lines in vitro, underlying the role of miR-221/222 as inducers of proliferation and tumorigenicity. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a number of in vivo approaches confirming our previous data. The ectopic overexpression of miR-221 is able, per se, to confer a high growth advantage to LNCaP-derived tumors in SCID mice. Consistently, the anti-miR-221/222 antagomir treatment of established subcutaneous tumors derived from the highly aggressive PC3 cell line, naturally expressing high levels of miR-221/222, reduces tumor growth by increasing intratumoral p27 amount; this effect is long lasting, as it is detectable as long as 25 days after the treatment. Furthermore, we provide evidence in favour of a clinical relevance of the role of miR-221/222 in prostate carcinoma, by showing their general upregulation in patient-derived primary cell lines, where we find a significant inverse correlation with p27 expression. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that modulating miR-221/222 levels may have a therapeutic potential in prostate carcinoma. PMID:19107213

  1. SU-E-J-166: Sensitivity of Clinically Relevant Dosimetric Parameters to Contouring Uncertainty During Post Implant Dosimetry of Prostate Permanent Seed Implants

    SciTech Connect

    Mashouf, S; Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: There is a strong evidence relating post-implant dosimetry for permanent seed prostate brachytherpy to local control rates. The delineation of the prostate on CT images, however, represents a challenge as it is difficult to confidently identify the prostate borders from soft tissue surrounding it. This study aims at quantifying the sensitivity of clinically relevant dosimetric parameters to prostate contouring uncertainty. Methods: The post-implant CT images and plans for a cohort of 43 patients, who have received I–125 permanent prostate seed implant in our centre, were exported to MIM Symphony LDR brachytherapy treatment planning system (MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH). The prostate contours in post-implant CT images were expanded/contracted uniformly for margins of ±1.00mm, ±2.00mm, ±3.00mm, ±4.00mm and ±5.00mm (±0.01mm). The values for V100 and D90 were extracted from Dose Volume Histograms for each contour and compared. Results: The mean value of V100 and D90 was obtained as 92.3±8.4% and 108.4±12.3% respectively (Rx=145Gy). V100 was reduced by −3.2±1.5%, −7.2±3.0%, −12.8±4.0%, −19.0±4.8%, − 25.5±5.4% for expanded contours of prostate with margins of +1mm, +2mm, +3mm, +4mm, and +5mm, respectively, while it was increased by 1.6±1.2%, 2.4±2.4%, 2.7±3.2%, 2.9±4.2%, 2.9±5.1% for the contracted contours. D90 was reduced by −6.9±3.5%, −14.5±6.1%, −23.8±7.1%, − 33.6±8.5%, −40.6±8.7% and increased by 4.1±2.6%, 6.1±5.0%, 7.2±5.7%, 8.1±7.3% and 8.1±7.3% for the same set of contours. Conclusion: Systematic expansion errors of more than 1mm may likely render a plan sub-optimal. Conversely contraction errors may Result in labeling a plan likely as optimal. The use of MRI images to contour the prostate should results in better delineation of prostate organ which increases the predictive value of post-op plans. Since observers tend to overestimate the prostate volume on CT, compared with MRI, the impact of the

  2. Diagnostic and prognostic implications of microRNA profiling in prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Annika; Jung, Monika; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Wagner, Ina; Stephan, Carsten; Jentzmik, Florian; Miller, Kurt; Lein, Michael; Kristiansen, Glen; Jung, Klaus

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the microRNA (miRNA) profile in prostate carcinoma tissue by microarray analysis and RT-qPCR, to clarify associations of miRNA expression with clinicopathologic data and to evaluate the potential of miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic markers. Matched tumor and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from 76 radical prostatectomy specimens. Twenty-four tissue pairs were analyzed using human miRNA microarrays for 470 human miRNAs. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by TaqMan RT-qPCR using all 76 tissue pairs. The diagnostic potential of miRNAs was calculated by receiver operating characteristics analyses. The prognostic value was assessed in terms of biochemical recurrence using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Fifteen differentially expressed miRNAs were identified with concordant fold-changes by microarray and RT-qPCR analyses. Ten microRNAs (hsa-miR-16, hsa-miR-31, hsa-miR-125b, hsa-miR-145, hsa-miR-149, hsa-miR-181b, hsa-miR-184, hsa-miR-205, hsa-miR-221, hsa-miR-222) were downregulated and 5 miRNAs (hsa-miR-96, hsa-miR-182, hsa-miR-182, hsa-miR-183, hsa-375) were upregulated. Expression of 5 miRNAs correlated with Gleason score or pathological tumor stage. Already 2 microRNAs classified up to 84% of malignant and nonmalignant samples correctly. Expression of hsa-miR-96 was associated with cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy and that prognostic information was confirmed by an independent tumor sample set from 79 patients. That was shown with hsa-miR-96 and the Gleason score as final variables in the Cox models build in the 2 patient sets investigated. Thus, differential miRNAs in prostate cancer are useful diagnostic and prognostic indicators. This study provides a solid basis for further functional analyses of miRNAs in prostate cancer. PMID:19676045

  3. Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on Prostate Dose Distribution under Ir-192 Internal and 18 MV External Radiotherapy Procedures Using Gel Dosimetry and Monte Carlo Method

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, H.; Hashemi, B.; Mahdavi, S. R.; Hejazi, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gel polymers are considered as new dosimeters for determining radiotherapy dose distribution in three dimensions. Objective The ability of a new formulation of MAGIC-f polymer gel was assessed by experimental measurement and Monte Carlo (MC) method for studying the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in prostate dose distributions under the internal Ir-192 and external 18MV radiotherapy practices. Method A Plexiglas phantom was made representing human pelvis. The GNP shaving 15 nm in diameter and 0.1 mM concentration were synthesized using chemical reduction method. Then, a new formulation of MAGIC-f gel was synthesized. The fabricated gel was poured in the tubes located at the prostate (with and without the GNPs) and bladder locations of the phantom. The phantom was irradiated to an Ir-192 source and 18 MV beam of a Varian linac separately based on common radiotherapy procedures used for prostate cancer. After 24 hours, the irradiated gels were read using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. The absolute doses at the reference points and isodose curves resulted from the experimental measurement of the gels and MC simulations following the internal and external radiotherapy practices were compared. Results The mean absorbed doses measured with the gel in the presence of the GNPs in prostate were 15% and 8 % higher than the corresponding values without the GNPs under the internal and external radiation therapies, respectively. MC simulations also indicated a dose increase of 14 % and 7 % due to presence of the GNPs, for the same experimental internal and external radiotherapy practices, respectively. Conclusion There was a good agreement between the dose enhancement factors (DEFs) estimated with MC simulations and experiment gel measurements due to the GNPs. The results indicated that the polymer gel dosimetry method as developed and used in this study, can be recommended as a reliable method for investigating the DEF of GNPs in internal and external

  4. New transurethral system for interstitial radiation of prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, G.; Callahan, D.; McKiel, C.F. Jr.; Zickgraf, E.; Forgione, H.

    1988-12-01

    Direct endoscopic implantation of radioactive materials for carcinoma of the prostate without an open operation was accomplished by the use of modified existing transurethral instrumentation and techniques. The closed approach seems applicable particularly to the geriatric population, which is afflicted more commonly but is frequently not treated because of concurrent diseases or because the patient had transurethral resection of the prostate as a diagnostic procedure. Eleven patients were implanted using the transurethral route. Implantations were accomplished successfully with extremely low morbidity. Along with more conventional dosimetry studies, computer tomography was used to assess the placement of seeds. The direct visualization of the method suggests a potential for greater precision of seed placement as illustrated by computer tomography. In addition, this new instrumentation and method offers a low-risk procedure for carcinoma of the prostate that can be performed on an outpatient basis for selected patients.

  5. Preliminary observations on the results of combined /sup 125/I seed implantation and external irradiation for carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, G. Jr.; Borkon, W.D.; Landry, L.J.; Edwards, F.M.; Weinstein, S.H.; Abadir, R.

    1982-04-01

    Fifty-seven patients with localized carcinoma of the prostate were treated with pelvic lymphadenectomy and a reduced /sup 125/I implant dosage, supplemented by a moderate dose of external beam radiotherapy to the whole pelvis delivered 4 to 6 weeks later. The incidence of pelvic nodal metastases was 28 per cent and the operative morbidity was 15 per cent. Late radiation sequelae developed in 18 patients, including 15 patients with radiation proctitis (29 per cent), among whom 2 (4.6 per cent) suffered rectal ulceration and required diverting colostomy. Followup has been 2 years or longer (median 33 months) in 26 patients, of whom 22 (85 per cent) are free of disease. Three patients are living with osseous metastases or local disease and there has been 1 death of prostatic carcinoma, for an absolute 2-year survival rate of 95 per cent. Of the 7 patients with poorly differentiated tumor and of the 8 patients with positive pelvic lymph nodes 5 and 6, respectively, remain free of disease after a minimum 2-year followup. Potency has been lost in 20 per cent and reduced significantly in 30 per cent of the patients followed 18 months or longer. Prostatic biopsies on 28 asymptomatic patients 12 to 30 months after completion of therapy showed no tumor in 21 (75 per cent).

  6. Disease-related effects of perioperative blood transfusions associated with sup 125 I seed implantation for prostate carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.P.; Schellhammer, P.F.; el-Mahdi, A.M. )

    1990-08-01

    In some retrospective studies perioperative transfusions during oncologic surgery have been shown to decrease the time interval between surgery and local and/or distant recurrence of cancer. This study examines the disease-related effect, if any, of perioperative blood transfusions among 108 patients with localized carcinoma of the prostate treated by radioactive iodine-125 seed implantation of the prostate and lymphadenectomy. When all subjects were analyzed, there was no statistical difference of local and distant failure between the transfused and nontransfused groups. Patients with well-differentiated tumors had statistically fewer local recurrences (0% vs 22%, p = 0.036) if they were transfused perioperatively. However, the difference in distant metastases (0% vs 11%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.21). In contrast, patients with moderately and poorly differentiated disease receiving transfusions had more local recurrences and metastases, though this was not statistically significant. Our data suggest that there is no obvious evidence that perioperative blood transfusions have an adverse effect on local recurrence or distant metastases for iodine-125 seed implantation of carcinoma of the prostate.

  7. Intratumor Cellular Heterogeneity and Alterations in ras Oncogene and p53 Tumor Suppressor Gene in Human Prostate Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Noboru; Hiasa, Yoshio; Matsuda, Hirofumi; Tao, Ming; Tsuzuki, Toshihide; Hayashi, Isao; Kitahori, Yoshiteru; Shiraishi, Taizo; Yatani, Ryuichi; Shimazaki, Jun; Lin, Jung-Chung

    1995-01-01

    To assess the potential role of ras oncogene activation and P53 tumor suppressor gene mutations in the development of human prostate carcinoma, nine cases of histologically heterogeneous prostate tumors obtained from total prostatectomies were probed for these specific events. Each tumor was divided into 5 to 10 areas according to different growth or histological patterns. Targeted DNA sequences coding for ras and p53 were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, analyzed by single-strand conformational polymorphisms, and confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Point mutations of the ras gene were found in three of the nine tumors. Two contained K-ras codon 13 and H-ras codon 61 mutations, found in only one and three areas of each lesion, respectively. The third tumor contained two different point mutations in K-ras codons 13 and 61 in different foci of the sample. Loss of heterozygosity at the polymorphic codon 72 in the p53 gene was detected in two of four informative cases (50%) showing fragment cleavage by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Mutations in p53, missense transversions, single base insertions, and two base deletions were also detected in three tumors. The present results reveal mutated ras and p53 occasionally occurring in small foci of the tumor and that genetic mutations in p53, as opposed to those in ras, are more closely associated with invasive growth of heterogeneous prostate carcinoma. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:7573356

  8. Computer-Aided Image Analysis and Fractal Synthesis in the Quantitative Evaluation of Tumor Aggressiveness in Prostate Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Waliszewski, Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    The subjective evaluation of tumor aggressiveness is a cornerstone of the contemporary tumor pathology. A large intra- and interobserver variability is a known limiting factor of this approach. This fundamental weakness influences the statistical deterministic models of progression risk assessment. It is unlikely that the recent modification of tumor grading according to Gleason criteria for prostate carcinoma will cause a qualitative change and improve significantly the accuracy. The Gleason system does not allow the identification of low aggressive carcinomas by some precise criteria. The ontological dichotomy implies the application of an objective, quantitative approach for the evaluation of tumor aggressiveness as an alternative. That novel approach must be developed and validated in a manner that is independent of the results of any subjective evaluation. For example, computer-aided image analysis can provide information about geometry of the spatial distribution of cancer cell nuclei. A series of the interrelated complexity measures characterizes unequivocally the complex tumor images. Using those measures, carcinomas can be classified into the classes of equivalence and compared with each other. Furthermore, those measures define the quantitative criteria for the identification of low- and high-aggressive prostate carcinomas, the information that the subjective approach is not able to provide. The co-application of those complexity measures in cluster analysis leads to the conclusion that either the subjective or objective classification of tumor aggressiveness for prostate carcinomas should comprise maximal three grades (or classes). Finally, this set of the global fractal dimensions enables a look into dynamics of the underlying cellular system of interacting cells and the reconstruction of the temporal-spatial attractor based on the Taken’s embedding theorem. Both computer-aided image analysis and the subsequent fractal synthesis could be performed

  9. Computer-Aided Image Analysis and Fractal Synthesis in the Quantitative Evaluation of Tumor Aggressiveness in Prostate Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    The subjective evaluation of tumor aggressiveness is a cornerstone of the contemporary tumor pathology. A large intra- and interobserver variability is a known limiting factor of this approach. This fundamental weakness influences the statistical deterministic models of progression risk assessment. It is unlikely that the recent modification of tumor grading according to Gleason criteria for prostate carcinoma will cause a qualitative change and improve significantly the accuracy. The Gleason system does not allow the identification of low aggressive carcinomas by some precise criteria. The ontological dichotomy implies the application of an objective, quantitative approach for the evaluation of tumor aggressiveness as an alternative. That novel approach must be developed and validated in a manner that is independent of the results of any subjective evaluation. For example, computer-aided image analysis can provide information about geometry of the spatial distribution of cancer cell nuclei. A series of the interrelated complexity measures characterizes unequivocally the complex tumor images. Using those measures, carcinomas can be classified into the classes of equivalence and compared with each other. Furthermore, those measures define the quantitative criteria for the identification of low- and high-aggressive prostate carcinomas, the information that the subjective approach is not able to provide. The co-application of those complexity measures in cluster analysis leads to the conclusion that either the subjective or objective classification of tumor aggressiveness for prostate carcinomas should comprise maximal three grades (or classes). Finally, this set of the global fractal dimensions enables a look into dynamics of the underlying cellular system of interacting cells and the reconstruction of the temporal-spatial attractor based on the Taken's embedding theorem. Both computer-aided image analysis and the subsequent fractal synthesis could be performed

  10. Extended transurethral resection and Nd:YAG laser ablation of the prostate (TURLAP) for carcinoma: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Stacy J.

    1993-05-01

    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) has been combined with Nd:YAG application for the treatment of prostatic carcinoma for a decade. The inability to deliver the energy at right angles has made the procedure technically difficult, but results have been encouraging. A pilot study was begun in 1991 on ten patients who refused or were not candidates for radical prostatectomy. The protocol consisted of transrectal ultrasound imaging (TRUS) during extended TURP (EXTURP) followed immediately by Nd:YAG energy applied to the prostate bed and capsule. A second laser application under real time TRUS followed in eight weeks and a third (or fourth in one patient) was undertaken eight weeks later. Energy of 30,000- 85,000 Joules was applied during each procedure with the right angle urolase fiber (Bard) at 60 watts. Lesions were created for 30-60 seconds in each area of remaining tissue documented on TRUS. A thermocoupler was used to monitor rectal temperature. Complications include urinary retention, gross hematuria, bladder neck contracture, early incontinence, late incontinence, and probable permanent incontinence. Of the only four potent patients preoperatively, all (100%) are impotent now. TURLAP appears to be a safe and effective method of killing prostate malignant tissue and should be further studied perhaps in combination with interstitial laser irradiation to increase efficacy and lessen complications.

  11. Whole bladder wall photodynamic therapy with in-situ light dosimetry for carcinoma in situ of the bladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hallewin, Marie-Ange; Baert, Luc; Marijnissen, Johannes P. A.; Star, Willem M.

    1992-06-01

    We report on 15 patients with multifocal carcinoma in situ of the bladder, treated with whole bladder wall photodynamic therapy (PDT). The total light dose, measured in situ (scattered plus nonscattered light) was 100 J/cm2 in the first six patients and 75 J/cm2 in the remaining nine patients. Follow-up ranges were from 6 to 27 months (average 15 months). Two cystectomies had to be performed in the first treatment group because of permanent shrunk bladders. Pathology of the resection specimens showed extensive granulation and fibrosis throughout the whole bladder wall. In the second treatment group, the maximal bladder capacity measured three months after PDT had increased on the average of 63% compared to the initial pretreatment values. No increased fibrosis could be detected on microscopical examination of random biopsies. Four recurrences necessitated cystectomy after 5 to 9 months, two in each treatment group. Three out of these originated in patients with a previous history of invasive bladder cancer. The preliminary data demonstrate the importance of in-situ light dosimetry for minimizing local side effects of PDT as well as the importance of strict inclusion criteria to optimize the therapeutic ratio.

  12. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Male Breast Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  13. Preventive and therapeutic vaccination with PAP-3, a novel human prostate cancer peptide, inhibits carcinoma development in HLA transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Machlenkin, Arthur; Azriel-Rosenfeld, Ronit; Volovitz, Ilan; Vadai, Ezra; Lev, Avital; Paz, Adrian; Goldberger, Ofir; Reiter, Yoram; Tzehoval, Esther; Benhar, Itai; Eisenbach, Lea

    2007-02-01

    Conventional treatment of recurrent and metastasized prostate cancer (CaP) remains inadequate; this fact mandates development of alternative therapeutic modalities, such as specific active or passive immunotherapy. Previously, we reported the identification of a novel highly immunogenic HLA-A*0201-restricted Prostatic Acid Phosphatase-derived peptide (PAP-3) by a two-step in vivo screening in an HLA-transgenic (HHD) mouse system. In the present study we aimed at elucidating the efficiency of PAP-3-based vaccine upon active antitumor immunization. To this end we established preventive and therapeutic carcinoma models in HHD mice. The 3LL murine Lewis lung carcinoma clone D122 transduced to express HLA-A*0201 and PAP served as a platform for these models. The HLA-A*0201-PAP-3 complex specific recombinant single chain scFV-PAP-3 antibodies were generated and used to confirm an endogenous PAP processing resulting in PAP-3 presentation by HLA-A*0201. PAP-3 based vaccines significantly decreased tumor incidence in a preventive immunization setting. Therapeutic vaccination of HHD mice with PAP-3 led to rejection of early established tumors and to increase of mouse survival. These results strongly support a therapeutic relevance of the identified CTL epitope upon active antitumor immunization. The newly established carcinoma model presented herein might be a useful tool for cancer vaccine design and optimization. PMID:16738849

  14. Prostate-derived ets factor represses tumorigenesis and modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in bladder carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ke-Hung; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Chung, Li-Chuan; Chuang, Sung-Ting; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Chang, Phei-Lang; Yeh, Chi-Ju; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-05-28

    Prostate-derived Ets (E-twenty six) factor (PDEF), an epithelium-specific member of the Ets family of transcription factors, has been shown to play a role in suppressing the development of many epithelium-derived cancers such as prostate and breast cancer. It is not clear, however, whether PDEF is involved in the development or progression of bladder cancer. In a comparison between normal urothelium and bladder tumor tissue, we identified significant decreases of PDEF in the tumor tissue. Further, the immunohistochemistry assays indicated a significantly higher immunostaining of PDEF in low-grade bladder tumors. Additionally, the highly differentiated transitional-cell bladder carcinoma RT-4 cells expressed significantly more PDEF levels than the bladder carcinoma HT1376 and the T24 cells. Ectopic overexpression of PDEF attenuated proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis of bladder carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. PDEF enhanced the expression levels of mammary serine protease inhibitor (MASPIN), N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), KAI1, and B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2). PDEF modulated epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) by upregulating E-cadherin expression and downregulating the expression of N-cadherin, SNAIL, SLUG, and vimentin, leading to lower migration and invasion abilities of bladder carcinoma cells. Filamentous actin (F-actin) polarization and remodeling were observed in PDEF-knockdown RT-4 cells. Our results suggest that PDEF gene expression is associated with the extent of bladder neoplasia and PDEF modulated the expressions of EMT-related genes. The induction of BTG2, NDRG1, MASPIN, and KAI1 gene expressions by PDEF may explain the inhibitory functions of PDEF on the proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis in bladder carcinoma cells. PMID:26965996

  15. SU-E-J-215: Towards MR-Only Image Guided Identification of Calcifications and Brachytherapy Seeds: Application to Prostate and Breast LDR Implant Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Elzibak, A; Fatemi-Ardekani, A; Soliman, A; Mashouf, S; Safigholi, H; Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, WY; Han, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify and analyze the appearance of calcifications and brachytherapy seeds on magnitude and phase MRI images and to investigate whether they can be distinguished from each other on corrected phase images for application to prostate and breast low dose rate (LDR) implant dosimetry. Methods: An agar-based gel phantom containing two LDR brachytherapy seeds (Advantage Pd-103, IsoAid, 0.8mm diameter, 4.5mm length) and two spherical calcifications (large: 7mm diameter and small: 4mm diameter) was constructed and imaged on a 3T Philips MR scanner using a 16-channel head coil and a susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequence (2mm slices, 320mm FOV, TR/ TE= 26.5/5.3ms, 15 degree flip angle). The phase images were unwrapped and corrected using a 32×32, 2D Hanning high pass filter to remove background phase noise. Appearance of the seeds and calcifications was assessed visually and quantitatively using Osirix (http://www.osirix-viewer.com/). Results: As expected, calcifications and brachytherapy seeds appeared dark (hypointense) relative to the surrounding gel on the magnitude MRI images. The diameter of each seed without the surrounding artifact was measured to be 0.1 cm on the magnitude image, while diameters of 0.79 and 0.37 cm were measured for the larger and smaller calcifications, respectively. On the corrected phase images, the brachytherapy seeds and the calcifications appeared bright (hyperintense). The diameter of the seeds was larger on the phase images (0.17 cm) likely due to the dipole effect. Conclusion: MRI has the best soft tissue contrast for accurate organ delineation leading to most accurate implant dosimetry. This work demonstrated that phase images can potentially be useful in identifying brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate and breast due to their bright appearance, which helps in their visualization and quantification for accurate dosimetry using MR-only. Future work includes optimizing phase filters to best identify

  16. Molecular evidence that invasive adenocarcinoma can mimic prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and intraductal carcinoma through retrograde glandular colonization.

    PubMed

    Haffner, Michael C; Weier, Christopher; Xu, Meng Meng; Vaghasia, Ajay; Gürel, Bora; Gümüşkaya, Berrak; Esopi, David M; Fedor, Helen; Tan, Hsueh-Li; Kulac, Ibrahim; Hicks, Jessica; Isaacs, William B; Lotan, Tamara L; Nelson, William G; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer often manifests as morphologically distinct tumour foci and is frequently found adjacent to presumed precursor lesions such as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). While there is some evidence to suggest that these lesions can be related and exist on a pathological and morphological continuum, the precise clonal and temporal relationships between precursor lesions and invasive cancers within individual tumours remain undefined. Here, we used molecular genetic, cytogenetic, and histological analyses to delineate clonal, temporal, and spatial relationships between HGPIN and cancer lesions with distinct morphological and molecular features. First, while confirming the previous finding that a substantial fraction of HGPIN lesions associated with ERG-positive cancers share rearrangements and overexpression of ERG, we found that a significant subset of such HGPIN glands exhibit only partial positivity for ERG. This suggests that such ERG-positive HGPIN cells either rapidly invade to form adenocarcinoma or represent cancer cells that have partially invaded the ductal and acinar space in a retrograde manner. To clarify these possibilities, we used ERG expression status and TMPRSS2-ERG genomic breakpoints as markers of clonality, and PTEN deletion status to track temporal evolution of clonally related lesions. We confirmed that morphologically distinct HGPIN and nearby invasive cancer lesions are clonally related. Further, we found that a significant fraction of ERG-positive, PTEN-negative HGPIN and intraductal carcinoma (IDC-P) lesions are most likely clonally derived from adjacent PTEN-negative adenocarcinomas, indicating that such PTEN-negative HGPIN and IDC-P lesions arise from, rather than give rise to, the nearby invasive adenocarcinoma. These data suggest that invasive adenocarcinoma can morphologically mimic HGPIN through retrograde colonization of benign glands with cancer cells. Similar clonal relationships were also seen for

  17. Molecular evidence that invasive adenocarcinoma can mimic prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and intraductal carcinoma through retrograde glandular colonization

    PubMed Central

    Haffner, Michael C; Weier, Christopher; Xu, Meng Meng; Vaghasia, Ajay; Gürel, Bora; Gümüşkaya, Berrak; Esopi, David M; Fedor, Helen; Tan, Hsueh-Li; Kulac, Ibrahim; Hicks, Jessica; Isaacs, William B; Lotan, Tamara L; Nelson, William G; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer often manifests as morphologically distinct tumour foci and is frequently found adjacent to presumed precursor lesions such as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). While there is some evidence to suggest that these lesions can be related and exist on a pathological and morphological continuum, the precise clonal and temporal relationships between precursor lesions and invasive cancers within individual tumours remain undefined. Here, we used molecular genetic, cytogenetic, and histological analyses to delineate clonal, temporal, and spatial relationships between HGPIN and cancer lesions with distinct morphological and molecular features. First, while confirming the previous finding that a substantial fraction of HGPIN lesions associated with ERG-positive cancers share rearrangements and overexpression of ERG, we found that a significant subset of such HGPIN glands exhibit only partial positivity for ERG. This suggests that such ERG-positive HGPIN cells either rapidly invade to form adenocarcinoma or represent cancer cells that have partially invaded the ductal and acinar space in a retrograde manner. To clarify these possibilities, we used ERG expression status and TMPRSS2–ERG genomic breakpoints as markers of clonality, and PTEN deletion status to track temporal evolution of clonally related lesions. We confirmed that morphologically distinct HGPIN and nearby invasive cancer lesions are clonally related. Further, we found that a significant fraction of ERG-positive, PTEN-negative HGPIN and intraductal carcinoma (IDC-P) lesions are most likely clonally derived from adjacent PTEN-negative adenocarcinomas, indicating that such PTEN-negative HGPIN and IDC-P lesions arise from, rather than give rise to, the nearby invasive adenocarcinoma. These data suggest that invasive adenocarcinoma can morphologically mimic HGPIN through retrograde colonization of benign glands with cancer cells. Similar clonal relationships were also seen for

  18. Celastrol Blocks Interleukin-6 Gene Expression via Downregulation of NF-κB in Prostate Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a multifunctional cytokine, contributes to proliferation or differentiation of prostate carcinoma cells in a highly cell type-specific manner. Celastrol (3-hydroxy-24-nor-2oxo-1(10),3,5,7-friedelatetrane-29-oic acid), also named as tripterine, is extracted from root of Chinese traditional herb Tripterygiumwilfordii Hook f with potent anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. In this study, we evaluated the molecular mechanisms of celastrol on cell proliferation and IL-6 gene expression in prostate carcinoma cells. 3H-thymidine incorporation and flow cytometric analysis indicated that celastrol treatments arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, thus attenuating cell proliferation in prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells; moreover, celastrol induced cell apoptosis at higher dosage. Knockdown of IL-6 attenuated the anti-proliferative effect of celastrol on PC-3 cells. Results from ELISA and 5’-deletion transient gene expression assays indicated that celastrol treatment decreased IL-6 secretion and gene expression, and this effect is dependent on the NF-κB response element within IL-6 promoter area since mutation of the NF-κB response element from AAATGTCCCATTTTCCC to AAATGTTACATTTTCCC by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the inhibition of celastrol on the IL-6 promoter activity. Celastrol also attenuated the activation of PMA and TNFα on the gene expression and secretion of IL-6 in PC-3 cells. Immunoblot assays revealed that celastrol treatment downregulated the expressions of IKKα, p50 and p65, supporting the 5’-deletion transient gene expression assay result that celastrol blocked IL-6 expression through the NF-κB pathway in PC-3 cells. For the first time, our results concluded that celastrol attenuates PC-3 cell proliferation via downregulation of IL-6 gene expression through the NF-κB-dependent pathway. PMID:24664372

  19. Celastrol blocks interleukin-6 gene expression via downregulation of NF-κB in prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a multifunctional cytokine, contributes to proliferation or differentiation of prostate carcinoma cells in a highly cell type-specific manner. Celastrol (3-hydroxy-24-nor-2oxo-1(10),3,5,7-friedelatetrane-29-oic acid), also named as tripterine, is extracted from root of Chinese traditional herb Tripterygiumwilfordii Hook f with potent anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. In this study, we evaluated the molecular mechanisms of celastrol on cell proliferation and IL-6 gene expression in prostate carcinoma cells. 3H-thymidine incorporation and flow cytometric analysis indicated that celastrol treatments arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, thus attenuating cell proliferation in prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells; moreover, celastrol induced cell apoptosis at higher dosage. Knockdown of IL-6 attenuated the anti-proliferative effect of celastrol on PC-3 cells. Results from ELISA and 5'-deletion transient gene expression assays indicated that celastrol treatment decreased IL-6 secretion and gene expression, and this effect is dependent on the NF-κB response element within IL-6 promoter area since mutation of the NF-κB response element from AAATGTCCCATTTTCCC to AAATGTTACATTTTCCC by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the inhibition of celastrol on the IL-6 promoter activity. Celastrol also attenuated the activation of PMA and TNFα on the gene expression and secretion of IL-6 in PC-3 cells. Immunoblot assays revealed that celastrol treatment downregulated the expressions of IKKα, p50 and p65, supporting the 5'-deletion transient gene expression assay result that celastrol blocked IL-6 expression through the NF-κB pathway in PC-3 cells. For the first time, our results concluded that celastrol attenuates PC-3 cell proliferation via downregulation of IL-6 gene expression through the NF-κB-dependent pathway. PMID:24664372

  20. LET-Dependent Bystander Effects Caused by Irradiation of Human Prostate Carcinoma Cells with X Rays or Alpha Particles

    PubMed Central

    Anzenberg, Vered; Chandiramani, Sarika; Coderre, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects have been demonstrated in both normal and tumor cells using a variety of different radiation qualities. Literature reports are contradictory, however, on whether there is an LET dependence of the bystander effect. This study investigated the ability of DU-145 human prostate carcinoma cells irradiated with either α particles or 250 kVp X rays to cause medium-mediated bystander effects in unirradiated populations of DU-145 cells or in AG01522 human fibroblasts. The end points measured in both of the bystander cell lines were micronucleus formation, γ-H2AX focus induction, and the surviving fraction. The incidence of micronuclei increased 1.5–2.0-fold in both tumor and fibroblast bystander cells after 4 h of co-culture with DU-145 tumor cells that had been directly irradiated with either α particles or X rays. Only the AG01522 fibroblasts showed bystander effects for the γ-H2AX focus (a 1.5-fold increase) and surviving fraction (a decrease to 0.8) end points when co-cultured with X-irradiated tumor cells. Alpha-particle irradiation of DU-145 tumor cells produced no decrease in the surviving fraction and no increase in γ-H2AX focus induction in co-cultured bystander cells of either cell line. These results indicate that there are LET-dependent differences in the signal released from DU-145 human prostate carcinoma cells and that, for some end points, bystander AG01522 fibroblasts and bystander DU-145 prostate carcinoma cells respond differently to the same medium-mediated signal. PMID:19024654

  1. In Vivo Visualization of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland.

    PubMed

    Lütje, Susanne; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Lauenstein, Thomas; Bockisch, Andreas; Poeppel, Thorsten D

    2016-06-01

    As the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in the neovasculature of several malignancies, it might serve as a target in oncology. Ga-PSMA PET/CT and PET/MRI were performed in a female who developed pulmonary metastases from an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right sublingual salivary gland after incomplete resection of the primary tumor and radiotherapy. Uptake of Ga-PSMA in tumors was observed, indicating PSMA expression. Moreover, a new cerebral metastasis was detected. Potentially, Ga-PSMA PET might be used for noninvasive assessment of adenoid cystic carcinoma to evaluate whether patients apply for PSMA-based radiotherapy when no further treatment options are available. PMID:27055136

  2. Comparative Analysis of Metastasis Variants Derived from Human Prostate Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Erin M.; Botkjaer, Kenneth A.; Kupriyanova, Tatyana A.; Andreasen, Peter A.; Deryugina, Elena I.; Quigley, James P.

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the process of tumor cell intravasation, we used the human tumor-chick embryo spontaneous metastasis model to select in vivo high (PC-hi/diss) and low (PC-lo/diss) disseminating variants from the human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cell line. These variants dramatically differed in their intravasation and dissemination capacities in both chick embryo and mouse spontaneous metastasis models. Concomitant with enhanced intravasation, PC-hi/diss exhibited increased angiogenic potential in avian and murine models. PC-hi/diss angiogenesis and intravasation were dependent on increased secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), since treating developing tumors with a function-blocking anti-VEGF antibody simultaneously inhibited both processes without affecting primary tumor growth. PC-hi/diss cells were also more migratory and invasive, suggestive of heightened ability to escape from primary tumors due to matrix-degrading activity. Consistent with this suggestion, PC-hi/diss cells produced more of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) as compared with PC-lo/diss. The functional role of uPA in PC-hi/diss dissemination was confirmed by inhibition of invasion, angiogenesis, and intravasation with specific function-blocking antibodies that prevented uPA activation and blocked uPA activity. These processes were similarly sensitive to aprotinin, a potent inhibitor of serine proteases, including uPA-generated plasmin. Thus, our comparison of the PC-3 intravasation variants points to key roles for the uPA-plasmin system in PC-hi/diss intravasation, possibly via (1) promoting tumor cell matrix invasion and (2) facilitating development of VEGF-dependent angiogenic blood vessels. PMID:19729488

  3. Growth control of prostatic carcinoma cells in serum-free media: interrelationship of hormone response, cell density, and nutrient media.

    PubMed Central

    Kaighn, M E; Kirk, D; Szalay, M; Lechner, J F

    1981-01-01

    Two established prostatic carcinoma cell lines have been grown in long-term culture in a defined medium (PFMR-4) free of serum, hormones, or growth factors. Growth of both lines in serum-free medium was population dependent. This cell-density requirement could be replaced by mitomycin C-inactivated feeder cells, homologous conditioned medium, or fetal bovine serum, but not by hormones or growth factors. The cells responded to these factors only at high density. The nature of this hormonal response was dependent on the kind of basal nutrient medium used. Growth in PFMR-4 with added insulin was more rapid than that in DME/F12 medium with any combination of hormones or growth factors and was substantially greater than growth in DME/F12 medium with insulin alone. The results demonstrate that whereas these two prostatic carcinoma lines (PC-3 and DU 145) do not require hormones for survival or growth, they do respond to certain hormones under appropriate conditions. These conditions include both the type of basal nutrient medium used and the population density. PMID:7029542

  4. Endometrial thickness and risk of breast and endometrial carcinomas in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Ashley S.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Modugno, Francesmary; Black, Amanda; Hill, Lyndon M.; Martin, Jerry; Sit, Anita S.; Sherman, Mark E.; Brinton, Louise A.

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal women with higher circulating estrogen levels are at increased risk of developing breast and endometrial carcinomas. In the endometrium, excess estrogen relative to progesterone produces a net proliferative stimulus, which may result in endometrial thickening. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that endometrial thickness is a biological marker of excess estrogen stimulation that is associated with risk of breast and endometrial carcinomas. Endometrial thickness was measured in 1,272 postmenopausal women, aged 55–74, who underwent transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) screening as part of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Serial endometrial thickness measurements were available for a subset of women at one (n=1,018), two (n=869) and three years (n=641) after baseline. We evaluated associations between endometrial thickness and breast (n=91) and endometrial (n=14) carcinoma by estimating relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression with age as the time metric. Models incorporating baseline endometrial thickness and as a time-varying covariate using all measurements were examined. Median follow-up among study participants was 12.5 years (range: 0.3–13.8 years). Compared to baseline endometrial thickness of 1.0 – 2.99 mm, women with baseline endometrial thickness greater than or equal to 5.0 mm had an increased risk of breast (RR: 2.00, 95% CI 1.15, 3.48) and endometrial (RR: 5.02, 95% CI 0.96, 26.36) carcinomas in models adjusted for menopausal hormone use and BMI. Our data suggest that increased endometrial thickness as assessed by TVU was associated with increased risk of breast and endometrial carcinomas. PMID:23907658

  5. SU-E-J-214: MR Protocol Development to Visualize Sirius MRI Markers in Prostate Brachytherapy Patients for MR-Based Post-Implant Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, T; Wang, J; Frank, S; Stafford, R; Bruno, T; Bathala, T; Mahmood, U; Pugh, T; Ibbott, G; Kudchadker, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The current CT-based post-implant dosimetry allows precise seed localization but limited anatomical delineation. Switching to MR-based post-implant dosimetry is confounded by imprecise seed localization. One approach is to place positive-contrast markers (Sirius) adjacent to the negative-contrast seeds. This patient study aims to assess the utility of a 3D fast spoiled gradient-recalled echo (FSPGR) sequence to visualize Sirius markers for post-implant dosimetry. Methods: MRI images were acquired in prostate implant patients (n=10) on Day 0 (day-of-implant) and Day 30. The post-implant MR protocol consisted of 3D T2-weighted fast-spin-echo (FSE), T2-weighted 2D-FSE (axial) and T1-weighted 2D-FSE (axial/sagittal/coronal). We incorporated a 3D-FSPGR sequence into the post-implant MR protocol to visualize the Sirius markers. Patients were scanned with different number-of-excitations (6, 8, 10), field-of-view (10cm, 14cm, 18cm), slice thickness (1mm, 0.8mm), flip angle (14 degrees, 20 degrees), bandwidth (122.070 Hz/pixel, 325.508 Hz/pixel, 390.625 Hz/pixel), phase encoding steps (160, 192, 224, 256), frequency-encoding direction (right/left, anterior/posterior), echo-time type (minimum-full, out-of-phase), field strength (1.5T, 3T), contrast (with, without), scanner vendor (Siemens, GE), coil (endorectal-coil only, endorectal-and-torso-coil, torsocoil only), endorectal-coil filling (30cc, 50cc) and endorectal-coil filling type (air, perfluorocarbon [PFC]). For post-implant dosimetric evaluation with greater anatomical detail, 3D-FSE images were fused with 3D-FSPGR images. For comparison with CT-based post-implant dosimetry, CT images were fused with 3D-FSPGR images. Results: The 3D-FSPGR sequence facilitated visualization of markers in patients. Marker visualization helped distinguish signal voids as seeds versus needle tracks for more definitive MR-based post-implant dosimetry. On the CT-MR fused images, the distance between the seed on CT to MR images was 3

  6. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin has both pro-carcinogenic and anti-carcinogenic effects on neuroendocrine prostate carcinoma formation in TRAMP mice.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert W; Fritz, Wayne A; Schneider, Andrew J; Lin, Tien-Min; Branam, Amanda M; Safe, Stephen; Peterson, Richard E

    2016-08-15

    It is well established that the prototypical aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) can both cause and protect against carcinogenesis in non-transgenic rodents. But because these animals almost never develop prostate cancer with old age or after carcinogen exposure, whether AHR activation can affect cancer of the prostate remained unknown. We used animals designed to develop this disease, Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice, to investigate the potential role of AHR signaling in prostate cancer development. We previously reported that AHR itself has prostate tumor suppressive functions in TRAMP mice; i.e., TRAMP mice in which Ahr was knocked out developed neuroendocrine prostate carcinomas (NEPC) with much greater frequency than did those with both Ahr alleles. In the present study we investigated effects of AHR activation by three different xenobiotics. In utero and lactational TCDD exposure significantly increased NEPC tumor incidence in TRAMP males, while chronic TCDD treatment in adulthood had the opposite effect, a significant reduction in NEPC incidence. Chronic treatment of adult TRAMP mice with the low-toxicity selective AHR modulators indole-3-carbinol or 3,3'-diindolylmethane did not significantly protect against these tumors. Thus, we demonstrate, for the first time, that ligand-dependent activation of the AHR can alter prostate cancer incidence. The nature of the responses depended on the timing of AHR activation and ligand structures. PMID:27151233

  7. Androgen suppression adjuvant to definitive radiotherapy in prostate carcinoma-long-term results of phase III RTOG 85-31

    SciTech Connect

    Pilepich, Miljenko V. . E-mail: mpilepich@mednet.ucla.edu; Winter, Kathryn; Lawton, Colleen A.; Krisch, Robert E.; Wolkov, Harvey B.; Movsas, Benjamin; Hug, Eugen B.; Asbell, Sucha O.; Grignon, David

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 85-31 was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of adjuvant androgen suppression, using goserelin, in unfavorable prognosis carcinoma of the prostate treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were those with palpable primary tumor extending beyond the prostate (clinical Stage T3) or those with regional lymphatic involvement. Patients who had undergone prostatectomy were eligible if penetration through the prostatic capsule to the margin of resection and/or seminal vesicle involvement was documented histologically. Stratification was based on histologic differentiation, nodal status, acid phosphatase status, and prior prostatectomy. The patients were randomized to either RT and adjuvant goserelin (Arm I) or RT alone followed by observation and application of goserelin at relapse (Arm II). In Arm I, the drug was to be started during the last week of RT and was to be continued indefinitely or until signs of progression. Results: Between 1987 and 1992, when the study was closed, 977 patients were entered: 488 to Arm I and 489 to Arm II. As of July 2003, the median follow-up for all patients was 7.6 years and for living patients was 11 years. At 10 years, the absolute survival rate was significantly greater for the adjuvant arm than for the control arm: 49% vs. 39%, respectively (p = 0.002). The 10-year local failure rate for the adjuvant arm was 23% vs. 38% for the control arm (p <0.0001). The corresponding 10-year rates for the incidence of distant metastases and disease-specific mortality was 24% vs. 39% (p <0.001) and 16% vs. 22% (p = 0.0052), respectively, both in favor of the adjuvant arm. Conclusion: In a population of patients with unfavorable prognosis carcinoma of the prostate, androgen suppression applied as an adjuvant after definitive RT was associated not only with a reduction in disease progression but in a statistically significant improvement in absolute

  8. Claudin-1, -3, -4 and -7 gene expression analyses in canine prostate carcinoma and mammary tissue derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hammer, S C; Nagel, S; Junginger, J; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Wagner, S; Heisterkamp, A; Ngezahayo, A; Nolte, I; Murua Escobar, H

    2016-01-01

    Claudins (CLDNs) are transmembrane proteins localised in the cell membrane of epithelial cells composing a structural and functional component of the tight junction protein complexes. In canine tumors deregulations of the CLDN expression patterns were described immunohistochemically. Targeting of claudin proteins has further been evaluated to establish novel therapeutic approaches by directed claudin binding. Precondition for the development of claudin targeting approaches in canine cells is the possibility to characterise claudin expression specifically and the availability of claudin positive cell lines. Herein PCR/qPCR assays were established allowing a rapid qualitative and quantitative characterisation of CLDN-1, -3, -4 and -7 gene expression in canine cell lines and tissues. Further commercially available antibodies were used to verify CLDN gene expression on protein level by Western blots. The developed assays were used to analyse six canine cell lines derived from mammary and prostate tissue for their CLDN-1, -3, -4 and -7 expressions. The canine cell line DT08/40 (prostate transitional cell carcinoma) was used for the establishment of specific CLDNs -1, -3, -4 and -7PCR/qPCR. The designed assays were verified by amplicon cloning and sequencing. Gene expressions were verified on protein level by Western blot. Additionally further cell lines were analysed for their CLDN-1, -3, -4 and -7 expression on mRNA and protein level (mammary derived cell lines: MTH53A (non-neoplastic), ZMTH3 (adenoma), MTH52C (carcinoma); prostate derived cell lines: DT08/46 and CT1258 (both adenocarcinoma).The screened cell lines showed expression for the CLDNs as follows: DT08/46 and DT08/40: CLDN-1, -3, -4 and -7 positive; CT1258: CLDN-1, -3, -4 and -7 negative; ZMTH3 and MTH52C: CLDN-1 and -7 positive, CLDN-3 and -4 negative; MTH53A: CLDN-1, -3 and -4 negative, CLDN-7 positive. Western blot analyses reflect the detected CLDN-1, -3, -4 and -7 expressions in the analysed cell

  9. Treatment of prostatic carcinoma by pelvic lymphadenectomy, temporary Iridium-192 implant, and external irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tansey, L.A.; Shanberg, A.M.; Nisar Syed, A.M.; Puthawala, A.

    1983-06-01

    Forty patients with clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate have been treated by a combination of pelvic lymphadenectomy, temporary Iridium-192 implantation, and external irradiation with follow-up of one to five years. 192Ir implant delivers a minimum tumor dose of 3,000 rad to A2 and B1 lesions and 3,500 to B2 and C lesions. Two weeks later patients receive 4,000 rad of external irradiation to the prostate over four to five weeks. Patients with pelvic nodal metastases receive 5,000 rad to the pelvis with a midline block at 4,000 rad. All patients have had a complete local response as judged by clinical criteria. Prostate needle biopsies have been performed on 16 patients one year or less after treatment, with 15 biopsies benign. The technique appears to offer excellent local control of prostatic adenocarcinoma with acceptably low morbidity.

  10. The Quantitative Criteria Based on the Fractal Dimensions, Entropy, and Lacunarity for the Spatial Distribution of Cancer Cell Nuclei Enable Identification of Low or High Aggressive Prostate Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Waliszewski, Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tumor grading, PSA concentration, and stage determine a risk of prostate cancer patients with accuracy of about 70%. An approach based on the fractal geometrical model was proposed to eliminate subjectivity from the evaluation of tumor aggressiveness and to improve the prediction. This study was undertaken to validate classes of equivalence for the spatial distribution of cancer cell nuclei in a larger, independent set of prostate carcinomas. Methods: The global fractal capacity D0, information D1 and correlation D2 dimension, the local fractal dimension (LFD) and the local connected fractal dimension (LCFD), Shannon entropy H and lacunarity λ were measured using computer algorithms in digitalized images of both the reference set (n = 60) and the test set (n = 208) of prostate carcinomas. Results: Prostate carcinomas were re-stratified into seven classes of equivalence. The cut-off D0-values 1.5450, 1.5820, 1.6270, 1.6490, 1.6980, 1.7640 defined the classes from C1 to C7, respectively. The other measures but the D1 failed to define the same classes of equivalence. The pairs (D0, LFD), (D0, H), (D0, λ), (D1, LFD), (D1, H), (D1, λ) characterized the spatial distribution of cancer cell nuclei in each class. The co-application of those measures enabled the subordination of prostate carcinomas to one out of three clusters associated with different tumor aggressiveness. For D0 < 1.5820, LFD < 1.3, LCFD > 1.5, H < 0.7, and λ > 0.8, the class C1 or C2 contains low complexity low aggressive carcinomas exclusively. For D0 > 1.6980, LFD > 1.7644, LCFD > 1.7051, H > 0.9, and λ < 0.7, the class C6 or C7 contains high complexity high aggressive carcinomas. Conclusions: The cut-off D0-values defining the classes of equivalence were validated in this study. The cluster analysis suggested that the number of the subjective Gleason grades and the number of the objective classes of equivalence could be decreased from seven to three without a loss of clinically

  11. Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate: Analysis of Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Coote, Joanna H.; Wylie, James P.; Cowan, Richard A.; Logue, John P.; Swindell, Ric; Livsey, Jacqueline E.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Dose escalation for prostate cancer improves biological control but with a significant increase in late toxicity. Recent estimates of low {alpha}/{beta} ratio for prostate cancer suggest that hypofractionation may result in biological advantage. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) should enable dose escalation to the prostate while reducing toxicity to local organs. We report late toxicity data of a hypofractionated IMRT regime. Methods and Materials: Eligible men had T2-3N0M0 adenocarcinoma prostate, and either Gleason score {>=} 7 or prostate-specific antigen 20-50 ng/L. Patients received 57-60 Gy to prostate in 19-20 fractions using five-field IMRT. All received hormonal therapy for 3 months before radiotherapy to a maximum of 6 months. Toxicity was assessed 2 years postradiotherapy using the RTOG criteria, LENT/SOMA, and UCLA prostate index assessment tools. Results: Acute toxicity was favorable with no RTOG Grade 3 or 4 toxicity. At 2 years, there was 4% Grade 2 bowel and 4.25% Grade 2 bladder toxicity. There was no Grade 3 or 4 bowel toxicity; one patient developed Grade 3 bladder toxicity. UCLA data showed a slight improvement in urinary function at 2 years compared with pretreatment. LENT/SOMA assessments demonstrated general worsening of bowel function at 2 years. Patients receiving 60 Gy were more likely to develop problems with bowel function than those receiving 57 Gy. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that hypofractionated radiotherapy using IMRT for prostate cancer is well tolerated with minimal late toxicity at 2 years posttreatment. Ongoing studies are looking at the efficacy of hypofractionated regimes with respect to biological control.

  12. Adverse influence of prior transurethral resection on prognosis in carcinoma of prostate treated by radiation therapy. [/sup 60/Co or linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, D.G.

    1980-09-01

    Since 1970, a total of 291 patients with a minimum follow-up of two years have received radical radiation therapy for carcinoma of the prostate. A comparison in Stages B and C made between those patients who had a needle biopsy to establish the diagnosis and those who had a transurethral resection of the prostate, revealed a vastly different disease free survival: 72% and 51% respectively. Several hypotheses are offered to account for these differences, one of which is that the surgical procedure of transurethral resection results in dissemination of the disease.

  13. Cysteine-Rich Secretory Protein-3 (CRISP3) Is Strongly Up-Regulated in Prostate Carcinomas with the TMPRSS2-ERG Fusion Gene

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Vera L.; Barros-Silva, João D.; Ramalho-Carvalho, João; Jerónimo, Carmen; Henrique, Rui; Lind, Guro E.; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Lothe, Ragnhild A.; Teixeira, Manuel R.

    2011-01-01

    A large percentage of prostate cancers harbor TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions, leading to aberrant overexpression of the transcription factor ERG. The target genes deregulated by this rearrangement, however, remain mostly unknown. To address this subject we performed genome-wide mRNA expression analysis on 6 non-malignant prostate samples and 24 prostate carcinomas with (n = 16) and without (n = 8) TMPRSS2-ERG fusion as determined by FISH. The top-most differentially expressed genes and their associations with ERG over-expression were technically validated by quantitative real-time PCR and biologically validated in an independent series of 200 prostate carcinomas. Several genes encoding metabolic enzymes or extracellular/transmembrane proteins involved in cell adhesion, matrix remodeling and signal transduction pathways were found to be co-expressed with ERG. Within those significantly over-expressed in fusion-positive carcinomas, CRISP3 showed more than a 50-fold increase when compared to fusion-negative carcinomas, whose expression levels were in turn similar to that of non-malignant samples. In the independent validation series, ERG and CRISP3 mRNA levels were strongly correlated (rs = 0.65, p<0.001) and both were associated with pT3 disease staging. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry results showed CRISP3 protein overexpression in 63% of the carcinomas and chromatin immunoprecipitation with an anti-ERG antibody showed that CRISP3 is a direct target of the transcription factor ERG. We conclude that ERG rearrangement is associated with significant expression alterations in genes involved in critical cellular pathways that define a subset of locally advanced PCa. In particular, we show that CRISP3 is a direct target of ERG that is strongly overexpressed in PCa with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene. PMID:21814574

  14. Statistical Analysis of Dose–Volume Profiles and its Implication for Radiation Therapy Planning in Prostate Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Vanasek, Jaroslav; Odrazka, Karel; Dolezel, Martin; Kolarova, Iveta; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Pavlik, Tomas; Hlavka, Ales; Dusek, Ladislav

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The study aimed to analyze the dose–volume profiles of 3-dimensional radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and intensity modulated RT (IMRT) in the treatment of prostate carcinoma and to specify the profiles responsible for the development of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Methods and Materials: In the period 1997 to 2007, 483 patients with prostate carcinoma in stage T1-3 N0 (pN0) M0 were treated with definitive RT. Two groups of patients were defined for the analysis: the 3D-CRT group (n=305 patients) and the IMRT group (n=178 patients). In the entire cohort of 483 patients, the median follow-up time reached 4.4 years (range, 2.0-11.7 years). The cumulative absolute and relative volumes of irradiated rectum exposed to a given dose (area under the dose–volume curve, AUC) were estimated. The receiver operating characteristic analysis was then used to search for the optimal dose and volume cutoff points with the potential to distinguish patients with enhanced or escalated toxicity. Results: Despite the application of high doses (78-82 Gy) in the IMRT group, GI toxicity was lower in that group than in the group treated by 3D-CRT with prescribed doses of 70 to 74 Gy. Both RT methods showed specific rectal dose–volume distribution curves. The total AUC values for IMRT were significantly lower than those for 3D-CRT. Furthermore, IMRT significantly decreased the rectal volume receiving low to intermediate radiation doses in comparison with 3D-CRT; specific cutoff limits predictable for the level of GI toxicity are presented and defined in our work. Conclusions: Total area under the dose–volume profiles and specific cutoff points in low and intermediate dose levels have significant predictive potential toward the RT GI toxicity. In treatment planning, it seems that it is valuable to take into consideration the entire dose–volume primary distribution.

  15. Non-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Ligresti, Alessia; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; Iappelli, Mariagrazia; Verde, Roberta; Stott, Colin G; Cristino, Luigia; Orlando, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cannabinoid receptor activation induces prostate carcinoma cell (PCC) apoptosis, but cannabinoids other than Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which lack potency at cannabinoid receptors, have not been investigated. Some of these compounds antagonize transient receptor potential melastatin type-8 (TRPM8) channels, the expression of which is necessary for androgen receptor (AR)-dependent PCC survival. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We tested pure cannabinoids and extracts from Cannabis strains enriched in particular cannabinoids (BDS), on AR-positive (LNCaP and 22RV1) and -negative (DU-145 and PC-3) cells, by evaluating cell viability (MTT test), cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, by FACS scans, caspase 3/7 assays, DNA fragmentation and TUNEL, and size of xenograft tumours induced by LNCaP and DU-145 cells. KEY RESULTS Cannabidiol (CBD) significantly inhibited cell viability. Other compounds became effective in cells deprived of serum for 24 h. Several BDS were more potent than the pure compounds in the presence of serum. CBD-BDS (i.p.) potentiated the effects of bicalutamide and docetaxel against LNCaP and DU-145 xenograft tumours and, given alone, reduced LNCaP xenograft size. CBD (1–10 µM) induced apoptosis and induced markers of intrinsic apoptotic pathways (PUMA and CHOP expression and intracellular Ca2+). In LNCaP cells, the pro-apoptotic effect of CBD was only partly due to TRPM8 antagonism and was accompanied by down-regulation of AR, p53 activation and elevation of reactive oxygen species. LNCaP cells differentiated to androgen-insensitive neuroendocrine-like cells were more sensitive to CBD-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These data support the clinical testing of CBD against prostate carcinoma. LINKED ARTICLE This article is commented on by Pacher et al., pp. 76–78 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02121.x PMID:22594963

  16. SVI implantation for carcinoma of the prostate: 5-year survival free of disease and incidence of local failure

    SciTech Connect

    Schellhammer, P.F.; el-Mahdi, A.E.; Ladaga, L.E.; Schultheiss, T.

    1985-12-01

    Interstitial implantation with the iodine isotope, SVI has been used as definitive treatment in 115 patients with localized carcinoma of the prostate. The disease was staged surgically by bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy in all of the patients. Followup has been for a minimum of 1 year and 64 patients have been followed for a minimum of 5 years. There has been no operative mortality in this series. Mean patient age at implantation was 63 years. Potency has been maintained in 31 of 46 patients (78 per cent) followed for a minimum of 5 years and 15 of 26 (58 per cent) followed for a minimum of 7 years. At 5 years the actuarial survival free of disease by surgical stage was 100, 81, 49 and 41 per cent for patients with stages A2, B, C and D1 disease, respectively. Local failure was defined as palpable evidence of prostatic enlargement or irregularity with biopsy confirmation of neoplasm. The actuarial probability of local failure at 5 years was 0, 13, 27 and 44 per cent for patients with surgical stages A2, B, C and D1 disease, respectively, and 5, 23 and 43 per cent for those with well, moderately and poorly differentiated tumors, respectively. Based on our experience, interstitial implantation with SVI is reserved for patients with well or moderately differentiated stage B lesions. The ultimate success of this treatment modality awaits 10 and 15 years of followup.

  17. Radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma: the JCRT experience (1968-1978). II. Factors related to tumor control and complications

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, E.; Cassady, J.R.; Connolly, J.; Chaffey, J.T.

    1985-04-01

    The authors have analyzed treatment failure and complications as a function of radiotherapy technique and other factors in 229 patients irradiated for prostate carcinoma from 1968-1978. Thirty-four patients (15%) developed clinical evidence of local-regional recurrence. In about one- quarter of these recurrences, there was a component of ureteral obstruction, possibly due to marginal miss in the seminal vesicles. Although different parameters of treatment technique were not significantly correlated with local failure, there was a trend toward higher failure rates for Stage B and C patients when the length and/or width of the conedown field was less than 8 cm (p = 0.27 and 0.25, respectively). As in other recent studies, patients with Stage C disease who had undergone trans-urethral resection of the prostate had a lower disease-free survival rate than patients who had only needle biopsy (39 vs. 65% at 5 years, p = 0.055). The use of larger initial fields treating the pelvic lymph nodes did not result in better local tumor control or better overall control. However, the use of larger fields did result in a higher rate of significant complications (8.7 vs. 1.6% for fields greater than or equal to 150 cm2 or less than 150 cm2, respectively, p = 0.013). In view of the higher complication rate and the absence of convincing evidence of benefit for whole pelvic treatment, irradiation of all pelvic lymph nodes can be questioned.

  18. IDPT: Insights into potential intrinsically disordered proteins through transcriptomic analysis of genes for prostate carcinoma epigenetic data.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Saurav; Sen, Sagnik; Maulik, Ujjwal

    2016-07-15

    Involvement of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) with various dreadful diseases like cancer is an interesting research topic. In order to gain novel insights into the regulation of IDPs, in this article, we perform a transcriptomic analysis of mRNAs (genes) for transcripts encoding IDPs on a human multi-omics prostate carcinoma dataset having both gene expression and methylation data. In this regard, firstly the genes that consist of both the expression and methylation data, and that are corresponding to the cancer-related prostate-tissue-specific disordered proteins of MobiDb database, are selected. We apply standard t-test for determining differentially expressed genes as well as differentially methylated genes. A network having these genes and their targeter miRNAs from Diana Tarbase v7.0 database and corresponding Transcription Factors from TRANSFAC and ITFP databases, is then built. Thereafter, we perform literature search, and KEGG pathway and Gene Ontology analyses using DAVID database. Finally, we report several significant potential gene-markers (with the corresponding IDPs) that have inverse relationship between differential expression and methylation patterns, and that are hub genes of the TF-miRNA-gene network. PMID:27060408

  19. The tolerance to multiple daily fractionated radiotherapy for the treatment of prostatic and bladder carcinoma: a feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, K.K.; van der Schueren, E.

    1982-10-01

    A modified fractionation schedule was designed with the purpose of reducing the treatment burden. Three fractions of 2 Gy with four hours interval were given during 5 days. The whole scheme was repeated after a rest period of 4 weeks. This makes it possible to deliver a dose of 60 Gy in 10 treatment days and over a total time of 6 weeks. A total of 30 patients, 22 with prostatic cancer and 8 with invasive bladder carcinoma, have been treated. The feasibility has been found to be very good. Forty-seven percent of the patients had acute morbidity, although it was mild in all patients. One patient had a persistent, another had a transient delayed symptom, and one had a severe late complication. The tolerance to this schedule is better than that observed with conventional fractionation schedules. Together with the drastical reduction of the total treatment days, this multiple daily fractionation (MDF) schedule has already been shown to improve the therapeutic ratio by diminishing the burden on the patients. Longer follow-up is necessary for the assessment of the efficacy of this schedule for local tumor control. However, with a follow-up period of 7 to 16 months no recurrence of the prostate cancer in the pelvis has been observed. These results warrant further exploration of the possible benefits of modifications in time-dose-fractionation schedules.

  20. Cisplatin modulates B-cell translocation gene 2 to attenuate cell proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells in both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chiang, Hou-Yu; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the cell cycle transition regulation. We evaluated the cisplatin effects on prostate cancer cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2, p53, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma, p53 wild-type LNCaP or p53-null PC-3, cells. Cisplatin treatments attenuated cell prostate cancer cell growth through inducing Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in lower concentration and apoptosis at higher dosage. Cisplatin treatments enhanced p53 and BTG2 expression, repressed AR and PSA expression, and blocked the activation of androgen on the PSA secretion in LNCaP cells. BTG2 knockdown in LNCaP cells attenuated cisplatin-mediated growth inhibition. Cisplatin enhanced BTG2 gene expression dependent on the DNA fragment located within -173 to -82 upstream of BTG2 translation initiation site in prostate cancer cells. Mutation of the p53 response element from GGGCAGAGCCC to GGGCACC or mutation of the NFκB response element from GGAAAGTCC to GGAAAGGAA by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of cisplatin on the BTG2 promoter activity in LNCaP or PC-3 cells, respectively. Our results indicated that cisplatin attenuates prostate cancer cell proliferation partly mediated by upregulation of BTG2 through the p53-dependent pathway or p53-independent NFκB pathway. PMID:24981574

  1. Cisplatin modulates B-cell translocation gene 2 to attenuate cell proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells in both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chiang, Hou-Yu; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the cell cycle transition regulation. We evaluated the cisplatin effects on prostate cancer cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2, p53, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma, p53 wild-type LNCaP or p53-null PC-3, cells. Cisplatin treatments attenuated cell prostate cancer cell growth through inducing Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in lower concentration and apoptosis at higher dosage. Cisplatin treatments enhanced p53 and BTG2 expression, repressed AR and PSA expression, and blocked the activation of androgen on the PSA secretion in LNCaP cells. BTG2 knockdown in LNCaP cells attenuated cisplatin-mediated growth inhibition. Cisplatin enhanced BTG2 gene expression dependent on the DNA fragment located within -173 to -82 upstream of BTG2 translation initiation site in prostate cancer cells. Mutation of the p53 response element from GGGCAGAGCCC to GGGCACC or mutation of the NFκB response element from GGAAAGTCC to GGAAAGGAA by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of cisplatin on the BTG2 promoter activity in LNCaP or PC-3 cells, respectively. Our results indicated that cisplatin attenuates prostate cancer cell proliferation partly mediated by upregulation of BTG2 through the p53-dependent pathway or p53-independent NFκB pathway. PMID:24981574

  2. Androgen receptor mutations in carcinoma of the prostate: significance for endocrine therapy.

    PubMed

    Culig, Z; Klocker, H; Bartsch, G; Hobisch, A

    2001-01-01

    Endocrine therapy for advanced prostate cancer involves androgen ablation (orchiectomy or application of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogs) and/or blockade of the androgen receptor (AR) with either steroidal (cyproterone acetate) or nonsteroidal (hydroxyflutamide, bicalutamide and nilutamide) antiandrogens. These antagonists prevent androgen-induced conformational change and activation of the AR. During long term androgen ablation, the AR adapts to an environment with low androgen concentrations and becomes hypersensitive to low concentrations of androgens, either alone or in combination with various cellular regulators. Bicalutamide can switch from antagonist to agonist during long-term androgen withdrawal, as shown in prostate cancer LNCaP cells. AR point mutations were detected in metastatic lesions from human prostate cancer more frequently than in primary tumors. Although functional characterization of only some mutant AR detected in prostate cancer tissue has been performed, data available suggest that they are activated by dihydrotestosterone, its precursors and metabolites, synthetic androgens, estrogenic and progestagenic steroids and hydroxyflutamide. A direct association between AR mutations and endocrine withdrawal syndrome has been investigated in only one study thus far. There is no evidence at present that activation of any of the mutant AR genes detected in prostate cancer is enhanced in the presence of a nonsteroidal AR stimulator. Coactivators of the AR are proteins that associate with the receptor, possess histone acetylase activity and facilitate AR activation. The coregulatory proteins ARA70 and ARA160 differentially affected the activity of the mutated AR Glu(231)-->Gly, which was discovered in a mouse authochthonous prostate tumor. ARA70 enhanced receptor activation by both androgen and estradiol, whereas ARA160 augmented only androgen-induced AR activity. Novel experimental therapies that down-regulate AR expression have been

  3. ROS signaling by NADPH oxidase 5 modulates the proliferation and survival of prostate carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Höll, Monika; Koziel, Rafal; Schäfer, Georg; Pircher, Haymo; Pauck, Alexander; Hermann, Martin; Klocker, Helmut; Jansen‐Dürr, Pidder

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western nations. Thus, new treatment modalities are urgently needed. Elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes is implicated in tumorigenesis of the prostate and other tissues. However, the identity of the Nox enzyme(s) involved in prostate carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. Analysis of radical prostatectomy tissue samples and benign and malignant prostate epithelial cell lines identified Nox5 as an abundantly expressed Nox isoform. Consistently, immunohistochemical staining of a human PCa tissue microarray revealed distinct Nox5 expression in epithelial cells of benign and malignant prostatic glands. shRNA‐mediated knockdown of Nox5 impaired proliferation of Nox5‐expressing (PC‐3, LNCaP) but not Nox5‐negative (DU145) PCa cell lines. Similar effects were observed upon ROS ablation via the antioxidant N‐acetylcysteine confirming ROS as the mediators. In addition, Nox5 silencing increased apoptosis of PC‐3 cells. Concomitantly, protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) protein levels and c‐Jun N‐terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation were reduced. Moreover, the effect of Nox5 knockdown on PC‐3 cell proliferation could be mimicked by pharmacological inhibition of JNK. Collectively, these data indicate that Nox5 is expressed at functionally relevant levels in the human prostate and clinical PCa. Moreover, findings herein suggest that Nox5‐derived ROS and subsequent depletion of PKCζ and JNK inactivation play a critical role in modulating intracellular signaling cascades involved in the proliferation and survival of PCa cells. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25559363

  4. Long non-coding RNA ATB promotes growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition and predicts poor prognosis in human prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Song; Yi, Xiao-Ming; Tang, Chao-Peng; Ge, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Zheng-Yu; Zhou, Wen-Quan

    2016-07-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified to be critical mediators in various tumors associated with cancer progression. Long non-coding RNA activated by TGF-β (lncRNA-ATB) is a stimulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and serves as a novel prognostic biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the biological role and clinical significance of lncRNA-ATB in human prostate cancer have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study was designed to explore the expression of lncRNA-ATB in human prostate cancer patients and the role of lncRNA-ATB in prostate cancer cells. We showed that lncRNA-ATB expression was significantly upregulated in tumor tissues in patients with prostate cancer in comparison with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Further analysis indicted that high lncRNA-ATB expression may be an independent prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival in prostate cancer patients. Overexpression of lncRNA-ATB promoted, and knockdown of lncRNA-ATB inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells via regulations of cell cycle regulatory protein expression levels. In addition, lncRNA-ATB stimulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated with ZEB1 and ZNF217 expression levels via ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. These results indicated that lncRNA-ATB may be considered as a new predictor in the clinical prognosis of patients with prostate cancer. Overexpression of lncRNA-ATB exerts mitogenic and EMT effects of prostate cancer via activation of ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. PMID:27176634

  5. Long non-coding RNA ATB promotes growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition and predicts poor prognosis in human prostate carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    XU, SONG; YI, XIAO-MING; TANG, CHAO-PENG; GE, JING-PING; ZHANG, ZHENG-YU; ZHOU, WEN-QUAN

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified to be critical mediators in various tumors associated with cancer progression. Long non-coding RNA activated by TGF-β (lncRNA-ATB) is a stimulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and serves as a novel prognostic biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the biological role and clinical significance of lncRNA-ATB in human prostate cancer have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study was designed to explore the expression of lncRNA-ATB in human prostate cancer patients and the role of lncRNA-ATB in prostate cancer cells. We showed that lncRNA-ATB expression was significantly upregulated in tumor tissues in patients with prostate cancer in comparison with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Further analysis indicted that high lncRNA-ATB expression may be an independent prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival in prostate cancer patients. Overexpression of lncRNA-ATB promoted, and knockdown of lncRNA-ATB inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells via regulations of cell cycle regulatory protein expression levels. In addition, lncRNA-ATB stimulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated with ZEB1 and ZNF217 expression levels via ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. These results indicated that lncRNA-ATB may be considered as a new predictor in the clinical prognosis of patients with prostate cancer. Overexpression of lncRNA-ATB exerts mitogenic and EMT effects of prostate cancer via activation of ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. PMID:27176634

  6. Dosimetry analyses comparing high-dose-rate brachytherapy, administered as monotherapy for localized prostate cancer, with stereotactic body radiation therapy simulated using CyberKnife.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Shoichi; Seo, Yuji; Shiomi, Hiroya; Yamada, Yuji; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Morimoto, Masahiro; Konishi, Koji; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform dosimetry analyses comparing high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with simulated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). We selected six consecutive patients treated with HDR-BT monotherapy in 2010, and a CyberKnife SBRT plan was simulated for each patient using computed tomography images and the contouring set used in the HDR-BT plan for the actual treatment, but adding appropriate planning target volume (PTV) margins for SBRT. Then, dosimetric profiles for PTVs of the rectum, bladder and urethra were compared between the two modalities. The SBRT plan was more homogenous and provided lower dose concentration but better coverage for the PTV. The maximum doses in the rectum were higher in the HDR-BT plans. However, the HDR-BT plan provided a sharper dose fall-off around the PTV, resulting in a significant and considerable difference in volume sparing of the rectum with the appropriate PTV margins added for SBRT. While the rectum D5cm(3) for HDR-BT and SBRT was 30.7 and 38.3 Gy (P < 0.01) and V40 was 16.3 and 20.8 cm(3) (P < 0.01), respectively, SBRT was significantly superior in almost all dosimetric profiles for the bladder and urethra. These results suggest that SBRT as an alternative to HDR-BT in hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer might have an advantage for bladder and urethra dose sparing, but for the rectum only when proper PTV margins for SBRT are adopted. PMID:24957754

  7. Calculated organ doses using Monte Carlo simulations in a reference male phantom undergoing HDR brachytherapy applied to localized prostate carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Candela-Juan, Cristian; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Ballester, Facundo; Rivard, Mark J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to obtain equivalent doses in radiosensitive organs (aside from the bladder and rectum) when applying high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy to a localized prostate carcinoma using {sup 60}Co or {sup 192}Ir sources. These data are compared with results in a water phantom and with expected values in an infinite water medium. A comparison with reported values from proton therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is also provided. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations in Geant4 were performed using a voxelized phantom described in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 110, which reproduces masses and shapes from an adult reference man defined in ICRP Publication 89. Point sources of {sup 60}Co or {sup 192}Ir with photon energy spectra corresponding to those exiting their capsules were placed in the center of the prostate, and equivalent doses per clinical absorbed dose in this target organ were obtained in several radiosensitive organs. Values were corrected to account for clinical circumstances with the source located at various positions with differing dwell times throughout the prostate. This was repeated for a homogeneous water phantom. Results: For the nearest organs considered (bladder, rectum, testes, small intestine, and colon), equivalent doses given by {sup 60}Co source were smaller (8%-19%) than from {sup 192}Ir. However, as the distance increases, the more penetrating gamma rays produced by {sup 60}Co deliver higher organ equivalent doses. The overall result is that effective dose per clinical absorbed dose from a {sup 60}Co source (11.1 mSv/Gy) is lower than from a {sup 192}Ir source (13.2 mSv/Gy). On the other hand, equivalent doses were the same in the tissue and the homogeneous water phantom for those soft tissues closer to the prostate than about 30 cm. As the distance increased, the differences of photoelectric effect in water and soft tissue, and appearance of other materials

  8. Prostate biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate gland biopsy; Transrectal prostate biopsy; Fine needle biopsy of the prostate; Core biopsy of the prostate; Targeted prostate biopsy; Prostate biopsy - transrectal ultrasound (TRUS); Stereotactic ...

  9. Tissue metabolite profiling identifies differentiating and prognostic biomarkers for prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jung, Klaus; Reszka, Regina; Kamlage, Beate; Bethan, Bianca; Stephan, Carsten; Lein, Michael; Kristiansen, Glen

    2013-12-15

    Metabolomic research offers a deeper insight into biochemical changes in cancer metabolism and is a promising tool for identifying novel biomarkers. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic potential of metabolites in prostate cancer (PCa) tissue after radical prostatectomy. In matched malignant and nonmalignant prostatectomy samples from 95 PCa patients, aminoadipic acid, cerebronic acid, gluconic acid, glycerophosphoethanolamine, 2-hydroxybehenic acid, isopentenyl pyrophosphate, maltotriose, 7-methylguanine and tricosanoic acid were determined within a global metabolite profiling study using gas chromatography/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data were related to clinicopathological variables like prostate volume, tumor stage, Gleason score, preoperative prostate-specific antigen and disease recurrence in the follow-up. All nine metabolites showed higher concentrations in malignant than in nonmalignant samples except for gluconic acid and maltotriose, which had lower levels in tumors. Receiver -operating characteristics analysis demonstrated a significant discrimination for all metabolites between malignant and nonmalignant tissue with a maximal area under the curve of 0.86 for tricosanoic acid, whereas no correlation was observed between the metabolite levels and the Gleason score or tumor stage except for gluconic acid. Univariate Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that levels of aminoadipic acid, gluconic acid and maltotriose were associated with the biochemical tumor recurrence (prostate-specific antigen > 0.2 ng/mL). In multivariate Cox regression analyses, aminoadipic acid together with tumor stage and Gleason score remained in a model as independent marker for prediction of biochemical recurrence. This study proved that metabolites in PCa tissue can be used, in combination with traditional clinicopathological factors, as promising diagnostic and prognostic tools. PMID:23737455

  10. Membrane type-1-matrix metalloproteinase expressed by prostate carcinoma cells cleaves human laminin-5 beta3 chain and induces cell migration.

    PubMed

    Udayakumar, Thirupandiyur S; Chen, Man Ling; Bair, Elisabeth L; Von Bredow, Dorothea C; Cress, Anne E; Nagle, Raymond B; Bowden, G Timothy

    2003-05-01

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix by proteolytic enzymes is a central aspect of physiological and pathologic tissue-remodeling processes such as trophoblastic implantation, wound healing, and tumor invasion. We have hypothesized that prostate adenocarcinoma cell invasion through the normal basal lamina is attributable in part to metalloproteinase-induced cleavage of laminin-5 (Ln-5) and enhanced motility of the cancer cells. We studied the role of membrane type-1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) expressed on the surface of prostate tumor cells in cleaving Ln-5 and enhancing the migration of prostate tumor cells. We also determined the nature of the MT1-MMP cleavage of human Ln-5 and how this altered Ln-5 changes the migration of prostate carcinoma cells. We found that human MT1-MMP cleaves purified human Ln-5 to an 80-kDa fragment. Mass spectrometry analyses of the 80-kDa cleaved product by trypsin and chymotrypsin gave 14 and 9 different peptide sequences, respectively, that were identical to the expected amino acid sequence of the Ln-5-beta3 chain. The recovered peptides represent 14.4% (trypsin) and 10.3% (chymotrypsin) of Ln-5-beta3 chain by amino acid count. Both trypsin and chymotrypsin digestion of MT1-MMP-cleaved product of Ln-5 did not show any other peptides that were identical to the other chains of Ln-5. Using a linear migration assay we found that the Ln-5 cleaved by MT1-MMP enhanced the migration of DU-145 prostate carcinoma cells by 2-fold compared with uncleaved Ln-5. The use of blocked antisense MT1-MMP oligonucleotides inhibited the migration of DU-145 cells on Ln-5. We also found that the prostate carcinoma cells expressing high levels of MT1-MMP, such as PC3N and PPC, demonstrated enhanced migration on human Ln-5-coated substrate, and this migration was inhibited using blocked antisense MT1-MMP oligonucleotides. In conclusion, this is a novel and important finding where we have shown that beta3-chain is cleaved by MT1-MMP, and this

  11. Detection of BRAF Mutation in Urine DNA as a Molecular Diagnostic for Canine Urothelial and Prostatic Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Shapiro, Susan G; Breen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the lower urinary tract and prostatic carcinoma (PC) are aggressive genitourinary cancers in dogs, characterized by invasion to surrounding tissues and high metastatic potential. Current diagnosis of canine UC and PC requires histopathological examination of a biopsy. Such specimens require specialized medical equipment and are invasive procedures, limiting the availability of diagnosis by histopathology for many canine patients. Access to a non-invasive means to confirm diagnosis is currently an unmet need. Recently, the canine BRAF V595E mutation was detected in ~80% of canine UCs and PCs. In this study, we developed a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay for detection of the canine BRAF V595E mutation in canine urogenital tumors. The assay was evaluated in DNA samples prepared from biopsy specimens of UC (n = 48) and PC (n = 27), as well and non-neoplastic bladder epithelium (n = 38). In addition the assay was assessed for use with DNA isolated from free catch urine samples derived from canine patients with UC (n = 23), PC (n = 3), as well as from dogs with cystitis and healthy controls (n = 37). In all cases the sensitivity to detect the mutant allele was compared with conventional Sanger sequencing. ddPCR had superior sensitivity for detection of the V595E mutation: 75% of UC, 85% of PC, and 0% of control samples were mutation positive, respectively, and the V595E mutation was detected at a level as low as just 1 in 10,000 alleles (~0.01%). Furthermore, the ddPCR assay identified the mutation in free catch urine samples from 83% of canine UC and PC patients, demonstrating its utility as a non-invasive means of diagnosis. We have shown that ddPCR is a sensitive molecular technique with the potential to facilitate accurate and non-invasive means of canine UC and PC diagnosis. PMID:26649430

  12. Detection of BRAF Mutation in Urine DNA as a Molecular Diagnostic for Canine Urothelial and Prostatic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Shapiro, Susan G.; Breen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the lower urinary tract and prostatic carcinoma (PC) are aggressive genitourinary cancers in dogs, characterized by invasion to surrounding tissues and high metastatic potential. Current diagnosis of canine UC and PC requires histopathological examination of a biopsy. Such specimens require specialized medical equipment and are invasive procedures, limiting the availability of diagnosis by histopathology for many canine patients. Access to a non-invasive means to confirm diagnosis is currently an unmet need. Recently, the canine BRAF V595E mutation was detected in ~80% of canine UCs and PCs. In this study, we developed a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay for detection of the canine BRAF V595E mutation in canine urogenital tumors. The assay was evaluated in DNA samples prepared from biopsy specimens of UC (n = 48) and PC (n = 27), as well and non-neoplastic bladder epithelium (n = 38). In addition the assay was assessed for use with DNA isolated from free catch urine samples derived from canine patients with UC (n = 23), PC (n = 3), as well as from dogs with cystitis and healthy controls (n = 37). In all cases the sensitivity to detect the mutant allele was compared with conventional Sanger sequencing. ddPCR had superior sensitivity for detection of the V595E mutation: 75% of UC, 85% of PC, and 0% of control samples were mutation positive, respectively, and the V595E mutation was detected at a level as low as just 1 in 10,000 alleles (~0.01%). Furthermore, the ddPCR assay identified the mutation in free catch urine samples from 83% of canine UC and PC patients, demonstrating its utility as a non-invasive means of diagnosis. We have shown that ddPCR is a sensitive molecular technique with the potential to facilitate accurate and non-invasive means of canine UC and PC diagnosis. PMID:26649430

  13. Complications associated with preoperative radiation therapy and Iodine-125 brachytherapy for localized prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Flanigan, R.C.; Patterson, J.; Mendiondo, O.A.; Gee, W.F.; Lucas, B.A.; McRoberts, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-five consecutive patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated with 1,050 rad preoperative radiation therapy and Iodine-125 seed brachytherapy are reviewed. Significant long-term postoperative complications included radiation cystitis (12%), radiation proctitis (4%), genital and leg edema (12%), stress incontinence (8%), total incontinence (4%), and impotence (26%). Complications occurred in 75 per cent of patients who received additional postoperative radiation. Improved staging with CT scan, lymphangiography, and Chiba needle biopsy of any possibly abnormal lymph nodes provided excellent preoperative staging with only 1 patient (6%) upstaged at surgery to Stage D1.

  14. Dosimetry of a thyroid uptake detected in seed migration survey following a patient's iodine-125 prostate implant and in vitro measurements of intentional seed leakages

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Qinsheng; Russell, John L. Jr.; Macklis, Roger R.; Weinhous, Martin S.; Blair, Henry F.

    2006-07-15

    As a quality control procedure, a post-implant seed migration survey has been accomplished on 340 prostate cancer patients since November 2001. Pulmonary seed embolization and intracardiac seed embolization have been detected. A case of thyroid uptake due to leaking iodine-125 (I-125) sources was also seized. In order to determine the dose to the thyroid, a dosimetry method was developed to link in vivo measurements and the cumulated dose to the thyroid. The calculated source leakage half-life in the case was approximately 15 days based on the measurements and the estimated cumulated dose to thyroid was 204 cGy. It is concluded that one seed was leaking. In order to verify the in vivo measurements, intentional in vitro seed leakage tests were performed. A seed was cut open and placed in a sealed glass container filled with a given volume of saline. The I-125 concentration in the saline was subsequently measured over a period of six months. Consistent in vivo and in vitro results were obtained. Recent incidents of seed leaks reported from other centers have drawn practitioners' attention to this problem. In order to make the measurements more useful, the seed leakage tests were expanded to include I-125 seeds from six other vendors. The results show that the leakage half-lives of those seeds varied from nine days to a half-year. Two seed models demonstrated least leakage. Since the measurements lasted for six months, the escape of iodine resulted from oxidation of iodide in the saline was a concern for the measurement accuracy. As a reference, another set of leakage tests were performed by adding sodium thiosulfate salt (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O) to the saline. Sodium thiosulfate is a reducing agent that prevents the conversion of iodide to iodate so as to minimize I-125 evaporation. As a result, significantly shortened leakage half-lives were observed in this group. Seed agitation was also performed and no significant deviations of the

  15. Retrospective evaluation of dosimetric quality for prostate carcinomas treated with 3D conformal, intensity modulated and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, Scott B; Kairn, Tanya; Middlebrook, Nigel; Hill, Brendan; Christie, David R H; Knight, Richard T; Kenny, John; Langton, Christian M; Trapp, Jamie V

    2013-12-15

    This study examines and compares the dosimetric quality of radiotherapy treatment plans for prostate carcinoma across a cohort of 163 patients treated across five centres: 83 treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), 33 treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and 47 treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Treatment plan quality was evaluated in terms of target dose homogeneity and organs at risk (OAR), through the use of a set of dose metrics. These included the mean, maximum and minimum doses; the homogeneity and conformity indices for the target volumes; and a selection of dose coverage values that were relevant to each OAR. Statistical significance was evaluated using two-tailed Welch's T-tests. The Monte Carlo DICOM ToolKit software was adapted to permit the evaluation of dose metrics from DICOM data exported from a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system. The 3DCRT treatment plans offered greater planning target volume dose homogeneity than the other two treatment modalities. The IMRT and VMAT plans offered greater dose reduction in the OAR: with increased compliance with recommended OAR dose constraints, compared to conventional 3DCRT treatments. When compared to each other, IMRT and VMAT did not provide significantly different treatment plan quality for like-sized tumour volumes. This study indicates that IMRT and VMAT have provided similar dosimetric quality, which is superior to the dosimetric quality achieved with 3DCRT.

  16. Retrospective evaluation of dosimetric quality for prostate carcinomas treated with 3D conformal, intensity modulated and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Scott B; Kairn, Tanya; Middlebrook, Nigel; Hill, Brendan; Christie, David R H; Knight, Richard T; Kenny, John; Langton, Christian M; Trapp, Jamie V

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study examines and compares the dosimetric quality of radiotherapy treatment plans for prostate carcinoma across a cohort of 163 patients treated across five centres: 83 treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), 33 treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and 47 treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods Treatment plan quality was evaluated in terms of target dose homogeneity and organs at risk (OAR), through the use of a set of dose metrics. These included the mean, maximum and minimum doses; the homogeneity and conformity indices for the target volumes; and a selection of dose coverage values that were relevant to each OAR. Statistical significance was evaluated using two-tailed Welch's T-tests. The Monte Carlo DICOM ToolKit software was adapted to permit the evaluation of dose metrics from DICOM data exported from a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system. Results The 3DCRT treatment plans offered greater planning target volume dose homogeneity than the other two treatment modalities. The IMRT and VMAT plans offered greater dose reduction in the OAR: with increased compliance with recommended OAR dose constraints, compared to conventional 3DCRT treatments. When compared to each other, IMRT and VMAT did not provide significantly different treatment plan quality for like-sized tumour volumes. Conclusions This study indicates that IMRT and VMAT have provided similar dosimetric quality, which is superior to the dosimetric quality achieved with 3DCRT. PMID:26229621

  17. Comparative value of bone scintigraphy and radiography in monitoring tumor response in systemially treated prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, R.M.; Sauerbrunn, B.J.; Bates, H.R.; Newman, R.D.; Eddy, J.L.; Ihde, D.C.

    1983-02-01

    Radionuclide bone scans and skeletal radiographs were obtained before and during combination chemotherapy or initial hormonal treatment in 46 patients with disseminated adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The purpose of the study was to determine the usefulness of these two modalities in evaluating tumor response to therapy. Prior to treatment, bone scans were positive in 44 patients (96%). In all but one patient either bone radiographs or bone marrow biopsy revealed evidence of osseous metastases. In 22 patients partial response to therapy was documented by a variety of other staging tests.Eleven of these patients showed concurrent or later improvement on bone scans; one showed improvement on a radiograph. ''Flare phenomena'' were observed relatively frequently since 23% of the scans and 50% of the radiographs showed worsening at the time of response. Bone scans revealed worsening in 79% of 33 patients with disease progression of extraosseous tumor; radiographs were equally sensitive (82% worsening). It is concluded that bone scans in particular are ueful for monitoring tumor status in systemically treated patients with prostate cancer. However, because of the lack of sensitivity for response and paradoxical worsening with tumor regression in some patients, scans are not accurate enough to be employed as the sole test in following these patients.

  18. Prognosis in patients with local recurrence after definitive irradiation for prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.A.; el-Mahdi, A.M.; Schellhammer, P.F.

    1989-06-15

    Of 414 patients with Stage A2-C disease, all with a minimum follow-up period of 3 years, who have been definitively irradiated by external beam therapy or iodine-125 (I-125) implantation for biopsy-proven prostatic adenocarcinoma, 83 patients (20%) have experienced local recurrences. The incidence of distant metastasis was significantly higher in patients with local tumor recurrence (56 of 83; 68%), as compared with those with local control (64 of 331; 19%; P less than 0.001). This difference remained significant within each tumor grade and stage. Subsequently, survival in patients with local recurrence was significantly shorter than in those with local tumor control (66% vs. 89% at 5 years; P = 0.001). Of the 83 patients with local tumor recurrence, 56 had local recurrence and distant metastasis, and 27 had local failure alone, with a median follow-up of 76 months for the latter group. Fifteen of 83 patients with local recurrence (18%) developed major complications secondary to local disease. Three of the 83 (4%) patients were known to die of prostatic recurrence alone and another 11 of 83 (13%) as a result of some combination of local and distant disease. Therefore, in reference to the entire group of definitively irradiated patients, only 0.72% expired solely of complications associated with local tumor recurrence and an additional 2.7% expired of a combination of both local and distant disease.

  19. Comparative value of bone scintigraphy and radiography in monitoring tumor response in systemically treated prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, R.M.; Sauerbrunn, B.J.; Bates, H.R.; Newman, R.D.; Eddy, J.L.; Ihde, DC

    1983-02-01

    Radionuclide bone scans and skeletal radiographs were obtained before and during combination chemotherapy or initial hormonal treatment in 46 patients with disseminated adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The purpose of the study was to determine the usefulness of these two modalities in evaluating tumor response to therapy. Prior to treatment, bone scans were positive in 44 patients (96%). In all but one patient either bone radiographs or bone marrow biopsy revealed evidence of osseous metastases. In 22 patients partial response to therapy was documented by a variety of other staging tests. Eleven of these patients showed concurrent or later improvement on bone scans; one showed improvement on a radiograph. Flare phenomena were observed relatively frequently since 23% of the scans and 50% of the radiographs showed worsening at the time of response. Bone scans revealed worsening in 79% of 33 patients with disease progression of extraosseous tumor; radiographs were equally sensitive (82% worsening). It is concluded that bone scans in particular are useful for monitoring tumor status in systemically treated patients with prostate cancer. However, because of the lack of sensitivity for response and paradoxical worsening with tumor regression in some patients, scans are not accurate enough to be employed as the sole test in following these patients.

  20. Pictorial review. Magnetic resonance for radiotherapy management and treatment planning in prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lim, Christopher; Malone, Shawn C; Avruch, Leonard; Breau, Rodney H; Flood, Trevor A; Lim, Megan; Morash, Christopher; Quon, Jeff S; Walsh, Cynthia; Schieda, Nicola

    2015-10-01

    MRI has an important role for radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning in prostate cancer (PCa) providing accurate visualization of the dominant intraprostatic lesion (DIL) and locoregional anatomy, assessment of local staging and depiction of implanted devices. MRI enables the radiation oncologist to optimize RT planning by better defining target tumour volumes (thereby increasing local tumour control), as well as decreasing morbidity (by minimizing the dose to adjacent normal structures). Using MRI, radiation oncologists can define the DIL for delivery of boost doses of RT using a variety of techniques including: stereotactic body radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, proton RT or brachytherapy to improve tumour control. Radiologists require a familiarity with the different RT methods used to treat PCa, as well as an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of the various MR pulse sequences available for RT planning in order to provide an optimal multidisciplinary RT treatment approach to PCa. Understanding the expected post-RT appearance of the prostate and typical characteristics of local tumour recurrence is also important because MRI is rapidly becoming an integral component for diagnosis, image-guided histological sampling and treatment planning in the setting of biochemical failure after RT or surgery. PMID:26279086

  1. Presumptive Late-Onset Ankylosing Spondylitis Simulating Osteoblastic Skeletal Metastasis in a Patient With a History of Prostate Carcinoma: A Diagnostic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Charles P.; Emary, Peter C.; Taylor, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this report is to present a presumptive case of ankylosing spondylitis with late stage progression that simulated osteoblastic metastasis in a patient with a history of prostate carcinoma. Clinical Features A 67-year-old white man presented to a chiropractic clinic complaining of severe and worsening acute low back pain and right foot “numbness.” Further questioning also revealed a history of prostate carcinoma. Intervention and Outcome Imaging examination revealed a sclerotic pedicle and increased uptake of radiopharmaceutical on a nuclear medicine bone scan highly suggestive of osteoblastic skeletal metastasis. Further evaluation, however, revealed that the bone sclerosis was not the result of skeletal metastasis, but more consistent with a seronegative spondyloarthritis such as ankylosing spondylitis. Conclusion This report describes a presumptive case of ankylosing spondylitis simulating skeletal metastasis in a patient with a past medical history of prostate cancer. This atypical presentation illustrates the inherent uncertainty of diagnosis and how that uncertainty can be challenging in clinical practice. It also reinforces that it is critical for healthcare providers to consider a wide spectrum of differential diagnoses to avoid misdiagnoses and inappropriate interventions. PMID:26793037

  2. Effect of different breathing patterns in the same patient on stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy dosimetry for primary renal cell carcinoma: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Daniel; Kron, Tomas; Foroudi, Farshad; Siva, Shankar

    2013-10-01

    Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) targets requires motion management strategies to verify dose delivery. This case study highlights the effect of a change in patient breathing amplitude on the dosimetry to organs at risk and target structures. A 73-year-old male patient was planned for receiving 26 Gy of radiation in 1 fraction of SABR for a left primary RCC. The patient was simulated with four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and the tumor internal target volume (ITV) was delineated using the 4DCT maximum intensity projection. However, the initially planned treatment was abandoned at the radiation oncologist's discretion after pretreatment cone-beam CT (CBCT) motion verification identified a greater than 50% reduction in superior to inferior diaphragm motion as compared with the planning 4DCT. This patient was resimulated with respiratory coaching instructions. To assess the effect of the change in breathing on the dosimetry to the target, each plan was recalculated on the data set representing the change in breathing condition. A change from smaller to larger breathing showed a 46% loss in planning target volume (PTV) coverage, whereas a change from larger breathing to smaller breathing resulted in an 8% decrease in PTV coverage. ITV coverage was similarly reduced by 8% in both scenarios. This case study highlights the importance of tools to verify breathing motion prior to treatment delivery. 4D image guided radiation therapy verification strategies should focus on not only verifying ITV margin coverage but also the effect on the surrounding organs at risk.

  3. Quantification of activity by alpha-camera imaging and small-scale dosimetry within ovarian carcinoma micrometastases treated with targeted alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Chouin, N; Lindegren, S; Jensen, H; Albertsson, P; Bäck, T

    2012-12-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) a promising treatment for small, residual, and micrometastatic diseases has questionable efficacy against malignant lesions larger than the α-particle range, and likely requires favorable intratumoral activity distribution. Here, we characterized and quantified the activity distribution of an alpha-particle emitter radiolabelled antibody within >100-µm micrometastases in a murine ovarian carcinoma model. Nude mice bearing ovarian micrometastases were injected intra-peritoneally with 211At-MX35 (total injected activity 6 MBq, specific activity 650 MBq/mg). Animals were sacrificed at several time points, and peritoneal samples were excised and prepared for alpha-camera imaging. Spatial and temporal activity distributions within micrometastases were derived and used for small-scale dosimetry. We observed two activity distribution patterns: uniform distribution and high stable uptake (>100% IA/g at all time points) in micrometastases with no visible stromal compartment, and radial distribution (high activity on the edge and poor uptake in the core) in tumor cell lobules surrounded by fibroblasts. Activity distributions over time were characterized by a peak (140% IA/g at 4 h) in the outer tumor layer and a sharp drop beyond a depth of 50 µm. Small-scale dosimetry was performed on a multi-cellular micrometastasis model, using time-integrated activities derived from the experimental data. With injected activity of 400 kBq, tumors exhibiting uniform activity distribution received <25 Gy (EUD=13 Gy), whereas tumors presenting radial activity distribution received mean absorbed doses of <8 Gy (EUD=5 Gy). These results provide new insight into important aspects of TAT, and may explain why micrometastases >100 µm might not be effectively treated by the examined regimen. PMID:23358400

  4. Radiation therapy in carcinoma of the prostate: a contributing cause of urinary incontinence

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, J.J.; Smith, R.B.; Raz, S.

    1984-11-01

    The authors believe that radiation therapy as a postoperative adjuvant or preceding salvage prostatectomy for carcinoma is particularly conducive to the complication of urinary incontinence by virtue of its sclerosing effect on residual sphincter mechanisms. Obviously, such dual therapy will continue to prevail in the foreseeable future but patients should be notified of the added risk and be prepared for further treatment of the incontinence. Unfortunately, these patients have an extra risk of complications and failure from anti-incontinence operations.

  5. Hinokitiol, a metal chelator derived from natural plants, suppresses cell growth and disrupts androgen receptor signaling in prostate carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shicheng . E-mail: riu@sdsk.co.jp; Yamauchi, Hitoshi

    2006-12-08

    Hinokitiol ({beta}-thujaplicin), a troplone-related compound found in the heartwood of cupressaceous plants, strongly inhibits the proliferation of a broad range of tumor cell lines. This is the first report to demonstrate that hinokitiol, a metal chelator derived from natural plants, suppresses cell growth and disrupts AR signaling in prostate carcinoma cell lines. Our present studies indicate that hinokitiol suppresses androgen/AR-mediated cell growth and androgen-stimulated DNA synthesis by [{sup 3}H]thymidine incorporation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Hinokitiol simultaneously suppresses the intracellular and secreted PSA levels, a marker for the progression of prostate cancer. Hinokitiol significantly represses the AR mRNA and protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, the ligand-binding assay shows that hinokitiol blocks binding of the synthetic androgen [{sup 3}H]R1881 to AR in LNCaP cells. These findings collectively suggest that hinokitiol is potentially effective against prostate cancer in vitro, and thus it might become a novel chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for prostate cancer.

  6. Imaging characteristic analysis of metastatic spine lesions from breast, prostate, lung, and renal cell carcinomas for surgical planning: Osteolytic versus osteoblastic

    PubMed Central

    Reddington, Justin A.; Mendez, Gustavo A.; Ching, Alex; Kubicky, Charlotte Dai; Klimo, Paul; Ragel, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgeons treating metastatic spine disease can use computed tomography (CT) imaging to determine whether lesions are osteolytic, osteoblastic, or mixed. This enables treatment that considers the structural integrity of the vertebral body (VB), which is impaired with lytic lesions but not blastic lesions. The authors analyzed CT imaging characteristics of spine metastasis from breast, lung, prostate, and renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) to determine the metastasis patterns of each of these common tumors. Methods: The authors identified patients with metastatic spine disease treated during a 3-year period. Variables studied included age, sex, and cancer type. Lesions from breast, lung, prostate, and RCC primary lesions were selected for imaging analysis. Results: Sixty-six patients were identified: 17 had breast metastasis, 14 prostate, 18 lung, and 17 RCC. Breast cancer metastasis involved 33% of VBs with 56%, 20%, and 24% osteolytic, osteoblastic, and mixed, respectively. Prostate cancer metastasis involved 35% of VBs with 14%, 62%, and 24% osteolytic, osteoblastic, and mixed, respectively. Lung cancer metastasis involved 13% of VBs with 64%, 33%, and 3% osteolytic, osteoblastic, and mixed, respectively. RCC metastasis involved 11% of VBs with 91%, 7%, and 2% osteolytic, osteoblastic, and mixed lesions, respectively. Conclusions: To improve surgical planning, we advocate the use of CT prior to surgery to evaluate whether spine metastases are osteolytic or osteoblastic. In cases of osteolytic lesions, the concern is of segmental instability requiring reconstruction and the risk for screw pull out should instrumentation be considered. In cases of osteoblastic lesions, surgeons should consider debulking dense bone. PMID:27274410

  7. 125I implantation for carcinoma of prostate. Further follow-up of first 100 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, H.B.; Batata, M.; Hilaris, B.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1982-12-01

    Analysis of the first 100 patients at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with Stage B or C prostatic cancer treated by pelvic lymph node dissection and Iodine-125 implantation and endocrine therapy when specifically indicated revealed five-year survival rates of 87 and 77 per cent, respectively. Tumor stage, tumor grade, and lymph node metastasis each correlated with survival, but the latter was the most significant factor. Although routine follow-up biopsies were not performed, local tumor control as judged by serial digital rectal examination defined a prognostically favored group of patients. In the absence of controls, however, whether the latter response indicates a salutary effect of the treatment which produces an improved survival or merely identifies a group of patients who were predetermined to have a more favorable survival is undetermined.

  8. Organ-confined prostate carcinoma radiation brachytherapy compared with external either photon- or hadron-beam radiation therapy. Just a short up-to-date.

    PubMed

    Alberti, C

    2011-07-01

    Both low dose rate (LDR) permanent either 1251 or 103Pd seed implant and high dose rate (HDR) 1921r temporary implant are an excellent way to release high dose of ionizing radiations to cancerous lesions while significantly sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. Therefore, the radiation brachytherapy, among the established treatment options of organ-confined prostate carcinoma--interstitial radiofrequency, high intensity focused ultrasound, cryotherapy--has gained large acceptance in the last decades. The LDR permanent interstitial radioactive seed implantation is often used as monotherapy for low risk prostate carcinoma whereas the HDR temporary implant may useful to treat intermediate-to-high risk prostate tumors as a radiation boost to combined external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). On the other hand, with recent refinement of EBRT techniques--either three-dimensional conformal- or intensity-modulated radiotherapy, cyber-knife radiosurgery with even 4D-high resolution image-guided tracking--high doses of X-rays may be precisely delivered to prostate malignant lesions without increasing toxicity for surrounding normal structures. Also hadron therapy is an increasingly successful technique that allows the release of effective energy of protons (H+), neutrons or carbon ions (6(12)C) to the limited extent of the cancerous target site, thus destroying malignant lesion with millimetric precision--just as bloodless surgery--while less damaging the neighbouring healthy tissues. Looking to the near future, even more effective oncotherapy modality appears to be the use of antiprotons because of their highly confined energy deposition at well defined body dept around the annihilation point in contact with protons of the ordinary matter, so targeting only a very limited body volume. PMID:21780545

  9. Role of Early Proctoscopy in Predicting Late Symptomatic Proctitis After External Radiation Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Campostrini, Franco; Musola, Renato; Marchiaro, Giuseppe; Lonardi, Federico; Verlato, Giuseppe

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To determine whether acute radiation-proctitis, diagnosed by proctoscopy after radiation therapy for prostate cancer, can predict late clinical proctitis. Methods and Materials: A prospective study of 130 patients who underwent external radiation therapy (RT) for stage T1 to T4 prostate cancer between 1997 and 2008 was performed. Treatments were conventional (2-dimensional [2D]) in 61 patients and 3D conformal in 69, with a median target dose of 72 Gy (70-74 Gy). Within 1 week after RT, proctoscopy was performed to detect possible acute endoscopic proctitis (AEP). Acute clinical proctitis (ACP) and late clinical proctitis (LCP) were also evaluated. The median follow-up was 84 months (20-180 months). The influence of AEP and ACP on LCP occurrence was studied using the Cox model controlling for age, dose, prostatectomy, RT technique (2D vs 3D), and hormone therapy. Results: AEP was detected in 15 patients (11.5%) and ACP in 67 (51.5%); in 13 cases (10%) AEP and ACP occurred simultaneously. Thirty-five cases of LCP were recorded. The 5-year probability of developing LCP was highest in patients with AEP and ACP (77%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 53%-94%) and lowest in asymptomatic patients (14%, 95% CI 7%-26%; P<.001). Compared to asymptomatic patients, the 5-year probability also was slightly increased in patients with ACP only (26%, 95% CI 16%-40%; P=.052). In multivariable analysis, the combination of AEP and ACP was the main predictor of LCP: compared to asymptomatic patients, the hazard ratio was 5.6 (2.1-15.2) in patients with AEP plus ACP (P=.001) and 2.1 (0.9-4.9) in those with ACP only (P=.103). Conclusions: In patients with AEP and ACP, the risk of LCP was more than 5-fold increased compared to those who were asymptomatic, while a much smaller increase in risk occurred in patients with ACP only. Early proctoscopy can provide valuable information regarding the likelihood of late proctitis.

  10. Irradiation of carcinoma of the prostate localized to the pelvis: analysis of tumor response and prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, C.A.; Walz, B.J.; Zivnuska, F.R.; Pilepich, M.; Prasad, K.; Bauer, W.

    1980-05-01

    A group of 195 patients with histologically proven adenocarcinoma of the prostate limited to pelvis were treated with definitive irradiation between 1967 and December 1976. In 42 patients with Stage B adenocarcinoma, the tumor free actuarial five year survival was 80%; for 141 with Stage C it was 56%; there were no long term survivors in 12 patients with Stage D1. The pelvic failure rate was 7% in Stage B, 17% in Stage C and 25% in Stage D1. Histological differentiation of the tumor had no significant impact in survival of patients with Stage B. However, in Stage C, patients with well or moderately differentiated tumor had a five year survival of 70% in contrast to 25% in those with poorly differentiated lesions. In this group of patients 60% of the failures resulted from distant metastasis. In Stage C, 38% of the patients who were treated with doses between 5500 and 6000 rad developed pelvic failures, as opposed to 20% of those treated with a mean dose of 6500 rad and 12% in patients receiving 7000 rad or greater dose. The addition of hormonal therapy, usually castration and diethylstilbestral, did not significantly affect the prognosis of patients with Stage B or C. Major complications of therapy occurred in 11% of the patients. The most common problem was urinary incontinence.

  11. Predictors of radiation-induced gastrointestinal morbidity: A prospective, longitudinal study following radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Eric K; Krol, Robin; Dhillon, Varinderpal S; Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata; Butters, Julie; Brock, Aleisha R; Esterman, Adrian; Salisbury, Carolyn; Fenech, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Background Chronic gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity occurs in ≥50% of patients after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for carcinoma of prostate (CaP). This prospective, longitudinal study examines which baseline measurements of: 1) homocysteine and micronutrients in plasma; 2) chromosome damage/misrepair biomarkers; and 3) anal and rectal dose volume metrics predict GI morbidity after EBRT. Patients and methods In total, 106 patients with CaP had evaluations of GI symptoms (modified LENT-SOMA questionnaires) before EBRT and at one month, one, two and three years after its completion. Other variables measured before EBRT were: 1) plasma concentrations of homocysteine and micronutrients including caroteinoids and selenium; 2) chromosome damage/DNA misrepair (micronuclei/nucleoplasmic bridge) indices; and 3) mean anal and rectal wall doses and volumes of anal and rectal walls receiving ≥40 Gy and ≥60 Gy. Univariate and multivariate analyzes examined the relationships among: 1) plasma levels of homocysteine and micronutrients; 2) indices of chromosome damage/DNA misrepair; and 3) mean anal and rectal wall doses and volumes of anal and rectal walls receiving ≥40 Gy and ≥60 Gy and total GI symptom scores from one month to three years after EBRT. Results Increased frequency and urgency of defecation, rectal mucous discharge and bleeding after EBRT resulted in sustained rises in total GI symptom scores above baseline at three years. On univariate analysis, total GI symptom scores were significantly associated with: 1) plasma selenium and α tocopherol; 2) micronuclei indices of DNA damage; 3) mean anal and rectal wall doses; and 4) volumes of anal and rectal wall receiving ≥40 Gy and ≥60 Gy (p = 0.08-<0.001). On multivariate analysis, only volume of anal wall receiving ≥40 Gy was significant for increased GI symptoms after EBRT (p < 0.001). Conclusion The volume of anal wall receiving ≥40 Gy predicts chronic GI morbidity after EBRT for CaP. PMID

  12. Argon Plasma Coagulation Therapy Versus Topical Formalin for Intractable Rectal Bleeding and Anorectal Dysfunction After Radiation Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, Eric; Tam, William; Schoeman, Mark; Moore, James; Thomas, Michelle; Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effect of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and topical formalin for intractable rectal bleeding and anorectal dysfunction associated with chronic radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Thirty men (median age, 72 years; range, 49-87 years) with intractable rectal bleeding (defined as ≥1× per week and/or requiring blood transfusions) after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma were randomized to treatment with APC (n=17) or topical formalin (n=13). Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) anorectal symptoms (validated questionnaires, including modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic and visual analogue scales for rectal bleeding); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded rectal balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and after the treatment endpoint (defined as reduction in rectal bleeding to 1× per month or better, reduction in visual analogue scales to ≤25 mm, and no longer needing blood transfusions). Results: The treatment endpoint was achieved in 94% of the APC group and 100% of the topical formalin group after a median (range) of 2 (1-5) sessions of either treatment. After a follow-up duration of 111 (29-170) months, only 1 patient in each group needed further treatment. Reductions in rectal compliance and volumes of sensory perception occurred after APC, but no effect on anorectal symptoms other than rectal bleeding was observed. There were no differences between APC and topical formalin for anorectal symptoms and function, nor for anal sphincteric morphology. Conclusions: Argon plasma coagulation and topical formalin had comparable efficacy in the durable control of rectal bleeding associated with chronic radiation proctitis but had no beneficial effect on anorectal dysfunction.

  13. Induction of cyclo-oxygenase-2 mRNA by prostaglandin E2 in human prostatic carcinoma cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjandrawinata, R. R.; Dahiya, R.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1997-01-01

    Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid by the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase. There are two isoforms of cyclooxygenases: COX-1 (a constitutive form) and COX-2 (an inducible form). COX-2 has recently been categorized as an immediate-early gene and is associated with cellular growth and differentiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous dimethylprostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2) on prostate cancer cell growth. Results of these experiments demonstrate that administration of dmPGE2 to growing PC-3 cells significantly increased cellular proliferation (as measured by the cell number), total DNA content and endogenous PGE2 concentration. DmPGE2 also increased the steady-state mRNA levels of its own inducible synthesizing enzyme, COX-2, as well as cellular growth to levels similar to those seen with fetal calf serum and phorbol ester. The same results were observed in other human cancer cell types, such as the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells, breast cancer MDA-MB-134 cells and human colorectal carcinoma DiFi cells. In PC-3 cells, the dmPGE2 regulation of the COX-2 mRNA levels was both time dependent, with maximum stimulation seen 2 h after addition, and dose dependent on dmPGE2 concentration, with maximum stimulation seen at 5 microg ml(-1). The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen (5 microM), in the presence of exogenous dmPGE2, inhibited the up-regulation of COX-2 mRNA and PC-3 cell growth. Taken together, these data suggest that PGE2 has a specific role in the maintenance of human cancer cell growth and that the activation of COX-2 expression depends primarily upon newly synthesized PGE2, perhaps resulting from changes in local cellular PGE2 concentrations.

  14. Prostasin induces protease-dependent and independent molecular changes in the human prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mengqian; Fu, Ya-Yuan; Lin, Chen-Yong; Chen, Li-Mei; Chai, Karl X.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Expression of prostasin in the PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells inhibited in vitro invasion, but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. Wild-type human prostasin or a serine active-site mutant prostasin was expressed in the PC-3 cells. Molecular changes were measured at the mRNA and the protein levels. Cell signaling changes were evaluated by measuring phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk1/2) following epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment of the cells. Protein expression of the EGF receptor (EGFR) was differentially down-regulated by the wild-type and the active-site mutant prostasin. The mRNA expression of EGFR and the transcription repressor SLUG was reduced in cells expressing wild-type prostasin but not the active-site mutant. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 in response to EGF was greatly reduced by the wild-type prostasin but not by the active-site mutant. The mRNA expression of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), the uPA receptor (uPAR), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was decreased by the wild-type and the active-site mutant prostasin. The mRNA or protein expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), matriptase, and E-cadherin was greatly increased by the active-site mutant prostasin. In conclusion, prostasin expression elicits both protease-dependent and independent molecular changes in the PC-3 cells. PMID:17532063

  15. Evaluation of Alpha-Therapy with Radium-223-Dichloride in Castration Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer—the Role of Gamma Scintigraphy in Dosimetry and Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Kairemo, Kalevi; Joensuu, Timo; Rasulova, Nigora; Kiljunen, Timo; Kangasmäki, Aki

    2015-01-01

    Radium-223-dichloride (223RaCl2) is a new bone-seeking calcium analogue alpha-emitter, which has obtained marketing authorization for the treatment skeletal metastases of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. The current treatment regimen is based on six consecutive doses of 223RaCl2 at 4 week intervals and the administered activity dose, 50 kBq/kg per cycle is based on patient weight. We analyzed two patients using quantitative serial gamma imaging to estimate dosimetry in tumors and see possible pharmacokinetic differences in the treatment cycles. The lesions were rather well visualized in gamma scintigraphy in spite of low gamma activity (<1.1% gamma radiation) at 0, 7 and 28 days using 30–60 min acquisition times. Both our patients analyzed in serial gamma imagings, had two lesions in the gamma imaging field, the mean counts of the relative intensity varied from 27.8 to 36.5 (patient 1), and from 37.4 to 82.2 (patient 2). The half-lives varied from 1.8 days to 4.5 days during the six cycles (patient 1), and from 1.5 days to 3.6 days (patient 2), respectively. In the lesion half-lives calculated from the imaging the maximum difference between the treatment cycles in the same lesion was 2.0-fold (1.8 vs. 3.6). Of these patients, patient 1 demonstrated a serum PSA response, whereas there was no PSA response in patient 2. From our data, there were maximally up to 4.0-fold differences (62.1 vs. 246.6 ) between the relative absorbed radiation doses between patients as calculated from the quantitative standardized imaging to be delivered in only two lesions, and in the same lesion the maximum difference in the cycles was up to 2.3-fold (107.4 vs. 246.6). Our recommendation based on statistical simulation analysis, is serial measurement at days 0–8 at least 3 times, this improve the accuracy significantly to study the lesion activities, half-lives or calculated relative absorbed radiation doses as calculated from the imaging. Both our patients had originally two

  16. Improved prognostic impact of S-phase values from paraffin-embedded breast and prostate carcinomas after correcting for nuclear slicing.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, O P; Visakorpi, T; Holli, K; Heikkinen, A; Isola, J; Koivula, T

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear debris may significantly interfere with the analysis of S-phase fraction (SPF) from paraffin-embedded tumors. We used a background subtraction algorithm to compensate for the effects of slicing of tumor cell nuclei during preparation of paraffin-embedded specimens. DNA histograms were analyzed from 88 node-negative breast and from 78 prostatic carcinomas. Median SPFs corrected for nuclear slicing were lower than uncorrected ones in both breast cancer (7.6% vs. 5.7%) and prostate cancer (6.7% vs. 4.2%). The median SPF value in each group was used as a cut-off point in survival studies. As compared with the uncorrected SPFs, corrected SPF levels resulted in a more significant survival difference between breast cancer patients with above and below median SPF (p = 0.0014 vs. p = 0.014) and in a higher relative risk (RR) of death (4.5 vs. 3.1). The same was true for prostate cancer survival (p less than 0.0001 vs. p = 0.002) and RR (5.3 vs. 3.1). Compared with the exponential background subtraction method, the sliced nuclei correction was more reproducible and could be applied in all evaluable histograms without the risk of overcompensation. In conclusion, our results support the use of background correction with the sliced nuclei model in DNA flow cytometric studies of archival tissues. PMID:1935457

  17. Antiproliferative effects of Dangyuja (Citrus grandis Osbeck) leaves through suppression of constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Shu Yuan; Kim, Sung-Moo; Kim, Chulwon; Um, Jae-Young; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Seong Won; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Nam, Dongwoo; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Na, Yun-Cheol; Jeong, Eun-Kyung; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2012-02-01

    Although Dangyuja (Citrus grandis Osbeck) exhibits anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, its molecular targets and pathways, especially in human prostate cancer cells, are not fully understood. In this study, the antiproliferative effect of Dangyuja leaves through the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 signaling pathway was investigated in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells. The solvent fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol) were obtained from a crude extract (80% methanol extract) of Dangyuja leaves. We first found that the chloroform fraction of Dangyuja leaves (DCF) was the most cytotoxic against DU145 cells. DCF inhibited constitutive STAT3 activation through blocking upstream Janus-like kinase 2 and c-Src. Consistent with STAT3 inactivation, DCF down-regulated the expression of STAT3 target genes, including bcl-2, bcl-xl, and cyclin D1; this correlated with the suppression of proliferation, the accumulation of cell cycle at the sub-G(1) phase, and the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, DCF exerted a relatively minor effect on the growth of human prostate noncancerous RWPE-1 cells. Nobiletin, a major active constituent of DCF, could induce apoptosis via the suppression of constitutive STAT3 activation. Overall, our results indicate that the anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities previously assigned to DCF may be mediated partially through the suppression of the STAT3 signaling. PMID:22273151

  18. Urethral dose sparing in squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal using proton therapy matching electrons with prior brachytherapy for prostate cancer: A case study.

    PubMed

    Apinorasethkul, Ontida; Lenards, Nishele; Hunzeker, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to communicate a technique on treating the re-irradiation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of anal canal with proton fields matched with electron fields to spare prostatic urethra. A 76-year old male presented with a secondary radiation-induced malignancy as a result of prostate brachytherapy seeds irradiation 10 years prior. A rectal examination revealed a bulky tumor at the top of the anal canal involving the left superior-most aspect of the anal canal extending superiorly into the rectum. The inferior extent was palpable approximately 3cm from the anal verge and the superior extent of the mass measured greater than 5cm in the superior-inferior dimension. Chemoradiation was suggested since the patient was opposed to abdominoperineal resection (APR) and colostomy. The use of proton therapy matching with electron fields in the re-irradiation setting could help reduce the complications. A 2 lateral proton beams were designed to treat the bulky tumor volume with 2 electron beams treating the nodal volumes. This complication of treatment fields helped spare the prostatic urethra and reduced the risk of urinary obstruction in the future. PMID:27396941

  19. [Salvage 125I brachytherapy of locally recurrent prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Gesztesi, László; Ágoston, Péter; Major, Tibor; Gődény, Mária; Andi, Judit; Lengyel, Zsolt; Polgár, Csaba

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to report a case of salvage low dose rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy in a patient with locally recurrent prostate cancer, four years after his first treatment with combined external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. A 61-year-old man was treated with 1x10 Gy HDR brachytherapy and a total of 60 Gy EBRT for an organ confined intermediate risk carcinoma of the prostate in 2009. The patient's tumor had been in regression with the lowest PSA level of 0.09 ng/ml, till the end of 2013. After slow but continuous elevation, his PSA level had reached 1.46 ng/ml by February 2014. Pelvis MRI and whole body acetate PET/CT showed recurrent tumor in the dorsal-right region of the prostate. Bone scan was negative. After discussing the possible salvage treatment options with the patient, he chose LDR brachytherapy. In 2014, in spinal anesthesia 21 125I "seeds" were implanted with transrectal ultrasound guidance into the prostate. The prescribed dose to the whole prostate was 100 Gy, to the volume of the recurrent tumor was 140 Gy. The patient tolerated the salvage brachytherapy well. The postimplant dosimetry was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging-computed tomography (MR-CT) fusion and appeared satisfactory. PSA level decreased from the pre-salvage value of 1.46 ng/ml to 0.42 ng/ml by one month and 0.18 ng/ml by two months after the brachytherapy. No gastrointestinal side effects appeared, the patient's urination became slightly more frequent. In selected patients, salvage LDR brachytherapy can be a good choice for curative treatment of locally recurrent prostate cancer, after primary radiation therapy. Multiparametric MRI is fundamental, acetate PET/CT can play an important role when defining the localization of the recurrent tumor. PMID:25260087

  20. Inhibitors of histone deacetylase 1 reverse the immune evasion phenotype to enhance T-cell mediated lysis of prostate and breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gameiro, Sofia R; Malamas, Anthony S; Tsang, Kwong Y; Ferrone, Soldano; Hodge, James W

    2016-02-16

    The clinical promise of cancer immunotherapy relies on the premise that the immune system can recognize and eliminate tumor cells identified as non-self. However, tumors can evade host immune surveillance through multiple mechanisms, including epigenetic silencing of genes involved in antigen processing and immune recognition. Hence, there is an unmet clinical need to develop effective therapeutic strategies that can restore tumor immune recognition when combined with immunotherapy, such as immune checkpoint blockade and therapeutic cancer vaccines. We sought to examine the potential of clinically relevant exposure of prostate and breast human carcinoma cells to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to reverse tumor immune escape to T-cell mediated lysis. Here we demonstrate that prostate (LNCAP) and breast (MDA-MB-231) carcinoma cells are more sensitive to T-cell mediated lysis in vitro after clinically relevant exposure to epigenetic therapy with either the pan-HDAC inhibitor vorinostat or the class I HDAC inhibitor entinostat. This pattern of immunogenic modulation was observed against a broad range of tumor-associated antigens, such as CEA, MUC1, PSA, and brachyury, and associated with augmented expression of multiple proteins involved in antigen processing and tumor immune recognition. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition studies identified HDAC1 as a key determinant in the reversal of carcinoma immune escape. Further, our findings suggest that the observed reversal of tumor immune evasion is driven by a response to cellular stress through activation of the unfolded protein response. This offers the rationale for combining HDAC inhibitors with immunotherapy, including therapeutic cancer vaccines. PMID:26862729

  1. Inhibitors of histone deacetylase 1 reverse the immune evasion phenotype to enhance T-cell mediated lysis of prostate and breast carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Gameiro, Sofia R.; Malamas, Anthony S.; Tsang, Kwong Y.; Ferrone, Soldano; Hodge, James W.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical promise of cancer immunotherapy relies on the premise that the immune system can recognize and eliminate tumor cells identified as non-self. However, tumors can evade host immune surveillance through multiple mechanisms, including epigenetic silencing of genes involved in antigen processing and immune recognition. Hence, there is an unmet clinical need to develop effective therapeutic strategies that can restore tumor immune recognition when combined with immunotherapy, such as immune checkpoint blockade and therapeutic cancer vaccines. We sought to examine the potential of clinically relevant exposure of prostate and breast human carcinoma cells to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to reverse tumor immune escape to T-cell mediated lysis. Here we demonstrate that prostate (LNCAP) and breast (MDA-MB-231) carcinoma cells are more sensitive to T-cell mediated lysis in vitro after clinically relevant exposure to epigenetic therapy with either the pan-HDAC inhibitor vorinostat or the class I HDAC inhibitor entinostat. This pattern of immunogenic modulation was observed against a broad range of tumor-associated antigens, such as CEA, MUC1, PSA, and brachyury, and associated with augmented expression of multiple proteins involved in antigen processing and tumor immune recognition. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition studies identified HDAC1 as a key determinant in the reversal of carcinoma immune escape. Further, our findings suggest that the observed reversal of tumor immune evasion is driven by a response to cellular stress through activation of the unfolded protein response. This offers the rationale for combining HDAC inhibitors with immunotherapy, including therapeutic cancer vaccines. PMID:26862729

  2. The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma: Definition of Grading Patterns and Proposal for a New Grading System.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jonathan I; Egevad, Lars; Amin, Mahul B; Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R; Humphrey, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    In November, 2014, 65 prostate cancer pathology experts, along with 17 clinicians including urologists, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists from 19 different countries gathered in a consensus conference to update the grading of prostate cancer, last revised in 2005. The major conclusions were: (1) Cribriform glands should be assigned a Gleason pattern 4, regardless of morphology; (2) Glomeruloid glands should be assigned a Gleason pattern 4, regardless of morphology; (3) Grading of mucinous carcinoma of the prostate should be based on its underlying growth pattern rather than grading them all as pattern 4; and (4) Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate without invasive carcinoma should not be assigned a Gleason grade and a comment as to its invariable association with aggressive prostate cancer should be made. Regarding morphologies of Gleason patterns, there was clear consensus on: (1) Gleason pattern 4 includes cribriform, fused, and poorly formed glands; (2) The term hypernephromatoid cancer should not be used; (3) For a diagnosis of Gleason pattern 4, it needs to be seen at 10x lens magnification; (4) Occasional/seemingly poorly formed or fused glands between well-formed glands is insufficient for a diagnosis of pattern 4; (5) In cases with borderline morphology between Gleason pattern 3 and pattern 4 and crush artifacts, the lower grade should be favored; (6) Branched glands are allowed in Gleason pattern 3; (7) Small solid cylinders represent Gleason pattern 5; (8) Solid medium to large nests with rosette-like spaces should be considered to represent Gleason pattern 5; and (9) Presence of unequivocal comedonecrosis, even if focal is indicative of Gleason pattern 5. It was recognized by both pathologists and clinicians that despite the above changes, there were deficiencies with the Gleason system. The Gleason grading system ranges from 2 to 10, yet 6 is the lowest score currently assigned. When patients are told that they have a Gleason score 6 out

  3. sEphB4-HSA Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Bladder Cancer, Prostate Cancer, or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-06

    Infiltrating Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer

  4. Prophylactic tamsulosin (Flomax) in patients undergoing prostate {sup 125}I brachytherapy for prostate carcinoma: Final report of a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study

    SciTech Connect

    Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Ulchaker, James C.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Angermeier, Kenneth W.; Klein, Eric A.; Chehade, Nabil; Altman, Andrew; Ciezki, Jay P. . E-mail: ciezkj@ccf.org

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic tamsulosin (Flomax) in reducing the urinary symptoms in patients undergoing {sup 125}I prostate implantation (PI) for prostate adenocarcinoma. Methods and materials: This is a single-institution, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial for patients undergoing PI for prostate adenocarcinoma comparing prophylactic tamsulosin versus placebo. Eligibility criteria included patients not taking tamsulosin or other {alpha}-blockers treated with PI. The patients were randomly assigned to either tamsulosin (0.8 mg, orally once a day) or matched placebo. All patients started the medication 4 days before PI and continued for 60 days. The American Urologic Association (AUA) symptom index questionnaire was used to assess urinary symptoms. The AUA questionnaire was administered before PI for a baseline score and weekly for 8 weeks after PI. Patients were taken off the study if they developed urinary retention, had intolerable urinary symptoms, or wished to discontinue with the trial. Results: One hundred twenty-six patients were enrolled in this study from November 2001 to January 2003 (118 were evaluable: 58 in the tamsulosin arm and 60 in the placebo group). Pretreatment and treatment characteristics were comparably matched between the two groups. The urinary retention rate was 17% (10 patients) in the placebo group compared with 10% (6 patients) in the tamsulosin group (p = 0.3161). Eighty-eight percent (14 patients) of those who developed urinary retention experienced it within 2 weeks after the PI. Intolerable urinary symptoms were reported equally (10 patients in each group) with 70% occurring in the first 2 weeks after PI. There was a significant difference in mean AUA score in favor of tamsulosin at Week 5 after PI (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Prophylactic tamsulosin (0.8 mg/day) before prostate brachytherapy did not significantly affect urinary retention rates, but had a positive effect on urinary morbidity at

  5. Ten-core versus 16-core transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy for detection of prostatic carcinoma: a prospective comparative study in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, V. Surya; Mohan, G. Chandra; Krishnaiah, S. Venkata; Vijaykumar, V.; Babu, G. Ramesh; Reddy, G. Vijaya Bhaskar; Mahaboob, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the cancer detection rate in patients with raised serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) results between the 10-core and the 16-core biopsy techniques in an Indian population. Methods: Between November 2010 and November 2012, 95 men aged >50 years who presented to the Urology Department with lower urinary tract symptoms, elevated serum PSA, and/or abnormal DRE findings underwent transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. A total of 53 patients underwent 10-core biopsy and 42 patients underwent 16-core biopsy. Results: Of the 53 men in the 10-core group, 8 had cancer, whereas in the 16-core biopsy group, 23 of 42 men had cancer. Detection of prostate cancer was significantly higher in patients who underwent 16-core biopsy than in those who underwent 10-core biopsy (P<0.001). Among the 95 men, 44 men had abnormal DRE findings (46.3%), of whom 23 showed cancer (52.27%). Of 51 men with normal DRE findings and elevated PSA, 8 men had malignancy with a cancer detection rate of 15.68%. Among 20 men with PSA between 4.1 and 10 ng/mL, 2 (10%) had cancer. In 31 men with PSA between 10.1 and 20 ng/mL, 3 cancers (9.67%) were detected, and in 44 men with PSA >20 ng/mL, 26 cancers were detected (59.09%). Conclusions: The cancer detection rate with 16-core TRUS-guided biopsy is significantly higher than that with 10-core biopsy (54.76% vs. 15.09%, P<0.001). In patients with both normal and abnormal DRE findings, 16-core biopsy has a better detection rate than the 10-core biopsy protocol. With increasing PSA, there is a high rate of detection of prostate cancer in both 10-core and 16-core biopsy patients. PMID:24392441

  6. Collecting and Studying Blood and Tissue Samples From Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Prostate or Bladder/Urothelial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-06

    Healthy Control; Localized Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Bone; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Soft Tissues; Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Recurrent Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  7. Is the in vivo dosimetry with the OneDosePlusTM system able to detect intra-fraction motion? A retrospective analysis of in vivo data from breast and prostate patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The OneDosePlusTM system, based on MOSFET solid-state radiation detectors and a handheld dosimetry reader, has been used to evaluate intra-fraction movements of patients with breast and prostate cancer. Methods An Action Threshold (AT), defined as the maximum acceptable discrepancy between measured dose and dose calculated with the Treatment Planning System (TPS) (for each field) has been determined from phantom data. To investigate the sensitivity of the system to direction of the patient movements, fixed displacements have been simulated in phantom. The AT has been used as an indicator to establish if patients move during a treatment session, after having verified the set-up with 2D and/or 3D images. Phantom tests have been performed matching different linear accelerators and two TPSs (TPS1 and TPS2). Results The ATs have been found to be very similar (5.0% for TPS1 and 4.5% for TPS2). From statistical data analysis, the system has been found not sensitive enough to reveal displacements smaller than 1 cm (within two standard deviations). The ATs applied to in vivo treatments showed that among the twenty five patients treated for breast cancer, only four of them moved during each measurement session. Splitting data into medial and lateral field, two patients have been found to move during all these sessions; the others, instead, moved only in the second part of the treatment. Patients with prostate cancer have behaved better than patients with breast cancer. Only two out of twenty five moved in each measurement session. Conclusions The method described in the paper, easily implemented in the clinical practice, combines all the advantages of in vivo procedures using the OneDosePlusTM system with the possibility of detecting intra-fraction patient movements. PMID:22716260

  8. Polyamine contents in current foods: a basis for polyamine reduced diet and a study of its long term observance and tolerance in prostate carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, B G; Havouis, R; Moulinoux, J P

    2007-08-01

    Polyamine contents were assessed by mass spectrometry in 233 current foods and beverages. In order to reduce gut polyamine uptake, a polyamine reduced diet (PRD) and partial intermittent intestinal tract decontamination (PIITD) with neomycin or nifuroxazide was proposed as nutritional therapy to 33 prostate carcinoma patients, 30 of whom with hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Mean PRD observance was 22 +/- 19 (median: 16; range: 3-72) months. 10, 8 and 3 patients were respectively on PRD for more than 30, 36 and 64 months. No diet toxicity was observed. 8 patients had moderate intestinal intolerance due to PIITD which was interrupted. No significant differences in body weight, blood counts or serum protein levels were observed during the follow-up of patients under PRD. Performance status and pain scores were relatively stable during the trial with improved pain scores at 6 months. A PRD associated with intermittent PIITD is a safe and well observed nutritional regimen and long term observance is possible. PMID:17578651

  9. Cadmium Levels in Tissue and Plasma as a Risk Factor for Prostate Carcinoma: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Yi; Hao, Rui; Shao, Mengmeng; Luo, Yunbo

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that has been suggested to be a carcinogen by evidence. A number of published studies have investigated the association between cadmium levels and prostate cancer, but the results were inconsistent. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to get a precise estimate of this subject. After a careful searching and screening, a total of 11 publications containing 14 separated studies were included. Based on a random-effect model, the pooled data showed that cadmium levels of prostate tissues (standard mean difference (SMD) = 3.17, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.60-5.74, P < 0.05) and plasma (SMD = 4.07, 95 % CI = 2.01-6.13, P < 0.05) were significantly higher in prostate cancer patients than those in the healthy controls. No difference of hair and nail cadmium levels between the prostate cancer cases and the controls was found. The data suggested that cadmium exposure might exert an influence on the tumorigenesis of prostate tissues. Future investigations with large sample sizes are needed to verify the results. PMID:26631052

  10. Computational dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

  11. Clinicopathological Overview of Granulomatous Prostatitis: An Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Dravid, Nandkumar; Nikumbh, Dhiraj; Patil, Ashish; Nagappa, Karibasappa Gundabaktha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Granulomatous prostatitis is a rare inflammatory condition of the prostate. Granulomatous prostatitis is important because, it mimics prostatic carcinoma clinically and hence the diagnosis can be made only by histopathological examination. Aim To study the histomorphological features and to know the prevalence of granulomatous prostatitis. Materials and Methods Histopathological records of 1,203 prostatic specimens received in the Department of the Pathology over a period of five years (June 2009 – June 2014). Seventeen cases of histopathologically, diagnosed granulomatous prostatitis were retrieved and reterospective data was collected from the patient’s records. Results Out of 17 cases of granulomatous prostatitis, we encountered 9 cases of non-specific granulomatous prostatitis, 5 cases of xanthogranulomatous prostatitis and 3 cases of specific tubercular prostatitis. The common age ranged from 51-75 years (mean 63 years) with mean PSA level of 15.8ng/ml. Six patients showed focal hypoechoic areas on TRUS and 11 cases revealed hard and fixed nodule on DRE. Conclusion Non-specific granulomatous prostatitis is the most common type of granulomatous prostatitis. There is no specific pattern of clinical, biochemical and ultrasound findings that allows the diagnosis of granulomatous prostatitis or differentiates it from prostatic carcinoma. Hence, histomorphological diagnosis is the gold standard in differentiating various prostatic lesions. PMID:27014642

  12. Bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy, iridium 192 template, and external beam therapy for localized prostatic carcinoma: complications and results

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, F.A.; Ali, M.M.; Marks, S.E.; Hackler, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma were treated by bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy and temporary implantation of iridium 192 strands with adjuvant external beam radiotherapy. With the implant the prostate received between 3200 and 3500 gray (Gy) followed in two weeks by small-field external beam irradiation for an additional dose of approximately 3400 Gy. Morbidity included an ileofemoral thrombosis in one patient, and transient radiation proctitis in four patients; one patient required transurethral prostatic resection for obstruction at one year. Local response of the primary tumor was dramatic in every case at three-month follow-up. In 11 of 15 patients (73%), biopsy at one year showed no evidence of disease.

  13. Evaluation of volume change in rectum and bladder during application of image-guided radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, J. A.; Rojas, J. I.

    2016-07-01

    All prostate cancer patients from Centro Médico Radioterapia Siglo XXI receive Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). This therapy uses image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) with the Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). This study compares the planned dose in the reference CT image against the delivered dose recalculate in the CBCT image. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomic changes and related dosimetric effect based on weekly CBCT directly for patients with prostate cancer undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment. The collected data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA.

  14. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the urethral diverticulum mimicking prostate cancer: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Yildirim, Zubeyde; Bayol, Umit; Diniz, Gulden; Karaca, Cezmi; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2015-01-01

    Primary urethral carcinomas are uncommon, with urothelial carcinoma as the most common subtype. Urethral diverticulum is also rarely seen in men. A 44-year-old male presented with voiding symptoms. Abdominoperineal resection, prostatectomy, bladder neck excision, and proximal urethral excision were performed. A pathological examination revealed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) located inside an urethral diverticulum. We report this unusual case because primary SCC of the male urethral diverticulum is extremely rare. To our knowledge, our patient is only the second reported case. PMID:26029309

  15. Chemotherapy-Induced Monoamine Oxidase Expression in Prostate Carcinoma Functions as a Cytoprotective Resistance Enzyme and Associates with Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chung-Ying; Harris, William P.; Sim, Hong Gee; Lucas, Jared M.; Coleman, Ilsa; Higano, Celestia S.; Gulati, Roman; True, Lawrence D.; Vessella, Robert; Lange, Paul H.; Garzotto, Mark; Beer, Tomasz M.; Nelson, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    To identify molecular alterations in prostate cancers associating with relapse following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical prostatectomy patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer were enrolled into a phase I-II clinical trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel and mitoxantrone followed by prostatectomy. Pre-treatment prostate tissue was acquired by needle biopsy and post-treatment tissue was acquired by prostatectomy. Prostate cancer gene expression measurements were determined in 31 patients who completed 4 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We identified 141 genes with significant transcript level alterations following chemotherapy that associated with subsequent biochemical relapse. This group included the transcript encoding monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In vitro, cytotoxic chemotherapy induced the expression of MAOA and elevated MAOA levels enhanced cell survival following docetaxel exposure. MAOA activity increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and increased the expression and nuclear translocation of HIF1α. The suppression of MAOA activity using the irreversible inhibitor clorgyline augmented the apoptotic responses induced by docetaxel. In summary, we determined that the expression of MAOA is induced by exposure to cytotoxic chemotherapy, increases HIF1α, and contributes to docetaxel resistance. As MAOA inhibitors have been approved for human use, regimens combining MAOA inhibitors with docetaxel may improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25198178

  16. Twenty Years of PSA: From Prostate Antigen to Tumor Marker

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Gabriela; Rittenhouse, Harry G; Mikolajczyk, Stephen D; Blair Shamel, L; Semjonow, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of prostate-specific antigen in serum is credited with dramatic advances in the early detection of men with prostatic carcinoma. This report summarizes the history of biochemical research and the current understanding and application of prostate-specific antigen in prostate cancer diagnostics. PMID:17934568

  17. Epid Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Peter B.; Vial, Philip

    2011-05-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were introduced originally for patient position verification. The idea of using EPIDs for dosimetry was realised in the 1980s. Little was published on the topic until the mid 1990's, when the interest in EPIDs for dosimetry increased rapidly and continues to grow. The increasing research on EPID dosimetry coincided with the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). EPIDs are well suited to IMRT dosimetry because they are high resolution, two-dimensional (2D) digital detectors. They are also pre-existing on almost all modern linear accelerators. They generally show a linear response to increasing dose. Different types of EPIDs have been clinically implemented, and these have been described in several review papers. The current generation of commercially available EPIDs are indirect detection active matrix flat panel imagers, also known as amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs. Disadvantages of a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry include non-water equivalent construction materials, and the energy sensitivity and optical scatter of the phosphor scintillators used to create optical signal from the megavoltage beam. This report discusses current knowledge regarding a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry.

  18. Epid Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, Peter B.; Vial, Philip

    2011-05-05

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were introduced originally for patient position verification. The idea of using EPIDs for dosimetry was realised in the 1980s. Little was published on the topic until the mid 1990's, when the interest in EPIDs for dosimetry increased rapidly and continues to grow. The increasing research on EPID dosimetry coincided with the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). EPIDs are well suited to IMRT dosimetry because they are high resolution, two-dimensional (2D) digital detectors. They are also pre-existing on almost all modern linear accelerators. They generally show a linear response to increasing dose. Different types of EPIDs have been clinically implemented, and these have been described in several review papers. The current generation of commercially available EPIDs are indirect detection active matrix flat panel imagers, also known as amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs. Disadvantages of a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry include non-water equivalent construction materials, and the energy sensitivity and optical scatter of the phosphor scintillators used to create optical signal from the megavoltage beam. This report discusses current knowledge regarding a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry.

  19. The pathology of unusual subtypes of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    There are some current literatures describing the morphologic change of prostate carcinoma variants. Some subtypes do not respond to hormone deprivation therapy, for example adenosquamous and squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC), basaloid and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), small cell carcinoma (SmCC), sarcomatoid carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma; some are defined in special Gleason grade, some develop different prognosis. So, it is very important to identify these rare subtypes to avoid misdiagnosis. In this review, we aim to describe the typical clinicopathological features of the rare variants of prostate cancer, including prostate acinar adenocarcinoma morphologic variants. PMID:27041935

  20. The Influence of Prostate Volume on Outcome After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Alone for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Hien Rojas, Ana; Alonzi, Roberto; Hughes, Robert; Ostler, Peter; Lowe, Gerry; Bryant, Linda; Hoskin, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Objective: To determine whether late genitourinary toxicity, biochemical control of prostate cancer, and dosimetric parameters in patients with large prostate glands is different from those variables in men with smaller glands after treatment with high-dose-rate brachytherapy alone (HDR-BT). Methods: From November 2003 to July 2009, 164 patients with locally advanced prostate carcinoma were sequentially enrolled and treated with 34 or 36 Gy in 4 fractions and 31.5 Gy in 3 fractions of {sup 192}Ir HDR-BT alone. The median follow-up time was 71 months. Gland size was not considered in the selection criteria for this study. Estimates of freedom from biochemical relapse (FFbR) and late morbidity, stratified by median clinical target volume (CTV), were obtained, and differences were compared. Results: The median CTV volume was 60 cc (range, 15-208 cc). Dose–volume parameters D90 and V100 (ie, minimum dose to 90% of the prostate volume and volume receiving 100% of the prescribed isodose) achieved in patients with glands ≥60 cc were not significantly different from those with glands <60 cc (P≥.2). Nonetheless, biochemical control in patients with larger CTV was significantly higher (91% vs 78% at 6 years; P=.004). In univariate and multivariate analysis, CTV was a significant predictor for risk of biochemical relapse. This was not at the expense of an increase in either moderate (P=.6) or severe (P=.3) late genitourinary toxicity. The use of hormonal therapy was 17% lower in the large gland group (P=.01). Conclusions: Prostate gland size does not affect dosimetric parameters in HDR-BT assessed by D90 and V100. In patients with larger glands, a significantly higher biochemical control of disease was observed, with no difference in late toxicity. This improvement cannot be attributed to differences in dosimetry. Gland size should not be considered in the selection of patients for HDR-BT.

  1. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Prostate Cancer What is Prostate Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) How Prostate Cancer Occurs Prostate cancer occurs when a tumor forms ...

  2. Cytotoxicity of herbal extracts used for treatment of prostatic disease on head and neck carcinoma cell lines and non-malignant primary mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marianne; Polednik, Christine; Roller, Jeanette; Hagen, Rudolf

    2013-02-01

    Previously, a growth inhibiting effect of PC-Spes on head and neck carcinoma cell lines had been demonstrated. In order to determine the toxic impact of particular herbs in the mixture, we exposed the head and neck cancer cell lines FADU, HLaC79 and its Paclitaxel-resistant subline HLaC79-Clone1 as well as primary mucosal keratinocytes to increasing concentrations of the herbal mixture Prostaprotect, which has a similar formulation as PC-Spes, as well as its single herbal components Dendranthema morifolium, Ganoderma lucidium, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Isatis indigotica, Panax pseudo-ginseng, Rabdosia rubescens, Scutellaria baicalensis and Pygeum africanum. Growth inhibition was measured using the MTT assay. Expression of P-glycoprotein (P-GP), multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP-1), multidrug resistance protein-2 (MRP-2), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and androgen receptor (AR) were examined by western blot analysis. Pygeum africanum extract clearly turned out as the main cytotoxic component of the Prostaprotect prescription mixture, and initated apoptosis in sensitive cell lines. All other extracts had only minor toxic effects. Western blot analysis revealed increased expression of P-GP in HLaC79-Clone1 cells, while HLaC79 and FADU cells were negative. All three cell lines were negative for MRP-1 and BCRP but positive for MRP-2. HLaC79 and its descendant HLaC79-Clone1 both expressed AR, as verified by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Primary mucosal keratinocytes were negative for all multidrug resistance markers as well as for AR. Growth inhibition rates of the single herbal extracts were compared with previously published results in prostate carcinoma cell lines. The relationship between expression levels of AR and multidrug resistance markers in relation to the measured toxicity of herbal extracts in our head and neck cancer cell system is critically discussed. PMID:23165347

  3. Traceable clonal culture and chemodrug assay of heterogeneous prostate carcinoma PC3 cells in microfluidic single cell array chips

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jaehoon; Ingram, Patrick N.; Bersano-Begey, Tom; Yoon, Euisik

    2014-01-01

    Cancer heterogeneity has received considerable attention for its role in tumor initiation and progression, and its implication for diagnostics and therapeutics in the clinic. To facilitate a cellular heterogeneity study in a low cost and highly efficient manner, we present a microfluidic platform that allows traceable clonal culture and characterization. The platform captures single cells into a microwell array and cultures them for clonal expansion, subsequently allowing on-chip characterization of clonal phenotype and response against drug treatments. Using a heterogeneous prostate cancer model, the PC3 cell line, we verified our prototype, identifying three different sub-phenotypes and correlating their clonal drug responsiveness to cell phenotype. PMID:25553180

  4. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prostate Diseases Basic Facts & Information What are Prostate Diseases? The prostate—one of the components of ... out anything serious. The Most Common Types of Prostate Diseases Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Prostatitis Prostate cancer ...

  5. Evaluation of multiple image-based modalities for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate carcinoma: A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Mayyas, Essa; Chetty, Indrin J.; Chetvertkov, Mikhail; Wen, Ning; Neicu, Toni; Nurushev, Teamor; Ren Lei; Pradhan, Deepak; Movsas, Benjamin; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Lu Mei; Stricker, Hans

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Setup errors and prostate intrafraction motion are main sources of localization uncertainty in prostate cancer radiation therapy. This study evaluates four different imaging modalities 3D ultrasound (US), kV planar images, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and implanted electromagnetic transponders (Calypso/Varian) to assess inter- and intrafraction localization errors during intensity-modulated radiation therapy based treatment of prostate cancer. Methods: Twenty-seven prostate cancer patients were enrolled in a prospective IRB-approved study and treated to a total dose of 75.6 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). Overall, 1100 fractions were evaluated. For each fraction, treatment targets were localized using US, kV planar images, and CBCT in a sequence defined to determine setup offsets relative to the patient skin tattoos, intermodality differences, and residual errors for each patient and patient cohort. Planning margins, following van Herk's formalism, were estimated based on error distributions. Calypso-based localization was not available for the first eight patients, therefore centroid positions of implanted gold-seed markers imaged prior to and immediately following treatment were used as a motion surrogate during treatment. For the remaining 19 patients, Calypso transponders were used to assess prostate intrafraction motion. Results: The means ({mu}), and standard deviations (SD) of the systematic ({Sigma}) and random errors ({sigma}) of interfraction prostate shifts (relative to initial skin tattoo positioning), as evaluated using CBCT, kV, and US, averaged over all patients and fractions, were: [{mu}{sub CBCT}= (-1.2, 0.2, 1.1) mm, {Sigma}{sub CBCT}= (3.0, 1.4, 2.4) mm, {sigma}{sub CBCT}= (3.2, 2.2, 2.5) mm], [{mu}{sub kV}= (-2.9, -0.4, 0.5) mm, {Sigma}{sub kV}= (3.4, 3.1, 2.6) mm, {sigma}{sub kV}= (2.9, 2.0, 2.4) mm], and [{mu}{sub US}= (-3.6, -1.4, 0.0) mm, {Sigma}{sub US}= (3.3, 3.5, 2.8) mm, {sigma}{sub US}= (4.1, 3.8, 3.6) mm], in the anterior

  6. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  7. Sequential evaluation of prostate edema after permanent seed prostate brachytherapy using CT-MRI fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Taussky, Daniel; Austen, Lyn; Toi, Ants; Yeung, Ivan; Williams, Theresa; Pearson, Shannon; McLean, Michael; Pond, Gregory; Crook, Juanita . E-mail: juanita.crook@rmp.uhn.on.ca

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the extent and time course of prostate edema and its effect on dosimetry after permanent seed prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients scheduled for permanent seed {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy agreed to a prospective study on postimplant edema. Implants were preplanned using transrectal ultrasonography. Postimplant dosimetry was calculated using computed tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (CT-MRI) fusion on the day of the implant (Day 1) and Days 8 and 30. The prostate was contoured on MRI, and the seeds were located on CT. Factors investigated for an influence on edema were the number of seeds and needles, preimplant prostate volume, transitional zone index (transition zone volume divided by prostate volume), age, and prostate-specific antigen level. Prostate dosimetry was evaluated by the percentage of the prostate volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 100}) and percentage of prescribed dose received by 90% of the prostate volume (D{sub 90}). Results: Prostate edema was maximal on Day 1, with the median prostate volume 31% greater than preimplant transrectal ultrasound volume (range, 0.93-1.72; p < 0.001) and decreased with time. It was 21% greater than baseline at Day 8 (p = 0.013) and 5% greater on Day 30 (p < 0.001). Three patients still had a prostate volume greater than baseline by Day 30. The extent of edema depended on the transition zone volume (p = 0.016) and the preplan prostate volume (p 0.003). The median V{sub 100} on Day 1 was 93.6% (range, 86.0-98.2%) and was 96.3% (range, 85.7-99.5%) on Day 30 (p = 0.079). Patients with a Day 1 V{sub 100} >93% were less affected by edema resolution, showing a median increase in V{sub 100} of 0.67% on Day 30 compared with 2.77% for patients with a V{sub 100} <93 % on Day 1. Conclusion: Despite the extreme range of postimplant edema, the effect on dosimetry was less than expected. Dose coverage of the prostate was good for all patients during Days 1

  8. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-06-16

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments. (ACR)

  9. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to assess the efficacy of tadalafil (Cialis[reg]) in the treatment of erectile dysfunction following three-dimensional conformal external-beam radiotherapy for prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Incrocci, Luca . E-mail: l.incrocci@erasmusmc.nl; Slagter, Cleo; Slob, A. Koos; Hop, Wim C.J.

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: Erectile dysfunction after three-dimensional conformal external-beam radiotherapy (3DCRT) for prostatic carcinoma is reported in as many as 64% of those patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the oral drug tadalafil (Cialis (registered) ) in patients with erectile dysfunction after radiotherapy for prostatic carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Patients (N = 358) who completed radiotherapy at least 12 months before the study were approached by mail. All patients had been treated by 3DCRT; 60 patients were included and entered a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study lasting 12 weeks. They received 20 mg of tadalafil or placebo for 6 weeks. Drug or placebo was taken on demand at patient's discretion, with no restrictions regarding the consumption of alcohol or food, at least once a week and no more than once daily. At 6 weeks patients crossed over to the alternative treatment. Data were collected using the Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires. Side effects were also recorded. Results: Mean age at study entry was 69 years. All patients completed the study. For almost all questions of the IIEF questionnaire there was a significant increase in mean scores from baseline with tadalafil, but not with placebo. Sixty-seven percent of the patients reported an improvement of erectile function with tadalafil (placebo: 20%), and 48% reported successful intercourse with tadalafil (placebo: 9%) (p < 0.0001). Side effects were mild or moderate. Conclusions: Tadalafil is an effective treatment for erectile dysfunction after 3DCRT for prostatic carcinoma with successful intercourse reported in almost 50% of the patients, and it is well tolerated.

  10. FDG PET/CT Imaging of Prostate Carcinosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Oldan, Jorge Daniel; Chin, Bennett B

    2016-08-01

    We present a case of carcinosarcoma of the prostate. Workup of urinary retention after a previously treated squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate led to a transurethral prostate resection revealing carcinosarcoma of the prostate, which on F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated moderate to high avidity of this atypical prostate cancer, with partial obstruction of the urinary system and lung metastases. While FDG PET is not avid for typical prostatic adenocarcinomas, it should be considered for evaluation of atypical prostate cancers. PMID:27187727

  11. Preclinical pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, radiation dosimetry and toxicity studies required for regulatory approval of a phase I clinical trial with 111In-CP04 in medullary thyroid carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Theodosia; Konijnenberg, Mark W.; KolencPeitl, Petra; Garnuszek, Piotr; Nock, Berthold A.; Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Kroselj, Marko; Zaletel, Katja; Maecke, Helmut; Mansi, Rosalba; Erba, Paola; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Mikolajczak, Renata; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Introduction From a series of radiolabelled cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin analogues, 111In-CP04 (111In-DOTA-(DGlu)6-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) was selected for further translation as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical towards a first-in-man study in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). A freeze-dried kit formulation for multicentre application has been developed. We herein report on biosafety, in vivo stability, biodistribution and dosimetry aspects of 111In-CP04 in animal models, essential for the regulatory approval of the clinical trial. Materials and methods Acute and extended single dose toxicity of CP04 was tested in rodents, while the in vivo stability of 111In-CP04 was assessed by HPLC analysis of mouse blood samples. The biodistribution of 111In-CP04 prepared from a freeze-dried kit was studied in SCID mice bearing double A431-CCK2R(±) xenografts at 1, 4 and 24 h pi. Further 4-h animal groups were either additionally treated with the plasma expander gelofusine or injected with 111In-CP04 prepared by wet-labelling. Pharmacokinetics in healthy mice included the 30 min, 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h time points pi. Dosimetric calculations were based on extrapolation of mice data to humans adopting two scaling models. Results CP04 was well-tolerated by both mice and rats, with an LD50 > 178.5 μg/kg body weight for mice and a NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect-level) of 89 μg/kg body weight for rats. After labelling, 111In-CP04 remained >70% intact in peripheral mouse blood at 5 min pi. The uptake of 111In-CP04 prepared from the freeze-dried kit and by wet-labelling were comparable in the A431-CCK2R(+)-xenografts (9.24 ± 1.35%ID/g and 8.49 ± 0.39%ID/g, respectively; P > 0.05). Gelofusine-treated mice exhibited significantly reduced kidneys values (1.69 ± 0.15%ID/g vs. 5.55 ± 0.94%ID/g in controls, P < 0.001). Dosimetry data revealed very comparable effective tumour doses for the two scaling models applied, of 0.045 and 0.044 m

  12. Radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the basic facts about the measurement of ionizing radiation, usually referred to as radiation dosimetry. The article defines the common radiation quantities and units; gives typical levels of natural radiation and medical exposures; and describes the most important biological effects of radiation and the methods used to measure radiation. Finally, a proposal is made for a new radiation risk unit to make radiation risks more understandable to nonspecialists. PMID:2040250

  13. Apoptosis Induction of Human Prostate Carcinoma DU145 Cells by Diallyl Disulfide via Modulation of JNK and PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Yeok; Kim, Gi-Young; Lee, Jun Hyuk; Choi, Byung Tae; Yoo, Young Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a sulfur compound derived from garlic, has various biological properties, such as anticancer, antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanisms of action underlying the compound’s anticancer activity have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the apoptotic effects of DADS were investigated in DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells. Our results showed that DADS markedly inhibited the growth of the DU145 cells by induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis was accompanied by modulation of Bcl-2 and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family proteins, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm) and proteolytic activation of caspases. We also found that the expression of death-receptor 4 (DR4) and Fas ligand (FasL) proteins was increased and that the level of intact Bid proteins was down-regulated by DADS. Moreover, treatment with DADS induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including extracellular-signal regulating kinase (ERK), p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). A specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125, significantly blocked DADS-induced-apoptosis, whereas inhibitors of the ERK (PD98059) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) had no effect. The induction of apoptosis was also accompanied by inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the PI3K inhibitor LY29004 significantly increased DADS-induced cell death. These findings provide evidence demonstrating that the proapoptotic effect of DADS is mediated through the activation of JNK and the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in DU145 cells. PMID:23203057

  14. A nested case-control study of leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number and renal cell carcinoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Hosgood, H Dean; Liu, Chin-San; Chow, Wong-Ho; Shuch, Brian; Cheng, Wen-Ling; Lin, Ta-Tsung; Moore, Lee E; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Purdue, Mark P

    2014-05-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is vulnerable to mutations, and the number of copies of mtDNA per cell may increase to compensate for DNA damage. Case-control studies have reported associations between altered mtDNA copy number and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, this association has not been investigated prospectively. We conducted a nested case-control study (252 cases and 504 controls) of RCC risk in relation to pre-diagnostic leukocyte mtDNA copy number in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. mtDNA copy number was measured in triplicate using a fluorescence-based quantitative PCR assay; samples from 22 cases and 36 controls could not be assayed, leaving 230 cases and 468 controls for analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. High mtDNA copy number was associated with an increased risk of RCC, both overall (highest quartile versus lowest: OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.2; P trend = 0.002) and among cases diagnosed ≥6 years after blood collection (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.4-5.0; P trend = 0.003). These findings did not differ significantly by sex, body mass index, history of hypertension or smoking status (P interaction ≥ 0.3). Results of this study suggest that high pre-diagnostic leukocyte mtDNA copy number, a suspected marker of oxidative DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, is associated with increased future RCC risk. PMID:24398668

  15. Impact of Prostate Inflammation on Lesion Development in the POET3+Pten+/− Mouse Model of Prostate Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Burcham, Grant N.; Cresswell, Gregory M.; Snyder, Paul W.; Chen, Long; Liu, Xiaoqi; Crist, Scott A.; Henry, Michael D.; Ratliff, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence linking prostatitis and prostate cancer development is contradictory. To study this link, the POET3 mouse, an inducible model of prostatitis, was crossed with a Pten-loss model of prostate cancer (Pten+/−) containing the ROSA26 luciferase allele to monitor prostate size. Prostatitis was induced, and prostate bioluminescence was tracked over 12 months, with lesion development, inflammation, and cytokine expression analyzed at 4, 8, and 12 months and compared with mice without induction of prostatitis. Acute prostatitis led to more proliferative epithelium and enhanced bioluminescence. However, 4 months after initiation of prostatitis, mice with induced inflammation had lower grade pre-neoplastic lesions. A trend existed toward greater development of carcinoma 12 months after induction of inflammation, including one of two mice with carcinoma developing perineural invasion. Two of 18 mice at the later time points developed lesions with similarities to proliferative inflammatory atrophy, including one mouse with associated carcinoma. Pten+/− mice developed spontaneous inflammation, and prostatitis was similar among groups of mice at 8 and 12 months. Analyzed as one cohort, lesion number and grade were positively correlated with prostatitis. Specifically, amounts of CD11b+Gr1+ cells were correlated with lesion development. These results support the hypothesis that myeloid-based inflammation is associated with lesion development in the murine prostate, and previous bouts of CD8-driven prostatitis may promote invasion in the Pten+/− model of cancer. PMID:25455686

  16. Prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000380.htm Prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. ...

  17. Prostate brachytherapy

    MedlinePlus

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... CT scan to plan and then place the seeds that deliver radiation into your prostate. The seeds ...

  18. Prostatitis - bacterial

    MedlinePlus

    ... or tender scrotum The provider may perform a digital rectal exam to examine your prostate. During this ... samples may be collected for urinalysis and urine culture . Prostatitis may affect the results of the prostate- ...

  19. Enlarged prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you should still take it. SURGERY Prostate surgery may be recommended if you have: Incontinence Recurrent ... of your prostate gland. Most men who have prostate surgery have improvement in urine flow rates and symptoms. ...

  20. The Prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Prostate Cancer This booklet is about prostate cancer. Learning about ...

  1. Enlarged prostate

    MedlinePlus

    BPH; Benign prostatic hyperplasia (hypertrophy); Prostate - enlarged ... The actual cause of prostate enlargement is unknown. Factors linked to aging and changes in the cells of the testicles may have a role in the growth ...

  2. Extra-prostatic Transgene-associated Neoplastic Lesions in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Berman-Booty, Lisa D.; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Bolon, Brad; Oglesbee, Michael J.; Clinton, Steven K.; Kulp, Samuel K.; Chen, Ching-Shih; La Perle, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice are frequently used in prostate cancer research because their prostates consistently develop a series of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Disease progression in TRAMP mouse prostates culminates in metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinomas with neuroendocrine features. The androgen dependence of the rat probasin promoter largely limits transgene expression to the prostatic epithelium. However, extra-prostatic transgene-positive lesions have been described in TRAMP mice, including renal tubulo-acinar carcinomas, neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urethra, and phyllodes-like tumors of the seminal vesicle. Here we describe the histologic and immunohistochemical features of two novel extra-prostatic lesions in TRAMP mice: primary anaplastic tumors of uncertain cell origin in the midbrain, and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas of the submandibular salivary gland. These newly characterized tumors apparently result from transgene expression in extra-prostatic locations rather than representing metastatic prostate neoplasms because lesions were identified in both male and female mice as well as in male TRAMP mice without histologically apparent prostate tumors. In this paper we also calculate the incidences of the urethral carcinomas and renal tubulo-acinar carcinomas, further elucidate the biological behavior of the urethral carcinomas, and demonstrate the critical importance of complete necropsies even when evaluating presumably well characterized phenotypes in genetically engineered mice. PMID:24742627

  3. Extra-prostatic transgene-associated neoplastic lesions in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice.

    PubMed

    Berman-Booty, Lisa D; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Bolon, Brad; Oglesbee, Michael J; Clinton, Steven K; Kulp, Samuel K; Chen, Ching-Shih; La Perle, Krista M D

    2015-02-01

    Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice are frequently used in prostate cancer research because their prostates consistently develop a series of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Disease progression in TRAMP mouse prostates culminates in metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinomas with neuroendocrine features. The androgen dependence of the rat probasin promoter largely limits transgene expression to the prostatic epithelium. However, extra-prostatic transgene-positive lesions have been described in TRAMP mice, including renal tubuloacinar carcinomas, neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urethra, and phyllodes-like tumors of the seminal vesicle. Here, we describe the histologic and immunohistochemical features of 2 novel extra-prostatic lesions in TRAMP mice: primary anaplastic tumors of uncertain cell origin in the midbrain and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas of the submandibular salivary gland. These newly characterized tumors apparently result from transgene expression in extra-prostatic locations rather than representing metastatic prostate neoplasms because lesions were identified in both male and female mice and in male TRAMP mice without histologically apparent prostate tumors. In this article, we also calculate the incidences of the urethral carcinomas and renal tubuloacinar carcinomas, further elucidate the biological behavior of the urethral carcinomas, and demonstrate the critical importance of complete necropsies even when evaluating presumably well characterized phenotypes in genetically engineered mice. PMID:24742627

  4. Preliminary observations on the results of combined temporary /sup 129/iridium implantation and external beam irradiation for carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, P.C.; Forbes, K.A.; Prassvinichai, S.; Miller, J.B.; Golji, H.; Martin, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    We treated 43 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate confined to the pelvis with a combination of staging pelvic lymphadenectomy, temporary implantation of the prostate with /sup 129/iridium and external beam irradiation. The procedure was relatively safe with low early morbidity. However, there were significant late complications. Of these patients 29 had needle biopsy of the prostate 1 year after completion of therapy and 15 demonstrated residual tumor. Clinical stage C and poorly differentiated tumors were not well controlled.

  5. Image-guided adaptive radiation therapy (IGART): Radiobiological and dose escalation considerations for localized carcinoma of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Song, William; Schaly, Bryan; Bauman, Glenn; Battista, Jerry; Van Dyk, Jake

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of various image-guided adaptive radiation therapy (IGART) techniques to deliver and escalate dose to the prostate in the presence of geometric uncertainties. Five prostate patients with 15-16 treatment CT studies each were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were planned with an 18 MV, six-field conformal technique with a 10 mm margin size and an initial prescription of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. The adaptive strategy employed in this work for patient-specific dose escalation was to increase the prescription dose in 2 Gy-per-fraction increments until the rectum normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) reached a level equal to that of the nominal plan NTCP (i.e., iso-NTCP dose escalation). The various target localization techniques simulated were: (1) daily laser-guided alignment to skin tattoo marks that represents treatment without image-guidance, (2) alignment to bony landmarks with daily portal images, and (3) alignment to the clinical target volume (CTV) with daily CT images. Techniques (1) and (3) were resimulated with a reduced margin size of 5 mm to investigate further dose escalation. When delivering the original clinical prescription dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions, the "CTV registration" technique yielded the highest tumor control probability (TCP) most frequently, followed by the "bone registration" and "tattoo registration" techniques. However, the differences in TCP among the three techniques were minor when the margin size was 10 mm (< or = 1.1 %). Reducing the margin size to 5 mm significantly degraded the TCP values of the "tattoo registration" technique in two of the five patients, where a large difference was found compared to the other techniques (< or = 11.8 %). The "CTV registration" technique, however, did maintain similar TCP values compared to their 10 mm margin counterpart. In terms of normal tissue sparing, the technique producing the lowest NTCP varied from patient to patient. Reducing

  6. Relative Biological Effectiveness of Carbon Ions in a Rat Prostate Carcinoma In Vivo: Comparison of 1, 2, and 6 Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Karger, Christian P.; Peschke, Peter; Scholz, Michael; Huber, Peter E.; Debus, Jürgen

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and the effective α/β ratio for local tumor control of a radioresistant rat prostate tumor (Dunning subline R3327-AT1) after 6 fractions of carbon ions and photons. Methods and Materials: A total of 82 animals with tumors in the distal thigh were treated with 6 fractions of either photons or carbon ions, by use of increasing dose levels and a 2-cm spread-out Bragg peak. Endpoints of the study were local control (no tumor recurrence within 300 days) and volumetric changes after irradiation. The resulting values for dose at 50% tumor control probability were used to determine RBE values. Including data for 1 and 2 fractions from a previous study, we estimated α/β ratios. Results: For 6 fractions, the values for dose at 50% tumor control probability were 116.6 ± 3.0 Gy for photons and 43.7 ± 2.3 Gy for carbon ions and the resulting RBE was 2.67 ± 0.15. The α/β ratio was 84.7 ± 13.8 Gy for photons and 66.0 ± 21.0 Gy for carbon ions. Using these data together with the linear-quadratic model, we estimated the maximum RBE to be 2.88 ± 0.27. Conclusions: The study confirmed the increased effectiveness of carbon ions relative to photons over the whole dose range for a highly radioresistant tumor. The maximum RBE below 3 is in line with other published in vivo data. The RBE values may be used to benchmark RBE models. Hypoxia seems to have a major impact on the radiation response, although this still has to be confirmed by dedicated experiments.

  7. Triple orbital metastases from prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tun, Kagan; Bulut, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma, when metastatic, typically involves bone and produces both osteoblastic and osteolytic changes. A 73-year-old man was admitted to our department because of unilateral progressive proptosis and visual blurriness for 3 months. The patient had a history of prostate adenocarcinoma diagnosis 5 years ago. We report a case of orbital involvement presented that intraorbital mass (including periocular structures), temporal bone and temporal muscle from prostate cancer. The mass was removed with total excision. Despite the frequency of bone metastasis in prostatic carcinoma, triple orbital metastases are extremely rare. The best of our knowledge, prostate adenocarcinoma and its triple (temporal bone, temporal muscle and intraorbital mass) orbital metastases have not been published previously. Metastatic orbital tumor secondary to prostate cancer should be considered in patients who have varying degrees of eye symptoms. PMID:27591068

  8. Red marrow and blood dosimetry in (131)I treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma: pre-treatment versus in-therapy results.

    PubMed

    Giostra, A; Richetta, E; Pasquino, M; Miranti, A; Cutaia, C; Brusasco, G; Pellerito, R E; Stasi, M

    2016-06-01

    Treatment with radioiodine is a standard procedure for patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer, but the main approach to the therapy is still empiric, consisting of the administration of fixed activities. A predictive individualized dosimetric study may represent an important tool for physicians to determine the best activity to prescribe. The aim of this work is to compare red marrow and blood absorbed dose values obtained in the pre-treatment (PT) dosimetry phase with those obtained in the in-treatment (IT) dosimetry phase in order to estimate the predictive power of PT trial doses and to determine if they can be used as a decision-making tool to safely administer higher (131)I activity to potentially increase the efficacy of treatment. The PT and IT dosimetry for 50 patients has been evaluated using three different dosimetric approaches. In all three approaches blood and red marrow doses, are calculated as the sum of two components, the dose from (131)I activity in the blood and the dose from (131)I activity located in the remainder of the body (i.e. the blood and whole-body contributions to the total dose). PT and IT dose values to blood and red marrow appear to be well correlated irrespective of the dosimetric approach used. Linear regression analyses of PT and IT total doses, for blood and red marrow, and the whole-body contribution to these doses, showed consistent best fit slope and correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.9 and 0.6, respectively: analyses of the blood dose contribution to the total doses also yielded similar values for the best fit slope but with correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.4 reflecting the greater variance in these dose estimates. These findings suggest that pre-treatment red marrow dose assessments may represent an important tool to personalize metastatic thyroid cancer treatment, removing the constraints of a fixed activity approach and permitting potentially more effective higher (131)I

  9. Red marrow and blood dosimetry in 131I treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma: pre-treatment versus in-therapy results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giostra, A.; Richetta, E.; Pasquino, M.; Miranti, A.; Cutaia, C.; Brusasco, G.; Pellerito, R. E.; Stasi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Treatment with radioiodine is a standard procedure for patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer, but the main approach to the therapy is still empiric, consisting of the administration of fixed activities. A predictive individualized dosimetric study may represent an important tool for physicians to determine the best activity to prescribe. The aim of this work is to compare red marrow and blood absorbed dose values obtained in the pre-treatment (PT) dosimetry phase with those obtained in the in-treatment (IT) dosimetry phase in order to estimate the predictive power of PT trial doses and to determine if they can be used as a decision-making tool to safely administer higher 131I activity to potentially increase the efficacy of treatment. The PT and IT dosimetry for 50 patients has been evaluated using three different dosimetric approaches. In all three approaches blood and red marrow doses, are calculated as the sum of two components, the dose from 131I activity in the blood and the dose from 131I activity located in the remainder of the body (i.e. the blood and whole-body contributions to the total dose). PT and IT dose values to blood and red marrow appear to be well correlated irrespective of the dosimetric approach used. Linear regression analyses of PT and IT total doses, for blood and red marrow, and the whole-body contribution to these doses, showed consistent best fit slope and correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.9 and 0.6, respectively: analyses of the blood dose contribution to the total doses also yielded similar values for the best fit slope but with correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.4 reflecting the greater variance in these dose estimates. These findings suggest that pre-treatment red marrow dose assessments may represent an important tool to personalize metastatic thyroid cancer treatment, removing the constraints of a fixed activity approach and permitting potentially more effective higher 131I activities to be

  10. Silibinin inhibits fibronectin induced motility, invasiveness and survival in human prostate carcinoma PC3 cells via targeting integrin signaling.

    PubMed

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PCA) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. Preventing or inhibiting metastasis-related events through non-toxic agents could be a useful approach for lowering high mortality among PCA patients. We have earlier reported that natural flavonoid silibinin possesses strong anti-metastatic efficacy against PCA however, mechanism/s of its action still remains largely unknown. One of the major events during metastasis is the replacement of cell-cell interaction with integrins-based cell-matrix interaction that controls motility, invasiveness and survival of cancer cells. Accordingly, here we examined silibinin effect on advanced human PCA PC3 cells' interaction with extracellular matrix component fibronectin. Silibinin (50-200 μM) treatment significantly decreased the fibronectin (5 μg/ml)-induced motile morphology via targeting actin cytoskeleton organization in PC3 cells. Silibinin also decreased the fibronectin-induced cell proliferation and motility but significantly increased cell death in PC3 cells. Silibinin also inhibited the PC3 cells invasiveness in Transwell invasion assays with fibronectin or cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) serving as chemoattractant. Importantly, PC3-luc cells cultured on fibronectin showed rapid dissemination and localized in lungs following tail vein injection in athymic male nude mice; however, in silibinin-treated PC3-luc cells, dissemination and lung localization was largely compromised. Molecular analyses revealed that silibinin treatment modulated the fibronectin-induced expression of integrins (α5, αV, β1 and β3), actin-remodeling (FAK, Src, GTPases, ARP2 and cortactin), apoptosis (cPARP and cleaved caspase 3), EMT (E-cadherin and β-catenin), and cell survival (survivin and Akt) related signaling molecules in PC3 cells. Furthermore, PC3-xenograft tissue analyses confirmed the inhibitory effect of silibinin on fibronectin and integrins expression. Together, these

  11. Differential Diagnosis of Intraductal Lesions of the Prostate.

    PubMed

    Wobker, Sara E; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-06-01

    The category of intraductal lesions of the prostate includes a range of primary prostatic and nonprostatic processes with wide variation in prognosis and recommended follow-up. Studies have shown that pathologists are uncomfortable with the diagnosis of these lesions and that the diagnostic reproducibility is low in this category. Despite the diagnostic difficulty, their accurate and reproducible diagnosis is critical for patient management. This review aims to highlight the diagnostic criteria, prognosis, and treatment implications of common intraductal lesions of the prostate. It focuses on the recognition of intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) in prostate needle biopsies and how to distinguish it from its common mimickers, including high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, invasive cribriform prostatic adenocarcinoma, urothelial carcinoma extending into prostatic ducts, and prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma. IDC-P is independently associated with higher risk disease, and its identification in a needle biopsy, even in the absence of invasive carcinoma, should compel definitive treatment. Conversely, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia has a much better prognosis and in limited quantities does not even warrant a repeat biopsy. IDC-P must be distinguished from urothelial carcinoma involving prostatic ducts, as recommended treatment varies markedly. Ductal adenocarcinoma may confuse the pathologist and clinician by overlapping terminology, and morphology may also mimic IDC-P on occasion. The use of ancillary testing with immunohistochemistry and molecular markers has also been reviewed. PMID:26848801

  12. Prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  13. Bilateral Orbital Metastasis of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Ahmed; Kerkeni, Walid; Bouzouita, Abderrazak; Ayed, Haroun; Gaja, Ali; Cherif, Mohamed; Ben Slama, Riadh; Mnif, Najla; Derouiche, Amine; Chebil, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Despite the high incidence of prostate carcinoma, metastases of the uvea are very rare and bilateral localization is even more. We report here the case of a 77-year-old man diagnosed with a metastatic prostate carcinoma. Two months later, he presented a decreased vision in his right eye and blurred vision in the left eye relevant to metastatic lesion on his right iris and left choroidal metastasis. The urologist should evoke possibility of ocular metastasis in patients with prostate cancer presenting visual disorders. PMID:27181244

  14. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 and Hydroxychloroquine in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors, Melanoma, Prostate or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-05

    Adult Solid Neoplasm; Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  15. Malakoplakia associated with prostatic adenocarcinoma: Report of 4 cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Medlicott, Shaun; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Jimenez, Rafael E; Trpkov, Kiril

    2016-06-01

    Malakoplakia is an inflammatory process that has been rarely reported in the prostate. Malakoplakia in association with prostatic carcinoma is exceedingly rare with only 4 previously reported cases. We describe the clinical features and the associated pathology in 4 patients who demonstrated malakoplakia of the prostate in association with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Prostatic malakoplakia presenting in association with prostatic adenocarcinoma was identified in 4 patients through a search from the records of 3 institutional databases with large in-house and consult uropathology practices. In 2 of the patients the diagnostic needle biopsy contained only prostatic carcinoma; malakoplakia in association with prostatic carcinoma was documented on prostatectomy, performed 15 and 8weeks after the biopsy, respectively. Both patients experienced urinary infections during the interval between the biopsy and the prostatectomy. The third and fourth patient had a long-standing history of "prostatitis", and acute urinary tract infection with urinary retention, respectively. The needle biopsy in both patients showed concomitant malakoplakia and prostatic carcinoma. One of them also had malakoplakia on the initial biopsy containing only atypical glands and on the subsequent one demonstrating carcinoma. One patient was treated conservatively and one with prostatectomy. Although coexistent prostatic carcinoma and malakoplakia are exceedingly rare, malakoplakia can likely occur as an exceptionally rare complication of a prostate needle biopsy, particularly in individuals with long-term or acute urinary tract infections at the time of the biopsy. PMID:27180057

  16. Early voiding dysfunction associated with prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Wagner; Nag; Young; Bahnson

    2000-12-15

    Introduction: Transperineal prostate brachytherapy is gaining popularity as a treatment for clinically localized carcinoma of the prostate. Very little prospective data exists addressing the issue of complications associated with this procedure. We present an analysis of the early voiding dysfunction associated with prostate brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: Forty-six consecutive patients who underwent Palladium-103 (Pd-103) seed placement for clinically localized prostate carcinoma were evaluated prospectively for any morbidity associated with the procedure. Twenty-three patients completed an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire preoperatively, at their first postoperative visit, and at their second postoperative visit. The total IPSS, each of the seven individual components, and the "bother" score were evaluated separately for each visit, and statistical significance was determined. Results: Urinary retention occurred in 7/46 patients (15%). Of these, 5 were able to void spontaneously after catheter removal. One patient is maintained with a suprapubic tube, and one patient is currently on continuous intermittent catheterization. Baseline IPSS was 7.1 and this went to 20.0 at the first postoperative visit (p<0.001). By the second postoperative visit, the IPSS was 8.0. Conclusions: In our experience, prostate brachytherapy for localized carcinoma of the prostate is associated with a 15% catheterization rate and a significant increase in the IPSS (7.1 to 20.0). This increase in the IPSS seems to be self-limited. Patients need to be educated on these issues prior to prostate brachytherapy. PMID:11113369

  17. Changes of the transverse diameter and volume and dosimetry before the 25th fraction during the course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Haihua; Hu Wei; Ding Weijun; Shan Guoping; Wang Wei; Yu Changhui; Wang Biyun; Shao Minghai; Wang Jianhua; Yang Weifang

    2012-07-01

    To quantify changes of the transverse diameter and volume and dosimetry, and to illustrate the inferiority of non-replanning during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Fifty-three NPC patients who received IMRT in 33 fractions were enrolled in this prospective trial. Before the 25th fraction, a new simulation computed tomography (CT) scan was acquired for all patients. The dose-volume histograms of the phantom plan were compared with the initial plan. Significant reduction of the transverse diameter of the nasopharyngeal, the neck, and 2 parotid glands volume was observed on second CT compared with the first CT (mean reduction 7.48 {+-} 4.45 mm, 6.80 {+-} 15.14 mm, 5.70 {+-} 6.26 mL, and 5.04 {+-} 5.85 mL, respectively; p < 0.01). The maximum dose and V-40 of the spinal cord, mean dose, and V30 of the left and right parotid, and V-50 of the brain stem were increased significantly in the phantom plan compared with the initial plan (mean increase 4.75 {+-} 5.55 Gy, 7.18 {+-} 10.07%, 4.51 {+-} 8.55 Gy, 6.59 {+-} 17.82%, 5.33 {+-} 8.55 Gy, 11.68 {+-} 17.11% and 1.48 {+-} 3.67%, respectively; p < 0.01). On the basis of dose constraint criterion in the RTOG0225 protocol, the dose of the normal critical structures for 52.83% (28/53) of the phantom plans were out of limit compared with 1.89% (1/53) of the initial plans (p < 0.0001). Because of the significant change in anatomy and dose before the 25th fraction during IMRT, replanning should be necessary during IMRT with NPC.

  18. Modern prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Butler, W M; Merrick, G S; Dorsey, A T; Lief, J H; Galbreath, R W

    2000-01-01

    As computer-aided margin tools become more sophisticated, physicists will be increasingly called upon to convert ultrasound prostate volumes to expanded planning target volumes (PTVs) to treat adequately extracapsular disease. The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 43 formalism and the new National Institute of Standards and Technology calibration system suitable for single low-energy seeds have been crucial in smoothly implementing changes in established seeds and in incorporating data from new manufacturers. However, the lack of consensus on treatment design and evaluation has led to an uncomfortably wide spectrum of clinical practice, only part of which can be attributed to variations inherent to any surgical procedure due to the practitioner's skill. The relative merits of implanting the prostate and margin with a modified uniform seed-loading approach to create plans with a relatively homogeneous dose distribution and a corresponding low risk of overdosing critical structures are addressed. Likewise, the advantages of performing postoperative dosimetry at the physically optimum time of greater than 2 weeks post implant are contrasted with the clinical advantages of obtaining the dosimetry as soon as possible. Proposed lower limits for quality parameters such D90 and V100 are reviewed. Measures of doses to the urethra, rectum, and neurovascular bundles are presented, along with correlations between various dosimetric parameters and other patient specific data with quality of life metrics involving urinary incontinence, rectal damage, and sexual dysfunction. PMID:11025262

  19. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs. (ACR)

  20. Selective nanoparticle-directed photothermal ablation of the canine prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Jon A.; Price, Roger E.; Gill-Sharp, Kelly L.; Sang, Krystina L.; Khorchani, Jennifer D.; Payne, J. Donald; Goodwin, Bradford S.

    2011-03-01

    This study adapted AuroLase® Therapy, previously reported for the treatment of brain tumors, to the treatment of prostate disease by 1) using normal canine prostate in vivo, directly injected with a solution of nanoparticles as a proxy for prostate tumor and, 2) developing an appropriate laser dosimetry for prostate which is which is subablative in native prostate while simultaneously producing photothermal coagulation in prostate tissue containing therapeutic nanoshells. Healthy, mixed-breed hound dogs were given surgical laparotomies during which nanoshells were injected directly into one or both prostate hemispheres. Laser energy was delivered percutaneously to the parenchyma of the prostate along 1-5 longitudinal tracts via a liquid-cooled optical fiber catheter terminated with a 1-cm isotropic diffuser after which the incision was closed and sutured using standard surgical techniques. The photothermal lesions were permitted to resolve for up to 8 days, after which each animal was euthanized, necropsied, and the prostate taken for histopathological analysis. We developed a laser dosimetry which is sub- to marginally ablative in native prostate and simultaneously ablative of prostate tissue containing nanoshells which would indicate a viable means of treating tumors of the prostate which are known from other studies to accumulate nanoshells. Secondly, we determined that multiple laser treatments of nanoshell-containing prostate tissue could be accomplished while sparing the urethra and prostate capsule thermal damage. Finally, we determined that the extent of damage zone radii correlate positively with nanoshell concentration, and negatively to the length of time between nanoshell injection and laser treatment.

  1. Prostate brachytherapy

    MedlinePlus

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... radiation safety precautions. If you have a permanent implant, your provider may tell you to limit the ...

  2. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  3. Prostate biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Aliotta PJ, Fowler GC. Prostate and seminal vesicle ultrasonography and biopsy. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. ... 1/2015. Trabulsi EJ, Halpern EJ, Gomella LG. Ultrasonography and biopsy of the prostate. In: Wein AJ, ...

  4. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... men younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  5. Carcinoma of the prostate irradiated by combined I/sup 125/ and external irradiation, analysis of failure and significance of positive biopsy one year or more after therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Abadir, R.; Ross, G. Jr.; Weinstein, S.H.

    1983-03-01

    Sixty-three patients with cancer of the prostate T/sub 2/ or T/sub 3/ were evaluated. The protocol of treatment called for pelvic lymphadenectomy, 10,000 rad from I/sup 125/ implant and 4000 rad in 20 fractions using a Cobalt/sup 60/ machine. They were followed for 1 to 5 years with a plan to rebiopsy the prostate 1 to 2 years after therapy. Six of 59 evaluable patients (10%) showed progressive disease. Distinctive prognostic features in the failure group were younger age, larger prostate, more advanced stage, poorer differentiation, more possibility of positive pelvic lymph nodes, and if the nodes were positive, the involvement of more than two pelvic lymph nodes. On the other hand, the patients with controlled disease with or without positive prostatic biopsy on follow-up showed identical features regarding age, size of prostate, stage, differentiation, involvement of pelvic lymph nodes, and if the nodes were positive, only one or two nodes involved. Positive biopsy 1 to 2 years after radical irradiation in otherwise controlled disease is considered of no prognostic value.

  6. Prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Castillejos-Molina, Ricardo Alonso; Gabilondo-Navarro, Fernando Bernardo

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent tumor found in men worldwide and in Mexico in particular. Age and family history are the main risk factors. The diagnosis is made by prostate biopsy in patients with abnormalities detected in their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels or digital rectal exam (DRE). This article reviews screening and diagnostic methods as well as treatment options for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. PMID:27557386

  7. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine away from ... and out of the body. A young man's prostate is about the size of a walnut. It ...

  8. Prostatic thermoluminescent dosimeter analysis in a patient treated with 18 MV X rays through a prosthetic hip

    SciTech Connect

    Hazuka, M.B.; Stroud, D.N.; Adams, J.; Ibbott, G.S.; Kinzie, J.J. )

    1993-01-15

    External beam radiation therapy with high energy photon beams through hip protheses has been shown to cause dose inhomogeneities for target volumes in the pelvis. In this work, measurements of dose using thermoluminescent dosimetry were compared with dose calculations from a computerized treatment planning system in a patient with prostatic carcinoma and a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum hip prosthesis. A 39% decrement in dose at isocenter was demonstrated for an 18 MV photon beam passing through the prosthesis. A discrepancy of only 3.1% was shown between measured and calculated dose when the tissue-maximum ratio (TMR) method of heterogeneity correction was used. However, it is recognized that several sources of error are possible when heterogeneity corrections are performed for high density prostheses and these are discussed below. The results of this work stress the importance of accurate data for use with the ratio of TMR's' algorithm in order that accurate treatment planning can be performed.

  9. A comparative study on the risk of second primary cancers in out-of-field organs associated with radiotherapy of localized prostate carcinoma using Monte Carlo-based accelerator and patient models

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarz, Bryan; Athar, Basit; Xu, X. George

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: A physician's decision regarding an ideal treatment approach (i.e., radiation, surgery, and/or hormonal) for prostate carcinoma is traditionally based on a variety of metrics. One of these metrics is the risk of radiation-induced second primary cancer following radiation treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of second cancer risks in out-of-field organs from 3D-CRT and IMRT treatments of prostate carcinoma compared to baseline cancer risks in these organs. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were performed using a detailed medical linear accelerator model and an anatomically realistic adult male whole-body phantom. A four-field box treatment, a four-field box treatment plus a six-field boost, and a seven-field IMRT treatment were simulated. Using BEIR VII risk models, the age-dependent lifetime attributable risks to various organs outside the primary beam with a known predilection for cancer were calculated using organ-averaged equivalent doses. Results: The four-field box treatment had the lowest treatment-related second primary cancer risks to organs outside the primary beam ranging from 7.3x10{sup -9} to 2.54x10{sup -5}%/MU depending on the patients age at exposure and second primary cancer site. The risks to organs outside the primary beam from the four-field box and six-field boost and the seven-field IMRT were nearly equivalent. The risks from the four-field box and six-field boost ranged from 1.39x10{sup -8} to 1.80x10{sup -5}%/MU, and from the seven-field IMRT ranged from 1.60x10{sup -9} to 1.35x10{sup -5}%/MU. The second cancer risks in all organs considered from each plan were below the baseline risks. Conclusions: The treatment-related second cancer risks in organs outside the primary beam due to 3D-CRT and IMRT is small. New risk assessment techniques need to be investigated to address the concern of radiation-induced second cancers from prostate treatments, particularly focusing on risks to organs inside the

  10. SU-E-T-112: Dose Distribution of Praseodymium-142 Microspheres in Microcapillary Using Radiochromic Film Dosimetry and Applications in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Microsphere Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M; Rasmussen, K; Jung, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This work verified simulations of beta-minus emitter Praseodymium-142 (Pr-142) for microsphere brachytherapy by performing absolute dose measurements for Pr 142 microspheres in a microcapillary as a simplified model for a single blood vessel for the treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Pr-142 microspheres (mass: 0.169g, average diameter: 29.7±3.9μm) were activated by thermal neutron activation at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. Experimental setup consisted of a microsphere solution (initial activity 36.6mCi in 0.1ml of sterile water) within a glass microcapillary (internal and external diameter: 305μm and 453μm, respectively) placed for 51h in a custom made Gammex Solid Water™ phantom. GAFCHROMIC™ EBT2 film calibrated with a 6MeV electron beam was used to access the dose fall-off of microspheres. The microcapillary was modeled in MCNPX2.6 in order to compare with experiments. Results: The radial dose fall-off on the transverse plane due to scatter and attenuation in the solid water phantom was analyzed using ImageJ for both film and MCNPX2.6 simulations. Isodose analysis showed close agreement among the methods used, i.e. measurements and simulations agree within 3.9% for doses below 1600cGy. Experimental and simulated doses obtained at 0.5 cm radially from the source were 1547cGy and 1610cGy respectively. Discrepancies for points close to the microcapillary surface were observed between MCNPX2.6 and measurements due to film saturation for high doses. Dose due to Pr-142 3.7% gamma emission was below the threshold of detection for the film. Conclusion: A detailed dosimetric study was performed for Pr-142 glass microspheres within a single microcapillary. MCNPX2.6 simulations were verified by means of direct measurement. Based on these results, Pr-142 appears to be a viable choice of radionuclide for treating HCC.

  11. What is Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Key statistics for prostate cancer What is prostate cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... through the center of the prostate. Types of prostate cancer Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas . These cancers ...

  12. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Morales, I; Bassa, C; Pavlovic, A; Morales, C

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion. PMID:26793587

  13. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Morales, I.; Bassa, C.; Pavlovic, A.; Morales, C.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion. PMID:26793587

  14. State-of-the-art imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Marko, Jamie; Gould, C Frank; Bonavia, Grant H; Wolfman, Darcy J

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Modern medical imaging is intimately involved in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Ultrasound is primarily used to guide prostate biopsy to establish the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. Prostate magnetic resonance imaging uses a multiparametric approach, including anatomic and functional imaging sequences. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging can be used for detection and localization of prostate cancer and to evaluate for disease recurrence. Computed tomography and scintigraphic imaging are primarily used to detect regional lymph node spread and distant metastases. Recent advancements in ultrasound, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphic imaging have the potential to change the way prostate cancer is diagnosed and managed. This article addresses the major imaging modalities involved in the evaluation of prostate cancer and updates the reader on the state of the art for each modality. PMID:26087969

  15. Undiagnosed prostatic malignancy at the time of radical cystoprostatectomy after prior prostatic radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pranav; Zargar-Shoshtari, Kamran; Spiess, Philippe E.; Sexton, Wade J.; Poch, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We determined the prevalence of prostatic malignancy in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy (RC) for urothelial carcinoma (UC) with a history of radiation therapy (XRT) treatment for prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa). Materials and Methods: Fifty-three men who underwent a RC for UC that were previously treated for PCa with XRT were retrospectively identified. Pathology reports were reviewed to assess for residual PCa or prostatic UC at the time of surgery. Results: Thirteen (25%) patients had residual PCa, 16 (30%) had prostatic UC, and 8 (15%) had both. Sixteen (30%) patients had no evidence of prostatic disease. Patients with PCa had median tumor volume of 2.2 cc (interquartile range: 1.2–2.5 cc) and one-third had high-risk features (Gleason score >8 or pT3-T4 disease). Sixteen of 24 patients (67%) with prostatic UC had a stromal invasion, 5 (21%) had a ductal invasion, and 3 (13%) had carcinoma in situ. Tumors at bladder neck or trigone during transurethral resection were predictive of prostatic UC (odds ratio: 4.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.2–15.5, P = 0.025). Conclusions: Despite prior XRT for PCa, less than one-third of patients had no prostatic disease at the time of RC. Routine prostatic sampling should be considered in these patients especially if considering the orthotopic diversion. PMID:27141183

  16. Influence of prostatic blood flow on laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Swol, Christiaan F. P.; Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.; Mooibroek, Jaap; Boon, Tom A.

    1994-05-01

    Normally, a laser prostatectomy to treat Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia is performed using a fixed dosimetry. Differences in, e.g., blood flow, optical properties and geometry, are not taken into account, although most of these differences may be distinguished when performing a cystoscopy, e.g., the color of the prostate. These characteristics show their influence in the final tissue effect. We developed a model to predict the permanent damage to the tissue.

  17. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  18. Metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma to the prostate presenting with bilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Marlin, Evan S; Hyams, Elias S; Dulabon, Lori; Shah, Ojas

    2010-02-01

    Carcinoma metastatic to the prostate occurs rarely and is most commonly associated with malignant bladder neoplasms. We present the case of a 73-year-old male with a history of gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma and clinically symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent photoselective vaporization of the prostate and presented several months later with gross hematuria, intermittent urinary retention and bilateral ureteral obstruction causing acute renal failure. After relieving the ureteral obstruction, subsequent transurethral resection of the prostate revealed locally invasive metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of metastatic gastroesophageal carcinoma to the prostate. PMID:20156389

  19. Comparison of permanent 125I seeds implants with two different techniques in 500 cases of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ricós, Jose Vicente; Tortajada, Maria Isabel; Santos, Miguel Angel; Casanova, Juan; Clemente, Jose; Samper, Josefa; Santamaría, Paula; Arribas, Leoncio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To perform a comparative study of 500 consecutive 125I seeds implants for intracapsular prostate carcinoma with two techniques differing in terms of both strand implantation and planning. Material and methods From 2002 to 2007 we performed 250 implants with fixed stranded seeds (RapidStrand™) and a preplanning system and from 2007 to 2010, 250 with real-time and ProLink™ system. Mean age was 68 and 66, respectively, median PSA (prostate-specific antigen) 7.3 and 7.2, stage T1-T2a in 98% and 94%, and Gleason ≤ 6 in 96% and 86%. Low risk cases were 81% and 71%. The prescribed dose was 145 Gy to the prostate volume, or 108 Gy plus EBRT 46 Gy in some intermediate risk cases. Hormonal treatment was given to 42% and 28%. Results Median follow-up was 48 and 47 months, respectively, 14 patients in the first group and 7 patients in the second developed biochemical failure (BF). Actuarial biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) at 5 years increased from 90.2% to 97.2% (low risk from 91.3% to 97.2%, intermediate risk from 84.2% to 97.1%). Biochemical failure was independent of hormone treatment. Rectal complications were G1-2 in 1.2% and 5.2%, respectively. A urinary catheter was necessary in 6.9% and 9.6%, and urethral resection in 1.9% and 4.4%. Genitourinary toxicity was G1-2 in 4.6% and 12%, G3-4 in 1.9% and 4.8%. An assessment of mean D90 in a sample of patients showed that the dosimetry in postoperative planning based on CT improved from a mean D90 of 143 Gy to 157 Gy. Conclusions The outcome of patients with low risk prostate carcinoma treated with 125I seed is very good with low complications rate. The real-time approach in our hands achieved a more precise seed implantation, better dosimetry, and a statistically non-significant better biochemical control. We have made this our standard technique. PMID:26622228

  20. Radiation-induced prostatic sarcoma: A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, J.M.; Uno, J.M.; McIntyre, M.; Mosely, S. )

    1990-09-01

    A 64-year-old man had a prostatic sarcoma 8 years after transurethral prostatectomy and radical bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection with insertion of 125-iodine implants for stage B1N carcinoma of the prostate. Therapy for the sarcoma consisted of isolated pelvic perfusion and then pelvic exenteration with creation of an ileal conduit and colostomy. The pathology report showed well encapsulated grade 2 spindle cell sarcoma of the prostate. Multiple small metallic particles were embedded in the tumor specimen.

  1. Salvage brachytherapy in combination with interstitial hyperthermia for locally recurrent prostate carcinoma following external beam radiation therapy: a prospective phase II study.

    PubMed

    Kukiełka, Andrzej M; Strnad, Vratislav; Stauffer, Paul; Dąbrowski, Tomasz; Hetnał, Marcin; Nahajowski, Damian; Walasek, Tomasz; Brandys, Piotr; Matys, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Optimal treatment for patients with only local prostate cancer recurrence after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) failure remains unclear. Possible curative treatments are radical prostatectomy, cryosurgery, and brachytherapy. Several single institution series proved that high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) and pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy (PDRBT) are reasonable options for this group of patients with acceptable levels of genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity. A standard dose prescription and scheme have not been established yet, and the literature presents a wide range of fractionation protocols. Furthermore, hyperthermia has shown the potential to enhance the efficacy of re-irradiation. Consequently, a prospective trial is urgently needed to attain clear structured prospective data regarding the efficacy of salvage brachytherapy with adjuvant hyperthermia for locally recurrent prostate cancer. The purpose of this report is to introduce a new prospective phase II trial that would meet this need. The primary aim of this prospective phase II study combining Iridium-192 brachytherapy with interstitial hyperthermia (IHT) is to analyze toxicity of the combined treatment; a secondary aim is to define the efficacy (bNED, DFS, OS) of salvage brachytherapy. The dose prescribed to PTV will be 30 Gy in 3 fractions for HDRBT, and 60 Gy in 2 fractions for PDRBT. During IHT, the prostate will be heated to the range of 40-47°C for 60 minutes prior to brachytherapy dose delivery. The protocol plans for treatment of 77 patients. PMID:26207116

  2. Fangchinoline induced G1/S arrest by modulating expression of p27, PCNA, and cyclin D in human prostate carcinoma cancer PC3 cells and tumor xenograft.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Dong; Huang, Jian-Guo; Gao, Xuan; Li, Yi; Zhou, Shi-Yi; Yan, Xu; Zou, An; Chang, Jun-Li; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Yang, Guang-Xiao; He, Guang-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCA) is the most common invasive malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in males. The present study investigated the effects of fangchinoline (Fan), an important compound in Stephania Tetradra S. Moore (Fenfangji) with pain-relieving, blood pressure-depressing, and antibiotic activities, on human PCA. It was found that Fan inhibited human prostate cancer cell lines (PC3) cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Studies of cell-cycle progression showed that the anti-proliferative effect of Fan was associated with an increase in the G1/S phase of PC3 cells. Western blot results indicated that Fan-induced G1/S phase arrest was mediated through inhibition of cyclin-regulated signaling pathways. Fan induced p27 expression and inhibited cyclin D and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in PC3 cells. Increased exposure time to Fan caused apoptosis of PC3 cells, which was associated with up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and caspase 3, and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Furthermore, Fan had anti-tumorigenic activity in vivo, including reduction of tumor volume and pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in a PC3 nude mouse xenograft. Taking all this together, it can be concluded that Fan is an effective anti-proliferative agent that modulates cell growth regulators in prostate cancer cells. PMID:20208355

  3. Metastatic prostatic pulmonary nodules with normal bone image

    SciTech Connect

    Petras, A.F.; Wollett, F.C.

    1983-11-01

    Asymptomatic prostatic caricnoma presented as multiple bilateral pulmonary modules in a patient without any evidence of skeletal involvement by normal bone image. Percutaneous biopsy provided the initial clue to diagnosis. The authors recommend that asymptomatic prostatic carcinoma be included in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules, even when there is no evidence of skeletal metastasis.

  4. International Reactor Dosimetry Data.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1982-06-28

    Version 00 IRDF-82 contains 620 neutron group cross sections (SAND-II format) based on the ENDF/B-V Special Purpose Dosimetry File as well as other reaction cross sections important for dosimetry applications. In addition, multigroup spectra for ten reference benchmarks are also provided.

  5. [Electronic portal image device dosimetry for volumetric modulated arc therapy].

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Daisaku; Nakada, Ryosei; Ienaga, Akinori; Yomoda, Akane; Inoue, Makoto; Ichida, Takao; Hosono, Masako

    2013-01-01

    Recently electronic portal image devices (EPIDs) have been widely used for quality assurance and dose verification. However there are no reports describing EPID dosimetry for Elekta volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). We have investigated EPID dosimetry during VMAT delivery using a commercial software EPIDose with an Elekta Synergy linac. Dose rate dependence and the linac system sag during gantry rotation were measured. Gamma indices were calculated between measured doses using an EPID and calculation made by a treatment planning system for prostate VMAT test plans. The results were also compared to gamma indices using films and a two-dimensional detector array, MapCHECK2. The pass rates of the gamma analysis with a criterion of 3% and 2 mm for the three methods were over 96% with good consistency. Our results have showed that EPID dosimetry is feasible for Elekta VMAT. PMID:23358333

  6. Tubeimoside-1 induces oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest in human prostate carcinoma cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing-bo; Khan, Muhammad; He, Yang-yang; Yao, Min; Li, Yong-ming; Gao, Hong-wen; Ma, Tong-hui

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Tubeimoside-1 (TBMS1), a triterpenoid saponin extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim) Franquet (Cucurbitaceae), has shown anticancer activities in various cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity and molecular targets of TBMS1 in human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Methods: DU145 and P3 human prostate cancer cells were treated with TBMS1. Cell viability and apoptosis were detected. ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle profile were examined. Western blotting was used to measure the expression of relevant proteins in the cells. Results: TBMS1 (5–100 μmol/L) significantly suppressed the viability of DU145 and P3 cells with IC50 values of approximately 10 and 20 μmol/L, respectively. Furthermore, TBMS1 dose-dependently induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in DU145 and P3 cells. In DU145 cells, TBMS1 induced mitochondrial apoptosis, evidenced by ROS generation, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, modulated Bcl-2 family protein and cleaved caspase-3, and activated ASK-1 and its downstream targets p38 and JNK. The G0/G1 phase arrest was linked to increased expression of p53 and p21 and decreased expression of cyclin E and cdk2. Co-treatment with Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor) could attenuate TBMS1-induced apoptosis but did not prevent G0/G1 arrest. Moreover, co-treatment with NAC (ROS scavenger), SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) or salubrinal (ER stress inhibitor) significantly attenuated TBMS1-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: TBMS1 induces oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro via the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:27292614

  7. Elevated expression of calcium-binding protein p9Ka is associated with increasing malignant characteristics of rat prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Y; Jing, C; Barraclough, R; Smith, P; Davies, M P; Foster, C S

    1997-05-29

    Northern and Western blotting techniques were used to study expression of the mRNA and corresponding protein product of the S100-related calcium-binding molecule p9Ka in 6 different metastatic cell lines of the Dunning R3327 rat prostate cancer model. In cells with the lowest metastatic capability (G cells), p9Ka mRNA was barely detectable. In 2 weakly metastatic cell lines (AT-1 and AT-2), p9Ka transcript amounts were, respectively, 6.29 +/- 0.74 and 5.55 +/- 1.11 times that detected in the G cells. In 3 highly metastatic cell lines (AT-3, MAT-LyLu and MAT-Lu), the amounts of p9Ka mRNA were, respectively, 12.85 +/- 2.82, 13.06 +/- 1.69 and 11.62 +/- 1.81 times that expressed in the G cells. Western blot analyses detected no p9Ka protein in the G cells. The amounts of p9Ka protein expressed by tumour cells of intermediate metastatic capability (AT-1 and AT-2) were 3.4 +/- 1.3 microg and 3.3 +/- 1.4 microg, respectively, per 1 x 10(6) cells. The amounts of p9Ka protein expressed by the tumour cells of highest metastatic capability (AT-3, MAT-LyLu and MAT-Lu) were 8.3 +/- 1.1 microg, 8.7 +/- 1.6 microg and 9.6 +/- 1.7 microg, respectively, per 1 x 10(6) cells. Our data reveal a direct association between the elevated expression of mRNA and the p9Ka protein amounts and the increased metastatic capability of individual prostatic cancer cell lines. We suggest that calcium-binding protein p9Ka may play an important role in the metastatic behaviour of rat prostate cancer. PMID:9180153

  8. Prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Attard, Gerhardt; Parker, Chris; Eeles, Ros A; Schröder, Fritz; Tomlins, Scott A; Tannock, Ian; Drake, Charles G; de Bono, Johann S

    2016-01-01

    Much progress has been made in research for prostate cancer in the past decade. There is now greater understanding for the genetic basis of familial prostate cancer with identification of rare but high-risk mutations (eg, BRCA2, HOXB13) and low-risk but common alleles (77 identified so far by genome-wide association studies) that could lead to targeted screening of patients at risk. This is especially important because screening for prostate cancer based on prostate-specific antigen remains controversial due to the high rate of overdiagnosis and unnecessary prostate biopsies, despite evidence that it reduces mortality. Classification of prostate cancer into distinct molecular subtypes, including mutually exclusive ETS-gene-fusion-positive and SPINK1-overexpressing, CHD1-loss cancers, could allow stratification of patients for different management strategies. Presently, men with localised disease can have very different prognoses and treatment options, ranging from observation alone through to radical surgery, with few good-quality randomised trials to inform on the best approach for an individual patient. The survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer progressing on androgen-deprivation therapy (castration-resistant prostate cancer) has improved substantially. In addition to docetaxel, which has been used for more than a decade, in the past 4 years five new drugs have shown efficacy with improvements in overall survival leading to licensing for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Because of this rapid change in the therapeutic landscape, no robust data exist to inform on the selection of patients for a specific treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer or the best sequence of administration. Moreover, the high cost of the newer drugs limits their widespread use in several countries. Data from continuing clinical and translational research are urgently needed to improve, and, crucially, to personalise management. PMID

  9. Reproducibility and Reliability of Anti-3-[18F] FACBC Uptake Measurements in Background Structures and Malignant Lesions on Follow-Up PET-CT in Prostate Carcinoma: an Exploratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Odewole, Oluwaseun A.; Oyenuga, Oyeladun A.; Tade, Funmilayo; Savir-Baruch, Bital; Nieh, Peter T.; Master, Viraj; Chen, Zhengjia; Wang, Xiaojing; Jani, Ashesh B.; Bellamy, Leah M.; Halkar, Raghuveer K.; Goodman, Mark M.; Schuster, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to examine the reproducibility of anti-1-amino-3-[18F]fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (anti-3-[18F]FACBC) quantitative measurements in key background structures and untreated malignant lesions. Procedures Retrospective review of 14 patients who underwent follow-up anti-3-[18F]FACBC positron emission tomography-X-ray computed tomography (PET-CT) for prostate carcinoma recurrence. Standard uptake values (SUV) were measured in both original and follow-up scans in key background structures and untreated malignant lesions. Absolute and percent mean difference in SUV between scans and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were also computed. Results Mean (±SD, range) scan interval was 17.4 months (±7.1, 4–29). %Mean difference in SUVmean was <20 % in background structures with low absolute differences. ICCs were >0.6 except for early-phase blood pool (ICC=0.4). SUVmax in malignant lesions without interim therapy increased or remained stable over time. Conclusions Despite variable time interval between scans, FACBC PET-CT demonstrates acceptable reproducibility in key background structures. Untreated malignant lesions showed stable or increased uptake over time. A formal test-retest study is planned. PMID:25281411

  10. NF-kB and c-Jun induce the expression of the oncogenic miR-221 and miR-222 in prostate carcinoma and glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Galardi, Silvia; Mercatelli, Neri; Farace, Maria G; Ciafrè, Silvia A

    2011-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent negative regulators of gene expression involved in all aspects of cell biology. They finely modulate virtually all physiological pathways in metazoans, and are deeply implicated in all main pathologies, among which cancer. Mir-221 and miR-222, two closely related miRNAs encoded in cluster from a genomic region on chromosome X, are strongly upregulated in several forms of human tumours. In this work, we report that the ectopic modulation of NF-kB modifies miR-221/222 expression in prostate carcinoma and glioblastoma cell lines, where we had previously shown their oncogenic activity. We identify two separate distal regions upstream of miR-221/222 promoter which are bound by the NF-kB subunit p65 and drive efficient transcription in luciferase reporter assays; consistently, the site-directed mutagenesis disrupting p65 binding sites or the ectopical inhibition of NF-kB activity significantly reduce luciferase activity. In the most distal enhancer region, we also define a binding site for c-Jun, and we show that the binding of this factor cooperates with that of p65, fully accounting for the observed upregulation of miR-221/222. Thus our work uncovers an additional mechanism through which NF-kB and c-Jun, two transcription factors deeply involved in cancer onset and progression, contribute to oncogenesis, by inducing miR-221/222 transcription. PMID:21245048

  11. NF-kB and c-Jun induce the expression of the oncogenic miR-221 and miR-222 in prostate carcinoma and glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Galardi, Silvia; Mercatelli, Neri; Farace, Maria G.; Ciafrè, Silvia A.

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent negative regulators of gene expression involved in all aspects of cell biology. They finely modulate virtually all physiological pathways in metazoans, and are deeply implicated in all main pathologies, among which cancer. Mir-221 and miR-222, two closely related miRNAs encoded in cluster from a genomic region on chromosome X, are strongly upregulated in several forms of human tumours. In this work, we report that the ectopic modulation of NF-kB modifies miR-221/222 expression in prostate carcinoma and glioblastoma cell lines, where we had previously shown their oncogenic activity. We identify two separate distal regions upstream of miR-221/222 promoter which are bound by the NF-kB subunit p65 and drive efficient transcription in luciferase reporter assays; consistently, the site-directed mutagenesis disrupting p65 binding sites or the ectopical inhibition of NF-kB activity significantly reduce luciferase activity. In the most distal enhancer region, we also define a binding site for c-Jun, and we show that the binding of this factor cooperates with that of p65, fully accounting for the observed upregulation of miR-221/222. Thus our work uncovers an additional mechanism through which NF-kB and c-Jun, two transcription factors deeply involved in cancer onset and progression, contribute to oncogenesis, by inducing miR-221/222 transcription. PMID:21245048

  12. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  13. Comparison of microscopic vascularity in benign and malignant prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Bigler, S A; Deering, R E; Brawer, M K

    1993-02-01

    A variety of malignant neoplasms have been shown to induce capillary neovascularization, and in some cases the degree of vascularization appears to correlate with aggressive behavior and risk of metastasis. We hypothesized that carcinoma of the prostate also induces the formation of new capillaries, and we developed a method to quantify the relative density of microscopic vessels in carcinoma of the prostate compared with benign prostatic glandular tissue. The number of microvessel profiles in tissue sections was quantified by marking the vascular endothelial cells with antibodies to factor VIII-related antigen using standard immunohistochemistry techniques and comparing fields of adenocarcinoma with benign glandular tissue in 15 radical prostatectomy specimens. The analysis was facilitated by using the Optimas computerized image analysis system (Bioscan, Seattle, WA) with software written for this investigation. Fourteen of the 15 cases demonstrated significantly higher vascular density in the areas of carcinoma than in the benign tissues. Overall, the ratio of vessels per unit area in sections of carcinoma versus benign tissue was approximately double (ratio = 2.02; P < .001). In benign tissues the capillaries are restricted for the most part to the periglandular stroma immediately adjacent to the epithelium, whereas the distribution in carcinoma appears to be more random. The data demonstrate the increased density of capillaries in prostatic carcinoma when compared with benign prostate tissue. PMID:8432518

  14. Prostate Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... F Race . Prostate cancer is most common among African-American men. F Family History . If your father or ... Healthcare Research and Quality Publications Clearinghouse P.O. Box 8547 Silver Spring, MD 20907-8547 1-800- ...

  15. Prostate Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk. Race . Prostate cancer is most common among African-American men. Family history . If your father or brother ... Healthcare Research and Quality Publications Clearinghouse P.O. Box 8547 Silver Spring, MD 20907-8547 1-800- ...

  16. Prostatitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... bladder, such as alcohol, caffeinated foods and drinks, citrus juices, and hot or spicy foods. Drink more ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prostate Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  17. Prostatitis - nonbacterial

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower urinary tract Parasites Pelvic floor muscle problem Sexual abuse Viruses Life stresses and emotional factors may play a part in the problem. Most men with chronic prostatitis have the nonbacterial form.

  18. Practical CT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizumi, T.T.; Suneja, S.K.; Teal, J.S. )

    1989-07-01

    The dose from computed tomography (CT) examinations is not negligible from a radiation safety standpoint. Occasionally, one encounters a case in which an unsuspected pregnant woman undergoes a CT pelvic scan, and the radiologist is required to estimate the dose to the fetus. This article addresses practical methods of CT dosimetry with a specific discussion on fetal dose estimate. Three methods are described: (1) the use of a dose chart, (2) the pencil ionization chamber method, and (3) the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) method.

  19. Beyond Prostate Adenocarcinoma: Expanding the Differential Diagnosis in Prostate Pathologic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Mongan, John; Behr, Spencer C; Sud, Seema; Coakley, Fergus V; Simko, Jeffry; Westphalen, Antonio C

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the prostate gland have dramatically improved the ability to detect and stage adenocarcinoma of the prostate, one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men and one of the most frequently diagnosed pathologic conditions of the prostate gland. A wide variety of nonadenocarcinoma diseases can also be seen with MR imaging, ranging from benign to malignant diseases, as well as infectious and inflammatory manifestations. Many of these diseases have distinctive imaging features that allow differentiation from prostate acinar adenocarcinoma. Early recognition of these entities produces a more accurate differential diagnosis and may enable more expeditious clinical workup. Benign neoplasms of the prostate include plexiform neurofibroma and cystadenoma, both of which demonstrate distinctive imaging features. Stromal neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential are rare tumors of uncertain malignant potential that are often difficult to distinguish at imaging from more-malignant prostate sarcomas. Other malignant neoplasms of the prostate include urothelial carcinoma, primary prostatic carcinoid, carcinosarcoma, endometrioid or ductal adenocarcinoma, and mucinous adenocarcinoma. Prostatic infections can lead to abscesses of pyogenic, tuberculous, or fungal origins. Finally, miscellaneous idiopathic disorders of the prostate include amyloidosis, exophytic benign prostatic hyperplasia, and various congenital cysts. Considerable overlap can exist in the clinical history and imaging findings associated with these prostate pathologic conditions, and biopsy is often required for ultimate confirmation of the diagnosis. However, many diagnoses, including cystadenoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, and abscesses, have distinct imaging features, which can enable the informed radiologist to identify the diagnosis and recommend appropriate clinical workup and management. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27315446

  20. GATA-3 and FOXA1 expression is useful to differentiate breast carcinoma from other carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew G; Siddiqui, Momin T; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Stevens, Keith; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Cohen, Cynthia; Li, Xiaoxian Bill

    2016-01-01

    GATA-3, a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger DNA binding proteins, and FOXA1, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, are both associated with estrogen receptor expression. Both GATA-3 and FOXA1 are useful markers for breast carcinoma, but their expression in the different breast cancer subtypes and other neoplasms has not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the expression of GATA-3 and FOXA1 in estrogen receptor-positive, Her2/neu-positive, and triple-negative breast carcinomas as well as in 10 other common carcinomas, including hepatocellular, colonic, pancreatic, gastric, endometrial (endometrioid), lung, prostatic, renal cell, urothelial, and ovarian serous carcinomas. Primary and metastatic melanomas and mesotheliomas were also evaluated. GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining of estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas was seen in 96.6% and 96.2%, respectively. In triple-negative breast carcinomas, GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining was seen in 21.6% and 15.9%, respectively. Among the other tumors, GATA-3 staining was only seen in urothelial carcinoma (70.9%) and FOXA1 staining was only seen in prostatic (87.5%), urothelial (5.1%) carcinomas, and mesotheliomas (40.0%). In conclusion, GATA-3 and FOXA1 are excellent breast carcinoma markers; however, their utility is limited in the triple-negative subtype. The utility of FOXA1 in diagnosing prostatic carcinoma and mesothelioma warrants further investigation. PMID:26527523

  1. Laser Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Dosimetric and Thermodynamic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, Bahman

    1993-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most commonly occurring neoplastic disease in the aging human male. Currently, surgical treatment of BPH is the primary therapeutic method. However, due to surgical complications, less invasive methods of treatment are desirable. In recent years, thermal coagulation of the hyperplastic prostate by a laser has received a considerable amount of attention. Nevertheless, the optimum laser irradiation parameters that lead to a successful and safe treatment of BPH have not been determined. This dissertation studies the physics of laser coagulation of prostate from both basic science and practical perspectives. Optical properties of prostatic tissue are determined over a spectrum of wavelengths. Knowledge of these properties allows for selection of appropriate laser wavelengths and provides a basis for performing dose equivalency studies among various types of lasers. Furthermore, knowledge of optical properties are needed for development of computer simulation models that predict the extent of thermal injury during laser irradiation of prostate. A computer model of transurethral heating of prostate that can be used to guide the clinical studies in determining an optimum dosimetry is then presented. Studies of the effects of non-laser heating devices, optical properties, blood perfusion, surface irrigation, and beam geometry are performed to examine the extent of heat propagation within the prostate. An in vitro model for transurethral laser irradiation of prostate is also presented to examine the effects of an 810 nm diode laser, thermal boundary conditions, and energy deposition rate during Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Results of these studies suggest that in the presence of laminar irrigation, the convective boundary condition is dominated by thermal diffusion as opposed to the bulk motion of the irrigation fluid. Distinct phases of thermal events are also identified during the laser irradiation. The in vivo studies of

  2. SU-E-T-397: Include Organ Deformation Into Dose Calculation of Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Y; Shen, D; Chen, R; Wang, A; Lian, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Prostate brachytherapy is an important curative treatment for patients with localized prostate cancer. In brachytherapy, rectal balloon is generally needed to adjust for unfavorable prostate position for seed placement. However, rectal balloon causes prostate deformation, which is not accounted for in dosimetric planning. Therefore, it is possible that brachytherapy dosimetry deviates significantly from initial plan when prostate returns to its non-deformed state (after procedure). The goal of this study is to develop a method to include prostate deformation into the treatment planning of brachytherapy dosimetry. Methods: We prospectively collected ultrasound images of prostate pre- and post- rectal balloon inflation from thirty five consecutive patients undergoing I-125 brachytherapy. Based on the cylinder coordinate systems, we learned the initial coordinate transformation parameters between the manual segmentations of both deformed and non-deformed prostates of each patient in training set. With the nearest-neighbor interpolation, we searched the best transformation between two coordinate systems to maximum the mutual information of deformed and non-deformed images. We then mapped the implanted seeds of five selected patients from the deformed prostate into non-deformed prostate. The seed position is marked on original pre-inflation US image and it is imported into VariSeed software for dose calculation. Results: The accuracy of image registration is 87.5% as quantified by Dice Index. The prostate coverage V100% dropped from 96.5±0.5% of prostate deformed plan to 91.9±2.6% (p<0.05) of non-deformed plan. The rectum V100% decreased from 0.44±0.26 cc to 0.10±0.18 cc (p<0.05). The dosimetry of the urethra showed mild change but not significant: V150% changed from 0.05±0.10 cc to 0.14±0.15 cc (p>0.05) and D1% changed from 212.9±37.3 Gy to 248.4±42.8 Gy (p>0.05). Conclusion: We have developed a deformable image registration method that allows

  3. ALGEBRA: ALgorithm for the heterogeneous dosimetry based on GEANT4 for BRAchytherapy.

    PubMed

    Afsharpour, H; Landry, G; D'Amours, M; Enger, S; Reniers, B; Poon, E; Carrier, J-F; Verhaegen, F; Beaulieu, L

    2012-06-01

    Task group 43 (TG43)-based dosimetry algorithms are efficient for brachytherapy dose calculation in water. However, human tissues have chemical compositions and densities different than water. Moreover, the mutual shielding effect of seeds on each other (interseed attenuation) is neglected in the TG43-based dosimetry platforms. The scientific community has expressed the need for an accurate dosimetry platform in brachytherapy. The purpose of this paper is to present ALGEBRA, a Monte Carlo platform for dosimetry in brachytherapy which is sufficiently fast and accurate for clinical and research purposes. ALGEBRA is based on the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code and is capable of handling the DICOM RT standard to recreate a virtual model of the treated site. Here, the performance of ALGEBRA is presented for the special case of LDR brachytherapy in permanent prostate and breast seed implants. However, the algorithm is also capable of handling other treatments such as HDR brachytherapy. PMID:22572100

  4. ALGEBRA: ALgorithm for the heterogeneous dosimetry based on GEANT4 for BRAchytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsharpour, H.; Landry, G.; D'Amours, M.; Enger, S.; Reniers, B.; Poon, E.; Carrier, J.-F.; Verhaegen, F.; Beaulieu, L.

    2012-06-01

    Task group 43 (TG43)-based dosimetry algorithms are efficient for brachytherapy dose calculation in water. However, human tissues have chemical compositions and densities different than water. Moreover, the mutual shielding effect of seeds on each other (interseed attenuation) is neglected in the TG43-based dosimetry platforms. The scientific community has expressed the need for an accurate dosimetry platform in brachytherapy. The purpose of this paper is to present ALGEBRA, a Monte Carlo platform for dosimetry in brachytherapy which is sufficiently fast and accurate for clinical and research purposes. ALGEBRA is based on the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code and is capable of handling the DICOM RT standard to recreate a virtual model of the treated site. Here, the performance of ALGEBRA is presented for the special case of LDR brachytherapy in permanent prostate and breast seed implants. However, the algorithm is also capable of handling other treatments such as HDR brachytherapy.

  5. Endocavitary in vivo Dosimetry for IMRT Treatments of Gynecologic Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cilla, Savino; Macchia, Gabriella; Digesu, Cinzia; Deodato, Francesco; Sabatino, Domenico; Morganti, Alessio G.; Piermattei, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    The accuracy and reproducibility of endometrial carcinoma treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was assessed by means of in vivo dosimetry. Six patients who had previously undergone radical hysterectomy for endometrial carcinoma were treated with IMRT using a vaginal applicator with radio-opaque fiducial markers. An ion-chamber inserted into the applicator supplied an endocavitary in vivo dosimetry for quality assurance purposes. The ratio R = D/D{sub TPS} between the in vivo measured dose D and the predicted dose by the treatment planning system D{sub TPS} was determined for every fraction of the treatment. Results showed that 90% and 100% of the ratios resulted equal to 1 within 5% and 10%, respectively. The mean value of the ratios distribution for the 6 patients was R = 0.995 and the SD = 0.034. The ratio R* between the measured and predicted total doses for each patient was near to 1, within 2%. The dosimetric results suggest that the use of a vaginal applicator in an image-guided approach could make the interfractions target position stable and reproducible, allowing a safe use of the IMRT technique in the treatment of postoperative vaginal vault. In vivo dosimetry may supply useful information about the discrimination of random vs. systematic errors. The workload is minimum and this in vivo dosimetry can be applied also in the clinical routine.

  6. Exophytic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Blaschko, Sarah D; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2011-08-01

    A 60-year-old man had incidental finding of a multilobular 8 × 7 × 7-cm mass identified posterior to the urinary bladder in continuity with the prostate. The man's prostate-specific antigen was 1.87, and he denied any lower urinary tract symptoms. A transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy demonstrated benign prostatic tissue. A computed tomography-guided needle aspiration demonstrated a benign epithelium-lined cyst, likely prostatic in origin. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a proliferation of prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. Although prostatic hyperplasia is usually restricted to the prostate gland, hyperplastic nodules occasionally protrude outside the prostate and rarely form exophytic pelvic masses. PMID:20869104

  7. Carcinoma of skin of penis.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, W I

    1985-08-01

    Like the Jews, the Ibos or Igbos of Nigeria ritually circumcise males on the eighth day of birth. A retrospective review of approximately 15,000 surgical specimens collected from this ethnic group over a period of 13 years revealed 32 cases of carcinoma of the prostate but only 4 cases of penile carcinoma. One tumour arose on the glans penis. This localisation pattern suggests that, in circumcised males, smegma-induced squamous carcinoma of the glans can be abolished but not the ordinary squamous carcinoma that can develop by chance on the rest of the penis as well as on the glans. International urology would benefit from careful documentation of squamous carcinoma affecting various parts of the neonatally circumcised penile skin. PMID:4027519

  8. Focal partial salvage low-dose-rate brachytherapy for local recurrent prostate cancer after permanent prostate brachytherapy with a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wakumoto, Yoshiaki; Yamaguchi, Nanae; Horie, Shigeo; Sasai, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the treatment results for focal partial salvage re-implantation against local recurrence after permanent prostate brachytherapy. Material and methods Between January 2010 and September 2015, 12 patients were treated with focal partial salvage re-implantation for local recurrence after low-dose-rate brachytherapy using 125I seeds. The focal clinical target volume (F-CTV) was delineated on positive biopsy areas in a mapping biopsy, combining the cold spots on the post-implant dosimetry for initial brachytherapy. The F-CTV was expanded by 3 mm to create the planning target volume (PTV) as a margin to compensate for uncertainties in image registration and treatment delivery. The prescribed dose to the PTV was 145 Gy. The characteristics and biochemical disease-free survival (BdFS) rates were analyzed. Genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4. Results The median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at re-implantation was 4.09 ng/ml (range: 2.91-8.24 ng/ml). The median follow-up time was 56 months (range: 6-74 months). The median RD2cc and UD10 were 63 Gy and 159 Gy, respectively. The 4-year BdFS rate was 78%, which included non-responders. Biochemical recurrence occurred in two patients after 7 and 31 months, respectively. The former was treated with hormonal therapy after biochemical failure, and the latter underwent watchful waiting (PSA at the last follow-up of 53 months: 7.3 ng/ml) at the patient's request. No patients had grade 3 GU/GI toxicities or died after salvage re-implantation. Conclusions The partial salvage low-dose-rate brachytherapy used to treat local recurrence after permanent prostate brachytherapy is well-tolerated, with high biochemical response rates. This treatment can be not only a method to delay chemical castration but also a curative treatment option in cases of local recurrence of prostate carcinoma after seed implantation

  9. Online Adaptive Replanning Method for Prostate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahunbay, Ergun E.; Peng Cheng; Holmes, Shannon; Godley, Andrew; Lawton, Colleen; Li, X. Allen

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To report the application of an adaptive replanning technique for prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT), consisting of two steps: (1) segment aperture morphing (SAM), and (2) segment weight optimization (SWO), to account for interfraction variations. Methods and Materials: The new 'SAM+SWO' scheme was retroactively applied to the daily CT images acquired for 10 prostate cancer patients on a linear accelerator and CT-on-Rails combination during the course of RT. Doses generated by the SAM+SWO scheme based on the daily CT images were compared with doses generated after patient repositioning using the current planning target volume (PTV) margin (5 mm, 3 mm toward rectum) and a reduced margin (2 mm), along with full reoptimization scans based on the daily CT images to evaluate dosimetry benefits. Results: For all cases studied, the online replanning method provided significantly better target coverage when compared with repositioning with reduced PTV (13% increase in minimum prostate dose) and improved organ sparing when compared with repositioning with regular PTV (13% decrease in the generalized equivalent uniform dose of rectum). The time required to complete the online replanning process was 6 {+-} 2 minutes. Conclusion: The proposed online replanning method can be used to account for interfraction variations for prostate RT with a practically acceptable time frame (5-10 min) and with significant dosimetric benefits. On the basis of this study, the developed online replanning scheme is being implemented in the clinic for prostate RT.

  10. Prostate motion during standard radiotherapy as assessed by fiducial markers.

    PubMed

    Crook, J M; Raymond, Y; Salhani, D; Yang, H; Esche, B

    1995-10-01

    From November 1993 to August 1994, 55 patients with localized prostate carcinoma had three gold seeds placed in the prostate under transrectal ultrasound guidance prior to the start of radiotherapy in order to track prostate motion. Patients had a planning CT scan before initial simulation and again at about 40 Gy, just prior to simulation of a field reduction. Seed position relative to fixed bony landmarks (pubic symphysis and both ischial tuberosities) was digitized from each pair of orthogonal films from the initial and boost simulation using the Nucletron brachytherapy planning system. Vector analysis was performed to rule out the possibility of independent seed migration within the prostate between the time of initial and boost simulation. Prostate motion was seen in the posterior (mean: 0.56 cm; SD: 0.41 cm) and inferior directions (mean: 0.59 cm; SD: 0.45 cm). The base of the prostate was displaced more than 1 cm posteriorly in 30% of patients and in 11% in the inferior direction. Prostate position is related to rectal and bladder filling. Distension of these organs displaces the prostate in an anterosuperior direction, with lesser degrees of filling allowing the prostate to move posteriorly and inferiorly. Conformal therapy planning must take this motion into consideration. Changes in prostate position of this magnitude preclude the use of standard margins. PMID:8539455

  11. Internal dosimetry of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    LaBone, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    Tritium is an interesting radionuclide from the perspective of internal dosimetry because of the wide variety of chemical compounds in which it can appear, its unusual routes of entry into the body, and its ability to exchange with stable hydrogen in surrounding material. In this report the internal dosimetry of tritium compounds is reviewed, with emphasis on methods of evaluating bioassay data following chronic and acute intakes. The assumptions and models used in the derivation of Annual Limits on Intake (ALI) and Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for tritium are also discussed.

  12. Internal dosimetry of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    LaBone, T.R.

    1992-06-01

    Tritium is an interesting radionuclide from the perspective of internal dosimetry because of the wide variety of chemical compounds in which it can appear, its unusual routes of entry into the body, and its ability to exchange with stable hydrogen in surrounding material. In this report the internal dosimetry of tritium compounds is reviewed, with emphasis on methods of evaluating bioassay data following chronic and acute intakes. The assumptions and models used in the derivation of Annual Limits on Intake (ALI) and Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for tritium are also discussed.

  13. Dosimetry with diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, G.; Marino, C.; Silvestri, F.; Lavagno, A.; Truc, F.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present the dosimetry analysis in terms of stability and repeatability of the signal and dose rate dependence of a synthetic single crystal diamond grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique. The measurements carried out by 5 MeV X-ray photons beam show very promising results, even if the dose rate detector response points out that the charge trapping centers distribution is not uniform inside the crystal volume. This handicap that affects the detectors performances, must be ascribed to the growing process. Synthetic single crystal diamonds could be a valuable alternative to air ionization chambers for quality beam control and for intensity modulated radiation therapy beams dosimetry.

  14. Presence of calcitonin-like immunoreactivity (iCT) in human prostate gland: evidence for iCT secretion by cultured prostate cells.

    PubMed

    Shah, G V; Noble, M J; Austenfeld, M; Weigel, J; Deftos, L J; Mebust, W K

    1992-01-01

    Immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT) has been detected in human prostate tissue extracts as well as seminal plasma. The present studies were undertaken to examine whether iSCT (immunoreactive salmon CT-like human peptide) co-exists with iHCT (thyroid CT-like substance) in human prostate tissue extracts, and whether these substances are secreted by primary prostate cells in culture. Since the local secretion of these substances seems to increase in some neoplasms, a second objective of the study was to examine whether basal secretion of iCTs from primary prostate cells is increased in carcinoma. The present results have shown that both iHCT and iSCT were present in prostate tissue extracts. The mean iHCT levels in extracts of benign hyperplastic prostates (BPH) were 0.59 ng/g prostate, and these were significantly lower than iHCT concentrations in prostatic carcinoma (PC) (2.53 ng/g). No significant differences in their iSCT contents were observed. However, the results from culture of over 90 individual prostate tissue specimens from BPH or PC indicate that primary prostate cells secreted detectable quantities of iSCT and the basal release of this material from PC prostate cultures was almost four-fold higher than that from BPH prostate cultures. These results suggest that a CT-like immunoreactive material is secreted by primary prostate cells in culture, and the basal secretion of this material is significantly higher in PC cells as compared to BPH cells. Endogenous secretion of prostatic CT, and the elevation of its expression in PC suggest that it may serve as a regulatory factor in the pathophysiology of the prostate gland. PMID:1409122

  15. Measurement of hypoxia-related parameters in three sublines of a rat prostate carcinoma using dynamic 18F-FMISO-Pet-Ct and quantitative histology

    PubMed Central

    Mena-Romano, Pamela; Cheng, Caixia; Glowa, Christin; Peschke, Peter; Pan, Leyun; Haberkorn, Uwe; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Karger, Christian P

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is an important resistance factor in radiotherapy and measuring its spatial distribution in tumors non-invasively is therefore of major importance. This study characterizes the hypoxic conditions of three tumor sublines (AT1, HI and H) of the Dunning R3327 prostate tumor model, which differ in histology, differentiation degree, volume doubling time and androgenic sensitivity, using dynamic Fluoromisonidazole (18F-FMISO)-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET-CT) and histology. Measurements were performed for two tumor volumes (average 0.8±0.5 cm3 vs 4.4±2.8 cm3). Data were analyzed according to tumor subline as well as to the shape of the time activity curves (TACs), based on standardized uptake values (SUVs) and a two-tissue compartment model. Quantitative immunohistochemical studies of the hypoxic fraction, vessel density and vessel size were performed using pimonidazole, Hoechst 33342 and CD31 dyes. No significant FMISO uptake was found in small tumors, which had a mean SUV of 0.64±0.36, 0.55±0.10 and 0.45±0.08, for AT1, HI and H sublines respectively. In large tumors, the SUVs were 1.33±0.52, 1.12±0.83 and 0.63±0.16 for AT1, HI and H sublines and the corresponding hypoxic fractions obtained with pimonidazole staining were 0.62±0.23, 0.54±0.24 and 0.07±0.10, respectively. The AT1- was the most and H-tumor was the least hypoxic for both methods (P<0.05). All measurements were able to discriminate different hypoxic conditions, however despite SUV and kinetic parameters correlated with the three identified TAC shapes, most of the histological results did not. These results demonstrate impact and limitations of static and dynamic PET-CT measurements to assess hypoxia non-invasively. PMID:26269773

  16. Localized Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a decision aid for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (available at http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/prostate_da) ... A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Page 1 of 24 Introduction Men with clinically ...

  17. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... finasteride who did have prostate cancer had more aggressive tumors . The number of deaths from prostate cancer ... men that did not. The number of less aggressive prostate cancers was lower, but the number of ...

  18. In aqua vivo EPID dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wendling, Markus; McDermott, Leah N.; Mans, Anton; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Pecharroman-Gallego, Raul; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Stroom, Joep; Herk, Marcel J.; Mijnheer, Ben van

    2012-01-15

    applying the in aqua vivo approach are considerable. The percentage of {gamma} values {<=}1 increased on average from 66.2% to 93.1% and from 43.6% to 97.5% for the IMRT and VMAT cases, respectively. The corresponding mean {gamma} value decreased from 0.99 to 0.43 for the IMRT cases and from 1.71 to 0.40 for the VMAT cases, which is similar to the accepted clinical values for the verification of IMRT treatments of prostate, rectum, and head-and-neck cancers. The deviation between the reconstructed and planned dose at the isocenter diminished on average from 5.3% to 0.5% for the VMAT patients and was almost the same, within 1%, for the IMRT cases. The in aqua vivo verification results for IMRT and VMAT treatments of a large group of patients had a mean {gamma} of approximately 0.5, a percentage of {gamma} values {<=}1 larger than 89%, and a difference of the isocenter dose value less than 1%. Conclusions: With the in aqua vivo approach for the verification of lung cancer treatments (IMRT and VMAT), we can achieve results with the same accuracy as obtained during in vivo EPID dosimetry of sites without large inhomogeneities.

  19. Ion-kill dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  20. Ion storage dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, V. K.

    2001-09-01

    The availability of a reliable, accurate and cost-effective real-time personnel dosimetry system is fascinating to radiation workers. Electronic dosimeters are contemplated to meet this demand of active dosimetry. The development of direct ion storage (DIS) dosimeters, a member of the electronic dosimeter family, for personnel dosimetry is also an attempt in this direction. DIS dosimeter is a hybrid of the well-established technology of ion chambers and the latest advances in data storage using metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) analog memory device. This dosimeter is capable of monitoring legal occupational radiation doses of gamma, X-rays, beta and neutron radiation. Similar to an ion chamber, the performance of the dosimeter for a particular application can be optimized through the selection of appropriate wall materials. The use of the floating gate of a MOSFET as one of the electrodes of the ion chamber allows the miniaturization of the device to the size of a dosimetry badge and avoids the use of power supplies during dose accumulation. The concept of the device, underlying physics and the design of the DIS dosimeter are discussed. The results of preliminary testing of the device are also provided.

  1. Intraoperative Ultrasound-Fluoroscopy Fusion can Enhance Prostate Brachytherapy Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Orio, Peter F.; Tutar, Ismail B.; Narayanan, Sreeram; Arthurs, Sandra; Cho, Paul S.; Kim, Yongmin; Merrick, Gregory; Wallner, Kent E.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-fluoroscopy fusion-based intraoperative dosimetry system. Method and Materials: Twenty-five patients were treated for prostate cancer with Pd-103 implantation. After the execution of the treatment plan, two sets of TRUS images were collected using the longitudinal and axial transducers of a biplanar probe. Then, three fluoroscopic images were acquired at 0, -15 and +15{sup o}. The three-dimensional locations of all implanted seeds were reconstructed from fluoroscopic images. A subset of the implanted seeds was manually identified in TRUS images and used as fiducial markers to perform TRUS-fluoroscopy fusion. To improve the implant quality, additional seeds were placed if adverse isodose patterns were identified during visual inspection. If additional seeds were placed, intraoperative dosimetry was repeated. Day 0 computed tomography-based dosimetry was compared with final intraoperative dosimetry to validate dosimetry achieved in the implant suite. Results: An average of additional 4.0 seeds was implanted in 16 patients after initial intraoperative dose evaluation. Based on TRUS-fluoroscopy fusion-based dosimetry, the V100 improved from 86% to 93% (p = 0.005), whereas D90 increased from 94% to 109% (p = 0.011) with the guided additional seed implantation. No statistical difference was observed in V200 and V300 values. V100 and D90 values were 95 {+-} 4% and 120 {+-} 24%, respectively, based on the final intraoperative dosimetry evaluation, compared with 95 {+-} 4% and 122 {+-} 24%, respectively, based on Day 0 computed tomography-based dosimetry. Conclusions: Implantation of extra seeds based on TRUS-fluoroscopy fusion-based intraoperative dosimetry can improve the final V100 and D90 values with minimal increase in V200 and V300 values.

  2. Grape seed extract inhibits EGF-induced and constitutively active mitogenic signaling but activates JNK in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells: possible role in antiproliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Alpana; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2003-03-01

    A loss of functional androgen receptor and an enhanced expression of growth factor receptors and associated ligands are causal genetic events in prostate cancer (PCA) progression. These genetic alterations lead to an epigenetic mechanism where a feedback autocrine loop between membrane receptor and ligand (e.g. EGFR-TGFalpha) results in a constitutive activation of MAPK-Elk1-AP1-mediated mitogenic signaling in human PCA at an advanced and androgen-independent stage. We rationalized that inhibiting these epigenetic events could be useful in controlling advanced PCA growth. Recently, we found that grape seed extract (GSE), a dietary supplement rich in flavonoid procyanidins, inhibits advanced and androgen-independent human PCA DU145 cell growth in culture and nude mice. Here, we performed detailed mechanistic studies to define the effect of GSE on EGFR-Shc-MAPK-Elk1-AP1-mediated mitogenic signaling in DU145 cells. Pretreatment of serum-starved cells with GSE resulted in 70% to almost complete inhibition of EGF-induced EGFR activation and 50% to complete inhibition of Shc activation, which corroborated with a comparable decrease in EGF-induced Shc binding to EGFR. Conversely, EGF-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was inhibited only by lower doses of GSE; in fact, higher doses showed an increase. Additional studies showed that GSE alone causes a dose- and time-dependent increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in starved DU145 cells that is inhibited by an MEK1 inhibitor PD98059. Independent of this increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, GSE showed a strong inhibition of ERK1/2 kinase activity to Elk1 in both cellular and cell-free systems. GSE treatment of cells also inhibited both EGF-induced and constitutively active Elk1 phosphorylation and AP1 activation. GSE treatment also showed DNA synthesis inhibition in starved and EGF-stimulated cells as well as loss of cell viability and apoptotic death that was further increased by adding MEK1 inhibitor. Since GSE strongly induced

  3. Androgen Regulated Genes in Human Prostate Xenografts in Mice: Relation to BPH and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Love, Harold D.; Booton, S. Erin; Boone, Braden E.; Breyer, Joan P.; Koyama, Tatsuki; Revelo, Monica P.; Shappell, Scott B.; Smith, Jeffrey R.; Hayward, Simon W.

    2009-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (CaP) are linked to aging and the presence of androgens, suggesting that androgen regulated genes play a major role in these common diseases. Androgen regulation of prostate growth and development depends on the presence of intact epithelial-stromal interactions. Further, the prostatic stroma is implicated in BPH. This suggests that epithelial cell lines are inadequate to identify androgen regulated genes that could contribute to BPH and CaP and which could serve as potential clinical biomarkers. In this study, we used a human prostate xenograft model to define a profile of genes regulated in vivo by androgens, with an emphasis on identifying candidate biomarkers. Benign transition zone (TZ) human prostate tissue from radical prostatectomies was grafted to the sub-renal capsule site of intact or castrated male immunodeficient mice, followed by the removal or addition of androgens, respectively. Microarray analysis of RNA from these tissues was used to identify genes that were; 1) highly expressed in prostate, 2) had significant expression changes in response to androgens, and, 3) encode extracellular proteins. A total of 95 genes meeting these criteria were selected for analysis and validation of expression in patient prostate tissues using quantitative real-time PCR. Expression levels of these genes were measured in pooled RNAs from human prostate tissues with varying severity of BPH pathologic changes and CaP of varying Gleason score. A number of androgen regulated genes were identified. Additionally, a subset of these genes were over-expressed in RNA from clinical BPH tissues, and the levels of many were found to correlate with disease status. Our results demonstrate the feasibility, and some of the problems, of using a mouse xenograft model to characterize the androgen regulated expression profiles of intact human prostate tissues. PMID:20027305

  4. EPID based in vivo dosimetry system: clinical experience and results.

    PubMed

    Celi, Sofia; Costa, Emilie; Wessels, Claas; Mazal, Alejandro; Fourquet, Alain; Francois, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Mandatory in several countries, in vivo dosimetry has been recognized as one of the next milestones in radiation oncology. Our department has implemented clinically an EPID based in vivo dosimetry system, EPIgray, by DOSISOFT S.A., since 2006. An analysis of the measurements per linac and energy over a two-year period was performed, which included a more detailed examination per technique and treat-ment site over a six-month period. A comparison of the treatment planning system doses and the doses estimated by EPIgray shows a mean of the differences of 1.9% (± 5.2%) for the two-year period. The 3D conformal treatment plans had a mean dose difference of 2.0% (± 4.9%), while for intensity-modulated radiotherapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy treatments the mean dose difference was -3.0 (± 5.3%) and -2.5 (± 5.2%), respectively. In addition, root cause analyses were conducted on the in vivo dosimetry measurements of two breast cancer treatment techniques, as well as prostate treatments with intensity-modulated radiotherapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy. During the breast study, the dose differences of breast treatments in supine position were correlated to patient setup and EPID positioning errors. Based on these observations, an automatic image shift correc-tion algorithm is developed by DOSIsoft S.A. The prostate study revealed that beams and arcs with out-of-tolerance in vivo dosimetry results tend to have more complex modulation and a lower exposure of the points of interest. The statistical studies indicate that in vivo dosimetry with EPIgray has been successfully imple-mented for classical and complex techniques in clinical routine at our institution. The additional breast and prostate studies exhibit the prospects of EPIgray as an easy supplementary quality assurance tool. The validation, the automatization, and the reduction of false-positive results represent an important step toward adaptive radiotherapy with EPIgray. PMID:27167283

  5. Permanent Breast Seed Implant Dosimetry Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Brian M.; Ravi, Ananth; Sankreacha, Raxa; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: A permanent breast seed implant is a novel method of accelerated partial breast irradiation for women with early-stage breast cancer. This article presents pre- and post-implant dosimetric data, relates these data to clinical outcomes, and makes recommendations for those interested in starting a program. Methods and Materials: A total of 95 consecutive patients were accrued into one of three clinical trials after breast-conserving surgery: a Phase I/II trial (67 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma); a Phase II registry trial (25 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma); or a multi-center Phase II trial for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (3 patients). Contouring of the planning target volume (PTV) was done on a Pinnacle workstation and dosimetry calculations, including dose-volume histograms, were done using a Variseed planning computer. Results: The mean pre-implant PTV coverage for the V{sub 90}, V{sub 100}, V{sub 150}, and V{sub 200} were as follows: 98.8% {+-} 1.2% (range, 94.5-100%); 97.3% {+-} 2.1% (range, 90.3-99.9%), 68.8% {+-} 14.3% (range, 32.7-91.5%); and 27.8% {+-} 8.6% (range, 15.1-62.3%). The effect of seed motion was characterized by post-implant dosimetry performed immediately after the implantation (same day) and at 2 months after the implantation. The mean V{sub 100} changed from 85.6% to 88.4% (p = 0.004) and the mean V{sub 200} changed from 36.2% to 48.3% (p < 0.001). Skin toxicity was associated with maximum skin dose (p = 0.014). Conclusions: Preplanning dosimetry should aim for a V{sub 90} of approximately 100%, a V{sub 100} between 95% and 100%, and a V{sub 200} between 20% and 30%, as these numbers are associated with no local recurrences to date and good patient tolerance. In general, the target volume coverage improved over the duration of the seed therapy. The maximum skin dose, defined as the average dose over the hottest 1 Multiplication-Sign 1-cm{sup 2} surface area, should be limited to 90% of the

  6. Androgen receptors in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Culig, Z; Klocker, H; Bartsch, G; Hobisch, A

    2002-09-01

    The androgen receptor (AR), a transcription factor that mediates the action of androgens in target tissues, is expressed in nearly all prostate cancers. Carcinoma of the prostate is the most frequently diagnosed neoplasm in men in industrialized countries. Palliative treatment for non-organ-confined prostate cancer aims to down-regulate the concentration of circulating androgen or to block the transcription activation function of the AR. AR function during endocrine therapy was studied in tumor cells LNCaP subjected to long-term steroid depletion; newly generated sublines could be stimulated by lower concentrations of androgen than parental cells and showed up-regulation of AR expression and activity as well as resistance to apoptosis. Androgenic hormones regulate the expression of key cell cycle regulators, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and 4, and that of the cell cycle inhibitor p27. Inhibition of AR expression could be achieved by potential chemopreventive agents flufenamic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, polyunsaturated fatty acids and interleukin-1beta, and by the application of AR antisense oligonucleotides. In the clinical situation, AR gene amplification and point mutations were reported in patients with metastatic disease. These mutations generate receptors which could be activated by other steroid hormones and non-steroidal antiandrogens. In the absence of androgen, the AR could be activated by various growth-promoting (growth factors, epidermal growth factor receptor-related oncogene HER-2/neu) and pleiotropic (protein kinase A activators, interleukin-6) compounds as well as by inducers of differentiation (phenylbutyrate). AR function is modulated by a number of coactivators and corepressors. The three coactivators, TIF-2, SRC-1 and RAC3, are up-regulated in relapsed prostate cancer. New experimental therapies for prostate cancer are aimed to down-regulate AR expression and to overcome difficulties which occur because of the acquisition of agonistic properties

  7. Pulmonary embolization of iodine-125 seeds following prostate implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, A.D.; Donahue, B.R.; Plaine, L. )

    1991-02-01

    The optimal treatment of prostatic carcinoma limited to the gland remains controversial. Treatment has included implantation of Iodine-125 seeds via both a suprapubic approach and, more recently, a transperineal technique utilizing ultrasound guidance. We recently have noted a heretofore unreported complication with this latter technique, namely, embolization of seeds to the lungs. Review of the chest x-ray films of 31 patients who underwent suprapubic implants showed no evidence of this phenomenon. One of 5 patients undergoing transperineal implant was found to have seeds lodged in the lung. Complications surrounding the various treatments of localized prostate carcinoma are reviewed.

  8. Dosimetry for Radiopharmaceutical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sgouros, George; Hobbs, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical therapy (RPT) involves the use of radionuclides that are either conjugated to tumor-targeting agents (eg, nanoscale constructs, antibodies, peptides, and small molecules) or concentrated in tissue through natural physiological mechanisms that occur predominantly in neoplastic or otherwise targeted cells (eg, Graves disease). The ability to collect pharmacokinetic data by imaging and use this to perform dosimetry calculations for treatment planning distinguishes RPT from other systemic treatment modalities. Treatment planning has not been widely adopted, in part, because early attempts to relate dosimetry to outcome were not successful. This was partially because a dosimetry methodology appropriate to risk evaluation rather than efficacy and toxicity was being applied to RPT. The weakest links in both diagnostic and therapeutic dosimetry are the accuracy of the input and the reliability of the radiobiological models used to convert dosimetric data to the relevant biologic end points. Dosimetry for RPT places a greater demand on both of these weak links. To date, most dosimetric studies have been retrospective, with a focus on tumor dose-response correlations rather than prospective treatment planning. In this regard, transarterial radioembolization also known as intra-arterial radiation therapy, which uses radiolabeled (90Y) microspheres of glass or resin to treat lesions in the liver holds much promise for more widespread dosimetric treatment planning. The recent interest in RPT with alpha-particle emitters has highlighted the need to adopt a dosimetry methodology that specifically accounts for the unique aspects of alpha particles. The short range of alpha-particle emitters means that in cases in which the distribution of activity is localized to specific functional components or cell types of an organ, the absorbed dose will be equally localized and dosimetric calculations on the scale of organs or even voxels (~5 mm) are no longer sufficient

  9. In vivo dosimetry for IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Vial, Philip

    2011-05-05

    In vivo dosimetry has a well established role in the quality assurance of 2D radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy. The role of in vivo dosimetry for IMRT is not as well established. IMRT introduces a range of technical issues that complicate in vivo dosimetry. The first decade or so of IMRT implementation has largely relied upon pre-treatment phantom based dose verification. During that time, several new devices and techniques for in vivo dosimetry have emerged with the promise of providing the ultimate form of IMRT dose verification. Solid state dosimeters continue to dominate the field of in vivo dosimetry in the IMRT era. In this report we review the literature on in vivo dosimetry for IMRT, with an emphasis on clinical evidence for different detector types. We describe the pros and cons of different detectors and techniques in the IMRT setting and the roles that they are likely to play in the future.

  10. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Retrospective Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Romanyukha, Alex; Trompier, Francois

    2011-05-05

    Necessity for, principles of, and general concepts of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) retrospective dosimetry are presented. Also presented and given in details are examples of EPR retrospective dosimetry applications in tooth enamel, bone, and fingernails with focus on general approaches for solving technical and methodological problems. Advantages, drawbacks, and possible future developments are discussed and an extensive bibliography on EPR retrospective dosimetry is provided.

  11. Urethral strictures after radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dal Pra, Alan; Furrer, Marc; Thalmann, George; Spahn, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Urethral stricture after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer is a delicate problem as the decreased availability of tissue healing and the close relation to the sphincter complicates any surgical approach. We here review the pathophysiology, dosimetry, and the disease specific aspects of urethral strictures after radiotherapy. Moreover we discuss different treatment option such as direct vision internal urethrotomy as well as techniques for open reconstruction with and without tissue transfer.

  12. Urethral strictures after radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Moltzahn, Felix; Dal Pra, Alan; Furrer, Marc; Thalmann, George; Spahn, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Urethral stricture after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer is a delicate problem as the decreased availability of tissue healing and the close relation to the sphincter complicates any surgical approach. We here review the pathophysiology, dosimetry, and the disease specific aspects of urethral strictures after radiotherapy. Moreover we discuss different treatment option such as direct vision internal urethrotomy as well as techniques for open reconstruction with and without tissue transfer. PMID:27617311

  13. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR.

  15. Cosmic Ray Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si Belkhir, F.; Attallah, R.

    2010-10-01

    Radiation levels at aircraft cruising altitudes are twenty times higher than at sea level. Thus, on average, a typical airline pilot receives a larger annual radiation dose than some one working in nuclear industry. The main source of this radiation is from galactic cosmic radiation, high energy particles generated by exploding stars within our own galaxy. In this work we study cosmic rays dosimetry at various aviation altitudes using the PARMA model.

  16. Myths and fallacies in permanent prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Wayne M.; Merrick, Gregory S

    2003-09-30

    Because there are competing modalities to treat early-stage prostate cancer, the constraints or deficiencies of one modality may be erroneously applied to others. Some valid concerns arising from surgery and external beam therapy, which have been falsely transferred to brachytherapy, are constraints based on patient age, clinical and pathological parameters, patient weight, and size of prostate. Although the constraints have a valid basis in one modality, knowledge of the origin and mechanism of the constraint has provided a means to circumvent or overcome it in brachytherapy. Failures as measured by biochemical no-evidence of disease (bNED) survival may be attributed to extracapsular disease extension. Such extension often expresses itself in surrogate parameters such as a high percentage of positive biopsies, perineural invasion, or the dominant pattern in Gleason score histology. Failures due to such factors may be prevented by implanting with consistent extracapsular dosimetric margins. Some presumed limitations on prostate brachytherapy originated from data on patients implanted in the first few years the procedure was being developed. Most of the urinary morbidity and a significant part of the decrease in sexual function observed may be avoided by controlling the dosimetry along the prostatic and membranous urethra and at the penile bulb.

  17. Clinical radionuclide therapy dosimetry: the quest for the “Holy Gray”

    PubMed Central

    Bodei, L.; Giammarile, F.; Linden, O.; Luster, M.; Oyen, W. J. G.; Tennvall, J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Radionuclide therapy has distinct similarities to, but also profound differences from external radiotherapy. Review This review discusses techniques and results of previously developed dosimetry methods in thyroid carcinoma, neuro-endocrine tumours, solid tumours and lymphoma. In each case, emphasis is placed on the level of evidence and practical applicability. Although dosimetry has been of enormous value in the preclinical phase of radiopharmaceutical development, its clinical use to optimise administered activity on an individual patient basis has been less evident. In phase I and II trials, dosimetry may be considered an inherent part of therapy to establish the maximum tolerated dose and dose–response relationship. To prove that dosimetry-based radionuclide therapy is of additional benefit over fixed dosing or dosing per kilogram body weight, prospective randomised phase III trials with appropriate end points have to be undertaken. Data in the literature which underscore the potential of dosimetry to avoid under- and overdosing and to standardise radionuclide therapy methods internationally are very scarce. Developments In each section, particular developments and insights into these therapies are related to opportunities for dosimetry. The recent developments in PET and PET/CT imaging, including micro-devices for animal research, and molecular medicine provide major challenges for innovative therapy and dosimetry techniques. Furthermore, the increasing scientific interest in the radiobiological features specific to radionuclide therapy will advance our ability to administer this treatment modality optimally. PMID:17268773

  18. Premalignancy in Prostate Cancer: Rethinking What we Know.

    PubMed

    De Marzo, Angelo M; Haffner, Michael C; Lotan, Tamara L; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Nelson, William G

    2016-08-01

    High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) has been accepted as the main precursor lesion to invasive adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and this is likely to be the case. However, in an unknown number of cases, lesions fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for high-grade PIN may actually represent intra-acinar or intraductal spread of invasive carcinoma. Intriguingly, this possibility would not contradict many of the findings of previous epidemiologic studies linking high-grade PIN to carcinoma or molecular pathologic studies showing similar genomic (e.g., TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion) as well as epigenomic and molecular phenotypic alterations between high-grade PIN and carcinoma. Also, this possibility would be consistent with previous anatomic studies in prostate specimens linking high-grade PIN and carcinoma in autopsy and other whole prostate specimens. In addition, if some cases meeting morphologic criteria for PIN actually represent intra-acinar spread of invasive carcinoma, this could be an important potential confounder of the interpretation of past clinical trials enrolling patients presumed to be without carcinoma, who are at high risk of invasive carcinoma. Thus, in order to reduce possible bias in future study/trial designs, novel molecular pathology approaches are needed to decipher when an apparent PIN lesion may be intra-acinar/intra-ductal spread of an invasive cancer and when it truly represents a precursor state. Similar approaches are needed for lesions known as intraductal carcinoma to facilitate better classification of them as true intra-ductal/acinar spread on one hand or as precursor high-grade PIN (cribriform type) on the other hand; a number of such molecular approaches (e.g., coevaluating TMPRSS-ERG fusion and PTEN loss) are already showing excellent promise. Cancer Prev Res; 9(8); 648-56. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26813971

  19. [A new WHO classification of prostate tumors].

    PubMed

    Frank, G A; Andreeva, Yu Yu; Moskvina, L V; Efremov, G D; Samoilova, S I

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews the 2016 WHO classification of prostate tumors, notes the alterations made, and describes approaches to the diagnosis of cancer types and grades. It also gives original photomicrographs from the authors' collection. The main alterations were as follows: - The types of prostate adenocarcinoma were added by pleomorphic giant-cell carcinoma; oncocytic (8290/3) and lymphoepithelial (8082/3) carcinomas were excluded. - Grade III prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) was substituted for high grade PIN (8148/2). - Intraductal carcinoma (8500/2) was added. - Basal cell adenoma (8147/0) was excluded. - Carcinoids were referred to as low-grade neuroendocrine tumors according to the current terminology; large cell neuroendocrine cancer (8013/3) was added. - Paraganglioma (8613/3) and neuroblastoma (9500/3) were excluded. Stromal tumors were grouped with mesenchymal neoplasms. -Malignant fibrous histiocytoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, chondroma, and hemangiopericytoma were excluded. - Synovial sarcoma (9040/3), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (8825/1), osteosarcoma (9180/3), undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (8802/3), solitary fibrous tumor (8815/1), and malignant solitary fibrous tumor (8815/3) were added. The section of lymphoproliferative diseases was extended. The tumors of unknown origin included paraganglioma and neuroblastoma from a group of neuroendocrine tumors. The TNM staging was completely consistent with the 2010 AJCC version. PMID:27600780

  20. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in prostatic hyperplasia and prostate adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mazzucchelli, L.; Loetscher, P.; Kappeler, A.; Uguccioni, M.; Baggiolini, M.; Laissue, J. A.; Mueller, C.

    1996-01-01

    Human monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) has been shown to act as a chemokine in the recruitment of monocyte/macrophages during inflammation states. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that MCP-1 is involved in the recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages. In vivo, one of the major cellular sources of MCP-1 are the smooth muscle cells. As MCP-1 gene expression and/or protein production in these cells is not necessarily correlated with the accumulation of inflammatory cells, there might possibly be additional functions of this cytokine. In the present study, we investigated by use of 35S-labeled antisense RNA probes whether the MCP-1 gene is expressed in tissue specimens of benign prostatic hyperplasia (n = 13) and specimens of prostate carcinoma (n = 8), both of which are characterized by a prominent fibromuscular stroma and inconspicuous inflammatory infiltrates. MCP-1 transcripts were located in stromal smooth muscle cells and, additionally, in basal cells of benign prostatic glands. In prostate carcinoma, the number of MCP-1 mRNA-expressing cells was significantly less than in benign prostatic hyperplasia. MCP-1 transcripts were located in preserved fibromuscular stroma and in basal cells of entrapped non-neoplastic glands but not in carcinomatous cells. Immunohistochemical staining with polyclonal antibodies raised against MCP-1 revealed strong reactivity in the fibromuscular stroma surrounding both benign and malignant glands. MCP-1 gene expression or immunoreactivity for anti-MCP-1 antibodies was not related to the rare, lymphocytic interstitial infiltrates. The results show that 1) in the absence of significant leukocyte accumulation, it is unlikely that MCP-1 exerts chemotactic functions in the prostate and 2) that MCP-1, in contrast to previous findings in a wide variety of other human neoplasms, is not expressed in carcinomatous cells of the prostate. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8701989

  1. Biological dose volume histograms during conformal hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Koukourakis, Michael I.; Abatzoglou, Ioannis; Touloupidis, Stavros; Manavis, Ioannis

    2007-01-15

    Radiobiological data suggest that prostate cancer has a low {alpha}/{beta} ratio. Large radiotherapy fractions may, therefore, prove more efficacious than standard radiotherapy, while radiotherapy acceleration should further improve control rates. This study describes the radiobiology of a conformal hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy scheme for the treatment of high risk prostate cancer. Anteroposterior fields to the pelvis deliver a daily dose of 2.7 Gy, while lateral fields confined to the prostate and seminal vesicles deliver an additional daily dose of 0.7 Gy. Radiotherapy is accomplished within 19 days (15 fractions). Dose volume histograms, calculated for tissue specific {alpha}/{beta} ratios and time factors, predict a high biological dose to the prostate and seminal vesicles (77-93 Gy). The biological dose to normal pelvic tissues is maintained at standard levels. Radiobiological dosimetry suggests that, using hypofractionated and accelerated radiotherapy, high biological radiation dose can be given to the prostate without overdosing normal tissues.

  2. Prospects for radiofrequency hyperthermia applicator research. I--Pre-optimised prototypes of endocavitary applicators with matching interfaces for prostate hyperplasia and cancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Franconi, Cafiero; Vrba, Jan; Micali, Francesco; Pesce, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Inconsistency is observed in comparing assessment data of applicators for endocavitary hyperthermia (EHT) with microwaves (MW) and radiofrequency (RF) obtained using the standard method of inserting bare applicators in phantom tissues. MW antennae exhibit overall average penetration depths of approximately 6 mm, excluding hot spots. RF radiators exhibit penetration depths of not more than approximately 3 mm, a value too low considering the superior penetration of the RF plane wave radiation. Assuming that a mismatch at the RF radiator-tissue interface is causing the poor energy transfer of RF energy, we developed new RF radiators with controlled dielectric matching interfaces for evaluating the potential of RF radiation in EHT and in interstitial hyperthermia (IHT) treatments. We designed, developed and assessed 27.12 MHz, 8 mm OD inductive and capacitive devices of novel and existing designs, each provided an optimised bi-layer matching interface. The assessment results reveal features such as customisable length and shape, independence of insertion depth, uncritical air gap, longitudinal heating uniformity, outstanding penetration depths (19-20 mm) and high SAR gradients at both radiator ends--i.e. prostatic urethra ends--for added safety. These data clear the way for the development of pre-optimised EHT inductive and capacitive RF applicators. Evidence of positive effects of high near-fields density in cavity microenvironments is given. Such devices show potential for more effective prostatic hyperplasia treatments and for improving the feasibility of more adequate treatment planning and thermal dosimetry of interstitial and transurethral hyperthermia treatments of prostate carcinoma. PMID:21250898

  3. The International Reactor Dosimetry File.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-01-19

    Version 01 The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-90) contains recommended neutron cross-section data to be used for reactor neutron dosimetry by foil activation. It also contains selected recommended values for radiation damage cross-sections and benchmark neutron spectra. This library supersedes all earlier versions of IRDF.

  4. Hedgehog signaling in prostate epithelial-mesenchymal growth regulation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yu-Ching; Joyner, Alexandra L.

    2015-01-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction, and is also an organ prone to diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. The prostate consists of ducts with an inner layer of epithelium surrounded by stroma. Reciprocal signaling between these two cell compartments is instrumental to normal prostatic development, homeostasis, regeneration, as well as tumor formation. Hedgehog (HH) signaling is a master regulator in numerous developmental processes. In many organs, HH plays a key role in epithelial-mesenchymal signaling that regulates organ growth and tissue differentiation, and abnormal HH signaling has been implicated in the progression of various epithelial carcinomas. In this review, we focus on recent studies exploring the multipotency of endogenous postnatal and adult epithelial and stromal stem cells and studies addressing the role of HH in prostate development and cancer. We discuss the implications of the results for a new understanding of prostate development and disease. Insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying epithelial-mesenchymal growth regulation should provide a basis for devising innovative therapies to combat diseases of the prostate. PMID:25641695

  5. Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: histogenesis, biology and clinicopathological features.

    PubMed

    Seipel, Amanda H; Delahunt, Brett; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Egevad, Lars

    2016-08-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate (DAC) is recognised as a subtype of prostatic adenocarcinoma, but its diagnostic criteria and biology remain controversial. DAC was first thought to stem from Müllerian duct remnants, but further studies suggest a prostatic origin. DAC is composed of tall, columnar, pseudostratified epithelium with a papillary, cribriform, glandular or solid architecture. The diagnosis is based on morphology alone with papillary architecture being the most helpful diagnostic feature. The tumour is rare in a pure form and most cases are combined with acinar adenocarcinoma. The most common differential diagnoses of DAC are intraductal carcinoma of the prostate and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Patients often present at an advanced clinicopathological stage. High rates of extra-prostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, local and regional metastases, and positive surgical margins are seen after radical prostatectomy. DAC metastasises to sites that are less commonly seen for prostate cancer such as lung, brain, testis and penis. The morphology and the unusual metastatic locations make the accurate diagnosis of metastases challenging, but a positive immunostain for prostate specific markers may be helpful. The correct identification of DAC has implications for treatment as well as outcome. PMID:27321992

  6. [Prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Morote, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Morales-Bárrera, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    The Vall d'Hebron multidisciplinary prostate cancer (PC) team reviews recent advances in the management of this neoplasm. Screening studies with long follow-up show a reduction in mortality, whereas active surveillance is emerging as a therapeutic approach of non-aggressive cancers. New markers increase the specificity of PSA and also allow targeting suspected aggressive cancers. Multiparametric magnetic resonance (mMRI) has emerged as the most effective method in the selection of patients for biopsy and also for local tumor staging. The paradigm of random prostatic biopsy is changing through the fusion techniques that allow guiding ultrasonography-driven biopsy of suspicious areas detected in mMRI. Radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiotherapy (RT) are curative treatments of localized PC and both have experienced significant technological improvements. RP is highly effective and the incorporation of robotic surgery is reducing morbidity. Modern RT allows the possibility of high tumor dose with minimal adjacent dose reducing its toxicity. Androgen deprivation therapy with LHRH analogues remains the treatment of choice for advanced PC, but should be limited to this indication. The loss of bone mass and adverse metabolic effects increases the frequency of fractures and cardiovascular morbimortality. After castration resistance in metastatic disease, new hormone-based drugs have demonstrated efficacy even after chemotherapy resistance. PMID:25727526

  7. Prostate biopsy tracking with deformation estimation.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Michael; Mozer, Pierre; Daanen, Vincent; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2012-04-01

    Transrectal biopsies under 2D ultrasound (US) control are the current clinical standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. The isoechogenic nature of prostate carcinoma makes it necessary to sample the gland systematically, resulting in a low sensitivity. Also, it is difficult for the clinician to follow the sampling protocol accurately under 2D US control and the exact anatomical location of the biopsy cores is unknown after the intervention. Tracking systems for prostate biopsies make it possible to generate biopsy distribution maps for intra- and post-interventional quality control and 3D visualisation of histological results for diagnosis and treatment planning. They can also guide the clinician toward non-ultrasound targets. In this paper, a volume-swept 3D US based tracking system for fast and accurate estimation of prostate tissue motion is proposed. The entirely image-based system solves the patient motion problem with an a priori model of rectal probe kinematics. Prostate deformations are estimated with elastic registration to maximize accuracy. The system is robust with only 17 registration failures out of 786 (2%) biopsy volumes acquired from 47 patients during biopsy sessions. Accuracy was evaluated to 0.76±0.52 mm using manually segmented fiducials on 687 registered volumes stemming from 40 patients. A clinical protocol for assisted biopsy acquisition was designed and implemented as a biopsy assistance system, which allows to overcome the draw-backs of the standard biopsy procedure. PMID:21705263

  8. Clinical implementation and rapid commissioning of an EPID based in-vivo dosimetry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Ian M.; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; van Herk, Marcel

    2014-10-01

    Using an Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) to perform in-vivo dosimetry is one of the most effective and efficient methods of verifying the safe delivery of complex radiotherapy treatments. Previous work has detailed the development of an EPID based in-vivo dosimetry system that was subsequently used to replace pre-treatment dose verification of IMRT and VMAT plans. Here we show that this system can be readily implemented on a commercial megavoltage imaging platform without modification to EPID hardware and without impacting standard imaging procedures. The accuracy and practicality of the EPID in-vivo dosimetry system was confirmed through a comparison with traditional TLD in-vivo measurements performed on five prostate patients. The commissioning time required for the EPID in-vivo dosimetry system was initially prohibitive at approximately 10 h per linac. Here we present a method of calculating linac specific EPID dosimetry correction factors that allow a single energy specific commissioning model to be applied to EPID data from multiple linacs. Using this method reduced the required per linac commissioning time to approximately 30 min. The validity of this commissioning method has been tested by analysing in-vivo dosimetry results of 1220 patients acquired on seven linacs over a period of 5 years. The average deviation between EPID based isocentre dose and expected isocentre dose for these patients was (-0.7  ±  3.2)%. EPID based in-vivo dosimetry is now the primary in-vivo dosimetry tool used at our centre and has replaced nearly all pre-treatment dose verification of IMRT treatments.

  9. Clinical implementation and rapid commissioning of an EPID based in-vivo dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Ian M; Hansen, Vibeke N; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; van Herk, Marcel

    2014-10-01

    Using an Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) to perform in-vivo dosimetry is one of the most effective and efficient methods of verifying the safe delivery of complex radiotherapy treatments. Previous work has detailed the development of an EPID based in-vivo dosimetry system that was subsequently used to replace pre-treatment dose verification of IMRT and VMAT plans. Here we show that this system can be readily implemented on a commercial megavoltage imaging platform without modification to EPID hardware and without impacting standard imaging procedures. The accuracy and practicality of the EPID in-vivo dosimetry system was confirmed through a comparison with traditional TLD in-vivo measurements performed on five prostate patients.The commissioning time required for the EPID in-vivo dosimetry system was initially prohibitive at approximately 10 h per linac. Here we present a method of calculating linac specific EPID dosimetry correction factors that allow a single energy specific commissioning model to be applied to EPID data from multiple linacs. Using this method reduced the required per linac commissioning time to approximately 30 min.The validity of this commissioning method has been tested by analysing in-vivo dosimetry results of 1220 patients acquired on seven linacs over a period of 5 years. The average deviation between EPID based isocentre dose and expected isocentre dose for these patients was (-0.7  ±  3.2)%.EPID based in-vivo dosimetry is now the primary in-vivo dosimetry tool used at our centre and has replaced nearly all pre-treatment dose verification of IMRT treatments. PMID:25211121

  10. Molecular Evidence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Prostate Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S.; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Abri, Aisha O.; Venkiteswaran, Krishna P.; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Al-Haddabi, Ibrahim; Shareef, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Rahman, Khalid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar; Gupta, Ishita; Ganguly, Shyam S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is detectable in both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between infective chronic prostatitis and prostatic carcinoma. Many bacteria have been found in the prostate of patients with chronic prostatitis, BPH, and PCa. Methods One hundred consecutive patients with prostate diseases were enrolled in the study. Detection of H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue from patients with BPH and PCa was performed using both immunohistochemistry and PCR, and the results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Odds ratios and the Fisher Exact test were used for the analysis of the associations between the variables. Results Among the patients, 78% had BPH and 19% had PCa. While immunohistochemistry showed no positive sample for H. pylori, PCR combined with sequencing detected H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue samples from 5 patients. However, statistical analysis of the data showed that BPH and PCa are not significantly associated with the presence of H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue (odds ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval = 0.09–23.34, one-tailed Chi-square value = 0.660, p > 0.05). The limitation of this study was the small number of PCa patients. Conclusions This study provides, for the first time, molecular evidence of the presence of H. pylori DNA in prostatic tissue of patients with BPH and PCa. It paves the way for further comprehensive studies to examine the association of H. pylori infection with BPH and PCa. PMID:26889133

  11. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  12. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL,; MOMENI, H.

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for application to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.

  13. Fast neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.

  14. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for applicationmore » to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.« less

  15. A Preliminary Analysis of Calcifying Particles in the Serum and Prostates of Patients with Prostatic Inflammation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Carlson, Grant; Kajander, E. Olavi; Warmflash, David; Taylor, Karen; Ayala, Gustavo; Shoskes, Daniel; Everett, Meg; Feedback, Dan; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    2006-01-01

    Chronic diseases of the prostate such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) & chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) have associated findings of chronic inflammation, despite a lack of causal relationship. Numerous attempts to define an infectious agent responsible for the clinical findings have been inconsistent. The possibility of an infectious agent, that has not been uncovered with routine culturing methods, forms the basis for this study. Serum from 940 healthy Finnish men were compared with serum from 40 Crohn's, 40 path dx prostatitis, & 40 with path dx carcinoma, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), to detect antigens specific to Nanobacteria(NB) utilizing monoclonal antibodies (Ab) 5/3 and 8D10. This ELISA has not been validated for detecting NB-associated with clinical prostatic disease, yet cross-reactivity with other bacterial species is low. Immunohistochemistry was performed on de-paraffinized prostatic tissue slides, de-calcified with EDTA and stained with the DAKO Catalyzed Signal Amplification kit, employing 8D10 as the primary (target/antigen-detecting) Ab. The mean (plus or minus SD) & median concentrations of NB antigen (U/50 L) were 379.59 (plus or minus 219.28) & 640.00 for patients with prostatitis (BPH) vs 3.31 (plus or minus 3.55) & 2.94 for prostate adenocarcinoma, 1.88 (plus or minus 2.94) & 0.80 for Crohn's disease, & 7.43 (plus or minus 25.57) & 0.00 for patients with no clinical prostatic disease. Unpaired t-tests revealed statistically significant differences between the prostatitis (BPH) sera & each of the other groups with p less than 0.005, but no differences between the other groups themselves. Preliminary studies with immunohistochemistry & 3-D confocal microscopy reveal 16/24 tissue sections + for NB Ag in BPH vs. only 2/22 tissue sections with prostate cancer. The preliminary findings of this serum screening study suggest that NB antigen may be commonly found in the serum of patients with the pathological diagnosis

  16. 5-ALA-assisted photodynamic therapy in canine prostates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Muschter, Rolf; Knuechel, Ruth; Steinbach, Pia; Perlmutter, Aaron P.; Martin, Thomas; Baumgartner, Reinhold

    1996-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and interstitial thermotherapy are well known treatment modalities in urology. The approach of this study is to combine both to achieve a selective treatment procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma. Measurements of thy in-vivo pharmacokinetics of 5-ALA induced porphyrins by means of fiber assisted ratiofluorometry showed a maximum fluorescence intensity at time intervals of 3 - 4 h post administration. Fluorescence microscopy at that time showed bright fluorescence in epithelial cells while in the stroma fluorescence could not be observed. Interstitial PDT using a 635-nm dye laser with an irradiation of 50 J/cm2 resulted in a nonthermic hemorrhagic lesion. The lesion size did not change significantly when an irradiation of 100 J/cm2 was used. The usefulness of PDT for treating BPH as well as prostate carcinoma has to be proven in further studies.

  17. Liquid radiochromic dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rativanich, N.; Radak, B. B.; Miller, A.; Uribe, R. M.; McLaughlin, W. L.

    By strategic combination of weak acid, mild oxidizing agent, and polar organic solvents containing millimolar concentrations of leucocyanides of certain triphenylmethane dyes, fairly broad ranges of absorbed doses of ionizing radiation can be determined. The yield of dye ions as determined by spectrophotometry can be made essentially constant with dose (i.e. linear response) from 0.01 to 30 kGy and it does not vary with dose rate upto 10 11 Gy·s -1. The radiation-induced color is stable and offers fast-retrieval dosimetry if N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone is used as solvent. Other possible polar solvents are 2-propanol, 2-methoxy ethanol, N, N-dimethyl formamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and triethyl phosphate. Dimethyl sulfoxide is found to give the widest and most linear response. Suitable dye precursors are leucocyanides of pararosaniline, new fuchsin, hexa (hydroxyethyl) pararosaniline, crystal violet, malachite green, setoglaucine, ethyl violet, helvetia green, basic violet-14, and formyl violet. Low concentrations of carboxylic acids contribute stability to the system. Typical mild oxidizing agents are nitrobenzene, and atmospheric oxygen, or oxygen released radiolytically from the solvents. The dosimetry systems do not require high-purity of ingredients or ultracleanliness of containers, although, for reproducibility of dye yields (G-values), thoroughly purified and uniform dye derivates are recommended.

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, C.; De Deene, Y.; Doran, S.; Ibbott, G.; Jirasek, A.; Lepage, M.; McAuley, K. B.; Oldham, M.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2010-03-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented.

  19. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. PMID:20150687

  20. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  1. Prostate cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... present it is not clear if screening for prostate cancer is helpful for most men. For this reason, ...

  2. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the needles to the prostate gland. Then, very cold gas passes through the needles, creating ice balls that destroy the prostate gland. Warm salt water will flow through the catheter to keep your urethra (the tube from the bladder to ...

  3. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... PCF Spotlight Prostate Cancer Foundation and Major League Baseball Step Up To The Plate To Raise Awareness ... Foundation News Prostate Cancer Foundation and Major League Baseball Step Up To The Plate To Raise Awareness ...

  4. Prostate resection - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Laser prostatectomy; Transurethral needle ablation; TUNA; Transurethral incision; TUIP; Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate; HoLep; Interstitial laser coagulation; ILC; Photoselective vaporization of the prostate; PVP; Transurethral ...

  5. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in ... urinate, and incontinence. Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease, or ...

  6. Prostate cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/index National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  7. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  8. Enlarged prostate - after care

    MedlinePlus

    BPH - self-care; Benign prostatic hypertrophy - self-care; Benign prostatic hyperplasia - self-care ... Your health care provider may have you take a medicine called alpha-1- blocker. Most people find that these drugs help ...

  9. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cryotherapy uses very cold temperatures to freeze and kill prostate cancer cells. The goal of cryosurgery is ... Possible short-term side effects of cryotherapy for prostate ... of the penis or scrotum Problems controlling your bladder (more ...

  10. The dosimetry of brachytherapy-induced erectile dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, Gregory S.; Butler, Wayne M

    2003-12-31

    There is emerging evidence that brachytherapy-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) is technique-related and may be minimized by careful attention to source placement. Herein, we review the relationship between radiation doses to the prostate gland/surrounding structures and the development of brachytherapy-induced ED. The permanent prostate brachytherapy literature was reviewed using MEDLINE searches to ensure completeness. Although the site-specific structure associated with brachytherapy-induced ED remains unknown, there is an increasing body of data implicating the proximal penis. With day 0 CT-based dosimetry, the dose to 50% (D{sub 50}) and 25% (D{sub 25}) of the bulb of the penis should be maintained below 40% and 60% mPD, respectively, while the crura D{sub 50} should be maintained below 28% mPD to maximize post-brachytherapy potency. To date, there is no data to suggest that either radiation doses to the neurovascular bundles or choice of isotope is associated with brachytherapy-induced ED, while conflicting data has been reported regarding radiation dose to the prostate and the use of supplemental external beam radiation therapy. Although the etiology of brachytherapy-induced ED is likely multifactorial, the available data supports the proximal penis as an important site-specific structure. Refinements in implant technique, including preplanning and intraoperative seed placement, will result in lower radiation doses to the proximal penis with potential improvement in potency preservation.

  11. Feasibility of portal dosimetry for flattening filter-free radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chuter, Robert W; Rixham, Philip A; Weston, Steve J; Cosgrove, Vivian P

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of using portal dosimetry (PD) to verify 6 MV flattening filter-free (FFF) IMRT treatments was investigated. An Elekta Synergy linear accelerator with an Agility collimator capable of delivering FFF beams and a standard iViewGT amorphous silicon (aSi) EPID panel (RID 1640 AL5P) at a fixed SSD of 160 cm were used. Dose rates for FFF beams are up to four times higher than for conventional flattened beams, meaning images taken at maximum FFF dose rate can saturate the EPID. A dose rate of 800 MU/min was found not to saturate the EPID for open fields. This dose rate was subsequently used to characterize the EPID for FFF portal dosimetry. A range of open and phantom fields were measured with both an ion chamber and the EPID, to allow comparison between the two. The measured data were then used to create a model within The Nederlands Kanker Instituut's (NKI's) portal dosimetry software. The model was verified using simple square fields with a range of field sizes and phantom thicknesses. These were compared to calculations performed with the Monaco treatment planning system (TPS) and isocentric ion chamber measurements. It was found that the results for the FFF verification were similar to those for flattened beams with testing on square fields, indicating a difference in dose between the TPS and portal dosimetry of approximately 1%. Two FFF IMRT plans (prostate and lung SABR) were delivered to a homogeneous phantom and showed an overall dose difference at isocenter of ~0.5% and good agreement between the TPS and PD dose distributions. The feasibility of using the NKI software without any modifications for high-dose-rate FFF beams and using a standard EPID detector has been investigated and some initial limitations highlighted. PMID:26894337

  12. Prostate cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is a blood test that checks the level of PSA in your blood. In some cases, a high level of PSA could mean you have prostate cancer. But other conditions can also cause a high level, such as infection in the prostate or ...

  13. Enlarged Prostate (BPH)

    MedlinePlus

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine out of the body. As men age, their prostate grows bigger. If it gets too large, it ...

  14. The molecular basis for ethnic variation and histological subtype differences in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZONG, Yang; GOLDSTEIN, Andrew S.; HUANG, JiaoTi

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy among men in Western countries. Recently the morbidity and mortality of prostate cancer increase dramatically in several oriental countries including China. Rapidly evolving technology in molecular biology such as high-throughput sequencing and integrative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic landscapes have enabled the identification of key oncogenic events for prostate cancer initiation, progression and resistance to hormonal therapy. These surging data of prostate cancer genome also provide insights on ethnic variation and the differences in histological subtype of this disease. In this review, differences in the incidence of prostate cancer and the prevalence of main genetic alterations between Asian and Western populations are discussed. We also review the recent findings on the mechanisms underlying neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer and the development of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma after androgen deprivation therapy. PMID:23852643

  15. Optical dosimetry for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Arnfield, M.R.; Tulip, J.; Chetner, M.; McPhee, M.S. )

    1989-07-01

    An approach to photodynamic treatment of tumors is the interstitial implantation of fiber optic light sources. Dosimetry is critical in identifying regions of low light intensity in the tumor which may prevent tumor cure. We describe a numerical technique for calculating light distributions within tumors, from multiple fiber optic sources. The method was tested using four translucent plastic needles, which were placed in a 0.94 X 0.94 cm grid pattern within excised Dunning R3327-AT rat prostate tumors. A cylindrical diffusing fiber tip, illuminated by 630 nm dye laser light was placed within one needle and a miniature light detector was placed within another. The average penetration depth in the tumor region between the two needles was calculated from the optical power measured by the detector, using a modified diffusion theory. Repeating the procedure for each pair of needles revealed significant variations in penetration depth within individual tumors. Average values of penetration depth, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and mean scattering cosine were 0.282 cm, 0.469 cm-1, 250 cm-1 and 0.964, respectively. Calculated light distributions from four cylindrical sources in tumors gave reasonable agreement with direct light measurements using fiber optic probes.

  16. Phosphodiesterase 4D Inhibitors Limit Prostate Cancer Growth Potential

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Ginny L.; Hammer, Kimberly D.P.; Domenech, Maribella; Frantskevich, Katsiaryna; Malinowski, Rita L.; Bushman, Wade; Beebe, David J.; Marker, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) has recently been implicated as a proliferation-promoting factor in prostate cancer and is over-expressed in human prostate carcinoma. However, the effects of PDE4D inhibition using pharmacological inhibitors have not been examined in prostate cancer. These studies examined the effects of selective PDE4D inhibitors, NVP-ABE171 and cilomilast, as anti-prostate cancer therapies in both in vitro and in vivo models. The effects of PDE4D inhibitors on pathways that are critical in prostate cancer and/or downstream of cyclic AMP (cAMP) were examined. Both NVP-ABE171 and cilomilast decreased cell growth. In vitro, PDE4D inhibitors lead to decreased signaling of the sonic hedgehog (SHH), Androgen Receptor (AR), and MAPK pathways, but growth inhibition was best correlated to the sonic hedgehog pathway. PDE4D inhibition also reduced proliferation of epithelial cells induced by paracrine signaling from co-cultured stromal cells that had activated hedgehog signaling. In addition, PDE4D inhibitors decreased the weight of the prostate in wild-type mice. Prostate cancer xenografts grown in nude mice that were treated with cilomilast or NVP-ABE171 had decreased wet weight and increased apoptosis compared to vehicle treated controls. These studies suggest the pharmacological inhibition of PDE4D using small molecule inhibitors is an effective option for prostate cancer therapy. Implications PDE4D inhibitors decrease the growth of prostate cancer cells in vivo and in vitro, and PDE4D inhibition has therapeutic potential in prostate cancer. PMID:25149359

  17. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  18. Radioembolization Dosimetry: The Road Ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, Maarten L. J. Elschot, Mattijs; Sze, Daniel Y.; Kao, Yung H.; Nijsen, Johannes F. W.; Iagaru, Andre H.; Jong, Hugo W. A. M. de; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Lam, Marnix G. E. H.

    2015-04-15

    Methods for calculating the activity to be administered during yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) are largely based on empirical toxicity and efficacy analyses, rather than dosimetry. At the same time, it is recognized that treatment planning based on proper dosimetry is of vital importance for the optimization of the results of RE. The heterogeneous and often clustered intrahepatic biodistribution of millions of point-source radioactive particles poses a challenge for dosimetry. Several studies found a relationship between absorbed doses and treatment outcome, with regard to both toxicity and efficacy. This should ultimately lead to improved patient selection and individualized treatment planning. New calculation methods and imaging techniques and a new generation of microspheres for image-guided RE will all contribute to these improvements. The aim of this review is to give insight into the latest and most important developments in RE dosimetry and to suggest future directions on patient selection, individualized treatment planning, and study designs.

  19. Medical dosimetry in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turák, O.; Osvay, M.; Ballay, L.

    2012-09-01

    Radiation exposure of medical staff during cardiological and radiological procedures was investigated. The exposure of medical staff is directly connected to patient exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of doses on uncovered part of body of medical staff using LiF thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters in seven locations. Individual Kodak film dosimeters (as authorized dosimetry system) were used for the assessment of medical staff's effective dose. Results achieved on dose distribution measurements confirm that wearing only one film badge under the lead apron does not provide enough information on the personal dose. The value of estimated annual doses on eye lens and extremities (fingers) were in good correlation with international publications.

  20. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-05

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  1. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-01

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  2. Poster — Thur Eve — 77: Implanted Brachythearpy Seed Movement due to Transrectal Ultrasound Probe-Induced Prostate Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D; Usmani, N; Sloboda, R; Meyer, T; Husain, S; Angyalfi, S; Kay, I

    2014-08-15

    The study investigated the movement of implanted brachytherapy seeds upon transrectal US probe removal, providing insight into the underlying prostate deformation and an estimate of the impact on prostate dosimetry. Implanted seed distributions, one obtained with the prostate under probe compression and another with the probe removed, were reconstructed using C-arm fluoroscopy imaging. The prostate, delineated on ultrasound images, was registered to the fluoroscopy images using seeds and needle tracks identified on ultrasound. A deformation tensor and shearing model was developed to correlate probe-induced seed movement with position. Changes in prostate TG-43 dosimetry were calculated. The model was used to infer the underlying prostate deformation and to estimate the location of the prostate surface in the absence of probe compression. Seed movement patterns upon probe removal reflected elastic decompression, lateral shearing, and rectal bending. Elastic decompression was characterized by expansion in the anterior-posterior direction and contraction in the superior-inferior and lateral directions. Lateral shearing resulted in large anterior movement for extra-prostatic seeds in the lateral peripheral region. Whole prostate D90 increased up to 8 Gy, mainly due to the small but systematic seed movement associated with elastic decompression. For selected patients, lateral shearing movement increased prostate D90 by 4 Gy, due to increased dose coverage in the anterior-lateral region at the expense of the posterior-lateral region. The effect of shearing movement on whole prostate D90 was small compared to elastic decompression due to the subset of peripheral seeds involved, but is expected to have greater consequences for local dose coverage.

  3. WE-A-17A-11: Implanted Brachytherapy Seed Movement Due to Transrectal Ultrasound Probe-Induced Prostate Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D; Usmani, N; Sloboda, R; Meyer, T; Husain, S; Angyalfi, S; Kay, I

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize the movement of implanted brachytherapy seeds due to transrectal ultrasound probe-induced prostate deformation and to estimate the effects on prostate dosimetry. Methods: Implanted probe-in and probe-removed seed distributions were reconstructed for 10 patients using C-arm fluoroscopy imaging. The prostate was delineated on ultrasound and registered to the fluoroscopy seeds using a visible subset of seeds and residual needle tracks. A linear tensor and shearing model correlated the seed movement with position. The seed movement model was used to infer the underlying prostate deformation and to simulate the prostate contour without probe compression. Changes in prostate and surrogate urethra dosimetry were calculated. Results: Seed movement patterns reflecting elastic decompression, lateral shearing, and rectal bending were observed. Elastic decompression was characterized by anterior-posterior expansion and superior-inferior and lateral contractions. For lateral shearing, anterior movement up to 6 mm was observed for extraprostatic seeds in the lateral peripheral region. The average intra-prostatic seed movement was 1.3 mm, and the residual after linear modeling was 0.6 mm. Prostate D90 increased by 4 Gy on average (8 Gy max) and was correlated with elastic decompression. For selected patients, lateral shearing resulted in differential change in D90 of 7 Gy between anterior and posterior quadrants, and increase in whole prostate D90 of 4 Gy. Urethra D10 increased by 4 Gy. Conclusion: Seed movement upon probe removal was characterized. The proposed model captured the linear correlation between seed movement and position. Whole prostate dose coverage increased slightly, due to the small but systematic seed movement associated with elastic decompression. Lateral shearing movement increased dose coverage in the anterior-lateral region, at the expense of the posterior-lateral region. The effect on whole prostate D90 was smaller due to the subset

  4. Laser heated thermoluminescence dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, B.L.; Huston, A.L.

    1996-06-01

    We report a novel laser-heated thermoluminescence dosimeter that is radically different from previous laser-heated dosimeters. The dosimeter is a semiconductor and metal ion doped silica glass that has excellent optical transparency. The high optical quality of the glass essentially eliminates laser power loss due to light scattering. This efficient utilization of the laser power permits operation of the dosimeter without strong absorption of the laser, as is required in traditional laser-heated dosimetry. Our laser-heated dosimeter does not rely on the diffusion of heat from a separate, highly absorbing substrate, but operates via intimate, localized heating within the glass dosimeter due to the absorption of the laser light by rare earth ion dopants in the glass. Following absorption of the laser light, the rare earth ions transfer energy to the surrounding glass via nonradiative relaxation processes, resulting in rapid, localized temperature increases sufficient to release all the filled traps near the ions. As the heat diffuses radially away from the rare earth ions the temperature plummets dramatically on a manometer distance scale and the release of additional filled traps subsides. A key distinguishing feature of this laser-heated dosimeter is the ability to read the dose information more than once. While laser-heating provides complete information about the radiation exposure experienced by the glass due to the release of locally heated traps, the process leaves the remaining filled bulk traps undisturbed. The bulk traps can be read using traditional bulk heating methods and can provide a direct determination of an accumulated dose, measured following any number of laser-heated readouts. Laser-heated dosimetry measurements have been performed using a solid state diode laser for the readout following radiation exposure with a {sup 60}Co source.

  5. Fifth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, E.E.; Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.

    1992-05-01

    This meeting was held to exchange information on how to get better estimates of the radiation absorbed dose. There seems to be a high interest of late in patient dosimetry; discussions were held in the light of revised risk estimates for radiation. Topics included: Strategies of Dose Assessment; Dose Estimation for Radioimmunotherapy; Dose Calculation Techniques and Models; Dose Estimation for Positron Emission Tomography (PET); Kinetics for Dose Estimation; and Small Scale Dosimetry and Microdosimetry. (VC)

  6. The International Reactor Dosimetry File.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-08-07

    Version 01 The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-2002) contains recommended neutron cross-section data to be used for reactor neutron dosimetry by foil activation and subsequent neutron spectrum unfolding. It also contains selected recom�mended values for radiation damage cross-sections and benchmark neutron spectra. Two related programs available from NEADB and RSICC are: SPECTER-ANL (PSR-263) & STAY’SL (PSR-113).

  7. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs.

  8. [New challenges and earlier approved methods in the laboratory diagnosis of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kovács, Gábor L

    2014-12-01

    Prostate cancer is usually a disease of elderly men, however, over 40 years of age the tumor can appear at any times. PSA is a protein molecule synthesized by prostate cells. Measurement of serum PSA has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. However, PSA is not sufficiently specific for the detection of prostate cancer, since serum PSA might also be elevated in benign prostate diseases, as well as following physical stimulation of the gland (digital rectal examination, biopsy, catheterization, or even ejaculation). To increase the specificity of PSA, different derivative parameters have been developed i.e. PSA density (ratio of PSA to prostate volume), PSA velocity (change of PSA over a time period) or age-specific reference ranges. 65-95% of circulating PSA is bound to different proteins, while the rest of PSA circulates in a non-bound form (free PSA, fPSA). In addition to fPSA, the prostate health index [phi; (-2)proPSA/fPSA×√PSA] is increasingly used to differentiate between carcinoma-induced and non-carcinoma-induced increase in PSA. PCA3 is a non-coding messenger RNA, which is 60-70-fold overexpressed by cancer cells in the prostate. Measurement of urine PCA3 appears to be more sensitive than %tPSA, and is independent of prostate volume, age or tPSA. The author reviews laboratory biomarkers related to prostate cancer, used either in the routine clinical practice, or in research. Laboratory biomarkers seem to be useful tools to reduce the incidence of advanced stage, or metastatic prostate cancer, and the cancer-related death rate. A promising perspective for the future is the detection of circulating prostate cancer cells and the profiling of microRNAs, especially on the field of tumor prognosis. PMID:25517448

  9. Risk of malignant melanoma in men with prostate cancer: Nationwide, population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Garmo, Hans; Robinson, David; Loeb, Stacy; Ingvar, Christian; Lambe, Mats; Stattin, Pär

    2016-05-01

    An increased risk of malignant melanoma has been observed in men with prostate cancer. To assess potential shared risk factors and confounding factors, we analysed risk of melanoma in men with prostate cancer including information on tumor characteristics and demographics including socioeconomic status. In The Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden, risk of melanoma was assessed in a cohort of men with prostate cancer and in a comparison cohort of prostate-cancer free men. Data on prostate cancer risk category, melanoma stage, basal cell carcinoma, location of residency, and socioeconomic status were obtained from nationwide registers. Melanoma was diagnosed in 830/108,145 (0.78%) men with prostate cancer and in 3,699/556,792 (0.66%) prostate cancer-free men. In multivariable Cox regression models, men with prostate cancer had a significantly increased risk of melanoma (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09-1.27), and so had married men, men with high education and income, and men residing in southern Sweden. The strongest associations were observed for stage 0 melanoma in men with low-risk prostate cancer (HR 1.45, 1.14-1.86), high education (HR 1.87, 1.60-2.18) and top income (HR 1.61, 1.34-1.93), respectively, whereas there was no association between these factors and late-stage melanoma. Men with prostate cancer also had an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma (HR 1.18, 1.15-1.22). In conclusion, men with low-risk prostate cancer, high education, high income and residency in southern Sweden had an increased risk of early-stage melanoma. PMID:26662367

  10. Adrenocortical carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a cancer of the adrenal glands . Causes Adrenocortical carcinoma is most common in children ... tumor. Symptoms Symptoms of increased cortisol or other adrenal gland hormones: Fatty, rounded hump high on the back ...

  11. Postoperative Nomogram Predicting the 9-Year Probability of Prostate Cancer Recurrence After Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy Using Radiation Dose as a Prognostic Variable

    SciTech Connect

    Potters, Louis; Roach, Mack; Davis, Brian J.; Stock, Richard G.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Stone, Nelson N.; Fearn, Paul A.; Yu Changhong; Shinohara, Katsuto; Kattan, Michael W.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To report a multi-institutional outcomes study on permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) to 9 years that includes postimplant dosimetry, to develop a postimplant nomogram predicting biochemical freedom from recurrence. Methods and Materials: Cox regression analysis was used to model the clinical information for 5,931 patients who underwent PPB for clinically localized prostate cancer from six centers. The model was validated against the dataset using bootstrapping. Disease progression was determined using the Phoenix definition. The biological equivalent dose was calculated from the minimum dose to 90% of the prostate volume (D90) and external-beam radiotherapy dose using an alpha/beta of 2. Results: The 9-year biochemical freedom from recurrence probability for the modeling set was 77% (95% confidence interval, 73-81%). In the model, prostate-specific antigen, Gleason sum, isotope, external beam radiation, year of treatment, and D90 were associated with recurrence (each p < 0.05), whereas clinical stage was not. The concordance index of the model was 0.710. Conclusion: A predictive model for a postimplant nomogram for prostate cancer recurrence at 9-years after PPB has been developed and validated from a large multi-institutional database. This study also demonstrates the significance of implant dosimetry for predicting outcome. Unique to predictive models, these nomograms may be used a priori to calculate a D90 that likely achieves a desired outcome with further validation. Thus, a personalized dose prescription can potentially be calculated for each patient.

  12. The Molecular Taxonomy of Primary Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    There is substantial heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, evident in the spectrum of molecular abnormalities and its variable clinical course. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we present a comprehensive molecular analysis of 333 primary prostate carcinomas. Our results revealed a molecular taxonomy in which 74% of these tumors fell into one of seven subtypes defined by specific gene fusions (ERG, ETV1/4, and FLI1) or mutations (SPOP, FOXA1, and IDH1). Epigenetic profiles showed substantial heterogeneity, including an IDH1 mutant subset with a methylator phenotype. Androgen receptor (AR) activity varied widely and in a subtype-specific manner, with SPOP and FOXA1 mutant tumors having the highest levels of AR-induced transcripts. 25% of the prostate cancers had a presumed actionable lesion in the PI3K or MAPK signaling pathways, and DNA repair genes were inactivated in 19%. Our analysis reveals molecular heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, as well as potentially actionable molecular defects. PMID:26544944

  13. Prostate-specific expression of Bax delivered by an adenoviral vector induces apoptosis in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lowe, S L; Rubinchik, S; Honda, T; McDonnell, T J; Dong, J Y; Norris, J S

    2001-09-01

    In prostate carcinoma, overexpression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 has been found to be associated with resistance to therapies including radiation and androgen ablation. Restoring the balance of Bcl-2 family members may result in the induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells previously resistant to treatment. To accomplish this, a strategy involving overexpression of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax was executed. The use of cytotoxic genes such as Bax require selective expression of the gene. In this study, we examined the ability of selective expression of Bax protein directed by a prostate-specific promoter to induce apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma. A second-generation adenoviral vector was constructed with the modified prostate-specific probasin promoter, ARR2PB, directing expression of an HA-tagged Bax gene and a green fluorescent protein reporter translated from an internal ribosome entry site (ARR2PB.Bax.GFP). ARR2PB promoter activity is tightly regulated and highly prostate specific and is responsive to androgens and glucocorticoids. The prostate-specific promoter-Bax-GFP transgene cassette was inserted into a cloning site near the right inverted terminal repeat of the adenoviral vector to retain specificity of the promoter. LNCaP cells infected with Ad/ARR(2)PB.Bax.GFP showed high levels of Bax expression 48 h after infection resulting in an 85% reduction in cell viability. Importantly, LNCaP cells stably transfected to overexpress Bcl-2 showed similar patterns of cell death when infected with Ad/ARR(2)PB.Bax.GFP, an 82% reduction in cell viability seen 48 h after infection. Apoptosis was confirmed by measuring caspase activation and using the TUNEL assay. Tissue specificity was evaluated using A549 cells (lung adenocarcinoma), SK-Hep-1 (liver cancer) cells, and Hela (cervical cancer) cells which did not show detectable expression of virally delivered Bax protein or any increase in cell death. Systemic administration of Ad/ARR2PB. Bax.GFP in nude

  14. DNA Ploidy Measured on Archived Pretreatment Biopsy Material May Correlate With Prostate-Specific Antigen Recurrence After Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, Mira; MacAulay, Calum; Hayes, Malcolm; Korbelik, Jagoda; Morris, W. James; Palcic, Branko

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To explore whether DNA ploidy of prostate cancer cells determined from archived transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens correlates with disease-free survival. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven failures and 47 controls were selected from 1006 consecutive low- and intermediate-risk patients treated with prostate {sup 125}I brachytherapy (July 1998-October 2003). Median follow-up was 7.5 years. Ten-year actuarial disease-free survival was 94.1%. Controls were matched using age, initial prostate-specific antigen level, clinical stage, Gleason score, use of hormone therapy, and follow-up (all P nonsignificant). Seventy-eight specimens were successfully processed; 27 control and 20 failure specimens contained more than 100 tumor cells were used for the final analysis. The Feulgen-Thionin stained cytology samples from archived paraffin blocks were used to determine the DNA ploidy of each tumor by measuring integrated optical densities. Results: The samples were divided into diploid and aneuploid tumors. Aneuploid tumors were found in 16 of 20 of the failures (80%) and 8 of 27 controls (30%). Diploid DNA patients had a significantly lower rate of disease recurrence (P=.0086) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.256). On multivariable analysis, patients with aneuploid tumors had a higher prostate-specific antigen failure rate (HR 5.13). Additionally, those with “excellent” dosimetry (V100 >90%; D90 >144 Gy) had a significantly lower recurrence rate (HR 0.25). All patients with aneuploid tumors and dosimetry classified as “nonexcellent” (V100 <90%; D90 <144 Gy) (5 of 5) had disease recurrence, compared with 40% of patients with aneuploid tumors and “excellent” dosimetry (8 of 15). In contrast, dosimetry did not affect the outcome for diploid patients. Conclusions: Using core biopsy material from archived paraffin blocks, DNA ploidy correctly classified the majority of failures and nonfailures in this study. The results suggest that DNA ploidy can be used as a

  15. AAPM Task Group 128: Quality assurance tests for prostate brachytherapy ultrasound systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, Douglas; Sutlief, Steven; Feng Wenzheng; Pierce, Heather M.; Kofler, Jim

    2008-12-15

    While ultrasound guided prostate brachytherapy has gained wide acceptance as a primary treatment tool for prostate cancer, quality assurance of the ultrasound guidance system has received very little attention. Task Group 128 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine was created to address quality assurance requirements specific to transrectal ultrasound used for guidance of prostate brachytherapy. Accurate imaging guidance and dosimetry calculation depend upon the quality and accuracy of the ultrasound image. Therefore, a robust quality assurance program for the ultrasound system is essential. A brief review of prostate brachytherapy and ultrasound physics is provided, followed by a recommendation for elements to be included in a comprehensive test phantom. Specific test recommendations are presented, covering grayscale visibility, depth of penetration, axial and lateral resolution, distance measurement, area measurement, volume measurement, needle template/electronic grid alignment, and geometric consistency with the treatment planning computer.

  16. Characterization of Heterogeneous Prostate Tumors in Targeted Pten Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Korsten, Hanneke; Ziel-van der Made, Angelique C. J.; van Weerden, Wytske M.; van der Kwast, Theo; Trapman, Jan; Van Duijn, Petra W.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we generated a preclinical mouse prostate tumor model based on PSA-Cre driven inactivation of Pten. In this model homogeneous hyperplastic prostates (4-5m) developed at older age (>10m) into tumors. Here, we describe the molecular and histological characterization of the tumors in order to better understand the processes that are associated with prostate tumorigenesis in this targeted mouse Pten knockout model. The morphologies of the tumors that developed were very heterogeneous. Different histopathological growth patterns could be identified, including intraductal carcinoma (IDC), adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma, all strongly positive for the epithelial cell marker Cytokeratin (CK), and carcinosarcomas, which were negative for CK. IDC pattern was already detected in prostates of 7–8 month old mice, indicating that it could be a precursor stage. At more than 10 months IDC and carcinosarcoma were most frequently observed. Gene expression profiling discriminated essentially two molecular subtypes, denoted tumor class 1 (TC1) and tumor class 2 (TC2). TC1 tumors were characterized by high expression of epithelial markers like Cytokeratin 8 and E-Cadherin whereas TC2 tumors showed high expression of mesenchyme/stroma markers such as Snail and Fibronectin. These molecular subtypes corresponded with histological growth patterns: where TC1 tumors mainly represented adenocarcinoma / intraductal carcinoma, in TC2 tumors carcinosarcoma was the dominant growth pattern. Further molecular characterization of the prostate tumors revealed an increased expression of genes associated with the inflammatory response. Moreover, functional markers for senescence, proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis were higher expressed in tumors compared to hyperplasia. The highest expression of proliferation and angiogenesis markers was detected in TC2 tumors. Our data clearly showed that in the genetically well-defined PSA-Cre;Pten-loxP/loxP prostate tumor model

  17. Light dosimetry calculations for esophageal photodynamic therapy using porfimer sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Linda R.; Preyer, Norris W., Jr.; Davis, Monica A.; Grimes, Carson; Edling, Kristie; Holdgate, Nicholas; Wallace, Michael B.; Wolfsen, Herbert C.

    2006-02-01

    Background: Photodynamic therapy using porfimer sodium (Ps-PDT) is approved for use in patients with Barrett's highgrade dysplasia and esophageal carcinoma. Ps-PDT light dosimetry, however, is critically important to treatment outcomes since insufficient ablation results in residual dysplasia and carcinoma while excessive treatment results in stricture formation. Aim: The aim of this study was to model esophageal PDT with optical absorption and scattering coefficients derived from an ex-vivo porcine multilayer esophagus model. Methods: Optical coefficients were derived for the mucosal and muscle layers of normal pig esophagus. The mucosal layer (mucosa, muscularis mucosa and submucosa) was separated from the muscle layer. Diffuse reflectance and transmittance were measured with an integrating sphere spectrophotometer. Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were determined with the inverse adding doubling method. (Table not available in abstract, see pdf of paper) Multilayer Monte Carlo simulation and single-layer mathematical dosimetry equations were employed to model esophageal PDT with the derived coefficients. Porfimer sodium addition was modeled with an increase in both absorption and scattering. Depth of injury, assumed to require a threshold light dose, was estimated for various light doses commonly used in clinical practice. Depth of injury was then compared to clinical outcomes reported in the literature for various light doses.

  18. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones Vaccine treatment for prostate cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  19. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  1. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing ... helps slow the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. ...

  2. A Novel MRI Marker for Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Steven J. Stafford, R. Jason; Bankson, James A.; Li Chun; Swanson, David A.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Martirosyan, Karen S.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal imaging modality for the prostate and surrounding critical organ structures. However, on MRI, the titanium radioactive seeds used for brachytherapy appear as black holes (negative contrast) and cannot be accurately localized. We sought to develop an encapsulated contrast agent marker (ECAM) with high-signal intensity on MRI to permit accurate localization of radioactive seeds with MRI during and after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: We investigated several agents with paramagnetic and superparamagnetic properties. The agents were injected into titanium, acrylic, and glass seeds, which were linked together in various combinations and imaged with MRI. The agent with the greatest T1-weighted signal was tested further in a canine prostate and agarose phantom. Studies were performed on a 1.5-T clinical MRI scanner. Results: The cobalt-chloride complex contrast (C4) agent with stoichiometry (CoCl{sub 2}){sub 0.8}(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NO{sub 2}){sub 0.2} had the greatest T1-weighted signal (positive contrast) with a relaxivity ratio >1 (r{sub 2}/r{sub 1} = 1.21 {+-} 0.29). Acrylic-titanium and glass-titanium seed strands were clearly visualized with the encapsulated contrast agent marker. Conclusion: We have developed a novel ECAM that permits positive identification of the radioactive seeds used for prostate brachytherapy on MRI. Preclinical in vitro phantom studies and in vivo canine studies are needed to further optimize MRI sequencing techniques to facilitate MRI-based dosimetry.

  3. Spectrum of prostatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate gland of male reproductive system is about the size of walnut and surrounds the urethra. Most frequently encountered diseases affecting prostate are Prostatitis, Benign prostatic hyperplasia and Prostatic cancer .Our objective of study was to evaluate the spectrum and correlation of prostatic lesions with presenting complaints of patient. Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted in Pathology Department of Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences during the period of 1st January 2010 to December 2012. Pathology department of Dow Medical College collected specimens from both Civil Hospital and Lyari General Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. Specimens were taken through transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), simple prostatectomy and radical prostatectomy. A questionnaire was made and information including name, age, ward name of hospital, laboratory number, clinical diagnosis and symptoms were noted in it. Data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Result During the targeted months, 48 prostatic specimens were received with a mean age of 65.7 + -7.6 years. Common presenting complains were urinary retention in 23(47.9%) patients, followed by dribbling in 12(25%). Out of 48 patients, 42 have Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and 6 have Prostatic Adenocarcinoma. Both Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostatic Adenocarcinoma were more prevalent in the age group of 60-70 years. Conclusion Frequency of prostatic cancer is on the rise and measures should be taken for its early detection. Screening protocols and awareness programs need to be introduced. Screening programs should be focused on level of androgens and molecular pathogenesis. PMID:24063260

  4. Late-onset granulomatous prostatitis following intravesical bacille Calmette-Guerin therapy: case report.

    PubMed

    Castillo Cádiz, Octavio; Villasenín Parrado, Lorena; Borgna Christie, Vincenzo; Gallegos Méndez, Iván; Martínez Corta, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guerin intravesical treatment is the most effective treatment for reducing the recurrence of non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinomas. This treatment can sometimes have side effects and serious complications. Granulomatous prostatitis is a common histological finding but it rarely has a clinical presentation. We report a case of a 75-year-old, type 2 diabetic, male patient who was diagnosed with urothelial in situ carcinoma, for which he began treatment with Bacille Calmette-Guerin instillations. Five years later the patient presented nocturia, pollakiuria, severe urgency, and intense and recurrent perineal pain associated with marked elevation of prostatic specific antigen. A prostatic biopsy was performed that showed a moderate to severe granulomatous prostatitis related to bacille Calmette-Guerin. The patient received full antituberculosis combination drugs with a favorable clinical response. PMID:27391977

  5. Prescription dose in permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Ning; Heron, Dwight E.; Komanduri, Krishna; Huq, M. Saiful

    2005-08-15

    Recently, {sup 131}Cs seeds have been introduced for prostate permanent seed implants. This type of seed has a relatively short half-life of 9.7 days and has its most prominent emitted photon energy peaks in the 29-34 keV region. Traditionally, 145 and 125 Gy have been prescribed for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seed prostate implants, respectively. Since both the half-life and dosimetry characteristics of {sup 131}Cs seed are quite different from those of {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd, the appropriate prescription dose for {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implant may well be different. This study was designed to use a linear quadratic radiobiological model to determine an appropriate dose prescription scheme for permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants. In this model, prostate edema was taken into consideration. Calculations were also performed for tumors of different doubling times and for other related radiobiological parameters of different values. As expected, the derived prescription dose values were dependent on type of tumors and types of edema. However, for prostate cancers in which tumor cells are relatively slow growing and are reported to have a mean potential doubling time of around 40 days, the appropriate prescription dose for permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants was determined to be: 127{sub -12}{sup +5}Gy if the experiences of {sup 125}I seed implants were followed and 121{sub -3}{sup +0}Gy if the experiences of {sup 103}Pd seed implants were followed.

  6. [Horseshoe kidney, stone disease and prostate cancer: a case presentation].

    PubMed

    Hermida Pérez, J A; Bermejo Hernández, A; Hernández Guerra, J S; Sobenes Gutierrez, R J

    2013-01-01

    The horseshoe kidney is the most common congenital renal fusion anomalies. It occurs in 0.25% of the population, or 1 in every 400 people. It is more frequent in males (ratio 2:1). The most observed complication of horseshoe kidney is stone disease, although there may be others such as, abdominal pain, urinary infections, haematuria, hydronephrosis, trauma and tumours (most commonly associated with hypernephroma and Wilms tumour). We describe a case of a male patient with horseshoe kidney, stone disease and adenocarcinoma of the prostate. One carrier of this condition who suffered a transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate was found in a review of the literature. PMID:24315083

  7. Space radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hanser, F.A.; Dichter, B.K. ||

    1993-12-31

    Dosimetry is the measurement of the energy deposited in matter by various forms of radiation. In space the radiation is primarily energetic electrons, protons and heavier ions from planetary radiation belts, solar flares, and interstellar cosmic rays. Experimentally, dose is frequently obtained by summing the individual energy deposits in a solid state detector. If the detector is calibrated and the sensitive mass is known, the energy sum can be converted directly to accumulated radiation dose in Gy (J/kg). Such detectors can also be used to provide an approximate separation of dose into the components due to electrons, protons, and heavier ions, which is useful if it is desired to convert the measured dose into a biological effective dose (Sv) for manned spaceflight purposes. The output can also be used to provide an essentially instantaneous dose rate for use as warning devices. This is the primary type of space radiation dosimeter to be discussed here. The MOS-type dosimeter is another solid state sensor which can be of small size and low power. These devices integrate the total dose once through, can not separate particle types, and are not suitable for instantaneous dose rate measurement at low levels. There are several additional methods of measuring space radiation dose using scintillators, etc., but are not discussed in detail. In this paper emphasis is given to descriptions of active solid state detector instruments which have successfully worked in space. Some results of in-orbit dose measurements are presented.

  8. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    PubMed

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry. PMID:2777549

  9. Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed. (ACR)

  10. 4.2 Methods for Internal Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.2 Methods for Internal Dosimetry' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  11. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Androgen deprivation therapy; ADT; Androgen suppression therapy; Combined androgen blockade ... Androgens cause prostate cancer cells to grow. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer lowers the effect level of ...

  12. Role of cyclin D1 immunoreactivity and AgNOR staining in the evaluation of benign and malignant lesions of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Veena; Garg, Monika; Chaudhry, Manish; Singh, Sunita; Sen, Rajeev; Gill, Meenu; Sangwaiya, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Prostatic carcinoma is a common and growing public health problem. Histological evaluation is fairly adequate for assessing tumor differentiation, but tumor proliferative activity is difficult to measure. Increasing evidence suggests that the factors controlling cell cycle progression also modulate the rate of ribosome biogenesis. Despite the influence of cyclin D1 and argyrophilic nuclear organizer region (AgNOR) on prostate cancer proliferation, few studies have evaluated the diagnostic importance of these markers. Therefore, the present study was carried out to analyze the diagnostic value of the proliferative markers cyclin D1 and AgNOR in various prostatic lesions and to determine whether any association or relation between these markers and different Gleason grades exists. Methods: A total 50 cases of various prostatic lesions were studied. Tumor grade, AgNOR staining, and cyclin D1 expression were evaluated in all cases. Correlations between the intensity and differential localization of these markers and Gleason grades were evaluated. Results: The mean AgNOR count in cases of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia was high compared with cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) but lower than that of carcinoma cases. The intensity of cyclin D1 expression was high in carcinoma. A total of 14 cases (46.67%) showed strong positivity. No significant correlation was found between the intensity of cyclin D1 expression, AgNOR count, and histologic grades of prostatic carcinoma, whereas a significant correlation was observed between intensity and percentage expression of cyclin D1 in BPH and carcinoma (P<0.01). Nuclear as well as cytoplasmic positivity was seen among various grades of carcinoma. Conclusions: AgNOR count and cyclin D1 may be helpful in distinguishing between BPH and carcinoma of the prostate but may not be used as reliable indicators of the grade of prostatic adenocarcinoma because of overlapping values in various grades. However, further

  13. The prostate-specific membrane antigen: Lessons and current clinical implications from 20 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Ristau, Benjamin T.; O’Keefe, Denise S.; Bacich, Dean J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite a multitude of detection and treatment advances in the past two decades, prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Technological evolution and expanding knowledge of tumor biomarkers have invigorated exploration in prostate cancer therapeutics. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) was one of the first prostate cancer biomarkers successfully cloned. Since that time, it has been characterized as the prototypical cell-surface marker for prostate cancer and has been the subject of intense clinical inquiry. We review the relevant research in PSMA on the 20th anniversary of its cloning. Methods and materials A PubMed® search using the keywords “prostate-specific membrane antigen” or “glutamate carboxypeptidase II” provided 1019 results. An additional 3 abstracts were included from scientific meetings. Articles were vetted by title and abstract with emphasis placed on those with clinically relevant findings. Results Sixty articles were selected for inclusion. PSMA was discovered and cloned in 1993. Its structure and function were further delineated in the ensuing decade. Consensus sites of expression in normal physiology are prostate, kidney, nervous system, and small intestine. PSMA has been implicated in the neovasculature of several tumors including urothelial and renal cell carcinomas. In prostate cancer, expression of PSMA is directly related to Gleason grade. PSMA has been tested both in imaging and therapeutics in a number of prostate cancer clinical trials. Several recent approaches to target PSMA include use of small molecule inhibitors, PSMA-based immunotherapy, RNA aptamer conjugates, and PSMA-targeted prodrug therapy. Future study of PSMA in prostate cancer might focus on its intracellular functions and possible role in tumor neurogenesis. Conclusions Twenty years from its discovery, PSMA represents a viable biomarker and treatment target in prostate cancer. Research to

  14. [Blindness after prostate biopsy].

    PubMed

    Heinzelbecker, J; von Zastrow, C; Alken, P

    2009-02-01

    We report on a case of sepsis-associated irreversible blindness in a patient after transrectal rebiopsy of the prostate. The patient was on immunosuppressive and long-term antibiotic treatment. Such a severe complication after transrectal biopsy of the prostate is unusual. Peri-interventional antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the general risk for infections after needle biopsy of the prostate. To avoid severe complications, suitable antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients is recommended. PMID:19037622

  15. Fourth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, H.W.

    1980-02-01

    The fourth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during March 15-23, 1978. The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) used unshielded, with a 12-cm-thick Lucite shield, a 20-cm-thick concrete shield, or a 5-cm-thick steel and 15-cm-thick concrete shield, and provided four neutron and gamma-ray spectra. Then the dose was calculated based on the HPRR neutron spectra and dose conversion factors which had been determined previously for the four spectra. The results of these personnel dosimetry intercomparison studies reveal that estimates of dose equivalent vary over a wide range. The standard deviation of the mean of participants data for gamma measurements was in the range of 29 to 43%; for neutrons it was 57 to 188%. (PCS)

  16. Screening for prostate cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weirich, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite recent advances in both the survival and cure rates for many forms of cancer, unfortunately the same has not been true for prostate cancer. In fact, the age-adjusted death rate from prostate cancer has not significantly improved since 1949, and prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in American men, causing the second highest cancer mortality rate. Topics discussed include the following: serum testosterone levels; diagnosis; mortality statistics; prostate-sppecific antigen (PSA) tests; and the Occupational Medicine Services policy at LeRC.

  17. A Clinicopathological Profile of Prostate Cancer in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Sukhraj, Rajendra; Goetz, Lester

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To conduct a clinicopathological review of all prostate biopsies performed in a tertiary referral centre in Trinidad and Tobago over a period of 30 months. Methods. The records of all patients who had prostate biopsies from January 2012 to July 2014 were reviewed. Clinical and pathologic data were compiled and subsequently analysed using SPSS version 20. Results. From January 2012 to July 2014, 617 transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies were performed. Pathological data were found for 546 patients of whom 283 (51.8%) were confirmed carcinoma of the prostate. Moderately differentiated tumors (Gleason 7) were the most common group. Using the D'Amico risk classification, most cases were found to be high risk (63.1%). Afro-Trinidadians comprised 72.1% of the patients with prostate cancer. Afro-Trinidadians were also more likely to have high risk and high grade disease as well as high PSA values. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that over half of our biopsies are eventually positive for cancer and most cases were high risk. Afro-Trinidadians comprised a disproportionate number of those diagnosed with prostate cancer and had a greater risk of high risk disease. PMID:27493662

  18. TVA's dosimetry technician training program

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.G.; Faust, V.L.; Cornelius, T.W.; Regan, J.M.; Farrell, W.E. )

    1984-04-01

    In 1984, the Tennessee Valley Authority decentralized its personnel TLD program and established TLD processing facilities at each of its nuclear plant sites. This article describes the training program that was developed to aid in staffing dosimetry technician positions at each of the plants. The scope of the dosimetry technician's duties include TLD processing, operation of a computerized records system, whole-body counting system operation, and respirator mask fit-testing. The training program includes thirteen weeks of classroom and laboratory training plus a 15-month apprenticeship at a nuclear plant. Retraining and requalification are performed on an annual basis.

  19. Monte Carlo portal dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, P.W. . E-mail: mary.chin@physics.org

    2005-10-15

    This project developed a solution for verifying external photon beam radiotherapy. The solution is based on a calibration chain for deriving portal dose maps from acquired portal images, and a calculation framework for predicting portal dose maps. Quantitative comparison between acquired and predicted portal dose maps accomplishes both geometric (patient positioning with respect to the beam) and dosimetric (two-dimensional fluence distribution of the beam) verifications. A disagreement would indicate that beam delivery had not been according to plan. The solution addresses the clinical need for verifying radiotherapy both pretreatment (without the patient in the beam) and on treatment (with the patient in the beam). Medical linear accelerators mounted with electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were used to acquire portal images. Two types of EPIDs were investigated: the amorphous silicon (a-Si) and the scanning liquid ion chamber (SLIC). The EGSnrc family of Monte Carlo codes were used to predict portal dose maps by computer simulation of radiation transport in the beam-phantom-EPID configuration. Monte Carlo simulations have been implemented on several levels of high throughput computing (HTC), including the grid, to reduce computation time. The solution has been tested across the entire clinical range of gantry angle, beam size (5 cmx5 cm to 20 cmx20 cm), and beam-patient and patient-EPID separations (4 to 38 cm). In these tests of known beam-phantom-EPID configurations, agreement between acquired and predicted portal dose profiles was consistently within 2% of the central axis value. This Monte Carlo portal dosimetry solution therefore achieved combined versatility, accuracy, and speed not readily achievable by other techniques.

  20. Alpha-Tomatine Attenuation of In Vivo Growth of Subcutaneous and Orthotopic Xenograft Tumors of Human Prostate Carcinoma PC-3 Cells Is Accompanied by Inactivation of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sui-Ting; Wong, Pooi-Fong; He, Hui; Hooper, John David; Mustafa, Mohd Rais

    2013-01-01

    Background Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) plays a role in prostate cancer and agents that suppress its activation may inhibit development or progression of this malignancy. Alpha (α)-tomatine is the major saponin present in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and we have previously reported that it suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells and also potently induces apoptosis of these cells. However, the precise mechanism by which α-tomatine suppresses NF-κB nuclear translocation is yet to be elucidated and the anti-tumor activity of this agent in vivo has not been examined. Methodology/ Principal Findings In the present study we show that suppression of NF-κB activation by α-tomatine occurs through inhibition of I kappa B alpha (IκBα) kinase activity, leading to sequential suppression of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, NF-κB/p65 phosphorylation, and NF-κB p50/p65 nuclear translocation. Consistent with its ability to induce apoptosis, α-tomatine reduced TNF-α induced activation of the pro-survival mediator Akt and its inhibition of NF-κB activation was accompanied by significant reduction in the expression of NF-κB-dependent anti-apoptotic (c-IAP1, c-IAP2, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, XIAP and survivin) proteins. We also evaluated the antitumor activity of α-tomatine against PC-3 cell tumors grown subcutaneously and orthotopically in mice. Our data indicate that intraperitoneal administration of α-tomatine significantly attenuates the growth of PC-3 cell tumors grown at both sites. Analysis of tumor material indicates that the tumor suppressing effects of α-tomatine were accompanied by increased apoptosis and lower proliferation of tumor cells as well as reduced nuclear translocation of the p50 and p65 components of NF-κB. Conclusion/ Significance Our study provides first evidence for in vivo antitumor efficacy of α-tomatine against

  1. Inflammation and Atrophy Precede Prostate Neoplasia in PhIP Induced Rat Model

    SciTech Connect

    Borowsky, A D; Dingley, K; Ubick, E; Turteltaub, K; Cardiff, R D; DeVere-White, R

    2006-06-01

    2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) has been implicated as a major mutagenic heterocyclic amine in the human diet and is carcinogenic in the rat prostate. In order to validate PhIP induced rat prostate neoplasia as a model of human prostate cancer progression, we sought to study the earliest histologic and morphologic changes in the prostate and to follow the progressive changes over time. We fed 67 male Fischer F344 5 week old rats with PhIP (400 PPM) or control diets for 20 weeks, and then sacrificed animals for histomorphologic examination at age 25 weeks, 45 weeks, and 65 weeks. Animals treated with PhIP showed significantly more inflammation (P=.002 (25wk), >.001(45wk), .016(65wk)) and atrophy (P=.003(25wk), >.001(45wk), .006 (65wk)) in their prostate glands relative to controls. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) occurred only in PhIP treated rats. PIN lesions arose in areas of glandular atrophy, most often in the ventral prostate. Atypical cells in areas of atrophy show loss of glutathione S-transferase pi immunostaining preceding development of PIN. None of the animals in this study developed invasive carcinomas differing from previous reports. Overall, these findings suggest that the pathogenesis of prostatic neoplasia in the PhIP treated rat prostate proceeds from inflammation to post-inflammatory proliferative atrophy to PIN.

  2. Long term organ culture of human prostate tissue in a NASA-designed rotating wall bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, L.; Hatfill, S.; Chuaqui, R.; Vocke, C.; Emmert-Buck, M.; Linehan, W. M.; Duray, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To maintain ex vivo integral prostatic tissue including intact stromal and ductal elements using the NASA-designed Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) which maintains colocalized cells in an environment that promotes both three-dimensional cellular interactions together with the uniform mass transfer of nutrients and metabolic wastes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of normal prostate were obtained as a byproduct of transurethral prostatectomy or needle biopsy. Prostatic tissue dissected into small 1 x 1 mm. blocks was cultured in the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor for various time periods and analyzed using histological, immunochemical, and total cell RNA assays. RESULTS: We report the long term maintenance of benign explanted human prostate tissue grown in simple culture medium, under the simulated microgravity conditions afforded by the RWV bioreactor. Mesenchymal stromal elements including blood vessels and architecturally preserved tubuloglandular acini were maintained for a minimum of 28 days. Cytokeratins, vimentin and TGF-beta2 receptor and ligand were preserved through the entire culture period as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was continuously expressed during the culture period, although somewhat decreased. Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and its transcript were down regulated over time of culture. Prostatic carcinoma cells from the TSU cell line were able to invade RWV-cultured benign prostate tissue explants. CONCLUSIONS: The RWV bioreactor represents an additional new technology for culturing prostate tissue for further investigations concerning the basic physiology and pathobiology of this clinically important tissue.

  3. Variations of Weight of Prostate Gland in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Azam, M S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ara, I; Ajmery, S; Zaman, U K; Amin, S

    2016-07-01

    Now a days, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders in men. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to find out the difference in weight of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories - Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the prostate gland was 10.13gm in Group A, 17.27gm in Group B and 22.50gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of weight of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The weight of prostate gland was found to increase with increased age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of prostate gland of Bangladeshi people. PMID:27612887

  4. [A Case of Tubercular Prostatic Abscess Following Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Therapy].

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Masataka; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Ueda, Norichika; Hirai, Toshiaki; Kishikawa, Hidefumi; Nishimura, Kenji

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of tubercular prostatic abscess. A 65-year-old man had undergone intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for a non-muscle invasive bladder carcinoma. One year 8 months later, the prostate-specific antigen concentration in serum was elevated (18. 58 ng/ml). Results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis led us to suspect a prostatic abscess, and transurethral resection of the prostate for drainage was performed. A culture of fluid obtained from the latter procedure revealed a tubercular prostatic abscess. We administered the antituberculous agents, isoniazid (300 mg) and rifampicin(450 mg) daily, for 6 months. One year after surgery, the patient had no urinary symptoms or evidence of recurrence. PMID:26699893

  5. Androgens and prostate disease

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lori A; Page, Stephanie T

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has established the anabolic benefits of testosterone (T) therapy in hypogonadal men. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding the risks of exogenous androgen use in older men and the potential for adverse effects on the prostate gland. Whether T therapy in older, hypogonadal men might worsen lower urinary tract symptoms or exacerbate, unmask, or even incite prostate cancer development has tempered enthusiasm for T therapy, while known prostatic disease has served as a relative contraindication to T therapy. Androgens are necessary for the development and maintenance of the prostate gland. However, epidemiologic studies do not consistently find a positive relationship between endogenous serum androgen concentrations and the risk of prostate disease. Recent data demonstrate that 5α-reductase inhibitors decrease the risk of low-grade prostate cancer, suggesting that modifying androgen metabolism may have beneficial effects on prostate health, yet similar reductions in high-grade disease have not been observed, thereby questioning the true clinical benefits of these agents for chemoprevention. Knowing how to best investigate the relationship between androgens and the development of prostate disease given the lack of large, randomized trials is difficult. Accumulating data challenges the assumption that alterations in serum androgens have parallel effects within the prostate hormonal environment or change androgen-regulated processes within the gland. Long-term intervention studies are needed to truly ascertain the effects of androgen manipulation on prostate tissue and disease risk. However, available data do not support the notion that restoring serum androgens to normal physiologic ranges drives prostate disease. PMID:24407178

  6. Hepcidin regulation in prostate and its disruption in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tesfay, Lia; Clausen, Kathryn A.; Kim, Jin W.; Hegde, Poornima; Wang, Xiaohong; Miller, Lance D.; Deng, Zhiyong; Blanchette, Nicole; Arvedson, Tara; Miranti, Cindy K.; Babitt, Jodie L.; Lin, Herbert Y.; Peehl, Donna M.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.

    2015-01-01

    Hepcidin is a circulating peptide hormone made by the liver that is a central regulator of systemic iron uptake and recycling. Here we report that prostate epithelial cells also synthesize hepcidin, and that synthesis and secretion of hepcidin are markedly increased in prostate cancer cells and tissue. Prostatic hepcidin functions as an autocrine hormone, decreasing cell surface ferroportin, an iron exporter, increasing intracellular iron retention, and promoting prostate cancer cell survival. Synthesis of hepcidin in prostate cancer is controlled by a unique intersection of pathways that involves BMP4/7, IL6, Wnt, and the dual BMP and Wnt antagonist, SOSTDC1. Epigenetic silencing of SOSTDC1 through methylation is increased in prostate cancer, and is associated with accelerated disease progression in prostate cancer patients. These results establish a new connection between iron metabolism and prostate cancer, and suggest that prostatic dysregulation of hepcidin contributes to prostate cancer growth and progression. PMID:25858146

  7. Keratin immunoreactivity as an aid to the diagnosis of persistent adenocarcinoma in irradiated human prostates

    SciTech Connect

    Brawer, M.K.; Nagle, R.B.; Pitts, W.; Freiha, F.; Gamble, S.L.

    1989-02-01

    Postirradiation prostatic biopsy is believed by many to be the best measure of radiation effectiveness in prostatic cancer. Therapeutic irradiation may induce prostatic glandular atypia, which in its severe form can be confused with persistent adenocarcinoma on prostatic biopsies. In the current study, 37 postirradiation prostate biopsy specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a specific monoclonal anticytokeratin antibody (KA1) that reacts with the basal cells of normal or hyperplastic glands, but is nonreactive with the lumenal cells or with prostatic carcinoma cells. Persistent carcinoma was observed in 19 cases in which antibody staining was absent. The noncarcinomatous glands retained reactivity, but this reactivity appeared in a new and previously undescribed pattern. The irradiated lesion was characterized by cellular pleomorphisism, with enlargement of nuclei and loss of polarity. The immunoreactivity was seen in the enlarged basal cells and was seen to focally extend to involve the lumenal cell layer. In five of 37 cases, glands were seen that were so atypical on the routinely stained sections that a distinction from cancer could not be made. These same glands in the adjacent section reacted with KA1 in each case allowing us to conclude that the changes were benign. We conclude that the interpretation of postirradiation prostatic biopsy specimens may be aided by immunohistochemistry with this anticytokeratin antibody.

  8. The predictive value of 2-year posttreatment biopsy after prostate cancer radiotherapy for eventual biochemical outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Waseet; Tucker, Susan L.; Crevoisier, Renaud de; Kuban, Deborah A.; Cheung, M. Rex . E-mail: mrcheung@mdanderson.org

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of a 2-year post-radiotherapy (RT) prostate biopsy for predicting eventual biochemical failure in patients who were treated for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This study comprised 164 patients who underwent a planned 2-year post-RT prostate biopsy. The independent prognostic value of the biopsy results for forecasting eventual biochemical outcome and overall survival was tested with other factors (the Gleason score, 1992 American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, risk group, and RT dose) in a multivariate analysis. The current nadir + 2 (CN + 2) definition of biochemical failure was used. Patients with rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or suspicious digital rectal examination before the biopsy were excluded. Results: The biopsy results were normal in 78 patients, scant atypical and malignant cells in 30, carcinoma with treatment effect in 43, and carcinoma without treatment effect in 13. Using the CN + 2 definition, we found a significant association between biopsy results and eventual biochemical failure. We also found that the biopsy status provides predictive information independent of the PSA status at the time of biopsy. Conclusion: A 2-year post-RT prostate biopsy may be useful for forecasting CN + 2 biochemical failure. Posttreatment prostate biopsy may be useful for identifying patients for aggressive salvage therapy.

  9. Salmonella Bacterial Monotherapy Reduces Autochthonous Prostate Tumor Burden in the TRAMP Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierczak, Robert A.; Gentry, Bettina; Mumm, Tyler; Schatten, Heide; Eisenstark, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium injected in the circulatory system of mammals selectively targets tumors. Using weekly intraperitoneal injections of attenuated Salmonella strain CRC2631, we tested for regression and/or inhibition of tumor development in the TRAMP prostate tumor mouse model, which utilizes SV40 early region expression for autochthonous formation of prostate tumors that progress into metastatic, poorly differentiated prostatic carcinomas in an immunocompetent murine model. Thirteen weekly intraperitoneal administrations of 105–107 CFU CRC2631 into 10 week old mice were well tolerated by the TRAMP model. Sacrifice and histological analysis of TRAMP prostates at 22 weeks indicated that Salmonella monotherapy at administrated levels decrease visible tumor size (>29%) but did not significantly inhibit previously described SV40 expression-driven TRAMP tumor progression to undifferentiated carcinomas when histologically examined. In conclusion, this work demonstrates baseline results for CRC2631 Salmonella monotherapy using the immunocompetent TRAMP prostate tumor model in preparation for study of combination therapies that resolve autochthonously generated TRAMP prostate tumors, further reduce tumor size, or inhibit prostate tumor progression. PMID:27504973

  10. Carbogen breathing increases prostate cancer oxygenation: a translational MRI study in murine xenografts and humans

    PubMed Central

    Alonzi, R; Padhani, A R; Maxwell, R J; Taylor, N J; Stirling, J J; Wilson, J I; d′Arcy, J A; Collins, D J; Saunders, M I; Hoskin, P J

    2009-01-01

    Hypoxia has been associated with poor local tumour control and relapse in many cancer sites, including carcinoma of the prostate. This translational study tests whether breathing carbogen gas improves the oxygenation of human prostate carcinoma xenografts in mice and in human patients with prostate cancer. A total of 23 DU145 tumour-bearing mice, 17 PC3 tumour-bearing mice and 17 human patients with prostate cancer were investigated. Intrinsic susceptibility-weighted MRI was performed before and during a period of carbogen gas breathing. Quantitative R2* pixel maps were produced for each tumour and at each time point and changes in R2* induced by carbogen were determined. There was a mean reduction in R2* of 6.4% (P=0.003) for DU145 xenografts and 5.8% (P=0.007) for PC3 xenografts. In all, 14 human subjects were evaluable; 64% had reductions in tumour R2* during carbogen inhalation with a mean reduction of 21.6% (P=0.0005). Decreases in prostate tumour R2* in both animal models and human patients as a result of carbogen inhalation suggests the presence of significant hypoxia. The finding that carbogen gas breathing improves prostate tumour oxygenation provides a rationale for testing the radiosensitising effects of combining carbogen gas breathing with radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients. PMID:19190629

  11. Salmonella Bacterial Monotherapy Reduces Autochthonous Prostate Tumor Burden in the TRAMP Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, Robert A; Gentry, Bettina; Mumm, Tyler; Schatten, Heide; Eisenstark, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium injected in the circulatory system of mammals selectively targets tumors. Using weekly intraperitoneal injections of attenuated Salmonella strain CRC2631, we tested for regression and/or inhibition of tumor development in the TRAMP prostate tumor mouse model, which utilizes SV40 early region expression for autochthonous formation of prostate tumors that progress into metastatic, poorly differentiated prostatic carcinomas in an immunocompetent murine model. Thirteen weekly intraperitoneal administrations of 105-107 CFU CRC2631 into 10 week old mice were well tolerated by the TRAMP model. Sacrifice and histological analysis of TRAMP prostates at 22 weeks indicated that Salmonella monotherapy at administrated levels decrease visible tumor size (>29%) but did not significantly inhibit previously described SV40 expression-driven TRAMP tumor progression to undifferentiated carcinomas when histologically examined. In conclusion, this work demonstrates baseline results for CRC2631 Salmonella monotherapy using the immunocompetent TRAMP prostate tumor model in preparation for study of combination therapies that resolve autochthonously generated TRAMP prostate tumors, further reduce tumor size, or inhibit prostate tumor progression. PMID:27504973

  12. Prostate cancer metastasis to the distal phalanx of the left hallux: The first confirmed case and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Xinbing; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Cheng; Pan, Hongming; Li, Da

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common carcinomas in Asia, as well as all over the world. The vast majority of prostate cancer patients present with bone metastases, which mainly involve the axial bones, with pain as the most common symptom. The present study reports the first case of prostate cancer metastasis to the hallux in a 73-year-old man who presented with pain and a swollen phalanx of the left hallux. This symptom developed gradually over a period of several months and could not be improved with the common treatments. Due to a pathological fracture, amputation of the left phalanx was performed. Notably, the immunohistochemical examinations of the surgical sample demonstrated the presence of a metastatic lesion from prostate cancer. The present study describes an unusual presentation involving phalangeal metastasis in a prostate cancer patient, and a systematic review of reported cases of rare metastatic events in prostate cancer is also discussed. PMID:27446396

  13. Quantification of Prostate and Seminal Vesicle Interfraction Variation During IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Steven J. Dong Lei; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; De Crevoisier, Renaud; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex; Choi, Seungtaek; O'Daniel, Jennifer; Tucker, Susan L.; Wang He; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To quantify the interfraction variability in prostate and seminal vesicle (SV) positions during a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using an integrated computed tomography (CT)-linear accelerator system and to assess the impact of rectal and bladder volume changes. Methods and Materials: We studied 15 patients who had undergone IMRT for prostate carcinoma. Patients had one pretreatment planning CT scan followed by three in-room CT scans per week using a CT-on-rails system. The prostate, bladder, rectum, and pelvic bony anatomy were contoured in 369 CT scans. Using the planning CT scan as a reference, the volumetric and positional changes were analyzed in the subsequent CT scans. Results: For all 15 patients, the mean systematic internal prostate and SV variation was 0.1 {+-} 4.1 mm and 1.2 {+-} 7.3 mm in the anteroposterior axis, -0.5 {+-} 2.9 mm and -0.7 {+-} 4.5 mm in the superoinferior axis, and 0.2 {+-} 0.9 mm and -0.9 {+-} 1.9 mm in the lateral axis, respectively. The mean magnitude of the three-dimensional displacement vector was 4.6 {+-} 3.5 mm for the prostate and 7.6 {+-} 4.7 mm for the SVs. The rectal and bladder volume changes during treatment correlated with the anterior and superior displacement of the prostate and SVs. Conclusion: The dominant prostate and SV variations occurred in the anteroposterior and superoinferior directions. The systematic prostate and SV variation between the treatment planning CT and daily therapy as a result of the rectal and bladder volume changes emphasizes the need for daily directed target localization and/or immobilization techniques.

  14. Lactase persistence, dietary intake of milk, and the risk for prostate cancer in Sweden and Finland.

    PubMed

    Torniainen, Suvi; Hedelin, Maria; Autio, Ville; Rasinperä, Heli; Bälter, Katarina Augustsson; Klint, Asa; Bellocco, Rino; Wiklund, Fredrik; Stattin, Pär; Ikonen, Tarja; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Schleutker, Johanna; Grönberg, Henrik; Järvelä, Irma

    2007-05-01

    Prostate carcinoma is the most common cancer in men. Its primary pathogenesis is mostly unknown. Dairy products containing lactose have been suggested to be risk factors for prostate cancer. Digestion of lactose is dependent on lactase activity in the intestinal wall. A single nucleotide polymorphism C to T residing 13,910 bp upstream of the lactase gene has been shown to associate with the developmental down-regulation of lactase activity underlying persistence/nonpersistence trait. To find out whether lactase persistence is related to the risk for prostate cancer, we genotyped 1,229 Finnish and 2,924 Swedish patients and their 473 Finnish and 1,842 Swedish controls using solid-phase minisequencing. To explore if dairy products have an association with prostate cancer, we analyzed the milk consumption in the Swedish study consisting of 1,499 prostate cancer patients and 1,130 controls (Cancer Prostate in Sweden I study) using a questionnaire. Only the consumption of low-fat milk was found to be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR), 1.73; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.16-2.39]. A statistically significantly higher (P < 0.01) lactose intake was observed among subjects with high lactase activity (C/T and T/T genotypes) compared with those with low lactase activity (C/C genotype). Lactase persistence did not associate with increased risk for prostate carcinoma in the Finnish (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.83-1.47; P = 0.488) or in the Swedish populations (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.91-1.46; P = 0.23). In conclusion, lactase persistence/nonpersistence contains no risk for prostate cancer. Analysis of different milk products showed some evidence for low-fat milk as a potential risk factor for prostate cancer. PMID:17507622

  15. The Prostate Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Frederico R.; Romero, Antonio W.; Filho, Thadeu Brenny; Kulysz, David; Oliveira, Fernando C., Jr.; Filho, Renato Tambara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To help students, residents, and general practitioners to improve the technique, skills, and reproducibility of their prostate examination. Methods: We developed a comprehensive guideline outlining prostate anatomy, indications, patient preparation, positioning, technique, findings, and limitations of this ancient art of urological…

  16. PROSTATE AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project offers the very distinct advantages of human relevance and enhanced susceptibility in the evaluation of environmental impacts on prostate development. The goal of this pilot project is to build a platform to evaluate the developmental origins of later life prostat...

  17. Clinical significance of incidental FDG uptake in the prostate gland detected by PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Ertan; Elboga, Umut; Kalender, Ebuzer; Basıbuyuk, Mustafa; Demir, Hasan Deniz; Celen, Yusuf Zeki

    2015-01-01

    The value of FDG-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting prostate cancer is unknown. We aimed to investigate the clinical value of incidental prostate FDG uptake on PET/CT scans. We reviewed 6128 male patients who underwent FDG-PET/CT scans and selected cases that reported hypermetabolic lesion in the prostate. The patients who have prior history of prostate carcinoma or prostate surgery were excluded from the study. We have analyzed the correlation between PET/CT findings and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, imaging (USG), urological examinations and biopsy. Incidental 18F-FDG uptake of the prostate gland was observed in 79 patients (1.3%). While sixteen of them were excluded due to inadequate clinical data, the remaining 63 patients were included for further analysis. The patients were divided into two groups; 8 patients (12.7%) in the malignant group and 55 patients (87.3%) in the benign group. The SUVmax values were not significantly different between the two groups. In 6 (75%) patients with prostate cancer, FDG uptake was observed focally in the peripheral zone of the prostate glands. There was no significant correlation between the SUVmax and the PSA levels. Incidental 18F-FDG uptake in the prostate gland is a rare condition, but a substantial portion of it is associated with the cancer. Benign and malignant lesions of the prostate gland in FDG-PET/CT imaging could not be reliably distinguished. The peripheral focally FDG uptake of prostate glands should be further examined with the clinical and labaratory evaluations. PMID:26379847

  18. Implanted Dosimeters Identify Radiation Overdoses During IMRT for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Den, Robert B.; Nowak, Kamila; Buzurovic, Ivan; Cao Junsheng; Harrison, Amy S.; Lawrence, Yaacov R.; Dicker, Adam P.; Showalter, Timothy N.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Image-guided dose-escalated radiotherapy is the standard of care for the treatment of prostate cancer. Although many published methods are available that account for prostate motion during delivery, evidence demonstrating that the planned dose is actually delivered on a daily basis is lacking. We report our initial clinical experience using implantable dosimeters to quantify and adjust the dose received during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 20 patients undergoing IMRT with cone-beam computed tomography (CT) image guidance for prostate cancer had the dose verification system with radiopaque metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor dosimeters implanted before treatment planning. All patients underwent planning with CT simulation in the supine position with custom immobilization, and the implanted dosimeters were located in the IMRT plans. The predicted dose for each dosimeter was defined and compared with the wireless readings before and after each treatment session. Investigations by physicians and medical physicists were initiated for two or more discrepancies >6% for any five consecutive fractions or for any discrepancy {>=}10%. Results: Using implanted in vivo dosimeters, dose measurements consistently >6% greater than the predicted values were observed during treatment for 3 of 20 prostate cancer patients who received IMRT with daily image guidance. A review of the daily cone-beam CT images revealed acceptable alignment of the prostate target volumes and implanted dosimeters but identified significant anatomic changes within the treated region. Repeat CT simulation and RT planning was performed, with resolution of the dose discrepancies in all 3 cases with the adoption of a new IMRT plan. Conclusions: Our report illustrates the potential effect of implanted in vivo dosimetry for prostate IMRT and emphasizes the importance of careful planning and delivery with attention to systematic shifts or anatomic

  19. Metastatic transitional cell carcinoma in proximal humerus of a dog

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Sarah; Murphy, Kimberly A.; Nykamp, Stephanie G.; Allavena, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) was diagnosed in the proximal humerus of a dog that was presented with persistent right forelimb lameness with no clinical signs of urinary tract involvement. A diagnosis of TCC was made from surgical biopsy of the humeral lesion with subsequent necropsy revealing the prostatic urethra as the primary site of the tumor. PMID:22379204

  20. Radioimmunoassay of tissue steroids in adenocarcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Belis, J.A.; Tarry, W.F.

    1981-12-01

    Tissue steroid levels in 48 needle-biopsy samples of adenocarcinoma of the prostate were quantified by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Tissue levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol-17..beta.., and estrone were correlated with tumor stage, histologic grade, and patient response to endocrine therapy. All patients with well-differentiated carcinoma of the prostate had tissue DHT content greater than 2.0 ng/g while 35% of patients with moderately differentiated or poorly differentiated tumors had tissue DHT content less than 2.0 ng/g. DHT content appeared to be unrelated to tumor stage. Estradiol and estrone content correlated well with tumor grade but not with tumor stage. DHT levels were measured in 17 patients with symptomatic Stage D/sub 2/ carcinoma of the prostate. Thirteen patients with DHT content greater than 2.0 ng/g initially had an objective and/or subjective response to endocrine therapy. Four patients with tissue DHT levels below 2.0 ng/g had no response to hormonal therapy. Quantification of tissue DHT content by RIA is a promising method for predicting initial response to hormonal therapy in adenocarcinoma of the prostate.

  1. Diastereomers of the Brominated Flame Retardant 1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane Induce Androgen Receptor Activation in the HepG2 Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line and the LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Hazem; Larsson, Anders; Berg, Håkan; McCrindle, Robert; Arsenault, Gilles; Olsson, Per-Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background Reported incidences of prostate cancer and masculinization of animals indicate a release of compounds with androgenic properties into the environment. Large numbers of environmental pollutants have been screened to identify such compounds; however, not until recently was 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH) identified as the first potent activator of the human androgen receptor (hAR). TBECH has been found in beluga whales and bird eggs and has also been found to be maternally transferred in zebrafish. Objectives In the present study we investigated interaction energies between TBECH diastereomers (α, β, γ, and δ) and the hAR, and their ability to activate the receptor and induce prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression in vitro. Methods We performed computational modeling to determine interaction energies between the ligand and the AR ligand-binding site, and measured in vitro competitive binding assays for AR by polarization fluorometry analysis. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to determine PSA activity in LNCaP and HepG2 cells. Results We found the γ and δ diastereomers to be more potent activators of hAR than the α and β diastereomers, which was confirmed in receptor binding studies. All TBECH diastereomers induced PSA expression in LNCaP cells even though the AR present in these cells is mutated (T877A). Modeling studies of LNCaP AR revealed that TBECH diastereomers bound to the receptor with a closer distance to the key amino acids in the ligand-binding domain, indicating stronger binding to the mutated receptor. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the ability of TBECH to activate the hAR, indicating that it is a potential endocrine disruptor. PMID:20049203

  2. Dosimetry in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (12-1402R)

    SciTech Connect

    Minguez, Pablo; Genolla, Jose; Celeiro, Jose Javier; Fombellida, Jose Cruz

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study has been to perform a dosimetric study in the treatments of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) performed in our center in order to find a dose-effect correlation. Methods: Thirty patients treated for DTC with 3700 MBq of {sup 131}I have been included in this study. For reasons of radiological protection all of them spent two nights as inpatients. Dose rate at 1 m from all patients was measured approximately 20 and 44 h after the administration of the radioiodine and a whole body scan in the gamma camera was performed approximately 1 week later. With those measurements and by using a model of two compartments the activities in thyroid bed remnants and in the whole body were calculated as a function of time. The integration of both activities yields the corresponding cumulated activities. Absorbed doses to thyroid bed remnants and to the whole body can be calculated following the MIRDOSE method-that is, by multiplying the corresponding cumulated activities by the corresponding S factors. Results: The absorbed doses to thyroid bed remnants calculated in this study fall into a very wide range (13-1161 Gy) and showed the highest correlation factors with the following parameters: the absorbed dose rate to thyroid bed remnants, the cumulated activity in thyroid bed remnants, and the maximum radioiodine uptake in thyroid bed remnants. The absorbed doses to the whole body range from 0.12 to 0.23 Gy. The ablation was successful in all patients, and in spite of the wide range of absorbed doses to thyroid bed remnants obtained, no dose-effect correlation could be obtained. Conclusions: Facing DTC treatments from a dosimetric viewpoint in which a predosimetry to calculate the activity of {sup 131}I to be administered is performed is a subject difficult to handle. This statement is based on the fact that although a very wide range of absorbed doses to thyroid bed remnants was obtained (including several absorbed doses well below some dose thresholds previously published to achieve ablation of thyroid bed remnants), ablation of thyroid bed remnants was successful for all patients and therefore no dose-effect correlation could be determined.

  3. Hepatocyte differentiation markers in adenocarcinoma of the prostate: hepatocyte paraffin 1 but not arginase-1 is specifically expressed in a subset of prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Giedl, Johannes; Büttner-Herold, Maike; Wach, Sven; Wullich, Bernd; Hartmann, Arndt; Agaimy, Abbas

    2016-09-01

    Prostate adenocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are common cancer types. Both may present with bone metastases, and both are known to be CK7/CK20 negative. Thus, diagnosis of less well-differentiated tumors at metastatic sites essentially relies on immunohistochemical confirmation. However, insufficient data exist on the expression status of the main 2 hepatocyte markers hepatocyte paraffin 1 (HepPar-1) and arginase-1 (Arg-1) in prostatic adenocarcinoma. We screened 557 prostate carcinoma cases for expression of these 2 markers using tissue microarrays. Sixty-four of 557 (11.5%) cases showed highly variable expression of HepPar-1 in 1% to 75% of tumor cells with a characteristically strong granular "mitochondrial" pattern. Only 13 cases (2.3%) expressed HepPar-1 in greater than 10% of the tumor cells. No correlation was seen with Gleason grade. On the other hand, 19 (3.4%) of 557 cases showed variable nonspecific cytoplasmic expression of Arg-1 distinct from the specific combined nucleocytoplasmic staining seen in normal liver and in HCC. Specifically, this Arg-1 pattern was seen only using one antibody lot and not another suggesting cross-reactivity. Only a single case showed specific nucleocytoplasmic expression of Arg-1 in the tumor cells. In conclusion, specific granular cytoplasmic staining for HepPar-1 is frequent in prostatic adenocarcinomas (11.5%) but usually focal and limited to less than 5% of tumor cells. This should not be misinterpreted as evidence of HCC, particularly in solid-pattern neoplasms. On the other hand, specific Arg-1 expression is very rare (0.18%), highlighting the value of Arg-1 in distinguishing HepPar-1-positive prostatic carcinoma from HCC at metastatic sites or in cases of liver metastasis from prostate carcinoma. PMID:27184483

  4. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ørsted, David D; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH as a causal factor for prostate cancer development could improve the accuracy of prognostication and expedite intervention, potentially reducing the number of men who die from prostate cancer. PMID:23165396

  5. Unexplained overexposures on physical dosimetry reported by biological dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Montoro, A; Almonacid, M; Villaescusa, J I; Verdu, G

    2009-01-01

    The Medical Service of the Radiation Protection Service from the University Hospital La Fe (Valencia, Spain), carries out medical examinations of the workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation. The Biological Dosimetry Laboratory is developing its activity since 2001. Up to now, the activities have been focused in performing biological dosimetry studies of Interventionists workers from La Fe Hospital. Recently, the Laboratory has been authorized by the Health Authority in the Valencian Community. Unexplained overexposures of workers and patients are also studied. Workers suspected of being overexposed to ionising radiation were referred for investigation by cytogenetic analysis. Two of these were from Hospitals of the Valencian Community and one belonged to an uranium mine from Portugal. Hospital workers had a physical dose by thermoluminiscence dosimeters (TLD) that exceeded the established limit. The worker of the uranium mine received a dose from a lost source of Cesium 137 with an activity of 170 mCi. All three cases showed normal values after the hematological analysis. Finally, the aim of this study consist to determine whether the dose showed by the dosimeter is reliable or not. In the case of workers that wore dosimeter, it is concluded that the doses measured by dosimeter are not corresponding to real doses. Hospital worker with a physical dose of 2.6 Sv and 0.269 Sv had an estimated absorbed dose by biological dosimetry of 0.076 Gy (0-0.165 Gy) and 0 Gy (0-0.089 Gy), respectively. In case of the mine worker an estimated absorbed dose of 0.073 Gy (0-0.159 Gy) was obtained by biological dosimetry. In all cases we used the odds ratio to present the results due to a very low frequency of observed aberrations [1]. PMID:19964943

  6. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer Past ... Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer / Prostate ...

  7. Optimization of prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Weir, James; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Connelly, Roger R.; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

    1999-05-01

    Urologists routinely use the systematic sextant needle biopsy technique to detect prostate cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that this technique has a significant sampling error. We have developed a novel 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator based upon 201 whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various prostate needle biopsy protocols. Computerized prostate models have been developed to accurately depict the anatomy of the prostate and all individual tumor foci. We obtained 18-biopsies of each prostate model to determine the detection rates of various biopsy protocols. As a result, the 10- and 12- pattern biopsy protocols had a 99.0 percent detection rate, while the traditional sextant biopsy protocol rate was only 72.6 percent. The 5-region biopsy protocol had a 90.5 percent detection rate. the lateral sextant pattern revealed a detection rate of 95.5 percent, whereas the 4-pattern lateral biopsy protocol had a 93.5 percent detection rate. Our results suggest that all the biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon the five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern. Lateral biopsies in the mid and apical zones of the gland are the most important.

  8. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vemana, Goutham; Hamilton, Robert J; Andriole, Gerald L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Large prospective randomized trials, such as the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial, and Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), have provided practitioners with considerable data regarding methods of treatment and prevention of prostate cancer. The best-studied medications for prevention are 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Their efficacy and side effects are well characterized. Other medications, dietary nutrients, and supplements have not been as well studied and generally do not demonstrate efficacy for disease prevention with an acceptable level of evidence. PMID:24188663

  9. Results from 2010 Caliban Criticality Dosimetry Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Veinot, K. G.

    2011-10-12

    The external dosimetry program participated in a criticality dosimetry intercomparison conducted at the Caliban facility in Valduc, France in 2010. Representatives from the dosimetry and instrumentation groups were present during testing which included irradiations of whole-body beta/gamma (HBGT) and neutron thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), a fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD), electronic alarming dosimeters, and a humanoid phantom filled with reference man concentrations of sodium. This report reviews the testing procedures, preparations, irradiations, and presents results of the tests.

  10. DNA methylation status is more reliable than gene expression at detecting cancer in prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Paziewska, A; Dabrowska, M; Goryca, K; Antoniewicz, A; Dobruch, J; Mikula, M; Jarosz, D; Zapala, L; Borowka, A; Ostrowski, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: We analysed critically the potential usefulness of RNA- and DNA-based biomarkers in supporting conventional histological diagnostic tests for prostate carcinoma (PCa) detection. Methods: Microarray profiling of gene expression and DNA methylation was performed on 16 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 32 cancerous and non-cancerous prostate samples extracted by radical prostatectomy. The predictive value of the selected biomarkers was validated by qPCR-based methods using tissue samples extracted from the 58 prostates and, separately, using 227 prostate core biopsies. Results: HOXC6, AMACR and PCA3 expression showed the best discrimination between PCa and BPH. All three genes were previously reported as the most promising mRNA-based markers for distinguishing cancerous lesions from benign prostate lesions; however, none were sufficiently sensitive and specific to meet the criteria for a PCa diagnostic biomark