Science.gov

Sample records for protected area design

  1. The role of protected area wetlands in waterfowl habitat conservation: implications for protected area network design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    The principal goal of protected area networks is biodiversity preservation, but efficacy of such networks is directly linked to animal movement within and outside area boundaries. We examined wetland selection patterns of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during non-breeding periods from 2010 to 2012 to evaluate the utility of protected areas to migratory waterfowl in North America. We tracked 33 adult females using global positioning system (GPS) satellite transmitters and implemented a use-availability resource selection design to examine mallard use of wetlands under varying degrees of protection. Specifically, we examined effects of proximities to National Wildlife Refuges, private land, state wildlife management areas, Wetland Reserve Program easements (WRP), and waterfowl sanctuaries on mallard wetland selection. In addition, we included landscape-level variables that measured areas of sanctuary and WRP within the surrounding landscape of each used and available wetland. We developed 8 wetland selection models according to season (autumn migration, winter, spring migration), hunting season (present, absent), and time period (diurnal, nocturnal). Model averaged parameter estimates indicated wetland selection patterns varied across seasons and time periods, but ducks consistently selected wetlands with greater areas of sanctuary and WRP in the surrounding landscape. Consequently, WRP has the potential to supplement protected area networks in the midcontinent region. Additionally, seasonal variation in wetland selection patterns indicated considering the effects of habitat management and anthropogenic disturbances on migratory waterfowl during the non-breeding period is essential in designing protected area networks.

  2. GRA prospectus: optimizing design and management of protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, Richard; Halsing, David

    2001-01-01

    Protected areas comprise one major type of global conservation effort that has been in the form of parks, easements, or conservation concessions. Though protected areas are increasing in number and size throughout tropical ecosystems, there is no systematic method for optimally targeting specific local areas for protection, designing the protected area, and monitoring it, or for guiding follow-up actions to manage it or its surroundings over the long run. Without such a system, conservation projects often cost more than necessary and/or risk protecting ecosystems and biodiversity less efficiently than desired. Correcting these failures requires tools and strategies for improving the placement, design, and long-term management of protected areas. The objective of this project is to develop a set of spatially based analytical tools to improve the selection, design, and management of protected areas. In this project, several conservation concessions will be compared using an economic optimization technique. The forest land use portfolio model is an integrated assessment that measures investment in different land uses in a forest. The case studies of individual tropical ecosystems are developed as forest (land) use and preservation portfolios in a geographic information system (GIS). Conservation concessions involve a private organization purchasing development and resource access rights in a certain area and retiring them. Forests are put into conservation, and those people who would otherwise have benefited from extracting resources or selling the right to do so are compensated. Concessions are legal agreements wherein the exact amount and nature of the compensation result from a negotiated agreement between an agent of the conservation community and the local community. Funds are placed in a trust fund, and annual payments are made to local communities and regional/national governments. The payments are made pending third-party verification that the forest expanse

  3. Tornado Protection: Selecting and Designing Safe Areas in Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, James J.

    Tornadoes and extreme winds cause heavy loss of life and property damage throughout the United States. Most buildings offer significant protection from this danger, and building administrators should know the areas where this protection is available. This booklet presents a review of three schools, all of which were struck by tornadoes on April 3,…

  4. Striking a balance between biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic viability in the design of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Klein, C J; Chan, A; Kircher, L; Cundiff, A J; Gardner, N; Hrovat, Y; Scholz, A; Kendall, B E; Airamé, S

    2008-06-01

    The establishment of marine protected areas is often viewed as a conflict between conservation and fishing. We considered consumptive and nonconsumptive interests of multiple stakeholders (i.e., fishers, scuba divers, conservationists, managers, scientists) in the systematic design of a network of marine protected areas along California's central coast in the context of the Marine Life Protection Act Initiative. With advice from managers, administrators, and scientists, a representative group of stakeholders defined biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic goals that accommodated social needs and conserved marine ecosystems, consistent with legal requirements. To satisfy biodiversity goals, we targeted 11 marine habitats across 5 depth zones, areas of high species diversity, and areas containing species of special status. We minimized adverse socioeconomic impacts by minimizing negative effects on fishers. We included fine-scale fishing data from the recreational and commercial fishing sectors across 24 fisheries. Protected areas designed with consideration of commercial and recreational fisheries reduced potential impact to the fisheries approximately 21% more than protected areas designed without consideration of fishing effort and resulted in a small increase in the total area protected (approximately 3.4%). We incorporated confidential fishing data without revealing the identity of specific fisheries or individual fishing grounds. We sited a portion of the protected areas near land parks, marine laboratories, and scientific monitoring sites to address nonconsumptive socioeconomic goals. Our results show that a stakeholder-driven design process can use systematic conservation-planning methods to successfully produce options for network design that satisfy multiple conservation and socioeconomic objectives. Marine protected areas that incorporate multiple stakeholder interests without compromising biodiversity conservation goals are more likely to protect

  5. 50 CFR 17.108 - List of designated manatee protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false List of designated manatee protection areas. 17.108 Section 17.108 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  6. Dispersal Patterns of Coastal Fish: Implications for Designing Networks of Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A.; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed “site fidelity” (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

  7. Marine protected area design patterns in the Mediterranean Sea: Implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D; Rodríguez, J; Blanco, J M; Abdul Malak, D

    2016-09-15

    Mediterranean marine protected area (MPA) design patterns regarding geographic distribution, size, spacing and shape were analysed as a proxy of the region's MPA's ecological effectiveness and a first step towards an ecologically coherent MPA network. Results for legally designated MPAs and ecologically functional MPAs accounting for overlaps are presented. Geographically, Mediterranean MPA area is very unevenly distributed, with four-fifths concentrated in just three countries of the north-western part of the basin. Average distance between functional MPAs lies within recommended ecological thresholds, which suggests adequate potential connectivity of the Mediterranean MPA system. Mediterranean designated MPAs are larger than MPAs worldwide on average, although they are generally smaller than international guidance suggests at different levels: ecoregion, country and designation category. On average, Mediterranean designated and functional MPAs have relatively high compactness, which makes them prone to spillover and adequate viability, and less vulnerable to edge effects. PMID:27393212

  8. Pathways from marine protected area design and management to ecological success

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using an international dataset compiled from 121 sites in 87 marine protected areas (MPAs) globally (Edgar et al., 2014), I assessed how various configurations of design and management conditions affected MPA ecological performance, measured in terms of fish species richness and biomass. The set-theoretic approach used Boolean algebra to identify pathways that combined up to five ‘NEOLI’ (No-take, Enforced, Old, Large, Isolated) conditions and that were sufficient for achieving positive, and negative, ecological outcomes. Ecological isolation was overwhelming the most important condition affecting ecological outcomes but Old and Large were also conditions important for achieving high levels of biomass among large fishes (jacks, groupers, sharks). Solution coverage was uniformly low (<0.35) for all models of positive ecological performance suggesting the presence of numerous other conditions and pathways to ecological success that did not involve the NEOLI conditions. Solution coverage was higher (>0.50) for negative results (i.e., the absence of high biomass) among the large commercially-exploited fishes, implying asymmetries in how MPAs may rebuild populations on the one hand and, on the other, protect against further decline. The results revealed complex interactions involving MPA design, implementation, and management conditions that affect MPA ecological performance. In general terms, the presence of no-take regulations and effective enforcement were insufficient to ensure MPA effectiveness on their own. Given the central role of ecological isolation in securing ecological benefits from MPAs, site selection in the design phase appears critical for success. PMID:26644975

  9. Pathways from marine protected area design and management to ecological success.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Murray A

    2015-01-01

    Using an international dataset compiled from 121 sites in 87 marine protected areas (MPAs) globally (Edgar et al., 2014), I assessed how various configurations of design and management conditions affected MPA ecological performance, measured in terms of fish species richness and biomass. The set-theoretic approach used Boolean algebra to identify pathways that combined up to five 'NEOLI' ( No-take, Enforced, Old, Large, Isolated) conditions and that were sufficient for achieving positive, and negative, ecological outcomes. Ecological isolation was overwhelming the most important condition affecting ecological outcomes but Old and Large were also conditions important for achieving high levels of biomass among large fishes (jacks, groupers, sharks). Solution coverage was uniformly low (<0.35) for all models of positive ecological performance suggesting the presence of numerous other conditions and pathways to ecological success that did not involve the NEOLI conditions. Solution coverage was higher (>0.50) for negative results (i.e., the absence of high biomass) among the large commercially-exploited fishes, implying asymmetries in how MPAs may rebuild populations on the one hand and, on the other, protect against further decline. The results revealed complex interactions involving MPA design, implementation, and management conditions that affect MPA ecological performance. In general terms, the presence of no-take regulations and effective enforcement were insufficient to ensure MPA effectiveness on their own. Given the central role of ecological isolation in securing ecological benefits from MPAs, site selection in the design phase appears critical for success. PMID:26644975

  10. Integrating impact evaluation in the design and implementation of monitoring marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Ahmadia, Gabby N; Glew, Louise; Provost, Mikaela; Gill, David; Hidayat, Nur Ismu; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Purwanto; Fox, Helen E

    2015-11-01

    Quasi-experimental impact evaluation approaches, which enable scholars to disentangle effects of conservation interventions from broader changes in the environment, are gaining momentum in the conservation sector. However, rigorous impact evaluation using statistical matching techniques to estimate the counterfactual have yet to be applied to marine protected areas (MPAs). While there are numerous studies investigating 'impacts' of MPAs that have generated considerable insights, results are variable. This variation has been linked to the biophysical and social context in which they are established, as well as attributes of management and governance. To inform decisions about MPA placement, design and implementation, we need to expand our understanding of conditions under which MPAs are likely to lead to positive outcomes by embracing advances in impact evaluation methodologies. Here, we describe the integration of impact evaluation within an MPA network monitoring programme in the Bird's Head Seascape, Indonesia. Specifically we (i) highlight the challenges of implementation 'on the ground' and in marine ecosystems and (ii) describe the transformation of an existing monitoring programme into a design appropriate for impact evaluation. This study offers one potential model for mainstreaming impact evaluation in the conservation sector. PMID:26460128

  11. Protected areas and poverty

    PubMed Central

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  12. Incorporation of spatial and economic analyses of human-use data in the design of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Astrid J; Steinback, Charles; Kruse, Sarah A; Mertens, Mike; Silverman, Howard

    2011-06-01

    Social, economic, and ecological criteria contribute to the successful design, implementation, and management of marine protected areas (MPAs). In the context of California's Marine Life Protection Act Initiative, we developed a set of methods for collecting, compiling, and analyzing data about the spatial extent and relative economic importance of commercial and recreational fishing. We interviewed 174 commercial fishers who represented the major fisheries in the initiative's north-central coast region, which extends from Point Arena south to Pigeon Point. These fishers provided data that we used to map the extent of each of the fishing grounds, to weight the relative importance of areas within the grounds, to characterize the operating costs of each fishery, and to analyze the potential economic losses associated with proposed marine protected areas. A regional stakeholder group used the maps and impact analyses in conjunction with other data sets to iteratively identify economic and ecological trade-offs in designations of different areas as MPAs at regional, port, and fishery extents. Their final proposed MPA network designated 20% of state waters as MPAs. Potential net economic loss ranged from 1.7% to 14.2% in the first round of network design and totaled 6.3% in the final round of design. This process is a case study in the application of spatial analysis to validate and integrate local stakeholder knowledge in marine planning. PMID:21175829

  13. Effects of cost metric on cost-effectiveness of protected-area network design in urban landscapes.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, J C; Lockwood, J L; Maslo, B; Fenn, K H; Leu, K

    2016-04-01

    A common goal in conservation planning is to acquire areas that are critical to realizing biodiversity goals in the most cost-effective manner. The way monetary acquisition costs are represented in such planning is an understudied but vital component to realizing cost efficiencies. We sought to design a protected-area network within a forested urban region that would protect 17 birds of conservation concern. We compared the total costs and spatial structure of the optimal protected-area networks produced using three acquisition-cost surrogates (area, agricultural land value, and tax-assessed land value). Using the tax-assessed land values there was a 73% and 78% cost savings relative to networks derived using area or agricultural land value, respectively. This cost reduction was due to the considerable heterogeneity in acquisition costs revealed in tax-assessed land values, especially for small land parcels, and the corresponding ability of the optimization algorithm to identify lower-cost parcels for inclusion that had equal value to our target species. Tax-assessed land values also reflected the strong spatial differences in acquisition costs (US$0.33/m(2)-$55/m(2)) and thus allowed the algorithm to avoid inclusion of high-cost parcels when possible. Our results add to a nascent but growing literature that suggests conservation planners must consider the cost surrogate they use when designing protected-area networks. We suggest that choosing cost surrogates that capture spatial- and size-dependent heterogeneity in acquisition costs may be relevant to establishing protected areas in urbanizing ecosystems. PMID:26395858

  14. On the protection of "protected areas".

    PubMed

    Joppa, Lucas N; Loarie, Scott R; Pimm, Stuart L

    2008-05-01

    Tropical moist forests contain the majority of terrestrial species. Human actions destroy between 1 and 2 million km(2) of such forests per decade, with concomitant carbon release into the atmosphere. Within these forests, protected areas are the principle defense against forest loss and species extinctions. Four regions-the Amazon, Congo, South American Atlantic Coast, and West Africa-once constituted about half the world's tropical moist forest. We measure forest cover at progressively larger distances inside and outside of protected areas within these four regions, using datasets on protected areas and land-cover. We find important geographical differences. In the Amazon and Congo, protected areas are generally large and retain high levels of forest cover, as do their surroundings. These areas are protected de facto by being inaccessible and will likely remain protected if they continue to be so. Deciding whether they are also protected de jure-that is, whether effective laws also protect them-is statistically difficult, for there are few controls. In contrast, protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest and West Africa show sharp boundaries in forest cover at their edges. This effective protection of forest cover is partially offset by their very small size: little area is deep inside protected area boundaries. Lands outside protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest are unusually fragmented. Finally, we ask whether global databases on protected areas are biased toward highly protected areas and ignore "paper parks." Analysis of a Brazilian database does not support this presumption. PMID:18451028

  15. Acoustic telemetry and network analysis reveal the space use of multiple reef predators and enhance marine protected area design.

    PubMed

    Lea, James S E; Humphries, Nicolas E; von Brandis, Rainer G; Clarke, Christopher R; Sims, David W

    2016-07-13

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are commonly employed to protect ecosystems from threats like overfishing. Ideally, MPA design should incorporate movement data from multiple target species to ensure sufficient habitat is protected. We used long-term acoustic telemetry and network analysis to determine the fine-scale space use of five shark and one turtle species at a remote atoll in the Seychelles, Indian Ocean, and evaluate the efficacy of a proposed MPA. Results revealed strong, species-specific habitat use in both sharks and turtles, with corresponding variation in MPA use. Defining the MPA's boundary from the edge of the reef flat at low tide instead of the beach at high tide (the current best in Seychelles) significantly increased the MPA's coverage of predator movements by an average of 34%. Informed by these results, the larger MPA was adopted by the Seychelles government, demonstrating how telemetry data can improve shark spatial conservation by affecting policy directly. PMID:27412274

  16. Global protected area impacts

    PubMed Central

    Joppa, Lucas N.; Pfaff, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) dominate conservation efforts. They will probably play a role in future climate policies too, as global payments may reward local reductions of loss of natural land cover. We estimate the impact of PAs on natural land cover within each of 147 countries by comparing outcomes inside PAs with outcomes outside. We use ‘matching’ (or ‘apples to apples’) for land characteristics to control for the fact that PAs very often are non-randomly distributed across their national landscapes. Protection tends towards land that, if unprotected, is less likely than average to be cleared. For 75 per cent of countries, we find protection does reduce conversion of natural land cover. However, for approximately 80 per cent of countries, our global results also confirm (following smaller-scale studies) that controlling for land characteristics reduces estimated impact by half or more. This shows the importance of controlling for at least a few key land characteristics. Further, we show that impacts vary considerably within a country (i.e. across a landscape): protection achieves less on lands far from roads, far from cities and on steeper slopes. Thus, while planners are, of course, constrained by other conservation priorities and costs, they could target higher impacts to earn more global payments for reduced deforestation. PMID:21084351

  17. Chemometric classification of potatoes with protected designation of origin according to their producing area and variety.

    PubMed

    Herrero Latorre, Carlos; Barciela García, Julia; García Martín, Sagrario; Peña Crecente, Rosa M

    2013-09-01

    Potatoes from Galicia (northwestern Spain) are subjected to a Protected Geographic Indication (PGI) according to European legislation. Ten trace elements (Li, Na, K, Rb, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn) have been determined by atomic spectrometry in two sets of potato samples: Geo-Origin.set and Variety.set. The first data set is composed of samples of the only variety authorized by PGI (Kennebec) with two geographical origins: Galician and non-Galician. The second set corresponds to samples from different varieties but with only Galician geographical origin. Chemometric pattern recognition techniques have been applied to the study of potato geographical and varietal origins in relation to their capability for translocating metals from soil to tuber. Also, authentication models for classifying potato samples with Galician PGI based on metal fingerprints have been developed. The results obtained showed that samples of the same variety, Kennebec, have different metal fingerprints when they have been produced in different geographic locations. Also, diverse potato varieties cultivated on equal geographic Galician origin presented different metal profiles as well. Therefore, it can be concluded that classification studies on the differentiation of geographical origin of foods should take into account information of production area together with varietal data. Otherwise, classification obtained on the basis of the geographical origin could be due to the different variety or vice versa. Finally, two models were constructed for Kennebec Galician samples against Kennebec from other origins as well as against other varieties cultivated in Galicia (Liseta and Baraka). Both models achieved adequate classification rates (93-100%), good sensitivities, and total specificities (100%), allowing the fraud detection in the PGI label. PMID:23909659

  18. Efficient and equitable design of marine protected areas in Fiji through inclusion of stakeholder-specific objectives in conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Jupiter, Stacy; Adams, Vanessa M

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of protected areas varies, partly because socioeconomic factors are not sufficiently considered in planning and management. Although integrating socioeconomic factors into systematic conservation planning is increasingly advocated, research is needed to progress from recognition of these factors to incorporating them effectively in spatial prioritization of protected areas. We evaluated 2 key aspects of incorporating socioeconomic factors into spatial prioritization: treatment of socioeconomic factors as costs or objectives and treatment of stakeholders as a single group or multiple groups. Using as a case study the design of a system of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) in Kubulau, Fiji, we assessed how these aspects affected the configuration of no-take MPAs in terms of trade-offs between biodiversity objectives, fisheries objectives, and equity in catch losses among fisher stakeholder groups. The achievement of fisheries objectives and equity tended to trade-off concavely with increasing biodiversity objectives, indicating that it is possible to achieve low to mid-range biodiversity objectives with relatively small losses to fisheries and equity. Importantly, the extent of trade-offs depended on the method used to incorporate socioeconomic data and was least severe when objectives were set for each fisher stakeholder group explicitly. We found that using different methods to incorporate socioeconomic factors that require similar data and expertise can result in plans with very different impacts on local stakeholders. PMID:25916976

  19. Spatial patterns and movements of red king and Tanner crabs: Implications for the design of marine protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taggart, S.J.; Mondragon, J.; Andrews, A.G.; Nielsen, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Most examples of positive population responses to marine protected areas (MPAs) have been documented for tropical reef species with very small home ranges; the utility of MPAs for commercially harvested temperate species that have large movement patterns remains poorly tested. We measured the distribution and abundance of red king Paralithodes camtschaticus and Tanner Chionoecetes bairdi crabs inside and outside of MPAs in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, USA. By tagging a sub-sample of crabs with sonic tags, we estimated the movement of adult crabs from one of the MPAs (Muir Inlet) into the central portion of Glacier Bay where fishing still occurs. Tanner crabs and red king crabs moved similar average distances per day, although Tanner crabs had a higher transfer out of the Muir Inlet MPA into the central bay. Tanner crab movements were characterized by large variation among individual crabs, both in distance and direction traveled, while red king crabs migrated seasonally between 2 specific areas. Although Tanner crabs exhibited relatively large movements, distribution and abundance data suggest that they may be restricted at large spatial scales by habitat barriers. MPAs that are effective at protecting king and especially Tanner crab brood stock from fishing mortality will likely need to be larger than is typical of MPAs worldwide. However, by incorporating information on the seasonal movements of red king crabs and the location of habitat barriers for Tanner crabs, MPAs could likely be designed that would effectively protect adults from fishing mortality. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  20. 50 CFR 622.34 - Seasonal and area closures designed to protect Gulf reef fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... purpose of paragraph (a) of this section, transit means non-stop progression through the area; fishing..., the following points: Point North lat. West long. A 28°51′ 85°16′ B 28°51′ 85°04′ C 28°14′ 84°42′ D 28°14′ 84°54′ A 28°51′ 85°16′ (2) Within the Madison and Swanson sites and Steamboat Lumps,...

  1. 50 CFR 622.34 - Seasonal and area closures designed to protect Gulf reef fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... purpose of paragraph (a) of this section, transit means non-stop progression through the area; fishing..., the following points: Point North lat. West long. A 28°51′ 85°16′ B 28°51′ 85°04′ C 28°14′ 84°42′ D 28°14′ 84°54′ A 28°51′ 85°16′ (2) Within the Madison and Swanson sites and Steamboat Lumps,...

  2. Assessment of habitat representation across a network of marine protected areas with implications for the spatial design of monitoring.

    PubMed

    Young, Mary; Carr, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) are being adopted globally to protect ecosystems and supplement fisheries management. The state of California recently implemented a coast-wide network of MPAs, a statewide seafloor mapping program, and ecological characterizations of species and ecosystems targeted for protection by the network. The main goals of this study were to use these data to evaluate how well seafloor features, as proxies for habitats, are represented and replicated across an MPA network and how well ecological surveys representatively sampled fish habitats inside MPAs and adjacent reference sites. Seafloor data were classified into broad substrate categories (rock and sediment) and finer scale geomorphic classifications standard to marine classification schemes using surface analyses (slope, ruggedness, etc.) done on the digital elevation model derived from multibeam bathymetry data. These classifications were then used to evaluate the representation and replication of seafloor structure within the MPAs and across the ecological surveys. Both the broad substrate categories and the finer scale geomorphic features were proportionately represented for many of the classes with deviations of 1-6% and 0-7%, respectively. Within MPAs, however, representation of seafloor features differed markedly from original estimates, with differences ranging up to 28%. Seafloor structure in the biological monitoring design had mismatches between sampling in the MPAs and their corresponding reference sites and some seafloor structure classes were missed entirely. The geomorphic variables derived from multibeam bathymetry data for these analyses are known determinants of the distribution and abundance of marine species and for coastal marine biodiversity. Thus, analyses like those performed in this study can be a valuable initial method of evaluating and predicting the conservation value of MPAs across a regional network. PMID:25760858

  3. Assessment of Habitat Representation across a Network of Marine Protected Areas with Implications for the Spatial Design of Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mary; Carr, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) are being adopted globally to protect ecosystems and supplement fisheries management. The state of California recently implemented a coast-wide network of MPAs, a statewide seafloor mapping program, and ecological characterizations of species and ecosystems targeted for protection by the network. The main goals of this study were to use these data to evaluate how well seafloor features, as proxies for habitats, are represented and replicated across an MPA network and how well ecological surveys representatively sampled fish habitats inside MPAs and adjacent reference sites. Seafloor data were classified into broad substrate categories (rock and sediment) and finer scale geomorphic classifications standard to marine classification schemes using surface analyses (slope, ruggedness, etc.) done on the digital elevation model derived from multibeam bathymetry data. These classifications were then used to evaluate the representation and replication of seafloor structure within the MPAs and across the ecological surveys. Both the broad substrate categories and the finer scale geomorphic features were proportionately represented for many of the classes with deviations of 1-6% and 0-7%, respectively. Within MPAs, however, representation of seafloor features differed markedly from original estimates, with differences ranging up to 28%. Seafloor structure in the biological monitoring design had mismatches between sampling in the MPAs and their corresponding reference sites and some seafloor structure classes were missed entirely. The geomorphic variables derived from multibeam bathymetry data for these analyses are known determinants of the distribution and abundance of marine species and for coastal marine biodiversity. Thus, analyses like those performed in this study can be a valuable initial method of evaluating and predicting the conservation value of MPAs across a regional network. PMID:25760858

  4. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  5. Protected area certificates: gaining ground for better ecosystem protection?

    PubMed

    Segerstedt, Anna; Grote, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Protected areas are vital to sustain a number of ecosystem services. Yet, many protected areas are underfinanced and lack management effectiveness. Protected area certificates have been suggested as a way to resolve these problems. This instrument would allow land managers to certify an area if it meets certain conservation criteria. The certificates could then be sold on an international market, for example to companies and any consumers that are interested in environmental protection. Some pilot initiatives have been launched, yet little is known about future demand and features of protected area certificates. To fill this knowledge gap, we conduct a choice experiment with close to 400 long-distance tourists from Germany as a potential group of buyers. Our results indicate that the respondents have the highest willingness to pay for certificates that conserve sensitive ecosystems and in addition to this lead to poverty reduction and safeguard water resources. For other attributes such as a greenhouse gas reduction, the preferences are less significant. Overall, the results are rather homogenous irrespective of where the protected areas are located. These insights are important for the future design and marketing of protected area certificates. PMID:25868572

  6. Protected Area Certificates: Gaining Ground for Better Ecosystem Protection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segerstedt, Anna; Grote, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Protected areas are vital to sustain a number of ecosystem services. Yet, many protected areas are underfinanced and lack management effectiveness. Protected area certificates have been suggested as a way to resolve these problems. This instrument would allow land managers to certify an area if it meets certain conservation criteria. The certificates could then be sold on an international market, for example to companies and any consumers that are interested in environmental protection. Some pilot initiatives have been launched, yet little is known about future demand and features of protected area certificates. To fill this knowledge gap, we conduct a choice experiment with close to 400 long-distance tourists from Germany as a potential group of buyers. Our results indicate that the respondents have the highest willingness to pay for certificates that conserve sensitive ecosystems and in addition to this lead to poverty reduction and safeguard water resources. For other attributes such as a greenhouse gas reduction, the preferences are less significant. Overall, the results are rather homogenous irrespective of where the protected areas are located. These insights are important for the future design and marketing of protected area certificates.

  7. The Design of Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Engineering study guides design and monitoring of lightning protection. Design studies for project are collected in 150-page report, containing wealth of information on design of lightning protection systems and on instrumentation for monitoring current waveforms of lightning strokes.

  8. Handbook for Designing MMOD Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Jim; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Alan; Hyde, James; Lear, Dana; Liou, J.C.; Lyons, Frankel; Prior, Thomas; Studor, George; Ratliff, Martin; Ryan, Shannon; Giovane, Frank; Corsaro, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft are subject to micro-meteoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impact damage which have the potential to degrade performance, shorten the mission, or result in catastrophic loss of the vehicle. Specific MMOD protection requirements are established by NASA for each spacecraft early in the program/project life, to ensure the spacecraft meets desired safety and mission success goals. Both the design and operations influences spacecraft survivability in the MMOD environment, and NASA considers both in meeting MMOD protection requirements. The purpose of this handbook is to provide spacecraft designers and operations personnel with knowledge gained by NASA in implementing effective MMOD protection for the International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and various science spacecraft. It has been drawn from a number of previous publications [10-14], as well as new work. This handbook documents design and operational methods to reduce MMOD risk. In addition, this handbook describes tools and equations needed to design proper MMOD protection. It is a living report, in that it will be updated and re-released periodically in future with additional information. Providing effective and efficient MMOD protection is essential for ensuring safe and successful operations of spacecraft and satellites. A variety of shields protect crew modules, external pressurized vessels and critical equipment from MMOD on the International Space Station (ISS). Certain Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicle systems are hardened from MMOD impact, and operational rules are established to reduce the risk from MMOD (i.e., flight attitudes are selected and late inspection of sensitive thermal protection surfaces are conducted to reduce MMOD impacts). Science spacecraft include specific provisions to meet MMOD protection requirements in their design (for example, Stardust & GLAST). Commercial satellites such as Iridium and Bigelow Aerospace Genesis spacecraft incorporate MMOD protection. The development of low

  9. Characterising reef fish populations and habitats within and outside the US Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument: A lesson in marine protected area design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, A.M.; Caldow, Chris; Christensen, J.D.; Rogers, C.; Beets, J.; Miller, J.; Boulon, Rafe

    2007-01-01

    Marine protected areas are an important tool for management of marine ecosystems. Despite their utility, ecological design criteria are often not considered or feasible to implement when establishing protected areas. In 2001, the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICRNM) in St John, US Virgin Islands was established by Executive Order. The VICRNM prohibits almost all extractive uses. Surveys of habitat and fishes inside and outside of the VICRNM were conducted in 2002-2004. Areas outside the VICRNM had significantly more hard corals, greater habitat complexity, and greater richness, abundance and biomass of reef fishes than areas within the VICRNM. The administrative process used to delineate the boundaries of the VICRNM did not include a robust ecological characterisation of the area. Because of reduced habitat complexity within the VICRNM, the enhancement of the marine ecosystem may not be fully realised or increases in economically important reef fishes may take longer to detect. ?? 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Spatial, socio-economic, and ecological implications of incorporating minimum size constraints in marine protected area network design.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Kristian; Vaughan, Gregory; Vaz, Sandrine; Smith, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are the cornerstone of most marine conservation strategies, but the effectiveness of each one partly depends on its size and distance to other MPAs in a network. Despite this, current recommendations on ideal MPA size and spacing vary widely, and data are lacking on how these constraints might influence the overall spatial characteristics, socio-economic impacts, and connectivity of the resultant MPA networks. To address this problem, we tested the impact of applying different MPA size constraints in English waters. We used the Marxan spatial prioritization software to identify a network of MPAs that met conservation feature targets, whilst minimizing impacts on fisheries; modified the Marxan outputs with the MinPatch software to ensure each MPA met a minimum size; and used existing data on the dispersal distances of a range of species found in English waters to investigate the likely impacts of such spatial constraints on the region's biodiversity. Increasing MPA size had little effect on total network area or the location of priority areas, but as MPA size increased, fishing opportunity cost to stakeholders increased. In addition, as MPA size increased, the number of closely connected sets of MPAs in networks and the average distance between neighboring MPAs decreased, which consequently increased the proportion of the planning region that was isolated from all MPAs. These results suggest networks containing large MPAs would be more viable for the majority of the region's species that have small dispersal distances, but dispersal between MPA sets and spill-over of individuals into unprotected areas would be reduced. These findings highlight the importance of testing the impact of applying different MPA size constraints because there are clear trade-offs that result from the interaction of size, number, and distribution of MPAs in a network. PMID:26219669

  11. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Schill, Steven R; Raber, George T; Roberts, Jason J; Treml, Eric A; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008-2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future. PMID:26641083

  12. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Schill, Steven R.; Raber, George T.; Roberts, Jason J.; Treml, Eric A.; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2015-01-01

    We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008–2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future. PMID:26641083

  13. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protected areas. 301.38-3 Section 301.38-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-3 Protected areas. (a) The Administrator may designate as a...

  14. Modelling marine protected areas: insights and hurdles.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Elizabeth A; Bax, Nicholas J; Bustamante, Rodrigo H; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Dichmont, Catherine; Dunstan, Piers K; Hayes, Keith R; Hobday, Alistair J; Pitcher, Roland; Plagányi, Éva E; Punt, André E; Savina-Rolland, Marie; Smith, Anthony D M; Smith, David C

    2015-11-01

    Models provide useful insights into conservation and resource management issues and solutions. Their use to date has highlighted conditions under which no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) may help us to achieve the goals of ecosystem-based management by reducing pressures, and where they might fail to achieve desired goals. For example, static reserve designs are unlikely to achieve desired objectives when applied to mobile species or when compromised by climate-related ecosystem restructuring and range shifts. Modelling tools allow planners to explore a range of options, such as basing MPAs on the presence of dynamic oceanic features, and to evaluate the potential future impacts of alternative interventions compared with 'no-action' counterfactuals, under a range of environmental and development scenarios. The modelling environment allows the analyst to test if indicators and management strategies are robust to uncertainties in how the ecosystem (and the broader human-ecosystem combination) operates, including the direct and indirect ecological effects of protection. Moreover, modelling results can be presented at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and relative to ecological, economic and social objectives. This helps to reveal potential 'surprises', such as regime shifts, trophic cascades and bottlenecks in human responses. Using illustrative examples, this paper briefly covers the history of the use of simulation models for evaluating MPA options, and discusses their utility and limitations for informing protected area management in the marine realm. PMID:26460131

  15. Does research help to safeguard protected areas?

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F

    2013-05-01

    Although many protected areas are foci for scientific research, they also face growing threats from illegal encroachment and overharvesting. Does the presence of field researchers help to limit such threats? Although evidence is largely anecdotal, researchers do appear to provide some protective effects, both actively (such as by deterring poachers) and passively (such as by benefiting local communities economically and thereby generating support for protected areas). However, much remains unknown about the generality and impacts of such benefits. A key priority is to develop a better understanding of the advantages and limitations of field research for aiding protected areas and their biodiversity. PMID:23462294

  16. Marine protected area networks in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Botsford, Louis W; White, J Wilson; Carr, Mark H; Caselle, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    California responded to concerns about overfishing in the 1990s by implementing a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) through two science-based decision-making processes. The first process focused on the Channel Islands, and the second addressed California's entire coastline, pursuant to the state's Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA). We review the interaction between science and policy in both processes, and lessons learned. For the Channel Islands, scientists controversially recommended setting aside 30-50% of coastline to protect marine ecosystems. For the MLPA, MPAs were intended to be ecologically connected in a network, so design guidelines included minimum size and maximum spacing of MPAs (based roughly on fish movement rates), an approach that also implicitly specified a minimum fraction of the coastline to be protected. As MPA science developed during the California processes, spatial population models were constructed to quantify how MPAs were affected by adult fish movement and larval dispersal, i.e., how population persistence within MPA networks depended on fishing outside the MPAs, and how fishery yields could either increase or decrease with MPA implementation, depending on fishery management. These newer quantitative methods added to, but did not supplant, the initial rule-of-thumb guidelines. In the future, similar spatial population models will allow more comprehensive evaluation of the integrated effects of MPAs and conventional fisheries management. By 2011, California had implemented 132 MPAs covering more than 15% of its coastline, and now stands on the threshold of the most challenging step in this effort: monitoring and adaptive management to ensure ecosystem sustainability. PMID:25358301

  17. Proposal to protect marine areas around Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    Forty percent of Antarctica's Southern Ocean should be protected in a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) and no-take marine reserves, according to a 21 May report by the Antarctic Ocean Alliance, which is composed of about 20 environmental groups. The protected areas should include the 19 Antarctic marine habitats outlined in the report, along with existing MPAs and areas identified through previous conservation and planning analyses, the report notes. Protected areas should include the Antarctic Peninsula, the Weddell and Ross seas, the Indian Ocean Benthic Environment, and Pacific seamounts, according to the report. The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), which manages living resources for the Southern Ocean, has already agreed to establish an initial network of Antarctic MPAs this year, the report states.

  18. 40 CFR 55.5 - Corresponding onshore area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Corresponding onshore area designation. 55.5 Section 55.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.5 Corresponding onshore area designation....

  19. 40 CFR 55.5 - Corresponding onshore area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Corresponding onshore area designation. 55.5 Section 55.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.5 Corresponding onshore area designation. (a) Proposed exploratory sources. The NOA...

  20. REXPO: A catchment model designed to understand and simulate the loss dynamics of plant protection products and biocides from agricultural and urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmer, I. K.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Stamm, C.

    2016-02-01

    During rain events, biocides and plant protection products are transported from agricultural fields but also from urban sources to surface waters. Originally designed to be biologically active, these compounds may harm organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Although several models allow either urban or agricultural storm events to be predicted, only few combine these two sources, and none of them include biocide losses from building envelopes. This study therefore aims to develop a model designed to predict water and substance flows from urban and agricultural sources to surface waters. We developed a model based on physical principles for water percolation and substance flow including micro- (also called matrix-) and macropore-flows for the agricultural areas together with a model representing sources, sewer systems and a wastewater treatment plant for urban areas. In a second step, the combined model was applied to a catchment where an extensive field study had been conducted. The modelled and measured discharge and compound results corresponded reasonably well in terms of quantity and dynamics. The total cumulative discharge was only slightly lower than the total measured discharge (factor 0.94). The total modelled losses of the agriculturally used herbicide atrazine were slightly lower (∼25%) than the measured losses when the soil pore water distribution coefficient (describing the partition between soil particles and pore water) (Kd) was kept constant and slightly higher if it was increased with time. The modelled urban losses of diuron from facades were within a factor of three with respect to the measured values. The results highlighted the change in importance of the flow components during a rain event from urban sources during the most intensive rain period towards agricultural ones over a prolonged time period. Applications to two other catchments, one neighbouring and one on another continent showed that the model can be applied using site specific data for

  1. In Brief: Developing marine protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-11-01

    A draft framework for the development of a national system of marine protected areas (MPA) has been released for public comment by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of the Interior. Under the proposed framework, an MPA is any area of the marine environment that has been reserved by U.S. federal, state, local, or other government regulations ``to provide lasting protection for part or all of the natural and cultural resources therein.'' About 1500 marine conservation areas initially would qualify as MPAs. The national system is intended to guide cooperative efforts among various parties and thus increase protection of these areas. The framework goals for a national system include: advancing conservation and management of marine resources through ecosystem-based approaches, and enhancing effective coordination and integration among MPAs in the national system and within the broader context of ecosystem-based management.

  2. More strictly protected areas are not necessarily more protective: evidence from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Hanauer, Merlin M.; Miteva, Daniela A.; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo Javier; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K.; Sims, Katharine R. E.

    2013-06-01

    National parks and other protected areas are at the forefront of global efforts to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, not all protection is equal. Some areas are assigned strict legal protection that permits few extractive human uses. Other protected area designations permit a wider range of uses. Whether strictly protected areas are more effective in achieving environmental objectives is an empirical question: although strictly protected areas legally permit less anthropogenic disturbance, the social conflicts associated with assigning strict protection may lead politicians to assign strict protection to less-threatened areas and may lead citizens or enforcement agents to ignore the strict legal restrictions. We contrast the impacts of strictly and less strictly protected areas in four countries using IUCN designations to measure de jure strictness, data on deforestation to measure outcomes, and a quasi-experimental design to estimate impacts. On average, stricter protection reduced deforestation rates more than less strict protection, but the additional impact was not always large and sometimes arose because of where stricter protection was assigned rather than regulatory strictness per se. We also show that, in protected area studies contrasting y management regimes, there are y2 policy-relevant impacts, rather than only y, as earlier studies have implied.

  3. Managing ecotourism visitation in protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Farrell, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    Ecotourism management seeks to integrate and balance several potentially conflicting objectives: protection of natural and cultural resources, provision of recreation opportunities and generation of economic benefits. In the absence of effective planning and management, ecotourism can lead to significant negative impacts on vegetation, soil, water, wildlife, historic resources, cultures, and visitor experiences. This chapter reviews visitor-related natural resource and experience impacts associated with ecotourism within protected areas. The influence of factors that control the nature and extent of impacts are also reviewed, including type and amount of use, the variable resistance and resilience of environmental attributes such as vegetation and soil types, and the role of management in shaping visitation, resources and facilities to support visitation while minimizing associated impacts. Implications for managing the effects of protected area visitation are highlighted, including carrying capacity decision frameworks and selecting management strategies and tactics.

  4. Lightning protection design external tank /Space Shuttle/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A.; Mumme, E.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of lightning striking the Space Shuttle during liftoff is considered and the lightning protection system designed by the Martin Marietta Corporation for the external tank (ET) portion of the Shuttle is discussed. The protection system is based on diverting and/or directing a lightning strike to an area of the spacecraft which can sustain the strike. The ET lightning protection theory and some test analyses of the system's design are reviewed including studies of conductivity and thermal/stress properties in materials, belly band feasibility, and burn-through plug grounding and puncture voltage. The ET lightning protection system design is shown to be comprised of the following: (1) a lightning rod on the forward most point of the ET, (2) a continually grounded, one inch wide conductive strip applied circumferentially at station 371 (belly band), (3) a three inch wide conductive belly band applied over the TPS (i.e. the insulating surface of the ET) and grounded to a structure with eight conductive plugs at station 536, and (4) a two inch thick TPS between the belly bands which are located over the weld lands.

  5. Conservation biology: beyond marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Kareiva, Peter

    2006-07-25

    Socioeconomic and ecological analyses of eleven coral reef conservation efforts make clear that marine protected areas are not the answer, and that in fact support of local communities is far more important than some government mandated 'fishing closure'. Apparently there are marine 'paper parks' just as there are terrestrial 'paper parks'. PMID:16860727

  6. MAINE BEDROCK SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bedrocksqpa_region_pws is a REGIONS SDE layer of bedrock source water protection areas in Maine with a high, moderate, or low probability of contributing water to community public water supplies. The Maine Drinking Water Program (MEDWP), in cooperation with the Maine Geological S...

  7. State wetlands and riparian area protection programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Frederick; Pieart, Scott; Cook, Edward; Rich, Jacqueline; Coltman, Virginia

    1994-03-01

    The protection of wetlands and riparian areas has emerged as an important environmental planning issue. In the United States, several federal and state laws have been enacted to protect wetlands and riparian areas. Specifically, the federal Clean Water Act includes protection requirements in Sections 301 and 303 for state water quality standards, Section 401 for state certification of federal actions (projects, permits, and licenses), and Section 404 for dredge and fill permits. The Section 401 water quality state certification element has been called the “sleeping giant” of wetlands protection because it empowers state officials to veto or condition federally permitted or licensed activities that do not comply with state water quality standards. State officials have used this power infrequently. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effectiveness of state wetland and riparian programs. Contacts were established with officials in each state and in the national and regional offices of key federal agencies. Based on interviews and on a review of federal and state laws, state program effectiveness was analyzed. From this analysis, several problems and opportunities facing state wetland protection efforts are presented.

  8. Protective area of laser eye protectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, E.; Schirmacher, A.

    2001-06-01

    An objective definition of the protective area of laser eye protectors is discussed. First an appropriate test method is described, which is based on the current eye protection standard EN 168. For a variety of already CE type approved laser eye protectors, i.e. for different goggle and spectacle types, results of corresponding measurements are shown. From these results the requirements on the vertical and horizontal angle ranges are derived, which have to be covered by laser eye protectors. This proposal will be implemented in the currently processed amendments of the laser safety standards EN 207 and EN 208.

  9. 50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishment of protection areas. 17.103... Protection Areas § 17.103 Establishment of protection areas. The Director may, by regulation issued in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 553 and 43 CFR part 14, establish manatee protection areas whenever there...

  10. 50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2014-10-01 2013-10-01 true Establishment of protection areas. 17.103... Protection Areas § 17.103 Establishment of protection areas. The Director may, by regulation issued in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 553 and 43 CFR part 14, establish manatee protection areas whenever there...

  11. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2014-10-01 2013-10-01 true Emergency establishment of protection areas...) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency establishment of protection areas. (a) The Director may establish a manatee protection area under the provisions of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section at...

  12. 50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishment of protection areas. 17.103... Protection Areas § 17.103 Establishment of protection areas. The Director may, by regulation issued in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 553 and 43 CFR part 14, establish manatee protection areas whenever there...

  13. 50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Establishment of protection areas. 17.103... Protection Areas § 17.103 Establishment of protection areas. The Director may, by regulation issued in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 553 and 43 CFR part 14, establish manatee protection areas whenever there...

  14. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Emergency establishment of protection areas...) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency establishment of protection areas. (a) The Director may establish a manatee protection area under the provisions of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section at...

  15. Building Capacity for Protected Area Management in Lao PDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhu; Johnson, Arlyne; Spence, Kelly; Sypasong, Ahnsany; Bynum, Nora; Sterling, Eleanor; Phimminith, Thavy; Praxaysombath, Bounthob

    2014-04-01

    Declining biodiversity in protected areas in Laos is attributed to unsustainable exploitation of natural resources. At a basic level, an important need is to develop capacity in academic and professional training institutions to provide relevant training to conservation professionals. The paper (a) describes the capacity building approach undertaken to achieve this goal, (b) evaluates the effectiveness of the approach in building capacity for implementing conservation and (c) reviews implementation outcomes. Strong linkages between organizations implementing field conservation, professional training institutions, and relevant Government agencies are central to enhancing effectiveness of capacity building initiatives aimed at improving the practice of conservation. Protected area management technical capacity needs will need to directly influence curriculum design to insure both relevance and effectiveness of training in improving protected area management. Sustainability of capacity building initiatives is largely dependent on the level of interest and commitment by host-country institutions within a supportive Government policy framework in addition to engagement of organizations implementing conservation.

  16. Bolder science needed now for protected areas.

    PubMed

    Watson, James E M; Darling, Emily S; Venter, Oscar; Maron, Martine; Walston, Joe; Possingham, Hugh P; Dudley, Nigel; Hockings, Marc; Barnes, Megan; Brooks, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    Recognizing that protected areas (PAs) are essential for effective biodiversity conservation action, the Convention on Biological Diversity established ambitious PA targets as part of the 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity. Under the strategic goal to "improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species, and genetic diversity," Target 11 aims to put 17% of terrestrial and 10% of marine regions under PA status by 2020. Additionally and crucially, these areas are required to be of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative, and well-connected and to include "other effective area-based conservation measures" (OECMs). Whereas the area-based targets are explicit and measurable, the lack of guidance for what constitutes important and representative; effective; and OECMs is affecting how nations are implementing the target. There is a real risk that Target 11 may be achieved in terms of area while failing the overall strategic goal for which it is established because the areas are poorly located, inadequately managed, or based on unjustifiable inclusion of OECMs. We argue that the conservation science community can help establish ecologically sensible PA targets to help prioritize important biodiversity areas and achieve ecological representation; identify clear, comparable performance metrics of ecological effectiveness so progress toward these targets can be assessed; and identify metrics and report on the contribution OECMs make toward the target. By providing ecologically sensible targets and new performance metrics for measuring the effectiveness of both PAs and OECMs, the science community can actively ensure that the achievement of the required area in Target 11 is not simply an end in itself but generates genuine benefits for biodiversity. PMID:26486683

  17. Assessing protected area effectiveness using surrounding (buffer) areas environmentally similar to the target area.

    PubMed

    Mas, Jean-François

    2005-06-01

    Many studies are based on the assumption that an area and its surrounding (buffer) area present similar environmental conditions and can be compared. For example, in order to assess the effectiveness of a protected area, the land use/cover changes are compared inside the park with its surroundings. However, the heterogeneity in spatial variables can bias this assessment: we have shown that most of the protected areas in Mexico present significant environmental differences between their interior and their surroundings. Therefore, a comparison that aims at assessing the effectiveness of conservation strategies, must be cautioned. In this paper, a simple method which allows the generation of a buffer area that presents similar conditions with respect to a set of environmental variables is presented. The method was used in order to assess the effectiveness of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, a protected area located in the south-eastern part of Mexico. The annual rate of deforestation inside the protected area, the standard buffer area (based upon distance from the protected area only) and the similar buffer area (taking into account distance along with some environmental variables) were 0.3, 1.3 and 0.6%, respectively. These results showed that the protected area was effective in preventing land clearing, but that the comparison with the standard buffer area gave an over-optimistic vision of its effectiveness. PMID:15952512

  18. Complementarity and Area-Efficiency in the Prioritization of the Global Protected Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Kullberg, Peter; Toivonen, Tuuli; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Lehtomäki, Joona; Di Minin, Enrico; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Complementarity and cost-efficiency are widely used principles for protected area network design. Despite the wide use and robust theoretical underpinnings, their effects on the performance and patterns of priority areas are rarely studied in detail. Here we compare two approaches for identifying the management priority areas inside the global protected area network: 1) a scoring-based approach, used in recently published analysis and 2) a spatial prioritization method, which accounts for complementarity and area-efficiency. Using the same IUCN species distribution data the complementarity method found an equal-area set of priority areas with double the mean species ranges covered compared to the scoring-based approach. The complementarity set also had 72% more species with full ranges covered, and lacked any coverage only for half of the species compared to the scoring approach. Protected areas in our complementarity-based solution were on average smaller and geographically more scattered. The large difference between the two solutions highlights the need for critical thinking about the selected prioritization method. According to our analysis, accounting for complementarity and area-efficiency can lead to considerable improvements when setting management priorities for the global protected area network. PMID:26678497

  19. Complementarity and Area-Efficiency in the Prioritization of the Global Protected Area Network.

    PubMed

    Kullberg, Peter; Toivonen, Tuuli; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Lehtomäki, Joona; Di Minin, Enrico; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Complementarity and cost-efficiency are widely used principles for protected area network design. Despite the wide use and robust theoretical underpinnings, their effects on the performance and patterns of priority areas are rarely studied in detail. Here we compare two approaches for identifying the management priority areas inside the global protected area network: 1) a scoring-based approach, used in recently published analysis and 2) a spatial prioritization method, which accounts for complementarity and area-efficiency. Using the same IUCN species distribution data the complementarity method found an equal-area set of priority areas with double the mean species ranges covered compared to the scoring-based approach. The complementarity set also had 72% more species with full ranges covered, and lacked any coverage only for half of the species compared to the scoring approach. Protected areas in our complementarity-based solution were on average smaller and geographically more scattered. The large difference between the two solutions highlights the need for critical thinking about the selected prioritization method. According to our analysis, accounting for complementarity and area-efficiency can lead to considerable improvements when setting management priorities for the global protected area network. PMID:26678497

  20. Creating Arctic Sea Ice Protected Areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S.; Hoff, K.; Temblay, B.; Fowler, C.

    2008-12-01

    As Arctic sea ice retreats and the Northwest Passage and Northern Sea Route open, the Arctic will experience more extensive human activity than it has ever encountered before. New development will put pressure on a system already struggling to adapt to a changing environment. In this analysis, locations are identified within the Arctic that could be protected from resource extraction, transportation and other development in order to create refuges and protect remnants of sea ice habitat, as the Arctic transitions to ice-free summer conditions. Arctic sea ice forms largely along the Siberian and Alaskan coasts and is advected across the North Pole towards Fram Strait, the Canadian Archipelago and the Barents Sea. In addition to the future loss of ice itself, contaminants entrained in sea ice in one part of the ocean can affect other regions as the ice drifts. Using observations and models of sea ice origins, trajectories and ages, we track sea ice from its origins towards marginal ice zones, mapping pathways and termination locations. Critical sea ice source areas and collection regions are identified with the goal of aiding in the protection of the remaining Arctic sea ice habitat for as long as possible.

  1. Science, policy advocacy, and marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Gray, Noella J; Campbell, Lisa M

    2009-04-01

    Much has been written in recent years regarding whether and to what extent scientists should engage in the policy process, and the focus has been primarily on the issue of advocacy. Despite extensive theoretical discussions, little has been done to study attitudes toward and consequences of such advocacy in particular cases. We assessed attitudes toward science and policy advocacy in the case of marine protected areas (MPAs) on the basis of a survey of delegates at the First International Marine Protected Areas Congress. Delegates were all members of the international marine conservation community and represented academic, government, and nongovernmental organizations. A majority of respondents believed science is objective but only a minority believed that values can be eliminated from science. Respondents showed only partial support of positivist principles of science. Almost all respondents supported scientists being integrated into MPA policy making, whereas half of the respondents agreed that scientists should actively advocate for particular MPA policies. Scientists with a positivist view of science supported a minimal role for scientists in policy, whereas government staff with positivist beliefs supported an advocacy or decision-making role for scientists. Policy-making processes for MPAs need to account for these divergent attitudes toward science and advocacy if science-driven and participatory approaches are to be reconciled. PMID:19016824

  2. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) Special Feature: Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Andy; Failler, Pierre; Bavinck, J. Maarten

    2011-04-01

    The number of MPAs has increased sharply, from just 118 in 1970 to well over 6,300 today. This growth in numbers has also been accompanied by a voluminous growth in the academic literature on the theme, with writers employing ecologic, economic and governance lenses (or a combination thereof) to both support the case for MPA creation, and to evaluate just how successfully (or not) existing MPAs match up to their promises. Research suggests effective management of such protected areas is vital if desired outcomes are to be achieved within the allotted time period. This Special Feature on MPAs therefore seeks to address two key questions derived from the management effectiveness framework of Hockings and others (2000), namely: `How appropriate are the management systems and processes in place?' and `Were the desired Objectives achieved—and if so, why?' Fourteen articles, drawing on different disciplinary perspectives relating to MPA experiences from across the globe, offers insights into these questions by considering, inter alia, how: are MPA sites selected?; is `buy-in' to the process from the various stakeholders achieved?; are these stakeholder's views reflected in the management systems that evolve?, and what monitoring and evaluation mechanisms are in place? Bringing these perspectives and approaches together through the medium of this Special Feature is thus intended to further our understanding of the different issues that may confront both planners and managers of Marine Protected Areas.

  3. Platform cathodic protection design in the South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Rippon, I.

    1997-09-01

    The 1993 revision of one of the industry recommended practices on cathodic protection design offers the operator the opportunity to use his own experience and data to justify more or less conservative designs. Examples of the use of this option to achieve an economic South China Sea design are presented. The design approach on how to subdivide the object being cathodically protected can be applied in any operating area where there is good environmental data. An example of the cost savings achievable by using this approach is presented. The optimized design is 55% of the cost of the design following the 1993 code.

  4. Measuring the difference made by conservation initiatives: protected areas and their environmental and social impacts

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Pressey, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Success in conservation depends on our ability to reduce human pressures in areas that harbour biological diversity and ecosystem services. Legally protecting some of these areas through the creation of protected areas is a key component of conservation efforts globally. To develop effective protected area networks, practitioners need credible, scientific evidence about the degree to which protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes, and how these effects vary with context. Such evidence has been lacking, but the situation is changing as conservation scientists adopt more sophisticated research designs for evaluating protected areas' past impacts and for predicting their future impacts. Complementing these scientific advances, conservation funders and practitioners are paying increasing attention to evaluating their investments with more scientifically rigorous evaluation designs. This theme issue highlights recent advances in the science of protected area evaluations and explores the challenges to developing a more credible evidence base that can help societies achieve their goals of protecting nature while enhancing human welfare. PMID:26460123

  5. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection``, and DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria``. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ``Glove Box Fire Protection`` and ``Filter Plenum Fire Protection``. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  6. [Sun protection by optimally designed fabrics].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, K; Hoffmann, A; Hanke, D; Böhringer, B; Schindling, G; Schön, U; Klotz, M L; Altmeyer, P

    1998-01-01

    A rising incidence worldwide of skin cancer has been observed for years. A high cumulative exposure to UV radiation is a major factor in the development of such neoplasms. Suitable protective measures are therefore becoming increasingly important. Textiles provide simple, effective and medically safe protection against UV radiation. At present, however, in Europe--in contrast to Australia--the UV protection factor (UPF) for summer textiles is not stated. It is a largely unknown fact that by far not all textiles offer sufficient protection. Our goal was to study the factors which determine the UV transmission of fabrics and, based on these findings, to design materials which provide enhanced protection. A spectrophotometric method was used to determine the UV transmission by fabrics made of cotton, silk, polyester and viscose. The UV protection factors of the fabrics were computed on the basis of the transmission data. The UV protection factor is dependent on the type of fibre, yarn and surface design, weight per square metre, moisture content, colour, finishing method and degree of wear. To optimize the UV protection via textiles, a viscose yarn with a low UV transmission was used. This yarn makes it possible to design light-weight summer fabrics with optimized UV protection. This development will make it possible to offer clothing with high UV protection on the European marked. This clothing will not be more expensive than normal products, so that effective prevention should be more available. PMID:9522187

  7. The worldwide costs of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Balmford, Andrew; Gravestock, Pippa; Hockley, Neal; McClean, Colin J; Roberts, Callum M

    2004-06-29

    Declines in marine harvests, wildlife, and habitats have prompted calls at both the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and the 2003 World Parks Congress for the establishment of a global system of marine protected areas (MPAs). MPAs that restrict fishing and other human activities conserve habitats and populations and, by exporting biomass, may sustain or increase yields of nearby fisheries. Here we provide an estimate of the costs of a global MPA network, based on a survey of the running costs of 83 MPAs worldwide. Annual running costs per unit area spanned six orders of magnitude, and were higher in MPAs that were smaller, closer to coasts, and in high-cost, developed countries. Models extrapolating these findings suggest that a global MPA network meeting the World Parks Congress target of conserving 20-30% of the world's seas might cost between 5 billion and 19 billion US dollars annually to run and would probably create around one million jobs. Although substantial, gross network costs are less than current government expenditures on harmful subsidies to industrial fisheries. They also ignore potential private gains from improved fisheries and tourism and are dwarfed by likely social gains from increasing the sustainability of fisheries and securing vital ecosystem services. PMID:15205483

  8. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency establishment of protection areas. 17.106 Section 17.106 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency establishment of protection areas. (a) The...

  9. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency establishment of protection areas. 17.106 Section 17.106 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency establishment of protection areas. (a) The...

  10. Sustaining Jamaica's forests: The protected areas resource conservation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, Philip R.; Beatley, Timothy

    1995-07-01

    This study examines Jamaica's attempt to protect a tropical forest reserve. The biophysical setting, and the types and magnitude of forest development pressures are reviewed. Next, Jamaica's approach to developing new land-use strategies and compatible environmental protection and economic development programs are examined. Finally, the practical and theoretical implications by which institutions can be designed to encourage planning for sustainable development are reviewed. The implications suggest how to provide an appropriate mix of cooperation and market competition, by which people acting in their own interests accomplish socially equitable economic development, while protecting the environment for the benefit of future generations. The experience illustrates that effective long-term protection of natural areas requires the building of local relationships and support, the development of local economic activities supportive of conservation, the defining of clear boundaries, and significant monitoring and enforcement. Long-term protection of the Blue and John Crow mountains, and other important natural areas of Jamaica, will also require the development of a workable and enforceable system of land-use planning for the island, and adjustments to the economic incentive structure so that sustainable, nonextractive uses of natural capital are placed on equal footing with other economic uses (e.g., coffee production).

  11. Buffer strip design for protecting water quality and fish habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Belt, G.H.; O'Laughlin, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Buffer strips are protective areas adjacent to streams or lakes. Among other functions, they protect water quality and fish habitat. A typical buffer strip is found in western Oregon, where they are called Riparian Management Areas (RMAs). The authors use the term buffer strip to include functional descriptions such as filter, stabilization, or leave strips, and administrative designations such as Idaho's Stream Protection Zone (SPZ), Washington's Riparian Management Zone (RMZ), and the USDA Forest Service's Streamside Management Zone (SMZ). They address water quality and fishery protective functions of buffer strips on forestlands, pointing out improvements in buffer strip design possible through research or administrative changes. Buffer strip design requirements found in some western Forest Practices Act (FPA) regulations are also compared and related to findings in the scientific literature.

  12. Protected areas facilitate species' range expansions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Chris D; Gillingham, Phillipa K; Bradbury, Richard B; Roy, David B; Anderson, Barbara J; Baxter, John M; Bourn, Nigel A D; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Findon, Richard A; Fox, Richard; Hodgson, Jenny A; Holt, Alison R; Morecroft, Mike D; O'Hanlon, Nina J; Oliver, Tom H; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Procter, Deborah A; Thomas, Jeremy A; Walker, Kevin J; Walmsley, Clive A; Wilson, Robert J; Hill, Jane K

    2012-08-28

    The benefits of protected areas (PAs) for biodiversity have been questioned in the context of climate change because PAs are static, whereas the distributions of species are dynamic. Current PAs may, however, continue to be important if they provide suitable locations for species to colonize at their leading-edge range boundaries, thereby enabling spread into new regions. Here, we present an empirical assessment of the role of PAs as targets for colonization during recent range expansions. Records from intensive surveys revealed that seven bird and butterfly species have colonized PAs 4.2 (median) times more frequently than expected from the availability of PAs in the landscapes colonized. Records of an additional 256 invertebrate species with less-intensive surveys supported these findings and showed that 98% of species are disproportionately associated with PAs in newly colonized parts of their ranges. Although colonizing species favor PAs in general, species vary greatly in their reliance on PAs, reflecting differences in the dependence of individual species on particular habitats and other conditions that are available only in PAs. These findings highlight the importance of current PAs for facilitating range expansions and show that a small subset of the landscape receives a high proportion of colonizations by range-expanding species. PMID:22893689

  13. Reconstructing Grazer Assemblages for Protected Area Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Jan A.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Balfour, David A.; Slotow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Protected area management agencies often struggle to reliably reconstruct grazer assemblages due to a lack of historical distribution data for their regions. Wrong predictions of grazing assemblages could potentially affect biodiversity negatively. The objective of the study was to determine how well grazing herbivores have become established since introduction to the Mkambati Nature Reserve, South Africa, how this was influenced by facilitation and competition, and how indigenous grazer assemblages can best be predicted for effective ecological restoration. Population trends of several grazing species were investigated in in order to determine how well they have become established since introduction. Five different conceivable grazing assemblages reflecting a range of approaches that are commonly encountered during conservation planning and management decision making were assessed. Species packing was used to predict whether facilitation, competition or co-existence were more likely to occur, and the species packing of the different assemblages were assessed using ANCOVA. Reconstructing a species assemblage using biogeographic and biological information provides the opportunity for a grazer assemblage that allows for facilitatory effects, which in turn leads to an ecosystem that is able to maintain its grazer assemblage structure. The strength of this approach lies in the ability to overcome the problem of depauperate grazer assemblages, resulting from a lack of historical data, by using biogeographical and biological processes, to assist in more effectively reconstructing grazer assemblages. Adaptive management of grazer assemblage restoration through reintroduction, using this approach would further mitigate management risks. PMID:24603663

  14. Protected areas facilitate species’ range expansions

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Chris D.; Gillingham, Phillipa K.; Bradbury, Richard B.; Roy, David B.; Anderson, Barbara J.; Baxter, John M.; Bourn, Nigel A. D.; Crick, Humphrey Q. P.; Findon, Richard A.; Fox, Richard; Hodgson, Jenny A.; Holt, Alison R.; Morecroft, Mike D.; O’Hanlon, Nina J.; Oliver, Tom H.; Pearce-Higgins, James W.; Procter, Deborah A.; Thomas, Jeremy A.; Walker, Kevin J.; Walmsley, Clive A.; Wilson, Robert J.; Hill, Jane K.

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of protected areas (PAs) for biodiversity have been questioned in the context of climate change because PAs are static, whereas the distributions of species are dynamic. Current PAs may, however, continue to be important if they provide suitable locations for species to colonize at their leading-edge range boundaries, thereby enabling spread into new regions. Here, we present an empirical assessment of the role of PAs as targets for colonization during recent range expansions. Records from intensive surveys revealed that seven bird and butterfly species have colonized PAs 4.2 (median) times more frequently than expected from the availability of PAs in the landscapes colonized. Records of an additional 256 invertebrate species with less-intensive surveys supported these findings and showed that 98% of species are disproportionately associated with PAs in newly colonized parts of their ranges. Although colonizing species favor PAs in general, species vary greatly in their reliance on PAs, reflecting differences in the dependence of individual species on particular habitats and other conditions that are available only in PAs. These findings highlight the importance of current PAs for facilitating range expansions and show that a small subset of the landscape receives a high proportion of colonizations by range-expanding species. PMID:22893689

  15. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D; Hockings, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible. PMID:26460133

  16. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D.; Hockings, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible. PMID:26460133

  17. Design time optimization for hardware watermarking protection of HDL designs.

    PubMed

    Castillo, E; Morales, D P; García, A; Parrilla, L; Todorovich, E; Meyer-Baese, U

    2015-01-01

    HDL-level design offers important advantages for the application of watermarking to IP cores, but its complexity also requires tools automating these watermarking algorithms. A new tool for signature distribution through combinational logic is proposed in this work. IPP@HDL, a previously proposed high-level watermarking technique, has been employed for evaluating the tool. IPP@HDL relies on spreading the bits of a digital signature at the HDL design level using combinational logic included within the original system. The development of this new tool for the signature distribution has not only extended and eased the applicability of this IPP technique, but it has also improved the signature hosting process itself. Three algorithms were studied in order to develop this automated tool. The selection of a cost function determines the best hosting solutions in terms of area and performance penalties on the IP core to protect. An 1D-DWT core and MD5 and SHA1 digital signatures were used in order to illustrate the benefits of the new tool and its optimization related to the extraction logic resources. Among the proposed algorithms, the alternative based on simulated annealing reduces the additional resources while maintaining an acceptable computation time and also saving designer effort and time. PMID:25861681

  18. Design Time Optimization for Hardware Watermarking Protection of HDL Designs

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, E.; Morales, D. P.; García, A.; Parrilla, L.; Todorovich, E.; Meyer-Baese, U.

    2015-01-01

    HDL-level design offers important advantages for the application of watermarking to IP cores, but its complexity also requires tools automating these watermarking algorithms. A new tool for signature distribution through combinational logic is proposed in this work. IPP@HDL, a previously proposed high-level watermarking technique, has been employed for evaluating the tool. IPP@HDL relies on spreading the bits of a digital signature at the HDL design level using combinational logic included within the original system. The development of this new tool for the signature distribution has not only extended and eased the applicability of this IPP technique, but it has also improved the signature hosting process itself. Three algorithms were studied in order to develop this automated tool. The selection of a cost function determines the best hosting solutions in terms of area and performance penalties on the IP core to protect. An 1D-DWT core and MD5 and SHA1 digital signatures were used in order to illustrate the benefits of the new tool and its optimization related to the extraction logic resources. Among the proposed algorithms, the alternative based on simulated annealing reduces the additional resources while maintaining an acceptable computation time and also saving designer effort and time. PMID:25861681

  19. The status of wildlife in protected areas compared to non-protected areas of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Western, David; Russell, Samantha; Cuthill, Innes

    2009-01-01

    We compile over 270 wildlife counts of Kenya's wildlife populations conducted over the last 30 years to compare trends in national parks and reserves with adjacent ecosystems and country-wide trends. The study shows the importance of discriminating human-induced changes from natural population oscillations related to rainfall and ecological factors. National park and reserve populations have declined sharply over the last 30 years, at a rate similar to non-protected areas and country-wide trends. The protected area losses reflect in part their poor coverage of seasonal ungulate migrations. The losses vary among parks. The largest parks, Tsavo East, Tsavo West and Meru, account for a disproportionate share of the losses due to habitat change and the difficulty of protecting large remote parks. The losses in Kenya's parks add to growing evidence for wildlife declines inside as well as outside African parks. The losses point to the need to quantify the performance of conservation policies and promote integrated landscape practices that combine parks with private and community-based measures. PMID:19584912

  20. Efficiency of a Protected-Area Network in a Mediterranean Region: A Multispecies Assessment with Raptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abellán, María D.; Martínez, José E.; Palazón, José A.; Esteve, Miguel Á.; Calvo, José F.

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km2), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel ( Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  1. Potential spatial overlap of heritage sites and protected areas in a boreal region of northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Shawn J; Schmiegelow, Fiona K A; Nagy, John A

    2007-04-01

    Under article 8-J of the Convention on Biological Diversity, governments must engage indigenous and local communities in the designation and management of protected areas. A better understanding of the relationship between community heritage sites and sites identified to protect conventional conservation features could inform conservation-planning exercises on indigenous lands. We examined the potential overlap between Gwich'in First Nations' (Northwest Territories, Canada) heritage sites and areas independently identified for the protection of conventional conservation targets. We designed nine hypothetical protected-area networks with different targets for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) habitat, high-quality wetland areas, representative vegetation types, water bodies, environmentally significant area, territorial parks, and network aggregation. We compared the spatial overlap of heritage sites to these nine protected-area networks. The degree of spatial overlap (Jaccard similarity) between heritage sites and the protected-area networks with moderate or high aggregation was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than random spatial overlap, whereas the overlap between heritage sites and the protected-area networks with no aggregation was not significant or significantly lower (p < 0.001) than random spatial overlap. Our results suggest that protected-area networks designed to capture conventional conservation features may protect key heritage sites but only if the underlying characteristics of these sites are considered. The Gwich'in heritage sites are highly aggregated and only protected-area networks that had moderate and high aggregation had significant overlap with the heritage sites. We suggest that conventional conservation plans incorporate heritage sites into their design criteria to complement conventional conservation targets and effectively protect indigenous heritage sites. PMID:17391188

  2. 50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 553 and 43 CFR part 14, establish manatee protection areas whenever there is... area sufficient enough so that its location and dimensions can be readily ascertained without resort...

  3. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation

    PubMed Central

    Andam, Kwaw S.; Ferraro, Paul J.; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. Arturo; Robalino, Juan A.

    2008-01-01

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighboring forests. We demonstrate that estimates of effectiveness can be substantially improved by controlling for biases along dimensions that are observable, measuring spatial spillovers, and testing the sensitivity of estimates to potential hidden biases. We apply matching methods to evaluate the impact on deforestation of Costa Rica's renowned protected-area system between 1960 and 1997. We find that protection reduced deforestation: approximately 10% of the protected forests would have been deforested had they not been protected. Conventional approaches to evaluating conservation impact, which fail to control for observable covariates correlated with both protection and deforestation, substantially overestimate avoided deforestation (by over 65%, based on our estimates). We also find that deforestation spillovers from protected to unprotected forests are negligible. Our conclusions are robust to potential hidden bias, as well as to changes in modeling assumptions. Our results show that, with appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policy makers can better understand the relationships between human and natural systems and can use this to guide their attempts to protect critical ecosystem services. PMID:18854414

  4. Targeting global protected area expansion for imperiled biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Venter, Oscar; Fuller, Richard A; Segan, Daniel B; Carwardine, Josie; Brooks, Thomas; Butchart, Stuart H M; Di Marco, Moreno; Iwamura, Takuya; Joseph, Liana; O'Grady, Damien; Possingham, Hugh P; Rondinini, Carlo; Smith, Robert J; Venter, Michelle; Watson, James E M

    2014-06-01

    Governments have agreed to expand the global protected area network from 13% to 17% of the world's land surface by 2020 (Aichi target 11) and to prevent the further loss of known threatened species (Aichi target 12). These targets are interdependent, as protected areas can stem biodiversity loss when strategically located and effectively managed. However, the global protected area estate is currently biased toward locations that are cheap to protect and away from important areas for biodiversity. Here we use data on the distribution of protected areas and threatened terrestrial birds, mammals, and amphibians to assess current and possible future coverage of these species under the convention. We discover that 17% of the 4,118 threatened vertebrates are not found in a single protected area and that fully 85% are not adequately covered (i.e., to a level consistent with their likely persistence). Using systematic conservation planning, we show that expanding protected areas to reach 17% coverage by protecting the cheapest land, even if ecoregionally representative, would increase the number of threatened vertebrates covered by only 6%. However, the nonlinear relationship between the cost of acquiring land and species coverage means that fivefold more threatened vertebrates could be adequately covered for only 1.5 times the cost of the cheapest solution, if cost efficiency and threatened vertebrates are both incorporated into protected area decision making. These results are robust to known errors in the vertebrate range maps. The Convention on Biological Diversity targets may stimulate major expansion of the global protected area estate. If this expansion is to secure a future for imperiled species, new protected areas must be sited more strategically than is presently the case. PMID:24960185

  5. Protected areas reduced poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Andam, Kwaw S.; Ferraro, Paul J.; Sims, Katharine R. E.; Healy, Andrew; Holland, Margaret B.

    2010-01-01

    As global efforts to protect ecosystems expand, the socioeconomic impact of protected areas on neighboring human communities continues to be a source of intense debate. The debate persists because previous studies do not directly measure socioeconomic outcomes and do not use appropriate comparison groups to account for potential confounders. We illustrate an approach using comprehensive national datasets and quasi-experimental matching methods. We estimate impacts of protected area systems on poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand and find that although communities near protected areas are indeed substantially poorer than national averages, an analysis based on comparison with appropriate controls does not support the hypothesis that these differences can be attributed to protected areas. In contrast, the results indicate that the net impact of ecosystem protection was to alleviate poverty. PMID:20498058

  6. Establishment, management, and maintenance of the phoenix islands protected area.

    PubMed

    Rotjan, Randi; Jamieson, Regen; Carr, Ben; Kaufman, Les; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Obura, David; Pierce, Ray; Rimon, Betarim; Ris, Bud; Sandin, Stuart; Shelley, Peter; Sumaila, U Rashid; Taei, Sue; Tausig, Heather; Teroroko, Tukabu; Thorrold, Simon; Wikgren, Brooke; Toatu, Teuea; Stone, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The Republic of Kiribati's Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA), located in the equatorial central Pacific, is the largest and deepest UNESCO World Heritage site on earth. Created in 2008, it was the first Marine Protected Area (MPA) of its kind (at the time of inception, the largest in the world) and includes eight low-lying islands, shallow coral reefs, submerged shallow and deep seamounts and extensive open-ocean and ocean floor habitat. Due to their isolation, the shallow reef habitats have been protected de facto from severe exploitation, though the surrounding waters have been continually fished for large pelagics and whales over many decades. PIPA was created under a partnership between the Government of Kiribati and the international non-governmental organizations-Conservation International and the New England Aquarium. PIPA has a unique conservation strategy as the first marine MPA to use a conservation contract mechanism with a corresponding Conservation Trust established to be both a sustainable financing mechanism and a check-and-balance to the oversight and maintenance of the MPA. As PIPA moves forward with its management objectives, it is well positioned to be a global model for large MPA design and implementation in similar contexts. The islands and shallow reefs have already shown benefits from protection, though the pending full closure of PIPA (and assessments thereof) will be critical for determining success of the MPA as a refuge for open-ocean pelagic and deep-sea marine life. As global ocean resources are continually being extracted to support a growing global population, PIPA's closure is both timely and of global significance. PMID:25358303

  7. Factors Controlling Vegetation Fires in Protected and Non-Protected Areas of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar. PMID:25909632

  8. 40 CFR 55.15 - Specific designation of corresponding onshore areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specific designation of corresponding onshore areas. 55.15 Section 55.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.15 Specific designation of corresponding onshore areas. (a) California....

  9. Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    very little expression of these anomalies. hardware from the human-occupied area may limit (although not likely eliminate) external materials in the human habitat. Definition of design-to requirements is critical to understanding technical feasibility and costs. The definition of Planetary Protection needs in relation to EVA mission and system element development cost impacts should be considered and interpreted in terms of Plausible Protection criteria. Since EVA operations will have the most direct physical interaction with the Martian surface, PP needs should be considered in the terms of mitigating hardware and operations impacts and costs.

  10. Identifying Corridors among Large Protected Areas in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Belote, R. Travis; Dietz, Matthew S.; McRae, Brad H.; Theobald, David M.; McClure, Meredith L.; Irwin, G. Hugh; McKinley, Peter S.; Gage, Josh A.; Aplet, Gregory H.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation scientists emphasize the importance of maintaining a connected network of protected areas to prevent ecosystems and populations from becoming isolated, reduce the risk of extinction, and ultimately sustain biodiversity. Keeping protected areas connected in a network is increasingly recognized as a conservation priority in the current era of rapid climate change. Models that identify suitable linkages between core areas have been used to prioritize potentially important corridors for maintaining functional connectivity. Here, we identify the most “natural” (i.e., least human-modified) corridors between large protected areas in the contiguous Unites States. We aggregated results from multiple connectivity models to develop a composite map of corridors reflecting agreement of models run under different assumptions about how human modification of land may influence connectivity. To identify which land units are most important for sustaining structural connectivity, we used the composite map of corridors to evaluate connectivity priorities in two ways: (1) among land units outside of our pool of large core protected areas and (2) among units administratively protected as Inventoried Roadless (IRAs) or Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs). Corridor values varied substantially among classes of “unprotected” non-core land units, and land units of high connectivity value and priority represent diverse ownerships and existing levels of protections. We provide a ranking of IRAs and WSAs that should be prioritized for additional protection to maintain minimal human modification. Our results provide a coarse-scale assessment of connectivity priorities for maintaining a connected network of protected areas. PMID:27104683

  11. Identifying Corridors among Large Protected Areas in the United States.

    PubMed

    Belote, R Travis; Dietz, Matthew S; McRae, Brad H; Theobald, David M; McClure, Meredith L; Irwin, G Hugh; McKinley, Peter S; Gage, Josh A; Aplet, Gregory H

    2016-01-01

    Conservation scientists emphasize the importance of maintaining a connected network of protected areas to prevent ecosystems and populations from becoming isolated, reduce the risk of extinction, and ultimately sustain biodiversity. Keeping protected areas connected in a network is increasingly recognized as a conservation priority in the current era of rapid climate change. Models that identify suitable linkages between core areas have been used to prioritize potentially important corridors for maintaining functional connectivity. Here, we identify the most "natural" (i.e., least human-modified) corridors between large protected areas in the contiguous Unites States. We aggregated results from multiple connectivity models to develop a composite map of corridors reflecting agreement of models run under different assumptions about how human modification of land may influence connectivity. To identify which land units are most important for sustaining structural connectivity, we used the composite map of corridors to evaluate connectivity priorities in two ways: (1) among land units outside of our pool of large core protected areas and (2) among units administratively protected as Inventoried Roadless (IRAs) or Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs). Corridor values varied substantially among classes of "unprotected" non-core land units, and land units of high connectivity value and priority represent diverse ownerships and existing levels of protections. We provide a ranking of IRAs and WSAs that should be prioritized for additional protection to maintain minimal human modification. Our results provide a coarse-scale assessment of connectivity priorities for maintaining a connected network of protected areas. PMID:27104683

  12. Protected-Area Boundaries as Filters of Plant Invasions

    PubMed Central

    Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; JaroŠÍK, Vojtěch; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Rouget, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Human land uses surrounding protected areas provide propagules for colonization of these areas by non-native species, and corridors between protected-area networks and drainage systems of rivers provide pathways for long-distance dispersal of non-native species. Nevertheless, the influence of protected-area boundaries on colonization of protected areas by invasive non-native species is unknown. We drew on a spatially explicit data set of more than 27,000 non-native plant presence records for South Africa's Kruger National Park to examine the role of boundaries in preventing colonization of protected areas by non-native species. The number of records of non-native invasive plants declined rapidly beyond 1500 m inside the park; thus, we believe that the park boundary limited the spread of non-native plants. The number of non-native invasive plants inside the park was a function of the amount of water runoff, density of major roads, and the presence of natural vegetation outside the park. Of the types of human-induced disturbance, only the density of major roads outside the protected area significantly increased the number of non-native plant records. Our findings suggest that the probability of incursion of invasive plants into protected areas can be quantified reliably. PMID:21166715

  13. 75 FR 972 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... on November 19, 2008, (73 FR 69608) and provides guidance for collaborative efforts among Federal... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas AGENCY: NOAA, Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Public...

  14. 75 FR 38779 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... on November 19, 2008, (73 FR 69608) and provides guidance for collaborative efforts among federal... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas AGENCY: NOAA, Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Public...

  15. 78 FR 30870 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...In January 2013, NOAA and the Department of the Interior (DOI) invited federal, state, commonwealth, and territorial marine protected area (MPA) programs with potentially eligible existing MPAs to nominate their sites to the National System of MPAs (national system). The national system and the nomination process are described in the Framework for the National System of Marine Protected Areas......

  16. Effectiveness of Protected Areas in Maintaining Plant Production

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun; Sun, Jinyu; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Given the central importance of protected area systems in local, regional and global conservation strategies, it is vital that there is a good understanding of their effectiveness in maintaining ecological functioning. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first such global analysis, focusing on plant production, a “supporting” ecosystem function necessary for multiple other ecosystem services. We use data on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of variation in plant production in the core, boundary and surroundings of more than 1000 large protected areas over a 25 year period. Forested protected areas were higher (or similar), and those non-forested were lower (or similar), in NDVI than their surrounding areas, and these differences have been sustained. The differences from surrounding areas have increased for evergreen broadleaf forests and barren grounds, decreased for grasslands, and remained similar for deciduous forests, woodlands, and shrublands, reflecting different pressures on those surroundings. These results are consistent with protected areas being effective both in the representation and maintenance of plant production. However, widespread overall increases in NDVI during the study period suggest that plant production within the core of non-forested protected areas has become higher than it was in the surroundings of those areas in 1982, highlighting that whilst the distinctiveness of protected areas from their surroundings has persisted the nature of that difference has changed. PMID:21552560

  17. Model assessment of protective barrier designs

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M.J.; Conbere, W.; Heller, P.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1985-11-01

    A protective barrier is being considered for use at the Hanford site to enhance the isolation of previously disposed radioactive wastes from infiltrating water, and plant and animal intrusion. This study is part of a research and development effort to design barriers and evaluate their performance in preventing drainage. A fine-textured soil (the Composite) was located on the Hanford site in sufficient quantity for use as the top layer of the protective barrier. A number of simulations were performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to analyze different designs of the barrier using the Composite soil as well as the finer-textured Ritzville silt loam and a slightly coarser soil (Coarse). Design variations included two rainfall rates (16.0 and 30.1 cm/y), the presence of plants, gravel mixed into the surface of the topsoil, an impermeable boundary under the topsoil, and moving the waste form from 10 to 20 m from the barrier edge. The final decision to use barriers for enhanced isolation of previously disposed wastes will be subject to decisions resulting from the completion of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement, which addresses disposal of Hanford defense high-level and transuranic wastes. The one-dimensional simulation results indicate that each of the three soils, when used as the top layer of the protective barrier, can prevent drainage provided plants are present. Gravel amendments to the upper 30 cm of soil (without plants) reduced evaporation and allowed more water to drain.

  18. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  19. Protected Areas in South Asia Have Not Prevented Habitat Loss: A Study Using Historical Models of Land-Use Change

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Natalie E.; Boakes, Elizabeth H.; McGowan, Philip J. K.; Mace, Georgina M.; Fuller, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss imperils species both locally and globally, so protection of intact habitat is critical for slowing the rate of biodiversity decline. Globally, more than 150,000 protected areas have been designated with a goal of protecting species and ecosystems, but whether they can continue to achieve this goal as human impacts escalate is unknown. Here we show that in South Asia, one of the world's major growth epicentres, the trajectory of habitat conversion rates inside protected areas is indistinguishable from that on unprotected lands, and habitat conversion rates do not decline following gazettement of a protected area. Moreover, a quarter of the land inside South Asia's protected areas is now classified as human modified. If the global community is to make significant progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target on protected areas, there is an urgent need both to substantially enhance management of these protected areas and to develop systematic conservation outside the formal protected area system. PMID:23741486

  20. Measuring benefits of protected area management: trends across realms and research gaps for freshwater systems.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vanessa M; Setterfield, Samantha A; Douglas, Michael M; Kennard, Mark J; Ferdinands, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Protected areas remain a cornerstone for global conservation. However, their effectiveness at halting biodiversity decline is not fully understood. Studies of protected area benefits have largely focused on measuring their impact on halting deforestation and have neglected to measure the impacts of protected areas on other threats. Evaluations that measure the impact of protected area management require more complex evaluation designs and datasets. This is the case across realms (terrestrial, freshwater, marine), but measuring the impact of protected area management in freshwater systems may be even more difficult owing to the high level of connectivity and potential for threat propagation within systems (e.g. downstream flow of pollution). We review the potential barriers to conducting impact evaluation for protected area management in freshwater systems. We contrast the barriers identified for freshwater systems to terrestrial systems and discuss potential measurable outcomes and confounders associated with protected area management across the two realms. We identify key research gaps in conducting impact evaluation in freshwater systems that relate to three of their major characteristics: variability, connectivity and time lags in outcomes. Lastly, we use Kakadu National Park world heritage area, the largest national park in Australia, as a case study to illustrate the challenges of measuring impacts of protected area management programmes for environmental outcomes in freshwater systems. PMID:26460127

  1. Role of Brazilian Amazon protected areas in climate change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Moutinho, Paulo; Nepstad, Daniel; Anderson, Anthony; Rodrigues, Hermann; Garcia, Ricardo; Dietzsch, Laura; Merry, Frank; Bowman, Maria; Hissa, Letícia; Silvestrini, Rafaella; Maretti, Cláudio

    2010-06-15

    Protected areas (PAs) now shelter 54% of the remaining forests of the Brazilian Amazon and contain 56% of its forest carbon. However, the role of these PAs in reducing carbon fluxes to the atmosphere from deforestation and their associated costs are still uncertain. To fill this gap, we analyzed the effect of each of 595 Brazilian Amazon PAs on deforestation using a metric that accounts for differences in probability of deforestation in areas of pairwise comparison. We found that the three major categories of PA (indigenous land, strictly protected, and sustainable use) showed an inhibitory effect, on average, between 1997 and 2008. Of 206 PAs created after the year 1999, 115 showed increased effectiveness after their designation as protected. The recent expansion of PAs in the Brazilian Amazon was responsible for 37% of the region's total reduction in deforestation between 2004 and 2006 without provoking leakage. All PAs, if fully implemented, have the potential to avoid 8.0 +/- 2.8 Pg of carbon emissions by 2050. Effectively implementing PAs in zones under high current or future anthropogenic threat offers high payoffs for reducing carbon emissions, and as a result should receive special attention in planning investments for regional conservation. Nevertheless, this strategy demands prompt and predictable resource streams. The Amazon PA network represents a cost of US$147 +/- 53 billion (net present value) for Brazil in terms of forgone profits and investments needed for their consolidation. These costs could be partially compensated by an international climate accord that includes economic incentives for tropical countries that reduce their carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. PMID:20505122

  2. Role of Brazilian Amazon protected areas in climate change mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Moutinho, Paulo; Nepstad, Daniel; Anderson, Anthony; Rodrigues, Hermann; Garcia, Ricardo; Dietzsch, Laura; Merry, Frank; Bowman, Maria; Hissa, Letícia; Silvestrini, Rafaella; Maretti, Cláudio

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) now shelter 54% of the remaining forests of the Brazilian Amazon and contain 56% of its forest carbon. However, the role of these PAs in reducing carbon fluxes to the atmosphere from deforestation and their associated costs are still uncertain. To fill this gap, we analyzed the effect of each of 595 Brazilian Amazon PAs on deforestation using a metric that accounts for differences in probability of deforestation in areas of pairwise comparison. We found that the three major categories of PA (indigenous land, strictly protected, and sustainable use) showed an inhibitory effect, on average, between 1997 and 2008. Of 206 PAs created after the year 1999, 115 showed increased effectiveness after their designation as protected. The recent expansion of PAs in the Brazilian Amazon was responsible for 37% of the region's total reduction in deforestation between 2004 and 2006 without provoking leakage. All PAs, if fully implemented, have the potential to avoid 8.0 ± 2.8 Pg of carbon emissions by 2050. Effectively implementing PAs in zones under high current or future anthropogenic threat offers high payoffs for reducing carbon emissions, and as a result should receive special attention in planning investments for regional conservation. Nevertheless, this strategy demands prompt and predictable resource streams. The Amazon PA network represents a cost of US$147 ± 53 billion (net present value) for Brazil in terms of forgone profits and investments needed for their consolidation. These costs could be partially compensated by an international climate accord that includes economic incentives for tropical countries that reduce their carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. PMID:20505122

  3. ESD protection design for advanced CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin B.; Wang, Gewen

    2001-10-01

    ESD effects in integrated circuits have become a major concern as today's technologies shrink to sub-micron/deep- sub-micron dimensions. The thinner gate oxide and shallower junction depth used in the advanced technologies make them very vulnerable to ESD damages. The advanced techniques like silicidation and STI (shallow trench insulation) used for improving other device performances make ESD design even more challenging. For non-silicided technologies, a certain DCGS (drain contact to gate edge spacing) is needed to achieve ESD hardness for nMOS output drivers and nMOS protection transistors. The typical DCGS values are 4-5um and 2-3um for 0.5um and 0.25um CMOS, respectively. The silicidation reduces the ballast resistance provided by DCGS with at least a factor of 10. As a result, scaling of the ESD performance with device width is lost and even zero ESD performance is reported for standard silicided devices. The device level ESD design is focused in this paper, which includes GGNMOS (gate grounded NMOS) and GCNMOS (gate coupled NMOS). The device level ESD testing including TLP (transmission line pulse) is given. Several ESD issues caused by advanced technologies have been pointed out. The possible solutions have been developed and summarized including silicide blocking, process optimization, back-end ballasting, and new protection scheme, dummy gate/n-well resistor ballsting, etc. Some of them require process cost increase, and others provide novel, compact, and simple design but involving royalty/IP (intellectual property) issue. Circuit level ESD design and layout design considerations are covered. The top-level ESD protection strategies are also given.

  4. COLLABORATIVE HYDROLOGIC RESEARCH IN THE CLARKSBURG SPECIAL PROTECTION AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project is focused on the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA subwatersheds are on the outer edge of the urban development shockwave expanding outward from the Washington DC metropolitan area. This is an area of rapid d...

  5. Pollution exposure on marine protected areas: A global assessment.

    PubMed

    Partelow, Stefan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Horn, Olga

    2015-11-15

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) face many challenges in their aim to effectively conserve marine ecosystems. In this study we analyze the extent of pollution exposure on the global fleet of MPAs. This includes indicators for current and future pollution and the implications for regionally clustered groups of MPAs with similar biophysical characteristics. To cluster MPAs into characteristic signature groups, their bathymetry, baseline biodiversity, distance from shore, mean sea surface temperature and mean sea surface salinity were used. We assess the extent at which each signature group is facing exposure from multiple pollution types. MPA groups experience similar pollution exposure on a regional level. We highlight how the challenges that MPAs face can be addressed through governance at the appropriate scale and design considerations for integrated terrestrial and marine management approaches within regional level networks. Furthermore, we present diagnostic social-ecological indicators for addressing the challenges facing unsuccessful MPAs with practical applications. PMID:26330016

  6. 10 CFR 72.182 - Design for physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design for physical protection. 72.182 Section 72.182 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF... Physical Protection § 72.182 Design for physical protection. The design for physical protection must...

  7. 10 CFR 72.182 - Design for physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design for physical protection. 72.182 Section 72.182 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF... Physical Protection § 72.182 Design for physical protection. The design for physical protection must...

  8. New cathodic protection system design for dubai platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S.

    1985-03-01

    New sacrificial anode protection criteria that were developed and tested by the Dubai Petroleum Company (DPC) have resulted in a 40 percent decrease in anode weight as compared to that required by conventionally accepted design. Derivation of the criteria are based on an analyses of extensive field results of potential surveys of seven DPC platforms that had conventional sacrificial anode protection systems. It was found that an initial platform current density of 310 + or - 20 milliampers per square meter of area exposed to seawater, resulted in polarization of the platform to -1 volt with respect to the silversilver chloride reference electrode. As a consequence of this high initial polarization, the electric current requirement for protection is significantly reduced. The new criteria were used in the design of Platform ''JJ'' which was installed in September 1982. Field results that include periodic potential surveys of Platform ''JJ'' will be presented and discussed.

  9. Perceptions of the Maltese Public towards Local Marine Protected Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mifsud, Mark; Verret, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment represents a central component of Malta's local environment, and its ecosystem services play a vital role in supporting the economy as well as human well-being. Plans have been made to protect the unique ecology found within Maltese waters through the institution of five marine protected areas (MPAs). This quantitative study…

  10. NORTHERN GUAM SOLE SOURCE AQUIFER- DESIGNATED AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northern Guam Sole Source Aquifer Designated Area: In the Territory of Guam, entirely contained within the island of Guam. Specifically, that area within the coastal boundary defined by the line of Mean High water and north of the Adelup-Pago fault, plus some area south of the f...

  11. Protected areas' role in climate-change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Melillo, Jerry M; Lu, Xiaoliang; Kicklighter, David W; Reilly, John M; Cai, Yongxia; Sokolov, Andrei P

    2016-03-01

    Globally, 15.5 million km(2) of land are currently identified as protected areas, which provide society with many ecosystem services including climate-change mitigation. Combining a global database of protected areas, a reconstruction of global land-use history, and a global biogeochemistry model, we estimate that protected areas currently sequester 0.5 Pg C annually, which is about one fifth of the carbon sequestered by all land ecosystems annually. Using an integrated earth systems model to generate climate and land-use scenarios for the twenty-first century, we project that rapid climate change, similar to high-end projections in IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, would cause the annual carbon sequestration rate in protected areas to drop to about 0.3 Pg C by 2100. For the scenario with both rapid climate change and extensive land-use change driven by population and economic pressures, 5.6 million km(2) of protected areas would be converted to other uses, and carbon sequestration in the remaining protected areas would drop to near zero by 2100. PMID:26474765

  12. Protected Areas' Role in Climate-change Mitigation in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kicklighter, David; Lu, Xiaoliang; Monier, Erwan; Sokolov, Andrei; Melillo, Jerry; Reilly, John; Zhuang, Qianlai

    2016-04-01

    In Northern Eurasia, about 2.0 million square kilometers of land are currently identified as protected areas, which provide society with many ecosystem services including climate-change mitigation. These areas represent about 13% of the protected areas identified across the globe. Combining a global database of protected areas, a reconstruction of global land-use history, and a terrestrial biogeochemistry model, we estimate that protected areas in Northern Eurasia currently sequester 0.05 Pg C annually, which is about one tenth of the carbon sequestered by all land ecosystems annually in this region (0.5 Pg C/yr) and also about one tenth of the carbon sequestered in all protected areas across the globe. Using an integrated earth systems model to generate climate and land-use scenarios for the 21st century, we project that rapid climate change, similar to high-end projections in the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, would cause the annual carbon sequestration rate in the protected areas of Northern Eurasia to increase to about 0.07 Pg C/yr by 2100. In contrast, the annual carbon sequestration rate for all protected areas across the globe drops to 0.3 Pg C/yr by the end of the 21st century. For the scenario with both rapid climate change and extensive land-use change driven by population and economic pressures so that development encroaches upon designated "protected areas", we project that 0.6 million square kilometers of the protected areas in Northern Eurasia would be converted to other uses (10.7% of global protected area losses), and carbon sequestration in the remaining protected areas of Northern Eurasia would drop to 0.03 Pg C/yr by 2100. This small regional carbon sink is compensated by carbon losses in the remaining protected areas outside of the region so that overall no net carbon would be sequestered by global protected areas at the end of the 21st century if these areas are not truly protected.

  13. Protected areas: a prism for a changing world.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Thomas E

    2006-06-01

    The centrality of protected areas in biodiversity conservation has not changed over the past three decades, but we now know that biodiversity conservation represents a much more complex and dynamic picture than was once thought. In contrast to the earlier primarily aesthetic motivation (and still valid in its own right), the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation is now widely accepted. Internationally, their importance has been recognized by the Convention on Biological Diversity and by the creation of intergovernmental funding agencies such as the Global Environmental Facility. As I discuss here, the rate of creation of new protected areas has increased rapidly to meet the need for a protected representative set of the ecosystems of the world. But that is only the start of the task. PMID:16769433

  14. Marine Protected Dramas: The Flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C.; Godoy, Eduardo A. S.; Jones, Peter J. S.; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P.

    2011-04-01

    This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of `leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments.

  15. Marine protected dramas: the flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C; Godoy, Eduardo A S; Jones, Peter J S; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P

    2011-04-01

    This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of 'leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments. PMID:20865415

  16. Representation of Ecosystem Services by Terrestrial Protected Areas: Chile as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Durán, América P.; Casalegno, Stefano; Marquet, Pablo A.; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas are increasingly considered to play a key role in the global maintenance of ecosystem processes and the ecosystem services they provide. It is thus vital to assess the extent to which existing protected area systems represent those services. Here, for the first time, we document the effectiveness of the current Chilean protected area system and its planned extensions in representing both ecosystem services (plant productivity, carbon storage and agricultural production) and biodiversity. Additionally, we evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas based on their respective management objectives. Our results show that existing protected areas in Chile do not contain an unusually high proportion of carbon storage (14.9%), agricultural production (0.2%) or biodiversity (11.8%), and also represent a low level of plant productivity (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 0.38). Proposed additional priority sites enhance the representation of ecosystem services and biodiversity, but not sufficiently to attain levels of representation higher than would be expected for their area of coverage. Moreover, when the species groups were assessed separately, amphibians was the only one well represented. Suggested priority sites for biodiversity conservation, without formal protection yet, was the only protected area category that over-represents carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity. The low representation of ecosystem services and species’ distribution ranges by the current protected area system is because these protected areas are heavily biased toward southern Chile, and contain large extents of ice and bare rock. The designation and management of proposed priority sites needs to be addressed in order to increase the representation of ecosystem services within the Chilean protected area system. PMID:24376559

  17. Quantifying the erosion of natural darkness in the global protected area system.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Kevin J; Duffy, James P; Bennie, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    The nighttime light environment of much of the earth has been transformed by the introduction of electric lighting. This impact continues to spread with growth in the human population and extent of urbanization. This has profound consequences for organismal physiology and behavior and affects abundances and distributions of species, community structure, and likely ecosystem functions and processes. Protected areas play key roles in buffering biodiversity from a wide range of anthropogenic pressures. We used a calibration of a global satellite data set of nighttime lights to determine how well they are fulfilling this role with regard to artificial nighttime lighting. Globally, areas that are protected tend to be darker at night than those that are not, and, with the exception of Europe, recent regional declines in the proportion of the area that is protected and remains dark have been small. However, much of these effects result from the major contribution to overall protected area coverage by the small proportion of individual protected areas that are very large. Thus, in Europe and North America high proportions of individual protected areas (>17%) have exhibited high levels of nighttime lighting in all recent years, and in several regions (Europe, Asia, South and Central America) high proportions of protected areas (32-42%) have had recent significant increases in nighttime lighting. Limiting and reversing the erosion of nighttime darkness in protected areas will require routine consideration of nighttime conditions when designating and establishing new protected areas; establishment of appropriate buffer zones around protected areas where lighting is prohibited; and landscape level reductions in artificial nighttime lighting, which is being called for in general to reduce energy use and economic costs. PMID:25693660

  18. Representation of ecosystem services by terrestrial protected areas: Chile as a case study.

    PubMed

    Durán, América P; Casalegno, Stefano; Marquet, Pablo A; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas are increasingly considered to play a key role in the global maintenance of ecosystem processes and the ecosystem services they provide. It is thus vital to assess the extent to which existing protected area systems represent those services. Here, for the first time, we document the effectiveness of the current Chilean protected area system and its planned extensions in representing both ecosystem services (plant productivity, carbon storage and agricultural production) and biodiversity. Additionally, we evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas based on their respective management objectives. Our results show that existing protected areas in Chile do not contain an unusually high proportion of carbon storage (14.9%), agricultural production (0.2%) or biodiversity (11.8%), and also represent a low level of plant productivity (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 0.38). Proposed additional priority sites enhance the representation of ecosystem services and biodiversity, but not sufficiently to attain levels of representation higher than would be expected for their area of coverage. Moreover, when the species groups were assessed separately, amphibians was the only one well represented. Suggested priority sites for biodiversity conservation, without formal protection yet, was the only protected area category that over-represents carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity. The low representation of ecosystem services and species' distribution ranges by the current protected area system is because these protected areas are heavily biased toward southern Chile, and contain large extents of ice and bare rock. The designation and management of proposed priority sites needs to be addressed in order to increase the representation of ecosystem services within the Chilean protected area system. PMID:24376559

  19. Conservation biology: strict marine protected areas prevent reef shark declines.

    PubMed

    Dulvy, Nicholas K

    2006-12-01

    Populations of two coral reef shark species are declining rapidly: the pattern of decline highlights both the substantial impact of poaching on closed areas and the success of strict no-entry marine protected areas in maintaining healthy shark populations. PMID:17141604

  20. Striking the balance: Challenges and perspectives for the protected areas network in northeastern European Russia.

    PubMed

    Degteva, Svetlana V; Ponomarev, Vasily I; Eisenman, Sasha W; Dushenkov, Vyacheslav

    2015-10-01

    Increasing anthropogenic pressure on the largest remaining tracts of old-growth boreal forest in Europe necessitates additional conservation of ecosystems and biodiversity in northeastern European Russia. In a regional network comprising 8 % of the Nenets Autonomous District and 13.5 % of the Komi Republic, 248 areas have varying protected statuses as state nature reserves (zapovedniks), national parks, reserves/sanctuaries (zakazniks), or natural monuments. Due to increased natural resource extraction in this relatively pristine area, designation of additional protected areas is critical for the protection of key ecological sites. The history of ecological preservation in these regions is herein described, and recent recommendations for incorporating additional ecologically representative areas into the regional network are presented. If the protected area network can be expanded, the overall environmental stability in these globally significant ecosystems may remain intact, and can help Russia meet the 2020 Aichi conservation targets, as set forth by the Convention of Biological Diversity. PMID:25663528

  1. 40 CFR 55.15 - Specific designation of corresponding onshore areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific designation of corresponding onshore areas. 55.15 Section 55.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.15 Specific designation...

  2. A conservation planning approach to mitigate the impacts of leakage from protected area networks.

    PubMed

    Bode, Michael; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Mills, Morena; Venter, Oscar; Ando, Amy W

    2015-06-01

    Protected area networks are designed to restrict anthropogenic pressures in areas of high biodiversity. Resource users respond by seeking to replace some or all of the lost resources from locations elsewhere in the landscape. Protected area networks thereby perturb the pattern of human pressures by displacing extractive effort from within protected areas into the broader landscape, a process known as leakage. The negative effects of leakage on conservation outcomes have been empirically documented and modeled using homogeneous descriptions of conservation landscapes. Human resource use and biodiversity vary greatly in space, however, and a theory of leakage must describe how this heterogeneity affects the magnitude, pattern, and biodiversity impacts of leakage. We combined models of household utility, adaptive human foraging, and biodiversity conservation to provide a bioeconomic model of leakage that accounts for spatial heterogeneity. Leakage had strong and divergent impacts on the performance of protected area networks, undermining biodiversity benefits but mitigating the negative impacts on local resource users. When leakage was present, our model showed that poorly designed protected area networks resulted in a substantial net loss of biodiversity. However, the effects of leakage can be mitigated if they are incorporated ex-ante into the conservation planning process. If protected areas are coupled with nonreserve policy instruments such as market subsidies, our model shows that the trade-offs between biodiversity and human well-being can be further and more directly reduced. PMID:25494874

  3. A multiscale network analysis of protected-area connectivity for mammals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Minor, Emily S; Lookingbill, Todd R

    2010-12-01

    Protected areas must be close, or connected, enough to allow for the preservation of large-scale ecological and evolutionary processes, such as gene flow, migration, and range shifts in response to climate change. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether the network of protected areas in the United States is connected in a way that will preserve biodiversity over large temporal and spatial scales. It is also unclear whether protected-area networks that function for larger species will function for smaller species. We assessed the connectivity of protected areas in the three largest biomes in the United States. With methods from graph theory--a branch of mathematics that deals with connectivity and flow--we identified and measured networks of protected areas for three different groups of mammals. We also examined the value of using umbrella species (typically large-bodied, far-ranging mammals) in designing large-scale networks of protected areas. Although the total amount of protected land varied greatly among biomes in the United States, overall connectivity did not. In general, protected-area networks were well connected for large mammals but not for smaller mammals. Additionally, it was not possible to predict connectivity for small mammals on the basis of connectivity for large mammals, which suggests the umbrella species approach may not be an appropriate design strategy for conservation networks intended to protect many species. Our findings indicate different strategies should be used to increase the likelihood of persistence for different groups of species. Strategic linkages of existing lands should be a conservation priority for smaller mammals, whereas conservation of larger mammals would benefit most from the protection of more land. PMID:20666801

  4. Species, trophic, and functional diversity in marine protected and non-protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villamor, Adriana; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2012-10-01

    The number of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) has grown exponentially in the last decades as marine environments steadily deteriorate. The success of MPAs stems from the overall positive benefits attributed to the "reserve effect," the totality of the consequences of protecting marine systems. The reserve effect includes but is beyond the goal of protecting particular species or areas with economical or cultural value. However, most data on the effects of MPAs focus on target species and there is limited evidence for the consequences of protection at larger levels of organization. Quantitative information on the reserve effect remains elusive partly because of its complex nature. Data on biodiversity can be used to quantify the reserve effect if not restricted to specific taxonomic groups. In our study, we quantified species diversity, trophic diversity, and an approach to functional diversity in five MPAs and adjacent non-protected areas along the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Our three measures of diversity were based on the abundance of algae, fish, sessile and mobile invertebrates in shallow water rocky communities and could be used to estimate the reserve effect based on species, trophic levels, or functional roles. We tested the hypothesis that species, trophic, and functional diversity were higher in protected areas than in adjacent non-protected areas. Species diversity varied with geographic area but not with protection status. However, we found higher functional diversity inside MPAs. Also, the effect of protection on functional diversity varied as a function of the geographic area. Our results support the uniqueness of MPAs at a species level and the universality of the reserve effect at the level of the trophic groups' composition. This type of comprehensive ecological approach may broaden our understanding of MPAs and their efficiency as management tools.

  5. Assessing the effectiveness of specially protected areas for conservation of Antarctica's botanical diversity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Kevin A; Ireland, Louise C; Convey, Peter; Fleming, Andrew H

    2016-02-01

    Vegetation is sparsely distributed over Antarctica's ice-free ground, and distinct plant communities are present in each of the continent's 15 recently identified Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions (ACBRs). With rapidly increasing human activity in Antarctica, terrestrial plant communities are at risk of damage or destruction by trampling, overland transport, and infrastructure construction and from the impacts of anthropogenically introduced species, as well as uncontrollable pressures such as fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) activity and climate change. Under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, the conservation of plant communities can be enacted and facilitated through the designation of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs). We examined the distribution within the 15 ACBRs of the 33 ASPAs whose explicit purpose includes protecting macroscopic terrestrial flora. We completed the first survey using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite remote sensing to provide baseline data on the extent of vegetation cover in all ASPAs designated for plant protection in Antarctica. Large omissions in the protection of Antarctic botanical diversity were found. There was no protection of plant communities in 6 ACBRs, and in another 6, <0.4% of the ACBR area was included in an ASPA that protected vegetation. Protected vegetation cover within the 33 ASPAs totaled 16.1 km(2) for the entire Antarctic continent; over half was within a single protected area. Over 96% of the protected vegetation was contained in 2 ACBRs, which together contributed only 7.8% of the continent's ice-free ground. We conclude that Antarctic botanical diversity is clearly inadequately protected and call for systematic designation of ASPAs protecting plant communities by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties, the members of the governing body of the continent. PMID:26205208

  6. Orion Spacecraft MMOD Protection Design and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohl, W.; Miller, J.; Deighton, K.; Yasensky, J.; Foreman C.; Christiansen, Eric; Hyde, J.; Nahra, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft will replace the Space Shuttle Orbiter for American and international partner access to the International Space Station by 2015 and, afterwards, for access to the moon for initial sorties and later for extended outpost visits as part of the Constellation Exploration Initiative. This work describes some of the efforts being undertaken to ensure that the Constellation Program, Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle design will meet or exceed the stringent micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) requirements set out by NASA when exposed to the environments encountered with these missions. This paper will provide a brief overview of the approaches being used to provide MMOD protection to the Orion vehicle and to assess the spacecraft for compliance to the Constellation Program s MMOD requirements.

  7. Orion Spacecraft MMOD Protection Design and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohl, William; Miller, Joshua; Deighton, Kevin; Foreman, Cory; Yasensky, John; Christiansen, Eric; Hyde, James; Nahra, Henry

    2009-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft will replace the Space Shuttle Orbiter for American and international partner access to the International Space Station by 2015 and, afterwards, for access to the moon for initial sorties and later for extend outpost visits as part of the Constellation Exploration Initiative. This work describes some of the efforts being undertaken to ensure that Orion design will meet or exceed the stringent MicroMeteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) requirements set out by NASA when exposed to the environments encountered with these missions. This paper will provide a brief overview of the approaches being used to provide MMOD protection to the Orion vehicle and to assess the spacecraft for compliance to the Constellation Program s MMOD requirements.

  8. Prototype Variable-Area Exhaust Nozzle Designed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gangbring

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center s Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for adaptive aeropropulsion components has resulted in the design of a prototype variable-area exhaust nozzle (see the preceding photograph). The novel design exploits the potential of smart materials to improve the performance of existing fixed-area exhaust nozzles by introducing new capabilities for adaptive shape control, vibration damping, and flow manipulation. The design utilizes two different smart materials: shape memory alloy wires as actuators and magnetorheological fluids as damper locks.

  9. Guidelines for the seismic design of fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benda, B.; Cushing, R.; Driesen, G.E.

    1991-12-31

    The engineering knowledge gained from earthquake experience data surveys of fire protection system components is combined with analytical evaluation results to develop guidelines for the design of seismically rugged fire protection distribution piping. The seismic design guidelines of the National Fire Protection Association Standard NFPA-13 are reviewed, augmented, and summarized to define an efficient method for the seismic design of fire protection piping systems. 8 refs.

  10. Guidelines for the seismic design of fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benda, B. ); Cushing, R. ); Driesen, G.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The engineering knowledge gained from earthquake experience data surveys of fire protection system components is combined with analytical evaluation results to develop guidelines for the design of seismically rugged fire protection distribution piping. The seismic design guidelines of the National Fire Protection Association Standard NFPA-13 are reviewed, augmented, and summarized to define an efficient method for the seismic design of fire protection piping systems. 8 refs.

  11. Tourism Partnerships in Protected Areas: Exploring Contributions to Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfueller, Sharron L.; Lee, Diane; Laing, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Partnerships between natural-area managers and the tourism industry have been suggested to contribute to sustainability in protected areas. This article explores how important sustainability outcomes of partnerships are to their members, how well they are realised and the features of partnerships leading to their achievement. In 21 case studies in Australia, interviews ( n = 97) and surveys ( n = 100) showed that of 14 sustainability outcomes, improved understanding of protected areas values and improved biodiversity conservation were the most important. Other highly ranked outcomes were greater respect for culture, heritage, and/or traditions; improved quality of environmental conditions; social benefits to local communities; and improved economic viability of the protected area. Scores for satisfaction with outcomes were, like those for importance, all high but were less than those for importance for the majority, with improvement in quality of environmental conditions showing the largest gap. The satisfaction score exceeded that for importance only for increased competitiveness of the protected area as a tourist destination. "Brown" aspects of sustainability, i.e., decreased waste or energy use, were among the lowest-scoring outcomes for both importance and satisfaction. The most important factor enabling sustainability outcomes was provision of benefits to partnership members. Others were increased financial support, inclusiveness, supportive organisational and administrative arrangements, direct involvement of decision makers, partnership maturity, creation of new relationships, decreased conflict, and stimulation of innovation. Improving sustainability outcomes, therefore, requires maintaining these partnership attributes and also increasing emphasis on reducing waste and resource use.

  12. Carbon benefits from protected areas in the conterminous United States

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Conversion of forests to other land cover or land use releases the carbon stored in the forests and reduces carbon sequestration potential of the land. The rate of forest conversion could be reduced by establishing protected areas for biological diversity and other conservation goals. The purpose of this study is to quantify the efficiency and potential of forest land protection for mitigating GHG emissions. Results The analysis of related national-level datasets shows that during the period of 1992–2001 net forest losses in protected areas were small as compared to those in unprotected areas: -0.74% and −4.07%, respectively. If forest loss rates in protected and unprotected area had been similar, then forest losses in the protected forestlands would be larger by 870 km2/yr forests, that corresponds to release of 7 Tg C/yr (1 Tg=1012 g). Conversely, and continuing to assume no leakage effects or interactions of prices and harvest levels, about 1,200 km2/yr forests could have remained forest during the period of 1992–2001 if net area loss rate in the forestland outside protected areas was reduced by 20%. Not counting carbon in harvested wood products, this is equivalent to reducing fossil-fuel based carbon emissions by 10 Tg C/yr during this period. The South and West had much higher potentials to mitigate GHG emission from reducing loss rates in unprotected forests than that of North region. Spatially, rates of forest loss were higher across the coastal states in the southeastern US than would be expected from their population change, while interior states in the northern US experienced less forest area loss than would have been expected given their demographic characteristics. Conclusions The estimated carbon benefit from the reduced forest loss based on current protected areas is 7 Tg C/yr, equivalent to the average carbon benefit per year for a previously proposed ten-year $110 million per year tree planting program scenario in the US. If there

  13. Protecting count queries in study design

    PubMed Central

    Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

  14. Reserves in Context: Planning for Leakage from Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, Anna R.; Bode, Michael; Venter, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    When protected areas reduce threats within their boundaries, they often displace a portion of these threats into adjacent areas through a process known as ‘leakage’, undermining conservation objectives. Using theoretical models and a case study of terrestrial mammals in Indonesia, we develop the first theoretical explanation of how leakage impacts conservation actions, and highlight conservation strategies that mitigate these impacts. Although leakage is a socio-economic process, we demonstrate that its negative impacts are also affected by the distribution of species, with leakage having larger impacts in landscapes with homogeneous distribution of species richness. Moreover, leakage has a greater negative effect when conservation strategies are implemented opportunistically, even creating the potential for perversely negative consequences from protected area establishment. Leakage thereby increases the relative benefits of systematic conservation planning over opportunism, especially in areas with high leakage and heterogeneously distributed species. Although leakage has the potential to undermine conservation actions, conservation planning can minimize this risk. PMID:26053163

  15. Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Modeling for Protected Area Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, F.; Michaelis, A.; Votava, P.; Milesi, C.; Hashimoto, H.; Hiatt, S.; Nemani, R.

    2007-12-01

    Managers of U.S. national parks and international protected areas are under increasing pressure to monitor changes in park ecosystems resulting from climate and land use change within and adjacent to park boundaries. Despite great interest in these areas and the fact that some U.S. parks receive as many as 3.5 million visitors per year, U.S. and international protected areas are often sparsely instrumented, making it difficult for resource managers to quickly identify trends and changes in landscape conditions. Remote sensing and ecosystem modeling offer protected area managers important tools for monitoring of ecosystem conditions and scientifically based decision-making. These tools, however, can generate large data volumes and can require labor-intensive data processing making them difficult for protected area managers to use. To overcome these obstacles, the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) is currently being applied to automate the production, analysis, and delivery of a suite of data products from NASA satellites and ecosystem models to assist managers of U.S. national parks. TOPS uses ecosystem models to combine satellite data with ground-based observations to produce nowcasts and forecasts of ecosystem conditions. We are utilizing TOPS to deliver data products via a browser-based interface to NPS resource managers in near real- time for use in landscape monitoring and operational decision-making. Current products include measures of vegetation condition, ecosystem productivity, soil moisture, snow cover, climate, and fire occurrence. The use of TOPS component models and technologies streamlines the data processing chain and automates the process of ingesting and synthesizing heterogeneous data inputs. In addition, we describe the use of TOPS to automate the identification of trends and anomalies in ecosystem conditions, enabling protected area managers to track park-wide conditions daily, identify significant changes, focus monitoring

  16. Trends in global protected area governance, 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Dearden, Philip; Bennett, Michelle; Johnston, Jim

    2005-07-01

    Governance refers to the interactions among structures, processes, and traditions that determine direction, how power is exercised, and how the views of citizens or stakeholders are incorporated into decision-making. Governance is now recognized as a critical aspect of effective conservation and is a prominent part of the Convention on Biological Diversity's work program on protected areas. This study reports on a global survey to assess changes in governance of protected area systems between 1992 and 2002 based on responses from 41 countries. Results indicate that substantial changes have taken place with overall trends towards increased participation of more stakeholders, greater use of formal accountability mechanisms, and a wider range of participatory techniques. Many of these changes are supported by legislative and policy requirements and 75% of respondents reported changes in legislation over the past decade. Protected areas are becoming more influenced by global forces. A majority of respondents reported increased involvement of the private sector. Funding is coming from a broader range of sources, with a smaller proportion of income coming from government sources in 2002. Absolute funding amounts have increased, but almost two-thirds report that budgets fall short of requirements. Almost 90% of respondents felt that protected area governance had improved over the last decade; 67% felt that this had also led to improved management effectiveness. Respondents felt that secure funding, capacity building, and increased community involvement were the main governance needs for the future. PMID:16132451

  17. EXTINCTION DEBT OF PROTECTED AREAS IN DEVELOPING LANDSCAPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To conserve biological diversity, protected-area networks must be based not only upon current species distributions but also the landscape's long-term capacity to support populations. We used spatially-explicit population models requiring detailed habitat and demographic data to ...

  18. 40 CFR 149.3 - Critical Aquifer Protection Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vulnerable to contamination due to the hydrogeologic characteristics of the unsaturated or saturated zone within the suggested critical aquifer protection area; and (2) Contamination of the sole or principal source aquifer is reasonably likely to occur, unless a program to reduce or prevent such contamination...

  19. 40 CFR 149.3 - Critical Aquifer Protection Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vulnerable to contamination due to the hydrogeologic characteristics of the unsaturated or saturated zone within the suggested critical aquifer protection area; and (2) Contamination of the sole or principal source aquifer is reasonably likely to occur, unless a program to reduce or prevent such contamination...

  20. Development of Environmental Education Programs for Protected Areas in Madagascar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormsby, Alison

    2007-01-01

    Environmental education programs for schools in the peripheral zone of protected areas in Madagascar are still needed in numerous locations. My research investigated the status of environmental education and communication (EE&C) programs at Masoala National Park, Madagascar, as well as the attitudes of local residents toward the park and park…

  1. Environmental monitoring for protected areas: Review and prospect.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, D S

    1992-04-01

    Monitoring activities in protected areas have a long history. Internal planning and management needs early led to ecological inventories. More recently the increasing number and awareness of external threats to parks has led to a variety of monitoring programs. Efforts to use protected areas, and especially biosphere reserves, as ecological baselines, have reinforced this trend. And as protected areas are increasingly recognized to be islands with complex internal and regional interactions, holistic, systems approaches to inventory, monitoring, and assessment of their state are being developed. This paper begins by reviewing threats to parks and the origins and importance of inventory and monitoring activities. A review of resource survey methods follows. Ecosystem science and environmental monitoring are introduced as a foundation for consideration of several newer approaches to monitoring and assessing the state of natural environments. These newer approaches are stress/response frameworks, landscape ecology, ecosystem integrity, and state of the environment reporting. A final section presents some principles for monitoring the state of protected areas. Examples are drawn from experience with Canadian national parks. PMID:24234344

  2. Costa Rica's Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Juan José; Cortés, Jorge; Esquivel, María Fernanda; Salas, Eva

    2012-03-01

    With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km2 of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA), mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%), National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%), Wetlands (1.5%), Biological Reserves (1%), and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%). According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km2, corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km2. The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration. PMID:22458214

  3. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-3 Protected areas. (a) The...-State eradication program. In addition, the State must employ personnel with responsibility for the... inspection program under which every plant nursery within the State is inspected at least once each year...

  4. 40 CFR 149.3 - Critical Aquifer Protection Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vulnerable to contamination due to the hydrogeologic characteristics of the unsaturated or saturated zone within the suggested critical aquifer protection area; and (2) Contamination of the sole or principal source aquifer is reasonably likely to occur, unless a program to reduce or prevent such contamination...

  5. 40 CFR 149.3 - Critical Aquifer Protection Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vulnerable to contamination due to the hydrogeologic characteristics of the unsaturated or saturated zone within the suggested critical aquifer protection area; and (2) Contamination of the sole or principal source aquifer is reasonably likely to occur, unless a program to reduce or prevent such contamination...

  6. 40 CFR 149.3 - Critical Aquifer Protection Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vulnerable to contamination due to the hydrogeologic characteristics of the unsaturated or saturated zone within the suggested critical aquifer protection area; and (2) Contamination of the sole or principal source aquifer is reasonably likely to occur, unless a program to reduce or prevent such contamination...

  7. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2011-10-01 2005-10-01 true Emergency establishment of protection areas. 17.106 Section 17.106 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  8. Engineering Aerothermal Analysis for X-34 Thermal Protection System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurster, Kathryn E.; Riley, Christopher J.; Zoby, E. Vincent

    1998-01-01

    Design of the thermal protection system for any hypersonic flight vehicle requires determination of both the peak temperatures over the surface and the heating-rate history along the flight profile. In this paper, the process used to generate the aerothermal environments required for the X-34 Testbed Technology Demonstrator thermal protection system design is described as it has evolved from a relatively simplistic approach based on engineering methods applied to critical areas to one of detailed analyses over the entire vehicle. A brief description of the trajectory development leading to the selection of the thermal protection system design trajectory is included. Comparisons of engineering heating predictions with wind-tunnel test data and with results obtained using a Navier- Stokes flowfield code and an inviscid/boundary layer method are shown. Good agreement is demonstrated among all these methods for both the ground-test condition and the peak heating flight condition. Finally, the detailed analysis using engineering methods to interpolate the surface-heating-rate results from the inviscid/boundary layer method to predict the required thermal environments is described and results presented.

  9. Engineering Aerothermal Analysis for X-34 Thermal Protection System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurster, Kathryn E.; Riley, Christopher J.; Zoby, E. Vincent

    1998-01-01

    Design of the thermal protection system for any hypersonic flight vehicle requires determination of both the peak temperatures over the surface and the heating-rate history along the flight profile. In this paper, the process used to generate the aerothermal environments required for the X-34 Testbed Technology Demonstrator thermal protection system design is described as it has evolved from a relatively simplistic approach based on engineering methods applied to critical areas to one of detailed analyses over the entire vehicle. A brief description of the trajectory development leading to the selection of the thermal protection system design trajectory is included. Comparisons of engineering heating predictions with wind-tunnel test data and with results obtained using a Navier-Stokes flowfield code and an inviscid/boundary layer method are shown. Good agreement is demonstrated among all these methods for both the ground-test condition and the peak heating flight condition. Finally, the detailed analysis using engineering methods to interpolate the surface-heating-rate results from the inviscid/boundary layer method to predict the required thermal environments is described and results presented.

  10. Geometric programming prediction of design trends for OMV protective structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mog, R. A.; Horn, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The global optimization trends of protective honeycomb structural designs for spacecraft subject to hypervelocity meteroid and space debris are presented. This nonlinear problem is first formulated for weight minimization of the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) using a generic monomial predictor. Five problem formulations are considered, each dependent on the selection of independent design variables. Each case is optimized by considering the dual geometric programming problem. The dual variables are solved for in terms of the generic estimated exponents of the monomial predictor. The primal variables are then solved for by conversion. Finally, parametric design trends are developed for ranges of the estimated regression parameters. Results specify nonmonotonic relationships for the optimal first and second sheet mass per unit areas in terms of the estimated exponents.

  11. Why do we lose protected areas? Factors influencing protected area downgrading, downsizing and degazettement in the tropics and subtropics.

    PubMed

    Symes, William S; Rao, Madhu; Mascia, Michael B; Carrasco, L Roman

    2016-02-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are an essential tool for the conservation of biodiversity globally. Previous studies have focussed on the effectiveness of PAs and the design of optimal PA networks. However, not all PAs remain intact permanently; many PAs undergo downgrading, downsizing and/or degazettement (PADDD), a fact largely ignored until recently. The drivers of enacted PADDD events and the factors influencing its spatial occurrence are poorly understood, potentially undermining the efficacy of PAs and PA networks. Here we examine the spatial relationship between PADDD and economic, demographic and structural variables, using a 110-year data set of 342 enacted PADDD events across 44 countries in the tropics and subtropics. We find that the probability of an enacted PADDD event increases with the size of the PA and through a synergistic interaction between PA size and local population densities. Our results are robust to the under-reporting of enacted PADDD events that occur among smaller PAs and in regions with lower population density. We find an economic motive for PADDD events, given that the opportunity costs associated with larger PAs are higher, on average, than smaller PAs. Our findings suggest a need for conservation practitioners to better consider PA characteristics, as well as the social, economic and political context in which PAs are situated, to aid the creation of more efficient and sustainable PA networks. In particular, the dynamics of enacted PADDD events highlight the need to explicitly consider PA robustness as a core component of systematic conservation planning for PA networks. PMID:26367139

  12. Methodology for Designing Fault-Protection Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barltrop, Kevin; Levison, Jeffrey; Kan, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    A document describes a methodology for designing fault-protection (FP) software for autonomous spacecraft. The methodology embodies and extends established engineering practices in the technical discipline of Fault Detection, Diagnosis, Mitigation, and Recovery; and has been successfully implemented in the Deep Impact Spacecraft, a NASA Discovery mission. Based on established concepts of Fault Monitors and Responses, this FP methodology extends the notion of Opinion, Symptom, Alarm (aka Fault), and Response with numerous new notions, sub-notions, software constructs, and logic and timing gates. For example, Monitor generates a RawOpinion, which graduates into Opinion, categorized into no-opinion, acceptable, or unacceptable opinion. RaiseSymptom, ForceSymptom, and ClearSymptom govern the establishment and then mapping to an Alarm (aka Fault). Local Response is distinguished from FP System Response. A 1-to-n and n-to- 1 mapping is established among Monitors, Symptoms, and Responses. Responses are categorized by device versus by function. Responses operate in tiers, where the early tiers attempt to resolve the Fault in a localized step-by-step fashion, relegating more system-level response to later tier(s). Recovery actions are gated by epoch recovery timing, enabling strategy, urgency, MaxRetry gate, hardware availability, hazardous versus ordinary fault, and many other priority gates. This methodology is systematic, logical, and uses multiple linked tables, parameter files, and recovery command sequences. The credibility of the FP design is proven via a fault-tree analysis "top-down" approach, and a functional fault-mode-effects-and-analysis via "bottoms-up" approach. Via this process, the mitigation and recovery strategy(s) per Fault Containment Region scope (width versus depth) the FP architecture.

  13. Recreational Trails Reduce the Density of Ground-Dwelling Birds in Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Bill

    2015-05-01

    Recreational disturbance associated with trails has been identified as one of the major factors causing a decline of native biodiversity within protected areas. However, despite the negative impacts that recreation can have on biodiversity, providing public access to nature is critical for the future of the conservation of biodiversity. As such, many protected area managers are looking for tools to help maintain a balance between public access and biodiversity conservation. The objectives of this study were to examine the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling bird communities in eastern North America, identify functional guilds which are particularly sensitive to recreational trails, and derive guidelines for trail design to assist in managing the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling birds. Trails within 24 publicly owned natural areas were mapped, and breeding bird communities were described with the use of point count surveys. The density of forest birds, particularly of those species which nest or forage on the ground, were significantly positively influenced by the amount of trail-free refuge habitat. Although management options to control trail use in non-staffed protected areas are limited, this study suggests that protected area managers could design and maintain a trail network that would minimize impacts on resident wildlife, while providing recreational opportunities for visitors, by designing their trail network to maximize the area of trail-free habitat.

  14. Design of the target area for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Richard J.; Karpenko, Victor P.; Adams, Chris H.; Patel, C. S.; Pittenger, L. C.; Lee, F. Dean; Reitz, T. C.; Hibbard, Wilthea J.; Horton, W. R.; Trummer, David J.; Tobin, Michael T.; McDonald, Anthony E.; Wavrik, R. W.; Pittman, P. C.

    1997-12-01

    The preliminary design of the target area for the National Ignition Facility has been completed. The target area is required to meet a challenging set of engineering system design requirements and user needs. The target area must provide the appropriate conditions before, during, and after each shot. The repeated introduction of large amounts of laser energy into the chamber and subsequent target emissions represent new design challenges for ICF facility design. Prior to each shot, the target area must provide the required target illumination, target chamber vacuum, diagnostics, and optically stable structures. During the shot, the impact of the target emissions on the target chamber, diagnostics, and optical elements is minimized and the workers and public are protected from excessive prompt radiation doses. After the shot, residual radioactivation is managed to allow the required accessibility. Diagnostic data is retrieved, operations and maintenance activities are conducted, and the facility is ready for the next shot. The target area subsystems include the target chamber, target positioner, structural systems, target diagnostics, environmental systems, and the final optics assembly. The engineering design of the major elements of the target area requires a unique combination of precision engineering, structural analysis, opto-mechanical design, random vibration suppression, thermal stability, materials engineering, robotics, and optical cleanliness. The facility has been designed to conduct both x-ray driven targets and to be converted at a later date for direct drive experiments. The NIF has been configured to provide a wide range of experimental environments for the anticipated user groups of the facility. The design status of the major elements of the target area is described.

  15. A comparison of campfire impacts and policies in seven protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, S.E.; Marion, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Using resource-monitoring data from seven protected areas, the effectiveness of three campfire policies-campfire ban, designated campfires, and unregulated campfires-were assessed based on the number of fire sites and the amount of tree damage. Results indicate that unregulated campfire policies permitted substantial numbers of fire sites and tree damage in campsites, although fire bans did not eliminate or even substantially decrease these problems. A designated campfire policy was effective in decreasing number of fire sites, but little difference was found among policies regarding tree damage. Given the importance of campfires to visitor experiences, campfire prohibitions could be viewed as unnecessarily restrictive based on their limited success in preventing resource damage. Conclusions encourage protected-area managers to consider designated campfire policies and prohibitions on axes, hatchets, and saws to better meet resource protection and visitor experience mandates.

  16. Tourism partnerships in protected areas: exploring contributions to sustainability.

    PubMed

    Pfueller, Sharron L; Lee, Diane; Laing, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Partnerships between natural-area managers and the tourism industry have been suggested to contribute to sustainability in protected areas. This article explores how important sustainability outcomes of partnerships are to their members, how well they are realised and the features of partnerships leading to their achievement. In 21 case studies in Australia, interviews (n = 97) and surveys (n = 100) showed that of 14 sustainability outcomes, improved understanding of protected areas values and improved biodiversity conservation were the most important. Other highly ranked outcomes were greater respect for culture, heritage, and/or traditions; improved quality of environmental conditions; social benefits to local communities; and improved economic viability of the protected area. Scores for satisfaction with outcomes were, like those for importance, all high but were less than those for importance for the majority, with improvement in quality of environmental conditions showing the largest gap. The satisfaction score exceeded that for importance only for increased competitiveness of the protected area as a tourist destination. "Brown" aspects of sustainability, i.e., decreased waste or energy use, were among the lowest-scoring outcomes for both importance and satisfaction. The most important factor enabling sustainability outcomes was provision of benefits to partnership members. Others were increased financial support, inclusiveness, supportive organisational and administrative arrangements, direct involvement of decision makers, partnership maturity, creation of new relationships, decreased conflict, and stimulation of innovation. Improving sustainability outcomes, therefore, requires maintaining these partnership attributes and also increasing emphasis on reducing waste and resource use. PMID:21833637

  17. Lowland forest loss in protected areas of Indonesian Borneo.

    PubMed

    Curran, L M; Trigg, S N; McDonald, A K; Astiani, D; Hardiono, Y M; Siregar, P; Caniago, I; Kasischke, E

    2004-02-13

    The ecology of Bornean rainforests is driven by El Niño-induced droughts that trigger synchronous fruiting among trees and bursts of faunal reproduction that sustain vertebrate populations. However, many of these species- and carbon-rich ecosystems have been destroyed by logging and conversion, which increasingly threaten protected areas. Our satellite, Geographic Information System, and field-based analyses show that from 1985 to 2001, Kalimantan's protected lowland forests declined by more than 56% (>29,000 square kilometers). Even uninhabited frontier parks are logged to supply international markets. "Protected" forests have become increasingly isolated and deforested and their buffer zones degraded. Preserving the ecological integrity of Kalimantan's rainforests requires immediate transnational management. PMID:14963327

  18. Does a No-Take Marine Protected Area Benefit Seahorses?

    PubMed Central

    Harasti, David; Martin-Smith, Keith; Gladstone, William

    2014-01-01

    Seahorses are iconic charismatic species that are often used to ‘champion’ marine conservation causes around the world. As they are threatened in many countries by over-exploitation and habitat loss, marine protected areas (MPAs) could help with their protection and recovery. MPAs may conserve seahorses through protecting essential habitats and removing fishing pressures. Populations of White's seahorse, Hippocampus whitei, a species endemic to New South Wales, Australia, were monitored monthly from 2006 to 2009 using diver surveys at two sites within a no-take marine protected areas established in 1983, and at two control sites outside the no-take MPA sites. Predators of H. whitei were also identified and monitored. Hippocampus whitei were more abundant at the control sites. Seahorse predators (3 species of fish and 2 species of octopus) were more abundant within the no-take MPA sites. Seahorse and predator abundances were negatively correlated. Substantial variability in the seahorse population at one of the control sites reinforced the importance of long-term monitoring and use of multiple control sites to assess the outcomes of MPAs for seahorses. MPAs should be used cautiously to conserve seahorse populations as there is the risk of a negative impact through increased predator abundance. PMID:25137253

  19. Does a no-take marine protected area benefit seahorses?

    PubMed

    Harasti, David; Martin-Smith, Keith; Gladstone, William

    2014-01-01

    Seahorses are iconic charismatic species that are often used to 'champion' marine conservation causes around the world. As they are threatened in many countries by over-exploitation and habitat loss, marine protected areas (MPAs) could help with their protection and recovery. MPAs may conserve seahorses through protecting essential habitats and removing fishing pressures. Populations of White's seahorse, Hippocampus whitei, a species endemic to New South Wales, Australia, were monitored monthly from 2006 to 2009 using diver surveys at two sites within a no-take marine protected areas established in 1983, and at two control sites outside the no-take MPA sites. Predators of H. whitei were also identified and monitored. Hippocampus whitei were more abundant at the control sites. Seahorse predators (3 species of fish and 2 species of octopus) were more abundant within the no-take MPA sites. Seahorse and predator abundances were negatively correlated. Substantial variability in the seahorse population at one of the control sites reinforced the importance of long-term monitoring and use of multiple control sites to assess the outcomes of MPAs for seahorses. MPAs should be used cautiously to conserve seahorse populations as there is the risk of a negative impact through increased predator abundance. PMID:25137253

  20. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Useche, D Carolina; Rendeiro, Julio; Kalka, Margareta; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Sloan, Sean P; Laurance, Susan G; Campbell, Mason; Abernethy, Kate; Alvarez, Patricia; Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor; Ashton, Peter; Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Blom, Allard; Bobo, Kadiri S; Cannon, Charles H; Cao, Min; Carroll, Richard; Chapman, Colin; Coates, Rosamond; Cords, Marina; Danielsen, Finn; De Dijn, Bart; Dinerstein, Eric; Donnelly, Maureen A; Edwards, David; Edwards, Felicity; Farwig, Nina; Fashing, Peter; Forget, Pierre-Michel; Foster, Mercedes; Gale, George; Harris, David; Harrison, Rhett; Hart, John; Karpanty, Sarah; Kress, W John; Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Logsdon, Willis; Lovett, Jon; Magnusson, William; Maisels, Fiona; Marshall, Andrew R; McClearn, Deedra; Mudappa, Divya; Nielsen, Martin R; Pearson, Richard; Pitman, Nigel; van der Ploeg, Jan; Plumptre, Andrew; Poulsen, John; Quesada, Mauricio; Rainey, Hugo; Robinson, Douglas; Roetgers, Christiane; Rovero, Francesco; Scatena, Frederick; Schulze, Christian; Sheil, Douglas; Struhsaker, Thomas; Terborgh, John; Thomas, Duncan; Timm, Robert; Urbina-Cardona, J Nicolas; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Wright, S Joseph; Arias-G, Juan Carlos; Arroyo, Luzmila; Ashton, Mark; Auzel, Philippe; Babaasa, Dennis; Babweteera, Fred; Baker, Patrick; Banki, Olaf; Bass, Margot; Bila-Isia, Inogwabini; Blake, Stephen; Brockelman, Warren; Brokaw, Nicholas; Brühl, Carsten A; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Chao, Jung-Tai; Chave, Jerome; Chellam, Ravi; Clark, Connie J; Clavijo, José; Congdon, Robert; Corlett, Richard; Dattaraja, H S; Dave, Chittaranjan; Davies, Glyn; Beisiegel, Beatriz de Mello; da Silva, Rosa de Nazaré Paes; Di Fiore, Anthony; Diesmos, Arvin; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Doran-Sheehy, Diane; Eaton, Mitchell; Emmons, Louise; Estrada, Alejandro; Ewango, Corneille; Fedigan, Linda; Feer, François; Fruth, Barbara; Willis, Jacalyn Giacalone; Goodale, Uromi; Goodman, Steven; Guix, Juan C; Guthiga, Paul; Haber, William; Hamer, Keith; Herbinger, Ilka; Hill, Jane; Huang, Zhongliang; Sun, I Fang; Ickes, Kalan; Itoh, Akira; Ivanauskas, Natália; Jackes, Betsy; Janovec, John; Janzen, Daniel; Jiangming, Mo; Jin, Chen; Jones, Trevor; Justiniano, Hermes; Kalko, Elisabeth; Kasangaki, Aventino; Killeen, Timothy; King, Hen-biau; Klop, Erik; Knott, Cheryl; Koné, Inza; Kudavidanage, Enoka; Ribeiro, José Lahoz da Silva; Lattke, John; Laval, Richard; Lawton, Robert; Leal, Miguel; Leighton, Mark; Lentino, Miguel; Leonel, Cristiane; Lindsell, Jeremy; Ling-Ling, Lee; Linsenmair, K Eduard; Losos, Elizabeth; Lugo, Ariel; Lwanga, Jeremiah; Mack, Andrew L; Martins, Marlucia; McGraw, W Scott; McNab, Roan; Montag, Luciano; Thompson, Jo Myers; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Nakagawa, Michiko; Nepal, Sanjay; Norconk, Marilyn; Novotny, Vojtech; O'Donnell, Sean; Opiang, Muse; Ouboter, Paul; Parker, Kenneth; Parthasarathy, N; Pisciotta, Kátia; Prawiradilaga, Dewi; Pringle, Catherine; Rajathurai, Subaraj; Reichard, Ulrich; Reinartz, Gay; Renton, Katherine; Reynolds, Glen; Reynolds, Vernon; Riley, Erin; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Rothman, Jessica; Round, Philip; Sakai, Shoko; Sanaiotti, Tania; Savini, Tommaso; Schaab, Gertrud; Seidensticker, John; Siaka, Alhaji; Silman, Miles R; Smith, Thomas B; de Almeida, Samuel Soares; Sodhi, Navjot; Stanford, Craig; Stewart, Kristine; Stokes, Emma; Stoner, Kathryn E; Sukumar, Raman; Surbeck, Martin; Tobler, Mathias; Tscharntke, Teja; Turkalo, Andrea; Umapathy, Govindaswamy; van Weerd, Merlijn; Rivera, Jorge Vega; Venkataraman, Meena; Venn, Linda; Verea, Carlos; de Castilho, Carolina Volkmer; Waltert, Matthias; Wang, Benjamin; Watts, David; Weber, William; West, Paige; Whitacre, David; Whitney, Ken; Wilkie, David; Williams, Stephen; Wright, Debra D; Wright, Patricia; Xiankai, Lu; Yonzon, Pralad; Zamzani, Franky

    2012-09-13

    The rapid disruption of tropical forests probably imperils global biodiversity more than any other contemporary phenomenon. With deforestation advancing quickly, protected areas are increasingly becoming final refuges for threatened species and natural ecosystem processes. However, many protected areas in the tropics are themselves vulnerable to human encroachment and other environmental stresses. As pressures mount, it is vital to know whether existing reserves can sustain their biodiversity. A critical constraint in addressing this question has been that data describing a broad array of biodiversity groups have been unavailable for a sufficiently large and representative sample of reserves. Here we present a uniquely comprehensive data set on changes over the past 20 to 30 years in 31 functional groups of species and 21 potential drivers of environmental change, for 60 protected areas stratified across the world’s major tropical regions. Our analysis reveals great variation in reserve ‘health’: about half of all reserves have been effective or performed passably, but the rest are experiencing an erosion of biodiversity that is often alarmingly widespread taxonomically and functionally. Habitat disruption, hunting and forest-product exploitation were the strongest predictors of declining reserve health. Crucially, environmental changes immediately outside reserves seemed nearly as important as those inside in determining their ecological fate, with changes inside reserves strongly mirroring those occurring around them. These findings suggest that tropical protected areas are often intimately linked ecologically to their surrounding habitats, and that a failure to stem broad-scale loss and degradation of such habitats could sharply increase the likelihood of serious biodiversity declines. PMID:22832582

  1. NCRP Program Area Committee 4: Radiation Protection in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Brink, James A; Miller, Donald L

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee (PAC) 4 deals with issues in radiation protection in healthcare settings. NCRP Statement No. 11 was published at the end of 2014, and three active scientific committees (SC) are at work--SC 4-5, SC 4-7, and SC 4-8. PAC 4 is also considering a number of topics that could be addressed by new scientific committees in the future. PMID:26717159

  2. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  3. Environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management.

    PubMed

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices. PMID:17265109

  4. Adaptive comanagement of a marine protected area network in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Rebecca; Jupiter, Stacy D

    2013-12-01

    Adaptive management of natural resources is an iterative process of decision making whereby management strategies are progressively changed or adjusted in response to new information. Despite an increasing focus on the need for adaptive conservation strategies, there remain few applied examples. We describe the 9-year process of adaptive comanagement of a marine protected area network in Kubulau District, Fiji. In 2011, a review of protected area boundaries and management rules was motivated by the need to enhance management effectiveness and the desire to improve resilience to climate change. Through a series of consultations, with the Wildlife Conservation Society providing scientific input to community decision making, the network of marine protected areas was reconfigured so as to maximize resilience and compliance. Factors identified as contributing to this outcome include well-defined resource-access rights; community respect for a flexible system of customary governance; long-term commitment and presence of comanagement partners; supportive policy environment for comanagement; synthesis of traditional management approaches with systematic monitoring; and district-wide coordination, which provided a broader spatial context for adaptive-management decision making. Co-Manejo Adaptativo de una Red de Áreas Marinas Protegidas en Fiyi. PMID:24112643

  5. Managing protected areas under climate change: challenges and priorities.

    PubMed

    Rannow, Sven; Macgregor, Nicholas A; Albrecht, Juliane; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Förster, Michael; Heiland, Stefan; Janauer, Georg; Morecroft, Mike D; Neubert, Marco; Sarbu, Anca; Sienkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2014-10-01

    The implementation of adaptation actions in local conservation management is a new and complex task with multiple facets, influenced by factors differing from site to site. A transdisciplinary perspective is therefore required to identify and implement effective solutions. To address this, the International Conference on Managing Protected Areas under Climate Change brought together international scientists, conservation managers, and decision-makers to discuss current experiences with local adaptation of conservation management. This paper summarizes the main issues for implementing adaptation that emerged from the conference. These include a series of conclusions and recommendations on monitoring, sensitivity assessment, current and future management practices, and legal and policy aspects. A range of spatial and temporal scales must be considered in the implementation of climate-adapted management. The adaptation process must be area-specific and consider the ecosystem and the social and economic conditions within and beyond protected area boundaries. However, a strategic overview is also needed: management at each site should be informed by conservation priorities and likely impacts of climate change at regional or even wider scales. Acting across these levels will be a long and continuous process, requiring coordination with actors outside the "traditional" conservation sector. To achieve this, a range of research, communication, and policy/legal actions is required. We identify a series of important actions that need to be taken at different scales to enable managers of protected sites to adapt successfully to a changing climate. PMID:24722848

  6. Managing Protected Areas Under Climate Change: Challenges and Priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannow, Sven; Macgregor, Nicholas A.; Albrecht, Juliane; Crick, Humphrey Q. P.; Förster, Michael; Heiland, Stefan; Janauer, Georg; Morecroft, Mike D.; Neubert, Marco; Sarbu, Anca; Sienkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2014-10-01

    The implementation of adaptation actions in local conservation management is a new and complex task with multiple facets, influenced by factors differing from site to site. A transdisciplinary perspective is therefore required to identify and implement effective solutions. To address this, the International Conference on Managing Protected Areas under Climate Change brought together international scientists, conservation managers, and decision-makers to discuss current experiences with local adaptation of conservation management. This paper summarizes the main issues for implementing adaptation that emerged from the conference. These include a series of conclusions and recommendations on monitoring, sensitivity assessment, current and future management practices, and legal and policy aspects. A range of spatial and temporal scales must be considered in the implementation of climate-adapted management. The adaptation process must be area-specific and consider the ecosystem and the social and economic conditions within and beyond protected area boundaries. However, a strategic overview is also needed: management at each site should be informed by conservation priorities and likely impacts of climate change at regional or even wider scales. Acting across these levels will be a long and continuous process, requiring coordination with actors outside the "traditional" conservation sector. To achieve this, a range of research, communication, and policy/legal actions is required. We identify a series of important actions that need to be taken at different scales to enable managers of protected sites to adapt successfully to a changing climate.

  7. Movements of Diplodus sargus (Sparidae) within a Portuguese coastal Marine Protected Area: Are they really protected?

    PubMed

    Belo, Ana Filipa; Pereira, Tadeu José; Quintella, Bernardo Ruivo; Castro, Nuno; Costa, José Lino; de Almeida, Pedro Raposo

    2016-03-01

    Mark-recapture tagging and acoustic telemetry were used to study the movements of Diplodus sargus within the Pessegueiro Island no-take Marine Protected Area (MPA), (Portugal) and assess its size adequacy for this species' protection against fishing activities. Therefore, 894 Diplodus sargus were captured and marked with conventional plastic t-bar tags. At the same time, 19 D. sargus were tagged with acoustic transmitters and monitored by 20 automatic acoustic receivers inside the no-take MPA for 60 days. Recapture rate of conventionally tagged specimens was 3.47%, most occurring during subsequent marking campaigns. One individual however was recaptured by recreational fishermen near Faro (ca. 250 km from the tagging location) 6 months after release. Furthermore, three specimens were recaptured in October 2013 near releasing site, one year after being tagged. Regarding acoustic telemetry, 18 specimens were detected by the receivers during most of the study period. To analyse no-take MPA use, the study site was divided into five areas reflecting habitat characteristics, three of which were frequently used by the tagged fish: Exterior, Interior Protected and Interior Exposed areas. Information on no-take protected area use was also analysed according to diel and tidal patterns. Preferred passageways and permanence areas were identified and high site fidelity was confirmed. The interaction between tide and time of day influenced space use patterns, with higher and more variable movements during daytime and neap tides. This no-take MPA proved to be an important refuge and feeding area for this species, encompassing most of the home ranges of tagged specimens. Therefore, it is likely that this no-take MPA is of adequate size to protect D. sargus against fishing activities, thus contributing to its sustainable management in the region. PMID:26794495

  8. The future of protected areas in a crowded world.

    PubMed

    Harmon, D; Brechin, S R

    1994-01-01

    Population-environment interactions date back to Malthus and even Confucius who viewed humans as a threat to the planet. In contrast, pronatalists regard the human mind the ultimate resource and think that there is no limit to the number of people the earth can support. There are a few countries whose population is projected to be lower in 2025 than it was in 1990: Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Greece, Hungary, and Italy. The highest population growth rates (3% and above) are in Africa, the Gulf states, and some other Islamic countries. Rates of 1-3% are common everywhere outside Europe. Almost all of the wealthiest countries are growing at the rate of less than 1%, while the poorest countries, except for China and Sri Lanka, are growing at rates of 2% or more. The world's continuing population growth rides on the fact that in developing countries 40% of the population is under the age of 15. Relentless urbanization will eradicate 1.4 billion acres of arable land from 1980 to 2000. In 1950, 13 of the 25 most populous cities were in less developed countries; by 2000, 20 out of 25 will be. Migration, especially rural-urban migration, has an impact. "Economic refugees" from impoverished rural areas, "environmental refugees" from overworked lands or disaster-stricken areas, and political refugees from wars or persecution crowd around protected areas. Some examples of the population-protected area interactions include Kenya (the 3.56% growth rate threatens the world-renowned national parks), Tanzania (its 3.28% rate of growth causes encroachment into protected areas), Congo (natural rainforests are disturbed), Gabon (the rate of growth is 4.01%), and Zaire (an annual increment of over 1 million people). The threat to unexploited wildlife in the Ivory Coast, direct pressure on forested protected areas in Malaysia, deforestation in the Philippines, in-migration into the Pelen in Guatemala, the situation of the Shenandoah National Park in the United States, and pressures

  9. 10 CFR 72.182 - Design for physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design for physical protection. 72.182 Section 72.182 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Physical Protection § 72.182 Design for...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.404 - Wiring design and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wiring design and protection. 1926.404 Section 1926.404... Requirements § 1926.404 Wiring design and protection. (a) Use and identification of grounded and grounding...) Power conductors below communication conductors—30 inches (762 mm) . (B) Power conductors alone or...

  11. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-11-01

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types--always far higher within the arc--but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact. PMID:26460126

  12. General principles for integrating geoheritage conservation in protected area management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, John E.; Crofts, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Development of more integrated approaches to the management of protected areas requires not only the protection of geosites, but also the effective application of geoconservation principles that apply more widely to the sustainable management of natural systems. Key guiding principles include: working with natural processes; managing natural systems and processes in a spatially integrated manner; accepting the inevitability of natural change; considering the responses of geomorphological processes to the effects of global climate change; recognising the sensitivity of natural systems and managing them within the limits of their capacity to absorb change; basing conservation management of active systems on a sound understanding of the underlying physical processes; making provision for managing visitors at sensitive sites; and acknowledging the interdependency of geodiversity and biodiversity management. As well as recognising the value of geoheritage in its own right, a more integrated approach to conservation across the full range of IUCN Protected Area Management Categories would benefit both biodiversity and geodiversity, through application of the concept of 'conserving nature's stage' and adopting an ecosystem approach.

  13. Determining management strategies for the Sarikum Nature Protection Area.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Sevgi

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, many environmental problems have become important factors in promoting the economic need to develop tourist activity: climate change such as energy wars, increasing hunger and aridity, population increases in urban areas, excessive and unthinking use of natural resources, difficult international relations, economic competition, and increasing environmental stress. Trends in global tourism have changed with changes in culture and our attitude to nature. Changes in both the profile and consumption patterns of tourists have called for the need to balance the use of natural and cultural assets with the need to adequately protect them. In this study, the Sarikum Nature Protection Area (SNPA) was selected as a case study because of its significance as a Turkish wetland area and the variety of different ecosystems coexisting within it. The study focussed on management strategies, but also provides a broader strategy for an area that currently has no management plan. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses of the area were gathered and analyzed using R'WOT analysis (ranking + SWOT), a multi-criteria assessment method, in order to determine strategies, obtain the participation of interest groups, and assess their opinions and attitudes. The analysis showed the following: the rich biological diversity and the existence of endemic species were the reserve's most significant strength; the presence of natural areas in surrounding regions was the most significant opportunity; the shortage of infrastructure and lack of legal regulation of ecotourism was the most significant weakness; and the lack of a management plan was the most immediate threat. PMID:25678353

  14. Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C.; Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Pereira, José M. C.; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world’s most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997–2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  15. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    PubMed

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C; Oliveira, Sofia L J; Pereira, José M C; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  16. Ecosystem-based analysis of a marine protected area where fisheries and protected species coexist.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Tenorio, Alejandro; Montaño-Moctezuma, Gabriela; Espejel, Ileana

    2010-04-01

    The Gulf of California Biosphere Reserve (UGC&CRDBR) is a Marine Protected Area that was established in 1993 with the aim of preserving biodiversity and remediating environmental impacts. Because remaining vigilant is hard and because regulatory measures are difficult to enforce, harvesting has been allowed to diminish poaching. Useful management strategies have not been implemented, however, and conflicts remain between conservation legislation and the fisheries. We developed a transdisciplinary methodological scheme (pressure-state-response, loop analysis, and Geographic Information System) that includes both protected species and fisheries modeled together in a spatially represented marine ecosystem. We analyzed the response of this marine ecosystem supposing that conservation strategies were successful and that the abundance of protected species had increased. The final aim of this study was to identify ecosystem-level management alternatives capable of diminishing the conflict between conservation measures and fisheries. This methodological integration aimed to understand the functioning of the UGC&CRDBR community as well as to identify implications of conservation strategies such as the recovery of protected species. Our results suggest research hypotheses related to key species that should be protected within the ecosystem, and they point out the importance of considering spatial management strategies. Counterintuitive findings underline the importance of understanding how the community responds to disturbances and the effect of indirect pathways on the abundance of ecosystem constituents. Insights from this research are valuable in defining policies in marine reserves where fisheries and protected species coexist. PMID:20204634

  17. Ecosystem-Based Analysis of a Marine Protected Area Where Fisheries and Protected Species Coexist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Tenorio, Alejandro; Montaño-Moctezuma, Gabriela; Espejel, Ileana

    2010-04-01

    The Gulf of California Biosphere Reserve (UGC&CRDBR) is a Marine Protected Area that was established in 1993 with the aim of preserving biodiversity and remediating environmental impacts. Because remaining vigilant is hard and because regulatory measures are difficult to enforce, harvesting has been allowed to diminish poaching. Useful management strategies have not been implemented, however, and conflicts remain between conservation legislation and the fisheries. We developed a transdisciplinary methodological scheme (pressure-state-response, loop analysis, and Geographic Information System) that includes both protected species and fisheries modeled together in a spatially represented marine ecosystem. We analyzed the response of this marine ecosystem supposing that conservation strategies were successful and that the abundance of protected species had increased. The final aim of this study was to identify ecosystem-level management alternatives capable of diminishing the conflict between conservation measures and fisheries. This methodological integration aimed to understand the functioning of the UGC&CRDBR community as well as to identify implications of conservation strategies such as the recovery of protected species. Our results suggest research hypotheses related to key species that should be protected within the ecosystem, and they point out the importance of considering spatial management strategies. Counterintuitive findings underline the importance of understanding how the community responds to disturbances and the effect of indirect pathways on the abundance of ecosystem constituents. Insights from this research are valuable in defining policies in marine reserves where fisheries and protected species coexist.

  18. Protection Enhances Community and Habitat Stability: Evidence from a Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Fraschetti, Simonetta; Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Stanislao; Terlizzi, Antonio; Boero, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    Rare evidences support that Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) enhance the stability of marine habitats and assemblages. Based on nine years of observation (2001–2009) inside and outside a well managed MPA, we assessed the potential of conservation and management actions to modify patterns of spatial and/or temporal variability of Posidonia oceanica meadows, the lower midlittoral and the shallow infralittoral rock assemblages. Significant differences in both temporal variations and spatial patterns were observed between protected and unprotected locations. A lower temporal variability in the protected vs. unprotected assemblages was found in the shallow infralittoral, demonstrating that, at least at local scale, protection can enhance community stability. Macrobenthos with long-lived and relatively slow-growing invertebrates and structurally complex algal forms were homogeneously distributed in space and went through little fluctuations in time. In contrast, a mosaic of disturbed patches featured unprotected locations, with small-scale shifts from macroalgal stands to barrens, and harsh temporal variations between the two states. Opposite patterns of spatial and temporal variability were found for the midlittoral assemblages. Despite an overall clear pattern of seagrass regression through time, protected meadows showed a significantly higher shoot density than unprotected ones, suggesting a higher resistance to local human activities. Our results support the assumption that the exclusion/management of human activities within MPAs enhance the stability of the structural components of protected marine systems, reverting or arresting threat-induced trajectories of change. PMID:24349135

  19. Current models broadly neglect specific needs of biodiversity conservation in protected areas under climate change

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Protected areas are the most common and important instrument for the conservation of biological diversity and are called for under the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity. Growing human population densities, intensified land-use, invasive species and increasing habitat fragmentation threaten ecosystems worldwide and protected areas are often the only refuge for endangered species. Climate change is posing an additional threat that may also impact ecosystems currently under protection. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to include the potential impact of climate change when designing future nature conservation strategies and implementing protected area management. This approach would go beyond reactive crisis management and, by necessity, would include anticipatory risk assessments. One avenue for doing so is being provided by simulation models that take advantage of the increase in computing capacity and performance that has occurred over the last two decades. Here we review the literature to determine the state-of-the-art in modeling terrestrial protected areas under climate change, with the aim of evaluating and detecting trends and gaps in the current approaches being employed, as well as to provide a useful overview and guidelines for future research. Results Most studies apply statistical, bioclimatic envelope models and focus primarily on plant species as compared to other taxa. Very few studies utilize a mechanistic, process-based approach and none examine biotic interactions like predation and competition. Important factors like land-use, habitat fragmentation, invasion and dispersal are rarely incorporated, restricting the informative value of the resulting predictions considerably. Conclusion The general impression that emerges is that biodiversity conservation in protected areas could benefit from the application of modern modeling approaches to a greater extent than is currently reflected in the scientific literature. It is

  20. A quantitative method for zoning of protected areas and its spatial ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen Sabatini, María; Verdiell, Adriana; Rodríguez Iglesias, Ricardo M; Vidal, Marta

    2007-04-01

    Zoning is a key prescriptive tool for administration and management of protected areas. However, the lack of zoning is common for most protected areas in developing countries and, as a consequence, many protected areas are not effective in achieving the goals for which they were created. In this work, we introduce a quantitative method to expeditiously zone protected areas and we evaluate its ecological implications on hypothetical zoning cases. A real-world application is reported for the Talampaya National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Argentina. Our method is a modification of the zoning forest model developed by Bos [Bos, J., 1993. Zoning in forest management: a quadratic assignment problem solved by simulated annealing. Journal of Environmental Management 37, 127-145.]. Main innovations involve a quadratic function of distance between land units, non-reciprocal weights for adjacent land uses (mathematically represented by a non-symmetric matrix), and the possibility of imposing a connectivity constraint. Due to its intrinsic spatial dimension, the zoning problem belongs to the NP-hard class, i.e. a solution can only be obtained in non-polynomial time [Nemhausser, G., Wolsey, L., 1988. Integer and Combinatorial Optimization. John Wiley, New York.]. For that purpose, we applied a simulated annealing heuristic implemented as a FORTRAN language routine. Our innovations were effective in achieving zoning designs more compatible with biological diversity protection. The quadratic distance term facilitated the delineation of core zones for elements of significance; the connectivity constraint minimized fragmentation; non-reciprocal land use weightings contributed to better representing management decisions, and influenced mainly the edge and shape of zones. This quantitative method can assist the zoning process within protected areas by offering many zonation scheme alternatives with minimum cost, time and effort. This ability provides a new tool to

  1. Design of Schools to Incorporate Fallout Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folley, Milo D.

    Means are suggested by which a school district may incorporate low-cost fallout protection in a school construction program, through construction of an underground shelter beneath the concrete slab foundation. Ways of controlling distribution and filtering air are discussed. The author also suggests consideration of a completely underground…

  2. Recovery Trends of Commercial Fish: The Case of an Underperforming Mediterranean Marine Protected Area.

    PubMed

    Marra, Stefano; Coppa, Stefania; Camedda, Andrea; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Wrachien, Francesco; Massaro, Giorgio; de Lucia, G Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Temporal trends in the recovery of exploited species in marine protected areas (MPAs) are useful for a proper assessment of the efficacy of protection measures. The effects of protection on the fish assemblages of the sublittoral rocky reefs in the "Penisola del Sinis-Isola di Mal di Ventre" MPA (W. Sardinia, Italy) were evaluated using a multi-year series of data. Four surveys, conducted 7, 10, 13 and 15 years after the area was designated as an MPA and carried out in the period spanning June and July, were used to estimate the abundance and biomass of commercial species. The surveys were carried out in zones with decreasing levels of fishing restrictions within the MPA (zones A, B, C) and in unprotected zones (OUT1 and OUT2), and underwater video visual census techniques were used. Protected zones only occasionally showed higher levels of abundance or biomass, and the trajectories of those metrics were not consistent across the years. In addition, the zone with the highest level of protection (zone A) never presented levels of abundance and biomass higher than those in zones B and C. This study shows that even 15 years after designation, protection has had no appreciable effect in the MPA studied. It is argued that this is emblematic of several shortcomings in the planning, regulation and enforcement frameworks of the MPA. PMID:26741959

  3. Recovery Trends of Commercial Fish: The Case of an Underperforming Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Stefano; Coppa, Stefania; Camedda, Andrea; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Wrachien, Francesco; Massaro, Giorgio; de Lucia, G. Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Temporal trends in the recovery of exploited species in marine protected areas (MPAs) are useful for a proper assessment of the efficacy of protection measures. The effects of protection on the fish assemblages of the sublittoral rocky reefs in the “Penisola del Sinis-Isola di Mal di Ventre” MPA (W. Sardinia, Italy) were evaluated using a multi-year series of data. Four surveys, conducted 7, 10, 13 and 15 years after the area was designated as an MPA and carried out in the period spanning June and July, were used to estimate the abundance and biomass of commercial species. The surveys were carried out in zones with decreasing levels of fishing restrictions within the MPA (zones A, B, C) and in unprotected zones (OUT1 and OUT2), and underwater video visual census techniques were used. Protected zones only occasionally showed higher levels of abundance or biomass, and the trajectories of those metrics were not consistent across the years. In addition, the zone with the highest level of protection (zone A) never presented levels of abundance and biomass higher than those in zones B and C. This study shows that even 15 years after designation, protection has had no appreciable effect in the MPA studied. It is argued that this is emblematic of several shortcomings in the planning, regulation and enforcement frameworks of the MPA. PMID:26741959

  4. 2. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, FROM INSIDE THE PROTECTED AREA AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, FROM INSIDE THE PROTECTED AREA AT THE BASE OF TOWER 901. THE BUILDINGS IN THE FOREGROUND INCLUDE 984, 992, 991, 989, AND 968. THESE BUILDINGS MAKE UP THE BUILDING 991 COMPLEX. BUILDING 991, PLANT D, WAS THE FIRST OPERATIONAL BUILDING ON SITE, CONSTRUCTED IN 1951 AS THE FINAL ASSEMBLY AND SHIPPING AND RECEIVING BUILDING. TO THE NORTH AND NORTHWEST OF BUILDING 991 ARE THE UNDERGROUND VAULTS AND TUNNELS USED TO STORAGE WEAPONS COMPONENTS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. 7 CFR 407.17 - Area risk protection insurance for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for wheat. 407.17... protection insurance for wheat. The wheat crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for... Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Wheat Crop Insurance Provisions...

  6. 7 CFR 407.16 - Area risk protection insurance for soybean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for soybean. 407.16... protection insurance for soybean. The soybean crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance... Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Soybean Crop Insurance Provisions...

  7. 7 CFR 407.11 - Area risk protection insurance for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for corn. 407.11... protection insurance for corn. The corn crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for the... Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Corn Crop Insurance Provisions 1. Definitions...

  8. 7 CFR 407.14 - Area risk protection insurance for peanuts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for peanuts 407.14... protection insurance for peanuts The peanut crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for... Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Peanut Crop Insurance Provisions...

  9. 7 CFR 407.12 - Area risk protection insurance for cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for cotton. 407.12... protection insurance for cotton. The cotton crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for... Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions...

  10. 7 CFR 407.13 - Area risk protection insurance for forage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for forage. 407.13... protection insurance for forage. The forage crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for... Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Forage Crop Insurance Provisions...

  11. 7 CFR 407.10 - Area risk protection insurance for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for barley. 407.10... protection insurance for barley. The barley crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for... Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Barley Crop Insurance Provisions...

  12. Economic Shocks and Public Health Protections in US Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined public health system responses to economic shocks using longitudinal observations of public health activities implemented in US metropolitan areas from 1998 to 2012. Methods. The National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems collected data on the implementation of 20 core public health activities in a nationally representative cohort of 280 metropolitan areas in 1998, 2006, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate how local economic shocks relate to the scope of activities implemented in communities, the mix of organizations performing them, and perceptions of the effectiveness of activities. Results. Public health activities fell by nearly 5% in the average community between 2006 and 2012, with the bottom quintile of communities losing nearly 25% of their activities. Local public health delivery fell most sharply among communities experiencing the largest increases in unemployment and the largest reductions in governmental public health spending. Conclusions. Federal resources and private sector contributions failed to avert reductions in local public health protections during the recession. New financing mechanisms may be necessary to ensure equitable public health protections during economic downturns. PMID:25689201

  13. 29 CFR 1910.304 - Wiring design and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wiring design and protection. 1910.304 Section 1910.304 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Electrical Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems § 1910.304 Wiring design and...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.304 - Wiring design and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wiring design and protection. 1910.304 Section 1910.304 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Electrical Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems § 1910.304 Wiring design and...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.304 - Wiring design and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wiring design and protection. 1910.304 Section 1910.304 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Electrical Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems § 1910.304 Wiring design and...

  16. Drivers and socioeconomic impacts of tourism participation in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  17. Drivers and Socioeconomic Impacts of Tourism Participation in Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A.; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A.; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  18. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D; Swetnam, Ruth D; Platts, Philip J; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2)), but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts. PMID:22768074

  19. Design of Transpiration Cooled Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callens, E. Eugene, Jr.; Vinet, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    This study explored three approaches for the utilization of transpiration cooling in thermal protection systems. One model uses an impermeable wall with boiling water heat transfer at the backface (Model I). A second model uses a permeable wall with a boiling water backface and additional heat transfer to the water vapor as it flows in channels toward the exposed surface (Model II). The third model also uses a permeable wall, but maintains a boiling condition at the exposed surface of the material (Model III). The governing equations for the models were developed in non-dimensional form and a comprehensive parametric investigation of the effects of the independent variables on the important dependent variables was performed. In addition, detailed analyses were performed for selected materials to evaluate the practical limitations of the results of the parametric study.

  20. Human migration, protected areas, and conservation outreach in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C

    2014-06-01

    A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics. PMID:24476123

  1. Challenges to the Future Development of Iran's Protected Areas System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F.

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1950s, there has been a continuous increase in the number and coverage of protected areas (PAs) in Iran, and in total 253 PAs have been declared that cover 10.12 % of the country's area. This paper reviews literature addressing Iran's PAs, examines what is known about them, highlights the challenges and lessons learned, and identifies areas where more research is needed. The PA system in Iran is criticized because of (1) shortages of manpower, equipment, and financial resources; (2) de jure PAs that are often implemented as de facto reserves; (3) lack of national biodiversity indicators and objective monitoring processes; and (4) limited public participation and conflict between people over PAs. To improve, Iran's PAs system needs to be realistically supported by policies and planning instruments. In addition, the implementation of active management to restore habitat, increase education and awareness, shift practices towards the guidelines of international organizations, build capacity, and improve management and co-management by local communities needs to occur.

  2. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  3. Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities.

    PubMed

    Mellin, Camille; Aaron MacNeil, M; Cheal, Alistair J; Emslie, Michael J; Julian Caley, M

    2016-06-01

    With marine biodiversity declining globally at accelerating rates, maximising the effectiveness of conservation has become a key goal for local, national and international regulators. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for conserving and managing marine biodiversity yet, despite extensive research, their benefits for conserving non-target species and wider ecosystem functions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of coral reef communities to natural disturbances, including coral bleaching, coral diseases, Acanthaster planci outbreaks and storms. Using a 20-year time series from Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we show that within MPAs, (1) reef community composition was 21-38% more stable; (2) the magnitude of disturbance impacts was 30% lower and (3) subsequent recovery was 20% faster that in adjacent unprotected habitats. Our results demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of marine communities to natural disturbance possibly through herbivory, trophic cascades and portfolio effects. PMID:27038889

  4. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  5. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  6. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  7. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  8. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  9. 33 CFR 157.13 - Designated observation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated observation area. 157... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.13 Designated observation area. Each new vessel must have a designated observation area on the weather deck or above that is: (a) Located where...

  10. 33 CFR 157.13 - Designated observation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designated observation area. 157... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.13 Designated observation area. Each new vessel must have a designated observation area on the weather deck or above that is: (a) Located where...

  11. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

    PubMed Central

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-01-01

    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans. PMID:23202770

  12. Larval connectivity in an effective network of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Christie, Mark R; Tissot, Brian N; Albins, Mark A; Beets, James P; Jia, Yanli; Ortiz, Delisse M; Thompson, Stephen E; Hixon, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Acceptance of marine protected areas (MPAs) as fishery and conservation tools has been hampered by lack of direct evidence that MPAs successfully seed unprotected areas with larvae of targeted species. For the first time, we present direct evidence of large-scale population connectivity within an existing and effective network of MPAs. A new parentage analysis identified four parent-offspring pairs from a large, exploited population of the coral-reef fish Zebrasoma flavescens in Hawai'i, revealing larval dispersal distances ranging from 15 to 184 km. In two cases, successful dispersal was from an MPA to unprotected sites. Given high adult abundances, the documentation of any parent-offspring pairs demonstrates that ecologically-relevant larval connectivity between reefs is substantial. All offspring settled at sites to the north of where they were spawned. Satellite altimetry and oceanographic models from relevant time periods indicated a cyclonic eddy that created prevailing northward currents between sites where parents and offspring were found. These findings empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of MPAs as useful conservation and management tools and further highlight the importance of coupling oceanographic, genetic, and ecological data to predict, validate and quantify larval connectivity among marine populations. PMID:21203576

  13. 18 CFR 430.7 - Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use. 430.7 Section 430.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.7 Determination of protected areas...

  14. 23 CFR 750.104 - Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas. 750... permitted in protected areas. Erection or maintenance of the following signs may not be permitted in protected areas: (a) Signs advertising activities that are illegal under State or Federal laws...

  15. 23 CFR 750.105 - Signs that may be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Signs that may be permitted in protected areas. 750.105... protected areas. (a) Erection or maintenance of the following signs may be permitted in protected areas...) Only information about public places operated by Federal, State, or local governments,...

  16. 23 CFR 750.105 - Signs that may be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Signs that may be permitted in protected areas. 750.105... protected areas. (a) Erection or maintenance of the following signs may be permitted in protected areas...) Only information about public places operated by Federal, State, or local governments,...

  17. 23 CFR 750.104 - Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas. 750... permitted in protected areas. Erection or maintenance of the following signs may not be permitted in protected areas: (a) Signs advertising activities that are illegal under State or Federal laws...

  18. 23 CFR 750.105 - Signs that may be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Signs that may be permitted in protected areas. 750.105... protected areas. (a) Erection or maintenance of the following signs may be permitted in protected areas...) Only information about public places operated by Federal, State, or local governments,...

  19. 23 CFR 750.104 - Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas. 750... permitted in protected areas. Erection or maintenance of the following signs may not be permitted in protected areas: (a) Signs advertising activities that are illegal under State or Federal laws...

  20. 23 CFR 750.104 - Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas. 750... permitted in protected areas. Erection or maintenance of the following signs may not be permitted in protected areas: (a) Signs advertising activities that are illegal under State or Federal laws...

  1. 7 CFR 407.15 - Area risk protection insurance for grain sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for grain sorghum. 407... risk protection insurance for grain sorghum. The grain sorghum crop insurance provisions for Area Risk... AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Grain Sorghum Crop...

  2. 75 FR 63443 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public.... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee... Officer, MPA FAC, National Marine Protected Areas Center, 1305 East West Highway, Silver Spring,...

  3. 23 CFR 750.104 - Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas. 750... permitted in protected areas. Erection or maintenance of the following signs may not be permitted in protected areas: (a) Signs advertising activities that are illegal under State or Federal laws...

  4. 23 CFR 750.105 - Signs that may be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signs that may be permitted in protected areas. 750.105... protected areas. (a) Erection or maintenance of the following signs may be permitted in protected areas...) Only information about public places operated by Federal, State, or local governments,...

  5. 18 CFR 430.7 - Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use. 430.7 Section 430.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.7 Determination of protected areas...

  6. Association Analysis of System Failure in Wide Area Backup Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yagang; Sun, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Wide area backup protection algorithm based on fault component identification is the heart of the whole wide area backup protection system, its validity and reliability is a problem which needs to be first considered in the engineering practice applications of wide area backup protection system. Wide are backup protection algorithm mainly use two kinds of wide area information to realize protection criterion, one is electrical quantity information, such as voltage, current, etc. Another one is protection action and circuit breaker information. The wide area backup protection algorithm based on electrical quantity information is mainly utilizing the significant change of electrical quantity to search fault component, and the primary means include current differential method of wide area multi-measuring points, the comparison method of calculation and measurement, the multiple statistics method. In this paper, a novel and effective association analysis of system failure in wide area backup protection system will be discussed carefully, and the analytical results are successful and reliable.

  7. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

  8. 29 CFR 1926.404 - Wiring design and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wiring design and protection. 1926.404 Section 1926.404 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical Installation Safety Requirements § 1926.404 Wiring design...

  9. Understanding the conflicting values associated with motorized recreation in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cheryl; Newsome, David; Macbeth, Jim

    2016-04-01

    The International Union for the Conservation of Nature World Parks Congress in 2014 reported that the quality of management of protected areas is crucial in halting the loss of the world's biodiversity and meeting global environmental challenges. However, increasingly high-impact activities, including motorized recreation are occurring in protected areas such as national parks, creating an ongoing clash of values and further compromising protected area management. This paper discusses the values of protected areas in the context of increasingly high-impact motorized usage, the impact of divergent values placed on green spaces such as national parks, and perceptions about these spaces. Given the changing global context of this millennium, and increasing populations requiring space for high-impact activities including motorized recreation, rethinking recreation in protected areas is needed. A protected area classification to accommodate high-impact activities away from vulnerable natural areas may assist in maintaining protected area quality. PMID:26508175

  10. Downgrading, downsizing, degazettement, and reclassification of protected areas in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bernard, E; Penna, L A O; Araújo, E

    2014-08-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are key elements for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. Brazil has the largest PA system in the world, covering approximately 220 million ha. This system expanded rapidly in the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s. Recent events in Brazil, however, have led to an increase in PA downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD). Does this reflect a shift in the country's PA policy? We analyzed the occurrence, frequency, magnitude, type, spatial distribution, and causes of changes in PA boundaries and categories in Brazil. We identified 93 PADDD events from 1981 to 2012. Such events increased in frequency since 2008 and were ascribed primarily to generation and transmission of electricity in Amazonia. In Brazilian parks and reserves, 7.3 million ha were affected by PADDD events, and of these, 5.2 million ha were affected by downsizing or degazetting. Moreover, projects being considered by the Federal Congress may degazette 2.1 million ha of PA in Amazonia alone. Relaxing the protection status of existing PAs is proving to be politically easy in Brazil, and the recent increase in frequency and extension of PADDD reflects a change in governmental policy. By taking advantage of chronic deficiencies in financial and personnel resources and surveillance, disputes over land tenure, and the slowness of the Brazilian justice, government agencies have been implementing PADDD without consultation of civil society. If parks and reserves are to maintain their integrity, there will need to be investments in Brazilian PAs and a better understanding of the benefits PAs provide. PMID:24724978

  11. North Sea platform cathodic protection -- A performance vs design review

    SciTech Connect

    Ridd, B.R.; Queen, D.M.E.; Osvoll, H.; Bjornaas, F.

    1999-07-01

    Modern day cathodic protection (CP) design codes are typically highly conservative when compared with early CP system designs. Review of historical survey data from platforms in service for approximately 25 to 30 years illustrates the conservatism now employed when constructing new structures for installation in the North Sea. This paper illustrates this level of conservatism by reviewing the CP system performance of a gas gathering platform complex in the Southern North Sea and comparing the results of that review with present day design codes. The paper details the findings of a CP design review and ROV validation inspection to determine the present system status. The effect of combined impressed current and sacrificial anode systems is also illustrated. Finally a discussion on the definition and optimization of additional CP system requirements and future survey strategy to ensure protection is maintained to the anticipated end of field life is provided highlighting the cost benefits of basing retrofit designs on system performance rather than design theory.

  12. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is

  13. Globalization and multi-spatial trends in the coverage of protected-area conservation (1980-2000).

    PubMed

    Zimmerer, Karl S; Galt, Ryan E; Buck, Margaret V

    2004-12-01

    This study is focused on the global expansion of protected-area coverage that occurred during the 1980--2000 period. We examine the multi-scale patterning of four of the basic facets of this expansion: i) estimated increases at the world-regional and country-level scales of total protected-area coverage; ii) transboundary protected areas; iii) conservation corridor projects; and iv) type of conservation management. Geospatial patterning of protected-area designations is a reflection of the priorities of global conservation organizations and the globalization of post-Cold War political and economic arrangements. Local and national-level factors (political leadership and infrastructure) as well as international relations such as multilateral and bilateral aid combine with these globalization processes to impact the extent, type, and location of protected-area designations. We conclude that the interaction of these factors led to the creation and reinforcement of marked spatial differences (rather than tendencies toward worldwide evenness or homogenization) in the course of protected-area expansion during the 1980--2000 period. PMID:15666684

  14. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    PubMed

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  15. Marine protected area improves yield without disadvantaging fishers.

    PubMed

    Kerwath, Sven E; Winker, Henning; Götz, Albrecht; Attwood, Colin G

    2013-01-01

    Potential fishery benefits of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are widely acknowledged, yet seldom demonstrated, as fishery data series that straddle MPA establishment are seldom available. Here we postulate, based on a 15-year time series of nation-wide, spatially referenced catch and effort data, that the establishment of the Goukamma MPA (18 km alongshore; 40 km²) benefited the adjacent fishery for roman (Chrysoblephus laticeps), a South African endemic seabream. Roman-directed catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) in the vicinity of the new MPA immediately increased, contradicting trends across this species' distribution. The increase continued after 5 years, the time lag expected for larval export, effectively doubling the pre-MPA CPUE after 10 years. We find no indication that establishing the MPA caused a systematic drop in total catch or increased travel distances for the fleet. Our results provide rare empirical evidence of rapidly increasing catch rates after MPA implementation without measurable disadvantages for fishers. PMID:23962973

  16. Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities

    PubMed Central

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M.; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A.; Davenport, Tim R. B.; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A.; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C.; Holbech, Lars H.; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K.; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G.; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J.; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M.; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  17. The role of IUCN protected area categories in the conservation of geoheritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Kyung Sik; Gordon, John E.; Crofts, Roger; Diaz-Martinez, Enrique; McKeever, Patrick J.; Hill, Wesley

    2015-04-01

    Geoheritage comprises those elements of the Earth's geodiversity that are considered to have significant scientific, educational, cultural/aesthetic, ecological or ecosystem service value. IUCN Resolutions 4.040 (2008) and 5.048 (2012) both clearly recognise that geodiversity is part of nature and geoheritage is part of natural heritage. Formal recognition of the geodiversity component of protected areas was made in 2008 in the revised IUCN Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories (Dudley, 2008). All 6 of the IUCN Protected Area Management Categories (strict nature reserve/wilderness area, national park, national monument or feature, habitat/species management area, protected landscape/seascape, and protected area with sustainable use of natural resources) are applicable to the protection of geoheritage and provide opportunities to integrate conservation of geosites and the wider landscape values of geodiversity much more closely in protected area networks (Crofts & Gordon, 2015). Although geoparks are not a protected area category as such, and may only include some parts of protected areas as geosites, the UNESCO-supported Global Geoparks Network also provides an international framework to conserve and enhance geoheritage, as does the UNESCO World Heritage List. The Geoheritage Specialist Group of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas provides specialist advice and guidance on all aspects of geodiversity and geoheritage in relation to the establishment and management of protected areas, the integration of geodiversity into IUCN's programmes, and the promotion of better understanding of the links between geodiversity and biodiversity. http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/gpap_home/gpap_biodiversity/gpap_wcpabiodiv/gpap_geoheritage/). Crofts, R., Gordon, J. E. (2015) Geoconservation in protected areas. In: G.L. Worboys, M. Lockwood, A. Kothari, S. Feary, I. Pulsford (eds), Protected Area Governance and Management. ANU Press, Canberra

  18. Policy and practice in Myanmar's protected area system.

    PubMed

    Myint Aung, U

    2007-07-01

    Myanmar's protected area (PA) system began nearly 150 years ago under royal patronage. Park policies and practices, embodied in 19 pieces of legislation developed sporadically during and after the colonial period. As a result of the FAO-UNDP's Nature Conservation and National Parks Project (1981-1985) the government established the Nature & Wildlife Conservation Division and placed it within the Forest Department as the agency responsible for PA management. As a consequence the number of parks increased from 14 to 33. Myanmar's median park size is less than 50 km(2), but only five parks (15%) are larger than 1000 km(2). Most parks conserve terrestrial habitats; parks encompassing inland wetlands, mangrove, and marine habitats are limited in number and size. Existing PAs unequally represent Myanmar's ecosystems; the Malay Transition, Burmese coast, Burmese Transition and Cardamom Mountains bio-units are under-represented within the system. The effective total PA size (i.e., area of all parks less the area of 13 paper parks) is currently about 2.1%. Budgetary support for parks increased 11% since 1996, but is insufficient to address park needs, particularly in remote parks that are understaffed. Limited education and training of PA staff is a major factor limiting effective park management. Fifty-eight percent of park wardens are educated as foresters, and 42% have university degrees. The average posting in a park is 4 years, which is less than ideal for management continuity. Recommended actions to secure Myanmar's PAs include evaluation and reformulation of policies, increasing representation of Myanmar's habitats within the PA system, management planning, and standardizing protocols for anti-poaching patrols and other forms of law enforcement. Improved leadership training for wardens and range forest officers can also improve park management. Funding for community relations and more integrated management of parks and people can reduce conflicts, while

  19. 75 FR 27514 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... protective than the previous 1-hour ozone standard (62 FR 38855).\\1\\ The EPA published the 1997 8-hour ozone designations and classifications on April 30, 2004 (69 FR 23858). The BPA area was designated nonattainment and... standard. See 61 FR 16483. As a result of its reclassification to serious, the State was required,...

  20. Design study on safety protection system of JSFR

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, N.; Chikazawa, Y.; Fujita, K.; Yamada, Y.; Okazaki, H.; Suzuki, S.

    2012-07-01

    Development of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) has been progressed in Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project aiming at realizing high level of safety, reliability and economic competitiveness. For JSFR, design consideration on safety protection system has also been performed, which is essential for reactor shutdown in the case of design basis events (DBEs). In the design activity, consideration of safety protection system includes logic circuits configuration, selection of trip signals, and its setting values for reactor trip. In addition, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of the safety protection system by safety analysis taking into account the comprehensive parameter ranges. For this purpose, it has been evaluated whether adequate reactor trip signals can be ensured for satisfying safety standard regarding the fuel integrity (e.g., maximum fuel clad temperature) for DBEs. In this paper, results obtained from the design study on safety protection system of JSFR is presented focusing on the evaluation results of satisfaction of safety protection system for representative events of transient over power (TOP), loss of coolant flow (LOF) and loss of heat sink (LOHS). (authors)

  1. Local biodiversity is higher inside than outside terrestrial protected areas worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Claudia L.; Hill, Samantha L. L.; Newbold, Tim; Hudson, Lawrence N.; Börger, Luca; Contu, Sara; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Ferrier, Simon; Purvis, Andy; Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas are widely considered essential for biodiversity conservation. However, few global studies have demonstrated that protection benefits a broad range of species. Here, using a new global biodiversity database with unprecedented geographic and taxonomic coverage, we compare four biodiversity measures at sites sampled in multiple land uses inside and outside protected areas. Globally, species richness is 10.6% higher and abundance 14.5% higher in samples taken inside protected areas compared with samples taken outside, but neither rarefaction-based richness nor endemicity differ significantly. Importantly, we show that the positive effects of protection are mostly attributable to differences in land use between protected and unprotected sites. Nonetheless, even within some human-dominated land uses, species richness and abundance are higher in protected sites. Our results reinforce the global importance of protected areas but suggest that protection does not consistently benefit species with small ranges or increase the variety of ecological niches. PMID:27465407

  2. Local biodiversity is higher inside than outside terrestrial protected areas worldwide.

    PubMed

    Gray, Claudia L; Hill, Samantha L L; Newbold, Tim; Hudson, Lawrence N; Börger, Luca; Contu, Sara; Hoskins, Andrew J; Ferrier, Simon; Purvis, Andy; Scharlemann, Jörn P W

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas are widely considered essential for biodiversity conservation. However, few global studies have demonstrated that protection benefits a broad range of species. Here, using a new global biodiversity database with unprecedented geographic and taxonomic coverage, we compare four biodiversity measures at sites sampled in multiple land uses inside and outside protected areas. Globally, species richness is 10.6% higher and abundance 14.5% higher in samples taken inside protected areas compared with samples taken outside, but neither rarefaction-based richness nor endemicity differ significantly. Importantly, we show that the positive effects of protection are mostly attributable to differences in land use between protected and unprotected sites. Nonetheless, even within some human-dominated land uses, species richness and abundance are higher in protected sites. Our results reinforce the global importance of protected areas but suggest that protection does not consistently benefit species with small ranges or increase the variety of ecological niches. PMID:27465407

  3. Are Coastal Protected Areas Always Effective in Achieving Population Recovery for Nesting Sea Turtles?

    PubMed Central

    Nel, Ronel; Punt, André E.; Hughes, George R.

    2013-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly migratory and usually dispersed, but aggregate off beaches during the nesting season, rendering them vulnerable to coastal threats. Consequently, coastal Marine Protection Areas (MPAs) have been used to facilitate the recovery of turtle populations, but the effectiveness of these programs is uncertain as most have been operating for less than a single turtle generation (or<20 yr). South Africa, however, hosts one of the longest running conservation programs, protecting nesting loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) turtles since 1963 in a series of coastal MPAs. This provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the long-term effect of spatial protection on the abundance of two highly migratory turtle species with different life history characteristics. Population responses were assessed by modeling the number of nests over time in an index area (13 km) and an expanded monitoring area (53 km) with varying survey effort. Loggerhead abundance increased dramatically from∼250 to>1700 nests pa (index area) especially over the last decade, while leatherback abundance increased initially∼10 to 70 nests pa (index area), but then stabilized. Although leatherbacks have higher reproductive output per female and comparable remigration periods and hatching success to loggerheads, the leatherback population failed to expand. Our results suggest that coastal MPAs can work but do not guarantee the recovery of sea turtle populations as pressures change over time. Causes considered for the lack of population growth include factors in the MPA (expansion into unmonitored areas or incubation environment) of outside of the MPA (including carrying capacity and fishing mortality). Conservation areas for migratory species thus require careful design to account for species-specific needs, and need to be monitored to keep track of changing pressures. PMID:23671683

  4. Is forest cover conserved and restored by protected areas?: The case of two wild protected areas inthe Central Pacific of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Antonio Guzmán, J; Heiner Vega, S

    2015-09-01

    Changes in land use are mainly a consequence of anthropogenic actions. The current agricultural and urban transformations in Costa Rica have raised questions about the effectiveness of conservation and restoration within protected areas. Herein we analyzed the patterns of land use change between three periods: 1997, 2005 and 2010 in terms of magnitude, direction, and pace through categorical maps generated by the photointerpretation for La Cangreja National Park (LCNP), Rancho Mastatal Wildlife Refuge (RMWR), and their surrounding areas (SA), this last compound of one kilometer radius outside the protected areas' boundaries. The matrix which describes the landscape within the protected areas is natural coverage, composed mainly by forest cover and thickets. We found that the most abundant natural cover for both protected areas was forest cover for all years tested. The stability and large areas of forest cover in LCNP and RMWR for 2005 and 2010, reflected that policies, management actions and vigilance, have a positive impact on the conservation and restoration of natural habitats in these Costa Rican Central Pacific areas. However, the high landscape complexity of the SA in 1997, 2005 and 2010 was an evidence of the anthropogenic pressure on these protected areas, and suggested the ineffectiveness of local governments to monitor and abate land use changes, that could hinder the management, conservation and restoration of species in the protected areas. PMID:26666116

  5. Providing accurate near real-time fire alerts for Protected Areas through NASA FIRMS: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Wong, M.; Murphy, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) is at the forefront of providing global near real-time (NRT) MODIS thermal anomalies / hotspot location data to end-users . FIRMS serves the data via an interactive Web GIS named Web Fire Mapper, downloads of NRT active fire, archive data downloads for MODIS hotspots dating back to 1999 and a hotspot email alert system The FIRMS Email Alerts system has been successfully alerting users of fires in their area of interest in near real-time and/or via daily and weekly email summaries, with an option to receive MODIS hotspot data as a text file (CSV) attachment. Currently, there are more than 7000 email alert subscriptions from more than 100 countries. Specifically, the email alerts system is designed to generate and send an email alert for any region or area on the globe, with a special focus on providing alerts for protected areas worldwide. For many protected areas, email alerts are particularly useful for early fire detection, monitoring on going fires, as well as allocating resources to protect wildlife and natural resources of particular value. For protected areas, FIRMS uses the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) supplied by United Nations Environment Program - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). Maintaining the most up-to-date, accurate boundary geometry for the protected areas for the email alerts is a challenge as the WDPA is continuously updated due to changing boundaries, merging or delisting of certain protected areas. Because of this dynamic nature of the protected areas database, the FIRMS protected areas database is frequently out-of-date with the most current version of WDPA database. To maintain the most up-to-date boundary information for protected areas and to be in compliance with the WDPA terms and conditions, FIRMS needs to constantly update its database of protected areas. Currently, FIRMS strives to keep its database up to date by downloading the most recent

  6. Effectiveness of protected areas for representing species and populations of terrestrial mammals in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    González-Maya, José F; Víquez-R, Luis R; Belant, Jerrold L; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species' geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  7. Effectiveness of Protected Areas for Representing Species and Populations of Terrestrial Mammals in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    González-Maya, José F.; Víquez-R, Luis R.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species’ geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  8. An Overview of Challenges Limiting the Design of Protective Mucosal Vaccines for Finfish

    PubMed Central

    Munang’andu, Hetron Mweemba; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    Research in mucosal vaccination in finfish has gained prominence in the last decade in pursuit of mucosal vaccines that would lengthen the duration of protective immunity in vaccinated fish. However, injectable vaccines have continued to dominate in the vaccination of finfish because they are perceived to be more protective than mucosal vaccines. Therefore, it has become important to identify the factors that limit developing protective mucosal vaccines in finfish as an overture to identifying key areas that require optimization in mucosal vaccine design. Some of the factors that limit the success for designing protective mucosal vaccines for finfish identified in this review include the lack optimized protective antigen doses for mucosal vaccines, absence of immunostimulants able to enhance the performance of non-replicative mucosal vaccines, reduction of systemic antibodies due to prolonged exposure to oral vaccination and the lack of predefined correlates of protective immunity for use in the optimization of newly developed mucosal vaccines. This review also points out the need to develop prime-boost vaccination regimes able to induce long-term protective immunity in vaccinated fish. By overcoming some of the obstacles identified herein, it is anticipated that future mucosal vaccines shall be designed to induce long-term protective immunity in finfish. PMID:26557121

  9. Sections prepared for inclusion in an IAEA technical document handbook on Designing and Implementing a Physical Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark K.

    2015-11-01

    Two major sections were drafted (each with several subsections) for the IAEA dealing with designing and implementing a Physical Protection System (PPS). Areas addressed were Search Systems and the evaluation of PPS effectiveness.

  10. Afforestation areas defined by GIS in Gölbaşi specially protected area Ankara/Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dilek, E Figen; Sahin, Sükran; Yilmazer, Ilyas

    2008-09-01

    This paper concentrates on determining the areas for afforestation and the development of conservation strategies and actions in the case where there is high demand for the conservation of a particular land area. The analysis of hydrological landscape structure and of erodibility was prerequisite in the methodological design considering the site-specific natural landscape characteristics of the study area. The Gölbaşi Specially Protected Area (SPA) being the case area has many local environmental disturbances, especially with respect to its hydrological system, and the area is beset by increasing demands for its use by the burgeoning human population. It is obviously clear that the present intensive demand for recreational use will be forecasted further increase in the future. The count of rural residences is estimated to increase by 50% over the next decade. This intensive demand shall further strain the carrying capacity of the ecological milieu, which has already suffered to a significant degree because of the present urban and rural activities. The Gölbaşi district is located only 20 km from the city center of Ankara, and its surroundings were legally designated to be a Specially Protected Area primarily for the existence of lacustral and fluvial systems where two interconnected lakes exist: Mogan and Eğmir Lakes. Essentially, the continuity of the lacustral and fluvial system of Lakes Mogan and Eğmir depends on the preservation and improvement of the water sources. However, interconnected surface water bodies of these lakes are actually quite contaminated, and a decline in the water flow from Mogan to Eğmir has been observed. For the elaboration of the present method, required conventional maps (at 1/25,000 scale) of topography (for slope analysis) and geology (for erodibility and permeability analysis) were transferred to computer media using AutoCAD R.14 software. The rectification of the transferred data was done using ERDAS Imagine 8.3. All data

  11. Movements and corridors of African elephants in relation to protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, I.; Krink, T.; Vollrath, F.

    2005-04-01

    Understanding how mammals satisfy their need for space in fragmenting ecosystems is crucial for ecosystem conservation. Using state-of-the-art global positioning system (GPS) technology we tracked 11 focal African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Kenya at 3-hourly fix intervals and collected between 34 and 406 days per individual. Our recordings gave a high spatio-temporal resolution compared to previous studies and allowed novel insights into range use. The actual ranges of the tracked elephants are smaller than usually represented. Moreover, the ranges in our sample were complex and not confined to officially designated protected areas, except where fenced. All the unfenced elephants in our sample had distinct `home sectors' linked by `travel' corridors. Within each home sector the elephants concentrated in favourite `core zones'. Such core zones tended to lie in protected areas whereas corridors typically crossed unprotected range. Elephants moved significantly faster along corridors than elsewhere in their range, which suggests awareness of danger outside the protected area. We conclude that understanding the complex use of an animal's range is crucial for conservation planning aiming to balance animal interests with those of human beings that co-habit in their range.

  12. Comparative study of European tunnel emergency-stop-area-wall protection measures.

    PubMed

    Kunc, Robert; Omerović, Senad; Ambrož, Miha; Prebil, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Due to the increasing number of traffic accidents involving the collisions of vehicles with the emergency-stop-area head walls in tunnels, a comparative numerical analysis in accordance with the EN 1317 standard has been performed in order to assess the quality of the available protective safety barriers. Based on the simulation results, the values of the relevant injury criteria - the acceleration severity index (ASI), the theoretical head impact velocity (THIV) and the post-impact head deceleration (PHD) - were computed for several collision scenarios involving two different passenger vehicles colliding with two different safety barriers in various ways. The results show that due to the geometrical restrictions in the tunnel's emergency stop area none of the barriers can provide total protection for the occupants of the vehicle in the event of a collision. The installation of a steel-sheet-tube crash cushion was, however, found to provide the best possible protection within the given limitations. The results of the analysis were the basis for selecting a safety-barrier design for existing tunnel installations and for the proposed changes in regulations governing the geometry of the tunnel's emergency stop area. PMID:24246295

  13. Atmospheric electricity. [lightning protection criteria in spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Atmospheric electricity must be considered in the design, transportation, and operation of aerospace vehicles. The effect of the atmosphere as an insulator and conductor of high voltage electricity, at various atmospheric pressures, must also be considered. The vehicle can be protected as follows: (1) By insuring that all metallic sections are connected by electrical bonding so that the current flow from a lightning stroke is conducted over the skin without any gaps where sparking would occur or current would be carried inside; (2) by protecting buildings and other structures on the ground with a system of lightning rods and wires over the outside to carry the lightning stroke into the ground; (3) by providing a zone of protection for launch complexes; (4) by providing protection devices in critical circuits; (5) by using systems which have no single failure mode; and (6) by appropriate shielding of units sensitive to electromagnetic radiation.

  14. The design and simulation test of wireless antenna protection network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zipeng; Dai, Yawen; Li, Peng; Li, Zhuoqiu

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a wireless antenna protection program has been designed. In the program, the TVS diode was used as the first lever for protection, and the π-type high pass filtering network as the second lever. As a result, the program not only has the traditional function of ESD protection, which can avoid the high voltage damage to the internal circuit, but also achieves the purpose of load matching, ensuring the signal source not to distort. The ADS simulation software was used to test the ability of this program for filtering and impedance matching, which proved the feasibility of this program. The wireless antenna protection network has been practically used, and its' performance of anti-electromagnetic interference has been validated.

  15. Adapting to Climate Change: Reconsidering the Role of Protected Areas and Protected Organisms in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graumlich, L. J.; Cross, M. S.; Hilty, J.; Berger, J.

    2007-12-01

    With the recent publication of the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), little doubt remains among scientists that the global climate system is changing due to human influence and that climate change will have far-reaching and fundamental impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity. Arguably the best-documented evidence linking 20th Century warming trends to changes in physical and biological systems comes from the mountains of western North America (e.g., Figure SPM1 in Summary of Working Group 11 Report). In the West, ecosystem impacts include changes in the distribution of species as well as changing functional linkages between species such as the synchrony between flower emergence and pollinating insects. These climate impacts, when combined with other environmental stressors (e.g., altered disturbance regimes, land-use change and habitat fragmentation) portend an amplification of species extinction rates. One of the great challenges in adapting to climate change is developing and implementing policies that enhance ecological resilience in the face of these change. Clearly, the current system of nature reserves in Western North America is a fundamental asset for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, the fixed- boundary nature of these protected areas presents a problem as species' ranges shift with future climate change. The loss of species whose ranges move outside of fixed park boundaries and the arrival of other species that move into protected areas could lead to significant turnover of species diversity, new species assemblages, and altered functionality. In short, reserves that were designed to protect particular species or communities may no longer serve their intended purpose under a changing climate. In this talk, we use case studies from the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and the Sonoran Desert Ecosystem to define strategies for enhancing ecological resilience to climate change at

  16. Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets

    PubMed Central

    Chape, S; Harrison, J; Spalding, M; Lysenko, I

    2005-01-01

    There are now over 100 000 protected areas worldwide, covering over 12% of the Earth's land surface. These areas represent one of the most significant human resource use allocations on the planet. The importance of protected areas is reflected in their widely accepted role as an indicator for global targets and environmental assessments. However, measuring the number and extent of protected areas only provides a unidimensional indicator of political commitment to biodiversity conservation. Data on the geographic location and spatial extent of protected areas will not provide information on a key determinant for meeting global biodiversity targets: ‘effectiveness’ in conserving biodiversity. Although tools are being devised to assess management effectiveness, there is no globally accepted metric. Nevertheless, the numerical, spatial and geographic attributes of protected areas can be further enhanced by investigation of the biodiversity coverage of these protected areas, using species, habitats or biogeographic classifications. This paper reviews the current global extent of protected areas in terms of geopolitical and habitat coverage, and considers their value as a global indicator of conservation action or response. The paper discusses the role of the World Database on Protected Areas and collection and quality control issues, and identifies areas for improvement, including how conservation effectiveness indicators may be included in the database to improve the value of protected areas data as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets. PMID:15814356

  17. 10 CFR 72.182 - Design for physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design for physical protection. 72.182 Section 72.182 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C...

  18. Closed-pore Insulation Thermal Protection System Design Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varisco, A.; Harris, H. G.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a unique closed-pore ceramic foam insulation (CPI) produced from low cost fly ash cenospheres is reported for space shuttle external thermal protection. Two basic design approaches were developed: bonded and mechanically fastened. A description of the concepts is presented in addition to fabrication and test results.

  19. 10 CFR 72.182 - Design for physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE... the site layout and the design features provided to protect the ISFSI or MRS from sabotage. It must... this section; and (c) Information relative to materials of construction, equipment, general...

  20. Opportunities for cost-sharing in conservation: variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas. PMID:23383176

  1. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilho, Camila S.; Hackbart, Vivian C. S.; Pivello, Vânia R.; dos Santos, Rozely F.

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  2. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Camila S; Hackbart, Vivian C S; Pivello, Vânia R; dos Santos, Rozely F

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges. PMID:25860593

  3. Opportunities for Cost-Sharing in Conservation: Variation in Volunteering Effort across Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E.; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas. PMID:23383176

  4. 9 CFR 78.40 - Designation of States/areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Designation of Brucellosis Areas § 78.40 Designation of States/areas. The Administrator may amend §§ 78.41 and... Administrator may approve the division of a State into two brucellosis classification areas upon finding...

  5. 9 CFR 78.40 - Designation of States/areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Designation of Brucellosis Areas § 78.40 Designation of States/areas. The Administrator may amend §§ 78.41 and... Administrator may approve the division of a State into two brucellosis classification areas upon finding...

  6. 47 CFR 17.9 - Designated antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designated antenna farm areas. 17.9 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.9 Designated antenna farm areas. The areas described in the following paragraphs of this section are established as antenna...

  7. 47 CFR 17.9 - Designated antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated antenna farm areas. 17.9 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.9 Designated antenna farm areas. The areas described in the following paragraphs of this section are established as antenna...

  8. 47 CFR 17.9 - Designated antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designated antenna farm areas. 17.9 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.9 Designated antenna farm areas. The areas described in the following paragraphs of this section are established as antenna...

  9. 47 CFR 17.9 - Designated antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designated antenna farm areas. 17.9 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.9 Designated antenna farm areas. The areas described in the following paragraphs of this section are established as antenna...

  10. 47 CFR 17.9 - Designated antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designated antenna farm areas. 17.9 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.9 Designated antenna farm areas. The areas described in the following paragraphs of this section are established as antenna...

  11. 75 FR 81233 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... 19, 2008, (73 FR 69608) and provides guidance for collaborative efforts among federal, state... Department of the Interior (DOI) invited federal, state, commonwealth, and territorial marine protected...

  12. Environmental Globalization, Organizational Form, and Expected Benefits from Protected Areas in Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Schelhas, John W.; Meola, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Environmental globalization has led to the implementation of conservation efforts like the creation of protected areas that often promote the interests of core countries in poorer regions. The creation of protected areas in poor areas frequently creates tensions between human needs like food and shelter and environmental conservation. Support for…

  13. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 417 - Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft... Appendix B to Part 417—Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection B417.1Scope This... launch site hazard area analysis that protects the public, aircraft, and ships from the...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 417 - Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft... Appendix B to Part 417—Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection B417.1Scope This... launch site hazard area analysis that protects the public, aircraft, and ships from the...

  15. CATSKILL AREA PROJECT IN SMALL SCHOOL DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Area Project in Small School Design, Oneonta, NY.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SMALL SCHOOL, AS PROPOSED BY THE PROJECT, ARE LISTED. FIVE AREAS OF SCHOOL OPERATION ARE DISCUSSED IN DETAIL--(1) MULTIPLE CLASSES, INCLUDING SUPERVISED CORRESPONDENCE COURSES, (2) FLEXIBLE SCHEDULES, (3) USE OF SCHOOL AIDES, (4) USES OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION, AND (5) SHARED SERVICES AND TALENTED YOUTH. A MAP LOCATING THE…

  16. Foraging ranges of immature African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus) and their use of protected areas in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Phipps, W Louis; Willis, Stephen G; Wolter, Kerri; Naidoo, Vinny

    2013-01-01

    Vultures in the Gyps genus are declining globally. Multiple threats related to human activity have caused widespread declines of vulture populations in Africa, especially outside protected areas. Addressing such threats requires the estimation of foraging ranges yet such estimates are lacking, even for widespread (but declining) species such as the African white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus). We tracked six immature African white-backed vultures in South Africa using GPS-GSM units to study their movement patterns, their use of protected areas and the time they spent in the vicinity of supplementary feeding sites. All individuals foraged widely; their combined foraging ranges extended into six countries in southern Africa (mean (± SE) minimum convex polygon area =269,103±197,187 km(2)) and three of the vultures travelled more than 900 km from the capture site. All six vultures spent the majority of their tracking periods outside protected areas. South African protected areas were very rarely visited whereas protected areas in northern Botswana and Zimbabwe were used more frequently. Two of the vultures visited supplementary feeding sites regularly, with consequent reduced ranging behaviour, suggesting that individuals could alter their foraging behaviour in response to such sites. We show that immature African white-backed vultures are capable of travelling throughout southern Africa, yet use protected areas to only a limited extent, making them susceptible to the full range of threats in the region. The standard approach of designating protected areas to conserve species is unlikely to ensure the protection of such wide-ranging species against threats in the wider landscape. PMID:23382824

  17. Foraging Ranges of Immature African White-Backed Vultures (Gyps africanus) and Their Use of Protected Areas in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, W. Louis; Willis, Stephen G.; Wolter, Kerri; Naidoo, Vinny

    2013-01-01

    Vultures in the Gyps genus are declining globally. Multiple threats related to human activity have caused widespread declines of vulture populations in Africa, especially outside protected areas. Addressing such threats requires the estimation of foraging ranges yet such estimates are lacking, even for widespread (but declining) species such as the African white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus). We tracked six immature African white-backed vultures in South Africa using GPS-GSM units to study their movement patterns, their use of protected areas and the time they spent in the vicinity of supplementary feeding sites. All individuals foraged widely; their combined foraging ranges extended into six countries in southern Africa (mean (± SE) minimum convex polygon area  = 269,103±197,187 km2) and three of the vultures travelled more than 900 km from the capture site. All six vultures spent the majority of their tracking periods outside protected areas. South African protected areas were very rarely visited whereas protected areas in northern Botswana and Zimbabwe were used more frequently. Two of the vultures visited supplementary feeding sites regularly, with consequent reduced ranging behaviour, suggesting that individuals could alter their foraging behaviour in response to such sites. We show that immature African white-backed vultures are capable of travelling throughout southern Africa, yet use protected areas to only a limited extent, making them susceptible to the full range of threats in the region. The standard approach of designating protected areas to conserve species is unlikely to ensure the protection of such wide-ranging species against threats in the wider landscape. PMID:23382824

  18. The use of a hydrological physically based model to evaluate the vine adaptability to future climate: the case study of a Protected Designation of Origin area (DOC and DOCG) of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo; Menenti, Massimo; Monaco, Eugenia; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Manna, Piero; Langella, Giuliano; De Lorenzi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    The quality of grape and wine is variety-specific and depends significantly on the pedoclimatic conditions, thus from the terroir characteristics. In viticulture the concept of terroir is known to be very complex. At present some changes are occurring in the studies of terroir. Their spatial analysis is improving by means of studies that account for the spatial distribution of solar radiation and of bioclimatic indexes. Moreover, simulation models are used to study the water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system in order to determine the water balance of vines as a function of i) soil physical properties, ii) climatic regime and iii) agro-ecosystems characteristics. The future climate evolution may endanger not only yield production (IPCC, 2007), but also its quality. The effects on quality may be relevant for grape production, since they can affect the sustainability of the cultivation of grape varieties in the areas where they are currently grown. This study addresses this question by evaluating the adaptive capacity of grape's cultivars in a 20000 ha viticultural area in the "Valle Telesina" (Campania Region, Southern Italy). This area has a long tradition in the production of high quality wines (DOC and DOCG) and it is characterized by a complex geomorphology with a large variability of soils and micro-climate. Two climate scenarios were considered: "past" (1961-1990) and "future" (2021-2050), the latter constructed applying statistical downscaling to GCMs scenarios. For each climate scenario the moisture regime of the soils of the study area was calculated by means of a simulation model of the soil-water-atmosphere system (SWAP). The hydrological model SWAP was applied to the representative soils of the entire area (47 soil units); the soil hydraulic properties were estimated (by means of pedo-transfer function HYPRES) and measured. Upper boundary conditions were derived from the climate scenarios. Unit gradient in soil water potential was set as lower

  19. Designing planetary protection into the Mars Observer mission.

    PubMed

    Sweetser, T H; Halsell, C A; Cesarone, R J

    1995-03-01

    Planetary protection has been an important consideration during the process of designing the Mars Observer mission. It affected trajectory design of both the interplanetary transfer and the orbits at Mars; these in turn affected the observation strategies developed for the mission. The Project relied mainly on the strategy of collision avoidance to prevent contamination of Mars. Conservative estimates of spacecraft reliability and Martian atmosphere density were used to evaluate decisions concerning the interplanetary trajectory, the orbit insertion phase at Mars, and operations in orbit at Mars and afterwards. Changes in the trajectory design, especially in the orbit insertion phase, required a refinement of those estimates. PMID:11539235

  20. National parks and protected areas: Appoaches for balancing social, economic, and ecological values

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prato, Tony; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2005-01-01

    National Parks and Protected Areas: Approaches for Balancing Social, Economic and Ecological Values is peerless in its unified treatment of the issues surrounding this subject. From decision-making for planning and management to the principles of ecology and economics, this text examines the analytical methods, information technologies, and planning and management problems associated with protected area planning and management. Protected area managers and students in undergraduate and graduate courses in natural resource management will appreciate this highly readable book.

  1. 33 CFR 157.13 - Designated observation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must have a designated observation area on the weather deck or above that is: (a) Located where the... communication system, such as a telephone or a radio, between the observation area and the discharge...

  2. 33 CFR 157.13 - Designated observation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... must have a designated observation area on the weather deck or above that is: (a) Located where the... communication system, such as a telephone or a radio, between the observation area and the discharge...

  3. Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Silvius, Kirsten M.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas in tropical countries are managed under different governance regimes, the relative effectiveness of which in avoiding deforestation has been the subject of recent debates. Participants in these debates answer appeals for more strict protection with the argument that sustainable use areas and indigenous lands can balance deforestation pressures by leveraging local support to create and enforce protective regulations. Which protection strategy is more effective can also depend on (i) the level of deforestation pressures to which an area is exposed and (ii) the intensity of government enforcement. We examine this relationship empirically, using data from 292 protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that, for any given level of deforestation pressure, strictly protected areas consistently avoided more deforestation than sustainable use areas. Indigenous lands were particularly effective at avoiding deforestation in locations with high deforestation pressure. Findings were stable across two time periods featuring major shifts in the intensity of government enforcement. We also observed shifting trends in the location of protected areas, documenting that between 2000 and 2005 strictly protected areas were more likely to be established in high-pressure locations than in sustainable use areas and indigenous lands. Our findings confirm that all protection regimes helped reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23479648

  4. Increasing Access and Usability of Remote Sensing Data: The NASA Protected Area Archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Gary N.

    2004-01-01

    Although remote sensing data are now widely available, much of it at low or no-cost, many managers of protected conservation areas do not have the expertise or tools to view or analyze it. Thus access to it by the protected area management community is effectively blocked. The Protected Area Archive will increase access to remote sensing data by creating collections of satellite images of protected areas and packaging them with simple-to-use visualization and analytical tools. The user can easily locate the area and image of interest on a map, then display, roam, and zoom the image. A set of simple tools will be provided so the user can explore the data and employ it to assist in management and monitoring of their area. The 'Phase 1 ' version requires only a Windows-based computer and basic computer skills, and may be of particular help to protected area managers in developing countries.

  5. Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Ardura, A; Juanes, F; Planes, S; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2016-01-01

    Marine biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how Marine Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between marine protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of marine protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction. PMID:27609423

  6. Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Ardura, A.; Juanes, F.; Planes, S.; Garcia-Vazquez, E.

    2016-01-01

    Marine biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how Marine Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between marine protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of marine protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction. PMID:27609423

  7. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  8. Designing application software in wide area network settings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makpangou, Mesaac; Birman, Ken

    1990-01-01

    Progress in methodologies for developing robust local area network software has not been matched by similar results for wide area settings. The design of application software spanning multiple local area environments is examined. For important classes of applications, simple design techniques are presented that yield fault tolerant wide area programs. An implementation of these techniques as a set of tools for use within the ISIS system is described.

  9. INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR EAST ENGINEERING DESIGN AREA DETAIL VIEW, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR EAST ENGINEERING DESIGN AREA DETAIL VIEW, FACING NORTH. - NASA Industrial Plant, Systems Integration & Checkout Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Evaluating biodiversity conservation around a large Sumatran protected area.

    PubMed

    Linkie, Matthew; Smith, Robert J; Zhu, Yu; Martyr, Deborah J; Suedmeyer, Beth; Pramono, Joko; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2008-06-01

    Many of the large, donor-funded community-based conservation projects that seek to reduce biodiversity loss in the tropics have been unsuccessful. There is, therefore, a need for empirical evaluations to identify the driving factors and to provide evidence that supports the development of context-specific conservation projects. We used a quantitative approach to measure, post hoc, the effectiveness of a US$19 million Integrated Conservation and Development Project (ICDP) that sought to reduce biodiversity loss through the development of villages bordering Kerinci Seblat National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Indonesia. We focused on the success of the ICDP component that disbursed a total of US$1.5 million through development grants to 66 villages in return for their commitment to stop illegally clearing the forest. To investigate whether the ICDP lowered deforestation rates in focal villages, we selected a subset of non-ICDP villages that had similar physical and socioeconomic features and compared their respective deforestation rates. Village participation in the ICDP and its development schemes had no effect on deforestation. Instead, accessible areas where village land-tenure had been undermined by the designation of selective-logging concessions tended to have the highest deforestation rates. Our results indicate that the goal of the ICDP was not met and, furthermore, suggest that both law enforcement inside the park and local property rights outside the park need to be strengthened. Our results also emphasize the importance of quantitative approaches in helping to inform successful and cost-effective strategies for tropical biodiversity conservation. PMID:18336620

  11. Design and testing of integrated circuits for reactor protection channels

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R.E.; Vandermolen, R.I.; Jagadish, U.; Swail, B.K.; Naser, J.; Rana, I.

    1995-06-01

    Custom and semicustom application-specific integrated circuit design and testing methods are investigated for use in research and commercial nuclear reactor safety systems. The Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working together through a cooperative research and development agreement to apply modern technology to a nuclear reactor protection system. Purpose of this project is to demonstrate to the nuclear industry an alternative approach for new or upgrade reactor protection and safety system signal processing and voting logic. Motivation for this project stems from (1) the difficulty of proving that software-based protection systems are adequately reliable, (2) the obsolescence of the original equipment, and (3) the improved performance of digital processing.

  12. Monitoring impact of urban settlements on nearby protected areas from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Christoph; Jaiteh, Malanding; de Sherbinin, Alexander; Longcore, Travis; Elvidge, Chris

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present a satellite based approach to monitor impacts of urban settlements on nearby protected areas worldwide. The footprint of human occupation is uniquely visible from space in the form of artificial night lighting, ranging from the burning of the rainforest to massive offshore fisheries to the omnipresent lights of cities and towns and related connecting road networks. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Geophysical Data Center (NOAA-NGDC) processes and archives data acquired by the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) which was initially designed to monitor the global distribution of clouds using visible and thermal infrared spectral bands. At night the visible band signal is intensified with a photomultiplier tube enabling the detection of moonlit clouds. The boost in gain provides this sensor with the unique capability of observing lights present at the earth's surface at night. Considering nighttime lights as a proxy for anthropogenic activities also influencing neighboring regions enables a globally consistent human impact analysis. The assessment of impacts on threatened ecosystems and related loss of biodiversity is essential in the context of the global (climate) change debate whereas monitoring and protecting the diversity of life on Earth is one of the 'global issues' affecting society. UNEP's World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) provides information on spatial distribution and delineation of protected areas. The information for this World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) has been compiled since 1981 and is made available to the global community through UNEP's Protected Areas Programme. The WDPA is a joint project of UNEP and the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) being prepared in collaboration with governments and NGOs. A set of spatial indicators describing lighting impact and approximated human influence was developed based

  13. CASE STUDIES IN WELLHEAD PROTECTION AREA DELINEATION AND MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water monitoring is one of many management options for Wellhead Protection Program implementation. round-water parameters are monitored (1) to assess source-control measures, (2) to monitor compliance with drinking water standards at sites other then the wellhead, and (3) ...

  14. Thermal protective visor for entering high temperature areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgett, F. A.

    1968-01-01

    Chamber observer suit visor protects the eyes and ears of the wearer while he is performing rescue operations during a fire. The visor is a simple curved sandwich of selected glass plates, gold coated polyester plastic film, and a dead air space, all mounted in an aluminum frame.

  15. Advanced Control and Protection system Design Methods for Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J; Wilson Jr, Thomas L; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-06-01

    The project supported the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in identifying and evaluating the regulatory implications concerning the control and protection systems proposed for use in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The NGNP, using modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology, is to provide commercial industries with electricity and high-temperature process heat for industrial processes such as hydrogen production. Process heat temperatures range from 700 to 950 C, and for the upper range of these operation temperatures, the modular HTGR is sometimes referred to as the Very High Temperature Reactor or VHTR. Initial NGNP designs are for operation in the lower temperature range. The defining safety characteristic of the modular HTGR is that its primary defense against serious accidents is to be achieved through its inherent properties of the fuel and core. Because of its strong negative temperature coefficient of reactivity and the capability of the fuel to withstand high temperatures, fast-acting active safety systems or prompt operator actions should not be required to prevent significant fuel failure and fission product release. The plant is designed such that its inherent features should provide adequate protection despite operational errors or equipment failure. Figure 1 shows an example modular HTGR layout (prismatic core version), where its inlet coolant enters the reactor vessel at the bottom, traversing up the sides to the top plenum, down-flow through an annular core, and exiting from the lower plenum (hot duct). This research provided NRC staff with (a) insights and knowledge about the control and protection systems for the NGNP and VHTR, (b) information on the technologies/approaches under consideration for use in the reactor and process heat applications, (c) guidelines for the design of highly integrated control rooms, (d) consideration for modeling of control and protection system designs for

  16. Exterior spacecraft subsystem protective shielding analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Taylor, Roy A.

    1990-01-01

    All spacecraft are susceptible to impacts by meteoroids and pieces of orbiting space debris. An effective mechanism is developed to protect external spacecraft subsystems against damage by ricochet particles formed during such impacts. Equations and design procedures for protective shield panels are developed based on observed ricochet phenomena and calculated ricochet particle sizes and speeds. It is found that the diameter of the most damaging ricochet debris particle can be as large as 40 percent of the original project tile diameter, and can travel at speeds between 24 and 36 percent of the original projectile impact velocity. Panel dimensions are shown to be strongly dependent on their inclination to the impact velocity vector and on their distribution around a spacecraft module. It is concluded that obliquity effects of high-speed impacts must be considered in the design of any structure exposed to the meteoroid and space debris environment.

  17. Conservation, Spillover and Gene Flow within a Network of Northern European Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Huserbråten, Mats Brockstedt Olsen; Moland, Even; Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Esben Moland; André, Carl; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2013-01-01

    To ensure that marine protected areas (MPAs) benefit conservation and fisheries, the effectiveness of MPA designs has to be evaluated in field studies. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we empirically assessed the design of a network of northern MPAs where fishing for European lobster (Homarusgammarus) is prohibited. First, we demonstrate a high level of residency and survival (50%) for almost a year (363 days) within MPAs, despite small MPA sizes (0.5-1 km2). Second, we demonstrate limited export (4.7%) of lobsters tagged within MPAs (N = 1810) to neighbouring fished areas, over a median distance of 1.6 km out to maximum 21 km away from MPA centres. In comparison, median movement distance of lobsters recaptured within MPAs was 164 m, and recapture rate was high (40%). Third, we demonstrate a high level of gene flow within the study region, with an estimated FST of less than 0.0001 over a ≈ 400 km coastline. Thus, the restricted movement of older life stages, combined with a high level of gene flow suggests that connectivity is primarily driven by larval drift. Larval export from the MPAs can most likely affect areas far beyond their borders. Our findings are of high importance for the design of MPA networks for sedentary species with pelagic early life stages. PMID:24039927

  18. A comparison of marine protected areas and alternative approaches to coral-reef management.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, Timothy R; Marnane, Michael J; Cinner, Joshua E; Kiene, William E

    2006-07-25

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely adopted as the leading tool for coral-reef conservation, but resource users seldom accept them , and many have failed to produce tangible conservation benefits [3]. Few studies have objectively and simultaneously examined the types of MPAs that are most effective in conserving reef resources and the socioeconomic factors responsible for effective conservation [4-6]. We simultaneously explored measures of reef and socioeconomic conservation success at four national parks, four comanaged reserves, and three traditionally managed areas in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Underwater visual censuses of key ecological indicators [7, 8] revealed that the average size and biomass of fishes were higher in all areas under traditional management and at one comanaged reserve when compared to nearby unmanaged areas. Socioeconomic assessments [6, 9, 10] revealed that this "effective conservation" was positively related to compliance, visibility of the reserve, and length of time the management had been in place but negatively related to market integration, wealth, and village population size. We suggest that in cases where the resources for enforcement are lacking, management regimes that are designed to meet community goals can achieve greater compliance and subsequent conservation success than regimes designed primarily for biodiversity conservation. PMID:16860739

  19. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radeloff, V.C.; Stewart, S.I.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Gimmi, U.; Pidgeon, A.M.; Flather, C.H.; Hammer, R.B.; Helmers, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern "Noah's Ark." Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries.

  20. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value.

    PubMed

    Radeloff, Volker C; Stewart, Susan I; Hawbaker, Todd J; Gimmi, Urs; Pidgeon, Anna M; Flather, Curtis H; Hammer, Roger B; Helmers, David P

    2010-01-12

    Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern "Noah's Ark." Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries. PMID:20080780

  1. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value

    PubMed Central

    Radeloff, Volker C.; Stewart, Susan I.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Gimmi, Urs; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Flather, Curtis H.; Hammer, Roger B.; Helmers, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern “Noah’s Ark.” Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries. PMID:20080780

  2. A Proposed Methodology to Assess the Quality of Public Use Management in Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Santos, Maria; Benayas, Javier

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, the goal of nature preservation has faced, almost worldwide, an increase in the number of visitors who are interested in experiencing protected areas resources, landscapes and stories. Spain is a good example of this process. The rapidly increasing numbers of visitors have prompted administrations and managers to offer and develop a broad network of facilities and programs in order to provide these visitors with information, knowledge and recreation. But, are we doing it the best way? This research focuses on developing and applying a new instrument for evaluating the quality of visitor management in parks. Different areas are analyzed with this instrument (78 semi-quantitative indicators): planning and management capacity (planning, funding, human resources), monitoring, reception, information, interpretation, environmental education, training, participation and volunteer's programs. Thus, we attempt to gain a general impression of the development of the existing management model, detecting strengths and weaknesses. Although Spain's National Parks constituted the specific context within which to develop the evaluation instrument, the design thereof is intended to provide a valid, robust and flexible method for application to any system, network or set of protected areas in other countries. This paper presents the instrument developed, some results obtained following its application to Spanish National parks, along with a discussion on the limits and validity thereof.

  3. Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, Graham J.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.; Willis, Trevor J.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Baker, Susan C.; Banks, Stuart; Barrett, Neville S.; Becerro, Mikel A.; Bernard, Anthony T. F.; Berkhout, Just; Buxton, Colin D.; Campbell, Stuart J.; Cooper, Antonia T.; Davey, Marlene; Edgar, Sophie C.; Försterra, Günter; Galván, David E.; Irigoyen, Alejo J.; Kushner, David J.; Moura, Rodrigo; Parnell, P. Ed; Shears, Nick T.; Soler, German; Strain, Elisabeth M. A.; Thomson, Russell J.

    2014-02-01

    In line with global targets agreed under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is increasing rapidly, yet socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs remain difficult to predict and under debate. MPAs often fail to reach their full potential as a consequence of factors such as illegal harvesting, regulations that legally allow detrimental harvesting, or emigration of animals outside boundaries because of continuous habitat or inadequate size of reserve. Here we show that the conservation benefits of 87 MPAs investigated worldwide increase exponentially with the accumulation of five key features: no take, well enforced, old (>10 years), large (>100km2), and isolated by deep water or sand. Using effective MPAs with four or five key features as an unfished standard, comparisons of underwater survey data from effective MPAs with predictions based on survey data from fished coasts indicate that total fish biomass has declined about two-thirds from historical baselines as a result of fishing. Effective MPAs also had twice as many large (>250mm total length) fish species per transect, five times more large fish biomass, and fourteen times more shark biomass than fished areas. Most (59%) of the MPAs studied had only one or two key features and were not ecologically distinguishable from fished sites. Our results show that global conservation targets based on area alone will not optimize protection of marine biodiversity. More emphasis is needed on better MPA design, durable management and compliance to ensure that MPAs achieve their desired conservation value.

  4. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  5. Habitat Design Considerations for Implementing Solar Particle Event Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Mathew A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Walker, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation protection is an important habitat design consideration for human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. Fortunately, radiation shelter concepts can effectively reduce astronaut exposure for the relatively low proton energies of solar particle events, enabling moderate duration missions of several months before astronaut exposure (galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event) approaches radiation exposure limits. In order to minimize habitat mass for increasingly challenging missions, design of radiation shelters must minimize dedicated, single-purpose shielding mass by leveraging the design and placement of habitat subsystems, accommodations, and consumables. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems RadWorks Storm Shelter Team has recently designed and performed radiation analysis on several low dedicated mass shelter concepts for a year-long mission. This paper describes habitat design considerations identified during the study's radiation analysis. These considerations include placement of the shelter within a habitat for improved protection, integration of human factors guidance for sizing shelters, identification of potential opportunities for habitat subsystems to compromise on individual subsystem performances for overall vehicle mass reductions, and pre-configuration of shelter components for reduced deployment times.

  6. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  7. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  8. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  9. 18 CFR 430.7 - Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use. 430.7 Section 430.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA §...

  10. 18 CFR 430.7 - Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use. 430.7 Section 430.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA §...

  11. Percentage of Protected Area Amounts within each Watershed Boundary for the Conterminous US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: This dataset uses spatial information from the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD, March 2011) and the Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US Version 1.0). The resulting data layer, with percentages of protected areas by category, was created using the ATtI...

  12. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions ER29DE10.006 ER29DE10.007 ER29DE10.008...

  13. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions ER20DE04.109 ER20DE04.110 ER20DE04.111...

  14. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions ER29DE10.006 ER29DE10.007 ER29DE10.008...

  15. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  16. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  17. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  18. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  19. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  20. 40 CFR 52.28 - Protection of visibility from sources in nonattainment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... protection area means any area listed in 40 CFR 81.401-81.436 (1984). (2) All other terms shall have the meaning ascribed to them in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301) or the prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) program either approved as part of the applicable SIP pursuant to 40 CFR...

  1. 40 CFR 52.28 - Protection of visibility from sources in nonattainment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... protection area means any area listed in 40 CFR 81.401-81.436 (1984). (2) All other terms shall have the meaning ascribed to them in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301) or the prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) program either approved as part of the applicable SIP pursuant to 40 CFR...

  2. 40 CFR 52.28 - Protection of visibility from sources in nonattainment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... protection area means any area listed in 40 CFR 81.401-81.436 (1984). (2) All other terms shall have the meaning ascribed to them in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301) or the prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) program either approved as part of the applicable SIP pursuant to 40 CFR...

  3. 40 CFR 52.28 - Protection of visibility from sources in nonattainment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... protection area means any area listed in 40 CFR 81.401-81.436 (1984). (2) All other terms shall have the meaning ascribed to them in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301) or the prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) program either approved as part of the applicable SIP pursuant to 40 CFR...

  4. 40 CFR 52.28 - Protection of visibility from sources in nonattainment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... protection area means any area listed in 40 CFR 81.401-81.436 (1984). (2) All other terms shall have the meaning ascribed to them in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301) or the prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) program either approved as part of the applicable SIP pursuant to 40 CFR...

  5. 10 CFR 60.131 - General design criteria for the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... system shall be designed with provisions for calibration and for testing its operability. (b) Protection... requirements in 30 CFR, chapter I, subchapters D, E, and N will give rise to a rebuttable presumption that this... radioactivity areas; and (6) A radiation alarm system to warn of significant increases in radiation...

  6. 43 CFR 1610.7-2 - Designation of areas of critical environmental concern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... threat to human life or property. (b) The State Director, upon approval of a draft resource management..., PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.7-2 Designation of areas of critical environmental... protection management shall be identified and considered throughout the resource management planning...

  7. 43 CFR 1610.7-2 - Designation of areas of critical environmental concern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... threat to human life or property. (b) The State Director, upon approval of a draft resource management..., PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.7-2 Designation of areas of critical environmental... protection management shall be identified and considered throughout the resource management planning...

  8. Area estimation using multiyear designs and partial crop identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sielken, R. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported for the following areas: (1) estimating the stratum's crop acreage proportion using the multiyear area estimation model; (2) assessment of multiyear sampling designs; and (3) development of statistical methodology for incorporating partially identified sample segments into crop area estimation.

  9. The effects of governmental protected areas and social initiatives for land protection on the conservation of Mexican amphibians.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Ochoa, Leticia; Urbina-Cardona, J Nicolás; Vázquez, Luis-Bernardo; Flores-Villela, Oscar; Bezaury-Creel, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, biodiversity conservation gap analyses have been focused on governmental protected areas (PAs). However, an increasing number of social initiatives in conservation (SICs) are promoting a new perspective for analysis. SICs include all of the efforts that society implements to conserve biodiversity, such as land protection, from private reserves to community zoning plans some of which have generated community-protected areas. This is the first attempt to analyze the status of conservation in Latin America when some of these social initiatives are included. The analyses were focused on amphibians because they are one of the most threatened groups worldwide. Mexico is not an exception, where more than 60% of its amphibians are endemic. We used a niche model approach to map the potential and real geographical distribution (extracting the transformed areas) of the endemic amphibians. Based on remnant distribution, all the species have suffered some degree of loss, but 36 species have lost more than 50% of their potential distribution. For 50 micro-endemic species we could not model their potential distribution range due to the small number of records per species, therefore the analyses were performed using these records directly. We then evaluated the efficiency of the existing set of governmental protected areas and established the contribution of social initiatives (private and community) for land protection for amphibian conservation. We found that most of the species have some proportion of their potential ecological niche distribution protected, but 20% are not protected at all within governmental PAs. 73% of endemic and 26% of micro-endemic amphibians are represented within SICs. However, 30 micro-endemic species are not represented within either governmental PAs or SICs. This study shows how the role of land conservation through social initiatives is therefore becoming a crucial element for an important number of species not protected by

  10. The Effects of Governmental Protected Areas and Social Initiatives for Land Protection on the Conservation of Mexican Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Ochoa, Leticia; Urbina-Cardona, J. Nicolás; Vázquez, Luis-Bernardo; Flores-Villela, Oscar; Bezaury-Creel, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, biodiversity conservation gap analyses have been focused on governmental protected areas (PAs). However, an increasing number of social initiatives in conservation (SICs) are promoting a new perspective for analysis. SICs include all of the efforts that society implements to conserve biodiversity, such as land protection, from private reserves to community zoning plans some of which have generated community-protected areas. This is the first attempt to analyze the status of conservation in Latin America when some of these social initiatives are included. The analyses were focused on amphibians because they are one of the most threatened groups worldwide. Mexico is not an exception, where more than 60% of its amphibians are endemic. We used a niche model approach to map the potential and real geographical distribution (extracting the transformed areas) of the endemic amphibians. Based on remnant distribution, all the species have suffered some degree of loss, but 36 species have lost more than 50% of their potential distribution. For 50 micro-endemic species we could not model their potential distribution range due to the small number of records per species, therefore the analyses were performed using these records directly. We then evaluated the efficiency of the existing set of governmental protected areas and established the contribution of social initiatives (private and community) for land protection for amphibian conservation. We found that most of the species have some proportion of their potential ecological niche distribution protected, but 20% are not protected at all within governmental PAs. 73% of endemic and 26% of micro-endemic amphibians are represented within SICs. However, 30 micro-endemic species are not represented within either governmental PAs or SICs. This study shows how the role of land conservation through social initiatives is therefore becoming a crucial element for an important number of species not protected by

  11. Toward pristine biomass: reef fish recovery in coral reef marine protected areas in Kenya.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, Tim R; Graham, Nicholas A J; Calnan, Jacqulyn M; MacNeil, M Aaron

    2007-06-01

    Identifying the rates of recovery of fish in no-take areas is fundamental to designing protected area networks, managing fisheries, estimating yields, identifying ecological interactions, and informing stakeholders about the outcomes of this management. Here we study the recovery of coral reef fishes through 37 years of protection using a space-for-time chronosequence of four marine national parks in Kenya. Using AIC model selection techniques, we assessed recovery trends using five ecologically meaningful production models: asymptotic, Ricker, logistic, linear, and exponential. There were clear recovery trends with time for species richness, total and size class density, and wet masses at the level of the taxonomic family. Species richness recovered rapidly to an asymptote at 10 years. The two main herbivorous families displayed differing responses to protection, scarids recovering rapidly, but then exhibiting some decline while acanthurids recovered more slowly and steadily throughout the study. Recovery of the two invertebrate-eating groups suggested competitive interactions over resources, with the labrids recovering more rapidly before a decline and the balistids demonstrating a slower logistic recovery. Remaining families displayed differing trends with time, with a general pattern of decline in smaller size classes or small-bodied species after an initial recovery, which suggests that some species- and size-related competitive and predatory control occurs in older closures. There appears to be an ecological succession of dominance with an initial rapid rise in labrids and scarids, followed by a slower rise in balistids and acanthurids, an associated decline in sea urchins, and an ultimate dominance in calcifying algae. Our results indicate that the unfished "equilibrium" biomass of the fish assemblage > 10 cm is 1100-1200 kg/ha, but these small parks (< 10 km2) are likely to underestimate pre-human influence values due to edge effects and the rarity of taxa

  12. Use of inverse spatial conservation prioritization to avoid biological diversity loss outside protected areas.

    PubMed

    Kareksela, Santtu; Moilanen, Atte; Tuominen, Seppo; Kotiaho, Janne S

    2013-12-01

    Globally expanding human land use sets constantly increasing pressure for maintenance of biological diversity and functioning ecosystems. To fight the decline of biological diversity, conservation science has broken ground with methods such as the operational model of systematic conservation planning (SCP), which focuses on design and on-the-ground implementation of conservation areas. The most commonly used method in SCP is reserve selection that focuses on the spatial design of reserve networks and their expansion. We expanded these methods by introducing another form of spatial allocation of conservation effort relevant for land-use zoning at the landscape scale that avoids negative ecological effects of human land use outside protected areas. We call our method inverse spatial conservation prioritization. It can be used to identify areas suitable for economic development while simultaneously limiting total ecological and environmental effects of that development at the landscape level by identifying areas with highest economic but lowest ecological value. Our method is not based on a priori targets, and as such it is applicable to cases where the effects of land use on, for example, individual species or ecosystem types are relatively small and would not lead to violation of regional or national conservation targets. We applied our method to land-use allocation to peat mining. Our method identified a combination of profitable production areas that provides the needed area for peat production while retaining most of the landscape-level ecological value of the ecosystem. The results of this inverse spatial conservation prioritization are being used in land-use zoning in the province of Central Finland. PMID:24033397

  13. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    PubMed

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200 keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500 keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5 µSv h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision. PMID:25906251

  14. An effective regional Marine Protected Area network for the ROPME Sea Area: unrealistic vision or realistic possibility?

    PubMed

    Van Lavieren, Hanneke; Klaus, Rebecca

    2013-07-30

    Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) targets aim to encourage the establishment of an effective global network of MPAs covering 10% of coastal and marine ecoregions by 2020. This paper presents findings from the first ever regional assessment of MPA management effectiveness in the ROPME (Regional Organisation for the Protection of the Marine Environment) Sea Area (RSA). The RSA, extends from the Gulf to the Arabian Sea coast of Oman, and is bordered by 8 member states, including some of the world's richest and fastest growing global economies. There are 173 MPAs covering 7.8% of the RSA (36,182.03 km(2)). Progress towards CBD MPA targets is lower as: (i) stated area coverages often include a terrestrial component; (ii) only 37% are legally 'Designated' (5.4% RSA), while 73% remain 'Proposed' (2.4% RSA) and; (iii) assessment of management effectiveness revealed variable levels of performance (11% to 58%, with an average of 34%). Underlying causes for low performance are discussed and recommendations are offered to help RSA member states meet CBD MPA targets by 2020. PMID:23294567

  15. The reduced effectiveness of protected areas under climate change threatens Atlantic forest tiger moths.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Viviane G; Lemes, Priscila; Melo, Adriano S; Loyola, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Climate change leads to species' range shifts, which may end up reducing the effectiveness of protected areas. These deleterious changes in biodiversity may become amplified if they include functionally important species, such as herbivores or pollinators. We evaluated how effective protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are in maintaining the diversity of tiger moths (Arctiinae) under climate change. Specifically, we assessed whether protected areas will gain or lose species under climate change and mapped their locations in the Atlantic Forest, in order to assess potential spatial patterns of protected areas that will gain or lose species richness. Comparisons were completed using modeled species occurrence data based on the current and projected climate in 2080. We also built a null model for random allocation of protected areas to identify where reductions in species richness will be more severe than expected. We employed several modern techniques for modeling species' distributions and summarized results using ensembles of models. Our models indicate areas of high species richness in the central and southern regions of the Atlantic Forest both for now and the future. However, we estimate that in 2080 these regions should become climatically unsuitable, decreasing the species' distribution area. Around 4% of species were predicted to become extinct, some of them being endemic to the biome. Estimates of species turnover from current to future climate tended to be high, but these findings are dependent on modeling methods. Our most important results show that only a few protected areas in the southern region of the biome would gain species. Protected areas in semideciduous forests in the western region of the biome would lose more species than expected by the null model employed. Hence, current protected areas are worse off, than just randomly selected areas, at protecting species in the future. PMID:25229422

  16. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    SciTech Connect

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  17. Design criteria document, Fire Protection Task, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-12-14

    The K Basin were constructed in the early 1950`s with a 20 year design life. The K Basins are currently in their third design life and are serving as a near term storage facility for irradiated N Reactor fuel until an interim fuel storage solution can be implemented. In April 1994, Project W-405, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, was established to address (among other things) the immediate fire protection needs of the 100K Area. A Fire Barrier Evaluation was performed for the wall between the active and inactive areas of the 105KE and 105KW buildings. This evaluation concludes that the wall is capable of being upgraded to provide an equivalent level of fire resistance as a qualified barrier having a fire resistance rating of 2 hours. The Fire Protection Task is one of four separate Tasks included within the scope of Project W405, K Basin Essential systems Recovery. The other three Tasks are the Water Distribution System Task, the Electrical System Task, and the Maintenance Shop/Support Facility Task. The purpose of Project W-405`s Fire Protection Task is to correct Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) non-compliances and to provide fire protection features in Buildings 105KE, 105KW and 190KE that are essential for assuring the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the 100K Area Facilities` Irradiated Fuel Storage Basins (K Basins).

  18. Engaging the recreational angling community to implement and manage aquatic protected areas.

    PubMed

    Danylchuk, Andy J; Cooke, Steven J

    2011-06-01

    Recreational angling is a popular leisure activity, the quality of which is greatly dependent on fish abundance and well-functioning aquatic ecosystems. Aquatic protected areas (APAs) are used to help maintain and even restore aquatic systems and their associated biota, including fish species that are popular with recreational anglers. Paradoxically, the use of APAs has been a source of much contention and conflict between members of the recreational angling community and those interested in or mandated to protect aquatic resources on the basis of the interests of multiple stakeholder groups. The angling community is concerned about the loss of fishing opportunities and effectiveness of APAs. Although it is still unclear whether establishment of APAs alone can effectively protect aquatic resources, actively including the recreational angling community in the design, implementation, and management of APAs will help ensure the values of this rather substantial user group are incorporated into aquatic conservation strategies. Conversely, the probability of increasing the sustainability of recreational angling and related economies will be greatest if recreational angler groups remain open minded to both short-term and long-term goals of fisheries conservation strategies, including the use of APAs. PMID:21175844

  19. Probing topological protection using a designer surface plasmon structure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Gao, Zhen; Shi, Xihang; Yang, Zhaoju; Lin, Xiao; Xu, Hongyi; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng; Lu, Ling; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    Topological photonic states, inspired by robust chiral edge states in topological insulators, have recently been demonstrated in a few photonic systems, including an array of coupled on-chip ring resonators at communication wavelengths. However, the intrinsic difference between electrons and photons determines that the 'topological protection' in time-reversal-invariant photonic systems does not share the same robustness as its counterpart in electronic topological insulators. Here in a designer surface plasmon platform consisting of tunable metallic sub-wavelength structures, we construct photonic topological edge states and probe their robustness against a variety of defect classes, including some common time-reversal-invariant photonic defects that can break the topological protection, but do not exist in electronic topological insulators. This is also an experimental realization of anomalous Floquet topological edge states, whose topological phase cannot be predicted by the usual Chern number topological invariants. PMID:27197877

  20. Design of motorcycle rider protection systems using numerical techniques.

    PubMed

    Miralbes, R

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this paper is the development of a design methodology, based on the use of finite elements numerical tools and dummies in order to study the damages and injuries that appear during a motorcyclist collision against a motorcyclist protection system (MPS). According to the existing regulation, a Hybrid III dummy FEM model has been used as a starting point and some modifications have been included. For instance a new finite element helmet model has been developed and later added to the dummy model. Moreover, some structural elements affecting the simulation results such as the connecting bolts or the ground have been adequately modeled. Finally there have been analyzed diverse types of current motorcyclists protection systems, for which it has been made a comparative numerical-experiment analysis to validate the numerical results and the methodology used. PMID:23792610

  1. Probing topological protection using a designer surface plasmon structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Gao, Zhen; Shi, Xihang; Yang, Zhaoju; Lin, Xiao; Xu, Hongyi; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng; Lu, Ling; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2016-05-01

    Topological photonic states, inspired by robust chiral edge states in topological insulators, have recently been demonstrated in a few photonic systems, including an array of coupled on-chip ring resonators at communication wavelengths. However, the intrinsic difference between electrons and photons determines that the `topological protection' in time-reversal-invariant photonic systems does not share the same robustness as its counterpart in electronic topological insulators. Here in a designer surface plasmon platform consisting of tunable metallic sub-wavelength structures, we construct photonic topological edge states and probe their robustness against a variety of defect classes, including some common time-reversal-invariant photonic defects that can break the topological protection, but do not exist in electronic topological insulators. This is also an experimental realization of anomalous Floquet topological edge states, whose topological phase cannot be predicted by the usual Chern number topological invariants.

  2. Probing topological protection using a designer surface plasmon structure

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Gao, Zhen; Shi, Xihang; Yang, Zhaoju; Lin, Xiao; Xu, Hongyi; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng; Lu, Ling; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    Topological photonic states, inspired by robust chiral edge states in topological insulators, have recently been demonstrated in a few photonic systems, including an array of coupled on-chip ring resonators at communication wavelengths. However, the intrinsic difference between electrons and photons determines that the ‘topological protection' in time-reversal-invariant photonic systems does not share the same robustness as its counterpart in electronic topological insulators. Here in a designer surface plasmon platform consisting of tunable metallic sub-wavelength structures, we construct photonic topological edge states and probe their robustness against a variety of defect classes, including some common time-reversal-invariant photonic defects that can break the topological protection, but do not exist in electronic topological insulators. This is also an experimental realization of anomalous Floquet topological edge states, whose topological phase cannot be predicted by the usual Chern number topological invariants. PMID:27197877

  3. Game theoretic analysis of physical protection system design

    SciTech Connect

    Canion, B.; Schneider, E.; Bickel, E.; Hadlock, C.; Morton, D.

    2013-07-01

    The physical protection system (PPS) of a fictional small modular reactor (SMR) facility have been modeled as a platform for a game theoretic approach to security decision analysis. To demonstrate the game theoretic approach, a rational adversary with complete knowledge of the facility has been modeled attempting a sabotage attack. The adversary adjusts his decisions in response to investments made by the defender to enhance the security measures. This can lead to a conservative physical protection system design. Since defender upgrades were limited by a budget, cost benefit analysis may be conducted upon security upgrades. One approach to cost benefit analysis is the efficient frontier, which depicts the reduction in expected consequence per incremental increase in the security budget.

  4. Probing topological protection using a designer surface plasmon structure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gao, Fei; Gao, Zhen; Shi, Xihang; Yang, Zhaoju; Lin, Xiao; Xu, Hongyi; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng; Lu, Ling; et al

    2016-05-20

    Topological photonic states, inspired by robust chiral edge states in topological insulators, have recently been demonstrated in a few photonic systems, including an array of coupled on-chip ring resonators at communication wavelengths. However, the intrinsic difference between electrons and photons determines that the 'topological protection' in time-reversal-invariant photonic systems does not share the same robustness as its counterpart in electronic topological insulators. Here in a designer surface plasmon platform consisting of tunable metallic sub-wavelength structures, we construct photonic topological edge states and probe their robustness against a variety of defect classes, including some common time-reversal-invariant photonic defects that can breakmore » the topological protection, but do not exist in electronic topological insulators. Furthermore, this is also an experimental realization of anomalous Floquet topological edge states, whose topological phase cannot be predicted by the usual Chern number topological invariants.« less

  5. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... between the inspectors may vary within this range, depending upon the visibility of the plant growth. In... they can observe all plants growing within 10 feet of them. In areas of high plant growth or hilly... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  6. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... between the inspectors may vary within this range, depending upon the visibility of the plant growth. In... they can observe all plants growing within 10 feet of them. In areas of high plant growth or hilly... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  7. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... between the inspectors may vary within this range, depending upon the visibility of the plant growth. In... they can observe all plants growing within 10 feet of them. In areas of high plant growth or hilly... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  8. Implications of heterogeneous impacts of protected areas on deforestation and poverty.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, Merlin M; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo

    2015-11-01

    Protected areas are a popular policy instrument in the global fight against loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, the effectiveness of protected areas in preventing deforestation, and their impacts on poverty, are not well understood. Recent studies have found that Bolivia's protected-area system, on average, reduced deforestation and poverty. We implement several non-parametric and semi-parametric econometric estimators to characterize the heterogeneity in Bolivia's protected-area impacts on joint deforestation and poverty outcomes across a number of socioeconomic and biophysical moderators. Like previous studies from Costa Rica and Thailand, we find that Bolivia's protected areas are not associated with poverty traps. Our results also indicate that protection did not have a differential impact on indigenous populations. However, results from new multidimensional non-parametric estimators provide evidence that the biophysical characteristics associated with the greatest avoided deforestation are the characteristics associated with the potential for poverty exacerbation from protection. We demonstrate that these results would not be identified using the methods implemented in previous studies. Thus, this study provides valuable practical information on the impacts of Bolivia's protected areas for conservation practitioners and demonstrates methods that are likely to be valuable to researchers interested in better understanding the heterogeneity in conservation impacts. PMID:26460125

  9. Ordinary and Extraordinary Movement Behaviour of Small Resident Fish within a Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Aspillaga, Eneko; Bartumeus, Frederic; Linares, Cristina; Starr, Richard M.; López-Sanz, Àngel; Díaz, David; Zabala, Mikel; Hereu, Bernat

    2016-01-01

    It is important to account for the movement behaviour of fishes when designing effective marine protected areas (MPAs). Fish movements occur across different spatial and temporal scales and understanding the variety of movements is essential to make correct management decisions. This study describes in detail the movement patterns of an economically and commercially important species, Diplodus sargus, within a well-enforced Mediterranean MPA. We monitored horizontal and vertical movements of 41 adult individuals using passive acoustic telemetry for up to one year. We applied novel analysis and visualization techniques to get a comprehensive view of a wide range of movements. D. sargus individuals were highly territorial, moving within small home ranges (< 1 km2), inside which they displayed repetitive diel activity patterns. Extraordinary movements beyond the ordinary home range were observed under two specific conditions. First, during stormy events D. sargus presented a sheltering behaviour, moving to more protected places to avoid the disturbance. Second, during the spawning season they made excursions to deep areas (> 50 m), where they aggregated to spawn. This study advances our understanding about the functioning of an established MPA and provides important insights into the biology and management of a small sedentary species, suggesting the relevance of rare but important fish behaviours. PMID:27437692

  10. Ecological and social outcomes of a new protected area in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jaclyn M; Burgess, Neil D; Rantala, Salla; Vihemäki, Heini; Jambiya, George; Gereau, Roy E; Makonda, Fortunatus; Njilima, Fadhili; Sumbi, Peter; Kizaji, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Balancing ecological and social outcomes of conservation actions is recognized in global conservation policy but is challenging in practice. Compensation to land owners or users for foregone assets has been proposed by economists as an efficient way to mitigate negative social impacts of human displacement from protected areas. Joint empirical assessments of the conservation and social impacts of protected area establishment involving compensation payments are scarce. We synthesized social and biological studies related to the establishment of the Derema forest corridor in Tanzania's biodiverse East Usambara Mountains. This lengthy conservation process involved the appropriation of approximately 960 ha of native canopy agroforest and steep slopes for the corridor and monetary compensation to more than 1100 claimants in the surrounding villages. The overarching goals from the outset were to conserve ecological processes while doing no harm to the local communities. We evaluated whether these goals were achieved by analyzing 3 indicators of success: enhancement of forest connectivity, improvement of forest condition, and mitigation of negative impacts on local people's livelihoods. Indicators of forest connectivity and conditions were enhanced through reductions of forest loss and exotic species and increases in native species and canopy closure. Despite great efforts by national and international organizations, the intervention failed to mitigate livelihood losses especially among the poorest people. The Derema case illustrates the challenges of designing and implementing compensation schemes for conservation-related displacement of people. PMID:25046979

  11. Past and present effectiveness of protected areas for conservation of naturally and anthropogenically rare plant species.

    PubMed

    Vellak, Ain; Tuvi, Eva-Liis; Reier, Ülle; Kalamees, Rein; Roosaluste, Elle; Zobel, Martin; Pärtel, Meelis

    2009-06-01

    The Global Strategy of Plant Conservation states that at least 60% of threatened plant species should be within protected areas. This goal has been met in some regions with long traditions of plant protection. We used gap analysis to explore how particular groups of species of conservation interest, representing different types of natural or anthropogenic rarity, have been covered by protected areas on a national scale in Estonia during the last 100 years. Species-accumulation curves indicated that plant species that are naturally rare (restricted global or local distribution, always small populations, or very rare habitat requirements) needed almost twice as many protected areas to reach the 60% target as plant species that are rare owing to lack of suitable management (species depending on grassland management, moderate forest disturbances, extensive traditional agriculture, or species potentially threatened by collecting). Temporal analysis of the establishment of protected areas suggested that grouping plant species according to the predominant cause of rarity accurately reflected the history of conservation decision making. Species found in very rare habitats have previously received special conservation attention; species dependent on traditional extensive agriculture have been largely ignored until recently. Legislative initiative and new nature-protection schemes (e.g., Natura 2000, network of protected areas in the European Union) have had a positive influence on all species groups. Consequently, the species groups needing similar action for their conservation are sensitive indicators of the effectiveness of protected-area networks. Different species groups, however, may not be uniformly conserved within protected areas, and all species groups should fulfill the target of 60% coverage within protected areas. PMID:19128324

  12. Comparison of marine and terrestrial protected areas under federal jurisdiction in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, J.; Barr, B.

    2001-01-01

    There is a significant disparity in the protection of terrestrial and marine environments in the United States. Despite the considerable literature dedicated to the subject of protected areas, both terrestrial and marine, in the United States, we are not aware of work explicitly describing this dichotomy. We compared marine and terrestrial areas under federal jurisdiction to provide a quantitative assessment of the differences between the conservation of land and sea in the United States. Specifically, we compared national marine sanctuaries (including sanctuary preservation areas and ecological reserves) with national parks, national forests, and national wildlife refuges (including national wilderness preservation areas). Our results suggest that marine sanctuaries are fewer in number, smaller in total area, and smaller in percentage of area covered than are terrestrial protected areas.

  13. Resource Use Among Rural Agricultural Households Near Protected Areas in Vietnam: The Social Costs of Conservation and Implications for Enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwee, Pamela D.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been ‘invisible’ due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit.

  14. Resource use among rural agricultural households near protected areas in Vietnam: the social costs of conservation and implications for enforcement.

    PubMed

    McElwee, Pamela D

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been 'invisible' due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit. PMID:19924473

  15. 42 CFR 460.22 - Service area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.22 Service area designation. (a)...

  16. 42 CFR 460.22 - Service area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.22 Service area designation. (a)...

  17. 42 CFR 460.22 - Service area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.22 Service area designation. (a)...

  18. 42 CFR 460.22 - Service area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.22 Service area designation. (a)...

  19. 42 CFR 460.22 - Service area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.22 Service area designation. (a)...

  20. Block 1. Photograph portrays general view of designated seating area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 1. Photograph portrays general view of designated seating area at mid point of Block 1 and illustrates poor maintenance of vegetation within the park - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  1. Marine protected areas in the eastern African Region: how successful are they?

    PubMed

    Francis, Julius; Nilsson, Agneta; Waruinge, Dixon

    2002-12-01

    This article reviews the governance and management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), and the coral reefs they contain, in the eastern African Region. This includes the Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Tanzania, and the Seychelles. Three generations or categories of MPAs are distinguished: i) small areas for protection of a single species or unique marine habitat; iii) large multiple use MPAs designed for coastal development as well as biodiversity protection; and iii) MPAs managed by a nongovernmental organization (NGO) or the private sector. Each of these MPA types is examined according to the policies, legislation, and management systems they entail as well as the economic and community situation they operate within. The paper also provides a review of some eastern African MPAs in terms of their size and location, the type of MPA, zonation schemes, and financial status. The successes of the different types of MPAs are discussed based on specific indicators, such as changes in biodiversity, infrastructure, compliance to regulations and the level of involvement of primary stakeholders in the management. From the review it is clear that a fourth generation of MPAs may be forthcoming; community-based MPAs. Although lack of data makes it difficult to assess the effectiveness of these different categories of MPAs, it is clear that no MPA can succeed without support of the local communities. Generally, the results of the analysis are promising for MPAs, however a lack of data is hampering a deeper analysis. The major issues facing MPAs in the region are highlighted, as well as some regional initiatives striving to address these issues. A number of recommendations are made, aiming to strengthen the establishment and management of MPAs in the eastern African region. PMID:12572815

  2. Tourism, biodiversity and protected areas--Review from northern Fennoscandia.

    PubMed

    Tolvanen, Anne; Kangas, Katja

    2016-03-15

    Tourist numbers in northern Fennoscandia outweigh those in other northern boreal - arctic regions, which creates a specific need to evaluate the impacts of tourism. This review 1) identifies patterns and trends in the vegetation and wildlife of northern Fennoscandian terrestrial ecosystems as a consequence of tourism and recreation, 2) discusses the implications of findings in terms of the intensity, area and magnitude of impacts, changing climate and management needs under increasing tourist pressure, and 3) identifies research gaps. The reviewed studies show negative environmental and biodiversity impacts that are most pronounced near tourist resorts. The most sensitive plants, birds and mammals decline or disappear from the disturbed sites, and the species composition shifts from 'wild' species to cultural and human associated species. There is little research on the spread of alien species, but the few examples show that alien species can be promoted by tourism activities. Impacts of the use of motorized vehicles have not been widely studied either, despite the extensive track network which can cause disturbance to wildlife. The integrated impacts of tourism and climate change on the vegetation and wildlife was not addressed directly in any of the reviewed studies. In addition, little research has been done on carrying out restoration at tourist areas. Scientific research on these topics is needed to prevent, minimize or restore the most negative ecological impacts of tourism and recreation. PMID:26720330

  3. MEASURING HYDROLOGICAL CHANGE DURING EXURBAN DEVELOPMENT: COLLABORATIVE HYDROLOGIC RESEARCH IN THE CLARKSBURG SPECIAL PROTECTION AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project is focused on the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA subwatersheds are on the outer edge of the exurban development shockwave expanding outward from the Washington DC metropolitan area. The CSPA is an area of ...

  4. COLLABORATIVE SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS: COLLABORATIVE HYDROLOGIC RESEARCH IN THE CLARKSBURG SPECIAL PROTECTION AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project is focused on the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA subwatersheds are on the outer edge of the exurban development shockwave expanding outward from the Washington DC metropolitan area. The CSPA is an area of...

  5. MEASURING HYDROLOGICAL CHANGE DURING EXURBAN DEVELOPMENT: COLLABORATIVE HYDROLOGIC RESEARCH IN THE CLARKSBURG SPECIAL PROTECTION AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project is focused on the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA subwatersheds are on the outer edge of the exurban development shockwave expanding outward from the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. The CSPA is an area o...

  6. Evaluating landscape and wildlife changes over time in Tanzania's protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtui, Devolent Tomas

    Declines in wildlife and their habitats associated with land cover changes are documented worldwide. Wildlife protected areas are established as a strategy to maintain and protect viable wildlife populations. International and national policies and regulations are set-forth in countries across the globe to emphasize wildlife species protection. Tanzania has allocated 26.5% (250,425 km2) of its total land area for wildlife protection, and its government established in 1998 a National Wildlife Policy to ensure the maintenance of viable protected areas and survival of important species, habitat and ecosystems. After more than a decade of its implementation, the level and rate of anthropogenic activities experienced in and around protected areas, and the consequent declines of wildlife species, was expected to be reduced to a minimum. Yet, recent studies show that degradation and isolation of wildlife habitats and declines in species populations continue to occur in Tanzanian protected areas. I evaluated changes in landscape and wildlife in three protected areas in Tanzania from the 1980s to the 2010s. Specifically, we investigated changes in land cover and species abundance over time, inside and outside the protected areas, and determined the effects of changes in the types of land cover on wildlife abundance. First, I used Maximum Likelihood classification procedure to derive land cover classes from Landsat TM and ETM+ satellite images of the 1980s, 1990s and 2010s, and to detect changes using post-classification comparison technique and landscape metrics approach. Second, I analysed animal density data for six species or groups of large herbivores, from 1991 to 2012. Thirdly, I evaluated the effect of land cover change on three species of large herbivores. The results show evidence of loss and degradation of types of land covers utilized by large herbivores. Habitats for large herbivores species have shrunken, inside and outside protected areas, resulting in

  7. Gateway design specification for fiber optic local area networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This is a Design Specification for a gateway to interconnect fiber optic local area networks (LAN's). The internetworking protocols for a gateway device that will interconnect multiple local area networks are defined. This specification serves as input for preparation of detailed design specifications for the hardware and software of a gateway device. General characteristics to be incorporated in the gateway such as node address mapping, packet fragmentation, and gateway routing features are described.

  8. 78 FR 22501 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA...

  9. Representation of Global and National Conservation Priorities by Colombia's Protected Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Forero-Medina, German; Joppa, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Background How do national-level actions overlap with global priorities for conservation? Answering this question is especially important in countries with high and unique biological diversity like Colombia. Global biodiversity schemes provide conservation guidance at a large scale, while national governments gazette land for protection based on a combination of criteria at regional or local scales. Information on how a protected area network represents global and national conservation priorities is crucial for finding gaps in coverage and for future expansion of the system. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the agreement of Colombia's protected area network with global conservation priorities, and the extent to which the network reflects the country's biomes, species richness, and common environmental and physical conditions. We used this information to identify priority biomes for conservation. We find the dominant strategy in Colombia has been a proactive one, allocating the highest proportion of protected land on intact, difficult to access and species rich areas like the Amazon. Threatened and unique areas are disproportionately absent from Colombia's protected lands. We highlight six biomes in Colombia as conservation priorities that should be considered in any future expansion of Colombia's protected area network. Two of these biomes have less than 3% of their area protected and more than 70% of their area transformed for human use. One has less than 3% protected and high numbers of threatened vertebrates. Three biomes fall in both categories. Conclusions Expansion of Colombia's Protected Area Network should consider the current representativeness of the network. We indicate six priority biomes that can contribute to improving the representation of threatened species and biomes in Colombia. PMID:20967270

  10. Adaptive capacity of fishing communities at marine protected areas: a case study from the Colombian Pacific.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sánchez, Rocío del Pilar; Maldonado, Jorge Higinio

    2013-12-01

    Departing from a theoretical methodology, we estimate empirically an index of adaptive capacity (IAC) of a fishing community to the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). We carried out household surveys, designed to obtain information for indicators and sub-indicators, and calculated the IAC. Moreover, we performed a sensitivity analysis to check for robustness of the results. Our findings show that, despite being located between two MPAs, the fishing community of Bazán in the Colombian Pacific is highly vulnerable and that the socioeconomic dimension of the IAC constitutes the most binding dimension for building adaptive capacity. Bazán is characterized by extreme poverty, high dependence on resources, and lack of basic public infrastructure. Notwithstanding, social capital and local awareness about ecological conditions may act as enhancers of adaptive capacity. The establishment of MPAs should consider the development of strategies to confer adaptive capacity to local communities highly dependent on resource extraction. PMID:24213997

  11. Representation of natural vegetation in protected areas: Capturing the geographic range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, J.M.; Murray, M.; Wright, R.G.; Csuti, B.; Morgan, P.; Pressey, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Current conservation strategies for plant and animal species rarely address the need to protect the species throughout its geographic range thereby capturing potential genetic and ecological variation. We examined the degree that existing protected areas in the western United States satisfied this goal for four widespread vegetation cover types. We used latitude and longitude to stratify the distribution of these types into 16 cells, each of which was further stratified by up to five elevation classes. While protection of some vegetation types was high in parts of their range, it was minimal to nonexistent in other parts. While it is yet to be shown that protecting a given species throughout its geographic range is essential for its long-term existence, in the face of often unpredictable environmental changes, it seems a prudent course to follow. Our results suggest that if full range protection is a conservation goal, the existing network of protected areas may be inadequate for the task.

  12. Fish stocking in protected areas: Summary of a workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Knapp, Roland A.

    2000-01-01

    Native and nonnative sport fish have been introduced into the majority of historically fishless lakes in wilderness, generating conflicts between managing wilderness as natural ecosystems and providing opportunities for recreation. Managers faced with controversial and difficult decisions about how to manage wilderness lakes may not always have ready access to research relevant to these decisions. To address this problem, and to expose scientists to the concerns and constraints of managers and wilderness users, a workshop was held in October 1998 at the Flathead Lake Biological Station in Polson, Montana. Participants included 43 scientists, state and federal managers, wilderness users and advocates and students. Four subject areas were addressed: federal, state, tribal and user perspectives, community and ecosystem effects, species effects and management recommendations. Papers from the workshop are being developed for an issue of the journal Ecosystems.

  13. 45 CFR 1321.33 - Designation of area agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.33 Designation of... area agency on aging is designated, the State shall give right of first refusal to a unit of...

  14. 45 CFR 1321.33 - Designation of area agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.33 Designation of... area agency on aging is designated, the State shall give right of first refusal to a unit of...

  15. 45 CFR 1321.33 - Designation of area agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.33 Designation of... area agency on aging is designated, the State shall give right of first refusal to a unit of...

  16. 45 CFR 1321.33 - Designation of area agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.33 Designation of... area agency on aging is designated, the State shall give right of first refusal to a unit of...

  17. 45 CFR 1321.33 - Designation of area agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.33 Designation of... area agency on aging is designated, the State shall give right of first refusal to a unit of...

  18. 40 CFR 51.917 - What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September...

  19. 40 CFR 51.917 - What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September...

  20. 40 CFR 51.917 - What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September...

  1. 40 CFR 51.917 - What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September...

  2. Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Willis, Trevor J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Baker, Susan C; Banks, Stuart; Barrett, Neville S; Becerro, Mikel A; Bernard, Anthony T F; Berkhout, Just; Buxton, Colin D; Campbell, Stuart J; Cooper, Antonia T; Davey, Marlene; Edgar, Sophie C; Försterra, Günter; Galván, David E; Irigoyen, Alejo J; Kushner, David J; Moura, Rodrigo; Parnell, P Ed; Shears, Nick T; Soler, German; Strain, Elisabeth M A; Thomson, Russell J

    2014-02-13

    In line with global targets agreed under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is increasing rapidly, yet socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs remain difficult to predict and under debate. MPAs often fail to reach their full potential as a consequence of factors such as illegal harvesting, regulations that legally allow detrimental harvesting, or emigration of animals outside boundaries because of continuous habitat or inadequate size of reserve. Here we show that the conservation benefits of 87 MPAs investigated worldwide increase exponentially with the accumulation of five key features: no take, well enforced, old (>10 years), large (>100 km(2)), and isolated by deep water or sand. Using effective MPAs with four or five key features as an unfished standard, comparisons of underwater survey data from effective MPAs with predictions based on survey data from fished coasts indicate that total fish biomass has declined about two-thirds from historical baselines as a result of fishing. Effective MPAs also had twice as many large (>250 mm total length) fish species per transect, five times more large fish biomass, and fourteen times more shark biomass than fished areas. Most (59%) of the MPAs studied had only one or two key features and were not ecologically distinguishable from fished sites. Our results show that global conservation targets based on area alone will not optimize protection of marine biodiversity. More emphasis is needed on better MPA design, durable management and compliance to ensure that MPAs achieve their desired conservation value. PMID:24499817

  3. 50 CFR 622.15 - Notice regarding area closures to protect corals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corals. 622.15 Section 622.15 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC General Provisions § 622.15 Notice regarding area closures to protect corals. See §§ 622.74 and 622.224, respectively, regarding coral protective restrictions in the Gulf EEZ and...

  4. 50 CFR 622.15 - Notice regarding area closures to protect corals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... corals. 622.15 Section 622.15 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC General Provisions § 622.15 Notice regarding area closures to protect corals. See §§ 622.74 and 622.224, respectively, regarding coral protective restrictions in the Gulf EEZ and...

  5. International funding agencies: potential leaders of impact evaluation in protected areas?

    PubMed

    Craigie, Ian D; Barnes, Megan D; Geldmann, Jonas; Woodley, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Globally, protected areas are the most commonly used tools to halt biodiversity loss. Yet, some are failing to adequately conserve the biodiversity they contain. There is an urgent need for knowledge on how to make them function more effectively. Impact evaluation methods provide a set of tools that could yield this knowledge. However, rigorous outcome-focused impact evaluation is not yet used as extensively as it could be in protected area management. We examine the role of international protected area funding agencies in facilitating the use of impact evaluation. These agencies are influential stakeholders as they allocate hundreds of millions of dollars annually to support protected areas, creating a unique opportunity to shape how the conservation funds are spent globally. We identify key barriers to the use of impact evaluation, detail how large funders are uniquely placed to overcome many of these, and highlight the potential benefits if impact evaluation is used more extensively. PMID:26460135

  6. 78 FR 19460 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (Commerce). ACTION: Notice... hear updates from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Department of......

  7. Landscape level analysis of disturbance regimes in protected areas of Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, P. Hari; Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Singh, Randeep; Jha, C. S.

    2014-04-01

    There is an urgent need to identify the human influence on landscape as disturbance regimes was realized for prioritization of the protected areas. The present study has attempted to describe the landscape level assessment of fragmentation and disturbance index in protected areas of Rajasthan using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Geospatial analysis of disturbance regimes indicates 61.75% of the total PAs are under moderate disturbance index followed by 28.64% and 9.61% under low and high respectively. Among the 28 protected areas- National Chambal WLS, Jaisamand WLS, Kumbhalgarh WLS, Sawai Man Singh WLS, Kailadevi WLS and Bandh Baratha WLS are representing high level of disturbance. The present study has emphasized the moderate to low disturbance regimes in protected areas, which infer low biotic pressure and conservation effectiveness of PA network in Rajasthan. The spatial information generated on PAs is of valuable use for forest management and developing conservation strategies.

  8. The park-view effect: Residential development is higher at the boundaries of protected areas.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Mattia; Ronchi, Silvia

    2016-11-01

    Land-use changes in the surrounding of protected areas might compromise their conservation efficacy, and thus the potential attractive effect that protected areas may exert on urban development is particularly concerning. We investigated whether the proximity to protected areas in a region (Lombardy, Italy) with a high density of urban areas and parks may increase the likelihood of residential development. The main change around protected areas was the loss of open areas (mostly due to development processes at the expense of arable land), which was higher in proximity of parks. Changes in residential discontinuous development were significantly and negatively related to proximity to parks, whereas changes in productive developments were unrelated to park proximity. The higher likelihood of residential development in proximity to parks is likely due to the attraction exerted by parks. The severe loss of open areas and increase of residential development around parks heavily impacted on habitat availability for a declining bird species (Alauda arvensis). Conservation policies considering also what happens around protected areas are urgently needed. PMID:27381460

  9. 76 FR 8917 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Automatic Speed Protection for Design Dive Speed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...; Automatic Speed Protection for Design Dive Speed AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... design features include a high speed protection system. These proposed special conditions contain the... Design Features The GVI is equipped with a high speed protection system that limits nose down...

  10. Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    R. Flint Hughes; Jean-Yves Meyer, jean-yves.meyer@recherche.gov.pf; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in Hawaii began in the 1970s, arguably at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout Hawaii and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in Hawaii are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.

  11. Assessing Dispersal Patterns of Fish Propagules from an Effective Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Di Franco, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Pujolar, José Martin; De Leo, Giulio A.; Gatto, Marino; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Melià, Paco; Zane, Lorenzo; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called ‘recruitment subsidy’, the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide

  12. Conflict resolution in the zoning of eco-protected areas in fast-growing regions based on game theory.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinyao; Li, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Zoning eco-protected areas is important for ecological conservation and environmental management. Rapid and continuous urban expansion, however, may exert negative effects on the performance of practical zoning designs. Various methods have been developed for protected area zoning, but most of them failed to consider the conflicts between urban development (for the benefit of land developers) and ecological protection (local government). Some real-world zoning schemes even have to be modified occasionally after the lengthy negotiations between the government and land developers. Therefore, our study has presented a game theory-based method to deal with this problem. Future urban expansion in the study area will be predicted by a logistic regression cellular automaton, while eco-protected areas will be delimitated using multi-objective optimization algorithm. Then, two types of conflicts between them can be resolved based on game theory, a theory of decision-making. We established a two-person dynamic game for each conflict zone. The ecological compensation mechanism was taken into account by simulating the negotiation processes between the government and land developers. A final zoning scheme can be obtained when the two sides reach agreements. The proposed method is applied to the eco-protected area zoning in Guangzhou, a fast-growing city in China. The experiments indicate that the conflicts between eco-protection and urban development will inevitably arise when using only traditional zoning methods. Based on game theory, our method can effectively resolve those conflicts, and can provide a relatively reasonable zoning scheme. This method is expected to support policy-making in environmental management and urban planning. PMID:26829451

  13. X-33 Base Region Thermal Protection System Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lycans, Randal W.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 is an advanced technology demonstrator for validating critical technologies and systems required for an operational Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) Reusuable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Currently under development by a unique contractor/government team led by Lockheed- Martin Skunk Works (LMSW), and managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the X-33 will be the prototype of the first new launch system developed by the United States since the advent of the space shuttle. This paper documents a design trade study of the X-33 base region thermal protection system (TPS). Two candidate designs were evaluated for thermal performance and weight. The first candidate was a fully reusable metallic TPS using Inconel honeycomb panels insulated with high temperature fibrous insulation, while the second was an ablator/insulator sprayed on the metallic skin of the vehicle. The TPS configurations and insulation thickness requirements were determined for the predicted main engine plume heating environments and base region entry aerothermal environments. In addition to thermal analysis of the design concepts, sensitivity studies were performed to investigate the effect of variations in key parameters of the base TPS analysis.

  14. Design of metallic foams as insulation in thermal protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huadong

    Metallic foams are novel materials that can be used as thermal insulation in many applications. The low volume fraction of solid, the small cell size and the low conductivity of enclosed gases limit the heat flow in foams. Varying the density, geometry and or material composition from point to point within the foam, one can produce functionally graded foams that may insulate more efficiently. The goal of this research is to investigate the use of functionally graded metal foam in thermal protection systems (TPS) for reusable launch vehicles. First, the effective thermal conductivity of the foam is derived based on a simple cubic unit cell model. Then two problems under steady state of heat transfer have been considered. The first one is the optimization of functionally graded foam insulation for minimum heat transmitted to the structure and the second is minimizing the mass of the functionally graded foam insulation for a given aerodynamic heating. In both cases optimality conditions are derived in closed-form, and numerical methods are used to solve the resulting differential equations to determine the optimal grading of the foam. In order to simplify the analysis the insulation was approximated by finite layers of uniform foams when studying the transient heat transfer case. The maximum structure temperature was minimized by varying the solidity profile for a given total thickness and mass. The principles that govern the design of TPS for transient conditions were identified. To take advantage of the load bearing ability of metallic foams, an integrated sandwich TPS/structure with metallic foam core is proposed. Such an integrated TPS will insulate the vehicle interior from aerodynamic heating as well as carry the primary vehicle loads. Thermal-structural analysis of integrated sandwich TPS panel subjected to transient heat conduction is developed to evaluate their performances. The integrated TPS design is compared with a conventional fibrous Safill TPS design

  15. Ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis of protected areas for conservation strategies.

    PubMed

    Scolozzi, Rocco; Schirpke, Uta; Morri, Elisa; D'Amato, Dalia; Santolini, Riccardo

    2014-12-15

    An ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis is proposed in order to identify and quantify internal and external factors supporting or threatening the conservation effectiveness of protected areas. The proposed approach concerns both the ecological and the social perspective. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats were evaluated based on 12 selected environmental and socio-economic indicators for all terrestrial Italian protected areas, belonging to the Natura 2000 network, and for their 5-km buffer area. The indicators, used as criteria within a multi-criteria assessment, include: core area, cost-distance between protected areas, changes in ecosystem services values, intensification of land use, and urbanization. The results were aggregated for three biogeographical regions, Alpine, Continental, and Mediterranean, indicating that Alpine sites have more opportunities and strengths than Continental and Mediterranean sites. The results call attention to where connectivity and land-use changes may have stronger influence on protected areas, in particular, whereas urbanization or intensification of agriculture may hamper conservation goals of protected areas. The proposed SWOT analysis provides helpful information for a multiple scale perspective and for identifying conservation priorities and for defining management strategies to assure biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision. PMID:25218331

  16. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements...

  17. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements...

  18. Using CLASlite to Map Deforestation in Makira Natural Protected Area, Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieme, A. N.; McCartney, S.; Rogan, J.; Sangermano, F.; Wilkie, D.

    2015-12-01

    Makira Natural Protected Area in northeastern Madagascar houses high levels of biodiversity, but is currently threated by encroachment of agriculture and the illegal logging of hardwoods. The Wildlife Conservation Society currently works with local communities in running a Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) project in Makira. High cloud cover in humid forests and seasonal variations in vegetation make temporally consistent classifications difficult, affecting the estimates of deforestation needed for REDD+. Carnegie Landsat Analysis System lite, or CLASlite, is a free software tool designed to pre-process and analyze remotely sensed data, creating forest and deforestation maps, between other outputs. This study was performed in collaboration with WCS using fifteen Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images to determine the performance of CLASlite in comparison to previous mapping work using a conventional mapping approach. A combination of CLASlite and expert interpretation created four forest vs. non-forest maps from 1994, 2001, 2010, and 2014 with 92% overall accuracy in the 26,956 km² study area. Over the twenty year period, 7.9% of the 11, 464 km² of original forest was lost. Visual comparisons with the previous mapping work revealed that CLASlite was better at detecting small patches of forest as well as connectivity in riparian areas. Various cloud masking settings within CLASlite allowed for adjustments specific to cloud and sensor types. Cloud contaminations were minimized by utilizing Landsat tiles from the dry season. CLASlite is well designed for conservation practitioners and performed well in this forest type.

  19. Protected Areas' Impacts on Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: Examining Conservation-Development Interactions to Inform Planning.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Herrera, Diego; Sandoval, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are the leading forest conservation policy for species and ecoservices goals and they may feature in climate policy if countries with tropical forest rely on familiar tools. For Brazil's Legal Amazon, we estimate the average impact of protection upon deforestation and show how protected areas' forest impacts vary significantly with development pressure. We use matching, i.e., comparisons that are apples-to-apples in observed land characteristics, to address the fact that protected areas (PAs) tend to be located on lands facing less pressure. Correcting for that location bias lowers our estimates of PAs' forest impacts by roughly half. Further, it reveals significant variation in PA impacts along development-related dimensions: for example, the PAs that are closer to roads and the PAs closer to cities have higher impact. Planners have multiple conservation and development goals, and are constrained by cost, yet still conservation planning should reflect what our results imply about future impacts of PAs. PMID:26225922

  20. Forest Loss in Protected Areas and Intact Forest Landscapes: A Global Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heino, Matias; Kummu, Matti; Makkonen, Marika; Mulligan, Mark; Verburg, Peter H.; Jalava, Mika; Räsänen, Timo A.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the high importance of forests, global forest loss has remained alarmingly high during the last decades. Forest loss at a global scale has been unveiled with increasingly finer spatial resolution, but the forest extent and loss in protected areas (PAs) and in large intact forest landscapes (IFLs) have not so far been systematically assessed. Moreover, the impact of protection on preserving the IFLs is not well understood. In this study we conducted a consistent assessment of the global forest loss in PAs and IFLs over the period 2000–2012. We used recently published global remote sensing based spatial forest cover change data, being a uniform and consistent dataset over space and time, together with global datasets on PAs’ and IFLs’ locations. Our analyses revealed that on a global scale 3% of the protected forest, 2.5% of the intact forest, and 1.5% of the protected intact forest were lost during the study period. These forest loss rates are relatively high compared to global total forest loss of 5% for the same time period. The variation in forest losses and in protection effect was large among geographical regions and countries. In some regions the loss in protected forests exceeded 5% (e.g. in Australia and Oceania, and North America) and the relative forest loss was higher inside protected areas than outside those areas (e.g. in Mongolia and parts of Africa, Central Asia, and Europe). At the same time, protection was found to prevent forest loss in several countries (e.g. in South America and Southeast Asia). Globally, high area-weighted forest loss rates of protected and intact forests were associated with high gross domestic product and in the case of protected forests also with high proportions of agricultural land. Our findings reinforce the need for improved understanding of the reasons for the high forest losses in PAs and IFLs and strategies to prevent further losses. PMID:26466348

  1. The challenge of implementing the European network of protected areas Natura 2000.

    PubMed

    Kati, Vassiliki; Hovardas, Tasos; Dieterich, Martin; Ibisch, Pierre L; Mihok, Barbara; Selva, Nuria

    2015-02-01

    Established under the European Union (EU) Birds and Habitats Directives, Natura 2000 is one of the largest international networks of protected areas. With the spatial designation of sites by the EU member states almost finalized, the biggest challenge still lying ahead is the appropriate management of the sites. To evaluate the cross-scale functioning of Natura 2000 implementation, we analyzed 242 questionnaires completed by conservation scientists involved in the implementation of Natura 2000 in 24 EU member states. Respondents identified 7 key drivers of the quality of Natura 2000 implementation. Ordered in decreasing evaluation score, these drivers included: network design, use of external resources, legal frame, scientific input, procedural frame, social input, and national or local policy. Overall, conservation scientists were moderately satisfied with the implementation of Natura 2000. Tree modeling revealed that poor application of results of environmental impact assessments (EIA) was considered a major constraint. The main strengths of the network included the substantial increase of scientific knowledge of the sites, the contribution of nongovernmental organizations, the adequate network design in terms of area and representativeness, and the adequacy of the EU legal frame. The main weaknesses of Natura 2000 were the lack of political will from local and national governments toward effective implementation; the negative attitude of local stakeholders; the lack of background knowledge of local stakeholders, which prevented well-informed policy decisions; and the understaffing of Natura 2000 management authorities. Top suggestions to improve Natura 2000 implementation were increase public awareness, provide environmental education to local communities, involve high-quality conservation experts, strengthen quality control of EIA studies, and establish a specific Natura 2000 fund. PMID:25103194

  2. The Role of Protected Areas in the Avoidance of Anthropogenic Conversion in a High Pressure Region: A Matching Method Analysis in the Core Region of the Brazilian Cerrado

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Rodrigo José Oliveira; Brites, Ricardo Seixas; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim

    2015-01-01

    Global efforts to avoid anthropogenic conversion of natural habitat rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Studies that evaluate the effectiveness of these areas with a focus on preserving the natural habitat define effectiveness as a measure of the influence of protected areas on total avoided conversion. Changes in the estimated effectiveness are related to local and regional differences, evaluation methods, restriction categories that include the protected areas, and other characteristics. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas to prevent the advance of the conversion of natural areas in the core region of the Brazil’s Cerrado Biome, taking into account the influence of the restriction degree, governmental sphere, time since the establishment of the protected area units, and the size of the area on the performance of protected areas. The evaluation was conducted using matching methods and took into account the following two fundamental issues: control of statistical biases caused by the influence of covariates on the likelihood of anthropogenic conversion and the non-randomness of the allocation of protected areas throughout the territory (spatial correlation effect) and the control of statistical bias caused by the influence of auto-correlation and leakage effect. Using a sample design that is not based on ways to control these biases may result in outcomes that underestimate or overestimate the effectiveness of those units. The matching method accounted for a bias reduction in 94–99% of the estimation of the average effect of protected areas on anthropogenic conversion and allowed us to obtain results with a reduced influence of the auto-correlation and leakage effects. Most protected areas had a positive influence on the maintenance of natural habitats, although wide variation in this effectiveness was dependent on the type, restriction, governmental sphere, size and age group of the unit

  3. Global protected area expansion is compromised by projected land-use and parochialism.

    PubMed

    Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Toivonen, Tuuli; Di Minin, Enrico; Kukkala, Aija S; Kullberg, Peter; Kuusterä, Johanna; Lehtomäki, Joona; Tenkanen, Henrikki; Verburg, Peter H; Moilanen, Atte

    2014-12-18

    Protected areas are one of the main tools for halting the continuing global biodiversity crisis caused by habitat loss, fragmentation and other anthropogenic pressures. According to the Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity, the protected area network should be expanded to at least 17% of the terrestrial world by 2020 (http://www.cbd.int/sp/targets). To maximize conservation outcomes, it is crucial to identify the best expansion areas. Here we show that there is a very high potential to increase protection of ecoregions and vertebrate species by expanding the protected area network, but also identify considerable risk of ineffective outcomes due to land-use change and uncoordinated actions between countries. We use distribution data for 24,757 terrestrial vertebrates assessed under the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 'red list of threatened species', and terrestrial ecoregions (827), modified by land-use models for the present and 2040, and introduce techniques for global and balanced spatial conservation prioritization. First, we show that with a coordinated global protected area network expansion to 17% of terrestrial land, average protection of species ranges and ecoregions could triple. Second, if projected land-use change by 2040 (ref. 11) takes place, it becomes infeasible to reach the currently possible protection levels, and over 1,000 threatened species would lose more than 50% of their present effective ranges worldwide. Third, we demonstrate a major efficiency gap between national and global conservation priorities. Strong evidence is shown that further biodiversity loss is unavoidable unless international action is quickly taken to balance land-use and biodiversity conservation. The approach used here can serve as a framework for repeatable and quantitative assessment of efficiency, gaps and expansion of the global protected area network globally, regionally and nationally, considering

  4. 23 CFR 750.105 - Signs that may be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Only information about public places operated by Federal, State, or local governments, natural phenomena, historic sites, areas of natural scenic beauty or naturally suited for outdoor recreation and... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Signs that may be permitted in protected areas....

  5. Constructal design of pedestrian evacuation from an area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, C. H.; Fong, N. K.; Lorente, S.; Bejan, A.; Chow, W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian movement occurs in evolutionary patterns the effect of which is to facilitate the access of people into and out of living spaces (areas, volumes). In this paper, we rely on the philosophy of Constructal design as applied physics, in order to uncover two fundamental features of evolutionary design for pedestrian evacuation from rectangular areas (e.g., lecture halls with seated occupants). First, the paper shows analytically that the aspect ratio of the floor area can be selected such that the total evacuation time is minimal. Second, the shape of the floor area of each aisle can be tapered such that the total evacuation time is decreased further. These two architectural features are confirmed by means of extensive and systematic numerical simulations of pedestrian evacuation, by using two numerical packages (Simulex and FDS + Evac).

  6. Efficient expansion of global protected areas requires simultaneous planning for species and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Polak, Tal; Watson, James E M; Fuller, Richard A; Joseph, Liana N; Martin, Tara G; Possingham, Hugh P; Venter, Oscar; Carwardine, Josie

    2015-04-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)'s strategic plan advocates the use of environmental surrogates, such as ecosystems, as a basis for planning where new protected areas should be placed. However, the efficiency and effectiveness of this ecosystem-based planning approach to adequately capture threatened species in protected area networks is unknown. We tested the application of this approach in Australia according to the nation's CBD-inspired goals for expansion of the national protected area system. We set targets for ecosystems (10% of the extent of each ecosystem) and threatened species (variable extents based on persistence requirements for each species) and then measured the total land area required and opportunity cost of meeting those targets independently, sequentially and simultaneously. We discover that an ecosystem-based approach will not ensure the adequate representation of threatened species in protected areas. Planning simultaneously for species and ecosystem targets delivered the most efficient outcomes for both sets of targets, while planning first for ecosystems and then filling the gaps to meet species targets was the most inefficient conservation strategy. Our analysis highlights the pitfalls of pursuing goals for species and ecosystems non-cooperatively and has significant implications for nations aiming to meet their CBD mandated protected area obligations. PMID:26064645

  7. Efficient expansion of global protected areas requires simultaneous planning for species and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Tal; Watson, James E. M.; Fuller, Richard A.; Joseph, Liana N.; Martin, Tara G.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Venter, Oscar; Carwardine, Josie

    2015-01-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)'s strategic plan advocates the use of environmental surrogates, such as ecosystems, as a basis for planning where new protected areas should be placed. However, the efficiency and effectiveness of this ecosystem-based planning approach to adequately capture threatened species in protected area networks is unknown. We tested the application of this approach in Australia according to the nation's CBD-inspired goals for expansion of the national protected area system. We set targets for ecosystems (10% of the extent of each ecosystem) and threatened species (variable extents based on persistence requirements for each species) and then measured the total land area required and opportunity cost of meeting those targets independently, sequentially and simultaneously. We discover that an ecosystem-based approach will not ensure the adequate representation of threatened species in protected areas. Planning simultaneously for species and ecosystem targets delivered the most efficient outcomes for both sets of targets, while planning first for ecosystems and then filling the gaps to meet species targets was the most inefficient conservation strategy. Our analysis highlights the pitfalls of pursuing goals for species and ecosystems non-cooperatively and has significant implications for nations aiming to meet their CBD mandated protected area obligations. PMID:26064645

  8. Protected areas alleviate climate change effects on northern bird species of conservation concern

    PubMed Central

    Virkkala, Raimo; Pöyry, Juha; Heikkinen, Risto K; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Valkama, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change is a major threat to biodiversity, posing increasing pressures on species to adapt in situ or shift their ranges. A protected area network is one of the main instruments to alleviate the negative impacts of climate change. Importantly, protected area networks might be expected to enhance the resilience of regional populations of species of conservation concern, resulting in slower species loss in landscapes with a significant amount of protected habitat compared to unprotected landscapes. Based on national bird atlases compiled in 1974–1989 and 2006–2010, this study examines the recent range shifts in 90 forest, mire, marshland, and Arctic mountain heath bird species of conservation concern in Finland, as well as the changes in their species richness in protected versus unprotected areas. The trends emerging from the atlas data comparisons were also related to the earlier study dealing with predictions of distributional changes for these species for the time slice of 2051–2080, developed using bioclimatic envelope models (BEMs). Our results suggest that the observed changes in bird distributions are in the same direction as the BEM-based predictions, resulting in a decrease in species richness of mire and Arctic mountain heath species and an increase in marshland species. The patterns of changes in species richness between the two time slices are in general parallel in protected and unprotected areas. However, importantly, protected areas maintained a higher level of species richness than unprotected areas. This finding provides support for the significance and resilience provision of protected area networks in preserving species of conservation concern under climate change. PMID:25247057

  9. Effectiveness of Protected Areas in the Pan-Tropics and International Aid for Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Protected areas are crucial for tropical forest conservation efforts. Estimation of the effectiveness of protected areas is thus important for evaluating the efficacy of forest conservation policies and priorities. However, comprehensive evaluation of the long-term effects of Protected Areas and international aid is lacking. However, with the recent availability of long-term, large-scale forest cover change data at 30-m resolution, it has become possible to address some of the issues surrounding the effectiveness of protected areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of Protected Areas in the pan-tropics and international aid for conservation, we use the 30m resolution data along with econometrics 1) to estimate avoided deforestation by PAs in the tropics during the 2000s, 2) estimate effects of international aid on avoided deforestation by PAs and 3) analyze the relationships between the socio-economic variables and increases in deforestation, avoided deforestation by PAs and effects of international aid. Our results show that protected areas avoided 83,500 ± 21,200 km2 of deforestation during the 2000s. Brazil showed the highest estimates of effects of international aid on the avoided deforestation of 22 m2/USD, which is about 50 times higher compared to Indonesia (0.5 m2/USD). The regression analysis between avoided deforestation, effects of international aid and socio-economic factors demonstrates that PAs have been relatively more effective in the countries where the deforestation pressures were increasing and that governance and forest change monitoring capacity may be important factors enhancing the efficacy of international aid. Our study presents the first pan-tropical analysis of the long-term evaluation of the effectiveness of protected areas, international aid and their regulating factors using spatially explicit fine resolution data. Our findings allow us to pinpoint where conservation initiatives and resource management are effectively practiced and to

  10. 50 CFR Table 12 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 12 Table 12 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing...

  11. Factoring attitudes towards armed conflict risk into selection of protected areas for conservation

    PubMed Central

    Hammill, E.; Tulloch, A. I. T.; Possingham, H. P.; Strange, N.; Wilson, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of armed conflicts. We find that ignoring conflict risk will deliver the lowest return on investment. Opting to completely avoid conflict-prone areas offers limited improvements and could lead to species receiving no protection. Accounting for conflict by protecting additional areas to offset the impacts of armed conflicts would not only increase the return on investment (an effect that is enhanced when high-risk areas are excluded) but also increase upfront conservation costs. Our results also demonstrate that fine-scale estimations of conflict risk could enhance the cost-effectiveness of investments. We conclude that achieving biodiversity targets in volatile regions will require greater initial investment and benefit from fine-resolution estimates of conflict risk. PMID:27025894

  12. Factoring attitudes towards armed conflict risk into selection of protected areas for conservation.

    PubMed

    Hammill, E; Tulloch, A I T; Possingham, H P; Strange, N; Wilson, K A

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of armed conflicts. We find that ignoring conflict risk will deliver the lowest return on investment. Opting to completely avoid conflict-prone areas offers limited improvements and could lead to species receiving no protection. Accounting for conflict by protecting additional areas to offset the impacts of armed conflicts would not only increase the return on investment (an effect that is enhanced when high-risk areas are excluded) but also increase upfront conservation costs. Our results also demonstrate that fine-scale estimations of conflict risk could enhance the cost-effectiveness of investments. We conclude that achieving biodiversity targets in volatile regions will require greater initial investment and benefit from fine-resolution estimates of conflict risk. PMID:27025894

  13. Philippine protected areas are not meeting the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness requirements of Aichi Target 11.

    PubMed

    Mallari, Neil Aldrin D; Collar, Nigel J; McGowan, Philip J K; Marsden, Stuart J

    2016-04-01

    Aichi Target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity urges, inter alia, that nations protect at least 17 % of their land, and that protection is effective and targets areas of importance for biodiversity. Five years before reporting on Aichi targets is due, we assessed the Philippines' current protected area system for biodiversity coverage, appropriateness of management regimes and capacity to deliver protection. Although protected estate already covers 11 % of the Philippines' land area, 64 % of its key biodiversity areas (KBAs) remain unprotected. Few protected areas have appropriate management and governance infrastructures, funding streams, management plans and capacity, and a serious mismatch exists between protected area land zonation regimes and conservation needs of key species. For the Philippines to meet the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness elements of Aichi Target 11, protected area and KBA boundaries should be aligned, management systems reformed to pursue biodiversity-led targets and effective management capacity created. PMID:26666956

  14. The effectiveness of marine protected areas for predator and prey with varying mobility.

    PubMed

    Pilyugin, Sergei S; Medlock, Jan; De Leenheer, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are regions in the ocean where fishing is restricted or prohibited. Although several measures for MPA performance exist, here we focus on a specific one, namely the ratio of the steady state fish densities inside and outside the MPA. Several 2 patch models are proposed and analyzed mathematically. One patch represents the MPA, whereas the second patch represents the fishing ground. Fish move freely between both regions in a diffusive manner. Our main objective is to understand how fish mobility affects MPA performance. We show that MPA effectiveness decreases with fish mobility for single species models with logistic growth, and that densities inside and outside the MPA tend to equalize. This suggests that MPA performance is highest for the least mobile species. We then consider a 2 patch Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system. When one of the species moves, and the other does not, the ratio of the moving species first remains constant, and ultimately decreases with increased fish mobility, again with a tendency of equalization of the density in both regions. This suggests that MPA performance is not only highest for slow, but also for moderately mobile species. The discrepancy in MPA performance for single species models and for predator-prey models, confirms that MPA design requires an integrated, ecosystem-based approach. The mathematical approaches advocated here complement and enhance the numerical and theoretical approaches that are commonly applied to more complex models in the context of MPA design. PMID:27151107

  15. Population Connectivity Shifts at High Frequency within an Open-Coast Marine Protected Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Geoffrey S.; Parnell, P. Ed; Levin, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    A complete understanding of population connectivity via larval dispersal is of great value to the effective design and management of marine protected areas (MPA). However empirical estimates of larval dispersal distance, self-recruitment, and within season variability of population connectivity patterns and their influence on metapopulation structure remain rare. We used high-resolution otolith microchemistry data from the temperate reef fish Hypsypops rubicundus to explore biweekly, seasonal, and annual connectivity patterns in an open-coast MPA network. The three MPAs, spanning 46 km along the southern California coastline were connected by larval dispersal, but the magnitude and direction of connections reversed between 2008 and 2009. Self-recruitment, i.e. spawning, dispersal, and settlement to the same location, was observed at two locations, one of which is a MPA. Self-recruitment to this MPA ranged from 50–84%; within the entire 60 km study region, self-recruitment accounted for 45% of all individuals settling to study reefs. On biweekly time scales we observed directional variability in alongshore current data and larval dispersal trajectories; if viewed in isolation these data suggest the system behaves as a source-sink metapopulation. However aggregate biweekly data over two years reveal a reef network in which H. rubicundus behaves more like a well-mixed metapopulation. As one of the few empirical studies of population connectivity within a temperate open coast reef network, this work can inform the MPA design process, implementation of ecosystem based management plans, and facilitate conservation decisions. PMID:25077486

  16. Estimating occupancy dynamics for large-scale monitoring networks: amphibian breeding occupancy across protected areas in the northeast United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.W.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Regional monitoring strategies frequently employ a nested sampling design where a finite set of study areas from throughout a region are selected within which intensive sub-sampling occurs. This sampling protocol naturally lends itself to a hierarchical analysis to account for dependence among sub-samples. Implementing such an analysis within a classic likelihood framework is computationally prohibitive with species occurrence data when accounting for detection probabilities. Bayesian methods offer an alternative framework to make this analysis feasible. We demonstrate a general approach for estimating occupancy when data come from a nested sampling design. Using data from a regional monitoring program of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in vernal pools, we analyzed data using static and dynamic occupancy frameworks. We analyzed observations from 2004-2013collected within 14 protected areas located throughout the northeast United States . We use the data set to estimate trends in occupancy at both the regional and individual protected area level. We show that occupancy at the regional level was relatively stable for both species. Much more variation occurred within individual study areas, with some populations declining and some increasing for both species. We found some evidence for a latitudinal gradient in trends among protected areas. However, support for this pattern is overestimated when the hierarchical nature of the data collection is not controlled for in the analysis. For both species, occupancy appeared to be declining in the most southern areas, while occupancy was stable or increasing in more northern areas. These results shed light on the range-level population status of these pond-breeding amphibians and our approach provides a framework that can be used to examine drivers of change including among-year and among-site variation in occurrence dynamics, while properly accounting for nested structure of

  17. Identifying and assessing ecotourism visitor impacts at selected protected areas in Costa Rica and Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Protected area visitation is an important component of ecotourism, and as such, must be sustainable. However, protected area visitation may degrade natural resources, particularly in areas of concentrated visitor activities like trails and recreation sites. This is an important concern in ecotourism destinations such as Belize and Costa Rica, because they actively promote ecotourism and emphasize the pristine qualities of their natural resources. Research on visitor impacts to protected areas has many potential applications in protected area management, though it has not been widely applied in Central and South America. This study targeted this deficiency through manager interviews and evaluations of alternative impact assessment procedures at eight protected areas in Belize and Costa Rica. Impact assessment procedures included qualitative condition class systems, ratings systems, and measurement-based systems applied to trails and recreation sites. The resulting data characterize manager perceptions of impact problems, document trail and recreation site impacts, and provide examples of inexpensive, efficient and effective rapid impact assessment procedures. Interview subjects reported a variety of impacts affecting trails, recreation sites, wildlife, water, attraction features and other resources. Standardized assessment procedures were developed and applied to record trail and recreation site impacts. Impacts affecting the study areas included trail proliferation, erosion and widening, muddiness on trails, vegetation cover loss, soil and root exposure, and tree damage on recreation sites. The findings also illustrate the types of assessment data yielded by several alternative methods and demonstrate their utility to protected area managers. The need for additional rapid assessment procedures for wildlife, water, attraction feature and other resource impacts was also identified.

  18. Leveraging modern climatology to increase adaptive capacity across protected area networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davison, J.E.; Graumlich, L.J.; Rowland, E.L.; Pederson, G.T.; Breshears, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Human-driven changes in the global environment pose an increasingly urgent challenge for the management of ecosystems that is made all the more difficult by the uncertain future of both environmental conditions and ecological responses. Land managers need strategies to increase regional adaptive capacity, but relevant and rapid assessment approaches are lacking. To address this need, we developed a method to assess regional protected area networks across biophysically important climatic gradients often linked to biodiversity and ecosystem function. We plot the land of the southwestern United States across axes of historical climate space, and identify landscapes that may serve as strategic additions to current protected area portfolios. Considering climate space is straightforward, and it can be applied using a variety of relevant climate parameters across differing levels of land protection status. The resulting maps identify lands that are climatically distinct from existing protected areas, and may be utilized in combination with other ecological and socio-economic information essential to collaborative landscape-scale decision-making. Alongside other strategies intended to protect species of special concern, natural resources, and other ecosystem services, the methods presented herein provide another important hedging strategy intended to increase the adaptive capacity of protected area networks. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. High speed fiber optics local area networks: Design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.

    1988-09-01

    The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: (1) the network medium and its topology; (2) the medium access control; and (3) the network interface. Considerable progress has been made in all areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given in Section 2, including references to papers which appeared in the literature, as well as to Ph.D. dissertations and technical reports published at Stanford University.

  20. Implications of Spatial Data Variations for Protected Areas Management: An Example from East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems and remote sensing technologies have become an important tool for visualizing conservation management and developing solutions to problems associated with conservation. When multiple organizations separately develop spatial data representations of protected areas, implicit error arises due to variation between data sets. We used boundary data produced by three conservation organizations (International Union for the Conservation of Nature, World Resource Institute, and Uganda Wildlife Authority), for seven Ugandan parks, to study variation in the size represented and the location of boundaries. We found variation in the extent of overlapping total area encompassed by the three data sources, ranging from miniscule (0.4 %) differences to quite large ones (9.0 %). To underscore how protected area boundary discrepancies may have implications to protected area management, we used a landcover classification, defining crop, shrub, forest, savanna, and grassland. The total area in the different landcover classes varied most in smaller protected areas (those less than 329 km2), with forest and cropland area estimates varying up to 65 %. The discrepancies introduced by boundary errors could, in this hypothetical case, generate erroneous findings and could have a significant impact on conservation, such as local-scale management for encroachment and larger-scale assessments of deforestation.

  1. The Role of Published Information in Reviewing Conservation Objectives for Natura 2000 Protected Areas in the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opermanis, Otars; MacSharry, Brian; Bailly-Maitre, Jerome; Evans, Douglas; Sipkova, Zelmira

    2014-03-01

    Protected areas are designated to protect species and other features known to be present at the time of designation, but over time the information about the presence of protected species may change and this should call for a continued review of conservation objectives. Published scientific literature is one of the possible information sources that would trigger a review of conservation objectives. We studied how published data on new discoveries of protected animal species were taken into account by the nature conservation authorities in updating species lists of Natura 2000 sites in the European Union, which are the basis for conservation planning at the site-level. Over the period studied (2000-2011) only 40 % of published new protected species records were recognized by the authorities. The two main reasons for this seem to be a reliance on other sources of information by authorities and the difficulty in finding relevant information in scientific papers. The latter is because published faunistic information is very fragmented among different journals, and often insufficient in details. We recommend better cooperation between authors, publishers, and nature conservation authorities in terms of information presentation, publishing policy, and a regular review of published information.

  2. International and European law on protected areas and climate change: need for adaptation or implementation?

    PubMed

    Cliquet, A

    2014-10-01

    The protection and management of protected areas must be adapted to the effects of climate change. An important question is if the law on protected areas is capable of dealing with the required changes. In general, both international nature conventions and European Union nature conservation law do not contain any specific provisions on climate change and protected areas. Attention has been paid to this link in non-binding decisions and policy documents. In order to adapt the law to increased dynamics from climate change, more flexibility is needed. This flexibility should not be understood as "legal" flexibility, in the sense of the weakening nature conservation provisions. Scientific uncertainties on the effects of climate change might conflict with the need for legal certainties. In order to adapt to the effects of climate change, the two crucial elements are the strengthening of core protected areas and connectivity between the core areas. At the international level, both elements can be found in non-binding documents. International law enables the required adaptation; however, it often lacks concrete obligations. A stronger legal framework can be found at the level of the European Union. The Birds and Habitats Directives contain sufficient tools to deal with the effects of climate change. The Directives have been insufficiently implemented so far. Especially the central goals of reaching a favorable conservation status and connectivity measures need to be addressed much more in the future. PMID:24390082

  3. International and European Law on Protected Areas and Climate Change: Need for Adaptation or Implementation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliquet, A.

    2014-10-01

    The protection and management of protected areas must be adapted to the effects of climate change. An important question is if the law on protected areas is capable of dealing with the required changes. In general, both international nature conventions and European Union nature conservation law do not contain any specific provisions on climate change and protected areas. Attention has been paid to this link in non-binding decisions and policy documents. In order to adapt the law to increased dynamics from climate change, more flexibility is needed. This flexibility should not be understood as "legal" flexibility, in the sense of the weakening nature conservation provisions. Scientific uncertainties on the effects of climate change might conflict with the need for legal certainties. In order to adapt to the effects of climate change, the two crucial elements are the strengthening of core protected areas and connectivity between the core areas. At the international level, both elements can be found in non-binding documents. International law enables the required adaptation; however, it often lacks concrete obligations. A stronger legal framework can be found at the level of the European Union. The Birds and Habitats Directives contain sufficient tools to deal with the effects of climate change. The Directives have been insufficiently implemented so far. Especially the central goals of reaching a favorable conservation status and connectivity measures need to be addressed much more in the future.

  4. The importance of protected areas for the forest and endemic avifauna of Sulawesi (Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Lee, Tien Ming; Sodhi, Navjot S; Prawiradilaga, Dewi M

    2007-09-01

    Protected areas are critical for the conservation of residual tropical forest biodiversity, yet many of these are being deforested by humans both within and outside of their administrative boundaries. Therefore, it is critical to document the significance of protected areas for conserving tropical biodiversity, particularly in mega-diverse Southeast Asia. We evaluated the importance of protected areas (national parks [NP], nature reserves [NR], and wildlife reserves [WR]) in preserving avifaunal diversity, particularly the endemic and forest species, on the island of Sulawesi. This island has one of the highest numbers of endemic avifauna genera (12) globally and is also experiencing heavy deforestation. Rarefaction analyses and species estimators showed that parks and reserves consistently recorded higher number of forest, endemic, and endemic forest bird species, in addition to larger population densities, than in their surrounding human-modified areas across eight protected areas (Gunung Manembo-nembo WR, Tangkoko-Batu Angus and Dua Saudara NR, Gunung Ambang NR, Bogani Nani Wartabone NP, Gunung Tinombala NR, Gunung Sojol NR, Lore Lindu NP, and Rawa Aopa Watumohai NP). This implies that protecting natural forests must remain as one of the fundamental conservation strategies in Sulawesi. Two small reserves (Gunung Manembo-nembo WR and Tangkoko-Batu Angus and Dua Saudara NR), however, had high number of forest and endemic bird species both within and outside their boundaries, suggesting the importance of buffer areas for augmenting small reserves so as to improve their conservation value. Ordination analyses revealed the differential response of bird species to different environmental factors (e.g., native tree cover), highlighting the significance of forested habitats with dense native vegetation cover for effective conservation of forest dependent and endemic avifauna. In addition, the distinctiveness in bird species composition among protected areas highlights

  5. 43 CFR 1610.7 - Designation of areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designation of areas. 1610.7 Section 1610.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Resource...

  6. 76 FR 22863 - Designation for the Lewiston, ID Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... hours (7 CFR 1.27(c)). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the January 4, 2011, Federal Register (76 FR 317... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the Lewiston, ID Area...

  7. Parking Area No. 11. Note rolled curbing and drainage design ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Parking Area No. 11. Note rolled curbing and drainage design in foreground. Building No. 8 in rear. Looking northeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  8. 30 CFR 70.208 - Bimonthly sampling; designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... is changed in accordance with § 70.101 (Respirable dust standard when quartz is present), respirable... dust standard when quartz is present), the operator shall take five valid respirable dust samples from... standard when quartz is present) involving a designated area, paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of this...

  9. 30 CFR 70.208 - Bimonthly sampling; designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... is changed in accordance with § 70.101 (Respirable dust standard when quartz is present), respirable... dust standard when quartz is present), the operator shall take five valid respirable dust samples from... standard when quartz is present) involving a designated area, paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of this...

  10. 30 CFR 70.208 - Bimonthly sampling; designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... is changed in accordance with § 70.101 (Respirable dust standard when quartz is present), respirable... dust standard when quartz is present), the operator shall take five valid respirable dust samples from... standard when quartz is present) involving a designated area, paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of this...

  11. 30 CFR 70.208 - Bimonthly sampling; designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is changed in accordance with § 70.101 (Respirable dust standard when quartz is present), respirable... dust standard when quartz is present), the operator shall take five valid respirable dust samples from... standard when quartz is present) involving a designated area, paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of this...

  12. 30 CFR 70.208 - Bimonthly sampling; designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... is changed in accordance with § 70.101 (Respirable dust standard when quartz is present), respirable... dust standard when quartz is present), the operator shall take five valid respirable dust samples from... standard when quartz is present) involving a designated area, paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of this...

  13. Cathodic protection design using the regression and correlation method

    SciTech Connect

    Niembro, A.M.; Ortiz, E.L.G.

    1997-09-01

    A computerized statistical method which calculates the current demand requirement based on potential measurements for cathodic protection systems is introduced. The method uses the regression and correlation analysis of statistical measurements of current and potentials of the piping network. This approach involves four steps: field potential measurements, statistical determination of the current required to achieve full protection, installation of more cathodic protection capacity with distributed anodes around the plant and examination of the protection potentials. The procedure is described and recommendations for the improvement of the existing and new cathodic protection systems are given.

  14. Territorial dynamics and boundary effects in a protected area of the Central Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Las Heras, Paloma; Fernández-Sañudo, Paloma; López-Estébanez, Nieves; Roldán, María José

    2011-03-01

    We analysed the main changes in land use over a 21 year period within the perimeter of a Protected Natural Area (PNA) and outside this perimeter. The area is characterised by its Mediterranean mid-mountain landscape and its piedmont, which extends almost as far as the city of Madrid. We employed cartography of land use and plant formation from 1980 and 2001. We identified land uses and their changes in this time period in order to determine the principal territorial dynamics (scrub encroachment, urban development, forest encroachment, new pastures and new crops). Subsequently, we performed a comparative analysis between the changes inside and those outside the protected area. The results show that there is a boundary effect between the protected area and the surrounding zone, which is more notable in the areas where urban development has intensified. This kind of research serves to establish whether or not a PNA contributes to protecting and conserving natural resources as compared to what occurs in the unprotected surrounding area, which tends to be subjected to more aggressive dynamics.

  15. Effect of macroalgal expansion and marine protected areas on coral recovery following a climatic disturbance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Shaun K; Graham, Nicholas A J; Fisher, Rebecca; Robinson, Jan; Nash, Kirsty; Chong-Seng, Karen; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Aumeeruddy, Riaz; Quatre, Rodney

    2012-12-01

    Disturbance plays an important role in structuring marine ecosystems, and there is a need to understand how conservation practices, such as the designation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), facilitate postdisturbance recovery. We evaluated the association of MPAs, herbivorous fish biomass, substrate type, postdisturbance coral cover, and change in macroalgal cover with coral recovery on the fringing reefs of the inner Seychelle islands, where coral mortality after a 1998 bleaching event was extensive. We visually estimated benthic cover and fish biomass at 9 sites in MPAs where fishing is banned and at 12 sites where fishing is permitted in 1994, 2005, 2008, and 2011. We used analysis of variance to examine spatial and temporal variations in coral cover and generalized additive models to identify relations between coral recovery and the aforementioned factors that may promote recovery. Coral recovery occurred on all substrate types, but it was highly variable among sites and times. Between 2005 and 2011 the increase in coral cover averaged 1%/year across 21 sites, and the maximum increase was 4%/year. However, mean coral cover across the study area (14%) remained at half of 1994 levels (28%). Sites within MPAs had faster rates of coral recovery than sites in fished areas only where cover of macroalgae was low and had not increased over time. In MPAs where macroalgae cover expanded since 1998 there was no recovery. Where coral was recovering on granite reefs there was a shift in relative prevalence of colony life-form from branching to encrusting species. This simplification of reef structure may affect associated reef fauna even if predisturbance levels of coral cover are attained. PMID:22971046

  16. Quantifying fish assemblages in large, offshore marine protected areas: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nicole A; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring

  17. Quantifying Fish Assemblages in Large, Offshore Marine Protected Areas: An Australian Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville; Lawrence, Emma; Hulls, Justin; Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Nichol, Scott; Williams, Alan; Hayes, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    As the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) increases globally, so does the need to assess if MPAs are meeting their management goals. Integral to this assessment is usually a long-term biological monitoring program, which can be difficult to develop for large and remote areas that have little available fine-scale habitat and biological data. This is the situation for many MPAs within the newly declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) network which covers approximately 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat, much of which is remote and difficult to access. A detailed inventory of the species, types of assemblages present and their spatial distribution within individual MPAs is required prior to developing monitoring programs to measure the impact of management strategies. Here we use a spatially-balanced survey design and non-extractive baited video observations to quantitatively document the fish assemblages within the continental shelf area (a multiple use zone, IUCN VI) of the Flinders Marine Reserve, within the Southeast marine region. We identified distinct demersal fish assemblages, quantified assemblage relationships with environmental gradients (primarily depth and habitat type), and described their spatial distribution across a variety of reef and sediment habitats. Baited videos recorded a range of species from multiple trophic levels, including species of commercial and recreational interest. The majority of species, whilst found commonly along the southern or south-eastern coasts of Australia, are endemic to Australia, highlighting the global significance of this region. Species richness was greater on habitats containing some reef and declined with increasing depth. The trophic breath of species in assemblages was also greater in shallow waters. We discuss the utility of our approach for establishing inventories when little prior knowledge is available and how such an approach may inform future monitoring

  18. Air pollution critical levels in central México protected natural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Suarez, L.; Andraca Ayala, G.; Mar Morales, B.; Garcia-reynoso, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    All the Natural Protected Areas (NPA) within the Central Mexico City Belt comprising five metropolitan areas including MCMA are under strong impact from air pollution. Ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide exceed critical levels for several types of vegetation. In this work we show the critical level maps for ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide for Sierra of Chichinautzin, the mountain that acts as the physical barrier to air pollution dispersion south of Mexico City Metropolitan Area, what makes of it a receptor area to MCMA pollution. Maps were made combining model outputs from WRF-Chem and passive samplers. We also describe a proposal to extend the observation network to all natural protected areas within the Central Mexico City Belt.

  19. Assessing the landscape context and conversion risk of protected areas using satellite data products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Svancara, L.K.; Scott, J.M.; Loveland, T.R.; Pidgorna, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of the first national park (Yellowstone National Park in 1872) and the first wildlife refuge (Pelican Island in 1903), dramatic changes have occurred in both ecological and cultural landscapes across the U.S. The ability of these protected areas to maintain current levels of biodiversity depend, at least in part, on the integrity of the surrounding landscape. Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent and pattern of natural land cover, risk of conversion, and relationships with demographic and economic variables in counties near National Park Service units and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuges with those counties distant from either type of protected area in the coterminous United States. Our results indicate that landscapes in counties within 10??km of both parks and refuges and those within 10??km of just parks were more natural, more intact, and more protected than those in counties within 10??km of just refuges and counties greater than 10??km from either protected area system. However, they also had greater human population density and change in population, indicating potential conversion risk since the percent of landscape protected averaged 2) in 76% of counties near both parks and refuges, 81% of counties near just parks, 91% of counties near just refuges, and 93% of distant counties. Thirteen percent of counties in the coterminous U.S. had moderate to high amounts of natural land cover (> 60%), low protection ( 20%). Although these areas are not the most critically endangered, they represent the greatest conservation opportunity, need, and urgency. Our approach is based on national level metrics that are simple, general, informative, and can be understood by broad audiences and by policy makers and managers to assess the health of lands surrounding parks and refuges. Regular monitoring of these metrics with satellite data products in counties surrounding protected areas provides a consistent, national level assessment

  20. Creating Protected Areas on Public Lands: Is There Room for Additional Conservation?

    PubMed Central

    Arriagada, Rodrigo A.; Echeverria, Cristian M.; Moya, Danisa E.

    2016-01-01

    Most evaluations of the effectiveness of PAs have relied on indirect estimates based on comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Such methods can be biased when protection is not randomly assigned. We add to the growing literature on the impact of PAs by answering the following research questions: What is the impact of Chilean PAs on deforestation which occurred between 1986 and 2011? How do estimates of the impact of PAs vary when using only public land as control units? We show that the characteristics of the areas in which protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. To satisfactorily estimate the effects of PAs, we use matching methods to define adequate control groups, but not as in previous research. We construct control groups using separately non-protected private areas and non-protected public lands. We find that PAs avoid deforestation when using unprotected private lands as valid controls, however results show no impact when the control group is based only on unprotected public land. Different land management regimes, and higher levels of enforcement inside public lands may reduce the opportunity to add additional conservation benefits when the national systems for PAs are based on the protection of previously unprotected public lands. Given that not all PAs are established to avoid deforestation, results also admit the potential for future studies to include other outcomes including forest degradation (not just deforestation), biodiversity, wildlife, primary forests (not forests in general), among others. PMID:26848856

  1. Determining the feasibility of establishing new multiple-use marine protected areas in Chile.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Lavín, Felipe; Simon, Jeanne W; Paz-Lerdón, Ximena

    2013-12-01

    This paper evaluates the feasibility of establishing a multiple-use marine protected area. The methodology was applied to evaluate three proposed sites in Chile with diverse conservation needs, social stress and poverty levels, and different economic activities (small-scale fishing, heavy industry, and mining activities). We use two broad categories for the evaluation: socio-economic and political-institutional. The methodology uses a combination of secondary data with personal interviews, workshops, and focus groups with stakeholders (e.g., fishermen, unions, politicians, social organizations) from different political, social, and economic backgrounds to characterize current and potential natural and social resources and to evaluate in an ordinal scale the feasibility of establishing the protected area. The methodology allows us to correctly identify the challenges faced in each site and can be used to develop appropriate strategies for balancing economic, social, and environmental objectives. This methodology can be replicated to evaluate the feasibility of other marine or terrestrial protected areas. PMID:24213998

  2. The Protected Areas Visitor Impact Management (PAVIM) framework: A simplified process for making management decisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ecotourism and protected area visitation in Central and South America have resulted in ecological impacts, which some protected areas managers have addressed by employing visitor impact management frameworks. In this paper, we propose the Protected Area Visitor Impact Management (PAVIM) framework as an alternative to carrying capacity and other frameworks such as Limits of Acceptable Change. We use a set of evaluation criteria to compare the relative positive and negative attributes of carrying capacity, other decision-making frameworks and the new framework, within the context of their actual and potential use in Central and South America. Positive attributes of PAVIM include simplicity, flexibility, cost effectiveness, timeliness, and incorporating input from stakeholders and local residents. Negative attributes include diminished objectivity and cultural sensitivity issues. Further research and application of PAVIM are recommended.

  3. Through what mechanisms do protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Hanauer, Merlin M.

    2015-01-01

    To develop effective protected area policies, scholars and practitioners must better understand the mechanisms through which protected areas affect social and environmental outcomes. With strong evidence about mechanisms, the key elements of success can be strengthened, and the key elements of failure can be eliminated or repaired. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. This essay assesses what mechanisms have been hypothesized, what empirical evidence exists for their relative contributions and what advances have been made in the past decade for estimating mechanism causal effects from non-experimental data. The essay concludes with a proposed agenda for building an evidence base about protected area mechanisms. PMID:26460122

  4. Do power lines and protected areas present a catch-22 situation for Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)?

    PubMed

    Phipps, W Louis; Wolter, Kerri; Michael, Michael D; MacTavish, Lynne M; Yarnell, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres populations have declined across their range due to multiple anthropogenic threats. Their susceptibility to fatal collisions with the expanding power line network and the prevalence of carcasses contaminated with illegal poisons and other threats outside protected areas are thought to be the primary drivers of declines in southern Africa. We used GPS-GSM units to track the movements and delineate the home ranges of five adult (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 121,655±90,845 km(2)) and four immature (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 492,300±259,427 km(2)) Cape vultures to investigate the influence of power lines and their use of protected areas. The vultures travelled more than 1,000 km from the capture site and collectively entered five different countries in southern Africa. Their movement patterns and core foraging ranges were closely associated with the spatial distribution of transmission power lines and we present evidence that the construction of power lines has allowed the species to extend its range to areas previously devoid of suitable perches. The distribution of locations of known Cape vulture mortalities caused by interactions with power lines corresponded to the core ranges of the tracked vultures. Although some of the vultures regularly roosted at breeding colonies located inside protected areas the majority of foraging activity took place on unprotected farmland. Their ability to travel vast distances very quickly and the high proportion of time they spend in the vicinity of power lines and outside protected areas make Cape vultures especially vulnerable to negative interactions with the expanding power line network and the full range of threats across the region. Co-ordinated cross-border conservation strategies beyond the protected area network will therefore be necessary to ensure the future survival of threatened vultures in Africa. PMID:24137496

  5. Do Power Lines and Protected Areas Present a Catch-22 Situation for Cape Vultures (Gyps coprotheres)?

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, W. Louis; Wolter, Kerri; Michael, Michael D.; MacTavish, Lynne M.; Yarnell, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres populations have declined across their range due to multiple anthropogenic threats. Their susceptibility to fatal collisions with the expanding power line network and the prevalence of carcasses contaminated with illegal poisons and other threats outside protected areas are thought to be the primary drivers of declines in southern Africa. We used GPS-GSM units to track the movements and delineate the home ranges of five adult (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area  =  121,655±90,845 km2) and four immature (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area  =  492,300±259,427 km2) Cape vultures to investigate the influence of power lines and their use of protected areas. The vultures travelled more than 1,000 km from the capture site and collectively entered five different countries in southern Africa. Their movement patterns and core foraging ranges were closely associated with the spatial distribution of transmission power lines and we present evidence that the construction of power lines has allowed the species to extend its range to areas previously devoid of suitable perches. The distribution of locations of known Cape vulture mortalities caused by interactions with power lines corresponded to the core ranges of the tracked vultures. Although some of the vultures regularly roosted at breeding colonies located inside protected areas the majority of foraging activity took place on unprotected farmland. Their ability to travel vast distances very quickly and the high proportion of time they spend in the vicinity of power lines and outside protected areas make Cape vultures especially vulnerable to negative interactions with the expanding power line network and the full range of threats across the region. Co-ordinated cross-border conservation strategies beyond the protected area network will therefore be necessary to ensure the future survival of threatened vultures in Africa. PMID:24137496

  6. Thermal Protection System design studies for lunar crew module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. D.; Curry, Donald M.; Bouslog, Stanley A.; Rochelle, William C.

    1993-01-01

    The results of a study to predict aeroheating and Thermal Protection System (TPS) requirements for manned entry vehicles returning to Earth from the moon are presented. The effects of vehicle size and lunar-return strategies on the aerothermodynamic environment and TPS design were assessed. Study guidelines were based on an Apollo Command Module (CM) configuration and lunar return strategies included direct entry and aerocapture followed by Low Earth Orbit entry (LEO). Convective heating was obtained by the boundary layer integral matrix procedure (BLIMP) code, and radiative heating was computed with the QRAD program. The AESOP-STAB code and the AESOP-THERM code were used for TPS analysis for ablating materials and nonablating materials respectively. Results indicated that there was an optimum size for minimum heating and that direct entry had higher heating rates than aerocapture. Aerocapture resulted in higher heat loads and TPS weight. The TPS weight factor was 6-8 percent for all lunar return strategies, with the TPS weight being about 50 percent less than that of the original Apollo CM vehicle.

  7. The value of HIV protective epitope research for informed vaccine design against diverse viral pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Victor G; Byrareddy, Siddappa N

    2014-01-01

    The success of vaccine regimens against viral pathogens hinges on the elicitation of protective responses. Hypervariable pathogens such as HIV avoid neutralization by masking protective epitopes with more immunogenic decoys. The identification of protective, conserved epitopes is crucial for future vaccine candidate design. The strategies employed for identification of HIV protective epitopes will also aid towards rational vaccine design for other viral pathogens. PMID:24964950

  8. Scale dependency in effectiveness, isolation, and social-ecological spillover of protected areas.

    PubMed

    Ament, Judith M; Cumming, Graeme S

    2016-08-01

    Protected areas are considered vital for the conservation of biodiversity. Given their central role in many conservation strategies, it is important to know whether they adequately protect biodiversity within their boundaries; whether they are becoming more isolated from other natural areas over time; and whether they play a role in facilitating or reducing land-cover change in their surroundings. We used matching methods and national and local analyses of land-cover change to evaluate the combined effectiveness (i.e., avoided natural-cover loss), isolation (i.e., changes in adjacent areas), and spillover effects (i.e., impacts on adjacent areas) of 19 national parks in South Africa from 2000 to 2009. All parks had either similar or lower rates of natural-cover loss than matched control samples. On a national level, mean net loss of natural cover and mean net gain of cultivation cover decreased with distance from park boundary, but there was considerable variation in trends around individual parks, providing evidence for both increased isolation and buffering of protected areas. Fourteen parks had significant positive spillover and reduced natural-cover loss in their surroundings, whereas five parks experienced elevated levels of natural-cover loss. Conclusions about social-ecological spillover effects from protected areas depended heavily on the measures of land-cover change used and the scale at which the results were aggregated. Our findings emphasize the need for high-resolution data when assessing spatially explicit phenomena such as land-cover change and challenge the usefulness of large-scale (coarse grain, broad extent) studies for understanding social-ecological dynamics around protected areas. PMID:26836760

  9. Mapping change in human pressure globally on land and within protected areas.

    PubMed

    Geldmann, Jonas; Joppa, Lucas N; Burgess, Neil D

    2014-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the main driver of the observed decline in biological diversity is increasing human pressure on Earth's ecosystems. However, the spatial patterns of change in human pressure and their relation to conservation efforts are less well known. We developed a spatially and temporally explicit map of global change in human pressure over 2 decades between 1990 and 2010 at a resolution of 10 km(2) . We evaluated 22 spatial data sets representing different components of human pressure and used them to compile a temporal human pressure index (THPI) based on 3 data sets: human population density, land transformation, and electrical power infrastructure. We investigated how the THPI within protected areas was correlated to International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) management categories and the human development index (HDI) and how the THPI was correlated to cumulative pressure on the basis of the original human footprint index. Since the early 1990s, human pressure increased 64% of the terrestrial areas; the largest increases were in Southeast Asia. Protected areas also exhibited overall increases in human pressure, the degree of which varied with location and IUCN management category. Only wilderness areas and natural monuments (management categories Ib and III) exhibited decreases in pressure. Protected areas not assigned any category exhibited the greatest increases. High HDI values correlated with greater reductions in pressure across protected areas, while increasing age of the protected area correlated with increases in pressure. Our analysis is an initial step toward mapping changes in human pressure on the natural world over time. That only 3 data sets could be included in our spatio-temporal global pressure map highlights the challenge to measuring pressure changes over time. PMID:25052712

  10. Estimating occupancy dynamics for large-scale monitoring networks: amphibian breeding occupancy across protected areas in the northeast United States.

    PubMed

    Miller, David A W; Grant, Evan H Campbell

    2015-11-01

    Regional monitoring strategies frequently employ a nested sampling design where a finite set of study areas from throughout a region are selected and intensive sampling occurs within a subset of sites within the individual study areas. This sampling protocol naturally lends itself to a hierarchical analysis to account for dependence among subsamples. Implementing such an analysis using a classic likelihood framework is computationally challenging when accounting for detection errors in species occurrence models. Bayesian methods offer an alternative approach for fitting models that readily allows for spatial structure to be incorporated. We demonstrate a general approach for estimating occupancy when data come from a nested sampling design. We analyzed data from a regional monitoring program of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in vernal pools using static and dynamic occupancy models. We analyzed observations from 2004 to 2013 that were collected within 14 protected areas located throughout the northeast United States. We use the data set to estimate trends in occupancy at both the regional and individual protected area levels. We show that occupancy at the regional level was relatively stable for both species. However, substantial variation occurred among study areas, with some populations declining and some increasing for both species. In addition, When the hierarchical study design is not accounted for, one would conclude stronger support for latitudinal gradient in trends than when using our approach that accounts for the nested design. In contrast to the model that does not account for nesting, the nested model did not include an effect of latitude in the 95% credible interval. These results shed light on the range-level population status of these pond-breeding amphibians, and our approach provides a framework that can be used to examine drivers of local and regional occurrence dynamics. PMID:26640655

  11. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  12. Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: Application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of trail resources associated with expanding recreation and tourism visitation is a growing management problem in protected areas worldwide. In order to make judicious trail and visitor management decisions, protected area managers need objective and timely information on trail resource conditions. This paper introduces a trail survey method that efficiently characterizes the lineal extent of common trail problems. The method was applied to a large sample of trails within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, a highuse protected area in the USA. The Trail ProblemAssessment Method (TPAM) employs a continuous search for multiple indicators of predefined tread problems, yielding census data documenting the location, occurrence and extent of each problem. The present application employed 23 different indicators in three categories to gather inventory, resource condition, and design and maintenance data of each surveyed trail. Seventy-two backcountry hiking trails (528 km), or 35% of the Park's total trail length, were surveyed. Soil erosion and wet soil were found to be the two most common impacts on a lineal extent basis. Trails with serious tread problems were well distributed throughout the Park, although wet muddy treads tended to be concentrated in areas where horse use was high. The effectiveness of maintenance features installed to divert water from trail treads was also evaluated. Water bars were found to be more effective than drainage dips. The TPAM was able to provide Park managers with objective and quantitative information for use in trail planning, management and maintenance decisions, and is applicable to other protected areas elsewhere with different environmental and impact characteristics.

  13. Designing a carbon market that protects forests in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Niesten, Eduard; Frumhoff, Peter C; Manion, Michelle; Hardner, Jared J

    2002-08-15

    incentives to clear natural forests through CDM crediting for afforestation and reforestation, we recommend for the first commitment period that policymakers establish an early base year, such as 1990, such that lands cleared after that year would be ineligible for crediting. We further recommend an exception to this rule for CDM projects that are explicitly designed to promote natural forest restoration and that pass rigorous environmental impact review. Restoration efforts are typically most effective on lands that are adjacent to standing forests and hence likely to have been recently cleared. Thus, we recommend for these projects establishing a more recent base year, such as 2000. For the second and subsequent commitment periods, we recommend that climate policymakers act to restrain inter-annex leakage and its impacts by ensuring that crediting for forest management in industrialized countries is informed by modelling efforts to anticipate the scale of leakage associated with different Annex I 'Land use, land-use change and forestry' policy options, and coupled with effective measures to protect natural forests in developing countries. The latter should include expanding the options permitted under the CDM to carbon crediting for projects that protect threatened forests from deforestation and forest degradation. Ultimately, carbon market incentives for forest clearing can be reduced and incentives for forest conservation most effectively strengthened by fully capturing carbon emissions associated with deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries under a future emissions cap. Finally, we note that these recommendations have broader relevance to any forest-based measures to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions developed outside of the specific context of the Kyoto Protocol. PMID:12460503

  14. Report ranks U.S. coastal state protection of marine areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    Most U.S. coastal states are not doing enough to safeguard nearby marine areas, according to a 29 May report by two environmental groups, the Marine Conservation Institute (MCI) and Mission Blue. The groups ranked U.S. coastal states and territories based on the percentage of state marine waters classified as no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) where fishing, mining, and oil and gas development are not allowed.

  15. Shortfalls in the global protected area network at representing marine biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Klein, Carissa J; Brown, Christopher J; Halpern, Benjamin S; Segan, Daniel B; McGowan, Jennifer; Beger, Maria; Watson, James E M

    2015-01-01

    The first international goal for establishing marine protected areas (MPAs) to conserve the ocean's biodiversity was set in 2002. Since 2006, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has driven MPA establishment, with 193 parties committed to protecting >10% of marine environments globally by 2020, especially 'areas of particular importance for biodiversity' (Aichi target 11). This has resulted in nearly 10 million km(2) of new MPAs, a growth of ~360% in a decade. Unlike on land, it is not known how well protected areas capture marine biodiversity, leaving a significant gap in our understanding of existing MPAs and future protection requirements. We assess the overlap of global MPAs with the ranges of 17,348 marine species (fishes, mammals, invertebrates), and find that 97.4% of species have <10% of their ranges represented in stricter conservation classes. Almost all (99.8%) of the very poorly represented species (<2% coverage) are found within exclusive economic zones, suggesting an important role for particular nations to better protect biodiversity. Our results offer strategic guidance on where MPAs should be placed to support the CBD's overall goal to avert biodiversity loss. Achieving this goal is imperative for nature and humanity, as people depend on biodiversity for important and valuable services. PMID:26631984

  16. Shortfalls in the global protected area network at representing marine biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Carissa J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Segan, Daniel B.; McGowan, Jennifer; Beger, Maria; Watson, James E. M.

    2015-12-01

    The first international goal for establishing marine protected areas (MPAs) to conserve the ocean’s biodiversity was set in 2002. Since 2006, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has driven MPA establishment, with 193 parties committed to protecting >10% of marine environments globally by 2020, especially ‘areas of particular importance for biodiversity’ (Aichi target 11). This has resulted in nearly 10 million km2 of new MPAs, a growth of ~360% in a decade. Unlike on land, it is not known how well protected areas capture marine biodiversity, leaving a significant gap in our understanding of existing MPAs and future protection requirements. We assess the overlap of global MPAs with the ranges of 17,348 marine species (fishes, mammals, invertebrates), and find that 97.4% of species have <10% of their ranges represented in stricter conservation classes. Almost all (99.8%) of the very poorly represented species (<2% coverage) are found within exclusive economic zones, suggesting an important role for particular nations to better protect biodiversity. Our results offer strategic guidance on where MPAs should be placed to support the CBD’s overall goal to avert biodiversity loss. Achieving this goal is imperative for nature and humanity, as people depend on biodiversity for important and valuable services.

  17. Shortfalls in the global protected area network at representing marine biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Carissa J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Segan, Daniel B.; McGowan, Jennifer; Beger, Maria; Watson, James E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The first international goal for establishing marine protected areas (MPAs) to conserve the ocean’s biodiversity was set in 2002. Since 2006, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has driven MPA establishment, with 193 parties committed to protecting >10% of marine environments globally by 2020, especially ‘areas of particular importance for biodiversity’ (Aichi target 11). This has resulted in nearly 10 million km2 of new MPAs, a growth of ~360% in a decade. Unlike on land, it is not known how well protected areas capture marine biodiversity, leaving a significant gap in our understanding of existing MPAs and future protection requirements. We assess the overlap of global MPAs with the ranges of 17,348 marine species (fishes, mammals, invertebrates), and find that 97.4% of species have <10% of their ranges represented in stricter conservation classes. Almost all (99.8%) of the very poorly represented species (<2% coverage) are found within exclusive economic zones, suggesting an important role for particular nations to better protect biodiversity. Our results offer strategic guidance on where MPAs should be placed to support the CBD’s overall goal to avert biodiversity loss. Achieving this goal is imperative for nature and humanity, as people depend on biodiversity for important and valuable services. PMID:26631984

  18. Rare Isotope Accelerator - Conceptual Design of Target Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Bollen, Georg; Baek, Inseok; Blideanu, Valentin; Lawton, Don; Mantica, Paul F.; Morrissey, David J.; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Sherrill, Bradley S.; Zeller, Albert; Beene, James R; Burgess, Tom; Carter, Kenneth; Carrol, Adam; Conner, David; Gabriel, Tony A; Mansur, Louis K; Remec, Igor; Rennich, Mark J; Stracener, Daniel W; Wendel, Mark W; Ahle, Larry; Boles, Jason; Reyes, Susana; Stein, Werner; Heilbronn, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    The planned rare isotope accelerator facility RIA in the US would become the most powerful radioactive beam facility in the world. RIA s driver accelerator will be a device capable of providing beams from protons to uranium at energies of at least 400MeV per nucleon, with beam power up to 400 kW. Radioactive beam production relies on both the in-flight separation of fast beam fragments and on the ISOL technique. In both cases the high beam power poses major challenges for target technology and handling and on the design of the beam production areas. This paper will give a brief overview of RIA and discuss aspects of ongoing conceptual design work for the RIA target areas.

  19. Design Considerations for a New Terminal Area Arrival Scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, Jane; Mulfinger, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Design of a terminal area arrival scheduler depends on the interrelationship between throughput, delay and controller intervention. The main contribution of this paper is an analysis of the above interdependence for several stochastic behaviors of expected system performance distributions in the aircraft s time of arrival at the meter fix and runway. Results of this analysis serve to guide the scheduler design choices for key control variables. Two types of variables are analyzed, separation buffers and terminal delay margins. The choice for these decision variables was tested using sensitivity analysis. Analysis suggests that it is best to set the separation buffer at the meter fix to its minimum and adjust the runway buffer to attain the desired system performance. Delay margin was found to have the least effect. These results help characterize the variables most influential in the scheduling operations of terminal area arrivals.

  20. Target Area design basis and system performance for the National Ignition Facility. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, M.; Karpenko, V.; Hagans, K.; Anderson, A.; Latkowski, J.; Warren, R.; Wavrik, R.; Garcia, R.; Boyes, J.

    1994-10-01

    The NIF Target Area is designed to confine the ICF target experiments leading up to and including fusion ignition and gain. The Target Area will provide appropriate in-chamber conditions before, during, and after each shot. The repeated introduction of large amounts of laser energy into the chamber and emission of fusion energy from targets represents a new challenge in ICF facility design. Prior to a shot, the facility provides proper illumination geometry, target chamber vacuum, and a stable platform for the target and its diagnostics. During a shot, the impact of the energy introduced into the chamber is minimized, and workers and the public are protected from excessive prompt radiation doses. After the shot, the residual radioactivation is managed to allow required accessibility. Tritium and other radioactive wastes are confined and disposed of. Diagnostic data is also retrieved, and the facility is readied for the next shot. The Target Area will accommodate yields up to 20 MJ, and its design lifetime is 30 years. The Target Area provides the personnel access needed to support the use precision diagnostics. The annual shot mix for design purposes is shown. Designing to this experimental envelope ensures the ability and flexibility to move through the experimental campaign to ignition efficiently.

  1. Representation of Ecological Systems within the Protected Areas Network of the Continental United States

    PubMed Central

    Aycrigg, Jocelyn L.; Davidson, Anne; Svancara, Leona K.; Gergely, Kevin J.; McKerrow, Alexa; Scott, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    If conservation of biodiversity is the goal, then the protected areas network of the continental US may be one of our best conservation tools for safeguarding ecological systems (i.e., vegetation communities). We evaluated representation of ecological systems in the current protected areas network and found insufficient representation at three vegetation community levels within lower elevations and moderate to high productivity soils. We used national-level data for ecological systems and a protected areas database to explore alternative ways we might be able to increase representation of ecological systems within the continental US. By following one or more of these alternatives it may be possible to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network both quantitatively (from 10% up to 39%) and geographically and come closer to meeting the suggested Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% for terrestrial areas. We used the Landscape Conservation Cooperative framework for regional analysis and found that increased conservation on some private and public lands may be important to the conservation of ecological systems in Western US, while increased public-private partnerships may be important in the conservation of ecological systems in Eastern US. We have not assessed the pros and cons of following the national or regional alternatives, but rather present them as possibilities that may be considered and evaluated as decisions are made to increase the representation of ecological systems in the protected areas network across their range of ecological, geographical, and geophysical occurrence in the continental US into the future. PMID:23372754

  2. Global Projections of 21st Century Land-Use Changes in Regions Adjacent to Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Linda J.; Duursma, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    The conservation efficiency of Protected Areas (PA) is influenced by the health and characteristics of the surrounding landscape matrix. Fragmentation of adjacent lands interrupts ecological flows within PAs and will decrease the ability of species to shift their distribution as climate changes. For five periods across the 21st century, we assessed changes to the extent of primary land, secondary land, pasture and crop land projected to occur within 50 km buffers surrounding IUCN-designated PAs. Four scenarios of land-use were obtained from the Land-Use Harmonization Project, developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). The scenarios project the continued decline of primary lands within buffers surrounding PAs. Substantial losses are projected to occur across buffer regions in the tropical forest biomes of Indo-Malayan and the Temperate Broadleaf forests of the Nearctic. A number of buffer regions are projected to have negligible primary land remaining by 2100, including those in the Afrotropic's Tropical/Subtropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland. From 2010–2050, secondary land is projected to increase within most buffer regions, although, as with pasture and crops within tropical and temperate forests, projections from the four land-use scenarios may diverge substantially in magnitude and direction of change. These scenarios demonstrate a range of alternate futures, and show that although effective mitigation strategies may reduce pressure on land surrounding PAs, these areas will contain an increasingly heterogeneous matrix of primary and human-modified landscapes. Successful management of buffer regions will be imperative to ensure effectiveness of PAs and to facilitate climate-induced shifts in species ranges. PMID:22952744

  3. Science-Driven Management of Protected Areas: A Philippine Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallari, Neil Aldrin D.; Collar, Nigel J.; McGowan, Philip J. K.; Marsden, Stuart J.

    2013-06-01

    The lack of scientific baseline information hinders appropriate design and management of protected areas. To illustrate the value of science to management, we consider five scenarios for the 202.0 km² Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park, Philippines: (1) closure to human activities, (2) and (3) two levels of increase in unplanned human activities, (4) creation of a forest corridor and (5) additional allocation of land for permanent or shifting agriculture. We then use habitat-specific bird density estimates to simulate the net effect of each scenario on 18 focal bird populations. Closure has significant benefits—populations of five species are predicted to increase by >50 % and nine by >25 %, but two secondary forest flycatchers, including the endemic and `Vulnerable' Palawan flycatcher, decline dramatically, while the creation of a 4.0 km² forest corridor yields average increases across species of 2 ± 4 % (SD). In contrast, heavier unplanned park usage produces declines in all but a few species, while the negative effects of an extra 2.0 km² of shifting cultivation are 3-5 times higher than for a similar area of permanent agriculture and affect species whose densities are highest in primary habitats. Relatively small changes within the park, especially those associated with agricultural expansion, has serious predicted implications for local bird populations. Our models do not take into account the full complexities of bird ecology at a site, but they do provide park managers with an evidence base from which to make better decisions relating to biodiversity conservation obligations which their parks are intended to meet.

  4. Protected Area Reconfiguration Project. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    DOE has decided to consolidate, process, and store Category I and II Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in Building 371 at Rocky Flats, in order to improve safeguards and security and to reduce baseline facility and personnel costs. Once all SNM in consolidated into this building, maintaining the full 200-acre protected area would no longer be necessary, and the protected area (PA) could be reconfigured to include only the protection requirements necessary for Building 371. DOE Environmental Assessment 1132 has been written to evaluate options for reconfiguration of the PA; it addressed potential environmental impacts resulting from construction of fence alternatives. Possible routes for the new fence section were examined for environmental impact, feasibility, cost, and complexity. A number of the alternatives, including the proposed action, would impact wetlands.

  5. An Approach to the Lightning Overvoltage Protection of Medium Voltage Lines in Severe Lightning Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Omidiora, M. A.; Lehtonen, M.

    2008-05-08

    This paper deals with the effect of shield wires on lightning overvoltage reduction and the energy relief of MOV (Metal Oxide Varistor) arresters from direct strokes to distribution lines. The subject of discussion is the enhancement of lightning protection in Finnish distribution networks where lightning is most severe. The true index of lightning severity in these areas is based on the ground flash densities and return stroke data collected from the Finnish meteorological institute. The presented test case is the IEEE 34-node test feeder injected with multiple lightning strokes and simulated with the Alternative Transients Program/Electromagnetic Transients program (ATP/EMTP). The response of the distribution line to lightning strokes was modeled with three different cases: no protection, protection with surge arresters and protection with a combination of shield wire and arresters. Simulations were made to compare the resulting overvoltages on the line for all the analyzed cases.

  6. 78 FR 67338 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...Notice is hereby given of a meeting via web conference call of the Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee (Committee). The web conference calls are open to the public, and participants can dial in to the calls. Participants who choose to use the web conferencing feature in addition to the audio will be able to view the presentations as they are being...

  7. 18 CFR 430.7 - Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... supplies have developed or threaten to develop to such a degree as to create a water shortage or to impair... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use. 430.7 Section 430.7 Conservation of Power and Water...

  8. The Effectiveness of Public Participation in Developing and Implementing Tourism Plans for Two Peruvian Protected Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De la Cruz-Novey, H. Alicia

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades protected area management approaches have experienced a shift from top-down management models to more diverse governance approaches that involve various forms and degrees of participation from local populations. These new participatory approaches seek to reaffirm cultural values, maintain cultural landscapes, recognize the…

  9. Observed and predicted effects of climate change on species abundance in protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Alison; Ausden, Malcolm; Dodd, Andrew M.; Bradbury, Richard B.; Chamberlain, Dan E.; Jiguet, Frédéric; Thomas, Chris D.; Cook, Aonghais S. C. P.; Newson, Stuart E.; Ockendon, Nancy; Rehfisch, Mark M.; Roos, Staffan; Thaxter, Chris B.; Brown, Andy; Crick, Humphrey Q. P.; Douse, Andrew; McCall, Rob A.; Pontier, Helen; Stroud, David A.; Cadiou, Bernard; Crowe, Olivia; Deceuninck, Bernard; Hornman, Menno; Pearce-Higgins, James W.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamic nature and diversity of species' responses to climate change poses significant difficulties for developing robust, long-term conservation strategies. One key question is whether existing protected area networks will remain effective in a changing climate. To test this, we developed statistical models that link climate to the abundance of internationally important bird populations in northwestern Europe. Spatial climate-abundance models were able to predict 56% of the variation in recent 30-year population trends. Using these models, future climate change resulting in 4.0°C global warming was projected to cause declines of at least 25% for more than half of the internationally important populations considered. Nonetheless, most EU Special Protection Areas in the UK were projected to retain species in sufficient abundances to maintain their legal status, and generally sites that are important now were projected to be important in the future. The biological and legal resilience of this network of protected areas is derived from the capacity for turnover in the important species at each site as species' distributions and abundances alter in response to climate. Current protected areas are therefore predicted to remain important for future conservation in a changing climate.

  10. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  11. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  12. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  13. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  14. 75 FR 77617 - Notice Requesting Nominations for the Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...The Department of Commerce is seeking nominations for membership on the Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee (Advisory Committee). The Advisory Committee was established to advise the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of the Interior in implementing Section 4 of Executive Order 13158, specifically on strategies and priorities for developing the national system of marine......

  15. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  16. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  17. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  18. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  19. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  20. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  1. 50 CFR Table 4 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions 4 Table 4 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF...

  2. 50 CFR Table 4 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions 4 Table 4 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF...

  3. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mapping of areas protected by levee systems. 65.10 Section 65.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...

  4. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Mapping of areas protected by levee systems. 65.10 Section 65.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...

  5. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mapping of areas protected by levee systems. 65.10 Section 65.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...

  6. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mapping of areas protected by levee systems. 65.10 Section 65.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...

  7. Local residents perception of benefits and losses from protected areas in India and Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karanth, Krithi K; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2012-02-01

    High densities of people living around protected areas (PAs) in South Asia require management strategies to balance conservation goals and livelihood needs. Based on a survey of 777 households around five PAs in India and Nepal, this paper provides a comparative perspective of Indian and Nepali households' views of protected area benefits and costs, their attitude toward conservation in general, and attitude toward protected area staff. Results indicate mixed responses towards tourism, varying from very favorable in Nepal to less favorable in India. The majority (81%) held positive attitudes towards the existence and importance of PAs but had negative perceptions of PA staff (69%). Most residents perceived benefits from access to fuel wood, fodder and other PA resources including benefits from tourism, while crop and livestock losses from wildlife were the main costs. Households overall positive attitudes towards the PAs and conservation despite high losses from living around PAs suggests that local residents may support conservation if their livelihood needs are met. Comparisons of household attitudes and perceptions suggest that locally based strategies rather than top-down approaches are likely to be more effective. Extending PA benefits to smaller landholders, households that are highly resource-dependent or experiencing higher income losses from human-wildlife conflicts, and less educated residents are particularly important to balance costs and losses from living around protected areas. PMID:22080427

  8. 76 FR 43658 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meetings AGENCY: Department of Commerce, National Ocean Service, (NOAA). ACTION: Notice of open.... (Phone: 301-713-3100 x136, Fax: 301-713-3110); e-mail: lauren.wenzel@noaa.gov ; or Denise...

  9. 76 FR 66912 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Ocean Service, NOAA, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open.... (Phone: (301) 713-3100 x162, Fax: (301) 713-3110); email: kara.yeager@noaa.gov ; or visit the...

  10. 75 FR 16749 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Ocean Service, NOAA, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open...-3110); e-mail: lauren.wenzel@noaa.gov ; or visit the National MPA Center Web site at...

  11. 77 FR 68105 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of....yeager@noaa.gov ; or visit the National MPA Center Web site at http://www.mpa.gov )....

  12. Local Residents Perception of Benefits and Losses From Protected Areas in India and Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanth, Krithi K.; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2012-02-01

    High densities of people living around protected areas (PAs) in South Asia require management strategies to balance conservation goals and livelihood needs. Based on a survey of 777 households around five PAs in India and Nepal, this paper provides a comparative perspective of Indian and Nepali households' views of protected area benefits and costs, their attitude toward conservation in general, and attitude toward protected area staff. Results indicate mixed responses towards tourism, varying from very favorable in Nepal to less favorable in India. The majority (81%) held positive attitudes towards the existence and importance of PAs but had negative perceptions of PA staff (69%). Most residents perceived benefits from access to fuel wood, fodder and other PA resources including benefits from tourism, while crop and livestock losses from wildlife were the main costs. Households overall positive attitudes towards the PAs and conservation despite high losses from living around PAs suggests that local residents may support conservation if their livelihood needs are met. Comparisons of household attitudes and perceptions suggest that locally based strategies rather than top-down approaches are likely to be more effective. Extending PA benefits to smaller landholders, households that are highly resource-dependent or experiencing higher income losses from human-wildlife conflicts, and less educated residents are particularly important to balance costs and losses from living around protected areas.

  13. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea...

  14. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea...

  15. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea...

  16. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  17. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea...

  18. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  19. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 679—Steller Sea...

  20. 50 CFR 648.81 - NE multispecies closed areas and measures to protect EFH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NE multispecies closed areas and measures to protect EFH. 648.81 Section 648.81 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the...