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Sample records for protected area management

  1. Managing ecotourism visitation in protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Farrell, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    Ecotourism management seeks to integrate and balance several potentially conflicting objectives: protection of natural and cultural resources, provision of recreation opportunities and generation of economic benefits. In the absence of effective planning and management, ecotourism can lead to significant negative impacts on vegetation, soil, water, wildlife, historic resources, cultures, and visitor experiences. This chapter reviews visitor-related natural resource and experience impacts associated with ecotourism within protected areas. The influence of factors that control the nature and extent of impacts are also reviewed, including type and amount of use, the variable resistance and resilience of environmental attributes such as vegetation and soil types, and the role of management in shaping visitation, resources and facilities to support visitation while minimizing associated impacts. Implications for managing the effects of protected area visitation are highlighted, including carrying capacity decision frameworks and selecting management strategies and tactics.

  2. Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Modeling for Protected Area Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, F.; Michaelis, A.; Votava, P.; Milesi, C.; Hashimoto, H.; Hiatt, S.; Nemani, R.

    2007-12-01

    Managers of U.S. national parks and international protected areas are under increasing pressure to monitor changes in park ecosystems resulting from climate and land use change within and adjacent to park boundaries. Despite great interest in these areas and the fact that some U.S. parks receive as many as 3.5 million visitors per year, U.S. and international protected areas are often sparsely instrumented, making it difficult for resource managers to quickly identify trends and changes in landscape conditions. Remote sensing and ecosystem modeling offer protected area managers important tools for monitoring of ecosystem conditions and scientifically based decision-making. These tools, however, can generate large data volumes and can require labor-intensive data processing making them difficult for protected area managers to use. To overcome these obstacles, the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) is currently being applied to automate the production, analysis, and delivery of a suite of data products from NASA satellites and ecosystem models to assist managers of U.S. national parks. TOPS uses ecosystem models to combine satellite data with ground-based observations to produce nowcasts and forecasts of ecosystem conditions. We are utilizing TOPS to deliver data products via a browser-based interface to NPS resource managers in near real- time for use in landscape monitoring and operational decision-making. Current products include measures of vegetation condition, ecosystem productivity, soil moisture, snow cover, climate, and fire occurrence. The use of TOPS component models and technologies streamlines the data processing chain and automates the process of ingesting and synthesizing heterogeneous data inputs. In addition, we describe the use of TOPS to automate the identification of trends and anomalies in ecosystem conditions, enabling protected area managers to track park-wide conditions daily, identify significant changes, focus monitoring

  3. Managing protected areas under climate change: challenges and priorities.

    PubMed

    Rannow, Sven; Macgregor, Nicholas A; Albrecht, Juliane; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Förster, Michael; Heiland, Stefan; Janauer, Georg; Morecroft, Mike D; Neubert, Marco; Sarbu, Anca; Sienkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2014-10-01

    The implementation of adaptation actions in local conservation management is a new and complex task with multiple facets, influenced by factors differing from site to site. A transdisciplinary perspective is therefore required to identify and implement effective solutions. To address this, the International Conference on Managing Protected Areas under Climate Change brought together international scientists, conservation managers, and decision-makers to discuss current experiences with local adaptation of conservation management. This paper summarizes the main issues for implementing adaptation that emerged from the conference. These include a series of conclusions and recommendations on monitoring, sensitivity assessment, current and future management practices, and legal and policy aspects. A range of spatial and temporal scales must be considered in the implementation of climate-adapted management. The adaptation process must be area-specific and consider the ecosystem and the social and economic conditions within and beyond protected area boundaries. However, a strategic overview is also needed: management at each site should be informed by conservation priorities and likely impacts of climate change at regional or even wider scales. Acting across these levels will be a long and continuous process, requiring coordination with actors outside the "traditional" conservation sector. To achieve this, a range of research, communication, and policy/legal actions is required. We identify a series of important actions that need to be taken at different scales to enable managers of protected sites to adapt successfully to a changing climate. PMID:24722848

  4. Managing Protected Areas Under Climate Change: Challenges and Priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannow, Sven; Macgregor, Nicholas A.; Albrecht, Juliane; Crick, Humphrey Q. P.; Förster, Michael; Heiland, Stefan; Janauer, Georg; Morecroft, Mike D.; Neubert, Marco; Sarbu, Anca; Sienkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2014-10-01

    The implementation of adaptation actions in local conservation management is a new and complex task with multiple facets, influenced by factors differing from site to site. A transdisciplinary perspective is therefore required to identify and implement effective solutions. To address this, the International Conference on Managing Protected Areas under Climate Change brought together international scientists, conservation managers, and decision-makers to discuss current experiences with local adaptation of conservation management. This paper summarizes the main issues for implementing adaptation that emerged from the conference. These include a series of conclusions and recommendations on monitoring, sensitivity assessment, current and future management practices, and legal and policy aspects. A range of spatial and temporal scales must be considered in the implementation of climate-adapted management. The adaptation process must be area-specific and consider the ecosystem and the social and economic conditions within and beyond protected area boundaries. However, a strategic overview is also needed: management at each site should be informed by conservation priorities and likely impacts of climate change at regional or even wider scales. Acting across these levels will be a long and continuous process, requiring coordination with actors outside the "traditional" conservation sector. To achieve this, a range of research, communication, and policy/legal actions is required. We identify a series of important actions that need to be taken at different scales to enable managers of protected sites to adapt successfully to a changing climate.

  5. GRA prospectus: optimizing design and management of protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, Richard; Halsing, David

    2001-01-01

    Protected areas comprise one major type of global conservation effort that has been in the form of parks, easements, or conservation concessions. Though protected areas are increasing in number and size throughout tropical ecosystems, there is no systematic method for optimally targeting specific local areas for protection, designing the protected area, and monitoring it, or for guiding follow-up actions to manage it or its surroundings over the long run. Without such a system, conservation projects often cost more than necessary and/or risk protecting ecosystems and biodiversity less efficiently than desired. Correcting these failures requires tools and strategies for improving the placement, design, and long-term management of protected areas. The objective of this project is to develop a set of spatially based analytical tools to improve the selection, design, and management of protected areas. In this project, several conservation concessions will be compared using an economic optimization technique. The forest land use portfolio model is an integrated assessment that measures investment in different land uses in a forest. The case studies of individual tropical ecosystems are developed as forest (land) use and preservation portfolios in a geographic information system (GIS). Conservation concessions involve a private organization purchasing development and resource access rights in a certain area and retiring them. Forests are put into conservation, and those people who would otherwise have benefited from extracting resources or selling the right to do so are compensated. Concessions are legal agreements wherein the exact amount and nature of the compensation result from a negotiated agreement between an agent of the conservation community and the local community. Funds are placed in a trust fund, and annual payments are made to local communities and regional/national governments. The payments are made pending third-party verification that the forest expanse

  6. Building Capacity for Protected Area Management in Lao PDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhu; Johnson, Arlyne; Spence, Kelly; Sypasong, Ahnsany; Bynum, Nora; Sterling, Eleanor; Phimminith, Thavy; Praxaysombath, Bounthob

    2014-04-01

    Declining biodiversity in protected areas in Laos is attributed to unsustainable exploitation of natural resources. At a basic level, an important need is to develop capacity in academic and professional training institutions to provide relevant training to conservation professionals. The paper (a) describes the capacity building approach undertaken to achieve this goal, (b) evaluates the effectiveness of the approach in building capacity for implementing conservation and (c) reviews implementation outcomes. Strong linkages between organizations implementing field conservation, professional training institutions, and relevant Government agencies are central to enhancing effectiveness of capacity building initiatives aimed at improving the practice of conservation. Protected area management technical capacity needs will need to directly influence curriculum design to insure both relevance and effectiveness of training in improving protected area management. Sustainability of capacity building initiatives is largely dependent on the level of interest and commitment by host-country institutions within a supportive Government policy framework in addition to engagement of organizations implementing conservation.

  7. General principles for integrating geoheritage conservation in protected area management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, John E.; Crofts, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Development of more integrated approaches to the management of protected areas requires not only the protection of geosites, but also the effective application of geoconservation principles that apply more widely to the sustainable management of natural systems. Key guiding principles include: working with natural processes; managing natural systems and processes in a spatially integrated manner; accepting the inevitability of natural change; considering the responses of geomorphological processes to the effects of global climate change; recognising the sensitivity of natural systems and managing them within the limits of their capacity to absorb change; basing conservation management of active systems on a sound understanding of the underlying physical processes; making provision for managing visitors at sensitive sites; and acknowledging the interdependency of geodiversity and biodiversity management. As well as recognising the value of geoheritage in its own right, a more integrated approach to conservation across the full range of IUCN Protected Area Management Categories would benefit both biodiversity and geodiversity, through application of the concept of 'conserving nature's stage' and adopting an ecosystem approach.

  8. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D; Hockings, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible. PMID:26460133

  9. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D.; Hockings, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible. PMID:26460133

  10. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  11. Environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management.

    PubMed

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices. PMID:17265109

  12. Determining management strategies for the Sarikum Nature Protection Area.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Sevgi

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, many environmental problems have become important factors in promoting the economic need to develop tourist activity: climate change such as energy wars, increasing hunger and aridity, population increases in urban areas, excessive and unthinking use of natural resources, difficult international relations, economic competition, and increasing environmental stress. Trends in global tourism have changed with changes in culture and our attitude to nature. Changes in both the profile and consumption patterns of tourists have called for the need to balance the use of natural and cultural assets with the need to adequately protect them. In this study, the Sarikum Nature Protection Area (SNPA) was selected as a case study because of its significance as a Turkish wetland area and the variety of different ecosystems coexisting within it. The study focussed on management strategies, but also provides a broader strategy for an area that currently has no management plan. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses of the area were gathered and analyzed using R'WOT analysis (ranking + SWOT), a multi-criteria assessment method, in order to determine strategies, obtain the participation of interest groups, and assess their opinions and attitudes. The analysis showed the following: the rich biological diversity and the existence of endemic species were the reserve's most significant strength; the presence of natural areas in surrounding regions was the most significant opportunity; the shortage of infrastructure and lack of legal regulation of ecotourism was the most significant weakness; and the lack of a management plan was the most immediate threat. PMID:25678353

  13. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

    PubMed Central

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-01-01

    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans. PMID:23202770

  14. Establishment, management, and maintenance of the phoenix islands protected area.

    PubMed

    Rotjan, Randi; Jamieson, Regen; Carr, Ben; Kaufman, Les; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Obura, David; Pierce, Ray; Rimon, Betarim; Ris, Bud; Sandin, Stuart; Shelley, Peter; Sumaila, U Rashid; Taei, Sue; Tausig, Heather; Teroroko, Tukabu; Thorrold, Simon; Wikgren, Brooke; Toatu, Teuea; Stone, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The Republic of Kiribati's Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA), located in the equatorial central Pacific, is the largest and deepest UNESCO World Heritage site on earth. Created in 2008, it was the first Marine Protected Area (MPA) of its kind (at the time of inception, the largest in the world) and includes eight low-lying islands, shallow coral reefs, submerged shallow and deep seamounts and extensive open-ocean and ocean floor habitat. Due to their isolation, the shallow reef habitats have been protected de facto from severe exploitation, though the surrounding waters have been continually fished for large pelagics and whales over many decades. PIPA was created under a partnership between the Government of Kiribati and the international non-governmental organizations-Conservation International and the New England Aquarium. PIPA has a unique conservation strategy as the first marine MPA to use a conservation contract mechanism with a corresponding Conservation Trust established to be both a sustainable financing mechanism and a check-and-balance to the oversight and maintenance of the MPA. As PIPA moves forward with its management objectives, it is well positioned to be a global model for large MPA design and implementation in similar contexts. The islands and shallow reefs have already shown benefits from protection, though the pending full closure of PIPA (and assessments thereof) will be critical for determining success of the MPA as a refuge for open-ocean pelagic and deep-sea marine life. As global ocean resources are continually being extracted to support a growing global population, PIPA's closure is both timely and of global significance. PMID:25358303

  15. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is

  16. The Protected Areas Visitor Impact Management (PAVIM) framework: A simplified process for making management decisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ecotourism and protected area visitation in Central and South America have resulted in ecological impacts, which some protected areas managers have addressed by employing visitor impact management frameworks. In this paper, we propose the Protected Area Visitor Impact Management (PAVIM) framework as an alternative to carrying capacity and other frameworks such as Limits of Acceptable Change. We use a set of evaluation criteria to compare the relative positive and negative attributes of carrying capacity, other decision-making frameworks and the new framework, within the context of their actual and potential use in Central and South America. Positive attributes of PAVIM include simplicity, flexibility, cost effectiveness, timeliness, and incorporating input from stakeholders and local residents. Negative attributes include diminished objectivity and cultural sensitivity issues. Further research and application of PAVIM are recommended.

  17. Critical research needs for managing coral reef marine protected areas: perspectives of academics and managers.

    PubMed

    Cvitanovic, C; Wilson, S K; Fulton, C J; Almany, G R; Anderson, P; Babcock, R C; Ban, N C; Beeden, R J; Beger, M; Cinner, J; Dobbs, K; Evans, L S; Farnham, A; Friedman, K J; Gale, K; Gladstone, W; Grafton, Q; Graham, N A J; Gudge, S; Harrison, P L; Holmes, T H; Johnstone, N; Jones, G P; Jordan, A; Kendrick, A J; Klein, C J; Little, L R; Malcolm, H A; Morris, D; Possingham, H P; Prescott, J; Pressey, R L; Skilleter, G A; Simpson, C; Waples, K; Wilson, D; Williamson, D H

    2013-01-15

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a primary policy instrument for managing and protecting coral reefs. Successful MPAs ultimately depend on knowledge-based decision making, where scientific research is integrated into management actions. Fourteen coral reef MPA managers and sixteen academics from eleven research, state and federal government institutions each outlined at least five pertinent research needs for improving the management of MPAs situated in Australian coral reefs. From this list of 173 key questions, we asked members of each group to rank questions in order of urgency, redundancy and importance, which allowed us to explore the extent of perceptional mismatch and overlap among the two groups. Our results suggest the mismatch among MPA managers and academics is small, with no significant difference among the groups in terms of their respective research interests, or the type of questions they pose. However, managers prioritised spatial management and monitoring as research themes, whilst academics identified climate change, resilience, spatial management, fishing and connectivity as the most important topics. Ranking of the posed questions by the two groups was also similar, although managers were less confident about the achievability of the posed research questions and whether questions represented a knowledge gap. We conclude that improved collaboration and knowledge transfer among management and academic groups can be used to achieve similar objectives and enhance the knowledge-based management of MPAs. PMID:23220604

  18. Measuring benefits of protected area management: trends across realms and research gaps for freshwater systems.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vanessa M; Setterfield, Samantha A; Douglas, Michael M; Kennard, Mark J; Ferdinands, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Protected areas remain a cornerstone for global conservation. However, their effectiveness at halting biodiversity decline is not fully understood. Studies of protected area benefits have largely focused on measuring their impact on halting deforestation and have neglected to measure the impacts of protected areas on other threats. Evaluations that measure the impact of protected area management require more complex evaluation designs and datasets. This is the case across realms (terrestrial, freshwater, marine), but measuring the impact of protected area management in freshwater systems may be even more difficult owing to the high level of connectivity and potential for threat propagation within systems (e.g. downstream flow of pollution). We review the potential barriers to conducting impact evaluation for protected area management in freshwater systems. We contrast the barriers identified for freshwater systems to terrestrial systems and discuss potential measurable outcomes and confounders associated with protected area management across the two realms. We identify key research gaps in conducting impact evaluation in freshwater systems that relate to three of their major characteristics: variability, connectivity and time lags in outcomes. Lastly, we use Kakadu National Park world heritage area, the largest national park in Australia, as a case study to illustrate the challenges of measuring impacts of protected area management programmes for environmental outcomes in freshwater systems. PMID:26460127

  19. Philippine protected areas are not meeting the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness requirements of Aichi Target 11.

    PubMed

    Mallari, Neil Aldrin D; Collar, Nigel J; McGowan, Philip J K; Marsden, Stuart J

    2016-04-01

    Aichi Target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity urges, inter alia, that nations protect at least 17 % of their land, and that protection is effective and targets areas of importance for biodiversity. Five years before reporting on Aichi targets is due, we assessed the Philippines' current protected area system for biodiversity coverage, appropriateness of management regimes and capacity to deliver protection. Although protected estate already covers 11 % of the Philippines' land area, 64 % of its key biodiversity areas (KBAs) remain unprotected. Few protected areas have appropriate management and governance infrastructures, funding streams, management plans and capacity, and a serious mismatch exists between protected area land zonation regimes and conservation needs of key species. For the Philippines to meet the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness elements of Aichi Target 11, protected area and KBA boundaries should be aligned, management systems reformed to pursue biodiversity-led targets and effective management capacity created. PMID:26666956

  20. Development and application of an ecosystem management approach for protected natural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajeunesse, Denyse; Domon, Gérald; Drapeau, Pierre; Cogliastro, Alain; Bouchard, André

    1995-07-01

    Preservation of small natural areas is not in itself a sufficient measure to maintain the integrity of the ecosystems for which they were initially set aside. Intense pressure from recreational use is just one of the many human-caused stresses that may degrade natural areas. Therefore, land-use planning and management from an ecological perspective is necessary to assess, ensure, and in some cases increase, the ecological integrity of protected natural areas. An ecosystem management approach for small protected natural areas with high recreational use is presented, based on three interrelated components: an ecological evaluation procedure of ecosystems, the implementation of management interventions on ecosystems, and the development of a monitoring scheme of ecosystem components. The ecological evaluation procedure combines two concepts: the biotic value of vegetation and wildlife and the abiotic fragility of the soils. This combined evaluation process results in the creation of a sensitivity map that can be used as a management tool for planners and managers. Management interventions, the second component of the management approach, are derived from concepts of ecological succession. Intentional human interventions are used to maintain the ecological integrity of ecosystems or in some cases to restore degraded sites. For the third component, only the basic principles of the monitoring program will be discussed. A pilot project in one of the Montreal urban community protected areas is presented to illustrate aspects of the proposed ecosystem management approach.

  1. Implications of Spatial Data Variations for Protected Areas Management: An Example from East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems and remote sensing technologies have become an important tool for visualizing conservation management and developing solutions to problems associated with conservation. When multiple organizations separately develop spatial data representations of protected areas, implicit error arises due to variation between data sets. We used boundary data produced by three conservation organizations (International Union for the Conservation of Nature, World Resource Institute, and Uganda Wildlife Authority), for seven Ugandan parks, to study variation in the size represented and the location of boundaries. We found variation in the extent of overlapping total area encompassed by the three data sources, ranging from miniscule (0.4 %) differences to quite large ones (9.0 %). To underscore how protected area boundary discrepancies may have implications to protected area management, we used a landcover classification, defining crop, shrub, forest, savanna, and grassland. The total area in the different landcover classes varied most in smaller protected areas (those less than 329 km2), with forest and cropland area estimates varying up to 65 %. The discrepancies introduced by boundary errors could, in this hypothetical case, generate erroneous findings and could have a significant impact on conservation, such as local-scale management for encroachment and larger-scale assessments of deforestation.

  2. Predicting the presence and cover of management relevant invasive plant species on protected areas.

    PubMed

    Iacona, Gwenllian; Price, Franklin D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-01-15

    Invasive species are a management concern on protected areas worldwide. Conservation managers need to predict infestations of invasive plants they aim to treat if they want to plan for long term management. Many studies predict the presence of invasive species, but predictions of cover are more relevant for management. Here we examined how predictors of invasive plant presence and cover differ across species that vary in their management priority. To do so, we used data on management effort and cover of invasive plant species on central Florida protected areas. Using a zero-inflated multiple regression framework, we showed that protected area features can predict the presence and cover of the focal species but the same features rarely explain both. There were several predictors of either presence or cover that were important across multiple species. Protected areas with three days of frost per year or fewer were more likely to have occurrences of four of the six focal species. When invasive plants were present, their proportional cover was greater on small preserves for all species, and varied with surrounding household density for three species. None of the predictive features were clearly related to whether species were prioritized for management or not. Our results suggest that predictors of cover and presence can differ both within and across species but do not covary with management priority. We conclude that conservation managers need to select predictors of invasion with care as species identity can determine the relationship between predictors of presence and the more management relevant predictors of cover. PMID:26599567

  3. Climate change, coral reef ecosystems, and management options for marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Keller, Brian D; Gleason, Daniel F; McLeod, Elizabeth; Woodley, Christa M; Airamé, Satie; Causey, Billy D; Friedlander, Alan M; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Johnson, Johanna E; Miller, Steven L; Steneck, Robert S

    2009-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) provide place-based management of marine ecosystems through various degrees and types of protective actions. Habitats such as coral reefs are especially susceptible to degradation resulting from climate change, as evidenced by mass bleaching events over the past two decades. Marine ecosystems are being altered by direct effects of climate change including ocean warming, ocean acidification, rising sea level, changing circulation patterns, increasing severity of storms, and changing freshwater influxes. As impacts of climate change strengthen they may exacerbate effects of existing stressors and require new or modified management approaches; MPA networks are generally accepted as an improvement over individual MPAs to address multiple threats to the marine environment. While MPA networks are considered a potentially effective management approach for conserving marine biodiversity, they should be established in conjunction with other management strategies, such as fisheries regulations and reductions of nutrients and other forms of land-based pollution. Information about interactions between climate change and more "traditional" stressors is limited. MPA managers are faced with high levels of uncertainty about likely outcomes of management actions because climate change impacts have strong interactions with existing stressors, such as land-based sources of pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing practices, invasive species, and diseases. Management options include ameliorating existing stressors, protecting potentially resilient areas, developing networks of MPAs, and integrating climate change into MPA planning, management, and evaluation. PMID:19636605

  4. Climate Change, Coral Reef Ecosystems, and Management Options for Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brian D.; Gleason, Daniel F.; McLeod, Elizabeth; Woodley, Christa M.; Airamé, Satie; Causey, Billy D.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Johnson, Johanna E.; Miller, Steven L.; Steneck, Robert S.

    2009-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) provide place-based management of marine ecosystems through various degrees and types of protective actions. Habitats such as coral reefs are especially susceptible to degradation resulting from climate change, as evidenced by mass bleaching events over the past two decades. Marine ecosystems are being altered by direct effects of climate change including ocean warming, ocean acidification, rising sea level, changing circulation patterns, increasing severity of storms, and changing freshwater influxes. As impacts of climate change strengthen they may exacerbate effects of existing stressors and require new or modified management approaches; MPA networks are generally accepted as an improvement over individual MPAs to address multiple threats to the marine environment. While MPA networks are considered a potentially effective management approach for conserving marine biodiversity, they should be established in conjunction with other management strategies, such as fisheries regulations and reductions of nutrients and other forms of land-based pollution. Information about interactions between climate change and more “traditional” stressors is limited. MPA managers are faced with high levels of uncertainty about likely outcomes of management actions because climate change impacts have strong interactions with existing stressors, such as land-based sources of pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing practices, invasive species, and diseases. Management options include ameliorating existing stressors, protecting potentially resilient areas, developing networks of MPAs, and integrating climate change into MPA planning, management, and evaluation.

  5. Interactions Between Spatially Explicit Conservation and Management Measures: Implications for the Governance of Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárcamo, P. Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F.

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

  6. Interactions between spatially explicit conservation and management measures: implications for the governance of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, P Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas. PMID:24091586

  7. Conflict in Protected Areas: Who Says Co-Management Does Not Work?

    PubMed Central

    Arts, Bas; Vranckx, An; Léon-Sicard, Tomas; Van Damme, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource-related conflicts can be extremely destructive and undermine environmental protection. Since the 1990s co-management schemes, whereby the management of resources is shared by public and/or private sector stakeholders, have been a main strategy for reducing these conflicts worldwide. Despite initial high hopes, in recent years co-management has been perceived as falling short of expectations. However, systematic assessments of its role in conflict prevention or mitigation are non-existent. Interviews with 584 residents from ten protected areas in Colombia revealed that co-management can be successful in reducing conflict at grassroots level, as long as some critical enabling conditions, such as effective participation in the co-management process, are fulfilled not only on paper but also by praxis. We hope these findings will re-incentivize global efforts to make co-management work in protected areas and other common pool resource contexts, such as fisheries, agriculture, forestry and water management. PMID:26714036

  8. A tool for protected area management: multivariate control charts ‘cope’ with rare variable communities

    PubMed Central

    Stringell, Thomas B; Bamber, Roger N; Burton, Mark; Lindenbaum, Charles; Skates, Lucie R; Sanderson, William G

    2013-01-01

    Performance assessment, impact detection, and the assessment of regulatory compliance are common scientific problems for the management of protected areas. Some habitats in protected areas, however, are rare and/or variable and are not often selected for study by ecologists because they preclude comparison with controls and high community variability makes meaningful change detection difficult. Shallow coastal saline lagoons are habitats that experience comparatively high levels of stress due to high physical variability. Lagoons are rare, declining habitats found in coastal regions throughout Europe (and elsewhere) where they are identified as one of the habitats most in need of protected area management. The infauna in the sediments of 25 lagoons were sampled. Temporal and spatial variation in three of these [protected] lagoons was investigated further over 5 years. In a multivariate analysis of community structure similarities were found between some lagoons, but in other cases communities were unique or specific to only two sites. The protected lagoons with these unique/specific communities showed significant temporal and spatial variation, yet none of the changes observed were attributed to human impacts and were interpreted as inherent variability. Multivariate control charts can operate without experimental controls and were used to assess community changes within the context of ‘normal’ lagoon variability. The aim of control chart analysis is to characterize background variability in a parameter and identify when a new observation deviates more than expected. In only 1 year was variability more than expected and corresponded with the coldest December in over 100 years. Multivariate control charts are likely to have wide application in the management of protected areas and other natural systems where variability and/or rarity preclude conventional analytical and experimental approaches but where assessments of condition, impact or regulatory compliance

  9. Assessment of the effectiveness of protected areas management in Iran: case study in Khojir National Park.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F; Koyama, Lina

    2013-08-01

    The requirement to assess the management effectiveness (ME) in protected areas (PAs) is increasing around the world to help improve management and accountability. An evaluation of ME for Khojir National Park (KNP), one of the Iran's oldest PAs, was conducted using a multi-method approach that consisted of structured interviews, open interviews, and site visits. This was the first ME evaluation in Iran. The structured interview was based on the management effectiveness tracking tool methodology. KNP received an average score of 43 %, which is lower than the global average, illustrating that its general management was in the low-intermediate level. The indices of legal status, resource inventory, planning for land and water use, regulations, and objectives received the highest average scores, whereas education and awareness, community co-management, regular work plan, boundary demarcation, visitor facilities, budget sources, staff training, protection systems, and management plan received the lowest ones. The management system of KNP was generally established, but many problems of the management still need to be resolved. To improve ME, some countermeasures should be taken, such as increasing funding, strengthening capacity building, planning, and adaptive management, and implementing community participation. PMID:23665757

  10. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Protected Areas Management in Iran: Case Study in Khojir National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F.; Koyama, Lina

    2013-08-01

    The requirement to assess the management effectiveness (ME) in protected areas (PAs) is increasing around the world to help improve management and accountability. An evaluation of ME for Khojir National Park (KNP), one of the Iran's oldest PAs, was conducted using a multi-method approach that consisted of structured interviews, open interviews, and site visits. This was the first ME evaluation in Iran. The structured interview was based on the management effectiveness tracking tool methodology. KNP received an average score of 43 %, which is lower than the global average, illustrating that its general management was in the low-intermediate level. The indices of legal status, resource inventory, planning for land and water use, regulations, and objectives received the highest average scores, whereas education and awareness, community co-management, regular work plan, boundary demarcation, visitor facilities, budget sources, staff training, protection systems, and management plan received the lowest ones. The management system of KNP was generally established, but many problems of the management still need to be resolved. To improve ME, some countermeasures should be taken, such as increasing funding, strengthening capacity building, planning, and adaptive management, and implementing community participation.

  11. Congruence Among Encounters, Norms, Crowding, and Management in a Marine Protected Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Caitlin M.; Needham, Mark D.; Szuster, Brian W.

    2011-09-01

    Over the past few decades, recreation and tourism use has increased at many marine protected areas, generating concerns about impacts of this increasing use on experiences and conditions at these areas (e.g., crowding, conflict). This article uses data from Molokini Shoal Marine Life Conservation District in Hawai'i to examine: (a) reported encounters, crowding, normative tolerances for various use levels, and support of use related management strategies at this site; and (b) whether users who encounter higher use levels than their norms feel more crowded and are more supportive of restrictive management strategies. Data were obtained from onsite pre-trip and post-trip questionnaires of 712 passengers on commercial snorkel and dive tours visiting this site. Norms were measured with acceptance of 12 photographs depicting levels of boat use. On average, users would accept seeing no more than approximately 16 boats at one time at Molokini and this number was observed on over 20% of trips to the site. Although the majority of users expected to escape crowds at Molokini, 67% felt crowded and up to 79% supported actions that would directly restrict use at this site (e.g., limit number of boats). Users who encountered more boats than their normative tolerance felt more crowded and were more supportive of these management strategies. Findings suggest that this marine protected area is operating over its capacity and management is needed to improve experiences and conditions.

  12. Congruence among encounters, norms, crowding, and management in a marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Bell, Caitlin M; Needham, Mark D; Szuster, Brian W

    2011-09-01

    Over the past few decades, recreation and tourism use has increased at many marine protected areas, generating concerns about impacts of this increasing use on experiences and conditions at these areas (e.g., crowding, conflict). This article uses data from Molokini Shoal Marine Life Conservation District in Hawai'i to examine: (a) reported encounters, crowding, normative tolerances for various use levels, and support of use related management strategies at this site; and (b) whether users who encounter higher use levels than their norms feel more crowded and are more supportive of restrictive management strategies. Data were obtained from onsite pre-trip and post-trip questionnaires of 712 passengers on commercial snorkel and dive tours visiting this site. Norms were measured with acceptance of 12 photographs depicting levels of boat use. On average, users would accept seeing no more than approximately 16 boats at one time at Molokini and this number was observed on over 20% of trips to the site. Although the majority of users expected to escape crowds at Molokini, 67% felt crowded and up to 79% supported actions that would directly restrict use at this site (e.g., limit number of boats). Users who encountered more boats than their normative tolerance felt more crowded and were more supportive of these management strategies. Findings suggest that this marine protected area is operating over its capacity and management is needed to improve experiences and conditions. PMID:21710221

  13. A Proposed Methodology to Assess the Quality of Public Use Management in Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Santos, Maria; Benayas, Javier

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, the goal of nature preservation has faced, almost worldwide, an increase in the number of visitors who are interested in experiencing protected areas resources, landscapes and stories. Spain is a good example of this process. The rapidly increasing numbers of visitors have prompted administrations and managers to offer and develop a broad network of facilities and programs in order to provide these visitors with information, knowledge and recreation. But, are we doing it the best way? This research focuses on developing and applying a new instrument for evaluating the quality of visitor management in parks. Different areas are analyzed with this instrument (78 semi-quantitative indicators): planning and management capacity (planning, funding, human resources), monitoring, reception, information, interpretation, environmental education, training, participation and volunteer's programs. Thus, we attempt to gain a general impression of the development of the existing management model, detecting strengths and weaknesses. Although Spain's National Parks constituted the specific context within which to develop the evaluation instrument, the design thereof is intended to provide a valid, robust and flexible method for application to any system, network or set of protected areas in other countries. This paper presents the instrument developed, some results obtained following its application to Spanish National parks, along with a discussion on the limits and validity thereof.

  14. An assessment of Idaho's wildlife management areas for the protection of wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, J.W.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2005-01-01

    Since 1940, Idaho Department of Fish and Game has developed a network of 31 Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) across the state. This program has been focused mostly on conservation of game species and their habitats. We assessed the contribution of Idaho's WMAs to conservation of all Idaho's wildlife and other aspects of ecological diversity. Predicted occurrences of species' breeding habitats and other data were used to evaluate the representation of wildlife habitat and other ecological conditions. We found 33 of 39 natural land cover types were mapped as occurring in WMAs. WMAs occurred in 10 of 15 of Bailey's ecoregion sections, absent only from two sections that occupy greater than 1% of Idaho. Percent area of WMAs by elevation followed a pattern similar to percent area of Idaho; however, mean elevation for WMAs was lower than for the state and other protected areas in Idaho. We predicted breeding habitat for 98.4% of Idaho's wildlife and all federal and state listed threatened, endangered, or candidate terrestrial vertebrates to occur in at least one WMA. We predicted habitat for 39 species to occur on five or fewer WMAs, and predicted no habitat on WMAs for five species. We found that a system of WMAs established mainly to protect game species potentially conserves many other aspects of Idaho's ecological diversity, may provide habitat for more than 98% of Idaho's wildlife, and complements other protected areas in the state.

  15. Linking management effectiveness indicators to observed effects of protected areas on fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun

    2013-02-01

    Management-effectiveness scores are used widely by donors and implementers of conservation projects to prioritize, track, and evaluate investments in protected areas. However, there is little evidence that these scores actually reflect the capacity of protected areas to deliver conservation outcomes. We examined the relation between indicators of management effectiveness in protected areas and the effectiveness of protected areas in reducing fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest. We used data collected with the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) scorecard, adopted by some of the world's largest conservation organizations to track management characteristics believed to be crucial for protected-area effectiveness. We used the occurrence of forest fires from 2000 through 2010 as a measure of the effect of protected areas on undesired land-cover change in the Amazon basin. We used matching to compare the estimated effect of protected areas with low versus high METT scores on fire occurrence. We also estimated effects of individual protected areas on fire occurrence and explored the relation between these effects and METT scores. The relations between METT scores and effects of protected areas on fire occurrence were weak. Protected areas with higher METT scores in 2005 did not seem to have performed better than protected areas with lower METT scores at reducing fire occurrence over the last 10 years. Further research into the relations between management-effectiveness indicators and conservation outcomes in protected areas seems necessary, and our results show that the careful application of matching methods can be a suitable method for that purpose. PMID:23009052

  16. A comparison of marine protected areas and alternative approaches to coral-reef management.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, Timothy R; Marnane, Michael J; Cinner, Joshua E; Kiene, William E

    2006-07-25

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely adopted as the leading tool for coral-reef conservation, but resource users seldom accept them , and many have failed to produce tangible conservation benefits [3]. Few studies have objectively and simultaneously examined the types of MPAs that are most effective in conserving reef resources and the socioeconomic factors responsible for effective conservation [4-6]. We simultaneously explored measures of reef and socioeconomic conservation success at four national parks, four comanaged reserves, and three traditionally managed areas in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Underwater visual censuses of key ecological indicators [7, 8] revealed that the average size and biomass of fishes were higher in all areas under traditional management and at one comanaged reserve when compared to nearby unmanaged areas. Socioeconomic assessments [6, 9, 10] revealed that this "effective conservation" was positively related to compliance, visibility of the reserve, and length of time the management had been in place but negatively related to market integration, wealth, and village population size. We suggest that in cases where the resources for enforcement are lacking, management regimes that are designed to meet community goals can achieve greater compliance and subsequent conservation success than regimes designed primarily for biodiversity conservation. PMID:16860739

  17. Do Global Indicators of Protected Area Management Effectiveness Make Sense? A Case Study from Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Brandon P.; Shestackova, Elena

    2015-07-01

    Driven by the underperformance of many protected areas (PAs), protected area management effectiveness (PAME) evaluations are increasingly being conducted to assess PAs in meeting specified objectives. A number of PAME tools have been developed, many of which are based on the IUCN-WCPA framework constituting six evaluative elements (context, planning, input, process, output, and outcomes). In a quest for a more universal tool and using this framework, Leverington et al. (Environ Manag 46(5):685-698, 2010) developed a common scale and list of 33 headline indicators, purported to be representative across a wide range of management effectiveness evaluation tools. The usefulness of such composite tools and the relative weighting of indicators are still being debated. Here, we utilize these headline indicators as a benchmark to assess PAME in 37 PAs of four types in Krasnoyarsk Kray, Russia, and compare these with global results. Moreover, we review the usefulness of these indicators in the Krasnoyarsk context based on the opinions of local PA management teams. Overall, uncorrected management scores for studied PAs were slightly better (mean = 5.66 ± 0.875) than the global average, with output and outcome elements being strongest, and planning and process scores lower. Score variability is influenced by PA size, location, and type. When scores were corrected based on indicator importance, the mean score significantly increased to 5.75 ± 0.858. We emphasize idiosyncrasies of Russian PA management, including the relative absence of formal management plans and limited efforts toward local community beneficiation, and how such contextual differences may confound PAME scores when indicator weights are treated equal.

  18. Entangling the complexity of protected area management: the case of Wolong Biosphere Reserve, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bojie; Wang, Kelin; Lu, Yihe; Liu, Shiliang; Keming, Ma; Chen, Liding; Liu, Guohua

    2004-06-01

    Protected Area (PA) management is a complex issue that requires the consideration of many factors and relationships. A conceptual framework for the analysis of biodiversity change, local human communities, and PA management was put forward, accordingly. Under the framework, we investigated the economic status, livelihood activities, biodiversity use and perceptions of local communities, and the land use history in Wolong Biosphere Reserve, southwestern China through household survey and document review in order to gain a better understanding of the complexity of PA management. According to the land use history, the preservation of agro-biodiversity, and the raising of productivity, ecological rehabilitation and the regulation of the human pressures are indispensable in the management of the reserve. Livelihood activities and the perceptions of local communities were largely determined by the socioeconomic background, which has important implications in solving the conflicts or incompatibilities in the reserve. In Wolong Biosphere Reserve, it is beneficial to support local farmers in solving their socioeconomic problems such as the overabundance of labor force and the lack of livelihood alternatives. Without this, there will be scarcely any effective biodiversity conservation and successful reserve management in the long term. PMID:15517679

  19. Linking geodiversity and biodiversity in protected area management: developing a more integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, John

    2014-05-01

    The ecosystem approach is now a key driver for conservation policy globally. By definition an ecosystem includes both abiotic and biotic components interacting as a functional unit. However, the role of geodiversity generally remains poorly recognised both at a policy level and in the practical management of protected areas. This presentation examines key links between geodiversity and biodiversity, and demonstrates the benefits of better integration both to enhance conservation of geoheritage and the role of geodiversity in ecosystem management. Geodiversity contributes essentially to most of the ecosystem services recognised in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. It underpins biodiversity from micro- to macro-scales through the influence of factors such as lithology, topography, sediments, soils and hydrology. Most habitats and species depend on the abiotic 'stage' on which they exist. Active geological processes also help to determine the heterogeneity of the physical environment, creating mosaics of landforms, surface deposits and dynamic environments that support a range of biodiversity. In the face of climate change and other human pressures, maintaining and enhancing geodiversity should help to 'future-proof' biodiversity in the longer term. Learning from the past through palaeoenvironmental records can also enable better understanding of ecosystem dynamics. As well as recognising the value of geoheritage in its own right, a more integrated approach to conservation in protected areas would benefit both biodiversity and geodiversity, incorporating the concept of 'conserving the stage' (Anderson & Ferree, 2010) and the maintenance of natural processes. As part of developing the scientific framework of geodiversity, this requires geoscience engagement in the ecosystem approach, including evidence-based interdisciplinary research on the functional links between geodiversity and biodiversity across a range of spatial and temporal scales both to inform policy and

  20. Pathways from marine protected area design and management to ecological success

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using an international dataset compiled from 121 sites in 87 marine protected areas (MPAs) globally (Edgar et al., 2014), I assessed how various configurations of design and management conditions affected MPA ecological performance, measured in terms of fish species richness and biomass. The set-theoretic approach used Boolean algebra to identify pathways that combined up to five ‘NEOLI’ (No-take, Enforced, Old, Large, Isolated) conditions and that were sufficient for achieving positive, and negative, ecological outcomes. Ecological isolation was overwhelming the most important condition affecting ecological outcomes but Old and Large were also conditions important for achieving high levels of biomass among large fishes (jacks, groupers, sharks). Solution coverage was uniformly low (<0.35) for all models of positive ecological performance suggesting the presence of numerous other conditions and pathways to ecological success that did not involve the NEOLI conditions. Solution coverage was higher (>0.50) for negative results (i.e., the absence of high biomass) among the large commercially-exploited fishes, implying asymmetries in how MPAs may rebuild populations on the one hand and, on the other, protect against further decline. The results revealed complex interactions involving MPA design, implementation, and management conditions that affect MPA ecological performance. In general terms, the presence of no-take regulations and effective enforcement were insufficient to ensure MPA effectiveness on their own. Given the central role of ecological isolation in securing ecological benefits from MPAs, site selection in the design phase appears critical for success. PMID:26644975

  1. Pathways from marine protected area design and management to ecological success.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Murray A

    2015-01-01

    Using an international dataset compiled from 121 sites in 87 marine protected areas (MPAs) globally (Edgar et al., 2014), I assessed how various configurations of design and management conditions affected MPA ecological performance, measured in terms of fish species richness and biomass. The set-theoretic approach used Boolean algebra to identify pathways that combined up to five 'NEOLI' ( No-take, Enforced, Old, Large, Isolated) conditions and that were sufficient for achieving positive, and negative, ecological outcomes. Ecological isolation was overwhelming the most important condition affecting ecological outcomes but Old and Large were also conditions important for achieving high levels of biomass among large fishes (jacks, groupers, sharks). Solution coverage was uniformly low (<0.35) for all models of positive ecological performance suggesting the presence of numerous other conditions and pathways to ecological success that did not involve the NEOLI conditions. Solution coverage was higher (>0.50) for negative results (i.e., the absence of high biomass) among the large commercially-exploited fishes, implying asymmetries in how MPAs may rebuild populations on the one hand and, on the other, protect against further decline. The results revealed complex interactions involving MPA design, implementation, and management conditions that affect MPA ecological performance. In general terms, the presence of no-take regulations and effective enforcement were insufficient to ensure MPA effectiveness on their own. Given the central role of ecological isolation in securing ecological benefits from MPAs, site selection in the design phase appears critical for success. PMID:26644975

  2. Engaging the recreational angling community to implement and manage aquatic protected areas.

    PubMed

    Danylchuk, Andy J; Cooke, Steven J

    2011-06-01

    Recreational angling is a popular leisure activity, the quality of which is greatly dependent on fish abundance and well-functioning aquatic ecosystems. Aquatic protected areas (APAs) are used to help maintain and even restore aquatic systems and their associated biota, including fish species that are popular with recreational anglers. Paradoxically, the use of APAs has been a source of much contention and conflict between members of the recreational angling community and those interested in or mandated to protect aquatic resources on the basis of the interests of multiple stakeholder groups. The angling community is concerned about the loss of fishing opportunities and effectiveness of APAs. Although it is still unclear whether establishment of APAs alone can effectively protect aquatic resources, actively including the recreational angling community in the design, implementation, and management of APAs will help ensure the values of this rather substantial user group are incorporated into aquatic conservation strategies. Conversely, the probability of increasing the sustainability of recreational angling and related economies will be greatest if recreational angler groups remain open minded to both short-term and long-term goals of fisheries conservation strategies, including the use of APAs. PMID:21175844

  3. Multiple Carrying Capacities from a management-oriented perspective to operationalize sustainable tourism in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Manfredi, Emanuela C; Caroli, Paolo; Thakuri, Sudeep; Tartari, Gianni

    2013-10-15

    This article describes how the concept of Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) has shifted from a uni-dimensional approach to incorporating environmental, social and political aspects. This shift is demonstrated by a study of a large, internationally popular protected area used by trekkers, the Mt. Everest Region, where qualitative data collected from visitors was combined with environmental modeling using a participatory framework. Tourist satisfaction showed positive margins for further tourist industry expansion, but current environmental conditions limit growth and further development. Space and time dimensions were also considered. We observed that the limits on growth and further development can be manipulated, with a certain degree of flexibility, through investments and regulatory measures. We hypothesized that TCC can play an important role in the management of protected areas only if it is viewed as a systematic, strategic policy tool within a planning process rather than as a unique, intrinsic number that is not modifiable. We conclude that to translate the strategy into action using standard measures, further investigation is needed to balance the various TCC components as a part of a decision-making framework that includes the integration of different cultural approaches and policy needs. PMID:23728182

  4. The biodiversity management of a marine protected area with a geographic information system in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huaguo; Huang, Weigen; li, Dongling

    2008-10-01

    This paper focus a very representatively marine protected area (MPA), named Nanji Islands National Natural Reserve. The MPA is built for protecting shellfish, algae and their inhabit environment. The MPA is located at East China Sea with 7.6 square kilometers land area, composed of about 50 islands greater than 500 square meters. The waters support particularly high levels of diversity among shellfish, seaweeds, or macro benthic algae and micro-algae. The purpose of the paper is to develop a GIS to manage the biodiversity and to assess the threat. Base geographic data are collected. More than four times survey data are collected since 1992, including shellfish and macro benthic algae. A spatial database is created to store spatial data including base map, survey site and threat factor distribution. Other biodiversity attribute information is stored in database. Aquiculture, tourism, and human over collection are synthesized as threat factors. The condition of biodiversity and threats to biodiversity at Aquaculture, tourism, environment pollution are analyzed and assessed.

  5. Making parks make a difference: poor alignment of policy, planning and management with protected-area impact, and ways forward

    PubMed Central

    Pressey, Robert L.; Visconti, Piero; Ferraro, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Policy and practice around protected areas are poorly aligned with the basic purpose of protection, which is to make a difference. The difference made by protected areas is their impact, defined in program evaluation as the outcomes arising from protection relative to the counterfactual of no protection or a different form of protection. Although impact evaluation of programs is well established in fields such as medicine, education and development aid, it is rare in nature conservation. We show that the present weak alignment with impact of policy targets and operational objectives for protected areas involves a great risk: targets and objectives can be achieved while making little difference to the conservation of biodiversity. We also review potential ways of increasing the difference made by protected areas, finding a poor evidence base for the use of planning and management ‘levers’ to better achieve impact. We propose a dual strategy for making protected areas more effective in their basic role of saving nature, outlining ways of developing targets and objectives focused on impact while also improving the evidence for effective planning and management. PMID:26460132

  6. Making parks make a difference: poor alignment of policy, planning and management with protected-area impact, and ways forward.

    PubMed

    Pressey, Robert L; Visconti, Piero; Ferraro, Paul J

    2015-11-01

    Policy and practice around protected areas are poorly aligned with the basic purpose of protection, which is to make a difference. The difference made by protected areas is their impact, defined in program evaluation as the outcomes arising from protection relative to the counterfactual of no protection or a different form of protection. Although impact evaluation of programs is well established in fields such as medicine, education and development aid, it is rare in nature conservation. We show that the present weak alignment with impact of policy targets and operational objectives for protected areas involves a great risk: targets and objectives can be achieved while making little difference to the conservation of biodiversity. We also review potential ways of increasing the difference made by protected areas, finding a poor evidence base for the use of planning and management 'levers' to better achieve impact. We propose a dual strategy for making protected areas more effective in their basic role of saving nature, outlining ways of developing targets and objectives focused on impact while also improving the evidence for effective planning and management. PMID:26460132

  7. From Civil Protection Plan to Disaster Management. PETer evolution from GIS tool to multi-area Emergency Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigerio, Simone; Sterlacchini, Simone; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Glade, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    PETer (Protection and Emergency of the Territory) has been developed since 2006 as a tool to manage all the information available to perform a wide range of Civil Protection activities. Based on MapObjects spatial support, it was relied on capacity to manage data from different sources and at different scale, offering practical GIS-tools for a technical and practical use during crisis state. At the first stages of the development, after different assessment, critical on-field analysis and a direct proof on test area, the approach came into sight like a valid database management for the entire dataset, but quite static, not full-blown for every emergency necessity, too complicate and not enough user-friendly, considering people in charge during emergency management, the quick change of state with many parameters involved and also uncertainty, hesitation, confusion or general panic among decision makers. As a second step of research, a more down-to-earth methodology targeted to cope with the aftermath of critical events is presented here. It takes advantage of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Decision Support Systems (DSS), and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to prepare, apply and coordinate Civil Protection plans. The main aim was to set up and manage contingency plans in advance; that is, to identify and prepare people in charge to take action to define the activities to be performed, to be aware of available resources and to optimize the communication system among the people involved, in order to efficiently face a prospective crisis phase. A disaster preparedness plan should anticipate the demands for a disaster relief operation and indicate the most effective way of joining those requirements. Through scientific and technical co-operation between public and private research groups, a new platform was planned and set up, in order to test the aims of the project. The application was based on a cooperative organizational structure by which

  8. The impact of stormwater treatment areas and agricultural best management practices on water quality in the Everglades Protection Area.

    PubMed

    Entry, James A; Gottlieb, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Half of the original Everglades system has been lost to drainage and development. What remains is included within the boundaries of the Everglades Protection Area (EPA), comprised of three Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) and Everglades National Park (Park). Inflows to the EPA contain elevated nutrient concentrations. Best management practices (BMPs) were implemented and six large wetlands called stormwater treatment areas (STAs) were constructed to improve water quality. We analyzed water quality in the WCAs and Park and performed an economic analysis of the STAs to remove nutrients from EPA inflows. In general, nutrient concentrations in all WCAs were higher during the pre-STA period than after the STAs became operational. In WCA2 and the Park, total phosphorus (TP) trends showed more negative slopes prior, as compared to after, the STAs became operational. These results suggest that BMPs lead to large initial decreases in nutrient export resulting in improved downstream water quality. A preliminary economic analysis shows that operation and management of the STAs are complicated and cost intensive. Comparing the cost of phosphorus (P) removal from water entering the EPA using BMPs and STAs may not currently be viable. BMPs prevent P from being applied to, or leaving from agricultural fields while STAs remove P from stormwater. We expect nutrient concentrations in water flowing into and out of the STAs to decline as both BMPs and STAs become more effective. We suggest an economic analysis of BMPs, STAs, and other potential approaches to determine the most cost-effective methods to reduce nutrient concentrations and related stressors affecting the Everglades. PMID:24081816

  9. Science-Driven Management of Protected Areas: A Philippine Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallari, Neil Aldrin D.; Collar, Nigel J.; McGowan, Philip J. K.; Marsden, Stuart J.

    2013-06-01

    The lack of scientific baseline information hinders appropriate design and management of protected areas. To illustrate the value of science to management, we consider five scenarios for the 202.0 km² Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park, Philippines: (1) closure to human activities, (2) and (3) two levels of increase in unplanned human activities, (4) creation of a forest corridor and (5) additional allocation of land for permanent or shifting agriculture. We then use habitat-specific bird density estimates to simulate the net effect of each scenario on 18 focal bird populations. Closure has significant benefits—populations of five species are predicted to increase by >50 % and nine by >25 %, but two secondary forest flycatchers, including the endemic and `Vulnerable' Palawan flycatcher, decline dramatically, while the creation of a 4.0 km² forest corridor yields average increases across species of 2 ± 4 % (SD). In contrast, heavier unplanned park usage produces declines in all but a few species, while the negative effects of an extra 2.0 km² of shifting cultivation are 3-5 times higher than for a similar area of permanent agriculture and affect species whose densities are highest in primary habitats. Relatively small changes within the park, especially those associated with agricultural expansion, has serious predicted implications for local bird populations. Our models do not take into account the full complexities of bird ecology at a site, but they do provide park managers with an evidence base from which to make better decisions relating to biodiversity conservation obligations which their parks are intended to meet.

  10. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management.

    PubMed

    Venturini, S; Massa, F; Castellano, M; Costa, S; Lavarello, I; Olivari, E; Povero, P

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters. PMID:26289349

  11. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, S.; Massa, F.; Castellano, M.; Costa, S.; Lavarello, I.; Olivari, E.; Povero, P.

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters.

  12. Changing Climate, Challenging Choices: Identifying and Evaluating Climate Change Adaptation Options for Protected Areas Management in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Christopher J.; Scott, Daniel J.

    2011-10-01

    Climate change will pose increasingly significant challenges to managers of parks and other forms of protected areas around the world. Over the past two decades, numerous scientific publications have identified potential adaptations, but their suitability from legal, policy, financial, internal capacity, and other management perspectives has not been evaluated for any protected area agency or organization. In this study, a panel of protected area experts applied a Policy Delphi methodology to identify and evaluate climate change adaptation options across the primary management areas of a protected area agency in Canada. The panel identified and evaluated one hundred and sixty five (165) adaptation options for their perceived desirability and feasibility. While the results revealed a high level of agreement with respect to the desirability of adaptation options and a moderate level of capacity pertaining to policy formulation and management direction, a perception of low capacity for implementation in most other program areas was identified. A separate panel of senior park agency decision-makers used a multiple criterion decision-facilitation matrix to further evaluate the institutional feasibility of the 56 most desirable adaptation options identified by the initial expert panel and to prioritize them for consideration in a climate change action plan. Critically, only two of the 56 adaptation options evaluated by senior decision-makers were deemed definitely implementable, due largely to fiscal and internal capacity limitations. These challenges are common to protected area agencies in developed countries and pervade those in developing countries, revealing that limited adaptive capacity represents a substantive barrier to biodiversity conservation and other protected area management objectives in an era of rapid climate change.

  13. Using integrated research and interdisciplinary science: Potential benefits and challenges to managers of parks and protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Charles, III; Powell, Robert B.; Machlis, Gary; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; van Riper, Carena J.; von Ruschkowski, Eick; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Galipeau, Russell E.

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to build a case for utilizing interdisciplinary science to enhance the management of parks and protected areas. We suggest that interdisciplinary science is necessary for dealing with the complex issues of contemporary resource management, and that using the best available integrated scientific information be embraced and supported at all levels of agencies that manage parks and protected areas. It will take the commitment of park managers, scientists, and agency leaders to achieve the goal of implementing the results of interdisciplinary science into park management. Although such calls go back at least several decades, today interdisciplinary science is sporadically being promoted as necessary for supporting effective protected area management(e.g., Machlis et al. 1981; Kelleher and Kenchington 1991). Despite this history, rarely has "interdisciplinary science" been defined, its importance explained, or guidance provided on how to translate and then implement the associated research results into management actions (Tress et al. 2006; Margles et al. 2010). With the extremely complex issues that now confront protected areas (e.g., climate change influences, extinctions and loss of biodiversity, human and wildlife demographic changes, and unprecedented human population growth) information from more than one scientific discipline will need to be brought to bear in order to achieve sustained management solutions that resonate with stakeholders (Ostrom 2009). Although interdisciplinary science is not the solution to all problems, we argue that interdisciplinary research is an evolving and widely supported best practice. In the case of park and protected area management, interdisciplinary science is being driven by the increasing recognition of the complexity and interconnectedness of human and natural systems, and the notion that addressing many problems can be more rapidly advanced through interdisciplinary study and analysis.

  14. Protected areas and poverty

    PubMed Central

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  15. Adapative Management of Protected Areas under Land Use and Climate Changes in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisurat, Yongyut; Kreft, Holger; Klaus, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the potential impacts of future land use and climate change scenarios on mammal distributions in northern Thailand and to priority new protected areas to minimize the predicted impacts. Occurrence data of 17 selected mammals were obtained from a nationwide inventory during 2004-2006. Current and predicted future bioclimatic variables in 2050 were extracted from global datasets. In addition, the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) was used to generate suitable habitats. In addition, the vulnerability matrix and the gravity model were employed to define risk species and additional protected areas, respectively. The results revealed that future climatic conditions would favor species inhabiting dense habitats. However, most species were predicted to lose suitable habitat if the remaining forest cover declines from the current level of 57% to 50% in 2050. When land use and climate changes were combined, the predicted impacts were more severe. Most species would lose suitable habitats and the average shift in distribution was greater than 40%. Centers of current mammal richness and in the future were predicted in large and contiguous protected forests but the percentage of moderate-very high concentrations would decrease marginally in the future. By increasing additional protected areas of 1,861 km2 from the current plan (from 31.4% to 32.5%) in the vulnerable areas, the predicted impacts on mammal distributions will be significantly decreased. This research demonstrates that spatially explicit models and protected areas are effective means to contribute to conservation planning at current and future dynamic threats.

  16. On the protection of "protected areas".

    PubMed

    Joppa, Lucas N; Loarie, Scott R; Pimm, Stuart L

    2008-05-01

    Tropical moist forests contain the majority of terrestrial species. Human actions destroy between 1 and 2 million km(2) of such forests per decade, with concomitant carbon release into the atmosphere. Within these forests, protected areas are the principle defense against forest loss and species extinctions. Four regions-the Amazon, Congo, South American Atlantic Coast, and West Africa-once constituted about half the world's tropical moist forest. We measure forest cover at progressively larger distances inside and outside of protected areas within these four regions, using datasets on protected areas and land-cover. We find important geographical differences. In the Amazon and Congo, protected areas are generally large and retain high levels of forest cover, as do their surroundings. These areas are protected de facto by being inaccessible and will likely remain protected if they continue to be so. Deciding whether they are also protected de jure-that is, whether effective laws also protect them-is statistically difficult, for there are few controls. In contrast, protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest and West Africa show sharp boundaries in forest cover at their edges. This effective protection of forest cover is partially offset by their very small size: little area is deep inside protected area boundaries. Lands outside protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest are unusually fragmented. Finally, we ask whether global databases on protected areas are biased toward highly protected areas and ignore "paper parks." Analysis of a Brazilian database does not support this presumption. PMID:18451028

  17. Use of modeling to protect, plan, and manage water resources in catchment areas.

    PubMed

    Constant, Thibaut; Charrière, Séverine; Lioeddine, Abdejalil; Emsellem, Yves

    2016-08-01

    The degradation of water resources by diffuse pollution, mainly due to nitrate and pesticides, is an important matter for public health. Restoration of the quality of natural water catchments by focusing on their catchment areas is therefore a national priority in France. To consider catchment areas as homogeneous and to expend an equal effort on the entire area inevitably leads to a waste of time and money, and restorative actions may not be as efficient as intended. The variability of the pedological and geological properties of the area is actually an opportunity to invest effort on smaller areas, simply because every action is not equally efficient on every kind of pedological or geological surface. Using this approach, it is possible to invest in a few selected zones that will be efficient in terms of environmental results. The contributive hydraulic areas (CHA) concept is different from that of the catchment area. Because the transport of most of the mobile and persistent pollutants is primarily driven by water circulation, the concept of the CHA is based on the water pathway from the surface of the soil in the catchment area to the well. The method uses a three-dimensional hydrogeological model of surface and groundwater integrated with a geographic information system called Watermodel. The model calculates the contribution (m(3)/h or %) of each point of the soil to the total flow pumped in a well. Application of this model, partially funded by the Seine Normandy Basin Agency, to the catchment of the Dormelles Well in the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in the Orvanne valley, France (catchment area of 23,000 ha at Dormelles, county 77), shows that 95 % of the water pumped at the Dormelles Well comes from only 26 % of the total surface area of the catchment. Consequently, an action plan to protect the water resource will be targeted at the 93 farmers operating in this source area rather than the total number of farmers (250) across the entire 23,000 ha. Another

  18. Conceptual basis for an integrated system for the management of a protected area. Examples from its application in a mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, E; Fungairiño, S G; Barandica, J M; Serrano, J M; Zorrilla, J M; Gómez, T; Zapata, F J; Acosta, F J

    2016-01-15

    Improving the efficiency of management in protected areas is imperative in a generalized context of limited conservation budgets. However, this is overlooked due to flaws in problem definition, general disregard for cost information, and a lack of suitable tools for measuring costs and management quality. This study describes an innovative methodological framework, implemented in the web application SIGEIN, focused on maximizing the quality of management against its costs, establishing an explicit justification for any decision. The tool integrates, with this aim, a procedure for prioritizing management objects according to a conservation value, modified by a functional criterion; a project management module; and a module for management of continuous assessment. This appraisal associates the relevance of the conservation targets, the efficacy of the methods employed, both resource and personnel investments, and the resulting costs. Preliminary results of a prototypical SIGEIN application on the Site of Community Importance Chafarinas Islands are included. PMID:26513322

  19. An integrated and open source GIS environmental management system for a protected area in the south of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, A.; Duarte, L.; Sillero, N.; Gonçalves, J. A.; Fonte, J.; Gonçalves-Seco, L.; Pinheiro da Luz, L. M.; dos Santos Beja, N. M. R.

    2015-10-01

    Herdade da Contenda (HC), located in Moura municipality, Beja district (Alentejo province) in the south of Portugal (southwestern Iberia Peninsula), is a national hunting area with 5270ha. The development of an integrated system that aims to make the management of the natural and cultural heritage resources will be very useful for an effective management of this area. This integrated system should include the physical characterization of the territory, natural conservation, land use and land management themes, as well the cultural heritage resources. This paper presents a new tool for an integrated environmental management system of the HC, which aims to produce maps under a GIS open source environment (QGIS). The application is composed by a single button which opens a window. The window is composed by twelve menus (File, DRASTIC, Forest Fire Risk, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), Bioclimatic Index, Cultural Heritage, Fauna and Flora, Ortofoto, Normalizes Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Land Use Land Cover Cover (LULC) and Help. Several inputs are requires to generate these maps, e.g. DEM, geologic information, soil map, hydraulic conductivity information, LULC map, vulnerability and economic information, NDVI. Six buttons were added to the toolbar which allows to manipulate the information in the map canvas: Zoom in, Zoom out, Pan, Print/Layout and Clear. This integrated and open source GIS environment management system was developed for the HC area, but could be easily adapted to other natural or protected area. Despite the lack of data, the methodology presented fulfills the objectives.

  20. GIS Fuzzy Expert System for the assessment of ecosystems vulnerability to fire in managing Mediterranean natural protected areas.

    PubMed

    Semeraro, Teodoro; Mastroleo, Giovanni; Aretano, Roberta; Facchinetti, Gisella; Zurlini, Giovanni; Petrosillo, Irene

    2016-03-01

    A significant threat to the natural and cultural heritage of Mediterranean natural protected areas (NPAs) is related to uncontrolled fires that can cause potential damages related to the loss or a reduction of ecosystems. The assessment and mapping of the vulnerability to fire can be useful to reduce landscape damages and to establish priority areas where it is necessary to plan measures to reduce the fire vulnerability. To this aim, a methodology based on an interactive computer-based system has been proposed in order to support NPA's management authority for the identification of vulnerable hotspots to fire through the selection of suitable indicators that allow discriminating different levels of sensitivity (e.g. Habitat relevance, Fragmentation, Fire behavior, Ecosystem Services, Vegetation recovery after fire) and stresses (agriculture, tourism, urbanization). In particular, a multi-criteria analysis based on Fuzzy Expert System (FES) integrated in a GIS environment has been developed in order to identify and map potential "hotspots" of fire vulnerability, where fire protection measures can be undertaken in advance. In order to test the effectiveness of this approach, this approach has been applied to the NPA of Torre Guaceto (Apulia Region, southern Italy). The most fire vulnerable areas are the patch of century-old forest characterized by high sensitivity and stress, and the wetlands and century-old olive groves due to their high sensitivity. The GIS fuzzy expert system provides evidence of its potential usefulness for the effective management of natural protected areas and can help conservation managers to plan and intervene in order to mitigate the fire vulnerability in accordance with conservation goals. PMID:26696610

  1. Global protected area impacts

    PubMed Central

    Joppa, Lucas N.; Pfaff, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) dominate conservation efforts. They will probably play a role in future climate policies too, as global payments may reward local reductions of loss of natural land cover. We estimate the impact of PAs on natural land cover within each of 147 countries by comparing outcomes inside PAs with outcomes outside. We use ‘matching’ (or ‘apples to apples’) for land characteristics to control for the fact that PAs very often are non-randomly distributed across their national landscapes. Protection tends towards land that, if unprotected, is less likely than average to be cleared. For 75 per cent of countries, we find protection does reduce conversion of natural land cover. However, for approximately 80 per cent of countries, our global results also confirm (following smaller-scale studies) that controlling for land characteristics reduces estimated impact by half or more. This shows the importance of controlling for at least a few key land characteristics. Further, we show that impacts vary considerably within a country (i.e. across a landscape): protection achieves less on lands far from roads, far from cities and on steeper slopes. Thus, while planners are, of course, constrained by other conservation priorities and costs, they could target higher impacts to earn more global payments for reduced deforestation. PMID:21084351

  2. Geo-hydrological risk management for civil protection purposes in the urban area of Genoa (Liguria, NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandolini, P.; Cevasco, A.; Firpo, M.; Robbiano, A.; Sacchini, A.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past century the municipal area of Genoa has been affected by recurring flood events and several landslides that have caused severe damage to urbanized areas on both the coastal-fluvial plains and surrounding slopes, sometimes involving human casualties. The analysis of past events' annual distribution indicates that these phenomena have occurred with rising frequency in the last seventy years, following the main land use change due to the development of harbour, industrial, and residential areas, which has strongly impacted geomorphological processes. Consequently, in Genoa, civil protection activities are taking on an increasing importance for geo-hydrological risk mitigation. The current legislative framework assigns a key role in disaster prevention to municipalities, emergency plan development, as well as response action coordination in disaster situations. In view of the geomorphological and environmental complexity of the study area and referring to environmental laws, geo-hydrological risk mitigation strategies adopted by local administrators for civil protection purposes are presented as examples of current land/urban management related to geo-hydrological hazards. Adopted measures have proven to be effective on several levels (planning, management, structure, understanding, and publication) in different cases. Nevertheless, the last flooding event (4 November 2011) has shown that communication and public information concerning the perception of geo-hydrological hazard can be improved.

  3. Effectiveness of marine protected areas in managing the drivers of ecosystem change: a case of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Machumu, Milali Ernest; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2013-04-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park's legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park's sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed. PMID:23307198

  4. Woodland Dynamics at the Northern Range Periphery: A Challenge for Protected Area Management in a Changing World

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Scott L.; Hansen, Andrew J.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Garrett, Lisa K.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Dicus, Gordon H.; Lonneker, Meghan K.

    2013-01-01

    Managers of protected natural areas increasingly are confronted with novel ecological conditions and conflicting objectives to preserve the past while fostering resilience for an uncertain future. This dilemma may be pronounced at range peripheries where rates of change are accelerated and ongoing invasions often are perceived as threats to local ecosystems. We provide an example from City of Rocks National Reserve (CIRO) in southern Idaho, positioned at the northern range periphery of pinyon-juniper (P-J) woodland. Reserve managers are concerned about P-J woodland encroachment into adjacent sagebrush steppe, but the rates and biophysical variability of encroachment are not well documented and management options are not well understood. We quantified the rate and extent of woodland change between 1950 and 2009 based on a random sample of aerial photo interpretation plots distributed across biophysical gradients. Our study revealed that woodland cover remained at approximately 20% of the study area over the 59-year period. In the absence of disturbance, P-J woodlands exhibited the highest rate of increase among vegetation types at 0.37% yr−1. Overall, late-successional P-J stands increased in area by over 100% through the process of densification (infilling). However, wildfires during the period resulted in a net decrease of woody evergreen vegetation, particularly among early and mid-successional P-J stands. Elevated wildfire risk associated with expanding novel annual grasslands and drought is likely to continue to be a fundamental driver of change in CIRO woodlands. Because P-J woodlands contribute to regional biodiversity and may contract at trailing edges with global warming, CIRO may become important to P-J woodland conservation in the future. Our study provides a widely applicable toolset for assessing woodland ecotone dynamics that can help managers reconcile the competing demands to maintain historical fidelity and contribute meaningfully to the U

  5. Woodland dynamics at the northern range periphery: a challenge for protected area management in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Powell, Scott L; Hansen, Andrew J; Rodhouse, Thomas J; Garrett, Lisa K; Betancourt, Julio L; Dicus, Gordon H; Lonneker, Meghan K

    2013-01-01

    Managers of protected natural areas increasingly are confronted with novel ecological conditions and conflicting objectives to preserve the past while fostering resilience for an uncertain future. This dilemma may be pronounced at range peripheries where rates of change are accelerated and ongoing invasions often are perceived as threats to local ecosystems. We provide an example from City of Rocks National Reserve (CIRO) in southern Idaho, positioned at the northern range periphery of pinyon-juniper (P-J) woodland. Reserve managers are concerned about P-J woodland encroachment into adjacent sagebrush steppe, but the rates and biophysical variability of encroachment are not well documented and management options are not well understood. We quantified the rate and extent of woodland change between 1950 and 2009 based on a random sample of aerial photo interpretation plots distributed across biophysical gradients. Our study revealed that woodland cover remained at approximately 20% of the study area over the 59-year period. In the absence of disturbance, P-J woodlands exhibited the highest rate of increase among vegetation types at 0.37% yr(-1). Overall, late-successional P-J stands increased in area by over 100% through the process of densification (infilling). However, wildfires during the period resulted in a net decrease of woody evergreen vegetation, particularly among early and mid-successional P-J stands. Elevated wildfire risk associated with expanding novel annual grasslands and drought is likely to continue to be a fundamental driver of change in CIRO woodlands. Because P-J woodlands contribute to regional biodiversity and may contract at trailing edges with global warming, CIRO may become important to P-J woodland conservation in the future. Our study provides a widely applicable toolset for assessing woodland ecotone dynamics that can help managers reconcile the competing demands to maintain historical fidelity and contribute meaningfully to the U

  6. Conservation strategies for effective land management of protected areas using an erosion prediction information system (EPIS).

    PubMed

    Millward, A A; Mersey, J E

    2001-04-01

    This research demonstrates the predictive modeling capabilities of a geographic information system (GIS)-based soil erosion potential model to assess the effects of implementing land use change within a tropical watershed. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was integrated with a GIS to produce an Erosion Prediction Information System (EPIS) and modified to reflect conditions found in the mountainous tropics. Research was conducted in the Zenzontia subcatchment of the Río Ayuquíla, located within the Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve (SMBR), México. Expanding agricultural activities within this area will accentuate the already high rate of soil erosion and resultant sediment loading occurring in the Río Ayuquíla. Two land-use change scenarios are modeled with the EPIS: (1) implementation of soil conservation practices in erosion prone locations; and (2) selection of sites for agricultural expansion which minimize potential soil loss. Confronted with limited financial resources and the necessity for expedient action, managers of the SMBR can draw upon the predictive capacity of the EPIS to facilitate rapid and informed land-use planning decisions. PMID:11383105

  7. Can Sacrificial Feeding Areas Protect Aquatic Plants from Herbivore Grazing? Using Behavioural Ecology to Inform Wildlife Management

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kevin A.; Stillman, Richard A.; Daunt, Francis; O’Hare, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor) to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i) food quantity, (ii) food quality, and (iii) the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems. PMID:25077615

  8. Can sacrificial feeding areas protect aquatic plants from herbivore grazing? Using behavioural ecology to inform wildlife management.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kevin A; Stillman, Richard A; Daunt, Francis; O'Hare, Matthew T

    2014-01-01

    Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor) to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i) food quantity, (ii) food quality, and (iii) the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems. PMID:25077615

  9. The History of the Establishment and Management Philosophies of the Portuguese Protected Areas: Combining Written Records and Oral History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Bruno; Partidário, Maria

    2012-04-01

    The history of the establishment and management philosophies of the mainland Portuguese Protected Areas was reconstructed through the use of written records and oral history interviews. The objectives were to review the main philosophies in the creation and management of these areas, to assess the influence of international PA models, to compare the Portuguese case with other European and international literature concerning PAs and to discuss the value of the oral history in this research. As main results, it was found that the initial management model of "Wilderness (or Yellowstone)" was replaced by the "new paradigm" of PAs when the democracy was re-established. Changes in the management philosophies within this "new paradigm" were also identified, which resulted in the transition of a "Landscape" to a "Nature conservation" model. After the establishment of the Natura 2000 network, the "Biodiversity conservation" model prevailed. It was also found that the initiative for the establishment of most PAs came from the government, although there were few cases of creation due to the action of NGOs and municipalities. Finally, oral history interviews enabled the addition of information to the literature review, but also provided more insight and detail to this history.

  10. The history of the establishment and management philosophies of the Portuguese Protected Areas: combining written records and oral history.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Bruno; Partidário, Maria

    2012-04-01

    The history of the establishment and management philosophies of the mainland Portuguese Protected Areas was reconstructed through the use of written records and oral history interviews. The objectives were to review the main philosophies in the creation and management of these areas, to assess the influence of international PA models, to compare the Portuguese case with other European and international literature concerning PAs and to discuss the value of the oral history in this research. As main results, it was found that the initial management model of "Wilderness (or Yellowstone)" was replaced by the "new paradigm" of PAs when the democracy was re-established. Changes in the management philosophies within this "new paradigm" were also identified, which resulted in the transition of a "Landscape" to a "Nature conservation" model. After the establishment of the Natura 2000 network, the "Biodiversity conservation" model prevailed. It was also found that the initiative for the establishment of most PAs came from the government, although there were few cases of creation due to the action of NGOs and municipalities. Finally, oral history interviews enabled the addition of information to the literature review, but also provided more insight and detail to this history. PMID:22382687

  11. The Role of Ocean Exploration and Research in the Creation and Management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valette-Silver, N. J.; Pomponi, S.; Smith, J. R.; Potter, J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decades, the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER), through its programs (Ocean Exploration Program and National Undersea Research Program), and in collaboration with its federal and academic partners, has contributed to the discovery of new ocean features, species, ecosystems, habitats and processes. These new discoveries have led to the development of new policies and management actions. Exploration, research and technology advancement have contributed to the characterization and the designation of marine sanctuaries, reserves, restricted fishing areas, and monuments in US waters. For example, the collaborative efforts of OER and partners from the Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research and Technology (CIOERT) have resulted in the discovery of new species of deep sea corals on the outer continental shelf and upper slope of the South Atlantic Bight. The species of coral found in these deep sea reefs are growing very slowly and provide habitat for many commercially valuable species of fish and other living resources. It is not yet completely clear how these habitats connect with the shallower reefs and habitats and if they could be playing a role of refugia for shallower species. Unfortunately, signs of fishing destruction on these unique and fragile habitats are obvious (e.g., abandoned nets, completely decimated habitats by trawling). OER funded research on mesophotic and deep-sea Lophelia coral reefs off the southeastern US was instrumental in the designation of the deep-water Coral Habitat Area of Particular Concern (CHAPC) that is now protecting these fragile reefs. Other examples of OER's contribution to discoveries leading to the designation of protected areas include the characterization and boundary determination of new designated Marine National Monuments and Marine Sanctuaries in the Pacific Ocean. After designation of a protected area, it is imperative to monitor the resource, improve understanding of its

  12. 45 CFR 670.29 - Designation of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas, Specially Managed Areas and Historic Sites...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND... descriptions of the sites and complete management plans can be obtained from the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Room 755, 4201 Wilson Boulevard,...

  13. 45 CFR 670.29 - Designation of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas, Specially Managed Areas and Historic Sites...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND... descriptions of the sites and complete management plans can be obtained from the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Room 755, 4201 Wilson Boulevard,...

  14. Marine Protected Area Management in South Africa: New Policies, Old Paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowman, Merle; Hauck, Maria; van Sittert, Lance; Sunde, Jackie

    2011-04-01

    A historical perspective on MPA identification and governance in South Africa reflects the continued influence of a top-down and natural science-based paradigm, that has hardly changed over the past half century, despite the wealth of literature, and a growing consensus, that advocates the need to adopt a more integrated and human-centered approach. Based on extensive research in two coastal fishing communities, the paper highlights impacts and conflicts arising from this conventional approach to MPA identification, planning and management. It argues that failure to understand the particular fishery system in all its complexity, in particular the human dimensions, and involve resource users in planning and decision-making processes, undermines efforts to achieve conservation and fisheries management objectives. The customary rights of local resource users, and their food and livelihood needs in relation to marine resources, need to be acknowledged, prioritized and integrated into planning and decision-making processes. Convincing ecologists, fisheries scientists and managers, that MPA success depends on addressing the root causes of resource decline and incorporating social factors into MPA identification, planning and management, remains a huge challenge in South Africa.

  15. Marine protected area management in South Africa: new policies, old paradigms.

    PubMed

    Sowman, Merle; Hauck, Maria; van Sittert, Lance; Sunde, Jackie

    2011-04-01

    A historical perspective on MPA identification and governance in South Africa reflects the continued influence of a top-down and natural science-based paradigm, that has hardly changed over the past half century, despite the wealth of literature, and a growing consensus, that advocates the need to adopt a more integrated and human-centered approach. Based on extensive research in two coastal fishing communities, the paper highlights impacts and conflicts arising from this conventional approach to MPA identification, planning and management. It argues that failure to understand the particular fishery system in all its complexity, in particular the human dimensions, and involve resource users in planning and decision-making processes, undermines efforts to achieve conservation and fisheries management objectives. The customary rights of local resource users, and their food and livelihood needs in relation to marine resources, need to be acknowledged, prioritized and integrated into planning and decision-making processes. Convincing ecologists, fisheries scientists and managers, that MPA success depends on addressing the root causes of resource decline and incorporating social factors into MPA identification, planning and management, remains a huge challenge in South Africa. PMID:20449745

  16. Adverse impacts of pasture abandonment in Himalayan protected areas: Testing the efficiency of a Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Nautiyal, Sunil . E-mail: sunil.nautiyal@zalf.de; Kaechele, Harald

    2007-03-15

    The high elevational areas in the Himalayas of India are dominated by forests and alpine pastures. There are many protected areas in the region, including Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) and Valley of Flowers (VOF) where natural resource management plan (NRMP) has been implemented for the conservation of biodiversity. This has affected the traditional animal husbandry system, as well as the vegetation dynamics of alpine pastures. An integrated approach to studying the impact of NRMP in the region has been applied by us. First, a survey was conducted regarding livestock management, data pertaining the livestock husbandry, the role of animal husbandry in economics of rural household, and socioeconomics. Second, field based study on phytosociology of some important alpine herbs was done to enumerate the density and species richness in different land mark of the region. Thereafter, satellite data and Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to develop a land cover map of the area and to note changes in the landscape over time after implementation of NRMP. From an economic point of view the implementation of such plan is a setback to the rural economy. However, the ecological perspective of such models is a threat to the diversity of alpine pastures. The invasion of bushes/thorny bushes/shrubs and weeds with their luxuriant growth is changing the vegetation index and dynamics. Consequently, the diversity of herbs in alpine pastures of the Himalayan Mountains is in jeopardy. Overall, the situation is leading to landscape change in the region. This study is helpful for generating useful outcomes and strategies considering the question or debate 'is grazing good or bad for pasture ecosystems in the Himalayas?'.

  17. Protected area certificates: gaining ground for better ecosystem protection?

    PubMed

    Segerstedt, Anna; Grote, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Protected areas are vital to sustain a number of ecosystem services. Yet, many protected areas are underfinanced and lack management effectiveness. Protected area certificates have been suggested as a way to resolve these problems. This instrument would allow land managers to certify an area if it meets certain conservation criteria. The certificates could then be sold on an international market, for example to companies and any consumers that are interested in environmental protection. Some pilot initiatives have been launched, yet little is known about future demand and features of protected area certificates. To fill this knowledge gap, we conduct a choice experiment with close to 400 long-distance tourists from Germany as a potential group of buyers. Our results indicate that the respondents have the highest willingness to pay for certificates that conserve sensitive ecosystems and in addition to this lead to poverty reduction and safeguard water resources. For other attributes such as a greenhouse gas reduction, the preferences are less significant. Overall, the results are rather homogenous irrespective of where the protected areas are located. These insights are important for the future design and marketing of protected area certificates. PMID:25868572

  18. Protected Area Certificates: Gaining Ground for Better Ecosystem Protection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segerstedt, Anna; Grote, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Protected areas are vital to sustain a number of ecosystem services. Yet, many protected areas are underfinanced and lack management effectiveness. Protected area certificates have been suggested as a way to resolve these problems. This instrument would allow land managers to certify an area if it meets certain conservation criteria. The certificates could then be sold on an international market, for example to companies and any consumers that are interested in environmental protection. Some pilot initiatives have been launched, yet little is known about future demand and features of protected area certificates. To fill this knowledge gap, we conduct a choice experiment with close to 400 long-distance tourists from Germany as a potential group of buyers. Our results indicate that the respondents have the highest willingness to pay for certificates that conserve sensitive ecosystems and in addition to this lead to poverty reduction and safeguard water resources. For other attributes such as a greenhouse gas reduction, the preferences are less significant. Overall, the results are rather homogenous irrespective of where the protected areas are located. These insights are important for the future design and marketing of protected area certificates.

  19. Adapting environmental function analysis for management of protected areas in small islands--case of Pico Island (the Azores).

    PubMed

    Calado, Helena; Bragagnolo, Chiara; Silva, Susana; Vergílio, Marta

    2016-04-15

    Protected areas (PAs) are considered key priorities for ensuring long-term sustainability of small islands. The traditional approach of conservation versus development is currently being replaced by an approach of "win-win" relationships. During the last decades PAs have been increasingly requested to simultaneously ensure biodiversity conservation, mainstream ecosystem services into main development policies, and accounting for leisure-related revenues to sustain local and regional economies. Following this new paradigm, the Smartparks project (Planning and Management System for Small Islands Protected Areas), encompassing this study, aimed at an innovative approach for supporting the management of PAs in small islands. In this study, we propose a methodology based on Environmental Functional Analyses (EFA) to compare the potential for conservation and the potential for use of PAs that can be used not only on small islands but also in other territories. For this purpose, a set of environmental and socio-economic components was defined and selected indicators describing each component to calculate conservation and use/development functions of PAs were established. Pico Island, in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), was selected as the case study for testing the methodology. The EFA for all PAs of Pico Island was performed identifying those with more potential for conservation or for development of human activities, and also those with high levels of conflict. A total of 34 indicators was applied (assigning a value from 1 to 3) to the 22 PAs composing the INP of Pico Island: 44% were scored with a value of 1, in both ecological and social components; 22% and 29% were scored 3 in ecological and social components respectively. Social indicators were generally considered less important than environmental ones. In general, PAs presented higher values for conservation. The results further show that the potential for conservation and/or development was consistent with the

  20. Adaptive management of invasive pests in natural protected areas: the case of Matsucoccus feytaudi in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Sciarretta, A; Marziali, L; Squarcini, M; Marianelli, L; Benassai, D; Logli, F; Roversi, P F

    2016-02-01

    Invasive species are a significant threat to affected ecosystems, having serious environmental, economic and social impacts. The maritime pine bast scale, Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae), causes serious damage to Pinus pinaster forests in SE France, Corsica and Italy where it has been introduced. This study illustrates the adaptive management plan implemented in the Migliarino, San Rossore, Massaciuccoli Regional Natural Park in Tuscany, Italy, where M. feytaudi arrived in 2004, leading to the decay of local P. pinaster stands. The management programme, aimed at slowing the establishment and growth of M. feytaudi, was carried out in the main sector of the park, Tenuta di San Rossore, to retard the destruction of the P. pinaster coastal strip protecting the more internal woodland from sea salt and to allow replacement of P. pinaster trees with a more stable broad-leaved wood. The combined use of mass trapping and silvicultural interventions, applied in a targeted manner according to distribution maps of pest captures and damage, helped to delay forest destruction compared with a nearby unmanaged area of the park Tenuta di Tombolo. Although M. feytaudi continued to spread during the management period, the populations remained at low levels for 6 years, showing a marked increase in 2012. During this period, the P. pinaster stands were reduced from 320 to 249 ha. The final result of this ongoing gradual conversion process will be transformation of the P. pinaster forest into Holm oak woods and Mediterranean shrub land, while P. pinaster will survive as clusters or blocks of trees. PMID:26521882

  1. Responses of Herbivorous Fishes and Benthos to 6 Years of Protection at the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, Maui.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ivor D; White, Darla J; Sparks, Russell T; Lino, Kevin C; Zamzow, Jill P; Kelly, Emily L A; Ramey, Hailey L

    2016-01-01

    In response to concerns about declining coral cover and recurring macroalgal blooms, in 2009 the State of Hawaii established the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA). Within the KHFMA, herbivorous fishes and sea urchins are protected, but other fishing is allowed. As part of a multi-agency monitoring effort, we conducted surveys at KHFMA and comparison sites around Maui starting 19 months before closure, and over the six years since implementation of herbivore protection. Mean parrotfish and surgeonfish biomass both increased within the KHFMA (by 139% [95%QR (quantile range): 98-181%] and 28% [95%QR: 3-52%] respectively). Most of those gains were of small-to-medium sized species, whereas large-bodied species have not recovered, likely due to low levels of poaching on what are preferred fishery targets in Hawaii. Nevertheless, coincident with greater biomass of herbivores within the KHFMA, cover of crustose coralline algae (CCA) has increased from ~2% before closure to ~ 15% in 2015, and macroalgal cover has remained low throughout the monitoring period. Strong evidence that changes in the KHFMA were a consequence of herbivore management are that (i) there were no changes in biomass of unprotected fish families within the KHFMA; and that (ii) there were no similar changes in parrotfish or CCA at comparison sites around Maui. It is not yet clear how effective herbivore protection might eventually be for the KHFMA's ultimate goal of coral recovery. Coral cover declined over the first few years of surveys-from 39.6% (SE 1.4%) in 2008, to 32.9% (SE 0.8%) in 2012, with almost all of that loss occurring by 2010 (1 year after closure), i.e. before meaningful herbivore recovery had occurred. Coral cover subsequently stabilized and may have slightly increased from 2012 through early 2015. However, a region-wide bleaching event in 2015 had already led to some coral mortality by the time surveys were conducted in late 2015, at which time cover had dropped back

  2. Responses of Herbivorous Fishes and Benthos to 6 Years of Protection at the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, Maui

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ivor D.; White, Darla J.; Sparks, Russell T.; Lino, Kevin C.; Zamzow, Jill P.; Kelly, Emily L. A.; Ramey, Hailey L.

    2016-01-01

    In response to concerns about declining coral cover and recurring macroalgal blooms, in 2009 the State of Hawaii established the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA). Within the KHFMA, herbivorous fishes and sea urchins are protected, but other fishing is allowed. As part of a multi-agency monitoring effort, we conducted surveys at KHFMA and comparison sites around Maui starting 19 months before closure, and over the six years since implementation of herbivore protection. Mean parrotfish and surgeonfish biomass both increased within the KHFMA (by 139% [95%QR (quantile range): 98–181%] and 28% [95%QR: 3–52%] respectively). Most of those gains were of small-to-medium sized species, whereas large-bodied species have not recovered, likely due to low levels of poaching on what are preferred fishery targets in Hawaii. Nevertheless, coincident with greater biomass of herbivores within the KHFMA, cover of crustose coralline algae (CCA) has increased from ~2% before closure to ~ 15% in 2015, and macroalgal cover has remained low throughout the monitoring period. Strong evidence that changes in the KHFMA were a consequence of herbivore management are that (i) there were no changes in biomass of unprotected fish families within the KHFMA; and that (ii) there were no similar changes in parrotfish or CCA at comparison sites around Maui. It is not yet clear how effective herbivore protection might eventually be for the KHFMA’s ultimate goal of coral recovery. Coral cover declined over the first few years of surveys–from 39.6% (SE 1.4%) in 2008, to 32.9% (SE 0.8%) in 2012, with almost all of that loss occurring by 2010 (1 year after closure), i.e. before meaningful herbivore recovery had occurred. Coral cover subsequently stabilized and may have slightly increased from 2012 through early 2015. However, a region-wide bleaching event in 2015 had already led to some coral mortality by the time surveys were conducted in late 2015, at which time cover had

  3. The eHabitat R library: Large scale modelling of habitat uniqueness for the management and assessment of protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olav Skøien, Jon; Martínez-López, Javier; Dubois, Gregoire

    2014-05-01

    There are over 100,000 protected areas in the world that need to be assessed systematically according to their ecological values in order to support decision making and fund allocation processes. Ecological modelling has become an important tool for conservation and biodiversity studies. Moreover, linking remote sensing with ecological modelling can help overcoming some typical limitations of ecological studies related to conservation, such as sampling effort bias of biodiversity inventories. Habitats offer refuge for species and can be mapped at ecoregion scale by means of remote sensing. Large-scale ecological models are thus needed to make progress on important conservation challenges and the adoption of an open source community approach is crucial for its implementation. R is a Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) which allows the analysis of large amounts of remote sensing data through multivariate statistics and GIS capabilities, offers interoperability with other models and tools, and can be further implemented and used within a web processing service, as well as under a local desktop environment. The eHabitat R library, one of the Web Processing Services (WPS) supporting DOPA, the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (http://dopa.jrc.ec.europa.eu/), computes habitat similarities and proposes a habitat replaceability index (HRI) which can be used for characterizing each protected area worldwide. More exactly, eHabitat computes for each protected area a map of probabilities to find areas presenting ecological characteristics that are similar to those found in the selected protected area. The library is available online for using it and extending it by the research and end users communities. This paper presents the eHabitat library, as an example of a successful development and application of FOSS tools for geoscientific tasks, in particular for delivering critical services in relation the conservation of protected areas. Some methodological aspects, such

  4. Differences in perceptions of communication, tourism benefits, and management issues in a protected area of rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bruyere, Brett L; Beh, Adam W; Lelengula, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    With record-breaking tourist visits in Kenya in 2005-2006, communities near the country's renowned protected areas must undertake or revisit planning efforts to conserve and enhance the region's natural, social, and economic resources. This article examines the differences between two stakeholder groups in the Samburu region of central Kenya: (1) protected area leadership and staff; and (2) members of the communities adjacent to the protected areas. Based on the results and analysis of 30 in-depth interviews, the authors identify differences between protected area staff and their community members regarding perceptions about communication between the two groups, and the economic benefits of tourism. The different stakeholders agreed, however, about challenges related to equitable distribution of tourism-based employment and revenue. The results indicate a need to reach consensus about what constitutes sufficient communication between national reserves and their community, and to what extent tourism-related revenue and employment should be distributed within the region. A discussion of the potential role of indicators and standards to make such decisions is presented. PMID:18777191

  5. Differences in Perceptions of Communication, Tourism Benefits, and Management Issues in a Protected Area of Rural Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruyere, Brett L.; Beh, Adam W.; Lelengula, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    With record-breaking tourist visits in Kenya in 2005-2006, communities near the country’s renowned protected areas must undertake or revisit planning efforts to conserve and enhance the region’s natural, social, and economic resources. This article examines the differences between two stakeholder groups in the Samburu region of central Kenya: (1) protected area leadership and staff; and (2) members of the communities adjacent to the protected areas. Based on the results and analysis of 30 in-depth interviews, the authors identify differences between protected area staff and their community members regarding perceptions about communication between the two groups, and the economic benefits of tourism. The different stakeholders agreed, however, about challenges related to equitable distribution of tourism-based employment and revenue. The results indicate a need to reach consensus about what constitutes sufficient communication between national reserves and their community, and to what extent tourism-related revenue and employment should be distributed within the region. A discussion of the potential role of indicators and standards to make such decisions is presented.

  6. In Brief: Developing marine protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-11-01

    A draft framework for the development of a national system of marine protected areas (MPA) has been released for public comment by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of the Interior. Under the proposed framework, an MPA is any area of the marine environment that has been reserved by U.S. federal, state, local, or other government regulations ``to provide lasting protection for part or all of the natural and cultural resources therein.'' About 1500 marine conservation areas initially would qualify as MPAs. The national system is intended to guide cooperative efforts among various parties and thus increase protection of these areas. The framework goals for a national system include: advancing conservation and management of marine resources through ecosystem-based approaches, and enhancing effective coordination and integration among MPAs in the national system and within the broader context of ecosystem-based management.

  7. Proposal to protect marine areas around Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    Forty percent of Antarctica's Southern Ocean should be protected in a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) and no-take marine reserves, according to a 21 May report by the Antarctic Ocean Alliance, which is composed of about 20 environmental groups. The protected areas should include the 19 Antarctic marine habitats outlined in the report, along with existing MPAs and areas identified through previous conservation and planning analyses, the report notes. Protected areas should include the Antarctic Peninsula, the Weddell and Ross seas, the Indian Ocean Benthic Environment, and Pacific seamounts, according to the report. The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), which manages living resources for the Southern Ocean, has already agreed to establish an initial network of Antarctic MPAs this year, the report states.

  8. Will climate change drive alien invasive plants into areas of high protection value? An improved model-based regional assessment to prioritise the management of invasions.

    PubMed

    Vicente, J R; Fernandes, R F; Randin, C F; Broennimann, O; Gonçalves, J; Marcos, B; Pôças, I; Alves, P; Guisan, A; Honrado, J P

    2013-12-15

    Species distribution models (SDMs) studies suggest that, without control measures, the distribution of many alien invasive plant species (AIS) will increase under climate and land-use changes. Due to limited resources and large areas colonised by invaders, management and monitoring resources must be prioritised. Choices depend on the conservation value of the invaded areas and can be guided by SDM predictions. Here, we use a hierarchical SDM framework, complemented by connectivity analysis of AIS distributions, to evaluate current and future conflicts between AIS and high conservation value areas. We illustrate the framework with three Australian wattle (Acacia) species and patterns of conservation value in Northern Portugal. Results show that protected areas will likely suffer higher pressure from all three Acacia species under future climatic conditions. Due to this higher predicted conflict in protected areas, management might be prioritised for Acacia dealbata and Acacia melanoxylon. Connectivity of AIS suitable areas inside protected areas is currently lower than across the full study area, but this would change under future environmental conditions. Coupled SDM and connectivity analysis can support resource prioritisation for anticipation and monitoring of AIS impacts. However, further tests of this framework over a wide range of regions and organisms are still required before wide application. PMID:24161807

  9. Wanaket Wildlife Area Management Plan : Five-Year Plan for Protecting, Enhancing, and Mitigating Wildlife Habitat Losses for the McNary Hydroelectric Facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2001-09-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to continue to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat at the Wanaket Wildlife Area. The Wanaket Wildlife Area was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1993. This management plan will provide an update of the original management plan approved by BPA in 1995. Wanaket will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the McNary Hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Wanaket Wildlife Area, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Wanaket Wildlife Area management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Wanaket Wildlife Area will be managed over the next five years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management. Specific project objectives are related to protection and enhancement of wildlife habitats and are expressed in terms of habitat units (HU's). Habitat units were developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP), and are designed to track habitat gains and/or losses associated with mitigation and/or development projects. Habitat Units for a given species are a product of habitat quantity (expressed in acres) and habitat quality estimates. Habitat quality estimates are developed using Habitat Suitability Indices (HSI). These indices are based on quantifiable habitat features such as vegetation

  10. Fire activity inside and outside protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: a continental analysis of fire and its implications for biodiversity and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Ilaria; Gregoire, Jean-Marie; Simonetti, Dario; Punga, Mihkel; Dubois, Gregoire

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important ecological factor in many natural ecosystems. Without doubt one of the biomes with the highest fire activity in the world is the African savannah. Savannahs have evolved with fires since climate in these regions is characterized by definite dry and wet seasons that create the conditions for burning. During the wet months the herbaceous vegetation shows a quick growth, followed by a long dry period during which the abundant build-up of fine materials becomes highly flammable and most of fires occur. Animals and plants are adapted to these conditions and their lives depend on recurrent fires. In this context fire becomes an essential element to promote biodiversity and nature conservation. Park managers are using programmed fires as a tool to maintain the habitats and favorable conditions to the animal communities. Satellite products like burned areas and active fire maps are a valuable mean to analyze the fire activity and provide support to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. In the framework of the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA), the MONDE group (Monitoring Natural Resources for Development) of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is using satellite products to analyze the fire occurrence and its effects on protected areas located in sub-Saharan Africa. Information on the fire activity was derived from the MODIS fire products (active fires and burned areas) and allows the DOPA to provide support to park managers as well as to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. We assessed 741 protected areas classified by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) with a level of protection between class I and IV. The MODIS datasets are available since the year 2000 and were used to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of fires over a period of 10 years. Information on fire activity was extracted for the protected areas and a 25km buffer zone

  11. Fire activity inside and outside protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: a continental analysis of fire and its implications for biodiversity and land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Ilaria; Gregoire, Jean-Marie; Simonetti, Dario; Punga, Mihkel; Dubois, Gregoire

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important ecological factor in many natural ecosystems. Without doubt one of the biomes with the highest fire activity in the world is the African savannah. Savannahs have evolved with fires since climate in these regions is characterized by definite dry and wet seasons that create the conditions for burning. During the wet months the herbaceous vegetation shows a quick growth, followed by a long dry period during which the abundant build-up of fine materials becomes highly flammable and most of fires occur. Animals and plants are adapted to these conditions and their lives depend on recurrent fires. In this context fire becomes an essential element to promote biodiversity and nature conservation. Park managers are using programmed fires as a tool to maintain the habitats and favorable conditions to the animal communities. Satellite products like burned areas and active fire maps are a valuable mean to analyze the fire activity and provide support to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. In the framework of the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA), the MONDE group (Monitoring Natural Resources for Development) of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is using satellite products to analyze the fire occurrence and its effects on protected areas located in sub-Saharan Africa. Information on the fire activity was derived from the MODIS fire products (active fires and burned areas) and allows the DOPA to provide support to park managers as well as to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. We assessed 741 protected areas classified by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) with a level of protection between class I and IV. The MODIS datasets are available since the year 2000 and were used to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of fires over a period of 10 years. Information on fire activity was extracted for the protected areas and a 25km buffer zone

  12. Responses of a small-mammal community to habitat management through controlled burning in a protected Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Fire is widely used as a management tool to achieve conservation goals. However, the consequences of such management on non-target species are frequently neglected and unknown. This study examines the effects of traditional management practices of scrubland clearance by controlled burning to improve menaced carnivores on non-target species: rodent and insectivores in Doñana National Park (SW of Iberian Peninsula). We used capture-recapture methods to examine changes in abundance in areas that were burnt one and three years ago, compared with unburnt areas. Results showed that burnt areas had higher species abundances, but mainly on the ecotonal boundaries. Species abundances showed dramatic seasonal differences with high abundances in autumn and winter, and very low abundance in summer. Our study revealed that scrubland management by controlled fires increases the abundance of small mammal species, mainly Mus spretus and Apodemus sylvaticus. We found only four small mammal species between the different treatments. However, some species that were formerly abundant in Doñana, such as Elyomis quercinus, were found only in burnt areas. Our results suggest that controlled burning is not contributing to the current loss of biotic diversity in this community.

  13. Technical and institutional innovation in agroforestry for protected areas management in the Brazilian Amazon: opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S

    2013-08-01

    Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them. PMID:23636205

  14. Technical and Institutional Innovation in Agroforestry for Protected Areas Management in the Brazilian Amazon: Opportunities and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S.

    2013-08-01

    Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them.

  15. Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Trás-os-Montes, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered. Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs. PMID:22112242

  16. Conservation of the critically endangered eastern Australian population of the grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) through cross-jurisdictional management of a network of marine-protected areas.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Tim P; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus. PMID:24213854

  17. Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

  18. The role of protected area wetlands in waterfowl habitat conservation: implications for protected area network design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    The principal goal of protected area networks is biodiversity preservation, but efficacy of such networks is directly linked to animal movement within and outside area boundaries. We examined wetland selection patterns of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during non-breeding periods from 2010 to 2012 to evaluate the utility of protected areas to migratory waterfowl in North America. We tracked 33 adult females using global positioning system (GPS) satellite transmitters and implemented a use-availability resource selection design to examine mallard use of wetlands under varying degrees of protection. Specifically, we examined effects of proximities to National Wildlife Refuges, private land, state wildlife management areas, Wetland Reserve Program easements (WRP), and waterfowl sanctuaries on mallard wetland selection. In addition, we included landscape-level variables that measured areas of sanctuary and WRP within the surrounding landscape of each used and available wetland. We developed 8 wetland selection models according to season (autumn migration, winter, spring migration), hunting season (present, absent), and time period (diurnal, nocturnal). Model averaged parameter estimates indicated wetland selection patterns varied across seasons and time periods, but ducks consistently selected wetlands with greater areas of sanctuary and WRP in the surrounding landscape. Consequently, WRP has the potential to supplement protected area networks in the midcontinent region. Additionally, seasonal variation in wetland selection patterns indicated considering the effects of habitat management and anthropogenic disturbances on migratory waterfowl during the non-breeding period is essential in designing protected area networks.

  19. Modelling marine protected areas: insights and hurdles.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Elizabeth A; Bax, Nicholas J; Bustamante, Rodrigo H; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Dichmont, Catherine; Dunstan, Piers K; Hayes, Keith R; Hobday, Alistair J; Pitcher, Roland; Plagányi, Éva E; Punt, André E; Savina-Rolland, Marie; Smith, Anthony D M; Smith, David C

    2015-11-01

    Models provide useful insights into conservation and resource management issues and solutions. Their use to date has highlighted conditions under which no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) may help us to achieve the goals of ecosystem-based management by reducing pressures, and where they might fail to achieve desired goals. For example, static reserve designs are unlikely to achieve desired objectives when applied to mobile species or when compromised by climate-related ecosystem restructuring and range shifts. Modelling tools allow planners to explore a range of options, such as basing MPAs on the presence of dynamic oceanic features, and to evaluate the potential future impacts of alternative interventions compared with 'no-action' counterfactuals, under a range of environmental and development scenarios. The modelling environment allows the analyst to test if indicators and management strategies are robust to uncertainties in how the ecosystem (and the broader human-ecosystem combination) operates, including the direct and indirect ecological effects of protection. Moreover, modelling results can be presented at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and relative to ecological, economic and social objectives. This helps to reveal potential 'surprises', such as regime shifts, trophic cascades and bottlenecks in human responses. Using illustrative examples, this paper briefly covers the history of the use of simulation models for evaluating MPA options, and discusses their utility and limitations for informing protected area management in the marine realm. PMID:26460131

  20. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    SciTech Connect

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  1. An integrated environmental risk assessment and management framework for enhancing the sustainability of marine protected areas: the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve case study in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Xu, Elvis G B; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Morton, Brian; Lee, Joseph H W

    2015-02-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs), such as marine parks and reserves, contain natural resources of immense value to the environment and mankind. Since MPAs may be situated in close proximity to urbanized areas and influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g. continuous discharges of contaminated waters), the marine organisms contained in such waters are probably at risk. This study aimed at developing an integrated environmental risk assessment and management (IERAM) framework for enhancing the sustainability of such MPAs. The IERAM framework integrates conventional environmental risk assessment methods with a multi-layer-DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) conceptual approach, which can simplify the complex issues embraced by environmental management strategies and provide logical and concise management information. The IERAM process can generate a useful database, offer timely update on the status of MPAs, and assist in the prioritization of management options. We use the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve in Hong Kong as an example to illustrate the IERAM framework. A comprehensive set of indicators were selected, aggregated and analyzed using this framework. Effects of management practices and programs were also assessed by comparing the temporal distributions of these indicators over a certain timeframe. Based on the obtained results, we have identified the most significant components for safeguarding the integrity of the marine reserve, and indicated the existing information gaps concerned with the management of the reserve. Apart from assessing the MPA's present condition, a successful implementation of the IERAM framework as evocated here would also facilitate better-informed decision-making and, hence, indirectly enhance the protection and conservation of the MPA's marine biodiversity. PMID:25461028

  2. 43 CFR 4710.3 - Management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management areas. 4710.3 Section 4710.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  3. 43 CFR 4710.3 - Management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management areas. 4710.3 Section 4710.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  4. 43 CFR 4710.3 - Management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management areas. 4710.3 Section 4710.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  5. 43 CFR 4710.3 - Management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management areas. 4710.3 Section 4710.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  6. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) Special Feature: Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Andy; Failler, Pierre; Bavinck, J. Maarten

    2011-04-01

    The number of MPAs has increased sharply, from just 118 in 1970 to well over 6,300 today. This growth in numbers has also been accompanied by a voluminous growth in the academic literature on the theme, with writers employing ecologic, economic and governance lenses (or a combination thereof) to both support the case for MPA creation, and to evaluate just how successfully (or not) existing MPAs match up to their promises. Research suggests effective management of such protected areas is vital if desired outcomes are to be achieved within the allotted time period. This Special Feature on MPAs therefore seeks to address two key questions derived from the management effectiveness framework of Hockings and others (2000), namely: `How appropriate are the management systems and processes in place?' and `Were the desired Objectives achieved—and if so, why?' Fourteen articles, drawing on different disciplinary perspectives relating to MPA experiences from across the globe, offers insights into these questions by considering, inter alia, how: are MPA sites selected?; is `buy-in' to the process from the various stakeholders achieved?; are these stakeholder's views reflected in the management systems that evolve?, and what monitoring and evaluation mechanisms are in place? Bringing these perspectives and approaches together through the medium of this Special Feature is thus intended to further our understanding of the different issues that may confront both planners and managers of Marine Protected Areas.

  7. Ecosystem Service Valuation Assessments for Protected Area Management: A Case Study Comparing Methods Using Different Land Cover Classification and Valuation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Whitham, Charlotte E. L.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and spatially-appropriate ecosystem service valuations are vital for decision-makers and land managers. Many approaches for estimating ecosystem service value (ESV) exist, but their appropriateness under specific conditions or logistical limitations is not uniform. The most accurate techniques are therefore not always adopted. Six different assessment approaches were used to estimate ESV for a National Nature Reserve in southwest China, across different management zones. These approaches incorporated two different land-use land cover (LULC) maps and development of three economic valuation techniques, using globally or locally-derived data. The differences in ESV across management zones for the six approaches were largely influenced by the classifications of forest and farmland and how they corresponded with valuation coefficients. With realistic limits on access to time, data, skills and resources, and using acquired estimates from globally-relevant sources, the Buffer zone was estimated as the most valuable (2.494 million ± 1.371 million CNY yr-1 km-2) and the Non-protected zone as the least valuable (770,000 ± 4,600 CNY yr-1 km-2). However, for both LULC maps, when using the locally-based and more time and skill-intensive valuation approaches, this pattern was generally reversed. This paper provides a detailed practical example of how ESV can differ widely depending on the availability and appropriateness of LULC maps and valuation approaches used, highlighting pitfalls for the managers of protected areas. PMID:26086191

  8. Implications of spatial heterogeneity for management of marine protected areas (MPAs): examples from assemblages of rocky coasts in the northwest Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Benedetti-Cecchi, L; Bertocci, I; Micheli, F; Maggi, E; Fosella, T; Vaselli, S

    2003-05-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly used as a management tool to preserve species and habitats. Testing hypotheses about the effectiveness of MPAs is important for their implementation and to identify informative criteria to support management decisions. This study tested the general proposition that MPAs affected assemblages of algae and invertebrates between 0.0 and 0.5 m above the mean low water level of rocky coasts on two islands in the Tuscan Archipelago (northwest Mediterranean). Protection was concentrated mainly on the west coasts of the islands, raising the possibility that neither the full range of assemblages nor the relevant scales of variation were properly represented within MPAs. This motivated the comparison of assemblages on opposite sides of islands (habitats). The effects of MPAs and habitat were assessed with a multifactorial sampling design; hypotheses were tested about differences in structure of assemblages, in mean abundance of common taxa and in univariate and multivariate measures of spatial variation. The design consisted of three replicate shores for each condition of protected and reference areas on the west side of each island and three unprotected shores on the eastern side. Assemblages were sampled independently four times on each island between June 1999 and January 2001. At each time of sampling two sites were selected randomly at each of two tidal heights to represent midshore and lowshore assemblages on each shore. Estimates of abundance were obtained using non-destructive sampling methods from five replicate 20x20 cm quadrats at each site. Results indicated differences among habitats in structure of assemblages, in mean abundance of common taxa and in univariate and multivariate measures of spatial variation at the scale of shores. Most of these patterns were inconsistent with the predicted effect of management through MPAs. The data suggest that designation of MPAs in the Tuscan Archipelago should proceed through

  9. Natural resource management in a protected area of the Indian Himalayas: a modeling approach for anthropogenic interactions on ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, Harald

    2009-06-01

    The concept of ecosystem conservation as a broad theme came into existence during the 1970s under the Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The Indian Government followed this approach and chose the method to segregate the landscape for conservation of the ecosystem as well as for the development of the local economy and its people. We have examined the effect of this policy and concurrently developed a theoretical modeling approach to understand how human behavior is changing under shifting political, socioeconomic and environmental conditions. A specific focus has been on how the landscape is changing in the mountains of the Indian Himalayan region where about 10% of the total geographical area is converted into protected landscape for conservation of biodiversity. For local people living in the Himalayan mountains in India, agriculture is the main land use activity and is strongly linked to the forests in providing sustainability. There are several branches in the rural ecosystems where the local people's economy was centered. These include agriculture, animal husbandry, medicinal and aromatic plants cultivation, forest resource collection, tourism and other occupations. The greatest proportion of the population was engaged in the agriculture sector, whose contribution is high in the rural economy (61%); followed by animal husbandry (19%), forest resource collection for economic gain (18%), and medicinal and aromatic plants cultivation (1.5%). However, three decades ago the animal husbandry branch of the rural ecosystem was contributing the maximum share towards rural household income (40%) followed by tourism (35.2%), and lastly agriculture (14%). The desire of farmers to secure the optimum output from agricultural land use has resulted in an increase for resource collection from the forests. The people's perception (n = 1,648) regarding overall changes occurring in the region was

  10. Marine protected area networks in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Botsford, Louis W; White, J Wilson; Carr, Mark H; Caselle, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    California responded to concerns about overfishing in the 1990s by implementing a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) through two science-based decision-making processes. The first process focused on the Channel Islands, and the second addressed California's entire coastline, pursuant to the state's Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA). We review the interaction between science and policy in both processes, and lessons learned. For the Channel Islands, scientists controversially recommended setting aside 30-50% of coastline to protect marine ecosystems. For the MLPA, MPAs were intended to be ecologically connected in a network, so design guidelines included minimum size and maximum spacing of MPAs (based roughly on fish movement rates), an approach that also implicitly specified a minimum fraction of the coastline to be protected. As MPA science developed during the California processes, spatial population models were constructed to quantify how MPAs were affected by adult fish movement and larval dispersal, i.e., how population persistence within MPA networks depended on fishing outside the MPAs, and how fishery yields could either increase or decrease with MPA implementation, depending on fishery management. These newer quantitative methods added to, but did not supplant, the initial rule-of-thumb guidelines. In the future, similar spatial population models will allow more comprehensive evaluation of the integrated effects of MPAs and conventional fisheries management. By 2011, California had implemented 132 MPAs covering more than 15% of its coastline, and now stands on the threshold of the most challenging step in this effort: monitoring and adaptive management to ensure ecosystem sustainability. PMID:25358301

  11. Bolder science needed now for protected areas.

    PubMed

    Watson, James E M; Darling, Emily S; Venter, Oscar; Maron, Martine; Walston, Joe; Possingham, Hugh P; Dudley, Nigel; Hockings, Marc; Barnes, Megan; Brooks, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    Recognizing that protected areas (PAs) are essential for effective biodiversity conservation action, the Convention on Biological Diversity established ambitious PA targets as part of the 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity. Under the strategic goal to "improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species, and genetic diversity," Target 11 aims to put 17% of terrestrial and 10% of marine regions under PA status by 2020. Additionally and crucially, these areas are required to be of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative, and well-connected and to include "other effective area-based conservation measures" (OECMs). Whereas the area-based targets are explicit and measurable, the lack of guidance for what constitutes important and representative; effective; and OECMs is affecting how nations are implementing the target. There is a real risk that Target 11 may be achieved in terms of area while failing the overall strategic goal for which it is established because the areas are poorly located, inadequately managed, or based on unjustifiable inclusion of OECMs. We argue that the conservation science community can help establish ecologically sensible PA targets to help prioritize important biodiversity areas and achieve ecological representation; identify clear, comparable performance metrics of ecological effectiveness so progress toward these targets can be assessed; and identify metrics and report on the contribution OECMs make toward the target. By providing ecologically sensible targets and new performance metrics for measuring the effectiveness of both PAs and OECMs, the science community can actively ensure that the achievement of the required area in Target 11 is not simply an end in itself but generates genuine benefits for biodiversity. PMID:26486683

  12. Stronger management needed to protect agricultural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Shikui

    1983-01-01

    This article examines environmental issues and management in developed agricultural areas of China. Agricultural environmental management is defined as the adoption of countermeasures by applying the theories and methods of environmental science and management science and abiding by economic laws and ecological laws to prevent pollution of the agricultural environment and destruction of the agro-ecology by man; to coordinate the relationship between the development of agricultural production and the protection of the agricultural environment and to satisfy increasing demands for agricultural by-products. Topics considered include the basis for developing agricultural environmental management, the present condition of the agricultural environment in China, and several management proposals.

  13. Spotted in the News: Using Media Reports to Examine Leopard Distribution, Depredation, and Management Practices outside Protected Areas in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Athreya, Vidya; Srivathsa, Arjun; Puri, Mahi; Karanth, Krithi K; Kumar, N Samba; Karanth, K Ullas

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of large carnivore presence outside protected areas, globally. Although this spells conservation success through population recoveries, it makes carnivore persistence in human-use landscapes tenuous. The widespread distribution of leopards in certain regions of India typifies this problem. We obtained information on leopard-human interactions at a regional scale in Karnataka State, India, based on systematic surveys of local media reports. We applied an innovative occupancy modelling approach to map their distribution patterns and identify hotspots of livestock/human depredation. We also evaluated management responses like removals of 'problem' leopards through capture and translocations. Leopards occupied around 84,000 km2 or 47% of the State's geographic area, outside designated national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. Their presence was facilitated by extent of vegetative cover- including irrigated croplands, rocky escarpments, and prey base in the form of feral and free-ranging dogs. Higher probabilities of livestock/human attacks by leopards were associated with similar ecological features as well as with capture/removals of leopards. Of the 56 cases of leopard removals reported, 91% did not involve human attacks, but followed livestock predation or only leopard sightings. The lack of knowledge on leopard ecology in human-use areas has resulted in unscientific interventions, which could aggravate the problem rather than mitigating it. Our results establish the presence of resident, breeding leopards in human-use areas. We therefore propose a shift in management focus, from current reactive practices like removal and translocation of leopards, to proactive measures that ensure safety of human lives and livelihoods. PMID:26556229

  14. Spotted in the News: Using Media Reports to Examine Leopard Distribution, Depredation, and Management Practices outside Protected Areas in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Athreya, Vidya; Srivathsa, Arjun; Puri, Mahi; Karanth, Krithi K.; Kumar, N. Samba; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of large carnivore presence outside protected areas, globally. Although this spells conservation success through population recoveries, it makes carnivore persistence in human-use landscapes tenuous. The widespread distribution of leopards in certain regions of India typifies this problem. We obtained information on leopard-human interactions at a regional scale in Karnataka State, India, based on systematic surveys of local media reports. We applied an innovative occupancy modelling approach to map their distribution patterns and identify hotspots of livestock/human depredation. We also evaluated management responses like removals of ‘problem’ leopards through capture and translocations. Leopards occupied around 84,000 km2 or 47% of the State’s geographic area, outside designated national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. Their presence was facilitated by extent of vegetative cover- including irrigated croplands, rocky escarpments, and prey base in the form of feral and free-ranging dogs. Higher probabilities of livestock/human attacks by leopards were associated with similar ecological features as well as with capture/removals of leopards. Of the 56 cases of leopard removals reported, 91% did not involve human attacks, but followed livestock predation or only leopard sightings. The lack of knowledge on leopard ecology in human-use areas has resulted in unscientific interventions, which could aggravate the problem rather than mitigating it. Our results establish the presence of resident, breeding leopards in human-use areas. We therefore propose a shift in management focus, from current reactive practices like removal and translocation of leopards, to proactive measures that ensure safety of human lives and livelihoods. PMID:26556229

  15. Groundwater protection management program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a groundwater protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable Federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office has prepared a ``Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan`` (groundwater protection plan) of sufficient scope and detail to reflect the program`s significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter 3, for special program planning. The groundwater protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor groundwater resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies project technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA groundwater protection management program. In addition, the groundwater protection plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA sites (long-term care at disposal sites and groundwater restoration at processing sites). This plan will be reviewed annually and updated every 3 years in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  16. Reconstructing Grazer Assemblages for Protected Area Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Jan A.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Balfour, David A.; Slotow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Protected area management agencies often struggle to reliably reconstruct grazer assemblages due to a lack of historical distribution data for their regions. Wrong predictions of grazing assemblages could potentially affect biodiversity negatively. The objective of the study was to determine how well grazing herbivores have become established since introduction to the Mkambati Nature Reserve, South Africa, how this was influenced by facilitation and competition, and how indigenous grazer assemblages can best be predicted for effective ecological restoration. Population trends of several grazing species were investigated in in order to determine how well they have become established since introduction. Five different conceivable grazing assemblages reflecting a range of approaches that are commonly encountered during conservation planning and management decision making were assessed. Species packing was used to predict whether facilitation, competition or co-existence were more likely to occur, and the species packing of the different assemblages were assessed using ANCOVA. Reconstructing a species assemblage using biogeographic and biological information provides the opportunity for a grazer assemblage that allows for facilitatory effects, which in turn leads to an ecosystem that is able to maintain its grazer assemblage structure. The strength of this approach lies in the ability to overcome the problem of depauperate grazer assemblages, resulting from a lack of historical data, by using biogeographical and biological processes, to assist in more effectively reconstructing grazer assemblages. Adaptive management of grazer assemblage restoration through reintroduction, using this approach would further mitigate management risks. PMID:24603663

  17. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Herd management areas. 4710.3-1...

  18. Does research help to safeguard protected areas?

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F

    2013-05-01

    Although many protected areas are foci for scientific research, they also face growing threats from illegal encroachment and overharvesting. Does the presence of field researchers help to limit such threats? Although evidence is largely anecdotal, researchers do appear to provide some protective effects, both actively (such as by deterring poachers) and passively (such as by benefiting local communities economically and thereby generating support for protected areas). However, much remains unknown about the generality and impacts of such benefits. A key priority is to develop a better understanding of the advantages and limitations of field research for aiding protected areas and their biodiversity. PMID:23462294

  19. Drinking Water Supplies: Protection Through Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, G. William

    1984-04-01

    The practice of purchasing land to protect surface water supply sources is rarely practical today. This is particularly true near urban areas. Therefore, Drinking Water Supplies attempts to provide an action-oriented guidebook on how to develop and implement watershed management strategies to protect surface water supplies from contamination under the constraints of today's economic, legal, institutional, and political conditions. The book succeeds in providing a very clear and useful guide to the process of developing such a strategy. It should be helpful to small and moderate-sized water supply systems and local governments interested in taking action to protect their surface water supply sources.

  20. National parks and protected areas: Appoaches for balancing social, economic, and ecological values

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prato, Tony; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2005-01-01

    National Parks and Protected Areas: Approaches for Balancing Social, Economic and Ecological Values is peerless in its unified treatment of the issues surrounding this subject. From decision-making for planning and management to the principles of ecology and economics, this text examines the analytical methods, information technologies, and planning and management problems associated with protected area planning and management. Protected area managers and students in undergraduate and graduate courses in natural resource management will appreciate this highly readable book.

  1. Targeting global protected area expansion for imperiled biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Venter, Oscar; Fuller, Richard A; Segan, Daniel B; Carwardine, Josie; Brooks, Thomas; Butchart, Stuart H M; Di Marco, Moreno; Iwamura, Takuya; Joseph, Liana; O'Grady, Damien; Possingham, Hugh P; Rondinini, Carlo; Smith, Robert J; Venter, Michelle; Watson, James E M

    2014-06-01

    Governments have agreed to expand the global protected area network from 13% to 17% of the world's land surface by 2020 (Aichi target 11) and to prevent the further loss of known threatened species (Aichi target 12). These targets are interdependent, as protected areas can stem biodiversity loss when strategically located and effectively managed. However, the global protected area estate is currently biased toward locations that are cheap to protect and away from important areas for biodiversity. Here we use data on the distribution of protected areas and threatened terrestrial birds, mammals, and amphibians to assess current and possible future coverage of these species under the convention. We discover that 17% of the 4,118 threatened vertebrates are not found in a single protected area and that fully 85% are not adequately covered (i.e., to a level consistent with their likely persistence). Using systematic conservation planning, we show that expanding protected areas to reach 17% coverage by protecting the cheapest land, even if ecoregionally representative, would increase the number of threatened vertebrates covered by only 6%. However, the nonlinear relationship between the cost of acquiring land and species coverage means that fivefold more threatened vertebrates could be adequately covered for only 1.5 times the cost of the cheapest solution, if cost efficiency and threatened vertebrates are both incorporated into protected area decision making. These results are robust to known errors in the vertebrate range maps. The Convention on Biological Diversity targets may stimulate major expansion of the global protected area estate. If this expansion is to secure a future for imperiled species, new protected areas must be sited more strategically than is presently the case. PMID:24960185

  2. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  3. Adaptive comanagement of a marine protected area network in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Rebecca; Jupiter, Stacy D

    2013-12-01

    Adaptive management of natural resources is an iterative process of decision making whereby management strategies are progressively changed or adjusted in response to new information. Despite an increasing focus on the need for adaptive conservation strategies, there remain few applied examples. We describe the 9-year process of adaptive comanagement of a marine protected area network in Kubulau District, Fiji. In 2011, a review of protected area boundaries and management rules was motivated by the need to enhance management effectiveness and the desire to improve resilience to climate change. Through a series of consultations, with the Wildlife Conservation Society providing scientific input to community decision making, the network of marine protected areas was reconfigured so as to maximize resilience and compliance. Factors identified as contributing to this outcome include well-defined resource-access rights; community respect for a flexible system of customary governance; long-term commitment and presence of comanagement partners; supportive policy environment for comanagement; synthesis of traditional management approaches with systematic monitoring; and district-wide coordination, which provided a broader spatial context for adaptive-management decision making. Co-Manejo Adaptativo de una Red de Áreas Marinas Protegidas en Fiyi. PMID:24112643

  4. Conservation biology: beyond marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Kareiva, Peter

    2006-07-25

    Socioeconomic and ecological analyses of eleven coral reef conservation efforts make clear that marine protected areas are not the answer, and that in fact support of local communities is far more important than some government mandated 'fishing closure'. Apparently there are marine 'paper parks' just as there are terrestrial 'paper parks'. PMID:16860727

  5. MAINE BEDROCK SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bedrocksqpa_region_pws is a REGIONS SDE layer of bedrock source water protection areas in Maine with a high, moderate, or low probability of contributing water to community public water supplies. The Maine Drinking Water Program (MEDWP), in cooperation with the Maine Geological S...

  6. Opportunities for cost-sharing in conservation: variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas. PMID:23383176

  7. Opportunities for Cost-Sharing in Conservation: Variation in Volunteering Effort across Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E.; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas. PMID:23383176

  8. Complementarity and Area-Efficiency in the Prioritization of the Global Protected Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Kullberg, Peter; Toivonen, Tuuli; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Lehtomäki, Joona; Di Minin, Enrico; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Complementarity and cost-efficiency are widely used principles for protected area network design. Despite the wide use and robust theoretical underpinnings, their effects on the performance and patterns of priority areas are rarely studied in detail. Here we compare two approaches for identifying the management priority areas inside the global protected area network: 1) a scoring-based approach, used in recently published analysis and 2) a spatial prioritization method, which accounts for complementarity and area-efficiency. Using the same IUCN species distribution data the complementarity method found an equal-area set of priority areas with double the mean species ranges covered compared to the scoring-based approach. The complementarity set also had 72% more species with full ranges covered, and lacked any coverage only for half of the species compared to the scoring approach. Protected areas in our complementarity-based solution were on average smaller and geographically more scattered. The large difference between the two solutions highlights the need for critical thinking about the selected prioritization method. According to our analysis, accounting for complementarity and area-efficiency can lead to considerable improvements when setting management priorities for the global protected area network. PMID:26678497

  9. Complementarity and Area-Efficiency in the Prioritization of the Global Protected Area Network.

    PubMed

    Kullberg, Peter; Toivonen, Tuuli; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Lehtomäki, Joona; Di Minin, Enrico; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Complementarity and cost-efficiency are widely used principles for protected area network design. Despite the wide use and robust theoretical underpinnings, their effects on the performance and patterns of priority areas are rarely studied in detail. Here we compare two approaches for identifying the management priority areas inside the global protected area network: 1) a scoring-based approach, used in recently published analysis and 2) a spatial prioritization method, which accounts for complementarity and area-efficiency. Using the same IUCN species distribution data the complementarity method found an equal-area set of priority areas with double the mean species ranges covered compared to the scoring-based approach. The complementarity set also had 72% more species with full ranges covered, and lacked any coverage only for half of the species compared to the scoring approach. Protected areas in our complementarity-based solution were on average smaller and geographically more scattered. The large difference between the two solutions highlights the need for critical thinking about the selected prioritization method. According to our analysis, accounting for complementarity and area-efficiency can lead to considerable improvements when setting management priorities for the global protected area network. PMID:26678497

  10. State wetlands and riparian area protection programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Frederick; Pieart, Scott; Cook, Edward; Rich, Jacqueline; Coltman, Virginia

    1994-03-01

    The protection of wetlands and riparian areas has emerged as an important environmental planning issue. In the United States, several federal and state laws have been enacted to protect wetlands and riparian areas. Specifically, the federal Clean Water Act includes protection requirements in Sections 301 and 303 for state water quality standards, Section 401 for state certification of federal actions (projects, permits, and licenses), and Section 404 for dredge and fill permits. The Section 401 water quality state certification element has been called the “sleeping giant” of wetlands protection because it empowers state officials to veto or condition federally permitted or licensed activities that do not comply with state water quality standards. State officials have used this power infrequently. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effectiveness of state wetland and riparian programs. Contacts were established with officials in each state and in the national and regional offices of key federal agencies. Based on interviews and on a review of federal and state laws, state program effectiveness was analyzed. From this analysis, several problems and opportunities facing state wetland protection efforts are presented.

  11. Protective area of laser eye protectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, E.; Schirmacher, A.

    2001-06-01

    An objective definition of the protective area of laser eye protectors is discussed. First an appropriate test method is described, which is based on the current eye protection standard EN 168. For a variety of already CE type approved laser eye protectors, i.e. for different goggle and spectacle types, results of corresponding measurements are shown. From these results the requirements on the vertical and horizontal angle ranges are derived, which have to be covered by laser eye protectors. This proposal will be implemented in the currently processed amendments of the laser safety standards EN 207 and EN 208.

  12. The role of IUCN protected area categories in the conservation of geoheritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Kyung Sik; Gordon, John E.; Crofts, Roger; Diaz-Martinez, Enrique; McKeever, Patrick J.; Hill, Wesley

    2015-04-01

    Geoheritage comprises those elements of the Earth's geodiversity that are considered to have significant scientific, educational, cultural/aesthetic, ecological or ecosystem service value. IUCN Resolutions 4.040 (2008) and 5.048 (2012) both clearly recognise that geodiversity is part of nature and geoheritage is part of natural heritage. Formal recognition of the geodiversity component of protected areas was made in 2008 in the revised IUCN Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories (Dudley, 2008). All 6 of the IUCN Protected Area Management Categories (strict nature reserve/wilderness area, national park, national monument or feature, habitat/species management area, protected landscape/seascape, and protected area with sustainable use of natural resources) are applicable to the protection of geoheritage and provide opportunities to integrate conservation of geosites and the wider landscape values of geodiversity much more closely in protected area networks (Crofts & Gordon, 2015). Although geoparks are not a protected area category as such, and may only include some parts of protected areas as geosites, the UNESCO-supported Global Geoparks Network also provides an international framework to conserve and enhance geoheritage, as does the UNESCO World Heritage List. The Geoheritage Specialist Group of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas provides specialist advice and guidance on all aspects of geodiversity and geoheritage in relation to the establishment and management of protected areas, the integration of geodiversity into IUCN's programmes, and the promotion of better understanding of the links between geodiversity and biodiversity. http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/gpap_home/gpap_biodiversity/gpap_wcpabiodiv/gpap_geoheritage/). Crofts, R., Gordon, J. E. (2015) Geoconservation in protected areas. In: G.L. Worboys, M. Lockwood, A. Kothari, S. Feary, I. Pulsford (eds), Protected Area Governance and Management. ANU Press, Canberra

  13. More strictly protected areas are not necessarily more protective: evidence from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Hanauer, Merlin M.; Miteva, Daniela A.; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo Javier; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K.; Sims, Katharine R. E.

    2013-06-01

    National parks and other protected areas are at the forefront of global efforts to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, not all protection is equal. Some areas are assigned strict legal protection that permits few extractive human uses. Other protected area designations permit a wider range of uses. Whether strictly protected areas are more effective in achieving environmental objectives is an empirical question: although strictly protected areas legally permit less anthropogenic disturbance, the social conflicts associated with assigning strict protection may lead politicians to assign strict protection to less-threatened areas and may lead citizens or enforcement agents to ignore the strict legal restrictions. We contrast the impacts of strictly and less strictly protected areas in four countries using IUCN designations to measure de jure strictness, data on deforestation to measure outcomes, and a quasi-experimental design to estimate impacts. On average, stricter protection reduced deforestation rates more than less strict protection, but the additional impact was not always large and sometimes arose because of where stricter protection was assigned rather than regulatory strictness per se. We also show that, in protected area studies contrasting y management regimes, there are y2 policy-relevant impacts, rather than only y, as earlier studies have implied.

  14. Species, trophic, and functional diversity in marine protected and non-protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villamor, Adriana; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2012-10-01

    The number of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) has grown exponentially in the last decades as marine environments steadily deteriorate. The success of MPAs stems from the overall positive benefits attributed to the "reserve effect," the totality of the consequences of protecting marine systems. The reserve effect includes but is beyond the goal of protecting particular species or areas with economical or cultural value. However, most data on the effects of MPAs focus on target species and there is limited evidence for the consequences of protection at larger levels of organization. Quantitative information on the reserve effect remains elusive partly because of its complex nature. Data on biodiversity can be used to quantify the reserve effect if not restricted to specific taxonomic groups. In our study, we quantified species diversity, trophic diversity, and an approach to functional diversity in five MPAs and adjacent non-protected areas along the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Our three measures of diversity were based on the abundance of algae, fish, sessile and mobile invertebrates in shallow water rocky communities and could be used to estimate the reserve effect based on species, trophic levels, or functional roles. We tested the hypothesis that species, trophic, and functional diversity were higher in protected areas than in adjacent non-protected areas. Species diversity varied with geographic area but not with protection status. However, we found higher functional diversity inside MPAs. Also, the effect of protection on functional diversity varied as a function of the geographic area. Our results support the uniqueness of MPAs at a species level and the universality of the reserve effect at the level of the trophic groups' composition. This type of comprehensive ecological approach may broaden our understanding of MPAs and their efficiency as management tools.

  15. Understanding the conflicting values associated with motorized recreation in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cheryl; Newsome, David; Macbeth, Jim

    2016-04-01

    The International Union for the Conservation of Nature World Parks Congress in 2014 reported that the quality of management of protected areas is crucial in halting the loss of the world's biodiversity and meeting global environmental challenges. However, increasingly high-impact activities, including motorized recreation are occurring in protected areas such as national parks, creating an ongoing clash of values and further compromising protected area management. This paper discusses the values of protected areas in the context of increasingly high-impact motorized usage, the impact of divergent values placed on green spaces such as national parks, and perceptions about these spaces. Given the changing global context of this millennium, and increasing populations requiring space for high-impact activities including motorized recreation, rethinking recreation in protected areas is needed. A protected area classification to accommodate high-impact activities away from vulnerable natural areas may assist in maintaining protected area quality. PMID:26508175

  16. 76 FR 79145 - Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Parts 50, 55, and 58 RIN 2501-AD51 Floodplain Management and Protection of...-wetlands area reviewable action or an year floodplain outside of the amendment) \\1\\ Floodways Coastal high hazard outside coastal 100-year and areas high hazard area within the 500- and floodways year...

  17. Costa Rica's Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Juan José; Cortés, Jorge; Esquivel, María Fernanda; Salas, Eva

    2012-03-01

    With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km2 of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA), mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%), National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%), Wetlands (1.5%), Biological Reserves (1%), and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%). According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km2, corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km2. The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration. PMID:22458214

  18. 50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishment of protection areas. 17.103... Protection Areas § 17.103 Establishment of protection areas. The Director may, by regulation issued in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 553 and 43 CFR part 14, establish manatee protection areas whenever there...

  19. 50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2014-10-01 2013-10-01 true Establishment of protection areas. 17.103... Protection Areas § 17.103 Establishment of protection areas. The Director may, by regulation issued in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 553 and 43 CFR part 14, establish manatee protection areas whenever there...

  20. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2014-10-01 2013-10-01 true Emergency establishment of protection areas...) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency establishment of protection areas. (a) The Director may establish a manatee protection area under the provisions of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section at...

  1. 50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishment of protection areas. 17.103... Protection Areas § 17.103 Establishment of protection areas. The Director may, by regulation issued in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 553 and 43 CFR part 14, establish manatee protection areas whenever there...

  2. 50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Establishment of protection areas. 17.103... Protection Areas § 17.103 Establishment of protection areas. The Director may, by regulation issued in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 553 and 43 CFR part 14, establish manatee protection areas whenever there...

  3. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Emergency establishment of protection areas...) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency establishment of protection areas. (a) The Director may establish a manatee protection area under the provisions of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section at...

  4. Increasing Access and Usability of Remote Sensing Data: The NASA Protected Area Archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Gary N.

    2004-01-01

    Although remote sensing data are now widely available, much of it at low or no-cost, many managers of protected conservation areas do not have the expertise or tools to view or analyze it. Thus access to it by the protected area management community is effectively blocked. The Protected Area Archive will increase access to remote sensing data by creating collections of satellite images of protected areas and packaging them with simple-to-use visualization and analytical tools. The user can easily locate the area and image of interest on a map, then display, roam, and zoom the image. A set of simple tools will be provided so the user can explore the data and employ it to assist in management and monitoring of their area. The 'Phase 1 ' version requires only a Windows-based computer and basic computer skills, and may be of particular help to protected area managers in developing countries.

  5. Managing Runoff from Cropland Areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop yields may be negatively impacted if excessive amounts of runoff are lost from agricultural areas. Nutrients, pesticides, and pathogens transported in runoff can contribute to environmental concerns within streams and lakes. Therefore, it is important to properly manage runoff from cropland are...

  6. Tourism Partnerships in Protected Areas: Exploring Contributions to Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfueller, Sharron L.; Lee, Diane; Laing, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Partnerships between natural-area managers and the tourism industry have been suggested to contribute to sustainability in protected areas. This article explores how important sustainability outcomes of partnerships are to their members, how well they are realised and the features of partnerships leading to their achievement. In 21 case studies in Australia, interviews ( n = 97) and surveys ( n = 100) showed that of 14 sustainability outcomes, improved understanding of protected areas values and improved biodiversity conservation were the most important. Other highly ranked outcomes were greater respect for culture, heritage, and/or traditions; improved quality of environmental conditions; social benefits to local communities; and improved economic viability of the protected area. Scores for satisfaction with outcomes were, like those for importance, all high but were less than those for importance for the majority, with improvement in quality of environmental conditions showing the largest gap. The satisfaction score exceeded that for importance only for increased competitiveness of the protected area as a tourist destination. "Brown" aspects of sustainability, i.e., decreased waste or energy use, were among the lowest-scoring outcomes for both importance and satisfaction. The most important factor enabling sustainability outcomes was provision of benefits to partnership members. Others were increased financial support, inclusiveness, supportive organisational and administrative arrangements, direct involvement of decision makers, partnership maturity, creation of new relationships, decreased conflict, and stimulation of innovation. Improving sustainability outcomes, therefore, requires maintaining these partnership attributes and also increasing emphasis on reducing waste and resource use.

  7. Assessing protected area effectiveness using surrounding (buffer) areas environmentally similar to the target area.

    PubMed

    Mas, Jean-François

    2005-06-01

    Many studies are based on the assumption that an area and its surrounding (buffer) area present similar environmental conditions and can be compared. For example, in order to assess the effectiveness of a protected area, the land use/cover changes are compared inside the park with its surroundings. However, the heterogeneity in spatial variables can bias this assessment: we have shown that most of the protected areas in Mexico present significant environmental differences between their interior and their surroundings. Therefore, a comparison that aims at assessing the effectiveness of conservation strategies, must be cautioned. In this paper, a simple method which allows the generation of a buffer area that presents similar conditions with respect to a set of environmental variables is presented. The method was used in order to assess the effectiveness of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, a protected area located in the south-eastern part of Mexico. The annual rate of deforestation inside the protected area, the standard buffer area (based upon distance from the protected area only) and the similar buffer area (taking into account distance along with some environmental variables) were 0.3, 1.3 and 0.6%, respectively. These results showed that the protected area was effective in preventing land clearing, but that the comparison with the standard buffer area gave an over-optimistic vision of its effectiveness. PMID:15952512

  8. Creating Arctic Sea Ice Protected Areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S.; Hoff, K.; Temblay, B.; Fowler, C.

    2008-12-01

    As Arctic sea ice retreats and the Northwest Passage and Northern Sea Route open, the Arctic will experience more extensive human activity than it has ever encountered before. New development will put pressure on a system already struggling to adapt to a changing environment. In this analysis, locations are identified within the Arctic that could be protected from resource extraction, transportation and other development in order to create refuges and protect remnants of sea ice habitat, as the Arctic transitions to ice-free summer conditions. Arctic sea ice forms largely along the Siberian and Alaskan coasts and is advected across the North Pole towards Fram Strait, the Canadian Archipelago and the Barents Sea. In addition to the future loss of ice itself, contaminants entrained in sea ice in one part of the ocean can affect other regions as the ice drifts. Using observations and models of sea ice origins, trajectories and ages, we track sea ice from its origins towards marginal ice zones, mapping pathways and termination locations. Critical sea ice source areas and collection regions are identified with the goal of aiding in the protection of the remaining Arctic sea ice habitat for as long as possible.

  9. Ecosystem-based analysis of a marine protected area where fisheries and protected species coexist.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Tenorio, Alejandro; Montaño-Moctezuma, Gabriela; Espejel, Ileana

    2010-04-01

    The Gulf of California Biosphere Reserve (UGC&CRDBR) is a Marine Protected Area that was established in 1993 with the aim of preserving biodiversity and remediating environmental impacts. Because remaining vigilant is hard and because regulatory measures are difficult to enforce, harvesting has been allowed to diminish poaching. Useful management strategies have not been implemented, however, and conflicts remain between conservation legislation and the fisheries. We developed a transdisciplinary methodological scheme (pressure-state-response, loop analysis, and Geographic Information System) that includes both protected species and fisheries modeled together in a spatially represented marine ecosystem. We analyzed the response of this marine ecosystem supposing that conservation strategies were successful and that the abundance of protected species had increased. The final aim of this study was to identify ecosystem-level management alternatives capable of diminishing the conflict between conservation measures and fisheries. This methodological integration aimed to understand the functioning of the UGC&CRDBR community as well as to identify implications of conservation strategies such as the recovery of protected species. Our results suggest research hypotheses related to key species that should be protected within the ecosystem, and they point out the importance of considering spatial management strategies. Counterintuitive findings underline the importance of understanding how the community responds to disturbances and the effect of indirect pathways on the abundance of ecosystem constituents. Insights from this research are valuable in defining policies in marine reserves where fisheries and protected species coexist. PMID:20204634

  10. Ecosystem-Based Analysis of a Marine Protected Area Where Fisheries and Protected Species Coexist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Tenorio, Alejandro; Montaño-Moctezuma, Gabriela; Espejel, Ileana

    2010-04-01

    The Gulf of California Biosphere Reserve (UGC&CRDBR) is a Marine Protected Area that was established in 1993 with the aim of preserving biodiversity and remediating environmental impacts. Because remaining vigilant is hard and because regulatory measures are difficult to enforce, harvesting has been allowed to diminish poaching. Useful management strategies have not been implemented, however, and conflicts remain between conservation legislation and the fisheries. We developed a transdisciplinary methodological scheme (pressure-state-response, loop analysis, and Geographic Information System) that includes both protected species and fisheries modeled together in a spatially represented marine ecosystem. We analyzed the response of this marine ecosystem supposing that conservation strategies were successful and that the abundance of protected species had increased. The final aim of this study was to identify ecosystem-level management alternatives capable of diminishing the conflict between conservation measures and fisheries. This methodological integration aimed to understand the functioning of the UGC&CRDBR community as well as to identify implications of conservation strategies such as the recovery of protected species. Our results suggest research hypotheses related to key species that should be protected within the ecosystem, and they point out the importance of considering spatial management strategies. Counterintuitive findings underline the importance of understanding how the community responds to disturbances and the effect of indirect pathways on the abundance of ecosystem constituents. Insights from this research are valuable in defining policies in marine reserves where fisheries and protected species coexist.

  11. Protection Enhances Community and Habitat Stability: Evidence from a Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Fraschetti, Simonetta; Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Stanislao; Terlizzi, Antonio; Boero, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    Rare evidences support that Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) enhance the stability of marine habitats and assemblages. Based on nine years of observation (2001–2009) inside and outside a well managed MPA, we assessed the potential of conservation and management actions to modify patterns of spatial and/or temporal variability of Posidonia oceanica meadows, the lower midlittoral and the shallow infralittoral rock assemblages. Significant differences in both temporal variations and spatial patterns were observed between protected and unprotected locations. A lower temporal variability in the protected vs. unprotected assemblages was found in the shallow infralittoral, demonstrating that, at least at local scale, protection can enhance community stability. Macrobenthos with long-lived and relatively slow-growing invertebrates and structurally complex algal forms were homogeneously distributed in space and went through little fluctuations in time. In contrast, a mosaic of disturbed patches featured unprotected locations, with small-scale shifts from macroalgal stands to barrens, and harsh temporal variations between the two states. Opposite patterns of spatial and temporal variability were found for the midlittoral assemblages. Despite an overall clear pattern of seagrass regression through time, protected meadows showed a significantly higher shoot density than unprotected ones, suggesting a higher resistance to local human activities. Our results support the assumption that the exclusion/management of human activities within MPAs enhance the stability of the structural components of protected marine systems, reverting or arresting threat-induced trajectories of change. PMID:24349135

  12. Science, policy advocacy, and marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Gray, Noella J; Campbell, Lisa M

    2009-04-01

    Much has been written in recent years regarding whether and to what extent scientists should engage in the policy process, and the focus has been primarily on the issue of advocacy. Despite extensive theoretical discussions, little has been done to study attitudes toward and consequences of such advocacy in particular cases. We assessed attitudes toward science and policy advocacy in the case of marine protected areas (MPAs) on the basis of a survey of delegates at the First International Marine Protected Areas Congress. Delegates were all members of the international marine conservation community and represented academic, government, and nongovernmental organizations. A majority of respondents believed science is objective but only a minority believed that values can be eliminated from science. Respondents showed only partial support of positivist principles of science. Almost all respondents supported scientists being integrated into MPA policy making, whereas half of the respondents agreed that scientists should actively advocate for particular MPA policies. Scientists with a positivist view of science supported a minimal role for scientists in policy, whereas government staff with positivist beliefs supported an advocacy or decision-making role for scientists. Policy-making processes for MPAs need to account for these divergent attitudes toward science and advocacy if science-driven and participatory approaches are to be reconciled. PMID:19016824

  13. Trends in global protected area governance, 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Dearden, Philip; Bennett, Michelle; Johnston, Jim

    2005-07-01

    Governance refers to the interactions among structures, processes, and traditions that determine direction, how power is exercised, and how the views of citizens or stakeholders are incorporated into decision-making. Governance is now recognized as a critical aspect of effective conservation and is a prominent part of the Convention on Biological Diversity's work program on protected areas. This study reports on a global survey to assess changes in governance of protected area systems between 1992 and 2002 based on responses from 41 countries. Results indicate that substantial changes have taken place with overall trends towards increased participation of more stakeholders, greater use of formal accountability mechanisms, and a wider range of participatory techniques. Many of these changes are supported by legislative and policy requirements and 75% of respondents reported changes in legislation over the past decade. Protected areas are becoming more influenced by global forces. A majority of respondents reported increased involvement of the private sector. Funding is coming from a broader range of sources, with a smaller proportion of income coming from government sources in 2002. Absolute funding amounts have increased, but almost two-thirds report that budgets fall short of requirements. Almost 90% of respondents felt that protected area governance had improved over the last decade; 67% felt that this had also led to improved management effectiveness. Respondents felt that secure funding, capacity building, and increased community involvement were the main governance needs for the future. PMID:16132451

  14. Environmental monitoring for protected areas: Review and prospect.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, D S

    1992-04-01

    Monitoring activities in protected areas have a long history. Internal planning and management needs early led to ecological inventories. More recently the increasing number and awareness of external threats to parks has led to a variety of monitoring programs. Efforts to use protected areas, and especially biosphere reserves, as ecological baselines, have reinforced this trend. And as protected areas are increasingly recognized to be islands with complex internal and regional interactions, holistic, systems approaches to inventory, monitoring, and assessment of their state are being developed. This paper begins by reviewing threats to parks and the origins and importance of inventory and monitoring activities. A review of resource survey methods follows. Ecosystem science and environmental monitoring are introduced as a foundation for consideration of several newer approaches to monitoring and assessing the state of natural environments. These newer approaches are stress/response frameworks, landscape ecology, ecosystem integrity, and state of the environment reporting. A final section presents some principles for monitoring the state of protected areas. Examples are drawn from experience with Canadian national parks. PMID:24234344

  15. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  16. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  17. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  18. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  19. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  20. Groundwater management institutions to protect riparian habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Patricia; Colby, Bonnie

    2004-12-01

    Groundwater pumping affects riparian habitat when it causes the water table to drop beyond the reach of riparian plants. Riparian habitat provides services that are not directly traded in markets, as is the case with many environmental amenities. There is no direct market where one may buy or sell the mix of services provided by a riparian corridor. The objective of this article is to review groundwater management mechanisms and assess their strengths and weaknesses for preserving the ecological integrity of riparian areas threatened by groundwater pumping. Policy instruments available to those concerned with the effects of groundwater pumping on riparian areas fall into three broad categories: (1) command and control (CAC), (2) incentive-based economic instruments, and (3) cooperative/suasive strategies. The case of the San Pedro River illustrates multiple and overlapping strategies applied in an ongoing attempt to reverse accumulating damage to a riparian ecosystem. Policy makers in the United States can choose among a broad menu of policy options to protect riparian habitat from groundwater pumping. They can capitalize on the clarity of command-and-control strategies, the flexibility and less obtrusive nature of incentive-based economic strategies, and the benefits that collaborative efforts can bring in the form of mutual consideration. While collaborative problem solving and market-based instruments are important policy tools, experience indicates that a well-formulated regulatory structure to limit regional groundwater pumping is an essential component of an effective riparian protection strategy.

  1. Lowland forest loss in protected areas of Indonesian Borneo.

    PubMed

    Curran, L M; Trigg, S N; McDonald, A K; Astiani, D; Hardiono, Y M; Siregar, P; Caniago, I; Kasischke, E

    2004-02-13

    The ecology of Bornean rainforests is driven by El Niño-induced droughts that trigger synchronous fruiting among trees and bursts of faunal reproduction that sustain vertebrate populations. However, many of these species- and carbon-rich ecosystems have been destroyed by logging and conversion, which increasingly threaten protected areas. Our satellite, Geographic Information System, and field-based analyses show that from 1985 to 2001, Kalimantan's protected lowland forests declined by more than 56% (>29,000 square kilometers). Even uninhabited frontier parks are logged to supply international markets. "Protected" forests have become increasingly isolated and deforested and their buffer zones degraded. Preserving the ecological integrity of Kalimantan's rainforests requires immediate transnational management. PMID:14963327

  2. The worldwide costs of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Balmford, Andrew; Gravestock, Pippa; Hockley, Neal; McClean, Colin J; Roberts, Callum M

    2004-06-29

    Declines in marine harvests, wildlife, and habitats have prompted calls at both the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and the 2003 World Parks Congress for the establishment of a global system of marine protected areas (MPAs). MPAs that restrict fishing and other human activities conserve habitats and populations and, by exporting biomass, may sustain or increase yields of nearby fisheries. Here we provide an estimate of the costs of a global MPA network, based on a survey of the running costs of 83 MPAs worldwide. Annual running costs per unit area spanned six orders of magnitude, and were higher in MPAs that were smaller, closer to coasts, and in high-cost, developed countries. Models extrapolating these findings suggest that a global MPA network meeting the World Parks Congress target of conserving 20-30% of the world's seas might cost between 5 billion and 19 billion US dollars annually to run and would probably create around one million jobs. Although substantial, gross network costs are less than current government expenditures on harmful subsidies to industrial fisheries. They also ignore potential private gains from improved fisheries and tourism and are dwarfed by likely social gains from increasing the sustainability of fisheries and securing vital ecosystem services. PMID:15205483

  3. Predictive Habitat Modelling as a Tool to Assess the Change in Distribution and Extent of an OSPAR Priority Habitat under an Increased Ocean Temperature Scenario: Consequences for Marine Protected Area Networks and Management

    PubMed Central

    Gormley, Kate S. G.; Porter, Joanne S.; Bell, Michael C.; Hull, Angela D.; Sanderson, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the extent and distribution of an OSPAR priority habitat under current baseline ocean temperatures; to illustrate the prospect for habitat loss under a changing ocean temperature scenario; and to demonstrate the potential application of predictive habitat mapping in “future-proofing” conservation and biodiversity management. Maxent modelling and GIS environmental envelope analysis of the biogenic bed forming species, Modiolus modiolus was carried out. The Maxent model was tested and validated using 75%/25% training/test occurrence records and validated against two sampling biases (the whole study area and a 20km buffer). The model was compared to the envelope analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Area Under the curve; AUC) was evaluated. The performance of the Maxent model was rated as ‘good’ to ‘excellent’ on all replicated runs and low variation in the runs was recorded from the AUC values. The extent of “most suitable”, “less suitable” and “unsuitable” habitat was calculated for the baseline year (2009) and the projected increased ocean temperature scenarios (2030, 2050, 2080 and 2100). A loss of 100% of “most suitable” habitat was reported by 2080. Maintaining a suitable level of protection of marine habitats/species of conservation importance may require management of the decline and migration rather than maintenance of present extent. Methods applied in this study provide the initial application of a plausible “conservation management tool”. PMID:23894298

  4. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency establishment of protection areas. 17.106 Section 17.106 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency establishment of protection areas. (a) The...

  5. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency establishment of protection areas. 17.106 Section 17.106 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency establishment of protection areas. (a) The...

  6. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  7. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.598 Section 665.598 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.598 Management area. The PRIA fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Palmyra Atoll,...

  8. 50 CFR 665.398 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.398 Section 665.398 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Guam and CNMI with the...

  9. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of...

  10. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  11. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the...

  12. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  13. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  14. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.598 Section 665.598 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.598 Management area. The PRIA fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Palmyra Atoll,...

  15. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of...

  16. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.598 Section 665.598 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.598 Management area. The PRIA fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Palmyra Atoll,...

  17. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the...

  18. 50 CFR 665.398 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.398 Section 665.398 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Guam and CNMI with the...

  19. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of...

  20. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the...

  1. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.598 Section 665.598 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.598 Management area. The PRIA fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Palmyra Atoll,...

  2. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  3. 50 CFR 665.398 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.398 Section 665.398 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Guam and CNMI with the...

  4. 50 CFR 665.398 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.398 Section 665.398 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Guam and CNMI with the...

  5. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.598 Section 665.598 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.598 Management area. The PRIA fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Palmyra Atoll,...

  6. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the...

  7. 50 CFR 665.398 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.398 Section 665.398 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Guam and CNMI with the...

  8. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of...

  9. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of...

  10. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the...

  11. Tourism partnerships in protected areas: exploring contributions to sustainability.

    PubMed

    Pfueller, Sharron L; Lee, Diane; Laing, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Partnerships between natural-area managers and the tourism industry have been suggested to contribute to sustainability in protected areas. This article explores how important sustainability outcomes of partnerships are to their members, how well they are realised and the features of partnerships leading to their achievement. In 21 case studies in Australia, interviews (n = 97) and surveys (n = 100) showed that of 14 sustainability outcomes, improved understanding of protected areas values and improved biodiversity conservation were the most important. Other highly ranked outcomes were greater respect for culture, heritage, and/or traditions; improved quality of environmental conditions; social benefits to local communities; and improved economic viability of the protected area. Scores for satisfaction with outcomes were, like those for importance, all high but were less than those for importance for the majority, with improvement in quality of environmental conditions showing the largest gap. The satisfaction score exceeded that for importance only for increased competitiveness of the protected area as a tourist destination. "Brown" aspects of sustainability, i.e., decreased waste or energy use, were among the lowest-scoring outcomes for both importance and satisfaction. The most important factor enabling sustainability outcomes was provision of benefits to partnership members. Others were increased financial support, inclusiveness, supportive organisational and administrative arrangements, direct involvement of decision makers, partnership maturity, creation of new relationships, decreased conflict, and stimulation of innovation. Improving sustainability outcomes, therefore, requires maintaining these partnership attributes and also increasing emphasis on reducing waste and resource use. PMID:21833637

  12. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  13. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  14. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  15. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  16. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  17. Movements of Diplodus sargus (Sparidae) within a Portuguese coastal Marine Protected Area: Are they really protected?

    PubMed

    Belo, Ana Filipa; Pereira, Tadeu José; Quintella, Bernardo Ruivo; Castro, Nuno; Costa, José Lino; de Almeida, Pedro Raposo

    2016-03-01

    Mark-recapture tagging and acoustic telemetry were used to study the movements of Diplodus sargus within the Pessegueiro Island no-take Marine Protected Area (MPA), (Portugal) and assess its size adequacy for this species' protection against fishing activities. Therefore, 894 Diplodus sargus were captured and marked with conventional plastic t-bar tags. At the same time, 19 D. sargus were tagged with acoustic transmitters and monitored by 20 automatic acoustic receivers inside the no-take MPA for 60 days. Recapture rate of conventionally tagged specimens was 3.47%, most occurring during subsequent marking campaigns. One individual however was recaptured by recreational fishermen near Faro (ca. 250 km from the tagging location) 6 months after release. Furthermore, three specimens were recaptured in October 2013 near releasing site, one year after being tagged. Regarding acoustic telemetry, 18 specimens were detected by the receivers during most of the study period. To analyse no-take MPA use, the study site was divided into five areas reflecting habitat characteristics, three of which were frequently used by the tagged fish: Exterior, Interior Protected and Interior Exposed areas. Information on no-take protected area use was also analysed according to diel and tidal patterns. Preferred passageways and permanence areas were identified and high site fidelity was confirmed. The interaction between tide and time of day influenced space use patterns, with higher and more variable movements during daytime and neap tides. This no-take MPA proved to be an important refuge and feeding area for this species, encompassing most of the home ranges of tagged specimens. Therefore, it is likely that this no-take MPA is of adequate size to protect D. sargus against fishing activities, thus contributing to its sustainable management in the region. PMID:26794495

  18. Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    Groundwater protection is a national priority that is promulgated in a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the US Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (now under revision) that requires all US Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate groundwater protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Groundwater Protection Management Program for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the Groundwater Protection Management Program cover the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the groundwater regime, (2) design and implementation of a groundwater monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations, (3) a management program for groundwater protection and remediation, (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste, (5) strategies for controlling these sources, (6) a remedial action program, and (7) decontamination and decommissioning and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing groundwater protection activities. Additionally, it describes how information needs are identified and can be incorporated into existing or proposed new programs. The Groundwater Protection Management Program provides the general scope, philosophy, and strategies for groundwater protection/management at the Hanford Site. Subtier documents provide the detailed plans for implementing groundwater-related activities and programs. Related schedule and budget information are provided in the 5-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management at the Hanford Site.

  19. Protected areas facilitate species' range expansions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Chris D; Gillingham, Phillipa K; Bradbury, Richard B; Roy, David B; Anderson, Barbara J; Baxter, John M; Bourn, Nigel A D; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Findon, Richard A; Fox, Richard; Hodgson, Jenny A; Holt, Alison R; Morecroft, Mike D; O'Hanlon, Nina J; Oliver, Tom H; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Procter, Deborah A; Thomas, Jeremy A; Walker, Kevin J; Walmsley, Clive A; Wilson, Robert J; Hill, Jane K

    2012-08-28

    The benefits of protected areas (PAs) for biodiversity have been questioned in the context of climate change because PAs are static, whereas the distributions of species are dynamic. Current PAs may, however, continue to be important if they provide suitable locations for species to colonize at their leading-edge range boundaries, thereby enabling spread into new regions. Here, we present an empirical assessment of the role of PAs as targets for colonization during recent range expansions. Records from intensive surveys revealed that seven bird and butterfly species have colonized PAs 4.2 (median) times more frequently than expected from the availability of PAs in the landscapes colonized. Records of an additional 256 invertebrate species with less-intensive surveys supported these findings and showed that 98% of species are disproportionately associated with PAs in newly colonized parts of their ranges. Although colonizing species favor PAs in general, species vary greatly in their reliance on PAs, reflecting differences in the dependence of individual species on particular habitats and other conditions that are available only in PAs. These findings highlight the importance of current PAs for facilitating range expansions and show that a small subset of the landscape receives a high proportion of colonizations by range-expanding species. PMID:22893689

  20. Protected areas facilitate species’ range expansions

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Chris D.; Gillingham, Phillipa K.; Bradbury, Richard B.; Roy, David B.; Anderson, Barbara J.; Baxter, John M.; Bourn, Nigel A. D.; Crick, Humphrey Q. P.; Findon, Richard A.; Fox, Richard; Hodgson, Jenny A.; Holt, Alison R.; Morecroft, Mike D.; O’Hanlon, Nina J.; Oliver, Tom H.; Pearce-Higgins, James W.; Procter, Deborah A.; Thomas, Jeremy A.; Walker, Kevin J.; Walmsley, Clive A.; Wilson, Robert J.; Hill, Jane K.

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of protected areas (PAs) for biodiversity have been questioned in the context of climate change because PAs are static, whereas the distributions of species are dynamic. Current PAs may, however, continue to be important if they provide suitable locations for species to colonize at their leading-edge range boundaries, thereby enabling spread into new regions. Here, we present an empirical assessment of the role of PAs as targets for colonization during recent range expansions. Records from intensive surveys revealed that seven bird and butterfly species have colonized PAs 4.2 (median) times more frequently than expected from the availability of PAs in the landscapes colonized. Records of an additional 256 invertebrate species with less-intensive surveys supported these findings and showed that 98% of species are disproportionately associated with PAs in newly colonized parts of their ranges. Although colonizing species favor PAs in general, species vary greatly in their reliance on PAs, reflecting differences in the dependence of individual species on particular habitats and other conditions that are available only in PAs. These findings highlight the importance of current PAs for facilitating range expansions and show that a small subset of the landscape receives a high proportion of colonizations by range-expanding species. PMID:22893689

  1. Is forest cover conserved and restored by protected areas?: The case of two wild protected areas inthe Central Pacific of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Antonio Guzmán, J; Heiner Vega, S

    2015-09-01

    Changes in land use are mainly a consequence of anthropogenic actions. The current agricultural and urban transformations in Costa Rica have raised questions about the effectiveness of conservation and restoration within protected areas. Herein we analyzed the patterns of land use change between three periods: 1997, 2005 and 2010 in terms of magnitude, direction, and pace through categorical maps generated by the photointerpretation for La Cangreja National Park (LCNP), Rancho Mastatal Wildlife Refuge (RMWR), and their surrounding areas (SA), this last compound of one kilometer radius outside the protected areas' boundaries. The matrix which describes the landscape within the protected areas is natural coverage, composed mainly by forest cover and thickets. We found that the most abundant natural cover for both protected areas was forest cover for all years tested. The stability and large areas of forest cover in LCNP and RMWR for 2005 and 2010, reflected that policies, management actions and vigilance, have a positive impact on the conservation and restoration of natural habitats in these Costa Rican Central Pacific areas. However, the high landscape complexity of the SA in 1997, 2005 and 2010 was an evidence of the anthropogenic pressure on these protected areas, and suggested the ineffectiveness of local governments to monitor and abate land use changes, that could hinder the management, conservation and restoration of species in the protected areas. PMID:26666116

  2. Ground water protection management program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a ground water protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office was prepared this Ground Water Protection Management Program Plan (ground water protection plan) whose scope and detail reflect the program`s significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter III, for special program planning. This ground water protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor ground water resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA Project ground water protection management program. In addition, the plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA Project sites.

  3. Challenges to the Future Development of Iran's Protected Areas System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F.

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1950s, there has been a continuous increase in the number and coverage of protected areas (PAs) in Iran, and in total 253 PAs have been declared that cover 10.12 % of the country's area. This paper reviews literature addressing Iran's PAs, examines what is known about them, highlights the challenges and lessons learned, and identifies areas where more research is needed. The PA system in Iran is criticized because of (1) shortages of manpower, equipment, and financial resources; (2) de jure PAs that are often implemented as de facto reserves; (3) lack of national biodiversity indicators and objective monitoring processes; and (4) limited public participation and conflict between people over PAs. To improve, Iran's PAs system needs to be realistically supported by policies and planning instruments. In addition, the implementation of active management to restore habitat, increase education and awareness, shift practices towards the guidelines of international organizations, build capacity, and improve management and co-management by local communities needs to occur.

  4. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mapping of areas protected by levee systems. 65.10 Section 65.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...

  5. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Mapping of areas protected by levee systems. 65.10 Section 65.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...

  6. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mapping of areas protected by levee systems. 65.10 Section 65.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...

  7. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mapping of areas protected by levee systems. 65.10 Section 65.10 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...

  8. Security Management Strategies for Protecting Your Library's Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents security procedures for protecting a library's computer system from potential threats by patrons or personnel, and describes how security can be breached. A sidebar identifies four areas of concern in security management: the hardware, the operating system, the network, and the user interface. A selected bibliography of sources on…

  9. The status of wildlife in protected areas compared to non-protected areas of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Western, David; Russell, Samantha; Cuthill, Innes

    2009-01-01

    We compile over 270 wildlife counts of Kenya's wildlife populations conducted over the last 30 years to compare trends in national parks and reserves with adjacent ecosystems and country-wide trends. The study shows the importance of discriminating human-induced changes from natural population oscillations related to rainfall and ecological factors. National park and reserve populations have declined sharply over the last 30 years, at a rate similar to non-protected areas and country-wide trends. The protected area losses reflect in part their poor coverage of seasonal ungulate migrations. The losses vary among parks. The largest parks, Tsavo East, Tsavo West and Meru, account for a disproportionate share of the losses due to habitat change and the difficulty of protecting large remote parks. The losses in Kenya's parks add to growing evidence for wildlife declines inside as well as outside African parks. The losses point to the need to quantify the performance of conservation policies and promote integrated landscape practices that combine parks with private and community-based measures. PMID:19584912

  10. Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets

    PubMed Central

    Chape, S; Harrison, J; Spalding, M; Lysenko, I

    2005-01-01

    There are now over 100 000 protected areas worldwide, covering over 12% of the Earth's land surface. These areas represent one of the most significant human resource use allocations on the planet. The importance of protected areas is reflected in their widely accepted role as an indicator for global targets and environmental assessments. However, measuring the number and extent of protected areas only provides a unidimensional indicator of political commitment to biodiversity conservation. Data on the geographic location and spatial extent of protected areas will not provide information on a key determinant for meeting global biodiversity targets: ‘effectiveness’ in conserving biodiversity. Although tools are being devised to assess management effectiveness, there is no globally accepted metric. Nevertheless, the numerical, spatial and geographic attributes of protected areas can be further enhanced by investigation of the biodiversity coverage of these protected areas, using species, habitats or biogeographic classifications. This paper reviews the current global extent of protected areas in terms of geopolitical and habitat coverage, and considers their value as a global indicator of conservation action or response. The paper discusses the role of the World Database on Protected Areas and collection and quality control issues, and identifies areas for improvement, including how conservation effectiveness indicators may be included in the database to improve the value of protected areas data as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets. PMID:15814356

  11. Marine Protected Dramas: The Flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C.; Godoy, Eduardo A. S.; Jones, Peter J. S.; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P.

    2011-04-01

    This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of `leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments.

  12. Marine protected dramas: the flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C; Godoy, Eduardo A S; Jones, Peter J S; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P

    2011-04-01

    This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of 'leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments. PMID:20865415

  13. 50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 553 and 43 CFR part 14, establish manatee protection areas whenever there is... area sufficient enough so that its location and dimensions can be readily ascertained without resort...

  14. Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Silvius, Kirsten M.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas in tropical countries are managed under different governance regimes, the relative effectiveness of which in avoiding deforestation has been the subject of recent debates. Participants in these debates answer appeals for more strict protection with the argument that sustainable use areas and indigenous lands can balance deforestation pressures by leveraging local support to create and enforce protective regulations. Which protection strategy is more effective can also depend on (i) the level of deforestation pressures to which an area is exposed and (ii) the intensity of government enforcement. We examine this relationship empirically, using data from 292 protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that, for any given level of deforestation pressure, strictly protected areas consistently avoided more deforestation than sustainable use areas. Indigenous lands were particularly effective at avoiding deforestation in locations with high deforestation pressure. Findings were stable across two time periods featuring major shifts in the intensity of government enforcement. We also observed shifting trends in the location of protected areas, documenting that between 2000 and 2005 strictly protected areas were more likely to be established in high-pressure locations than in sustainable use areas and indigenous lands. Our findings confirm that all protection regimes helped reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23479648

  15. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation

    PubMed Central

    Andam, Kwaw S.; Ferraro, Paul J.; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. Arturo; Robalino, Juan A.

    2008-01-01

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighboring forests. We demonstrate that estimates of effectiveness can be substantially improved by controlling for biases along dimensions that are observable, measuring spatial spillovers, and testing the sensitivity of estimates to potential hidden biases. We apply matching methods to evaluate the impact on deforestation of Costa Rica's renowned protected-area system between 1960 and 1997. We find that protection reduced deforestation: approximately 10% of the protected forests would have been deforested had they not been protected. Conventional approaches to evaluating conservation impact, which fail to control for observable covariates correlated with both protection and deforestation, substantially overestimate avoided deforestation (by over 65%, based on our estimates). We also find that deforestation spillovers from protected to unprotected forests are negligible. Our conclusions are robust to potential hidden bias, as well as to changes in modeling assumptions. Our results show that, with appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policy makers can better understand the relationships between human and natural systems and can use this to guide their attempts to protect critical ecosystem services. PMID:18854414

  16. 50 CFR 622.15 - Notice regarding area closures to protect corals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corals. 622.15 Section 622.15 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC General Provisions § 622.15 Notice regarding area closures to protect corals. See §§ 622.74 and 622.224, respectively, regarding coral protective restrictions in the Gulf EEZ and...

  17. 50 CFR 622.15 - Notice regarding area closures to protect corals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... corals. 622.15 Section 622.15 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC General Provisions § 622.15 Notice regarding area closures to protect corals. See §§ 622.74 and 622.224, respectively, regarding coral protective restrictions in the Gulf EEZ and...

  18. Protected areas reduced poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Andam, Kwaw S.; Ferraro, Paul J.; Sims, Katharine R. E.; Healy, Andrew; Holland, Margaret B.

    2010-01-01

    As global efforts to protect ecosystems expand, the socioeconomic impact of protected areas on neighboring human communities continues to be a source of intense debate. The debate persists because previous studies do not directly measure socioeconomic outcomes and do not use appropriate comparison groups to account for potential confounders. We illustrate an approach using comprehensive national datasets and quasi-experimental matching methods. We estimate impacts of protected area systems on poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand and find that although communities near protected areas are indeed substantially poorer than national averages, an analysis based on comparison with appropriate controls does not support the hypothesis that these differences can be attributed to protected areas. In contrast, the results indicate that the net impact of ecosystem protection was to alleviate poverty. PMID:20498058

  19. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protected areas. 301.38-3 Section 301.38-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-3 Protected areas. (a) The Administrator may designate as a...

  20. Protected Areas in South Asia Have Not Prevented Habitat Loss: A Study Using Historical Models of Land-Use Change

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Natalie E.; Boakes, Elizabeth H.; McGowan, Philip J. K.; Mace, Georgina M.; Fuller, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss imperils species both locally and globally, so protection of intact habitat is critical for slowing the rate of biodiversity decline. Globally, more than 150,000 protected areas have been designated with a goal of protecting species and ecosystems, but whether they can continue to achieve this goal as human impacts escalate is unknown. Here we show that in South Asia, one of the world's major growth epicentres, the trajectory of habitat conversion rates inside protected areas is indistinguishable from that on unprotected lands, and habitat conversion rates do not decline following gazettement of a protected area. Moreover, a quarter of the land inside South Asia's protected areas is now classified as human modified. If the global community is to make significant progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target on protected areas, there is an urgent need both to substantially enhance management of these protected areas and to develop systematic conservation outside the formal protected area system. PMID:23741486

  1. Factors Controlling Vegetation Fires in Protected and Non-Protected Areas of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar. PMID:25909632

  2. Pollution exposure on marine protected areas: A global assessment.

    PubMed

    Partelow, Stefan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Horn, Olga

    2015-11-15

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) face many challenges in their aim to effectively conserve marine ecosystems. In this study we analyze the extent of pollution exposure on the global fleet of MPAs. This includes indicators for current and future pollution and the implications for regionally clustered groups of MPAs with similar biophysical characteristics. To cluster MPAs into characteristic signature groups, their bathymetry, baseline biodiversity, distance from shore, mean sea surface temperature and mean sea surface salinity were used. We assess the extent at which each signature group is facing exposure from multiple pollution types. MPA groups experience similar pollution exposure on a regional level. We highlight how the challenges that MPAs face can be addressed through governance at the appropriate scale and design considerations for integrated terrestrial and marine management approaches within regional level networks. Furthermore, we present diagnostic social-ecological indicators for addressing the challenges facing unsuccessful MPAs with practical applications. PMID:26330016

  3. Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities.

    PubMed

    Mellin, Camille; Aaron MacNeil, M; Cheal, Alistair J; Emslie, Michael J; Julian Caley, M

    2016-06-01

    With marine biodiversity declining globally at accelerating rates, maximising the effectiveness of conservation has become a key goal for local, national and international regulators. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for conserving and managing marine biodiversity yet, despite extensive research, their benefits for conserving non-target species and wider ecosystem functions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of coral reef communities to natural disturbances, including coral bleaching, coral diseases, Acanthaster planci outbreaks and storms. Using a 20-year time series from Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we show that within MPAs, (1) reef community composition was 21-38% more stable; (2) the magnitude of disturbance impacts was 30% lower and (3) subsequent recovery was 20% faster that in adjacent unprotected habitats. Our results demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of marine communities to natural disturbance possibly through herbivory, trophic cascades and portfolio effects. PMID:27038889

  4. Policy and practice in Myanmar's protected area system.

    PubMed

    Myint Aung, U

    2007-07-01

    Myanmar's protected area (PA) system began nearly 150 years ago under royal patronage. Park policies and practices, embodied in 19 pieces of legislation developed sporadically during and after the colonial period. As a result of the FAO-UNDP's Nature Conservation and National Parks Project (1981-1985) the government established the Nature & Wildlife Conservation Division and placed it within the Forest Department as the agency responsible for PA management. As a consequence the number of parks increased from 14 to 33. Myanmar's median park size is less than 50 km(2), but only five parks (15%) are larger than 1000 km(2). Most parks conserve terrestrial habitats; parks encompassing inland wetlands, mangrove, and marine habitats are limited in number and size. Existing PAs unequally represent Myanmar's ecosystems; the Malay Transition, Burmese coast, Burmese Transition and Cardamom Mountains bio-units are under-represented within the system. The effective total PA size (i.e., area of all parks less the area of 13 paper parks) is currently about 2.1%. Budgetary support for parks increased 11% since 1996, but is insufficient to address park needs, particularly in remote parks that are understaffed. Limited education and training of PA staff is a major factor limiting effective park management. Fifty-eight percent of park wardens are educated as foresters, and 42% have university degrees. The average posting in a park is 4 years, which is less than ideal for management continuity. Recommended actions to secure Myanmar's PAs include evaluation and reformulation of policies, increasing representation of Myanmar's habitats within the PA system, management planning, and standardizing protocols for anti-poaching patrols and other forms of law enforcement. Improved leadership training for wardens and range forest officers can also improve park management. Funding for community relations and more integrated management of parks and people can reduce conflicts, while

  5. Identifying Corridors among Large Protected Areas in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Belote, R. Travis; Dietz, Matthew S.; McRae, Brad H.; Theobald, David M.; McClure, Meredith L.; Irwin, G. Hugh; McKinley, Peter S.; Gage, Josh A.; Aplet, Gregory H.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation scientists emphasize the importance of maintaining a connected network of protected areas to prevent ecosystems and populations from becoming isolated, reduce the risk of extinction, and ultimately sustain biodiversity. Keeping protected areas connected in a network is increasingly recognized as a conservation priority in the current era of rapid climate change. Models that identify suitable linkages between core areas have been used to prioritize potentially important corridors for maintaining functional connectivity. Here, we identify the most “natural” (i.e., least human-modified) corridors between large protected areas in the contiguous Unites States. We aggregated results from multiple connectivity models to develop a composite map of corridors reflecting agreement of models run under different assumptions about how human modification of land may influence connectivity. To identify which land units are most important for sustaining structural connectivity, we used the composite map of corridors to evaluate connectivity priorities in two ways: (1) among land units outside of our pool of large core protected areas and (2) among units administratively protected as Inventoried Roadless (IRAs) or Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs). Corridor values varied substantially among classes of “unprotected” non-core land units, and land units of high connectivity value and priority represent diverse ownerships and existing levels of protections. We provide a ranking of IRAs and WSAs that should be prioritized for additional protection to maintain minimal human modification. Our results provide a coarse-scale assessment of connectivity priorities for maintaining a connected network of protected areas. PMID:27104683

  6. Identifying Corridors among Large Protected Areas in the United States.

    PubMed

    Belote, R Travis; Dietz, Matthew S; McRae, Brad H; Theobald, David M; McClure, Meredith L; Irwin, G Hugh; McKinley, Peter S; Gage, Josh A; Aplet, Gregory H

    2016-01-01

    Conservation scientists emphasize the importance of maintaining a connected network of protected areas to prevent ecosystems and populations from becoming isolated, reduce the risk of extinction, and ultimately sustain biodiversity. Keeping protected areas connected in a network is increasingly recognized as a conservation priority in the current era of rapid climate change. Models that identify suitable linkages between core areas have been used to prioritize potentially important corridors for maintaining functional connectivity. Here, we identify the most "natural" (i.e., least human-modified) corridors between large protected areas in the contiguous Unites States. We aggregated results from multiple connectivity models to develop a composite map of corridors reflecting agreement of models run under different assumptions about how human modification of land may influence connectivity. To identify which land units are most important for sustaining structural connectivity, we used the composite map of corridors to evaluate connectivity priorities in two ways: (1) among land units outside of our pool of large core protected areas and (2) among units administratively protected as Inventoried Roadless (IRAs) or Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs). Corridor values varied substantially among classes of "unprotected" non-core land units, and land units of high connectivity value and priority represent diverse ownerships and existing levels of protections. We provide a ranking of IRAs and WSAs that should be prioritized for additional protection to maintain minimal human modification. Our results provide a coarse-scale assessment of connectivity priorities for maintaining a connected network of protected areas. PMID:27104683

  7. Representation of Ecosystem Services by Terrestrial Protected Areas: Chile as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Durán, América P.; Casalegno, Stefano; Marquet, Pablo A.; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas are increasingly considered to play a key role in the global maintenance of ecosystem processes and the ecosystem services they provide. It is thus vital to assess the extent to which existing protected area systems represent those services. Here, for the first time, we document the effectiveness of the current Chilean protected area system and its planned extensions in representing both ecosystem services (plant productivity, carbon storage and agricultural production) and biodiversity. Additionally, we evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas based on their respective management objectives. Our results show that existing protected areas in Chile do not contain an unusually high proportion of carbon storage (14.9%), agricultural production (0.2%) or biodiversity (11.8%), and also represent a low level of plant productivity (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 0.38). Proposed additional priority sites enhance the representation of ecosystem services and biodiversity, but not sufficiently to attain levels of representation higher than would be expected for their area of coverage. Moreover, when the species groups were assessed separately, amphibians was the only one well represented. Suggested priority sites for biodiversity conservation, without formal protection yet, was the only protected area category that over-represents carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity. The low representation of ecosystem services and species’ distribution ranges by the current protected area system is because these protected areas are heavily biased toward southern Chile, and contain large extents of ice and bare rock. The designation and management of proposed priority sites needs to be addressed in order to increase the representation of ecosystem services within the Chilean protected area system. PMID:24376559

  8. Representation of ecosystem services by terrestrial protected areas: Chile as a case study.

    PubMed

    Durán, América P; Casalegno, Stefano; Marquet, Pablo A; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas are increasingly considered to play a key role in the global maintenance of ecosystem processes and the ecosystem services they provide. It is thus vital to assess the extent to which existing protected area systems represent those services. Here, for the first time, we document the effectiveness of the current Chilean protected area system and its planned extensions in representing both ecosystem services (plant productivity, carbon storage and agricultural production) and biodiversity. Additionally, we evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas based on their respective management objectives. Our results show that existing protected areas in Chile do not contain an unusually high proportion of carbon storage (14.9%), agricultural production (0.2%) or biodiversity (11.8%), and also represent a low level of plant productivity (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 0.38). Proposed additional priority sites enhance the representation of ecosystem services and biodiversity, but not sufficiently to attain levels of representation higher than would be expected for their area of coverage. Moreover, when the species groups were assessed separately, amphibians was the only one well represented. Suggested priority sites for biodiversity conservation, without formal protection yet, was the only protected area category that over-represents carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity. The low representation of ecosystem services and species' distribution ranges by the current protected area system is because these protected areas are heavily biased toward southern Chile, and contain large extents of ice and bare rock. The designation and management of proposed priority sites needs to be addressed in order to increase the representation of ecosystem services within the Chilean protected area system. PMID:24376559

  9. Protected-Area Boundaries as Filters of Plant Invasions

    PubMed Central

    Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; JaroŠÍK, Vojtěch; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Rouget, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Human land uses surrounding protected areas provide propagules for colonization of these areas by non-native species, and corridors between protected-area networks and drainage systems of rivers provide pathways for long-distance dispersal of non-native species. Nevertheless, the influence of protected-area boundaries on colonization of protected areas by invasive non-native species is unknown. We drew on a spatially explicit data set of more than 27,000 non-native plant presence records for South Africa's Kruger National Park to examine the role of boundaries in preventing colonization of protected areas by non-native species. The number of records of non-native invasive plants declined rapidly beyond 1500 m inside the park; thus, we believe that the park boundary limited the spread of non-native plants. The number of non-native invasive plants inside the park was a function of the amount of water runoff, density of major roads, and the presence of natural vegetation outside the park. Of the types of human-induced disturbance, only the density of major roads outside the protected area significantly increased the number of non-native plant records. Our findings suggest that the probability of incursion of invasive plants into protected areas can be quantified reliably. PMID:21166715

  10. 75 FR 972 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... on November 19, 2008, (73 FR 69608) and provides guidance for collaborative efforts among Federal... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas AGENCY: NOAA, Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Public...

  11. 75 FR 38779 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... on November 19, 2008, (73 FR 69608) and provides guidance for collaborative efforts among federal... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas AGENCY: NOAA, Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Public...

  12. 78 FR 30870 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...In January 2013, NOAA and the Department of the Interior (DOI) invited federal, state, commonwealth, and territorial marine protected area (MPA) programs with potentially eligible existing MPAs to nominate their sites to the National System of MPAs (national system). The national system and the nomination process are described in the Framework for the National System of Marine Protected Areas......

  13. Influence of Planetary Protection Guidelines on Waste Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John A.; Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie A.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Race, Margaret S.; Stabekis, Perry D.; Rummel, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Newly outlined missions in the Space Exploration Initiative include extended human habitation on Mars. During these missions, large amounts of waste materials will be generated in solid, liquid and gaseous form. Returning these wastes to Earth will be extremely costly, and will therefore likely remain on Mars. Untreated, these wastes are a reservoir of live/dead organisms and molecules considered to be "biomarkers" i.e., indicators of life). If released to the planetary surface, these materials can potentially confound exobiology experiments and disrupt Martian ecology indefinitely (if existent). Waste management systems must therefore be specifically designed to control release of problematic materials both during the active phase of the mission, and for any specified post-mission duration. To effectively develop waste management requirements for Mars missions, planetary protection guidelines must first be established. While previous policies for Apollo lunar missions exist, it is anticipated that the increased probability of finding evidence of life on Mars, as well as the lengthy mission durations will initially lead to more conservative planetary protection measures. To facilitate the development of overall requirements for both waste management and planetary protection for future missions, a workshop was conducted to identify how these two areas interface, and to establish a preliminary set of planetary protection guidelines that address waste management operations. This paper provides background regarding past and current planetary protection and waste management issues, and their interactions. A summary of the recommended planetary protection guidelines, anticipated ramifications and research needs for waste management system design for both forward (Mars) and backward (Earth) contamination is also provided.

  14. The Effectiveness of Public Participation in Developing and Implementing Tourism Plans for Two Peruvian Protected Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De la Cruz-Novey, H. Alicia

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades protected area management approaches have experienced a shift from top-down management models to more diverse governance approaches that involve various forms and degrees of participation from local populations. These new participatory approaches seek to reaffirm cultural values, maintain cultural landscapes, recognize the…

  15. 50 CFR 648.81 - NE multispecies closed areas and measures to protect EFH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NE multispecies closed areas and measures to protect EFH. 648.81 Section 648.81 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the...

  16. 50 CFR 648.81 - NE multispecies closed areas and measures to protect EFH.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NE multispecies closed areas and measures to protect EFH. 648.81 Section 648.81 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the...

  17. River Protection Project (RPP) Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SEEMAN, S.E.

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in accordance with the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999, established the Office of River Protection (ORP) to successfully execute and manage the River Protection Project (RPP), formerly known as the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The mission of the RPP is to store, retrieve, treat, and dispose of the highly radioactive Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The team shown in Figure 1-1 is accomplishing the project. The ORP is providing the management and integration of the project; the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) is responsible for providing tank waste storage, retrieval, and disposal; and the Privatization Contractor (PC) is responsible for providing tank waste treatment.

  18. Effectiveness of Protected Areas in Maintaining Plant Production

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun; Sun, Jinyu; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Given the central importance of protected area systems in local, regional and global conservation strategies, it is vital that there is a good understanding of their effectiveness in maintaining ecological functioning. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first such global analysis, focusing on plant production, a “supporting” ecosystem function necessary for multiple other ecosystem services. We use data on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of variation in plant production in the core, boundary and surroundings of more than 1000 large protected areas over a 25 year period. Forested protected areas were higher (or similar), and those non-forested were lower (or similar), in NDVI than their surrounding areas, and these differences have been sustained. The differences from surrounding areas have increased for evergreen broadleaf forests and barren grounds, decreased for grasslands, and remained similar for deciduous forests, woodlands, and shrublands, reflecting different pressures on those surroundings. These results are consistent with protected areas being effective both in the representation and maintenance of plant production. However, widespread overall increases in NDVI during the study period suggest that plant production within the core of non-forested protected areas has become higher than it was in the surroundings of those areas in 1982, highlighting that whilst the distinctiveness of protected areas from their surroundings has persisted the nature of that difference has changed. PMID:21552560

  19. Drivers and socioeconomic impacts of tourism participation in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  20. Drivers and Socioeconomic Impacts of Tourism Participation in Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A.; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A.; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  1. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D; Swetnam, Ruth D; Platts, Philip J; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2)), but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts. PMID:22768074

  2. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  3. Potential spatial overlap of heritage sites and protected areas in a boreal region of northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Shawn J; Schmiegelow, Fiona K A; Nagy, John A

    2007-04-01

    Under article 8-J of the Convention on Biological Diversity, governments must engage indigenous and local communities in the designation and management of protected areas. A better understanding of the relationship between community heritage sites and sites identified to protect conventional conservation features could inform conservation-planning exercises on indigenous lands. We examined the potential overlap between Gwich'in First Nations' (Northwest Territories, Canada) heritage sites and areas independently identified for the protection of conventional conservation targets. We designed nine hypothetical protected-area networks with different targets for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) habitat, high-quality wetland areas, representative vegetation types, water bodies, environmentally significant area, territorial parks, and network aggregation. We compared the spatial overlap of heritage sites to these nine protected-area networks. The degree of spatial overlap (Jaccard similarity) between heritage sites and the protected-area networks with moderate or high aggregation was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than random spatial overlap, whereas the overlap between heritage sites and the protected-area networks with no aggregation was not significant or significantly lower (p < 0.001) than random spatial overlap. Our results suggest that protected-area networks designed to capture conventional conservation features may protect key heritage sites but only if the underlying characteristics of these sites are considered. The Gwich'in heritage sites are highly aggregated and only protected-area networks that had moderate and high aggregation had significant overlap with the heritage sites. We suggest that conventional conservation plans incorporate heritage sites into their design criteria to complement conventional conservation targets and effectively protect indigenous heritage sites. PMID:17391188

  4. COLLABORATIVE HYDROLOGIC RESEARCH IN THE CLARKSBURG SPECIAL PROTECTION AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project is focused on the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA subwatersheds are on the outer edge of the urban development shockwave expanding outward from the Washington DC metropolitan area. This is an area of rapid d...

  5. Past and present effectiveness of protected areas for conservation of naturally and anthropogenically rare plant species.

    PubMed

    Vellak, Ain; Tuvi, Eva-Liis; Reier, Ülle; Kalamees, Rein; Roosaluste, Elle; Zobel, Martin; Pärtel, Meelis

    2009-06-01

    The Global Strategy of Plant Conservation states that at least 60% of threatened plant species should be within protected areas. This goal has been met in some regions with long traditions of plant protection. We used gap analysis to explore how particular groups of species of conservation interest, representing different types of natural or anthropogenic rarity, have been covered by protected areas on a national scale in Estonia during the last 100 years. Species-accumulation curves indicated that plant species that are naturally rare (restricted global or local distribution, always small populations, or very rare habitat requirements) needed almost twice as many protected areas to reach the 60% target as plant species that are rare owing to lack of suitable management (species depending on grassland management, moderate forest disturbances, extensive traditional agriculture, or species potentially threatened by collecting). Temporal analysis of the establishment of protected areas suggested that grouping plant species according to the predominant cause of rarity accurately reflected the history of conservation decision making. Species found in very rare habitats have previously received special conservation attention; species dependent on traditional extensive agriculture have been largely ignored until recently. Legislative initiative and new nature-protection schemes (e.g., Natura 2000, network of protected areas in the European Union) have had a positive influence on all species groups. Consequently, the species groups needing similar action for their conservation are sensitive indicators of the effectiveness of protected-area networks. Different species groups, however, may not be uniformly conserved within protected areas, and all species groups should fulfill the target of 60% coverage within protected areas. PMID:19128324

  6. Operational Management of Area Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, George W.

    Three phases leading to the automation of the mechanical building systems on the Harvard campus are described. The systems allow a single operator to monitor and control all the mechanical systems, plus fire, flood, and security alarms, for all buildings in a large area of the campus. (JT)

  7. Striking a balance between biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic viability in the design of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Klein, C J; Chan, A; Kircher, L; Cundiff, A J; Gardner, N; Hrovat, Y; Scholz, A; Kendall, B E; Airamé, S

    2008-06-01

    The establishment of marine protected areas is often viewed as a conflict between conservation and fishing. We considered consumptive and nonconsumptive interests of multiple stakeholders (i.e., fishers, scuba divers, conservationists, managers, scientists) in the systematic design of a network of marine protected areas along California's central coast in the context of the Marine Life Protection Act Initiative. With advice from managers, administrators, and scientists, a representative group of stakeholders defined biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic goals that accommodated social needs and conserved marine ecosystems, consistent with legal requirements. To satisfy biodiversity goals, we targeted 11 marine habitats across 5 depth zones, areas of high species diversity, and areas containing species of special status. We minimized adverse socioeconomic impacts by minimizing negative effects on fishers. We included fine-scale fishing data from the recreational and commercial fishing sectors across 24 fisheries. Protected areas designed with consideration of commercial and recreational fisheries reduced potential impact to the fisheries approximately 21% more than protected areas designed without consideration of fishing effort and resulted in a small increase in the total area protected (approximately 3.4%). We incorporated confidential fishing data without revealing the identity of specific fisheries or individual fishing grounds. We sited a portion of the protected areas near land parks, marine laboratories, and scientific monitoring sites to address nonconsumptive socioeconomic goals. Our results show that a stakeholder-driven design process can use systematic conservation-planning methods to successfully produce options for network design that satisfy multiple conservation and socioeconomic objectives. Marine protected areas that incorporate multiple stakeholder interests without compromising biodiversity conservation goals are more likely to protect

  8. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    PubMed

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  9. Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities

    PubMed Central

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M.; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A.; Davenport, Tim R. B.; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A.; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C.; Holbech, Lars H.; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K.; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G.; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J.; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M.; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  10. Tornado Protection: Selecting and Designing Safe Areas in Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, James J.

    Tornadoes and extreme winds cause heavy loss of life and property damage throughout the United States. Most buildings offer significant protection from this danger, and building administrators should know the areas where this protection is available. This booklet presents a review of three schools, all of which were struck by tornadoes on April 3,…

  11. Perceptions of the Maltese Public towards Local Marine Protected Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mifsud, Mark; Verret, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment represents a central component of Malta's local environment, and its ecosystem services play a vital role in supporting the economy as well as human well-being. Plans have been made to protect the unique ecology found within Maltese waters through the institution of five marine protected areas (MPAs). This quantitative study…

  12. Larval connectivity in an effective network of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Christie, Mark R; Tissot, Brian N; Albins, Mark A; Beets, James P; Jia, Yanli; Ortiz, Delisse M; Thompson, Stephen E; Hixon, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Acceptance of marine protected areas (MPAs) as fishery and conservation tools has been hampered by lack of direct evidence that MPAs successfully seed unprotected areas with larvae of targeted species. For the first time, we present direct evidence of large-scale population connectivity within an existing and effective network of MPAs. A new parentage analysis identified four parent-offspring pairs from a large, exploited population of the coral-reef fish Zebrasoma flavescens in Hawai'i, revealing larval dispersal distances ranging from 15 to 184 km. In two cases, successful dispersal was from an MPA to unprotected sites. Given high adult abundances, the documentation of any parent-offspring pairs demonstrates that ecologically-relevant larval connectivity between reefs is substantial. All offspring settled at sites to the north of where they were spawned. Satellite altimetry and oceanographic models from relevant time periods indicated a cyclonic eddy that created prevailing northward currents between sites where parents and offspring were found. These findings empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of MPAs as useful conservation and management tools and further highlight the importance of coupling oceanographic, genetic, and ecological data to predict, validate and quantify larval connectivity among marine populations. PMID:21203576

  13. Groundwater management and protection Madison County, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    French, J.H.; Strunk, J.W.

    1990-07-01

    Groundwater is extremely important to Madison County as it provides nearly three quarters of the county's drinking water. In recent years, Madison County has increasingly recognized the need to protect its groundwater resource. A supply of usable groundwater is one element of a high quality environment, which can help spur economic development and provide for the needs of a growing population. Without planning protection and understanding of possible consequences, however, economic development and population pressures can cause a gradual degradation of groundwater. In April 1987, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) convened a local groundwater steering group in Madison County. At the first meeting the ground agreed upon these goals: (1) to seek incorporate groundwater protection into the planning and development process for Madison County, (2) to support efforts by Madison County to obtain authority to adopt zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, and (3) to develop a groundwater management plan for the county. This report provides essential information needed in developing a plan and is based on the following assumptions: the citizens of Madison County value the environment in which they live and wish to protect it from pollution; continued economic development is necessary for a healthy local economy; and a healthy economy can be sustained and nurtured, without degradation of the groundwater resource, through countywide planning, education, and participation.

  14. Protected areas' role in climate-change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Melillo, Jerry M; Lu, Xiaoliang; Kicklighter, David W; Reilly, John M; Cai, Yongxia; Sokolov, Andrei P

    2016-03-01

    Globally, 15.5 million km(2) of land are currently identified as protected areas, which provide society with many ecosystem services including climate-change mitigation. Combining a global database of protected areas, a reconstruction of global land-use history, and a global biogeochemistry model, we estimate that protected areas currently sequester 0.5 Pg C annually, which is about one fifth of the carbon sequestered by all land ecosystems annually. Using an integrated earth systems model to generate climate and land-use scenarios for the twenty-first century, we project that rapid climate change, similar to high-end projections in IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, would cause the annual carbon sequestration rate in protected areas to drop to about 0.3 Pg C by 2100. For the scenario with both rapid climate change and extensive land-use change driven by population and economic pressures, 5.6 million km(2) of protected areas would be converted to other uses, and carbon sequestration in the remaining protected areas would drop to near zero by 2100. PMID:26474765

  15. Recreational Trails Reduce the Density of Ground-Dwelling Birds in Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Bill

    2015-05-01

    Recreational disturbance associated with trails has been identified as one of the major factors causing a decline of native biodiversity within protected areas. However, despite the negative impacts that recreation can have on biodiversity, providing public access to nature is critical for the future of the conservation of biodiversity. As such, many protected area managers are looking for tools to help maintain a balance between public access and biodiversity conservation. The objectives of this study were to examine the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling bird communities in eastern North America, identify functional guilds which are particularly sensitive to recreational trails, and derive guidelines for trail design to assist in managing the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling birds. Trails within 24 publicly owned natural areas were mapped, and breeding bird communities were described with the use of point count surveys. The density of forest birds, particularly of those species which nest or forage on the ground, were significantly positively influenced by the amount of trail-free refuge habitat. Although management options to control trail use in non-staffed protected areas are limited, this study suggests that protected area managers could design and maintain a trail network that would minimize impacts on resident wildlife, while providing recreational opportunities for visitors, by designing their trail network to maximize the area of trail-free habitat.

  16. Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    R. Flint Hughes; Jean-Yves Meyer, jean-yves.meyer@recherche.gov.pf; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in Hawaii began in the 1970s, arguably at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout Hawaii and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in Hawaii are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.

  17. Protected areas: a prism for a changing world.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Thomas E

    2006-06-01

    The centrality of protected areas in biodiversity conservation has not changed over the past three decades, but we now know that biodiversity conservation represents a much more complex and dynamic picture than was once thought. In contrast to the earlier primarily aesthetic motivation (and still valid in its own right), the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation is now widely accepted. Internationally, their importance has been recognized by the Convention on Biological Diversity and by the creation of intergovernmental funding agencies such as the Global Environmental Facility. As I discuss here, the rate of creation of new protected areas has increased rapidly to meet the need for a protected representative set of the ecosystems of the world. But that is only the start of the task. PMID:16769433

  18. Identifying and assessing ecotourism visitor impacts at selected protected areas in Costa Rica and Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Protected area visitation is an important component of ecotourism, and as such, must be sustainable. However, protected area visitation may degrade natural resources, particularly in areas of concentrated visitor activities like trails and recreation sites. This is an important concern in ecotourism destinations such as Belize and Costa Rica, because they actively promote ecotourism and emphasize the pristine qualities of their natural resources. Research on visitor impacts to protected areas has many potential applications in protected area management, though it has not been widely applied in Central and South America. This study targeted this deficiency through manager interviews and evaluations of alternative impact assessment procedures at eight protected areas in Belize and Costa Rica. Impact assessment procedures included qualitative condition class systems, ratings systems, and measurement-based systems applied to trails and recreation sites. The resulting data characterize manager perceptions of impact problems, document trail and recreation site impacts, and provide examples of inexpensive, efficient and effective rapid impact assessment procedures. Interview subjects reported a variety of impacts affecting trails, recreation sites, wildlife, water, attraction features and other resources. Standardized assessment procedures were developed and applied to record trail and recreation site impacts. Impacts affecting the study areas included trail proliferation, erosion and widening, muddiness on trails, vegetation cover loss, soil and root exposure, and tree damage on recreation sites. The findings also illustrate the types of assessment data yielded by several alternative methods and demonstrate their utility to protected area managers. The need for additional rapid assessment procedures for wildlife, water, attraction feature and other resource impacts was also identified.

  19. International funding agencies: potential leaders of impact evaluation in protected areas?

    PubMed

    Craigie, Ian D; Barnes, Megan D; Geldmann, Jonas; Woodley, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Globally, protected areas are the most commonly used tools to halt biodiversity loss. Yet, some are failing to adequately conserve the biodiversity they contain. There is an urgent need for knowledge on how to make them function more effectively. Impact evaluation methods provide a set of tools that could yield this knowledge. However, rigorous outcome-focused impact evaluation is not yet used as extensively as it could be in protected area management. We examine the role of international protected area funding agencies in facilitating the use of impact evaluation. These agencies are influential stakeholders as they allocate hundreds of millions of dollars annually to support protected areas, creating a unique opportunity to shape how the conservation funds are spent globally. We identify key barriers to the use of impact evaluation, detail how large funders are uniquely placed to overcome many of these, and highlight the potential benefits if impact evaluation is used more extensively. PMID:26460135

  20. Landscape level analysis of disturbance regimes in protected areas of Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, P. Hari; Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Singh, Randeep; Jha, C. S.

    2014-04-01

    There is an urgent need to identify the human influence on landscape as disturbance regimes was realized for prioritization of the protected areas. The present study has attempted to describe the landscape level assessment of fragmentation and disturbance index in protected areas of Rajasthan using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Geospatial analysis of disturbance regimes indicates 61.75% of the total PAs are under moderate disturbance index followed by 28.64% and 9.61% under low and high respectively. Among the 28 protected areas- National Chambal WLS, Jaisamand WLS, Kumbhalgarh WLS, Sawai Man Singh WLS, Kailadevi WLS and Bandh Baratha WLS are representing high level of disturbance. The present study has emphasized the moderate to low disturbance regimes in protected areas, which infer low biotic pressure and conservation effectiveness of PA network in Rajasthan. The spatial information generated on PAs is of valuable use for forest management and developing conservation strategies.

  1. Conservation biology: strict marine protected areas prevent reef shark declines.

    PubMed

    Dulvy, Nicholas K

    2006-12-01

    Populations of two coral reef shark species are declining rapidly: the pattern of decline highlights both the substantial impact of poaching on closed areas and the success of strict no-entry marine protected areas in maintaining healthy shark populations. PMID:17141604

  2. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  3. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  4. 50 CFR 665.198 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.198 Section 665.198 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.198...

  5. 50 CFR 665.198 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.198 Section 665.198 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.198...

  6. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  7. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  8. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  9. 50 CFR 665.198 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.198 Section 665.198 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.198...

  10. 50 CFR 665.198 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.198 Section 665.198 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.198...

  11. 50 CFR 665.198 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.198 Section 665.198 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.198...

  12. A quantitative method for zoning of protected areas and its spatial ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen Sabatini, María; Verdiell, Adriana; Rodríguez Iglesias, Ricardo M; Vidal, Marta

    2007-04-01

    Zoning is a key prescriptive tool for administration and management of protected areas. However, the lack of zoning is common for most protected areas in developing countries and, as a consequence, many protected areas are not effective in achieving the goals for which they were created. In this work, we introduce a quantitative method to expeditiously zone protected areas and we evaluate its ecological implications on hypothetical zoning cases. A real-world application is reported for the Talampaya National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Argentina. Our method is a modification of the zoning forest model developed by Bos [Bos, J., 1993. Zoning in forest management: a quadratic assignment problem solved by simulated annealing. Journal of Environmental Management 37, 127-145.]. Main innovations involve a quadratic function of distance between land units, non-reciprocal weights for adjacent land uses (mathematically represented by a non-symmetric matrix), and the possibility of imposing a connectivity constraint. Due to its intrinsic spatial dimension, the zoning problem belongs to the NP-hard class, i.e. a solution can only be obtained in non-polynomial time [Nemhausser, G., Wolsey, L., 1988. Integer and Combinatorial Optimization. John Wiley, New York.]. For that purpose, we applied a simulated annealing heuristic implemented as a FORTRAN language routine. Our innovations were effective in achieving zoning designs more compatible with biological diversity protection. The quadratic distance term facilitated the delineation of core zones for elements of significance; the connectivity constraint minimized fragmentation; non-reciprocal land use weightings contributed to better representing management decisions, and influenced mainly the edge and shape of zones. This quantitative method can assist the zoning process within protected areas by offering many zonation scheme alternatives with minimum cost, time and effort. This ability provides a new tool to

  13. River Protection Project (RPP) Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    NAVARRO, J.E.

    2001-03-07

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) Project Management Plan (PMP) for the River Protection Project (RPP) describes the process for developing and operating a Waste Treatment Complex (WTC) to clean up Hanford Site tank waste. The Plan describes the scope of the project, the institutional setting within which the project must be completed, and the management processes and structure planned for implementation. The Plan is written from the perspective of the ORP as the taxpayers' representative. The Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State, has one of the largest concentrations of radioactive waste in the world, as a result of producing plutonium for national defense for more than 40 years. Approximately 53 million gallons of waste stored in 177 aging underground tanks represent major environmental, social, and political challenges for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These challenges require numerous interfaces with state and federal environmental officials, Tribal Nations, stakeholders, Congress, and the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ). The cleanup of the Site's tank waste is a national issue with the potential for environmental and economic impacts to the region and the nation.

  14. Managing Documents in the Wider Area: Intelligent Document Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittleston, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses techniques for managing documents in wide area networks, reviews technique limitations, and offers recommendations to database designers. Presented techniques include: increasing bandwidth, reducing data traffic, synchronizing documentation, partial synchronization, audit trials, navigation, and distribution control and security. Two…

  15. CASE STUDIES IN WELLHEAD PROTECTION AREA DELINEATION AND MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water monitoring is one of many management options for Wellhead Protection Program implementation. round-water parameters are monitored (1) to assess source-control measures, (2) to monitor compliance with drinking water standards at sites other then the wellhead, and (3) ...

  16. Current models broadly neglect specific needs of biodiversity conservation in protected areas under climate change

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Protected areas are the most common and important instrument for the conservation of biological diversity and are called for under the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity. Growing human population densities, intensified land-use, invasive species and increasing habitat fragmentation threaten ecosystems worldwide and protected areas are often the only refuge for endangered species. Climate change is posing an additional threat that may also impact ecosystems currently under protection. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to include the potential impact of climate change when designing future nature conservation strategies and implementing protected area management. This approach would go beyond reactive crisis management and, by necessity, would include anticipatory risk assessments. One avenue for doing so is being provided by simulation models that take advantage of the increase in computing capacity and performance that has occurred over the last two decades. Here we review the literature to determine the state-of-the-art in modeling terrestrial protected areas under climate change, with the aim of evaluating and detecting trends and gaps in the current approaches being employed, as well as to provide a useful overview and guidelines for future research. Results Most studies apply statistical, bioclimatic envelope models and focus primarily on plant species as compared to other taxa. Very few studies utilize a mechanistic, process-based approach and none examine biotic interactions like predation and competition. Important factors like land-use, habitat fragmentation, invasion and dispersal are rarely incorporated, restricting the informative value of the resulting predictions considerably. Conclusion The general impression that emerges is that biodiversity conservation in protected areas could benefit from the application of modern modeling approaches to a greater extent than is currently reflected in the scientific literature. It is

  17. Integrated groundwater quality management in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartjes, F. A.; Otte, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater assessments and remediations are approached at the scale of individual groundwater plumes. In urban areas, however, this management of individual groundwater plumes is often problematic for technical, practical or financial reasons, since the groundwater quality is often affected by a combination of sources, including (former) industrial activities, spills and leachate from uncontrolled landfills and building materials. As a result, often a whole series of intermingling contamination plumes is found in large volumes of groundwater. In several countries in the world, this led to stagnation of groundwater remediation in urban areas. Therefore, in the Netherlands there is a tendency managing groundwater in urban areas from an integrated perspective and on a larger scale. This so-called integrated groundwater quality management is often more efficient and hence, cheaper, since the organisation of the management of a cluster of groundwater plumes is much easier than it would be if all individual groundwater plumes were managed at different points in time. Integrated groundwater quality management should follow a tailor-made approach. However, to facilitate practical guidance was developed. This guidance relates to the delineation of the domain, the management of sources for groundwater contamination, procedures for monitoring, and (risk-based) assessment of the groundwater quality. Function-specific risk-based groundwater quality criteria were derived to support the assessment of the groundwater quality.

  18. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  19. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  20. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  1. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  2. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  3. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  4. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  5. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  6. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  7. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  8. 50 CFR Table 4 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions 4 Table 4 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF...

  9. 50 CFR Table 4 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions 4 Table 4 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF...

  10. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  11. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  12. Leveraging modern climatology to increase adaptive capacity across protected area networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davison, J.E.; Graumlich, L.J.; Rowland, E.L.; Pederson, G.T.; Breshears, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Human-driven changes in the global environment pose an increasingly urgent challenge for the management of ecosystems that is made all the more difficult by the uncertain future of both environmental conditions and ecological responses. Land managers need strategies to increase regional adaptive capacity, but relevant and rapid assessment approaches are lacking. To address this need, we developed a method to assess regional protected area networks across biophysically important climatic gradients often linked to biodiversity and ecosystem function. We plot the land of the southwestern United States across axes of historical climate space, and identify landscapes that may serve as strategic additions to current protected area portfolios. Considering climate space is straightforward, and it can be applied using a variety of relevant climate parameters across differing levels of land protection status. The resulting maps identify lands that are climatically distinct from existing protected areas, and may be utilized in combination with other ecological and socio-economic information essential to collaborative landscape-scale decision-making. Alongside other strategies intended to protect species of special concern, natural resources, and other ecosystem services, the methods presented herein provide another important hedging strategy intended to increase the adaptive capacity of protected area networks. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Carbon benefits from protected areas in the conterminous United States

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Conversion of forests to other land cover or land use releases the carbon stored in the forests and reduces carbon sequestration potential of the land. The rate of forest conversion could be reduced by establishing protected areas for biological diversity and other conservation goals. The purpose of this study is to quantify the efficiency and potential of forest land protection for mitigating GHG emissions. Results The analysis of related national-level datasets shows that during the period of 1992–2001 net forest losses in protected areas were small as compared to those in unprotected areas: -0.74% and −4.07%, respectively. If forest loss rates in protected and unprotected area had been similar, then forest losses in the protected forestlands would be larger by 870 km2/yr forests, that corresponds to release of 7 Tg C/yr (1 Tg=1012 g). Conversely, and continuing to assume no leakage effects or interactions of prices and harvest levels, about 1,200 km2/yr forests could have remained forest during the period of 1992–2001 if net area loss rate in the forestland outside protected areas was reduced by 20%. Not counting carbon in harvested wood products, this is equivalent to reducing fossil-fuel based carbon emissions by 10 Tg C/yr during this period. The South and West had much higher potentials to mitigate GHG emission from reducing loss rates in unprotected forests than that of North region. Spatially, rates of forest loss were higher across the coastal states in the southeastern US than would be expected from their population change, while interior states in the northern US experienced less forest area loss than would have been expected given their demographic characteristics. Conclusions The estimated carbon benefit from the reduced forest loss based on current protected areas is 7 Tg C/yr, equivalent to the average carbon benefit per year for a previously proposed ten-year $110 million per year tree planting program scenario in the US. If there

  14. Adaptive forest management for drinking water protection under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeck, R.; Hochbichler, E.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water resources drawn from forested catchment areas are prominent for providing water supply on our planet. Despite the fact that source waters stemming from forested watersheds have generally lower water quality problems than those stemming from agriculturally used watersheds, it has to be guaranteed that the forest stands meet high standards regarding their water protection functionality. For fulfilling these, forest management concepts have to be applied, which are adaptive regarding the specific forest site conditions and also regarding climate change scenarios. In the past century forest management in the alpine area of Austria was mainly based on the cultivation of Norway spruce, by the way neglecting specific forest site conditions, what caused in many cases highly vulnerable mono-species forest stands. The GIS based forest hydrotope model (FoHyM) provides a framework for forest management, which defines the most crucial parameters in a spatial explicit form. FoHyM stratifies the spacious drinking water protection catchments into forest hydrotopes, being operational units for forest management. The primary information layer of FoHyM is the potential natural forest community, which reflects the specific forest site conditions regarding geology, soil types, elevation above sea level, exposition and inclination adequately and hence defines the specific forest hydrotopes. For each forest hydrotope, the adequate tree species composition and forest stand structure for drinking water protection functionality was deduced, based on the plant-sociological information base provided by FoHyM. The most important overall purpose for the related elaboration of adaptive forest management concepts and measures was the improvement of forest stand stability, which can be seen as the crucial parameter for drinking water protection. Only stable forest stands can protect the fragile soil and humus layers and hence prevent erosion process which could endanger the water

  15. Reserves in Context: Planning for Leakage from Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, Anna R.; Bode, Michael; Venter, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    When protected areas reduce threats within their boundaries, they often displace a portion of these threats into adjacent areas through a process known as ‘leakage’, undermining conservation objectives. Using theoretical models and a case study of terrestrial mammals in Indonesia, we develop the first theoretical explanation of how leakage impacts conservation actions, and highlight conservation strategies that mitigate these impacts. Although leakage is a socio-economic process, we demonstrate that its negative impacts are also affected by the distribution of species, with leakage having larger impacts in landscapes with homogeneous distribution of species richness. Moreover, leakage has a greater negative effect when conservation strategies are implemented opportunistically, even creating the potential for perversely negative consequences from protected area establishment. Leakage thereby increases the relative benefits of systematic conservation planning over opportunism, especially in areas with high leakage and heterogeneously distributed species. Although leakage has the potential to undermine conservation actions, conservation planning can minimize this risk. PMID:26053163

  16. Child Protective Services Case Management Project. Final Report: Innovations in Protective Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Human Resources, Austin.

    One of seven reports in the Innovations in Protective Services series, this document reports on the development of a model of case management that clarified what is expected from Child Protective Service (CPS) specialists. By conducting a literature review, studying the role of the CPS case manager, and developing a case management model, the Case…

  17. Ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis of protected areas for conservation strategies.

    PubMed

    Scolozzi, Rocco; Schirpke, Uta; Morri, Elisa; D'Amato, Dalia; Santolini, Riccardo

    2014-12-15

    An ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis is proposed in order to identify and quantify internal and external factors supporting or threatening the conservation effectiveness of protected areas. The proposed approach concerns both the ecological and the social perspective. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats were evaluated based on 12 selected environmental and socio-economic indicators for all terrestrial Italian protected areas, belonging to the Natura 2000 network, and for their 5-km buffer area. The indicators, used as criteria within a multi-criteria assessment, include: core area, cost-distance between protected areas, changes in ecosystem services values, intensification of land use, and urbanization. The results were aggregated for three biogeographical regions, Alpine, Continental, and Mediterranean, indicating that Alpine sites have more opportunities and strengths than Continental and Mediterranean sites. The results call attention to where connectivity and land-use changes may have stronger influence on protected areas, in particular, whereas urbanization or intensification of agriculture may hamper conservation goals of protected areas. The proposed SWOT analysis provides helpful information for a multiple scale perspective and for identifying conservation priorities and for defining management strategies to assure biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision. PMID:25218331

  18. EXTINCTION DEBT OF PROTECTED AREAS IN DEVELOPING LANDSCAPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To conserve biological diversity, protected-area networks must be based not only upon current species distributions but also the landscape's long-term capacity to support populations. We used spatially-explicit population models requiring detailed habitat and demographic data to ...

  19. 40 CFR 149.3 - Critical Aquifer Protection Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vulnerable to contamination due to the hydrogeologic characteristics of the unsaturated or saturated zone within the suggested critical aquifer protection area; and (2) Contamination of the sole or principal source aquifer is reasonably likely to occur, unless a program to reduce or prevent such contamination...

  20. 40 CFR 149.3 - Critical Aquifer Protection Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vulnerable to contamination due to the hydrogeologic characteristics of the unsaturated or saturated zone within the suggested critical aquifer protection area; and (2) Contamination of the sole or principal source aquifer is reasonably likely to occur, unless a program to reduce or prevent such contamination...

  1. Development of Environmental Education Programs for Protected Areas in Madagascar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormsby, Alison

    2007-01-01

    Environmental education programs for schools in the peripheral zone of protected areas in Madagascar are still needed in numerous locations. My research investigated the status of environmental education and communication (EE&C) programs at Masoala National Park, Madagascar, as well as the attitudes of local residents toward the park and park…

  2. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-3 Protected areas. (a) The...-State eradication program. In addition, the State must employ personnel with responsibility for the... inspection program under which every plant nursery within the State is inspected at least once each year...

  3. 40 CFR 149.3 - Critical Aquifer Protection Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vulnerable to contamination due to the hydrogeologic characteristics of the unsaturated or saturated zone within the suggested critical aquifer protection area; and (2) Contamination of the sole or principal source aquifer is reasonably likely to occur, unless a program to reduce or prevent such contamination...

  4. 40 CFR 149.3 - Critical Aquifer Protection Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vulnerable to contamination due to the hydrogeologic characteristics of the unsaturated or saturated zone within the suggested critical aquifer protection area; and (2) Contamination of the sole or principal source aquifer is reasonably likely to occur, unless a program to reduce or prevent such contamination...

  5. 40 CFR 149.3 - Critical Aquifer Protection Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vulnerable to contamination due to the hydrogeologic characteristics of the unsaturated or saturated zone within the suggested critical aquifer protection area; and (2) Contamination of the sole or principal source aquifer is reasonably likely to occur, unless a program to reduce or prevent such contamination...

  6. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2011-10-01 2005-10-01 true Emergency establishment of protection areas. 17.106 Section 17.106 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  7. Space shuttle entry terminal area energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A historical account of the development for Shuttle's Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) is presented. A derivation and explanation of logic and equations are provided as a supplement to the well documented guidance computation requirements contained within the official Functional Subsystem Software Requirements (FSSR) published by Rockwell for NASA. The FSSR contains the full set of equations and logic, whereas this document addresses just certain areas for amplification.

  8. Fish stocking in protected areas: Summary of a workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Knapp, Roland A.

    2000-01-01

    Native and nonnative sport fish have been introduced into the majority of historically fishless lakes in wilderness, generating conflicts between managing wilderness as natural ecosystems and providing opportunities for recreation. Managers faced with controversial and difficult decisions about how to manage wilderness lakes may not always have ready access to research relevant to these decisions. To address this problem, and to expose scientists to the concerns and constraints of managers and wilderness users, a workshop was held in October 1998 at the Flathead Lake Biological Station in Polson, Montana. Participants included 43 scientists, state and federal managers, wilderness users and advocates and students. Four subject areas were addressed: federal, state, tribal and user perspectives, community and ecosystem effects, species effects and management recommendations. Papers from the workshop are being developed for an issue of the journal Ecosystems.

  9. Mapping change in human pressure globally on land and within protected areas.

    PubMed

    Geldmann, Jonas; Joppa, Lucas N; Burgess, Neil D

    2014-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the main driver of the observed decline in biological diversity is increasing human pressure on Earth's ecosystems. However, the spatial patterns of change in human pressure and their relation to conservation efforts are less well known. We developed a spatially and temporally explicit map of global change in human pressure over 2 decades between 1990 and 2010 at a resolution of 10 km(2) . We evaluated 22 spatial data sets representing different components of human pressure and used them to compile a temporal human pressure index (THPI) based on 3 data sets: human population density, land transformation, and electrical power infrastructure. We investigated how the THPI within protected areas was correlated to International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) management categories and the human development index (HDI) and how the THPI was correlated to cumulative pressure on the basis of the original human footprint index. Since the early 1990s, human pressure increased 64% of the terrestrial areas; the largest increases were in Southeast Asia. Protected areas also exhibited overall increases in human pressure, the degree of which varied with location and IUCN management category. Only wilderness areas and natural monuments (management categories Ib and III) exhibited decreases in pressure. Protected areas not assigned any category exhibited the greatest increases. High HDI values correlated with greater reductions in pressure across protected areas, while increasing age of the protected area correlated with increases in pressure. Our analysis is an initial step toward mapping changes in human pressure on the natural world over time. That only 3 data sets could be included in our spatio-temporal global pressure map highlights the challenge to measuring pressure changes over time. PMID:25052712

  10. Local Area Network Management: An Unresolved Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of management issues involved with local area networks (LAN) among information organizations focuses on a project at the University of North Texas that was designed to investigate problems associated with LAN. Topics discussed include purchasing decisions for hardware and software, and integration among various groups of users. (Eight…

  11. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  12. Habitat changes: Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frisina, M.R.; Keigley, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    In 1984, a rest-rotation grazing system was established on the Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area (MHWMA) in southwest Montana. The area is a mixture of wet and dry meadow types, grass/shrublands, and forest. Prior to implementing the grazing system, photo-monitoring points were established on the MHWMA at locations were cattle concentrate were grazing. The area consists of a three pasture rest-rotation system incorporating 20,000 acres. Photo essays revealed changes in riparian, lowland, and upland sites within the grazing system. In addition, gross changes in the amount of willow present were documented.

  13. Sustaining Jamaica's forests: The protected areas resource conservation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, Philip R.; Beatley, Timothy

    1995-07-01

    This study examines Jamaica's attempt to protect a tropical forest reserve. The biophysical setting, and the types and magnitude of forest development pressures are reviewed. Next, Jamaica's approach to developing new land-use strategies and compatible environmental protection and economic development programs are examined. Finally, the practical and theoretical implications by which institutions can be designed to encourage planning for sustainable development are reviewed. The implications suggest how to provide an appropriate mix of cooperation and market competition, by which people acting in their own interests accomplish socially equitable economic development, while protecting the environment for the benefit of future generations. The experience illustrates that effective long-term protection of natural areas requires the building of local relationships and support, the development of local economic activities supportive of conservation, the defining of clear boundaries, and significant monitoring and enforcement. Long-term protection of the Blue and John Crow mountains, and other important natural areas of Jamaica, will also require the development of a workable and enforceable system of land-use planning for the island, and adjustments to the economic incentive structure so that sustainable, nonextractive uses of natural capital are placed on equal footing with other economic uses (e.g., coffee production).

  14. [Phase-directional management of protective plantations. I. Fundamentals].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fengqi; Zhu, Jiaojun

    2002-10-01

    In order to ensure the higher effectiveness, more stability and sustainability of Protective plantations, the definition of phase-directional management (PDM) of protective plantations was brought forward on the basis of management researches and practices for protective plantations. The basics of PDM is protective maturity, which is defined as the time when the protective plantations attain to the state that the protective plantations can provide effective and complete protection to the objects needed to be protected. Protective maturity has two points, initial protective maturity age (IPMA), the age of protective maturity started, and terminal protective maturity age (TPMA), the age of protective maturity ended. Three management phases of protective plantation, i.e., prematurity phase, the period from sapling or establishment to initial protective maturity, protective maturity phase, the period of protective maturity lasting, and regeneration phase, the period during regeneration and before the establishment, are divided based on the fundamental of protective maturity. Directional management of protective plantation means that all of the management techniques in each phase are directed at the aim of protective maturity, i.e., protective maturity is the direction of management of protective forests, and protective maturity is the final objective for the management of protective forests. In order to sustain the protective maturity state, corresponding measures should be conducted in each phase, according to the classification of protective plantations. In pre-maturity phase, the purpose of managing is to accelerate the protective maturity, therefore, the measures such as weed clearing, soil cultivation, irrigation, fertilization, intercropping and branch cutting etc. should be conducted in protective plantations. In maturity phase, the aim of managing is to sustain the protective maturity, i.e., the techniques (tending and thinning) of controlling the structure of

  15. Tourism Revenue as a Conservation Tool for Threatened Birds in Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Steven, Rochelle; Castley, J. Guy; Buckley, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Many bird populations worldwide are at risk of extinction, and rely heavily on protected area networks for their continued conservation. Tourism to these areas contributes to conservation by generating revenue for management. Here we quantify the contribution of tourism revenue for bird species in the IUCN Red List, using a simple accounting method. Relevant data are available for 90 (16%) of the 562 critically endangered and endangered species. Contributions of tourism to bird conservation are highest, 10–64%, in South America, Africa, and their neighbouring islands. Critically endangered bird species rely on tourism more heavily than endangered species (p<0.02). Many protected areas could also enhance their management budgets by promoting birdwatching tourism specifically. PMID:23667498

  16. Tourism revenue as a conservation tool for threatened birds in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Steven, Rochelle; Castley, J Guy; Buckley, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Many bird populations worldwide are at risk of extinction, and rely heavily on protected area networks for their continued conservation. Tourism to these areas contributes to conservation by generating revenue for management. Here we quantify the contribution of tourism revenue for bird species in the IUCN Red List, using a simple accounting method. Relevant data are available for 90 (16%) of the 562 critically endangered and endangered species. Contributions of tourism to bird conservation are highest, 10-64%, in South America, Africa, and their neighbouring islands. Critically endangered bird species rely on tourism more heavily than endangered species (p<0.02). Many protected areas could also enhance their management budgets by promoting birdwatching tourism specifically. PMID:23667498

  17. Assessing the landscape context and conversion risk of protected areas using satellite data products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Svancara, L.K.; Scott, J.M.; Loveland, T.R.; Pidgorna, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of the first national park (Yellowstone National Park in 1872) and the first wildlife refuge (Pelican Island in 1903), dramatic changes have occurred in both ecological and cultural landscapes across the U.S. The ability of these protected areas to maintain current levels of biodiversity depend, at least in part, on the integrity of the surrounding landscape. Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent and pattern of natural land cover, risk of conversion, and relationships with demographic and economic variables in counties near National Park Service units and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuges with those counties distant from either type of protected area in the coterminous United States. Our results indicate that landscapes in counties within 10??km of both parks and refuges and those within 10??km of just parks were more natural, more intact, and more protected than those in counties within 10??km of just refuges and counties greater than 10??km from either protected area system. However, they also had greater human population density and change in population, indicating potential conversion risk since the percent of landscape protected averaged 2) in 76% of counties near both parks and refuges, 81% of counties near just parks, 91% of counties near just refuges, and 93% of distant counties. Thirteen percent of counties in the coterminous U.S. had moderate to high amounts of natural land cover (> 60%), low protection ( 20%). Although these areas are not the most critically endangered, they represent the greatest conservation opportunity, need, and urgency. Our approach is based on national level metrics that are simple, general, informative, and can be understood by broad audiences and by policy makers and managers to assess the health of lands surrounding parks and refuges. Regular monitoring of these metrics with satellite data products in counties surrounding protected areas provides a consistent, national level assessment

  18. Thermal Management and Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasnain, Aqib

    2016-01-01

    During my internship in the Thermal Design Branch (ES3), I contributed to two main projects: i) novel passive thermal management system for future human exploration, ii) AVCOAT undercut thermal analysis. i) As NASA prepares to further expand human and robotic presence in space, it is well known that spacecraft architectures will be challenged with unprecedented thermal environments. Future exploration activities will have the need of thermal management systems that can provide higher reliability, mass and power reduction and increased performance. In an effort to start addressing the current technical gaps the NASA Johnson Space Center Passive Thermal Discipline has engaged in technology development activities. One of these activities was done through an in-house Passive Thermal Management System (PTMS) design for a lunar lander. The proposed PTMS, functional in both microgravity and gravity environments, consists of three main components: a heat spreader, a novel hybrid wick Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP), and a radiator. The aim of this PTMS is to keep electronics on a vehicle within their temperature limits (0 and 50 C for the current design) during all mission phases including multiple lunar day/night cycles. The VCHP was tested to verify its thermal performance. I created a thermal math model using Thermal Desktop (TD) and analyzed it to predict the PTMS performance. After testing, the test data provided a means to correlate the thermal math model. This correlation took into account conduction and convection heat transfer, representing the actual benchtop test. Since this PTMS is proposed for space missions, a vacuum test will be taking place to provide confidence that the system is functional in space environments. Therefore, the model was modified to include a vacuum chamber with a liquid nitrogen shroud while taking into account conduction and radiation heat transfer. Infrared Lamps were modelled and introduced into the model to simulate the sun

  19. Effectiveness of Protected Areas in the Pan-Tropics and International Aid for Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Protected areas are crucial for tropical forest conservation efforts. Estimation of the effectiveness of protected areas is thus important for evaluating the efficacy of forest conservation policies and priorities. However, comprehensive evaluation of the long-term effects of Protected Areas and international aid is lacking. However, with the recent availability of long-term, large-scale forest cover change data at 30-m resolution, it has become possible to address some of the issues surrounding the effectiveness of protected areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of Protected Areas in the pan-tropics and international aid for conservation, we use the 30m resolution data along with econometrics 1) to estimate avoided deforestation by PAs in the tropics during the 2000s, 2) estimate effects of international aid on avoided deforestation by PAs and 3) analyze the relationships between the socio-economic variables and increases in deforestation, avoided deforestation by PAs and effects of international aid. Our results show that protected areas avoided 83,500 ± 21,200 km2 of deforestation during the 2000s. Brazil showed the highest estimates of effects of international aid on the avoided deforestation of 22 m2/USD, which is about 50 times higher compared to Indonesia (0.5 m2/USD). The regression analysis between avoided deforestation, effects of international aid and socio-economic factors demonstrates that PAs have been relatively more effective in the countries where the deforestation pressures were increasing and that governance and forest change monitoring capacity may be important factors enhancing the efficacy of international aid. Our study presents the first pan-tropical analysis of the long-term evaluation of the effectiveness of protected areas, international aid and their regulating factors using spatially explicit fine resolution data. Our findings allow us to pinpoint where conservation initiatives and resource management are effectively practiced and to

  20. 78 FR 68719 - Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... (42 FR 26951), with incorporating floodplain management goals and wetland protection considerations in... December 12, 2011, HUD proposed revising its regulations governing floodplain management (76 FR 77162, as... agencies (agencies) are charged by E.O. 11990, entitled Protection of Wetlands, dated May 24, 1977 (42...

  1. Does a No-Take Marine Protected Area Benefit Seahorses?

    PubMed Central

    Harasti, David; Martin-Smith, Keith; Gladstone, William

    2014-01-01

    Seahorses are iconic charismatic species that are often used to ‘champion’ marine conservation causes around the world. As they are threatened in many countries by over-exploitation and habitat loss, marine protected areas (MPAs) could help with their protection and recovery. MPAs may conserve seahorses through protecting essential habitats and removing fishing pressures. Populations of White's seahorse, Hippocampus whitei, a species endemic to New South Wales, Australia, were monitored monthly from 2006 to 2009 using diver surveys at two sites within a no-take marine protected areas established in 1983, and at two control sites outside the no-take MPA sites. Predators of H. whitei were also identified and monitored. Hippocampus whitei were more abundant at the control sites. Seahorse predators (3 species of fish and 2 species of octopus) were more abundant within the no-take MPA sites. Seahorse and predator abundances were negatively correlated. Substantial variability in the seahorse population at one of the control sites reinforced the importance of long-term monitoring and use of multiple control sites to assess the outcomes of MPAs for seahorses. MPAs should be used cautiously to conserve seahorse populations as there is the risk of a negative impact through increased predator abundance. PMID:25137253

  2. Does a no-take marine protected area benefit seahorses?

    PubMed

    Harasti, David; Martin-Smith, Keith; Gladstone, William

    2014-01-01

    Seahorses are iconic charismatic species that are often used to 'champion' marine conservation causes around the world. As they are threatened in many countries by over-exploitation and habitat loss, marine protected areas (MPAs) could help with their protection and recovery. MPAs may conserve seahorses through protecting essential habitats and removing fishing pressures. Populations of White's seahorse, Hippocampus whitei, a species endemic to New South Wales, Australia, were monitored monthly from 2006 to 2009 using diver surveys at two sites within a no-take marine protected areas established in 1983, and at two control sites outside the no-take MPA sites. Predators of H. whitei were also identified and monitored. Hippocampus whitei were more abundant at the control sites. Seahorse predators (3 species of fish and 2 species of octopus) were more abundant within the no-take MPA sites. Seahorse and predator abundances were negatively correlated. Substantial variability in the seahorse population at one of the control sites reinforced the importance of long-term monitoring and use of multiple control sites to assess the outcomes of MPAs for seahorses. MPAs should be used cautiously to conserve seahorse populations as there is the risk of a negative impact through increased predator abundance. PMID:25137253

  3. International and European law on protected areas and climate change: need for adaptation or implementation?

    PubMed

    Cliquet, A

    2014-10-01

    The protection and management of protected areas must be adapted to the effects of climate change. An important question is if the law on protected areas is capable of dealing with the required changes. In general, both international nature conventions and European Union nature conservation law do not contain any specific provisions on climate change and protected areas. Attention has been paid to this link in non-binding decisions and policy documents. In order to adapt the law to increased dynamics from climate change, more flexibility is needed. This flexibility should not be understood as "legal" flexibility, in the sense of the weakening nature conservation provisions. Scientific uncertainties on the effects of climate change might conflict with the need for legal certainties. In order to adapt to the effects of climate change, the two crucial elements are the strengthening of core protected areas and connectivity between the core areas. At the international level, both elements can be found in non-binding documents. International law enables the required adaptation; however, it often lacks concrete obligations. A stronger legal framework can be found at the level of the European Union. The Birds and Habitats Directives contain sufficient tools to deal with the effects of climate change. The Directives have been insufficiently implemented so far. Especially the central goals of reaching a favorable conservation status and connectivity measures need to be addressed much more in the future. PMID:24390082

  4. International and European Law on Protected Areas and Climate Change: Need for Adaptation or Implementation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliquet, A.

    2014-10-01

    The protection and management of protected areas must be adapted to the effects of climate change. An important question is if the law on protected areas is capable of dealing with the required changes. In general, both international nature conventions and European Union nature conservation law do not contain any specific provisions on climate change and protected areas. Attention has been paid to this link in non-binding decisions and policy documents. In order to adapt the law to increased dynamics from climate change, more flexibility is needed. This flexibility should not be understood as "legal" flexibility, in the sense of the weakening nature conservation provisions. Scientific uncertainties on the effects of climate change might conflict with the need for legal certainties. In order to adapt to the effects of climate change, the two crucial elements are the strengthening of core protected areas and connectivity between the core areas. At the international level, both elements can be found in non-binding documents. International law enables the required adaptation; however, it often lacks concrete obligations. A stronger legal framework can be found at the level of the European Union. The Birds and Habitats Directives contain sufficient tools to deal with the effects of climate change. The Directives have been insufficiently implemented so far. Especially the central goals of reaching a favorable conservation status and connectivity measures need to be addressed much more in the future.

  5. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Useche, D Carolina; Rendeiro, Julio; Kalka, Margareta; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Sloan, Sean P; Laurance, Susan G; Campbell, Mason; Abernethy, Kate; Alvarez, Patricia; Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor; Ashton, Peter; Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Blom, Allard; Bobo, Kadiri S; Cannon, Charles H; Cao, Min; Carroll, Richard; Chapman, Colin; Coates, Rosamond; Cords, Marina; Danielsen, Finn; De Dijn, Bart; Dinerstein, Eric; Donnelly, Maureen A; Edwards, David; Edwards, Felicity; Farwig, Nina; Fashing, Peter; Forget, Pierre-Michel; Foster, Mercedes; Gale, George; Harris, David; Harrison, Rhett; Hart, John; Karpanty, Sarah; Kress, W John; Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Logsdon, Willis; Lovett, Jon; Magnusson, William; Maisels, Fiona; Marshall, Andrew R; McClearn, Deedra; Mudappa, Divya; Nielsen, Martin R; Pearson, Richard; Pitman, Nigel; van der Ploeg, Jan; Plumptre, Andrew; Poulsen, John; Quesada, Mauricio; Rainey, Hugo; Robinson, Douglas; Roetgers, Christiane; Rovero, Francesco; Scatena, Frederick; Schulze, Christian; Sheil, Douglas; Struhsaker, Thomas; Terborgh, John; Thomas, Duncan; Timm, Robert; Urbina-Cardona, J Nicolas; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Wright, S Joseph; Arias-G, Juan Carlos; Arroyo, Luzmila; Ashton, Mark; Auzel, Philippe; Babaasa, Dennis; Babweteera, Fred; Baker, Patrick; Banki, Olaf; Bass, Margot; Bila-Isia, Inogwabini; Blake, Stephen; Brockelman, Warren; Brokaw, Nicholas; Brühl, Carsten A; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Chao, Jung-Tai; Chave, Jerome; Chellam, Ravi; Clark, Connie J; Clavijo, José; Congdon, Robert; Corlett, Richard; Dattaraja, H S; Dave, Chittaranjan; Davies, Glyn; Beisiegel, Beatriz de Mello; da Silva, Rosa de Nazaré Paes; Di Fiore, Anthony; Diesmos, Arvin; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Doran-Sheehy, Diane; Eaton, Mitchell; Emmons, Louise; Estrada, Alejandro; Ewango, Corneille; Fedigan, Linda; Feer, François; Fruth, Barbara; Willis, Jacalyn Giacalone; Goodale, Uromi; Goodman, Steven; Guix, Juan C; Guthiga, Paul; Haber, William; Hamer, Keith; Herbinger, Ilka; Hill, Jane; Huang, Zhongliang; Sun, I Fang; Ickes, Kalan; Itoh, Akira; Ivanauskas, Natália; Jackes, Betsy; Janovec, John; Janzen, Daniel; Jiangming, Mo; Jin, Chen; Jones, Trevor; Justiniano, Hermes; Kalko, Elisabeth; Kasangaki, Aventino; Killeen, Timothy; King, Hen-biau; Klop, Erik; Knott, Cheryl; Koné, Inza; Kudavidanage, Enoka; Ribeiro, José Lahoz da Silva; Lattke, John; Laval, Richard; Lawton, Robert; Leal, Miguel; Leighton, Mark; Lentino, Miguel; Leonel, Cristiane; Lindsell, Jeremy; Ling-Ling, Lee; Linsenmair, K Eduard; Losos, Elizabeth; Lugo, Ariel; Lwanga, Jeremiah; Mack, Andrew L; Martins, Marlucia; McGraw, W Scott; McNab, Roan; Montag, Luciano; Thompson, Jo Myers; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Nakagawa, Michiko; Nepal, Sanjay; Norconk, Marilyn; Novotny, Vojtech; O'Donnell, Sean; Opiang, Muse; Ouboter, Paul; Parker, Kenneth; Parthasarathy, N; Pisciotta, Kátia; Prawiradilaga, Dewi; Pringle, Catherine; Rajathurai, Subaraj; Reichard, Ulrich; Reinartz, Gay; Renton, Katherine; Reynolds, Glen; Reynolds, Vernon; Riley, Erin; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Rothman, Jessica; Round, Philip; Sakai, Shoko; Sanaiotti, Tania; Savini, Tommaso; Schaab, Gertrud; Seidensticker, John; Siaka, Alhaji; Silman, Miles R; Smith, Thomas B; de Almeida, Samuel Soares; Sodhi, Navjot; Stanford, Craig; Stewart, Kristine; Stokes, Emma; Stoner, Kathryn E; Sukumar, Raman; Surbeck, Martin; Tobler, Mathias; Tscharntke, Teja; Turkalo, Andrea; Umapathy, Govindaswamy; van Weerd, Merlijn; Rivera, Jorge Vega; Venkataraman, Meena; Venn, Linda; Verea, Carlos; de Castilho, Carolina Volkmer; Waltert, Matthias; Wang, Benjamin; Watts, David; Weber, William; West, Paige; Whitacre, David; Whitney, Ken; Wilkie, David; Williams, Stephen; Wright, Debra D; Wright, Patricia; Xiankai, Lu; Yonzon, Pralad; Zamzani, Franky

    2012-09-13

    The rapid disruption of tropical forests probably imperils global biodiversity more than any other contemporary phenomenon. With deforestation advancing quickly, protected areas are increasingly becoming final refuges for threatened species and natural ecosystem processes. However, many protected areas in the tropics are themselves vulnerable to human encroachment and other environmental stresses. As pressures mount, it is vital to know whether existing reserves can sustain their biodiversity. A critical constraint in addressing this question has been that data describing a broad array of biodiversity groups have been unavailable for a sufficiently large and representative sample of reserves. Here we present a uniquely comprehensive data set on changes over the past 20 to 30 years in 31 functional groups of species and 21 potential drivers of environmental change, for 60 protected areas stratified across the world’s major tropical regions. Our analysis reveals great variation in reserve ‘health’: about half of all reserves have been effective or performed passably, but the rest are experiencing an erosion of biodiversity that is often alarmingly widespread taxonomically and functionally. Habitat disruption, hunting and forest-product exploitation were the strongest predictors of declining reserve health. Crucially, environmental changes immediately outside reserves seemed nearly as important as those inside in determining their ecological fate, with changes inside reserves strongly mirroring those occurring around them. These findings suggest that tropical protected areas are often intimately linked ecologically to their surrounding habitats, and that a failure to stem broad-scale loss and degradation of such habitats could sharply increase the likelihood of serious biodiversity declines. PMID:22832582

  6. NCRP Program Area Committee 4: Radiation Protection in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Brink, James A; Miller, Donald L

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee (PAC) 4 deals with issues in radiation protection in healthcare settings. NCRP Statement No. 11 was published at the end of 2014, and three active scientific committees (SC) are at work--SC 4-5, SC 4-7, and SC 4-8. PAC 4 is also considering a number of topics that could be addressed by new scientific committees in the future. PMID:26717159

  7. 50 CFR Table 12 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites 12 Table 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 12 Table 12 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection...

  8. 50 CFR Table 12 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites 12 Table 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 12 Table 12 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection...

  9. 50 CFR Table 12 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites 12 Table 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 12 Table 12 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection...

  10. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  11. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  12. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  13. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  14. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  15. Forrest Conservation Area : Management & Implementation FY 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brent

    2008-12-01

    The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Conservation Area during July of 2002. The property is located in the Upper John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The property consists of two parcels comprising 4,232 acres. The Mainstem parcel consists of 3,445 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem John Day River. The Middle Fork parcel consists of 786 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the Middle Fork John Day River. The Forrest Conservation Area is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. Acquisition of the Forrest Conservation Area was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The intent of the Conservation Area is to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, {section}11.1, {section}7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of management funding for the protection and restoration of fish and wildlife habitat through a memorandum of agreement.

  16. The future of protected areas in a crowded world.

    PubMed

    Harmon, D; Brechin, S R

    1994-01-01

    Population-environment interactions date back to Malthus and even Confucius who viewed humans as a threat to the planet. In contrast, pronatalists regard the human mind the ultimate resource and think that there is no limit to the number of people the earth can support. There are a few countries whose population is projected to be lower in 2025 than it was in 1990: Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Greece, Hungary, and Italy. The highest population growth rates (3% and above) are in Africa, the Gulf states, and some other Islamic countries. Rates of 1-3% are common everywhere outside Europe. Almost all of the wealthiest countries are growing at the rate of less than 1%, while the poorest countries, except for China and Sri Lanka, are growing at rates of 2% or more. The world's continuing population growth rides on the fact that in developing countries 40% of the population is under the age of 15. Relentless urbanization will eradicate 1.4 billion acres of arable land from 1980 to 2000. In 1950, 13 of the 25 most populous cities were in less developed countries; by 2000, 20 out of 25 will be. Migration, especially rural-urban migration, has an impact. "Economic refugees" from impoverished rural areas, "environmental refugees" from overworked lands or disaster-stricken areas, and political refugees from wars or persecution crowd around protected areas. Some examples of the population-protected area interactions include Kenya (the 3.56% growth rate threatens the world-renowned national parks), Tanzania (its 3.28% rate of growth causes encroachment into protected areas), Congo (natural rainforests are disturbed), Gabon (the rate of growth is 4.01%), and Zaire (an annual increment of over 1 million people). The threat to unexploited wildlife in the Ivory Coast, direct pressure on forested protected areas in Malaysia, deforestation in the Philippines, in-migration into the Pelen in Guatemala, the situation of the Shenandoah National Park in the United States, and pressures

  17. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd management areas shall be established for the maintenance of wild horse and burro herds. In delineating...

  18. Creating Protected Areas on Public Lands: Is There Room for Additional Conservation?

    PubMed Central

    Arriagada, Rodrigo A.; Echeverria, Cristian M.; Moya, Danisa E.

    2016-01-01

    Most evaluations of the effectiveness of PAs have relied on indirect estimates based on comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Such methods can be biased when protection is not randomly assigned. We add to the growing literature on the impact of PAs by answering the following research questions: What is the impact of Chilean PAs on deforestation which occurred between 1986 and 2011? How do estimates of the impact of PAs vary when using only public land as control units? We show that the characteristics of the areas in which protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. To satisfactorily estimate the effects of PAs, we use matching methods to define adequate control groups, but not as in previous research. We construct control groups using separately non-protected private areas and non-protected public lands. We find that PAs avoid deforestation when using unprotected private lands as valid controls, however results show no impact when the control group is based only on unprotected public land. Different land management regimes, and higher levels of enforcement inside public lands may reduce the opportunity to add additional conservation benefits when the national systems for PAs are based on the protection of previously unprotected public lands. Given that not all PAs are established to avoid deforestation, results also admit the potential for future studies to include other outcomes including forest degradation (not just deforestation), biodiversity, wildlife, primary forests (not forests in general), among others. PMID:26848856

  19. Civil Protection issues in urban management of natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, Maria; Georgescu, Sever; Goretti, Agostino; Markus, Michael

    2010-05-01

    This paper reviews different approaches of collaboration with the Civil Protection across Europe, from the experience of the author. The first contact came working as a research assistant at the Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Germany, in frame of the SFB (Collaborative Research Centre) 461 "Strong earthquakes", which featured a collaboration Germany-Romania. The subproject C7, where involved, about Novel Rescue technologies was a collaboration between the Institute for Technology and Management in Construction, formerly Institute for Construction Management and Machinery, and the Romanian Civil Protection. The scientific results of the project were to be lated implemented by the Civil Protection. In course of the work contacts were done also through the work of the research associate, sub-project leader, in the THW (German Technical Assistance). Later on work continued at the same institute but in frame of the Research Training Network "Natural Disasters" when also contacts with the Romanian representative to the European Earthquake Engineering Association, were established. Working further in the same field of Natural Disasters, especially seismic risk, brought the author to the ROSE School in Pavia, Italy, researches of which closely collaborate with the EUCENTRE, founded, among other institutions, by the Italian Civil Protection. Particularly the collaboration with specialists from the Italian Civil Protection resulted in several initiatives, such as: - paper contribution to a special issue edited by the author, - organisation of EGU sessions on the topic of "Natural Hazards' Impact on Urban Areas and Infrastructure", - invited review of papers, - attendance of short course coordinated at the ROSE School on post-earthquake safety assessment, - ellaboration of scientific projects submitted for funding on the topic of earthquake hazard impact at various geographic scales, - further publication collaborations are in work, - it is intended to improve the collaboration

  20. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-11-01

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types--always far higher within the arc--but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact. PMID:26460126

  1. A comparison of campfire impacts and policies in seven protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, S.E.; Marion, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Using resource-monitoring data from seven protected areas, the effectiveness of three campfire policies-campfire ban, designated campfires, and unregulated campfires-were assessed based on the number of fire sites and the amount of tree damage. Results indicate that unregulated campfire policies permitted substantial numbers of fire sites and tree damage in campsites, although fire bans did not eliminate or even substantially decrease these problems. A designated campfire policy was effective in decreasing number of fire sites, but little difference was found among policies regarding tree damage. Given the importance of campfires to visitor experiences, campfire prohibitions could be viewed as unnecessarily restrictive based on their limited success in preventing resource damage. Conclusions encourage protected-area managers to consider designated campfire policies and prohibitions on axes, hatchets, and saws to better meet resource protection and visitor experience mandates.

  2. Marine protected areas and resilience to sedimentation in the Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, B. S.; Selkoe, K. A.; White, C.; Albert, S.; Aswani, S.; Lauer, M.

    2013-03-01

    The ability of marine protected areas (MPAs) to provide protection from indirect stressors, via increased resilience afforded by decreased impact from direct stressors, remains an important and unresolved question about the role MPAs can play in broader conservation and resource management goals. Over a five-year period, we evaluated coral and fish community responses inside and outside three MPAs within the Roviana Lagoon system in Solomon Islands, where sedimentation pressure from upland logging is substantial. We found little evidence that MPAs decrease impact or improve conditions and instead found some potential declines in fish abundance. We also documented modest to high levels of poaching during this period. Where compliance with management is poor, and indirect stressors play a dominant role in determining ecosystem condition, as appears to be the case in Roviana Lagoon, MPAs may provide little management benefit.

  3. Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C.; Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Pereira, José M. C.; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world’s most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997–2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  4. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    PubMed

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C; Oliveira, Sofia L J; Pereira, José M C; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  5. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

  6. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan : Executive Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation in Oregon.

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources. The Northwest Power Act directs the NPPC to develop a program to ''protect, mitigate, and enhance'' fish and wildlife of the Columbia River and its tributaries. The overarching goals include: A Columbia River ecosystem that sustains an abundant, productive, and diverse community of fish and wildlife; Mitigation across the basin for the adverse effects to fish and wildlife caused by the development and operation of the hydrosystem; Sufficient populations of fish and wildlife for abundant opportunities for tribal trust and treaty right harvest and for non-tribal harvest; and Recovery of the fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of the hydrosystem that are listed under the Endangered Species Act.

  7. 2. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, FROM INSIDE THE PROTECTED AREA AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, FROM INSIDE THE PROTECTED AREA AT THE BASE OF TOWER 901. THE BUILDINGS IN THE FOREGROUND INCLUDE 984, 992, 991, 989, AND 968. THESE BUILDINGS MAKE UP THE BUILDING 991 COMPLEX. BUILDING 991, PLANT D, WAS THE FIRST OPERATIONAL BUILDING ON SITE, CONSTRUCTED IN 1951 AS THE FINAL ASSEMBLY AND SHIPPING AND RECEIVING BUILDING. TO THE NORTH AND NORTHWEST OF BUILDING 991 ARE THE UNDERGROUND VAULTS AND TUNNELS USED TO STORAGE WEAPONS COMPONENTS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  8. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Beitel, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal.

  9. 7 CFR 407.17 - Area risk protection insurance for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for wheat. 407.17... protection insurance for wheat. The wheat crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for... Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Wheat Crop Insurance Provisions...

  10. 7 CFR 407.16 - Area risk protection insurance for soybean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for soybean. 407.16... protection insurance for soybean. The soybean crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance... Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Soybean Crop Insurance Provisions...

  11. 7 CFR 407.11 - Area risk protection insurance for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for corn. 407.11... protection insurance for corn. The corn crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for the... Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Corn Crop Insurance Provisions 1. Definitions...

  12. 7 CFR 407.14 - Area risk protection insurance for peanuts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for peanuts 407.14... protection insurance for peanuts The peanut crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for... Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Peanut Crop Insurance Provisions...

  13. 7 CFR 407.12 - Area risk protection insurance for cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for cotton. 407.12... protection insurance for cotton. The cotton crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for... Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions...

  14. 7 CFR 407.13 - Area risk protection insurance for forage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for forage. 407.13... protection insurance for forage. The forage crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for... Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Forage Crop Insurance Provisions...

  15. 7 CFR 407.10 - Area risk protection insurance for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for barley. 407.10... protection insurance for barley. The barley crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for... Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Barley Crop Insurance Provisions...

  16. Indicators and protocols for monitoring impacts of formal and informal trails in protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2011-01-01

    Trails are a common recreation infrastructure in protected areas and their conditions affect the quality of natural resources and visitor experiences. Various trail impact indicators and assessment protocols have been developed in support of monitoring programs, which are often used for management decision-making or as part of visitor capacity management frameworks. This paper reviews common indicators and assessment protocols for three types of trails, surfaced formal trails, unsurfaced formal trails, and informal (visitor-created) trails. Monitoring methods and selected data from three U.S. National Park Service units are presented to illustrate some common trail impact indicators and assessment options.

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  18. Economic Shocks and Public Health Protections in US Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined public health system responses to economic shocks using longitudinal observations of public health activities implemented in US metropolitan areas from 1998 to 2012. Methods. The National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems collected data on the implementation of 20 core public health activities in a nationally representative cohort of 280 metropolitan areas in 1998, 2006, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate how local economic shocks relate to the scope of activities implemented in communities, the mix of organizations performing them, and perceptions of the effectiveness of activities. Results. Public health activities fell by nearly 5% in the average community between 2006 and 2012, with the bottom quintile of communities losing nearly 25% of their activities. Local public health delivery fell most sharply among communities experiencing the largest increases in unemployment and the largest reductions in governmental public health spending. Conclusions. Federal resources and private sector contributions failed to avert reductions in local public health protections during the recession. New financing mechanisms may be necessary to ensure equitable public health protections during economic downturns. PMID:25689201

  19. Local residents perception of benefits and losses from protected areas in India and Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karanth, Krithi K; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2012-02-01

    High densities of people living around protected areas (PAs) in South Asia require management strategies to balance conservation goals and livelihood needs. Based on a survey of 777 households around five PAs in India and Nepal, this paper provides a comparative perspective of Indian and Nepali households' views of protected area benefits and costs, their attitude toward conservation in general, and attitude toward protected area staff. Results indicate mixed responses towards tourism, varying from very favorable in Nepal to less favorable in India. The majority (81%) held positive attitudes towards the existence and importance of PAs but had negative perceptions of PA staff (69%). Most residents perceived benefits from access to fuel wood, fodder and other PA resources including benefits from tourism, while crop and livestock losses from wildlife were the main costs. Households overall positive attitudes towards the PAs and conservation despite high losses from living around PAs suggests that local residents may support conservation if their livelihood needs are met. Comparisons of household attitudes and perceptions suggest that locally based strategies rather than top-down approaches are likely to be more effective. Extending PA benefits to smaller landholders, households that are highly resource-dependent or experiencing higher income losses from human-wildlife conflicts, and less educated residents are particularly important to balance costs and losses from living around protected areas. PMID:22080427

  20. Local Residents Perception of Benefits and Losses From Protected Areas in India and Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanth, Krithi K.; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2012-02-01

    High densities of people living around protected areas (PAs) in South Asia require management strategies to balance conservation goals and livelihood needs. Based on a survey of 777 households around five PAs in India and Nepal, this paper provides a comparative perspective of Indian and Nepali households' views of protected area benefits and costs, their attitude toward conservation in general, and attitude toward protected area staff. Results indicate mixed responses towards tourism, varying from very favorable in Nepal to less favorable in India. The majority (81%) held positive attitudes towards the existence and importance of PAs but had negative perceptions of PA staff (69%). Most residents perceived benefits from access to fuel wood, fodder and other PA resources including benefits from tourism, while crop and livestock losses from wildlife were the main costs. Households overall positive attitudes towards the PAs and conservation despite high losses from living around PAs suggests that local residents may support conservation if their livelihood needs are met. Comparisons of household attitudes and perceptions suggest that locally based strategies rather than top-down approaches are likely to be more effective. Extending PA benefits to smaller landholders, households that are highly resource-dependent or experiencing higher income losses from human-wildlife conflicts, and less educated residents are particularly important to balance costs and losses from living around protected areas.

  1. Role of Brazilian Amazon protected areas in climate change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Moutinho, Paulo; Nepstad, Daniel; Anderson, Anthony; Rodrigues, Hermann; Garcia, Ricardo; Dietzsch, Laura; Merry, Frank; Bowman, Maria; Hissa, Letícia; Silvestrini, Rafaella; Maretti, Cláudio

    2010-06-15

    Protected areas (PAs) now shelter 54% of the remaining forests of the Brazilian Amazon and contain 56% of its forest carbon. However, the role of these PAs in reducing carbon fluxes to the atmosphere from deforestation and their associated costs are still uncertain. To fill this gap, we analyzed the effect of each of 595 Brazilian Amazon PAs on deforestation using a metric that accounts for differences in probability of deforestation in areas of pairwise comparison. We found that the three major categories of PA (indigenous land, strictly protected, and sustainable use) showed an inhibitory effect, on average, between 1997 and 2008. Of 206 PAs created after the year 1999, 115 showed increased effectiveness after their designation as protected. The recent expansion of PAs in the Brazilian Amazon was responsible for 37% of the region's total reduction in deforestation between 2004 and 2006 without provoking leakage. All PAs, if fully implemented, have the potential to avoid 8.0 +/- 2.8 Pg of carbon emissions by 2050. Effectively implementing PAs in zones under high current or future anthropogenic threat offers high payoffs for reducing carbon emissions, and as a result should receive special attention in planning investments for regional conservation. Nevertheless, this strategy demands prompt and predictable resource streams. The Amazon PA network represents a cost of US$147 +/- 53 billion (net present value) for Brazil in terms of forgone profits and investments needed for their consolidation. These costs could be partially compensated by an international climate accord that includes economic incentives for tropical countries that reduce their carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. PMID:20505122

  2. Role of Brazilian Amazon protected areas in climate change mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Moutinho, Paulo; Nepstad, Daniel; Anderson, Anthony; Rodrigues, Hermann; Garcia, Ricardo; Dietzsch, Laura; Merry, Frank; Bowman, Maria; Hissa, Letícia; Silvestrini, Rafaella; Maretti, Cláudio

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) now shelter 54% of the remaining forests of the Brazilian Amazon and contain 56% of its forest carbon. However, the role of these PAs in reducing carbon fluxes to the atmosphere from deforestation and their associated costs are still uncertain. To fill this gap, we analyzed the effect of each of 595 Brazilian Amazon PAs on deforestation using a metric that accounts for differences in probability of deforestation in areas of pairwise comparison. We found that the three major categories of PA (indigenous land, strictly protected, and sustainable use) showed an inhibitory effect, on average, between 1997 and 2008. Of 206 PAs created after the year 1999, 115 showed increased effectiveness after their designation as protected. The recent expansion of PAs in the Brazilian Amazon was responsible for 37% of the region's total reduction in deforestation between 2004 and 2006 without provoking leakage. All PAs, if fully implemented, have the potential to avoid 8.0 ± 2.8 Pg of carbon emissions by 2050. Effectively implementing PAs in zones under high current or future anthropogenic threat offers high payoffs for reducing carbon emissions, and as a result should receive special attention in planning investments for regional conservation. Nevertheless, this strategy demands prompt and predictable resource streams. The Amazon PA network represents a cost of US$147 ± 53 billion (net present value) for Brazil in terms of forgone profits and investments needed for their consolidation. These costs could be partially compensated by an international climate accord that includes economic incentives for tropical countries that reduce their carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. PMID:20505122

  3. Data Protection Management in University Libraries in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, J. Eric

    1997-01-01

    Examines a range of issues relating to data protection management in UK (United Kingdom) university library and information services. Highlights include data protection legislation, personal data in libraries, and results of an impact survey of UK university libraries. A copy of the survey questionnaire is appended. (Author/LRW)

  4. Management Guide to the Protection of Information Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsing, Cheryl; And Others

    This guide introduces information systems security concerns and outlines the issues that must be addressed by all agency managers in meeting their responsibilities to protect information systems within their organizations. It describes the essential components of an effective information resource protection process that applies to an individual…

  5. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  6. A global assessment of the social and conservation outcomes of protected areas.

    PubMed

    Oldekop, J A; Holmes, G; Harris, W E; Evans, K L

    2016-02-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are a key strategy for protecting biological resources, but they vary considerably in their effectiveness and are frequently reported as having negative impacts on local people. This has contributed to a divisive and unresolved debate concerning the compatibility of environmental and socioeconomic development goals. Elucidating the relationship between positive and negative social impacts and conservation outcomes of PAs is key for the development of more effective and socially just conservation. We conducted a global meta-analysis on 165 PAs using data from 171 published studies. We assessed how PAs affect the well-being of local people, the factors associated with these impacts, and crucially the relationship between PAs' conservation and socioeconomic outcomes. Protected areas associated with positive socioeconomic outcomes were more likely to report positive conservation outcomes. Positive conservation and socioeconomic outcomes were more likely to occur when PAs adopted comanagement regimes, empowered local people, reduced economic inequalities, and maintained cultural and livelihood benefits. Whereas the strictest regimes of PA management attempted to exclude anthropogenic influences to achieve biological conservation objectives, PAs that explicitly integrated local people as stakeholders tended to be more effective at achieving joint biological conservation and socioeconomic development outcomes. Strict protection may be needed in some circumstances, yet our results demonstrate that conservation and development objectives can be synergistic and highlight management strategies that increase the probability of maximizing both conservation performance and development outcomes of PAs. PMID:26096222

  7. ONSITE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT TO PROTECT SUWANNEE SOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Suwannee Sound area is the second most important oyster producing area in Florida. In 1989, the Florida Department of Natural Resources estimated the oyster fishery production at $6 million dollars. In 1997, a central sewage treatment facility was built for the town of Su...

  8. Drawing lines at the sand: evidence for functional vs. visual reef boundaries in temperate Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, E V; Cousens, S L; Nancollas, S J; Stauss, C; Royle, J; Attrill, M J

    2013-11-15

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) can either protect all seabed habitats within them or discrete features. If discrete features within the MPA are to be protected humans have to know where the boundaries are. In Lyme Bay, SW England a MPA excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km(2) to protect rocky reef habitats and the associated species. The site comprised a mosaic of sedimentary and reef habitats and so 'non reef' habitat also benefited from the MPA. Following 3 years protection, video data showed that sessile Reef Associated Species (RAS) had colonised sedimentary habitat indicating that 'reef' was present. This suggested that the functional extent of the reef was potentially greater than its visual boundary. Feature based MPA management may not adequately protect targeted features, whereas site based management allows for shifting baselines and will be more effective at delivering ecosystem goods and services. PMID:24075618

  9. Accounting protesting and warm glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of environmental goods--an empirical case study assessing the value of protecting a Natura 2000 wetland area in Greece.

    PubMed

    Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-11-30

    Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and warm glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids are rooted to some extent in warm glow reasoning while 29% of the zero bids can be classified as expressions of protest rather than preferences. In previous studies, warm glow bidders are only rarely identified while protesters are typically identified and excluded from further analysis. We test for selection bias associated with simple removal of both protesters and warm glow bidders in our data. Our findings show that removal of warm glow bidders does not significantly distort WTP whereas we find strong evidence of selection bias associated with removal of protesters. We show how to correct for such selection bias by using a sample selection model. In our empirical sample, using the typical approach of removing protesters from the analysis, the value of protecting the wetland is significantly underestimated by as much as 46% unless correcting for selection bias. PMID:24091158

  10. Human migration, protected areas, and conservation outreach in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C

    2014-06-01

    A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics. PMID:24476123

  11. Management of Environmental Risks in Coastal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprioli, M.; Trizzino, R.; Pagliarulo, R.; Scarano, M.; Mazzone, F.; Scognamiglio, A.

    2015-08-01

    The present work deals with the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions in a typical costal area of Southern Italy. This area, located in the Salento peninsula, is subject to recurrent widespread instability phenomena due to the presence of steep rocky cliffs. Along the coast there are numerous beach resorts that are very crowded in the summer season. The environmental hazard deriving from the possible rock falls is unacceptably high for the people safety. Moreover, the land-based mapping of the dangerous natural structures is very difficult and time and resources expending. In this context, we carried out an UAV survey along about 1 km of coast, near the towns of San Foca, Torre dell'Orso and Sant' Andrea ( Lecce, Southern Italy). The UAV platform was equipped with a photogrammetric measurement system that allowed us to obtain a mobile mapping of the fractured fronts of dangerous rocky cliffs. UAV-images data have been processed using dedicated software (Agisoft Photoscan). The total error obtained was of centimeter-order that is a very satisfactory result. The environmental information has been arranged in an ArcGIS platform in order to assess the risk levels. The possibility to repeat the survey at time intervals more or less close together depending on the measured levels of risk and to compare the output allows following the trend of the dangerous phenomena. In conclusion, for inaccessible locations of dangerous rocky bodies the UAV survey coupled with a GIS methodology proved to be a key engineering tool for the management of environmental risks.

  12. Implications of Harvest on the Boundaries of Protected Areas for Large Carnivore Viewing Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Borg, Bridget L; Arthur, Stephen M; Bromen, Nicholas A; Cassidy, Kira A; McIntyre, Rick; Smith, Douglas W; Prugh, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    The desire to see free ranging large carnivores in their natural habitat is a driver of tourism in protected areas around the globe. However, large carnivores are wide-ranging and subject to human-caused mortality outside protected area boundaries. The impact of harvest (trapping or hunting) on wildlife viewing opportunities has been the subject of intense debate and speculation, but quantitative analyses have been lacking. We examined the effect of legal harvest of wolves (Canis lupus) along the boundaries of two North American National Parks, Denali (DNPP) and Yellowstone (YNP), on wolf viewing opportunities within the parks during peak tourist season. We used data on wolf sightings, pack sizes, den site locations, and harvest adjacent to DNPP from 1997-2013 and YNP from 2008-2013 to evaluate the relationship between harvest and wolf viewing opportunities. Although sightings were largely driven by wolf population size and proximity of den sites to roads, sightings in both parks were significantly reduced by harvest. Sightings in YNP increased by 45% following years with no harvest of a wolf from a pack, and sightings in DNPP were more than twice as likely during a period with a harvest buffer zone than in years without the buffer. These findings show that harvest of wolves adjacent to protected areas can reduce sightings within those areas despite minimal impacts on the size of protected wolf populations. Consumptive use of carnivores adjacent to protected areas may therefore reduce their potential for non-consumptive use, and these tradeoffs should be considered when developing regional wildlife management policies. PMID:27124729

  13. Implications of Harvest on the Boundaries of Protected Areas for Large Carnivore Viewing Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Bridget L.; Arthur, Stephen M.; Bromen, Nicholas A.; Cassidy, Kira A.; McIntyre, Rick; Smith, Douglas W.; Prugh, Laura R.

    2016-01-01

    The desire to see free ranging large carnivores in their natural habitat is a driver of tourism in protected areas around the globe. However, large carnivores are wide-ranging and subject to human-caused mortality outside protected area boundaries. The impact of harvest (trapping or hunting) on wildlife viewing opportunities has been the subject of intense debate and speculation, but quantitative analyses have been lacking. We examined the effect of legal harvest of wolves (Canis lupus) along the boundaries of two North American National Parks, Denali (DNPP) and Yellowstone (YNP), on wolf viewing opportunities within the parks during peak tourist season. We used data on wolf sightings, pack sizes, den site locations, and harvest adjacent to DNPP from 1997–2013 and YNP from 2008–2013 to evaluate the relationship between harvest and wolf viewing opportunities. Although sightings were largely driven by wolf population size and proximity of den sites to roads, sightings in both parks were significantly reduced by harvest. Sightings in YNP increased by 45% following years with no harvest of a wolf from a pack, and sightings in DNPP were more than twice as likely during a period with a harvest buffer zone than in years without the buffer. These findings show that harvest of wolves adjacent to protected areas can reduce sightings within those areas despite minimal impacts on the size of protected wolf populations. Consumptive use of carnivores adjacent to protected areas may therefore reduce their potential for non-consumptive use, and these tradeoffs should be considered when developing regional wildlife management policies. PMID:27124729

  14. The effectiveness of contrasting protected areas in preventing deforestation in Madre de Dios, Peru.

    PubMed

    Vuohelainen, Anni Johanna; Coad, Lauren; Marthews, Toby R; Malhi, Yadvinder; Killeen, Timothy J

    2012-10-01

    Accurate monitoring of the effectiveness of protected areas (PAs) in decreasing deforestation is increasingly important given the vital role of forest protection in climate change mitigation. Recent studies on PA effectiveness have used remote-sensing imagery to compare deforestation rates within PAs to surrounding areas. However, remote-sensing data used in isolation provides limited information on the factors contributing to effectiveness. We used landscape-modelling techniques to estimate the effectiveness of ten PAs in Madre de Dios, Peru. Factors influencing PA effectiveness were investigated using in situ key-informant interviews. Although all of the PAs studied had positive effectiveness scores, those with the highest scores were ecotourism and conservation concessions, where monitoring and surveillance activities and good relations with surrounding communities were reported as possible factors in decreasing deforestation rates. Native community areas had the lowest scores, with deforestation mainly driven by internal resource use and population growth. Weak local governance and immigration were identified as underlying factors decreasing the effectiveness of protection, whereas good relations with surrounding communities and monitoring activity increased effectiveness. The results highlight the need to combine remote sensing with in situ information on PA management because identification of drivers and deterrents of deforestation is vital for improving the effectiveness of protection. PMID:22814545

  15. The impact of armed conflict on protected-area efficacy in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    de Merode, Emmanuel; Smith, Kes Hillman; Homewood, Katherine; Pettifor, Richard; Rowcliffe, Marcus; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2007-06-22

    What determines the vulnerability of protected areas, a fundamental component of biodiversity conservation, to political instability and warfare? We investigated the efficacy of park protection at Garamba National Park (Democratic Republic of Congo) before, during and after a period of armed conflict. Previous analysis has shown that bushmeat hunting in the park increased fivefold during the conflict, but then declined, in conjunction with changes in the sociopolitical structures (social institutions) that controlled the local bushmeat trade. We used park patrol records to investigate whether these changes were facilitated by a disruption to anti-poaching patrols. Contrary to expectation, anti-poaching patrols remained frequent during the conflict (as bushmeat offtake increased) and decreased afterwards (when bushmeat hunting also declined). These results indicate that bushmeat extraction was determined primarily by the social institutions. Although we found a demonstrable effect of anti-poaching patrols on hunting pressure, even a fourfold increase in patrol frequency would have been insufficient to cope with wartime poaching levels. Thus, anti-poaching patrols alone may not always be the most cost-effective means of managing protected areas, and protected-area efficacy might be enhanced by also working with those institutions that already play a role in regulating local natural-resource use. PMID:17360251

  16. The Effectiveness of Contrasting Protected Areas in Preventing Deforestation in Madre de Dios, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuohelainen, Anni Johanna; Coad, Lauren; Marthews, Toby R.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2012-10-01

    Accurate monitoring of the effectiveness of protected areas (PAs) in decreasing deforestation is increasingly important given the vital role of forest protection in climate change mitigation. Recent studies on PA effectiveness have used remote-sensing imagery to compare deforestation rates within PAs to surrounding areas. However, remote-sensing data used in isolation provides limited information on the factors contributing to effectiveness. We used landscape-modelling techniques to estimate the effectiveness of ten PAs in Madre de Dios, Peru. Factors influencing PA effectiveness were investigated using in situ key-informant interviews. Although all of the PAs studied had positive effectiveness scores, those with the highest scores were ecotourism and conservation concessions, where monitoring and surveillance activities and good relations with surrounding communities were reported as possible factors in decreasing deforestation rates. Native community areas had the lowest scores, with deforestation mainly driven by internal resource use and population growth. Weak local governance and immigration were identified as underlying factors decreasing the effectiveness of protection, whereas good relations with surrounding communities and monitoring activity increased effectiveness. The results highlight the need to combine remote sensing with in situ information on PA management because identification of drivers and deterrents of deforestation is vital for improving the effectiveness of protection.

  17. Minimising visitor impacts to protected areas: The efficacy of low impact education programmes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Reid, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Protected area managers, tourism providers, and other organisations commonly employ education programmes to address visitation-related impairment of natural and cultural resources, social conditions, and neighbouring communities. These programmes have different names (Leave No Trace, Codes of Conduct, Environmental Guidelines for Tourists) but share common objectives: to sustain opportunities for high quality visitor experiences while avoiding or minimising associated negative impacts to protected area resources, visitor experiences, and park neighbours. Theoretical and empirical research studies in the United States are reviewed to evaluate the efficacy of educational efforts that seek to encourage adoption of low impact behaviours. Findings reveal that most of the visitor education efforts evaluated did effectively alter visitor knowledge, behaviour and/or resource and social conditions in the intended direction. These findings, including discussions of message content, delivery, audience characteristics and theoretical grounding, provide insights for improving the efficacy of future educational efforts.

  18. Marine protected areas in the eastern African Region: how successful are they?

    PubMed

    Francis, Julius; Nilsson, Agneta; Waruinge, Dixon

    2002-12-01

    This article reviews the governance and management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), and the coral reefs they contain, in the eastern African Region. This includes the Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Tanzania, and the Seychelles. Three generations or categories of MPAs are distinguished: i) small areas for protection of a single species or unique marine habitat; iii) large multiple use MPAs designed for coastal development as well as biodiversity protection; and iii) MPAs managed by a nongovernmental organization (NGO) or the private sector. Each of these MPA types is examined according to the policies, legislation, and management systems they entail as well as the economic and community situation they operate within. The paper also provides a review of some eastern African MPAs in terms of their size and location, the type of MPA, zonation schemes, and financial status. The successes of the different types of MPAs are discussed based on specific indicators, such as changes in biodiversity, infrastructure, compliance to regulations and the level of involvement of primary stakeholders in the management. From the review it is clear that a fourth generation of MPAs may be forthcoming; community-based MPAs. Although lack of data makes it difficult to assess the effectiveness of these different categories of MPAs, it is clear that no MPA can succeed without support of the local communities. Generally, the results of the analysis are promising for MPAs, however a lack of data is hampering a deeper analysis. The major issues facing MPAs in the region are highlighted, as well as some regional initiatives striving to address these issues. A number of recommendations are made, aiming to strengthen the establishment and management of MPAs in the eastern African region. PMID:12572815

  19. Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection.

    PubMed

    Codd, Geoffrey A; Morrison, Louise F; Metcalf, James S

    2005-03-15

    This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles. PMID:15737680

  20. Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection

    SciTech Connect

    Codd, Geoffrey A.; Morrison, Louise F.; Metcalf, James S

    2005-03-15

    This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles.

  1. The creation of the Chagos marine protected area: a fisheries perspective(☆).

    PubMed

    Dunne, Richard P; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Sand, Peter H; Johnson, Magnus L

    2014-01-01

    From a fisheries perspective, the declaration of a 640,000 km² "no-take" Marine Protected Area (MPA) in the Chagos Archipelago in 2010 was preceded by inadequate consideration of the scientific rationale for protection. The entire area was already a highly regulated zone which had been subject to a well-managed fisheries licensing system. The island of Diego Garcia, the only area where there is evidence of overfishing has, because of its military base, been excluded from the MPA. The no-take mandate removes the primary source of sustenance and economic sustainability of any inhabitants, thus effectively preventing the return of the original residents who were removed for political reasons in the 1960s and 1970s. The principles of natural resource conservation and use have been further distorted by forcing offshore fishing effort to other less well-managed areas where it will have a greater negative impact on the well-being of the species that were claimed to be one of the primary beneficiaries of the declaration. A failure to engage stakeholders has resulted in challenges in both the English courts and before an international tribunal. PMID:25358298

  2. Resolving the Conflict Between Ecosystem Protection and Land Use in Protected Areas of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina-Villar, Sergio; Plascencia-Vargas, Héctor; Vaca, Raúl; Schroth, Götz; Zepeda, Yatziri; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Nahed-Toral, José

    2012-03-01

    Livelihoods of people living in many protected areas (PAs) around the world are in conflict with biodiversity conservation. In Mexico, the decrees of creation of biosphere reserves state that rural communities with the right to use buffer zones must avoid deforestation and their land uses must become sustainable, a task which is not easily accomplished. The objectives of this paper are: (a) to analyze the conflict between people's livelihoods and ecosystem protection in the PAs of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (SMC), paying special attention to the rates and causes of deforestation and (b) to review policy options to ensure forest and ecosystem conservation in these PAs, including the existing payments for environmental services system and improvements thereof as well as options for sustainable land management. We found that the three largest PAs in the SMC are still largely forested, and deforestation rates have decreased since 2000. Cases of forest conversion are located in specific zones and are related to agrarian and political conflicts as well as growing economic inequality and population numbers. These problems could cause an increase in forest loss in the near future. Payments for environmental services and access to carbon markets are identified as options to ensure forest permanence but still face problems. Challenges for the future are to integrate these incentive mechanisms with sustainable land management and a stronger involvement of land holders in conservation.

  3. Resolving the conflict between ecosystem protection and land use in protected areas of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cortina-Villar, Sergio; Plascencia-Vargas, Héctor; Vaca, Raúl; Schroth, Götz; Zepeda, Yatziri; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Nahed-Toral, José

    2012-03-01

    Livelihoods of people living in many protected areas (PAs) around the world are in conflict with biodiversity conservation. In Mexico, the decrees of creation of biosphere reserves state that rural communities with the right to use buffer zones must avoid deforestation and their land uses must become sustainable, a task which is not easily accomplished. The objectives of this paper are: (a) to analyze the conflict between people's livelihoods and ecosystem protection in the PAs of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (SMC), paying special attention to the rates and causes of deforestation and (b) to review policy options to ensure forest and ecosystem conservation in these PAs, including the existing payments for environmental services system and improvements thereof as well as options for sustainable land management. We found that the three largest PAs in the SMC are still largely forested, and deforestation rates have decreased since 2000. Cases of forest conversion are located in specific zones and are related to agrarian and political conflicts as well as growing economic inequality and population numbers. These problems could cause an increase in forest loss in the near future. Payments for environmental services and access to carbon markets are identified as options to ensure forest permanence but still face problems. Challenges for the future are to integrate these incentive mechanisms with sustainable land management and a stronger involvement of land holders in conservation. PMID:22218460

  4. 18 CFR 430.7 - Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use. 430.7 Section 430.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.7 Determination of protected areas...

  5. 23 CFR 750.104 - Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas. 750... permitted in protected areas. Erection or maintenance of the following signs may not be permitted in protected areas: (a) Signs advertising activities that are illegal under State or Federal laws...

  6. 23 CFR 750.105 - Signs that may be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Signs that may be permitted in protected areas. 750.105... protected areas. (a) Erection or maintenance of the following signs may be permitted in protected areas...) Only information about public places operated by Federal, State, or local governments,...

  7. 23 CFR 750.105 - Signs that may be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Signs that may be permitted in protected areas. 750.105... protected areas. (a) Erection or maintenance of the following signs may be permitted in protected areas...) Only information about public places operated by Federal, State, or local governments,...

  8. 23 CFR 750.104 - Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas. 750... permitted in protected areas. Erection or maintenance of the following signs may not be permitted in protected areas: (a) Signs advertising activities that are illegal under State or Federal laws...

  9. 23 CFR 750.105 - Signs that may be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Signs that may be permitted in protected areas. 750.105... protected areas. (a) Erection or maintenance of the following signs may be permitted in protected areas...) Only information about public places operated by Federal, State, or local governments,...

  10. 23 CFR 750.104 - Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas. 750... permitted in protected areas. Erection or maintenance of the following signs may not be permitted in protected areas: (a) Signs advertising activities that are illegal under State or Federal laws...

  11. 23 CFR 750.104 - Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas. 750... permitted in protected areas. Erection or maintenance of the following signs may not be permitted in protected areas: (a) Signs advertising activities that are illegal under State or Federal laws...

  12. 7 CFR 407.15 - Area risk protection insurance for grain sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for grain sorghum. 407... risk protection insurance for grain sorghum. The grain sorghum crop insurance provisions for Area Risk... AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Grain Sorghum Crop...

  13. 75 FR 63443 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public.... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee... Officer, MPA FAC, National Marine Protected Areas Center, 1305 East West Highway, Silver Spring,...

  14. 23 CFR 750.104 - Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signs that may not be permitted in protected areas. 750... permitted in protected areas. Erection or maintenance of the following signs may not be permitted in protected areas: (a) Signs advertising activities that are illegal under State or Federal laws...

  15. 23 CFR 750.105 - Signs that may be permitted in protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signs that may be permitted in protected areas. 750.105... protected areas. (a) Erection or maintenance of the following signs may be permitted in protected areas...) Only information about public places operated by Federal, State, or local governments,...

  16. 18 CFR 430.7 - Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use. 430.7 Section 430.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.7 Determination of protected areas...

  17. EPRI guide to managing nuclear utility protective clothing programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.J. )

    1991-05-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) commissioned a radioactive waste related project (RP2414-34) during the last quarter of 1989 to produce a guide for developing and managing nuclear protective clothing programs. Every nuclear facility must coordinate some type of protective clothing program for its radiation workers to insure proper and safe protection for the wearer and to maintain control over the spread of contamination. Yet, every nuclear facility has developed its own unique program for managing such clothing. Accordingly, a need existed for a reference guide to assist with the standardization of protective clothing programs and to assist in controlling the potentially runaway economics of such programs. This document is the first known effort to formalize the planning and economic factors surrounding a nuclear utility protective clothing program. It is intended to be informative by addressing the various pieces of information necessary to establish and maintain an effective, professionally managed protective clothing program. It also attempts to provide guidance toward tailoring the information and providing examples within the report to fit each utility's specific needs. This report is further intended to address new issues and trends occurring throughout the nuclear industry in late 1989 which can have either a significant positive or negative impact on the operations or economics of nuclear protective clothing programs. 1 ref., 11 tabs.

  18. Association Analysis of System Failure in Wide Area Backup Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yagang; Sun, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Wide area backup protection algorithm based on fault component identification is the heart of the whole wide area backup protection system, its validity and reliability is a problem which needs to be first considered in the engineering practice applications of wide area backup protection system. Wide are backup protection algorithm mainly use two kinds of wide area information to realize protection criterion, one is electrical quantity information, such as voltage, current, etc. Another one is protection action and circuit breaker information. The wide area backup protection algorithm based on electrical quantity information is mainly utilizing the significant change of electrical quantity to search fault component, and the primary means include current differential method of wide area multi-measuring points, the comparison method of calculation and measurement, the multiple statistics method. In this paper, a novel and effective association analysis of system failure in wide area backup protection system will be discussed carefully, and the analytical results are successful and reliable.

  19. Community involvement in marine protected areas: the case of Puerto Morelos reef, México.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, R E

    2008-09-01

    The case of Puerto Morelos reef marine protected area (MPA) provides an example of a community-based marine conservation initiative to protect a coral reef ecosystem. The establishment and maintenance of this MPA had five stages: (a) identification of community leaders who would participate in the project; (b) generation of consensus on the need to protect the reef through discussions among local stakeholders, NGOs and reef scientists; (c) involvement of government agencies in establishing the status of a MPA; (d) take-over of decision-making by centralized governmental agencies; and (e) continuous problem-solving process between the government and stakeholders. Over a 9-year period, the control of the MPA was taken over by government and stakeholders' participation downgraded from a decision-making to an advice-giving role. Government shortcomings to manage this MPA could be circumvented via collaborative co-management. Given the small population size of the community and strong sense of ownership, there was a high level of participation in the decision-making processes and scientific advisors are present in the area. PMID:17689175

  20. Management under uncertainty: guide-lines for incorporating connectivity into the protection of coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCook, L. J.; Almany, G. R.; Berumen, M. L.; Day, J. C.; Green, A. L.; Jones, G. P.; Leis, J. M.; Planes, S.; Russ, G. R.; Sale, P. F.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2009-06-01

    The global decline in coral reefs demands urgent management strategies to protect resilience. Protecting ecological connectivity, within and among reefs, and between reefs and other ecosystems is critical to resilience. However, connectivity science is not yet able to clearly identify the specific measures for effective protection of connectivity. This article aims to provide a set of principles or practical guidelines that can be applied currently to protect connectivity. These ‘rules of thumb’ are based on current knowledge and expert opinion, and on the philosophy that, given the urgency, it is better to act with incomplete knowledge than to wait for detailed understanding that may come too late. The principles, many of which are not unique to connectivity, include: (1) allow margins of error in extent and nature of protection, as insurance against unforeseen or incompletely understood threats or critical processes; (2) spread risks among areas; (3) aim for networks of protected areas which are: (a) comprehensive and spread—protect all biotypes, habitats and processes, etc., to capture as many possible connections, known and unknown; (b) adequate—maximise extent of protection for each habitat type, and for the entire region; (c) representative—maximise likelihood of protecting the full range of processes and spatial requirements; (d) replicated—multiple examples of biotypes or processes enhances risk spreading; (4) protect entire biological units where possible (e.g. whole reefs), including buffers around core areas. Otherwise, choose bigger rather than smaller areas; (5) provide for connectivity at a wide range of dispersal distances (within and between patches), emphasising distances <20-30 km; and (6) use a portfolio of approaches, including but not limited to MPAs. Three case studies illustrating the application of these principles to coral reef management in the Bohol Sea (Philippines), the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) and Kimbe Bay (Papua New

  1. Effectiveness of protected areas in mitigating fire within their boundaries: case study of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Román-Cuesta, María Rosa; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2006-08-01

    Since the severe 1982-1983 El Niño drought, recurrent burning has been reported inside tropical protected areas (TPAs). Despite the key role of fire in habitat degradation, little is known about the effectiveness of TPAs in mitigating fire incidence and burned areas. We used a GPS fire database (1995-2005) (n=3590 forest fires) obtained from the National Forest Commission to compare fire incidence (number of fires) and burned areas inside TPAs and their surrounding adjacent buffer areas in Southern Mexico (Chiapas). Burned areas inside parks ranged from 2% (Palenque) to 45% (Lagunas de Montebello) of a park's area, and the amount burned was influenced by two severe El Niño events (1998 and 2003). These two years together resulted in 67% and 46% of the total area burned in TPAs and buffers, respectively during the period under analysis. Larger burned areas in TPAs than in their buffers were exclusively related to the extent of natural habitats (flammable area excluding agrarian and pasture lands). Higher fuel loads together with access and extinction difficulties were likely behind this trend. A higher incidence of fire in TPAs than in their buffers was exclusively related to anthropogenic factors such as higher road densities and agrarian extensions. Our results suggest that TPAs are failing to mitigate fire impacts, with both fire incidence and total burned areas being significantly higher in the reserves than in adjacent buffer areas. Management plans should consider those factors that facilitate fires in TPAs: anthropogenic origin of fires, sensitivity of TPAs to El Niñio-droughts, large fuel loads and fuel continuity inside parks, and limited financial resources. Consideration of these factors favors lines of action such as alternatives to the use of fire (e.g., mucuna-maize system), climatic prediction to follow the evolution of El Niño, fuel management strategies that favor extinction practices, and the strengthening of local communities and ecotourism

  2. Downgrading, downsizing, degazettement, and reclassification of protected areas in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bernard, E; Penna, L A O; Araújo, E

    2014-08-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are key elements for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. Brazil has the largest PA system in the world, covering approximately 220 million ha. This system expanded rapidly in the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s. Recent events in Brazil, however, have led to an increase in PA downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD). Does this reflect a shift in the country's PA policy? We analyzed the occurrence, frequency, magnitude, type, spatial distribution, and causes of changes in PA boundaries and categories in Brazil. We identified 93 PADDD events from 1981 to 2012. Such events increased in frequency since 2008 and were ascribed primarily to generation and transmission of electricity in Amazonia. In Brazilian parks and reserves, 7.3 million ha were affected by PADDD events, and of these, 5.2 million ha were affected by downsizing or degazetting. Moreover, projects being considered by the Federal Congress may degazette 2.1 million ha of PA in Amazonia alone. Relaxing the protection status of existing PAs is proving to be politically easy in Brazil, and the recent increase in frequency and extension of PADDD reflects a change in governmental policy. By taking advantage of chronic deficiencies in financial and personnel resources and surveillance, disputes over land tenure, and the slowness of the Brazilian justice, government agencies have been implementing PADDD without consultation of civil society. If parks and reserves are to maintain their integrity, there will need to be investments in Brazilian PAs and a better understanding of the benefits PAs provide. PMID:24724978

  3. Fishers’ Behaviour in Response to the Implementation of a Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Horta e Costa, Bárbara; Batista, Marisa I.; Gonçalves, Leonel; Erzini, Karim; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Cabral, Henrique N.; Gonçalves, Emanuel J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been widely proposed as a fisheries management tool in addition to their conservation purposes. Despite this, few studies have satisfactorily assessed the dynamics of fishers’ adaptations to the loss of fishing grounds. Here we used data from before, during and after the implementation of the management plan of a temperate Atlantic multiple-use MPA to examine the factors affecting the spatial and temporal distribution of different gears used by the artisanal fishing fleet. The position of vessels and gear types were obtained by visual surveys and related to spatial features of the marine park. A hotspot analysis was conducted to identify heavily utilized patches for each fishing gear and time period. The contribution of individual vessels to each significant cluster was assessed to better understand fishers’ choices. Different fisheries responded differently to the implementation of protection measures, with preferred habitats of target species driving much of the fishers’ choices. Within each fishery, individual fishers showed distinct strategies with some operating in a broader area whereas others kept preferred territories. Our findings are based on reliable methods that can easily be applied in coastal multipurpose MPAs to monitor and assess fisheries and fishers responses to different management rules and protection levels. This paper is the first in-depth empirical study where fishers’ choices from artisanal fisheries were analysed before, during and after the implementation of a MPA, thereby allowing a clearer understanding of the dynamics of local fisheries and providing significant lessons for marine conservation and management of coastal systems. PMID:23755174

  4. Environmental attitudes of stakeholders and their perceptions regarding protected area-community conflicts: a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    Large numbers of people living in and around protected areas are highly dependent on the natural resources. However, simply excluding them from the area management has always inevitably resulted in conflicts. We conducted a case study of the Protected Area of Jinyun Mountain (PJM) in China to evaluate social context variables, environmental attitudes, and perceptions regarding protected area-community conflicts. Data were collected through questionnaire surveys administered to four stakeholder groups (i.e. local farmers, government staff, business persons, and tourists). A total of 112 questionnaires were completed in December 2008, after the Sichuan Earthquake. The questionnaire consisted of three parts, social context (gender, race, age, income, and education level), protected area-community conflicts, and environmental attitudes. The New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scores, which were employed to evaluate environmental attitudes, differed significantly among the stakeholder groups (P<0.01). Specifically, government staff reported the highest and business persons did the lowest. Among the five items evaluated, anti-exemptionalism received the lowest score, while nature's balance did the highest. Evaluation of the protected area-community relationship indicated that harmony and conflict both exist in the PJM, but have different forms among different stakeholders, and seem to be opposite between government staff and local farmers. Among the indexes, tourism primarily contributed to the harmonious aspect, while collection of NTFPs did to the conflicting one. Conflict scores were positively related to age and negatively related to education level. Respondents with higher NEP scores were more partial to the park management. Besides, the respondents with higher annual incomes tended to support the policy of harmonizing the relationship and lessening the harm of local communities to the area. To promote proenvironmental attitudes and alleviate the protected area

  5. Nevada Test 1999 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 radioactive waste management sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yvonne Townsend

    2000-05-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 1999 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 3.9 inches at the Area 3 RWMS (61 percent of average) and 3.8 inches at the Area 5 RWMS (75 percent of average). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 1999 rainfall infiltrated less than one foot before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium data indicate very slow migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were insignificant. All 1999 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing as expected at isolating buried waste.

  6. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  7. Tourism, biodiversity and protected areas--Review from northern Fennoscandia.

    PubMed

    Tolvanen, Anne; Kangas, Katja

    2016-03-15

    Tourist numbers in northern Fennoscandia outweigh those in other northern boreal - arctic regions, which creates a specific need to evaluate the impacts of tourism. This review 1) identifies patterns and trends in the vegetation and wildlife of northern Fennoscandian terrestrial ecosystems as a consequence of tourism and recreation, 2) discusses the implications of findings in terms of the intensity, area and magnitude of impacts, changing climate and management needs under increasing tourist pressure, and 3) identifies research gaps. The reviewed studies show negative environmental and biodiversity impacts that are most pronounced near tourist resorts. The most sensitive plants, birds and mammals decline or disappear from the disturbed sites, and the species composition shifts from 'wild' species to cultural and human associated species. There is little research on the spread of alien species, but the few examples show that alien species can be promoted by tourism activities. Impacts of the use of motorized vehicles have not been widely studied either, despite the extensive track network which can cause disturbance to wildlife. The integrated impacts of tourism and climate change on the vegetation and wildlife was not addressed directly in any of the reviewed studies. In addition, little research has been done on carrying out restoration at tourist areas. Scientific research on these topics is needed to prevent, minimize or restore the most negative ecological impacts of tourism and recreation. PMID:26720330

  8. Recreation-induced changes in boreal bird communities in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Kangas, K; Luoto, M; Ihantola, A; Tomppo, E; Siikamäki, P

    2010-09-01

    The impacts of human-induced disturbance on birds have been studied in growing extent, but there are relatively few studies about the effects of recreation on forest bird communities in protected areas. In this paper, the relative importance of recreation as well as environmental variables on bird communities in Oulanka National Park, in northeastern Finland, was investigated using general additive models (GAM). Bird data collected using the line transect method along hiking trails and in undisturbed control areas were related to number of visits, area of tourism infrastructure, and habitat variables. We further examined the impact of spatial autocorrelation by calculating an autocovariate term for GAMs. Our results indicate that number of visits affects the occurrence and composition of bird communities, but it had no impact on total species richness. Open-cup nesters breeding on the ground showed strongest negative response to visitor pressure, whereas the open-cup nesters nesting in trees and shrubs were more tolerant. For cavity-nesting species, recreation had no significant impact. The contribution of the number of visits was generally low also in models in which it was selected, and the occurrence of birds was mainly determined by habitat characteristics of the area. However, our results show that the recreation-induced disturbance with relatively low visitor pressure can have negative impacts on some bird species and groups of species and should be considered in management of protected areas with recreational activities. PMID:20945775

  9. Criteria for protected areas and other conservation measures in the Antarctic region

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Antarctic region is threatened by three major anthropogenic influences: climatic change brought about by increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, the effects of persistent pollutants carried into the region via atmosphere and ocean, and the increase in Man's activities. These include radioactive wastes, organochlorides, freons, PCBs and heavy metals. Vulnerable ecosystems can be considered as those which are under direct pressure from Man's activities, whereas fragile ecosystems are the more likely to suffer irreversible change when perturbed, but are not necessarily threatened at present. Three of the main habitat types, terrestrial, inland waters, and islands, are likely to be fragile. However, all these can be conserved reasonably adequately with a system of protected and managed areas, so long as the area covered is adequate and representative. The fourth habitat type, the oceanic ecosystem, contains few fragile elements because it is dominated by the highly dynamic physical oceanic processes. Elements of the ecosystem are vulnerable to further exploitation, and although only the whales and some of the fish stocks can be regarded as fragile, there is considerably uncertainty as what synergistic effect exploitation of apparently key elements of the ecosystem, such as the krill, will have on other important components of the communities. The highly dynamic structure of oceanic environments renders the concept of conservation based on limited protected areas developed for terrestrial environments ineffective in the majority of marine environments. Instead the whole marine environment of the Antarctic region must be considered to be a single entity and managed as such.

  10. Providing accurate near real-time fire alerts for Protected Areas through NASA FIRMS: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Wong, M.; Murphy, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) is at the forefront of providing global near real-time (NRT) MODIS thermal anomalies / hotspot location data to end-users . FIRMS serves the data via an interactive Web GIS named Web Fire Mapper, downloads of NRT active fire, archive data downloads for MODIS hotspots dating back to 1999 and a hotspot email alert system The FIRMS Email Alerts system has been successfully alerting users of fires in their area of interest in near real-time and/or via daily and weekly email summaries, with an option to receive MODIS hotspot data as a text file (CSV) attachment. Currently, there are more than 7000 email alert subscriptions from more than 100 countries. Specifically, the email alerts system is designed to generate and send an email alert for any region or area on the globe, with a special focus on providing alerts for protected areas worldwide. For many protected areas, email alerts are particularly useful for early fire detection, monitoring on going fires, as well as allocating resources to protect wildlife and natural resources of particular value. For protected areas, FIRMS uses the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) supplied by United Nations Environment Program - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). Maintaining the most up-to-date, accurate boundary geometry for the protected areas for the email alerts is a challenge as the WDPA is continuously updated due to changing boundaries, merging or delisting of certain protected areas. Because of this dynamic nature of the protected areas database, the FIRMS protected areas database is frequently out-of-date with the most current version of WDPA database. To maintain the most up-to-date boundary information for protected areas and to be in compliance with the WDPA terms and conditions, FIRMS needs to constantly update its database of protected areas. Currently, FIRMS strives to keep its database up to date by downloading the most recent

  11. Poverty within watershed and environmentally protected areas: the case of the indigenous community in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kari, Fatimah Binti; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Saifullah, Md Khaled

    2016-03-01

    "Indigenous people" have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the "indigenous community" is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people. PMID:26887312

  12. Protected area as an indicator of ecological sustainability? A century of development in Europe's boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, Marine; Angelstam, Per; Sobolev, Nikolay; Degerman, Erik; Andersson, Kjell; Axelsson, Robert; Höjer, Olle; Wennberg, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    Protected area (PA) is an indicator linked to policies on ecological sustainability. We analyzed area, size, and categories of PAs in the European boreal forest biome in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia from 1900 to 2010. The PA increased from 1.5 × 10(3) ha in 1909 to 2.3 × 10(7) ha in 2010. While the total PA in the boreal biome was 10.8 %, the figures ranged from 17.2 % in the northern, 7.9 % of the middle, and 8.7 % of the southern boreal sub-regions. The median size of PAs varied from 10 to 124 ha among countries. The categories of less strictly PAs increased over time. The proportion of area occupied by PAs is an important response indicator for conservation efforts. However, the use of PA as an indicator of ecological sustainability needs to consider ecosystem representation, functional connectivity and management categories. PMID:23475656

  13. Measuring the difference made by conservation initiatives: protected areas and their environmental and social impacts

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Pressey, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Success in conservation depends on our ability to reduce human pressures in areas that harbour biological diversity and ecosystem services. Legally protecting some of these areas through the creation of protected areas is a key component of conservation efforts globally. To develop effective protected area networks, practitioners need credible, scientific evidence about the degree to which protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes, and how these effects vary with context. Such evidence has been lacking, but the situation is changing as conservation scientists adopt more sophisticated research designs for evaluating protected areas' past impacts and for predicting their future impacts. Complementing these scientific advances, conservation funders and practitioners are paying increasing attention to evaluating their investments with more scientifically rigorous evaluation designs. This theme issue highlights recent advances in the science of protected area evaluations and explores the challenges to developing a more credible evidence base that can help societies achieve their goals of protecting nature while enhancing human welfare. PMID:26460123

  14. Marine protected area improves yield without disadvantaging fishers.

    PubMed

    Kerwath, Sven E; Winker, Henning; Götz, Albrecht; Attwood, Colin G

    2013-01-01

    Potential fishery benefits of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are widely acknowledged, yet seldom demonstrated, as fishery data series that straddle MPA establishment are seldom available. Here we postulate, based on a 15-year time series of nation-wide, spatially referenced catch and effort data, that the establishment of the Goukamma MPA (18 km alongshore; 40 km²) benefited the adjacent fishery for roman (Chrysoblephus laticeps), a South African endemic seabream. Roman-directed catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) in the vicinity of the new MPA immediately increased, contradicting trends across this species' distribution. The increase continued after 5 years, the time lag expected for larval export, effectively doubling the pre-MPA CPUE after 10 years. We find no indication that establishing the MPA caused a systematic drop in total catch or increased travel distances for the fleet. Our results provide rare empirical evidence of rapidly increasing catch rates after MPA implementation without measurable disadvantages for fishers. PMID:23962973

  15. Delivering Formal Outdoor Learning in Protected Areas: A Case Study of Scottish Natural Heritage National Nature Reserves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    In most countries, protected area management agencies provide formal outdoor learning opportunities for a wide range of educational groups. For high-quality formal outdoor learning programmes that provide a range of experiences to be effectively delivered, specific resources and infrastructure are needed. Using the case study of Scottish Natural…

  16. 50 CFR Table 12 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites 12 Table 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  17. Management and protection system for superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszczyk, B.; Wojenski, A.; Zienkiewicz, P.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K.; Romaniuk, R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes system for a diagnostics of a high-voltage power supply section of tokamaks. System is designed to assure reliability and safety of power supply subsystems. It is divided into two main components: remote and local. Remote part is located near tokamak, whereas local part can be localised away from the tokamak area. The remote side consists of custom, standalone devices. On the other hand, the local device is based on the uTCA.4 architecture. Components are connected with an optic fibre over a link-layer protocol which provides high throughput, low latency and transmission redundancy. All main operations ie. data processing, transmission etc. are performed on the FPGA devices. At the local side there is one device treated as a master device. It implements sort of a routing table which connects consecutive system inputs and outputs. It also provides possibility for some user defined data processing. This document contains general system overview, short description of hardware used in the project and gateware implementation.

  18. Local biodiversity is higher inside than outside terrestrial protected areas worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Claudia L.; Hill, Samantha L. L.; Newbold, Tim; Hudson, Lawrence N.; Börger, Luca; Contu, Sara; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Ferrier, Simon; Purvis, Andy; Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas are widely considered essential for biodiversity conservation. However, few global studies have demonstrated that protection benefits a broad range of species. Here, using a new global biodiversity database with unprecedented geographic and taxonomic coverage, we compare four biodiversity measures at sites sampled in multiple land uses inside and outside protected areas. Globally, species richness is 10.6% higher and abundance 14.5% higher in samples taken inside protected areas compared with samples taken outside, but neither rarefaction-based richness nor endemicity differ significantly. Importantly, we show that the positive effects of protection are mostly attributable to differences in land use between protected and unprotected sites. Nonetheless, even within some human-dominated land uses, species richness and abundance are higher in protected sites. Our results reinforce the global importance of protected areas but suggest that protection does not consistently benefit species with small ranges or increase the variety of ecological niches. PMID:27465407

  19. Local biodiversity is higher inside than outside terrestrial protected areas worldwide.

    PubMed

    Gray, Claudia L; Hill, Samantha L L; Newbold, Tim; Hudson, Lawrence N; Börger, Luca; Contu, Sara; Hoskins, Andrew J; Ferrier, Simon; Purvis, Andy; Scharlemann, Jörn P W

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas are widely considered essential for biodiversity conservation. However, few global studies have demonstrated that protection benefits a broad range of species. Here, using a new global biodiversity database with unprecedented geographic and taxonomic coverage, we compare four biodiversity measures at sites sampled in multiple land uses inside and outside protected areas. Globally, species richness is 10.6% higher and abundance 14.5% higher in samples taken inside protected areas compared with samples taken outside, but neither rarefaction-based richness nor endemicity differ significantly. Importantly, we show that the positive effects of protection are mostly attributable to differences in land use between protected and unprotected sites. Nonetheless, even within some human-dominated land uses, species richness and abundance are higher in protected sites. Our results reinforce the global importance of protected areas but suggest that protection does not consistently benefit species with small ranges or increase the variety of ecological niches. PMID:27465407

  20. The importance of conserving biodiversity outside of protected areas in mediterranean ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Cox, Robin L; Underwood, Emma C

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems constitute one of the rarest terrestrial biomes and yet they are extraordinarily biodiverse. Home to over 250 million people, the five regions where these ecosystems are found have climate and coastal conditions that make them highly desirable human habitats. The current conservation landscape does not reflect the mediterranean biome's rarity and its importance for plant endemism. Habitat conversion will clearly outpace expansion of formal protected-area networks, and conservationists must augment this traditional strategy with new approaches to sustain the mediterranean biota. Using regional scale datasets, we determine the area of land in each of the five regions that is protected, converted (e.g., to urban or industrial), impacted (e.g., intensive, cultivated agriculture), or lands that we consider to have conservation potential. The latter are natural and semi-natural lands that are unprotected (e.g., private range lands) but sustain numerous native species and associated habitats. Chile has the greatest proportion of its land (75%) in this category and California-Mexico the least (48%). To illustrate the potential for achieving mediterranean biodiversity conservation on these lands, we use species-area curves generated from ecoregion scale data on native plant species richness and vertebrate species richness. For example, if biodiversity could be sustained on even 25% of existing unprotected, natural and semi-natural lands, we estimate that the habitat of more than 6,000 species could be represented. This analysis suggests that if unprotected natural and semi-natural lands are managed in a manner that allows for persistence of native species, we can realize significant additional biodiversity gains. Lasting biodiversity protection at the scale needed requires unprecedented collaboration among stakeholders to promote conservation both inside and outside of traditional protected areas, including on lands where people live and work

  1. Comparing Methods for Prioritising Protected Areas for Investment: A Case Study Using Madagascar's Dry Forest Reptiles.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Charlie J; Raxworthy, Christopher J; Metcalfe, Kristian; Raselimanana, Achille P; Smith, Robert J; Davies, Zoe G

    2015-01-01

    There are insufficient resources available to manage the world's existing protected area portfolio effectively, so the most important sites should be prioritised in investment decision-making. Sophisticated conservation planning and assessment tools developed to identify locations for new protected areas can provide an evidence base for such prioritisations, yet decision-makers in many countries lack the institutional support and necessary capacity to use the associated software. As such, simple heuristic approaches such as species richness or number of threatened species are generally adopted to inform prioritisation decisions. However, their performance has never been tested. Using the reptile fauna of Madagascar's dry forests as a case study, we evaluate the performance of four site prioritisation protocols used to rank the conservation value of 22 established and candidate protected areas. We compare the results to a benchmark produced by the widely-used systematic conservation planning software Zonation. The four indices scored sites on the basis of: i) species richness; ii) an index based on species' Red List status; iii) irreplaceability (a key metric in systematic conservation planning); and, iv) a novel Conservation Value Index (CVI), which incorporates species-level information on endemism, representation in the protected area system, tolerance of habitat degradation and hunting/collection pressure. Rankings produced by the four protocols were positively correlated to the results of Zonation, particularly amongst high-scoring sites, but CVI and Irreplaceability performed better than Species Richness and the Red List Index. Given the technological capacity constraints experienced by decision-makers in the developing world, our findings suggest that heuristic metrics can represent a useful alternative to more sophisticated analyses, especially when they integrate species-specific information related to extinction risk. However, this can require access to

  2. Assessing Local and Surrounding Threats to the Protected Area Network in a Biodiversity Hotspot: The Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin; Liu, Guohua; Li, Zongshan; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) not only serve as refuges of biodiversity conservation but are also part of large ecosystems and are vulnerable to change caused by human activity from surrounding lands, especially in biodiversity hotspots. Assessing threats to PAs and surrounding areas is therefore a critical step in effective conservation planning. We apply a threat framework as a means of quantitatively assessing local and surrounding threats to different types of PAs with gradient buffers, and to main ecoregions in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot of southwest China. Our findings show that national protected areas (NPAs) have lower and significantly lower threat values (p<0.05) than provincial protected areas (PPAs) and other protected areas (OPAs), respectively, which indicates that NPAs are lands with a lower threat level and higher levels of protection and management. PAs have clear edge effects, as the proportion of areas with low threat levels decline dramatically in the 5-kilometer buffers just outside the PAs. However, NPAs suffered greater declines (58.3%) than PPAs (34.8%) and OPAs (33.4%) in the 5-kilometer buffers. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the size of PAs and the proportion of areas with low threat levels that they contained in both PAs and PA buffers (p<0.01). To control or mitigate current threats at the regional scale, PA managers often require quantitative information related to threat intensities and spatial distribution. The threat assessment in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot will be useful to policy makers and managers in their efforts to establish effective plans and target-oriented management strategies. PMID:26382763

  3. Assessing Local and Surrounding Threats to the Protected Area Network in a Biodiversity Hotspot: The Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Liu, Guohua; Li, Zongshan; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) not only serve as refuges of biodiversity conservation but are also part of large ecosystems and are vulnerable to change caused by human activity from surrounding lands, especially in biodiversity hotspots. Assessing threats to PAs and surrounding areas is therefore a critical step in effective conservation planning. We apply a threat framework as a means of quantitatively assessing local and surrounding threats to different types of PAs with gradient buffers, and to main ecoregions in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot of southwest China. Our findings show that national protected areas (NPAs) have lower and significantly lower threat values (p<0.05) than provincial protected areas (PPAs) and other protected areas (OPAs), respectively, which indicates that NPAs are lands with a lower threat level and higher levels of protection and management. PAs have clear edge effects, as the proportion of areas with low threat levels decline dramatically in the 5-kilometer buffers just outside the PAs. However, NPAs suffered greater declines (58.3%) than PPAs (34.8%) and OPAs (33.4%) in the 5-kilometer buffers. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the size of PAs and the proportion of areas with low threat levels that they contained in both PAs and PA buffers (p<0.01). To control or mitigate current threats at the regional scale, PA managers often require quantitative information related to threat intensities and spatial distribution. The threat assessment in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot will be useful to policy makers and managers in their efforts to establish effective plans and target-oriented management strategies. PMID:26382763

  4. Globalization and multi-spatial trends in the coverage of protected-area conservation (1980-2000).

    PubMed

    Zimmerer, Karl S; Galt, Ryan E; Buck, Margaret V

    2004-12-01

    This study is focused on the global expansion of protected-area coverage that occurred during the 1980--2000 period. We examine the multi-scale patterning of four of the basic facets of this expansion: i) estimated increases at the world-regional and country-level scales of total protected-area coverage; ii) transboundary protected areas; iii) conservation corridor projects; and iv) type of conservation management. Geospatial patterning of protected-area designations is a reflection of the priorities of global conservation organizations and the globalization of post-Cold War political and economic arrangements. Local and national-level factors (political leadership and infrastructure) as well as international relations such as multilateral and bilateral aid combine with these globalization processes to impact the extent, type, and location of protected-area designations. We conclude that the interaction of these factors led to the creation and reinforcement of marked spatial differences (rather than tendencies toward worldwide evenness or homogenization) in the course of protected-area expansion during the 1980--2000 period. PMID:15666684

  5. Effectiveness of protected areas for representing species and populations of terrestrial mammals in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    González-Maya, José F; Víquez-R, Luis R; Belant, Jerrold L; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species' geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  6. Effectiveness of Protected Areas for Representing Species and Populations of Terrestrial Mammals in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    González-Maya, José F.; Víquez-R, Luis R.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species’ geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  7. An effective regional Marine Protected Area network for the ROPME Sea Area: unrealistic vision or realistic possibility?

    PubMed

    Van Lavieren, Hanneke; Klaus, Rebecca

    2013-07-30

    Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) targets aim to encourage the establishment of an effective global network of MPAs covering 10% of coastal and marine ecoregions by 2020. This paper presents findings from the first ever regional assessment of MPA management effectiveness in the ROPME (Regional Organisation for the Protection of the Marine Environment) Sea Area (RSA). The RSA, extends from the Gulf to the Arabian Sea coast of Oman, and is bordered by 8 member states, including some of the world's richest and fastest growing global economies. There are 173 MPAs covering 7.8% of the RSA (36,182.03 km(2)). Progress towards CBD MPA targets is lower as: (i) stated area coverages often include a terrestrial component; (ii) only 37% are legally 'Designated' (5.4% RSA), while 73% remain 'Proposed' (2.4% RSA) and; (iii) assessment of management effectiveness revealed variable levels of performance (11% to 58%, with an average of 34%). Underlying causes for low performance are discussed and recommendations are offered to help RSA member states meet CBD MPA targets by 2020. PMID:23294567

  8. Why do we lose protected areas? Factors influencing protected area downgrading, downsizing and degazettement in the tropics and subtropics.

    PubMed

    Symes, William S; Rao, Madhu; Mascia, Michael B; Carrasco, L Roman

    2016-02-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are an essential tool for the conservation of biodiversity globally. Previous studies have focussed on the effectiveness of PAs and the design of optimal PA networks. However, not all PAs remain intact permanently; many PAs undergo downgrading, downsizing and/or degazettement (PADDD), a fact largely ignored until recently. The drivers of enacted PADDD events and the factors influencing its spatial occurrence are poorly understood, potentially undermining the efficacy of PAs and PA networks. Here we examine the spatial relationship between PADDD and economic, demographic and structural variables, using a 110-year data set of 342 enacted PADDD events across 44 countries in the tropics and subtropics. We find that the probability of an enacted PADDD event increases with the size of the PA and through a synergistic interaction between PA size and local population densities. Our results are robust to the under-reporting of enacted PADDD events that occur among smaller PAs and in regions with lower population density. We find an economic motive for PADDD events, given that the opportunity costs associated with larger PAs are higher, on average, than smaller PAs. Our findings suggest a need for conservation practitioners to better consider PA characteristics, as well as the social, economic and political context in which PAs are situated, to aid the creation of more efficient and sustainable PA networks. In particular, the dynamics of enacted PADDD events highlight the need to explicitly consider PA robustness as a core component of systematic conservation planning for PA networks. PMID:26367139

  9. ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION: MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR PROTECTING AND ENHANCING AQUATIC RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster describes research that addresses the question: Which management practices are most successful for protection and restoration of ecological resources? The Ecosystem Restoration Research Program of EPA/ORD is designed to conduct basic and applied field research to eva...

  10. Managing phosphorus for water quality protection - 10 principles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accelerated eutrophication of aquatic systems has primarily been the concern of developed nations where it represents the most pervasive impairment of surface water bodies. Managing phosphorus for water quality protection requires prudent tempering of agronomic emphases to build soil phosphorus,...

  11. Targeting of Watershed Management Practices for Water Quality Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensuring a clean and adequate water supply implies conservative use of water and protecting water resources from pollution. Sediment, nutrient, and pesticide losses in runoff are major pollutants of surface waters in the Midwest. This publication addresses the targeting of best management practices ...

  12. 78 FR 74009 - Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ...-877-8339 (this is a toll-free number). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On November 15, 2013 (78 FR 68719... this final rule by deleting Sec. 55.12(c)(12). In FR Doc. 2013-27427 appearing on page 68719 in the... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Parts 50, 55, and 58 RIN 2501-AD51 Floodplain Management and Protection...

  13. Resource protection. Mississippi Valley Canada Geese: flyway management obstacles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service's legislation, regulations, and various documents and statistics were examined regarding federal migratory bird and Canada goose protection and management. The service's legal authority to take action to require states to limit harvests of Canada geese was also reviewed. (ACR)

  14. Hazardous waste management; Environmental Protection Agency. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1980-02-26

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended, provides for the development and implementation of a comprehensive program to protect human health and the environment from the improper management of hazardous waste. A fundamental premise of the statute is that human health and the environment will best be protected by careful management of the transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste, in accordance with standards developed under the Act. In today's Federal Register, the Environmental Protection Agency is publishing several documents setting in motion a series of events which will culminate in full implementation of the hazardous waste control program. This document sets forth definitions of words and phrases which appear in the subsequent Parts as well as general guidance for the use of these regulations and provisions which are generally applicable to all Parts. PMID:10245321

  15. 75 FR 82041 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Floodplain Management and Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Floodplain Management and... Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Floodplain Management and Protection of..., ``Floodplain Management,'' and Executive Order 11990, ``Protection of Wetlands.'' Each respondent that...

  16. Toward pristine biomass: reef fish recovery in coral reef marine protected areas in Kenya.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, Tim R; Graham, Nicholas A J; Calnan, Jacqulyn M; MacNeil, M Aaron

    2007-06-01

    Identifying the rates of recovery of fish in no-take areas is fundamental to designing protected area networks, managing fisheries, estimating yields, identifying ecological interactions, and informing stakeholders about the outcomes of this management. Here we study the recovery of coral reef fishes through 37 years of protection using a space-for-time chronosequence of four marine national parks in Kenya. Using AIC model selection techniques, we assessed recovery trends using five ecologically meaningful production models: asymptotic, Ricker, logistic, linear, and exponential. There were clear recovery trends with time for species richness, total and size class density, and wet masses at the level of the taxonomic family. Species richness recovered rapidly to an asymptote at 10 years. The two main herbivorous families displayed differing responses to protection, scarids recovering rapidly, but then exhibiting some decline while acanthurids recovered more slowly and steadily throughout the study. Recovery of the two invertebrate-eating groups suggested competitive interactions over resources, with the labrids recovering more rapidly before a decline and the balistids demonstrating a slower logistic recovery. Remaining families displayed differing trends with time, with a general pattern of decline in smaller size classes or small-bodied species after an initial recovery, which suggests that some species- and size-related competitive and predatory control occurs in older closures. There appears to be an ecological succession of dominance with an initial rapid rise in labrids and scarids, followed by a slower rise in balistids and acanthurids, an associated decline in sea urchins, and an ultimate dominance in calcifying algae. Our results indicate that the unfished "equilibrium" biomass of the fish assemblage > 10 cm is 1100-1200 kg/ha, but these small parks (< 10 km2) are likely to underestimate pre-human influence values due to edge effects and the rarity of taxa

  17. 2002 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-06-01

    Environmental, subsidence, and meteorological monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)(refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater,meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorological data indicate that 2002 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 26 mm (1.0 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 38 mm (1.5 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2002 rainfall infiltrated less than 30 cm (1 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. Special investigations conducted in 2002 included: a comparison between waste cover water contents measured by neutron probe and coring; and a comparison of four methods for measuring radon concentrations in air. All 2002 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility Performance Assessments (PAs).

  18. Ordinary and Extraordinary Movement Behaviour of Small Resident Fish within a Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Aspillaga, Eneko; Bartumeus, Frederic; Linares, Cristina; Starr, Richard M.; López-Sanz, Àngel; Díaz, David; Zabala, Mikel; Hereu, Bernat

    2016-01-01

    It is important to account for the movement behaviour of fishes when designing effective marine protected areas (MPAs). Fish movements occur across different spatial and temporal scales and understanding the variety of movements is essential to make correct management decisions. This study describes in detail the movement patterns of an economically and commercially important species, Diplodus sargus, within a well-enforced Mediterranean MPA. We monitored horizontal and vertical movements of 41 adult individuals using passive acoustic telemetry for up to one year. We applied novel analysis and visualization techniques to get a comprehensive view of a wide range of movements. D. sargus individuals were highly territorial, moving within small home ranges (< 1 km2), inside which they displayed repetitive diel activity patterns. Extraordinary movements beyond the ordinary home range were observed under two specific conditions. First, during stormy events D. sargus presented a sheltering behaviour, moving to more protected places to avoid the disturbance. Second, during the spawning season they made excursions to deep areas (> 50 m), where they aggregated to spawn. This study advances our understanding about the functioning of an established MPA and provides important insights into the biology and management of a small sedentary species, suggesting the relevance of rare but important fish behaviours. PMID:27437692

  19. Defining Indicators and Standards for Tourism Impacts in Protected Areas: Cape Range National Park, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Susan A.; Polley, Amanda

    2007-03-01

    Visitors’ perceptions of impacts and acceptable standards for environmental conditions can provide essential information for the sustainable management of tourist destinations, especially protected areas. To this end, visitor surveys were administered during the peak visitor season in Cape Range National Park, on the northwest coast of Western Australia and adjacent to the iconic Ningaloo Reef. The central focus was visitors’ perceptions regarding environmental conditions and standards for potential indicators. Conditions considered of greatest importance in determining visitors’ quality of experience included litter, inadequate disposal of human waste, presence of wildlife, levels of noise, and access to beach and ocean. Standards were determined, based on visitors’ perceptions, for a range of site-specific and non-site-specific indicators, with standards for facilities (e.g., acceptable number of parking bays, signs) and for negative environmental impacts (e.g., levels of littering, erosion) sought. The proposed standards varied significantly between sites for the facilities indicators; however, there was no significant difference between sites for environmental impacts. For the facilities, the standards proposed by visitors were closely related to the existing situation, suggesting that they were satisfied with the status quo. These results are considered in the context of current research interest in the efficacy of visitor-derived standards as a basis for protected area management.

  20. Defining indicators and standards for tourism impacts in protected areas: Cape Range National Park, Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Susan A; Polley, Amanda

    2007-03-01

    Visitors' perceptions of impacts and acceptable standards for environmental conditions can provide essential information for the sustainable management of tourist destinations, especially protected areas. To this end, visitor surveys were administered during the peak visitor season in Cape Range National Park, on the northwest coast of Western Australia and adjacent to the iconic Ningaloo Reef. The central focus was visitors' perceptions regarding environmental conditions and standards for potential indicators. Conditions considered of greatest importance in determining visitors' quality of experience included litter, inadequate disposal of human waste, presence of wildlife, levels of noise, and access to beach and ocean. Standards were determined, based on visitors' perceptions, for a range of site-specific and non-site-specific indicators, with standards for facilities (e.g., acceptable number of parking bays, signs) and for negative environmental impacts (e.g., levels of littering, erosion) sought. The proposed standards varied significantly between sites for the facilities indicators; however, there was no significant difference between sites for environmental impacts. For the facilities, the standards proposed by visitors were closely related to the existing situation, suggesting that they were satisfied with the status quo. These results are considered in the context of current research interest in the efficacy of visitor-derived standards as a basis for protected area management. PMID:17203342

  1. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilho, Camila S.; Hackbart, Vivian C. S.; Pivello, Vânia R.; dos Santos, Rozely F.

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  2. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Camila S; Hackbart, Vivian C S; Pivello, Vânia R; dos Santos, Rozely F

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges. PMID:25860593

  3. 75 FR 81233 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... 19, 2008, (73 FR 69608) and provides guidance for collaborative efforts among federal, state... Department of the Interior (DOI) invited federal, state, commonwealth, and territorial marine protected...

  4. Environmental Globalization, Organizational Form, and Expected Benefits from Protected Areas in Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Schelhas, John W.; Meola, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Environmental globalization has led to the implementation of conservation efforts like the creation of protected areas that often promote the interests of core countries in poorer regions. The creation of protected areas in poor areas frequently creates tensions between human needs like food and shelter and environmental conservation. Support for…

  5. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 417 - Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft... Appendix B to Part 417—Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection B417.1Scope This... launch site hazard area analysis that protects the public, aircraft, and ships from the...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 417 - Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft... Appendix B to Part 417—Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection B417.1Scope This... launch site hazard area analysis that protects the public, aircraft, and ships from the...

  7. Promoting the management and protection of private water wells.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Hugh

    Rural families in Ontario depend almost entirely on groundwater from private wells for their potable water supply. In many cases, groundwater may be the only feasible water supply source and it requires management and protection. A significant potential source of ground water contamination is the movement of contaminated surface water through water wells that are improperly constructed, maintained, or should be decommissioned. Therefore, proper water well construction and maintenance, and eventual decommissioning, are critical for managing and protecting the quantity and quality of groundwater, as well as ensuring the integrity of rural drinking-water supplies. These actions are important for protecting private water supplies from both potential human and natural contamination. Individual well owners each have a personal interest and valuable role in ensuring the integrity of their water supplies. The following information is required to help well owners ensure the integrity of their water supply: different types of wells, why some wells are at greater risk of contamination than others, and sources of groundwater contaminants; groundwater contaminants, how they can move through soil and water, and potential risks to human health; benefits of ensuring that wells are properly maintained and operate efficiently; and importance of a regular well water quality testing program. This paper summarizes the technical information that should be provided to rural well owners concerning proper water well and groundwater management and protection, and provides an example of how this information can be promoted in an effective manner. PMID:15371209

  8. Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Argaz, Hamida; Fahd, Soumía; Brito, José C.

    2013-09-01

    The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1 × 1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed.

  9. Radiological protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations resulting from a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2013-01-01

    In environmental remediation after nuclear accidents, radioactive wastes have to be appropriately managed in existing exposure situations with contamination resulting from the emission of radionuclides by such accidents. In this paper, a framework of radiation protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations for application to the practical and reasonable waste management in contaminated areas, referring to related ICRP recommendations was proposed. In the proposed concept, intermediate reference levels for waste management are adopted gradually according to the progress of the reduction in the existing ambient dose in the environment on the basis of the principles of justification and optimisation by taking into account the practicability of the management of radioactive waste and environmental remediation. It is essential to include the participation of relevant stakeholders living in existing exposure situations in the selection of reference levels for the existing ambient dose and waste management. PMID:22719047

  10. Radiological protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations resulting from a nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2013-01-01

    In environmental remediation after nuclear accidents, radioactive wastes have to be appropriately managed in existing exposure situations with contamination resulting from the emission of radionuclides by such accidents. In this paper, a framework of radiation protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations for application to the practical and reasonable waste management in contaminated areas, referring to related ICRP recommendations was proposed. In the proposed concept, intermediate reference levels for waste management are adopted gradually according to the progress of the reduction in the existing ambient dose in the environment on the basis of the principles of justification and optimisation by taking into account the practicability of the management of radioactive waste and environmental remediation. It is essential to include the participation of relevant stakeholders living in existing exposure situations in the selection of reference levels for the existing ambient dose and waste management. PMID:22719047

  11. Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, Graham J.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.; Willis, Trevor J.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Baker, Susan C.; Banks, Stuart; Barrett, Neville S.; Becerro, Mikel A.; Bernard, Anthony T. F.; Berkhout, Just; Buxton, Colin D.; Campbell, Stuart J.; Cooper, Antonia T.; Davey, Marlene; Edgar, Sophie C.; Försterra, Günter; Galván, David E.; Irigoyen, Alejo J.; Kushner, David J.; Moura, Rodrigo; Parnell, P. Ed; Shears, Nick T.; Soler, German; Strain, Elisabeth M. A.; Thomson, Russell J.

    2014-02-01

    In line with global targets agreed under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is increasing rapidly, yet socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs remain difficult to predict and under debate. MPAs often fail to reach their full potential as a consequence of factors such as illegal harvesting, regulations that legally allow detrimental harvesting, or emigration of animals outside boundaries because of continuous habitat or inadequate size of reserve. Here we show that the conservation benefits of 87 MPAs investigated worldwide increase exponentially with the accumulation of five key features: no take, well enforced, old (>10 years), large (>100km2), and isolated by deep water or sand. Using effective MPAs with four or five key features as an unfished standard, comparisons of underwater survey data from effective MPAs with predictions based on survey data from fished coasts indicate that total fish biomass has declined about two-thirds from historical baselines as a result of fishing. Effective MPAs also had twice as many large (>250mm total length) fish species per transect, five times more large fish biomass, and fourteen times more shark biomass than fished areas. Most (59%) of the MPAs studied had only one or two key features and were not ecologically distinguishable from fished sites. Our results show that global conservation targets based on area alone will not optimize protection of marine biodiversity. More emphasis is needed on better MPA design, durable management and compliance to ensure that MPAs achieve their desired conservation value.

  12. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  13. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  14. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  15. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  16. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  17. 50 CFR 92.11 - Regional management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional management areas. 92.11 Section 92.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.11 Regional management areas. (a)...

  18. Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Ardura, A; Juanes, F; Planes, S; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2016-01-01

    Marine biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how Marine Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between marine protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of marine protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction. PMID:27609423

  19. Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Ardura, A.; Juanes, F.; Planes, S.; Garcia-Vazquez, E.

    2016-01-01

    Marine biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how Marine Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between marine protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of marine protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction. PMID:27609423

  20. Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: Application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of trail resources associated with expanding recreation and tourism visitation is a growing management problem in protected areas worldwide. In order to make judicious trail and visitor management decisions, protected area managers need objective and timely information on trail resource conditions. This paper introduces a trail survey method that efficiently characterizes the lineal extent of common trail problems. The method was applied to a large sample of trails within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, a highuse protected area in the USA. The Trail ProblemAssessment Method (TPAM) employs a continuous search for multiple indicators of predefined tread problems, yielding census data documenting the location, occurrence and extent of each problem. The present application employed 23 different indicators in three categories to gather inventory, resource condition, and design and maintenance data of each surveyed trail. Seventy-two backcountry hiking trails (528 km), or 35% of the Park's total trail length, were surveyed. Soil erosion and wet soil were found to be the two most common impacts on a lineal extent basis. Trails with serious tread problems were well distributed throughout the Park, although wet muddy treads tended to be concentrated in areas where horse use was high. The effectiveness of maintenance features installed to divert water from trail treads was also evaluated. Water bars were found to be more effective than drainage dips. The TPAM was able to provide Park managers with objective and quantitative information for use in trail planning, management and maintenance decisions, and is applicable to other protected areas elsewhere with different environmental and impact characteristics.

  1. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  2. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+

    PubMed Central

    Asare, Rebecca A.; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users’ decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems. PMID:23878338

  3. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    PubMed

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems. PMID:23878338

  4. Efficiency of a Protected-Area Network in a Mediterranean Region: A Multispecies Assessment with Raptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abellán, María D.; Martínez, José E.; Palazón, José A.; Esteve, Miguel Á.; Calvo, José F.

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km2), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel ( Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  5. Current and future land use around a nationwide protected area network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Lewis, David J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our “restricted-urban-growth” scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S.

  6. Current and future land use around a nationwide protected area network.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Christopher M; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J; Radeloff, Volker C; Lewis, David J; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Heglund, Patricia J; Pidgeon, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our "restricted-urban-growth" scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S. PMID:23383275

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-09-24

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

  8. A Study on the Analysis of Relationship between Coastal Buffer Zone and Natural Protected Area-Typical Example at Howmeiliao Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Lan, Y.; Hsu, T.; Shie, W.

    2009-12-01

    There are two purposes in this study. One is to formulate the planning process of the land boundary and the management principles of the coastal buffer zone. The other one is to analyze the relationship between the coastal buffer zone and the natural protected area. We proposed six management principles for the coastal buffer zone by reviewing the related problems in Taiwanese coast in which the successful management methods at domestic and foreign areas were collected. We also look for corresponding principles applied to the determination of coastal buffer zone. Finally, we take a typical example at Howmeiliao Coast to incorporate the coastal buffer zone and regulations of natural protected area. The results provide possible criteria for design and planning in the near future. Key words: Coastal buffer zone; Natural protected area; Management principle

  9. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. PMID:26460130

  10. Insights for integrated conservation from attitudes of people toward protected areas near Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Guerbois, Chloe; Dufour, Anne-Beatrice; Mtare, Godfrey; Fritz, Herve

    2013-08-01

    Increase in human settlements at the edge of protected areas (PAs) is perceived as a major threat to conservation of biodiversity. Although it is crucial to integrate the interests of surrounding communities into PA management, key drivers of changes in local populations and the effects of conservation on local livelihoods and perceptions remain poorly understood. We assessed population changes from 1990 to 2010 in 9 villages located between 2 PAs with different management policies (access to natural resources or not). We conducted semi-directive interviews at the household level (n =217) to document reasons for settlement in the area and villager's attitudes toward the PAs. We examined drivers of these attitudes relative to household typology, feelings about conservation, and concerns for the future with mixed linear models. Population increased by 61% from 2000 to 2010, a period of political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe. Forty-seven percent of immigrants were attracted by the area; others had been resettled from other villages or were returning to family lands. Attitudes toward PAs were generally positive, but immigrants attracted by the area and who used resources within the PA with fewer restrictions expressed more negative attitudes toward PAs. Household location, losses due to wild animals, and restrictions on access to natural resources were the main drivers of this negative attitude. Profit-seeking migrants did not expect these constraints and were particularly concerned with local overpopulation and access to natural resources. To avoid socio-ecological traps near PAs (i.e., unforeseen reduced adaptive capacity) integrated conservation should address mismatches between management policy and local expectations. This requires accounting for endogenous processes, for example, local socio-ecological dynamics and values that shape the coexistence between humans and wildlife. PMID:23866038

  11. Thermal protective visor for entering high temperature areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgett, F. A.

    1968-01-01

    Chamber observer suit visor protects the eyes and ears of the wearer while he is performing rescue operations during a fire. The visor is a simple curved sandwich of selected glass plates, gold coated polyester plastic film, and a dead air space, all mounted in an aluminum frame.

  12. Developing the Interpretive Niche for Protected Area Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Donald A.; Wallace, George N.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the role of park guards in the Galapagos National Park in Ecuador, in interpretation and visitor management. Presents strategies for involving the park guards, who function more as rangers, in interpretative activities with local people and national visitors. (LZ)

  13. Financing marine protected areas through visitor fees: insights from tourists willingness to pay in Chile.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Amar, Francisca; Valdebenito, Abel; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Fernandez, Miriam; Godoy, Cecilia; Biggs, Duan

    2013-12-01

    Tourism is a financing mechanism considered by many donor-funded marine conservation initiatives. Here we assess the potential role of visitor entry fees, in generating the necessary revenue to manage a marine protected area (MPA), established through a Global Environmental Facility Grant, in a temperate region of Chile. We assess tourists' willingness to pay (WTP) for an entry fee associated to management and protection of the MPA. Results show 97 % of respondents were willing to pay an entrance fee. WTP predictors included the type of tourist, tourists' sensitivity to crowding, education, and understanding of ecological benefits of the MPA. Nature-based tourists state median WTP values of US$ 4.38 and Sun-sea-sand tourists US$ 3.77. Overall, entry fees could account for 10-13 % of MPA running costs. In Chile, where funding for conservation runs among the weakest in the world, visitor entry fees are no panacea in the short term and other mechanisms, including direct state/government support, should be considered. PMID:24213996

  14. Modernizing Training Options for Natural Areas Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedl, Sarah E.; Ober, Holly K.; Stein, Taylor V.; Andreu, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    A recent shift in desires among working professionals from traditional learning environments to distance education has emerged due to reductions in travel and training budgets. To accommodate this, the Natural Areas Training Academy replaced traditionally formatted workshops with a hybrid approach. Surveys of participants before and after this…

  15. Habitat collapse due to overgrazing threatens turtle conservation in marine protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Christianen, Marjolijn J. A.; Herman, Peter M. J.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Lamers, Leon P. M.; van Katwijk, Marieke M.; van der Heide, Tjisse; Mumby, Peter J.; Silliman, Brian R.; Engelhard, Sarah L.; van de Kerk, Madelon; Kiswara, Wawan; van de Koppel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are key tools for combatting the global overexploitation of endangered species. The prevailing paradigm is that MPAs are beneficial in helping to restore ecosystems to more ‘natural’ conditions. However, MPAs may have unintended negative effects when increasing densities of protected species exert destructive effects on their habitat. Here, we report on severe seagrass degradation in a decade-old MPA where hyper-abundant green turtles adopted a previously undescribed below-ground foraging strategy. By digging for and consuming rhizomes and roots, turtles create abundant bare gaps, thereby enhancing erosion and reducing seagrass regrowth. A fully parametrized model reveals that the ecosystem is approaching a tipping point, where consumption overwhelms regrowth, which could potentially lead to complete collapse of the seagrass habitat. Seagrass recovery will not ensue unless turtle density is reduced to nearly zero, eliminating the MPA's value as a turtle reserve. Our results reveal an unrecognized, yet imminent threat to MPAs, as sea turtle densities are increasing at major nesting sites and the decline of seagrass habitat forces turtles to concentrate on the remaining meadows inside reserves. This emphasizes the need for policy and management approaches that consider the interactions of protected species with their habitat. PMID:24403341

  16. Habitat collapse due to overgrazing threatens turtle conservation in marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Christianen, Marjolijn J A; Herman, Peter M J; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Lamers, Leon P M; van Katwijk, Marieke M; van der Heide, Tjisse; Mumby, Peter J; Silliman, Brian R; Engelhard, Sarah L; van de Kerk, Madelon; Kiswara, Wawan; van de Koppel, Johan

    2014-02-22

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are key tools for combatting the global overexploitation of endangered species. The prevailing paradigm is that MPAs are beneficial in helping to restore ecosystems to more 'natural' conditions. However, MPAs may have unintended negative effects when increasing densities of protected species exert destructive effects on their habitat. Here, we report on severe seagrass degradation in a decade-old MPA where hyper-abundant green turtles adopted a previously undescribed below-ground foraging strategy. By digging for and consuming rhizomes and roots, turtles create abundant bare gaps, thereby enhancing erosion and reducing seagrass regrowth. A fully parametrized model reveals that the ecosystem is approaching a tipping point, where consumption overwhelms regrowth, which could potentially lead to complete collapse of the seagrass habitat. Seagrass recovery will not ensue unless turtle density is reduced to nearly zero, eliminating the MPA's value as a turtle reserve. Our results reveal an unrecognized, yet imminent threat to MPAs, as sea turtle densities are increasing at major nesting sites and the decline of seagrass habitat forces turtles to concentrate on the remaining meadows inside reserves. This emphasizes the need for policy and management approaches that consider the interactions of protected species with their habitat. PMID:24403341

  17. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radeloff, V.C.; Stewart, S.I.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Gimmi, U.; Pidgeon, A.M.; Flather, C.H.; Hammer, R.B.; Helmers, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern "Noah's Ark." Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries.

  18. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value.

    PubMed

    Radeloff, Volker C; Stewart, Susan I; Hawbaker, Todd J; Gimmi, Urs; Pidgeon, Anna M; Flather, Curtis H; Hammer, Roger B; Helmers, David P

    2010-01-12

    Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern "Noah's Ark." Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries. PMID:20080780

  19. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value

    PubMed Central

    Radeloff, Volker C.; Stewart, Susan I.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Gimmi, Urs; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Flather, Curtis H.; Hammer, Roger B.; Helmers, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern “Noah’s Ark.” Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries. PMID:20080780

  20. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  1. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  2. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  3. Protected Areas' Role in Climate-change Mitigation in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kicklighter, David; Lu, Xiaoliang; Monier, Erwan; Sokolov, Andrei; Melillo, Jerry; Reilly, John; Zhuang, Qianlai

    2016-04-01

    In Northern Eurasia, about 2.0 million square kilometers of land are currently identified as protected areas, which provide society with many ecosystem services including climate-change mitigation. These areas represent about 13% of the protected areas identified across the globe. Combining a global database of protected areas, a reconstruction of global land-use history, and a terrestrial biogeochemistry model, we estimate that protected areas in Northern Eurasia currently sequester 0.05 Pg C annually, which is about one tenth of the carbon sequestered by all land ecosystems annually in this region (0.5 Pg C/yr) and also about one tenth of the carbon sequestered in all protected areas across the globe. Using an integrated earth systems model to generate climate and land-use scenarios for the 21st century, we project that rapid climate change, similar to high-end projections in the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, would cause the annual carbon sequestration rate in the protected areas of Northern Eurasia to increase to about 0.07 Pg C/yr by 2100. In contrast, the annual carbon sequestration rate for all protected areas across the globe drops to 0.3 Pg C/yr by the end of the 21st century. For the scenario with both rapid climate change and extensive land-use change driven by population and economic pressures so that development encroaches upon designated "protected areas", we project that 0.6 million square kilometers of the protected areas in Northern Eurasia would be converted to other uses (10.7% of global protected area losses), and carbon sequestration in the remaining protected areas of Northern Eurasia would drop to 0.03 Pg C/yr by 2100. This small regional carbon sink is compensated by carbon losses in the remaining protected areas outside of the region so that overall no net carbon would be sequestered by global protected areas at the end of the 21st century if these areas are not truly protected.

  4. Conflict resolution in the zoning of eco-protected areas in fast-growing regions based on game theory.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinyao; Li, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Zoning eco-protected areas is important for ecological conservation and environmental management. Rapid and continuous urban expansion, however, may exert negative effects on the performance of practical zoning designs. Various methods have been developed for protected area zoning, but most of them failed to consider the conflicts between urban development (for the benefit of land developers) and ecological protection (local government). Some real-world zoning schemes even have to be modified occasionally after the lengthy negotiations between the government and land developers. Therefore, our study has presented a game theory-based method to deal with this problem. Future urban expansion in the study area will be predicted by a logistic regression cellular automaton, while eco-protected areas will be delimitated using multi-objective optimization algorithm. Then, two types of conflicts between them can be resolved based on game theory, a theory of decision-making. We established a two-person dynamic game for each conflict zone. The ecological compensation mechanism was taken into account by simulating the negotiation processes between the government and land developers. A final zoning scheme can be obtained when the two sides reach agreements. The proposed method is applied to the eco-protected area zoning in Guangzhou, a fast-growing city in China. The experiments indicate that the conflicts between eco-protection and urban development will inevitably arise when using only traditional zoning methods. Based on game theory, our method can effectively resolve those conflicts, and can provide a relatively reasonable zoning scheme. This method is expected to support policy-making in environmental management and urban planning. PMID:26829451

  5. Assessment of potential groundwater contamination sources in a wellhead protection area.

    PubMed

    Harman, W A; Allan, C J; Forsythe, R D

    2001-07-01

    Determining the human health dangers from potential contamination sources, within a wellhead protection area (WHPA), requires that a risk analysis be undertaken. In this study, a desktop geographic information system and spreadsheet software are used to implement an EPA risk screening methodology for WHPAs called 'Managing Ground Water Contamination Sources in Wellhead Protection Areas--A Priority Setting Approach'. The methodology was applied to a WHPA in Gaston County, North Carolina. Results indicate that the risk of well contamination from an interstate highway and gas station with old steel underground storage tanks were comparatively high. Medium risks included a thoroughfare and highway, while low risks were assigned to machine shops, a body shop, septic systems and a gas station with new underground storage tanks and secondary containment. A sensitivity analyses of the Priority Setting Approach indicated that risk scores were extremely sensitive to hydrogeologic variables such as hydraulic conductivity. It is recommended that risk assessors utilize a range of hydrogeologic parameters to assess overall risk from each potential contamination source. PMID:11475085

  6. Emerging governance approaches for tourism in the protected areas of china.

    PubMed

    Su, Dan; Wall, Geoffrey; Eagles, Paul F J

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines the recent evolution in the governance of protected area tourism in China. China now sees cooperation in the form of public-private partnerships occurring between authorized private tourism enterprises in various organizational forms and the public managers from specific portfolio departments of governments at different levels. Three types of governance models are visible: the Leasing Model, the Non-listed Share-holding Model, and the Public-listed Share-holding Model. Theories of corporate governance were applied to these models to analyze the internal and external mechanisms of supervision and incentives for both the government agencies and the authorized tourism enterprises for nature-based tourism operations. The Principal-Agent problem and the supervision mechanism are the focus of the analysis. The emerging governance approaches for tourism in protected areas of China are all theoretically viable, as explained by the theory of property rights and corporate governance, and practically viable as elaborated in the cases of the three types of governance models summarized in this paper. PMID:17453276

  7. Volcanic hazard management in dispersed volcanism areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Jose Manuel; Garcia, Alicia; Ortiz, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Traditional volcanic hazard methodologies were developed mainly to deal with the big stratovolcanoes. In such type of volcanoes, the hazard map is an important tool for decision-makers not only during a volcanic crisis but also for territorial planning. According to the past and recent eruptions of a volcano, all possible volcanic hazards are modelled and included in the hazard map. Combining the hazard map with the Event Tree the impact area can be zoned and defining the likely eruptive scenarios that will be used during a real volcanic crisis. But in areas of disperse volcanism is very complex to apply the same volcanic hazard methodologies. The event tree do not take into account unknown vents, because the spatial concepts included in it are only related with the distance reached by volcanic hazards. The volcanic hazard simulation is also difficult because the vent scatter modifies the results. The volcanic susceptibility try to solve this problem, calculating the most likely areas to have an eruption, but the differences between low and large values obtained are often very small. In these conditions the traditional hazard map effectiveness could be questioned, making necessary a change in the concept of hazard map. Instead to delimit the potential impact areas, the hazard map should show the expected behaviour of the volcanic activity and how the differences in the landscape and internal geo-structures could condition such behaviour. This approach has been carried out in La Palma (Canary Islands), combining the concept of long-term hazard map with the short-term volcanic scenario to show the expected volcanic activity behaviour. The objective is the decision-makers understand how a volcanic crisis could be and what kind of mitigation measurement and strategy could be used.

  8. 18 CFR 430.7 - Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use. 430.7 Section 430.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA §...

  9. 18 CFR 430.7 - Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of protected areas and restriction on water use. 430.7 Section 430.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA §...

  10. Percentage of Protected Area Amounts within each Watershed Boundary for the Conterminous US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: This dataset uses spatial information from the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD, March 2011) and the Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US Version 1.0). The resulting data layer, with percentages of protected areas by category, was created using the ATtI...

  11. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions ER29DE10.006 ER29DE10.007 ER29DE10.008...

  12. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions ER20DE04.109 ER20DE04.110 ER20DE04.111...

  13. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions ER29DE10.006 ER29DE10.007 ER29DE10.008...

  14. 40 CFR 52.28 - Protection of visibility from sources in nonattainment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... protection area means any area listed in 40 CFR 81.401-81.436 (1984). (2) All other terms shall have the meaning ascribed to them in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301) or the prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) program either approved as part of the applicable SIP pursuant to 40 CFR...

  15. 40 CFR 52.28 - Protection of visibility from sources in nonattainment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... protection area means any area listed in 40 CFR 81.401-81.436 (1984). (2) All other terms shall have the meaning ascribed to them in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301) or the prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) program either approved as part of the applicable SIP pursuant to 40 CFR...

  16. 40 CFR 52.28 - Protection of visibility from sources in nonattainment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... protection area means any area listed in 40 CFR 81.401-81.436 (1984). (2) All other terms shall have the meaning ascribed to them in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301) or the prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) program either approved as part of the applicable SIP pursuant to 40 CFR...

  17. 40 CFR 52.28 - Protection of visibility from sources in nonattainment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... protection area means any area listed in 40 CFR 81.401-81.436 (1984). (2) All other terms shall have the meaning ascribed to them in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301) or the prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) program either approved as part of the applicable SIP pursuant to 40 CFR...

  18. 40 CFR 52.28 - Protection of visibility from sources in nonattainment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... protection area means any area listed in 40 CFR 81.401-81.436 (1984). (2) All other terms shall have the meaning ascribed to them in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301) or the prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) program either approved as part of the applicable SIP pursuant to 40 CFR...

  19. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, M. H.; Berumen, M. L.; Hobbs, J.-P. A.; van Herwerden, L.

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as "vulnerable" by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity ( M = 259-1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited ( M = 3-9) with high self-replenishment (68-93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations, but not

  20. Satellite Earth observation data to identify anthropogenic pressures in selected protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagendra, Harini; Mairota, Paola; Marangi, Carmela; Lucas, Richard; Dimopoulos, Panayotis; Honrado, João Pradinho; Niphadkar, Madhura; Mücher, Caspar A.; Tomaselli, Valeria; Panitsa, Maria; Tarantino, Cristina; Manakos, Ioannis; Blonda, Palma

    2015-05-01

    Protected areas are experiencing increased levels of human pressure. To enable appropriate conservation action, it is critical to map and monitor changes in the type and extent of land cover/use and habitat classes, which can be related to human pressures over time. Satellite Earth observation (EO) data and techniques offer the opportunity to detect such changes. Yet association with field information and expert interpretation by ecologists is required to interpret, qualify and link these changes to human pressure. There is thus an urgent need to harmonize the technical background of experts in the field of EO data analysis with the terminology of ecologists, protected area management authorities and policy makers in order to provide meaningful, context-specific value-added EO products. This paper builds on the DPSIR framework, providing a terminology to relate the concepts of state, pressures, and drivers with the application of EO analysis. The type of pressure can be inferred through the detection of changes in state (i.e. changes in land cover and/or habitat type and/or condition). Four broad categories of changes in state are identified, i.e. land cover/habitat conversion, land cover/habitat modification, habitat fragmentation and changes in landscape connectivity, and changes in plant community structure. These categories of change in state can be mapped through EO analyses, with the goal of using expert judgement to relate changes in state to causal direct anthropogenic pressures. Drawing on expert knowledge, a set of protected areas located in diverse socio-ecological contexts and subject to a variety of pressures are analysed to (a) link the four categories of changes in state of land cover/habitats to the drivers (anthropogenic pressure), as relevant to specific target land cover and habitat classes; (b) identify (for pressure mapping) the most appropriate spatial and temporal EO data sources as well as interpretations from ecologists and field data