Science.gov

Sample records for protection des plantes

  1. hors les murs des plantes

    E-print Network

    hors les murs au jardin des plantes 16 oct./ 201523 nov. mnhn.fr -- fiac.com 57 rue Cuvier -- Paris Georges-Philippe et Nathalie Vallois, Paris 5 - Lara Almarcegui Rocks of Spitsbergen, 2014, Présentée par 11 - Virginie Yassef L'objet du doute, 2013 Présentée par la Galerie Georges-Philippe et Nathalie

  2. Chitosan in Plant Protection

    PubMed Central

    El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Adam, Lorne R.; El Hadrami, Ismail; Daayf, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR) proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:20479963

  3. JARDIN DES PLANTES 57 RUE CUVIER, PARIS 5e

    E-print Network

    des adaptations humaines, en termes de locomotion et d'alimentation, au cours de l'évolution. Celles. 2. Alimentation et digestion. Diversité des régimes alimentaires et des niches écologiques, saisonnalité, alimentation et santé. Coévolution avec les plantes, automédication. 3. Comportement, vie sociale

  4. 75 FR 77612 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection... Agriculture intends to reestablish the Plant Variety Protection Board. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul....regulations.gov or by e-mail: Paul.Zankowski@ams.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Plant...

  5. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...plant permit. If a protected plant permit is denied, the notification...therefor. If a protected plant permit is denied, the applicant may request a hearing pursuant to paragraph (i...section and may submit to Plant Protection and...

  6. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...plant permit. If a protected plant permit is denied, the notification...therefor. If a protected plant permit is denied, the applicant may request a hearing pursuant to paragraph (i...section and may submit to Plant Protection and...

  7. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...plant permit. If a protected plant permit is denied, the notification...therefor. If a protected plant permit is denied, the applicant may request a hearing pursuant to paragraph (i...section and may submit to Plant Protection and...

  8. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...plant permit. If a protected plant permit is denied, the notification...therefor. If a protected plant permit is denied, the applicant may request a hearing pursuant to paragraph (i...section and may submit to Plant Protection and...

  9. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...plant permit. If a protected plant permit is denied, the notification...therefor. If a protected plant permit is denied, the applicant may request a hearing pursuant to paragraph (i...section and may submit to Plant Protection and...

  10. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac. When in contact with skin, the sap ... poisonous plant: Immediately rinse skin with rubbing alcohol, poison plant wash, or degreasing soap (such as dishwashing ...

  11. 75 FR 77612 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...to developers of new varieties of plants, which are reproduced sexually by...tuber-propagated. A Certificate of Plant Variety Protection is awarded to...representing expertise in seed technology, plant breeding, and variety development,...

  12. Protection Goals for Aquatic Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Someone once said plants are the ugly stepchildren of the toxicological world. This was not out of lack of respect for plants, but rather reflected the common assumption that aquatic plants were less sensitive than aquatic fauna to chemicals. We now know this is not a valid gener...

  13. 77 FR 75607 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Soliciting Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Soliciting Nominations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Plant Variety Protection Office (PVPO) is seeking candidates for the Plant Variety Protection Board. We are asking for the submission of nomination...

  14. 76 FR 21701 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ...attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES...CONTACT: Ms. Natalie Worku, Plant Variety Protection Office, Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural...given regarding an upcoming Plant Variety Protection (PVP)...

  15. 78 FR 63448 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES...CONTACT: Ms. Maria Pratt, Plant Variety Protection Office, Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural...given regarding an upcoming Plant Variety Protection (PVP)...

  16. 78 FR 37200 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES...CONTACT: Ms. Jennifer Banks, Plant Variety Protection Office, Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural...given regarding an upcoming Plant Variety Protection (PVP)...

  17. 77 FR 20610 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ...attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES...INFORMATION CONTACT: Jennifer Banks, Plant Variety Protection Office, Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural...given regarding an upcoming Plant Variety Protection (PVP)...

  18. Y-12 Plant Stratospheric Ozone Protection plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant staff is required by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) (formerly Martin Marietta Energy Systems) standard ESS-EP-129 to develop and implement a Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program which will minimize emissions of ozone-depleting substances to the environment and maximize the use of ozone-safe alternatives in order to comply with Title VI of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments and the implementing regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This plan describes the requirements, initiatives, and accomplishments of the Y-12 Plant Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program.

  19. Fire protection survey Pinellas Plant Largo, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, P.H.; Sharland, J.R.

    1989-04-01

    Fire protection personnel provide effective fire protection advice for all major aspects of fire protection, namely: (1) major construction projects, (2) test and maintenance of fire protection equipment, and (3) training of Plant Fire Brigade members. Interest in fire protection is excellent, as noted by completion of all applicable recommendations contained in the 1979 Fire Protection Survey. There are no fire areas where the loss potential would exceed $50,000,000 with protection out of service. There are two areas where a fire loss could exceed $1,000,000 with protection in service. Poor housekeeping in the Engineering VAX Cluster computer room in Building 100 could result in a large loss even with protection in service. Sprinkler protection for the off-site warehouse is presently not adequate for the fire loading. In addition, a fire involving one-of-a-kind product testers located in Buildings 100, 200, 400 and 800 could result in substantial delays to production due to the 1 to 1 1/2 year period needed to replace these testers. Internal protection is recommended for these units. There are eight other findings that would be made during a Highly Protected Risk survey.

  20. FORMAT FOR A PRA RECORD (version 3 of the Decision support scheme for PRA for quarantine pests) European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation

    E-print Network

    or plant products? Yes in parts of its range D. pini is known to cause heavy and sometimes total pests) European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation Organisation Européenne et Méditerranéenne pour la Protection des Plantes Guidelines on Pest Risk Analysis Lignes directrices pour l

  1. 48 CFR 31.205-29 - Plant protection costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant protection costs. 31....205-29 Plant protection costs. Costs of items such as (a) wages, uniforms, and equipment of personnel engaged in plant protection, (b) depreciation on plant protection capital assets, and (c)...

  2. 48 CFR 31.205-29 - Plant protection costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plant protection costs. 31....205-29 Plant protection costs. Costs of items such as (a) wages, uniforms, and equipment of personnel engaged in plant protection, (b) depreciation on plant protection capital assets, and (c)...

  3. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Exemptions...

  4. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Exemptions...

  5. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Exemptions...

  6. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Exemptions...

  7. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Exemptions...

  8. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plant protection data requirements... § 161.540 Plant protection data requirements. (a) Table. Sections 161.100 through 161.102 describe how to use this table to determine the plant protection data requirements and the substance to be...

  9. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant protection data requirements... § 161.540 Plant protection data requirements. (a) Table. Sections 161.100 through 161.102 describe how to use this table to determine the plant protection data requirements and the substance to be...

  10. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plant protection data requirements... § 161.540 Plant protection data requirements. (a) Table. Sections 161.100 through 161.102 describe how to use this table to determine the plant protection data requirements and the substance to be...

  11. AFPP QUATRIME CONFRENCE INTERNATIONALE SUR LES MTHODES ALTERNATIVES EN PROTECTION DES CULTURES

    E-print Network

    Lucas, Éric

    'efficacité de chacune d'entre elles a été évaluée par décompte des larves et des dommages infligés aux plants de strategy showed better efficacy by reducing the number of larvae present in corn ears by 60% compared to an 8% reduction with the second strategy. Similarly, the number of ears damaged was reduced by 30

  12. 48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plant protection. 252.217... Clauses 252.217-7016 Plant protection. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: Plant Protection (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall provide, for the plant and work in process,...

  13. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (7 CFR part 25), and such additional operating procedures as... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant...

  14. 48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant protection. 252.217... Clauses 252.217-7016 Plant protection. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: Plant Protection (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall provide, for the plant and work in process,...

  15. 48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plant protection. 252.217... Clauses 252.217-7016 Plant protection. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: Plant Protection (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall provide, for the plant and work in process,...

  16. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (7 CFR part 25), and such additional operating procedures as... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant...

  17. 48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plant protection. 252.217... Clauses 252.217-7016 Plant protection. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: Plant Protection (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall provide, for the plant and work in process,...

  18. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (7 CFR part 25), and such additional operating procedures as... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant...

  19. 48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plant protection. 252.217... Clauses 252.217-7016 Plant protection. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: Plant Protection (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall provide, for the plant and work in process,...

  20. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plant protection data requirements. 161.540 Section 161.540 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Data Requirement Tables § 161.540 Plant protection data requirements....

  1. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  2. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  3. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  4. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  5. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2250 - Nontarget plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nontarget plant protection. 158.2250 Section 158.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR...

  7. 40 CFR 158.2250 - Nontarget plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nontarget plant protection. 158.2250 Section 158.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR...

  8. 78 FR 37200 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural... their opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES: July 31, 2013... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Jennifer Banks, Plant Variety Protection Office, Science and...

  9. 76 FR 21701 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES: May 11 and 12, 2011, 8 a.m... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Natalie Worku, Plant Variety Protection Office, Science and...

  10. Unique metabolites protect earthworms against plant polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Liebeke, Manuel; Strittmatter, Nicole; Fearn, Sarah; Morgan, A. John; Kille, Peter; Fuchser, Jens; Wallis, David; Palchykov, Vitalii; Robertson, Jeremy; Lahive, Elma; Spurgeon, David J.; McPhail, David; Takáts, Zoltán; Bundy, Jacob G.

    2015-01-01

    All higher plants produce polyphenols, for defence against above-ground herbivory. These polyphenols also influence the soil micro- and macro-fauna that break down plant leaf litter. Polyphenols therefore indirectly affect the fluxes of soil nutrients and, ultimately, carbon turnover and ecosystem functioning in soils. It is unknown how earthworms, the major component of animal biomass in many soils, cope with high-polyphenol diets. Here, we show that earthworms possess a class of unique surface-active metabolites in their gut, which we term ‘drilodefensins'. These compounds counteract the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on earthworm gut enzymes, and high-polyphenol diets increase drilodefensin concentrations in both laboratory and field populations. This shows that drilodefensins protect earthworms from the harmful effects of ingested polyphenols. We have identified the key mechanism for adaptation to a dietary challenge in an animal group that has a major role in organic matter recycling in soils worldwide. PMID:26241769

  11. Unique metabolites protect earthworms against plant polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Liebeke, Manuel; Strittmatter, Nicole; Fearn, Sarah; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Fuchser, Jens; Wallis, David; Palchykov, Vitalii; Robertson, Jeremy; Lahive, Elma; Spurgeon, David J; McPhail, David; Takáts, Zoltán; Bundy, Jacob G

    2015-01-01

    All higher plants produce polyphenols, for defence against above-ground herbivory. These polyphenols also influence the soil micro- and macro-fauna that break down plant leaf litter. Polyphenols therefore indirectly affect the fluxes of soil nutrients and, ultimately, carbon turnover and ecosystem functioning in soils. It is unknown how earthworms, the major component of animal biomass in many soils, cope with high-polyphenol diets. Here, we show that earthworms possess a class of unique surface-active metabolites in their gut, which we term 'drilodefensins'. These compounds counteract the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on earthworm gut enzymes, and high-polyphenol diets increase drilodefensin concentrations in both laboratory and field populations. This shows that drilodefensins protect earthworms from the harmful effects of ingested polyphenols. We have identified the key mechanism for adaptation to a dietary challenge in an animal group that has a major role in organic matter recycling in soils worldwide. PMID:26241769

  12. 78 FR 63448 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting AGENCY... public of their opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES... Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60601. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Maria Pratt, Plant...

  13. 77 FR 20610 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting AGENCY... public of their opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES: April...-2223, Beltsville, MD 20705. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jennifer Banks, Plant Variety...

  14. Plant and fungal identity determines pathogen protection of plant roots by arbuscular mycorrhizas

    E-print Network

    Sikes, Benjamin A.; Cottenie, Karl; Klironomos, John N.

    2009-08-24

    1.?A major benefit of the mycorrhizal symbiosis is that it can protect plants from below-ground enemies, such as pathogens. Previous studies have indicated that plant identity (particularly plants that differ in root system architecture) or fungal...

  15. Exposure of pollinators to plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Barmaz, Stefania; Vaj, Claudia; Ippolito, Alessio; Vighi, Marco

    2012-11-01

    As a general rule, environmental risk for chemicals is characterised by comparing an expected exposure level (e.g. PEC) with an ecotoxicological endpoint. The same approach is generally used for plant protection products (PPPs). However, in some cases, suitable procedures for a precise quantification of exposure are not available. The common risk assessment procedure for pollinators based on the hazard quotient, where the agronomic application rate is assumed as an exposure indicator, is an example. In this work, a semi-quantitative index to assess exposure to PPPs for organisms with a large forage area is presented. The proposed index was already applied in a previous work on risk assessment for pollinators, for this reason the validation steps (sampling area, collected samples, samples distribution) were planned bearing in mind the characteristic and the behaviour of these organisms and using Apis mellifera as representative of pollinators. The starting point for the development of the index is the assumption that exposure depends not only on environmental fate of pesticides but also on the feeding behaviour of the target organisms (in this context meant as target of the assessment). The developed index was applied and validated in different experimental areas of 4 × 4 km located in North-East Italy (Veneto region) characterised by a different level of impact. A sensitivity analysis of the index was performed evaluating the influence of the dataset resolution on the predictive efficiency. The obtained results indicate a good agreement between predicted and measured concentrations, supporting the suitability of the index to improve exposure assessment for pollinators. PMID:22752801

  16. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants...ANIMALS AND PLANTS Specially Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and...

  17. 40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant...

  18. 40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant...

  19. 40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant...

  20. When do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi protect plant roots from pathogens?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are mainly thought to facilitate phosphorus uptake in plants, but they can also perform several other functions that are equally beneficial. Our recent study sheds light on the factors determining one such function, enhanced plant protection from root pathogens. Root infection by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum was determined by both plant susceptibility and the ability of an AM fungal partner to suppress the pathogen. The non-susceptible plant species (Allium cepa) had limited F. oxysporum infection even without AM fungi. In contrast, the susceptible plant species (Setaria glauca) was heavily infected and only AM fungi in the family Glomeraceae limited pathogen abundance. Plant susceptibility to pathogens was likely determined by contrasting root architectures between plants, with the simple rooted plant (A. cepa) presenting fewer sites for infection. AM fungal colonization, however, was not limited in the same way in part because plants with fewer, simple roots are more mycorrhizal dependent. Protection only by Glomus species also indicates that whatever the mechanism(s) of this function, it responds to AM fungal families differently. While poor at pathogen protection, AM fungal species in the family Gigasporaceae most benefited the growth of the simple rooted plant species. Our research indicates that plant trait differences, such as root architecture can determine how important each mycorrhizal function is to plant growth but the ability to provide these functions differs among AM fungi. PMID:20400855

  1. 7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...measures. (6) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO). NAPPO is...

  2. 7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...measures. (6) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO). NAPPO is...

  3. 7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...measures. (6) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO). NAPPO is...

  4. 7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...measures. (6) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO). NAPPO is...

  5. 7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...measures. (6) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO). NAPPO is...

  6. Public Lakes, Private Lakeshore: Modeling Protection of Native Aquatic Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey ( n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  7. Public lakes, private lakeshore: modeling protection of native aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Susan A; Fulton, David C

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey (n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property. PMID:23609308

  8. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Permission... CFR 17.12 or 23.23 unless such person has obtained a protected plant permit for engaging in such... also be obtained from local offices at any of the ports designated in 50 CFR part 24. Telephone...

  9. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Permission... CFR 17.12 or 23.23 unless such person has obtained a protected plant permit for engaging in such... also be obtained from local offices at any of the ports designated in 50 CFR part 24. Telephone...

  10. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Permission... CFR 17.12 or 23.23 unless such person has obtained a protected plant permit for engaging in such... also be obtained from local offices at any of the ports designated in 50 CFR part 24. Telephone...

  11. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Permission... CFR 17.12 or 23.23 unless such person has obtained a protected plant permit for engaging in such... also be obtained from local offices at any of the ports designated in 50 CFR part 24. Telephone...

  12. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Permission... CFR 17.12 or 23.23 unless such person has obtained a protected plant permit for engaging in such... also be obtained from local offices at any of the ports designated in 50 CFR part 24. Telephone...

  13. Wind Power Plant Grounding, Overvoltage Protection, and Insulation Coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Camm, E H; Behnke, M. R.; Bolado, O.; Bollen, M.; Bradt, M.; Brooks, C.; Dilling, W.; Edds, M.; Hejdak, W. J.; Houseman, D.; Klein, S.; Li, Fangxing; Li, J.; Maibach, P.; Nicolai, T.; Pasupulati, S. V.; Patino, J.; Samaan, N.; Saylors, S.; Siebert, T.; Smith, Travis M; Starke, Michael R; Walling, R.

    2009-01-01

    Proper insulation coordination is critical to achieving expected life from wind plant equipment. The collector systems of large wind plants require the application of surge arresters to protect the equipment insulation from transient overvoltages. The application of surge arresters is constrained by maximum operating and temporary overvoltage levels. This paper provides a tutorial description of the process of selecting and applying surge arresters to wind plant medium voltage collector systems, with emphasis on the peculiar properties of this application.

  14. Are you prepared Protecting your hydro plant from lightning strikes

    SciTech Connect

    Clemen, D.M. )

    1993-12-01

    A properly designed lightning protection system requires a basic understanding of the physics of lightning and the means available to both divert and conduct lightning stroke energy around structures. Once the basics are understood, an engineer can using existing codes and standards to design an effective protection scheme for a given structure. A well-implemented scheme ensures that direct or close-proximity lightning strokes will not cause forced outages of hydroturbine-generator units. Lightning protection should be a part of the design of any new hydroelectric plant. If protection was not provided when the project was constructed, rehabilitation projects and activities offer opportunities to make corrections.

  15. Water protection in coke-plant design

    SciTech Connect

    G.I. Alekseev

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  16. Regulatory guidance for lightning protection in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R. A.; Wilgen, J. B.; Ewing, P. D.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C. E.

    2006-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects. (authors)

  17. Regulatory Guidance for Lightning Protection in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Wilgen, John B; Ewing, Paul D; Korsah, Kofi; Antonescu, Christina E

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects.

  18. Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    2006-11-15

    Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. ASSESSMENT REPORT FOR MPS IN PLANT PROTECTION OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    ASSESSMENT REPORT FOR MPS IN PLANT PROTECTION OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS 1. Goals for Student Learning, and weed science. 2. Design and employ pest control strategies based on a thorough understanding of a crop of agricultural crops 5. Be able to convey pest management information to growers and advise them in making

  20. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

  1. Diversity protects plant communities against generalist molluscan herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Yvonne; Sandau, Nadine; Bruggisser, Odile T; Kehrli, Patrik; Aebi, Alexandre; Rohr, Rudolf P; Naisbit, Russell E; Bersier, Louis-Félix

    2012-01-01

    Wildflower strips are used to increase natural enemies of crop pests and to conserve insect diversity on farmland. Mollusks, especially slugs, can affect the vegetation development in these strips considerably. Although recent theoretical work suggests that more diverse plant communities will exhibit greater resistance against herbivore pressure, empirical studies are scarce. We conducted a semi-natural experiment in wildflower strips, manipulating trophic structure (reduction in herbivorous mollusks and reduction in major predators) and plant diversity (2, 6, 12, 20 and 24 sown species). This design allowed us to assess the effect of plant diversity, biomass and composition on mollusks, and vice versa, the effect of mollusc abundance on vegetation. Seven species of mollusks were found in the strips, with the slugs Arion lusitanicus, Deroceras reticulatum and Deroceras panormitanum being most frequent. We found a negative relationship between plant diversity and mollusk abundance, which was due predominantly to a decrease in the agricultural pest species A. lusitanicus. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that plant diversity can reduce the impact of herbivores. However, plant identity also had an effect on mollusks, and accounted for a much larger fraction of the variation in mollusk communities than biodiversity effects. While overall plant diversity decreased during the 3 years of the study, in the final year the highest plant diversity was found in the plots where mollusk populations were experimentally reduced. We conclude that selective feeding by generalist herbivores leads to changes in plant community composition and hence reduced plant diversity. Our results highlight the importance of plant biodiversity as protection against generalist herbivores, which if abundant can in the long term negatively impact plant diversity, driving the system along a “low plant diversity – high mollusk abundance” trajectory. PMID:23145332

  2. Étude ethnobotanique des plantes utilisées dans le traitement du diabète dans la médecine traditionnelle de la région Maritime du Togo

    PubMed Central

    Holaly, Gbekley Efui; Simplice, Karou Damintoti; Charlemagne, Gnoula; Kodjovi, Agbodeka; Kokou, Anani; Tchadjobo, Tchacondo; Amegnona, Agbonon; Komlan, Batawila; Jacques, Simpore

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Les plantes constituent une grande source de principes actifs qui peuvent être utilisés pour traiter de nombreuses maladies, dont le diabète. L'objectif de cette étude était de recenser les plantes utilisées en médecine traditionnelle pour traiter le diabète dans la région Maritime du Togo. Méthodes De janvier 2013 à juin 2014, une enquête ethnobotanique a été réalisée auprès de 164 guérisseurs traditionnels dans la région Maritime par des interviews directes à l'aide d'un questionnaire semi structuré. Résultats Les données recueillies ont permis d'identifier 112 espèces végétales appartenant à 51 familles. Les familles les plus représentées ont été les Caesalpiniaceae / Fabaceae avec 9 espèces, suivie des Euphorbiaceae et des Compositae avec 8 espèces chacune. Les espèces les plus citées ont été Allium sativum, Alium cepa, Guilandina bonduc, Moringa oleifera et de Picralima nitida qui ont eu une valeur usuelle de 0,05. En termes de recettes, 132 recettes sont préparées à partir des 112 espèces de plantes. Les recettes à plantes uniques ont été au nombre de 78, tandis que 54 recettes sont obtenues par des associations de plantes. Les parties de plantes les plus utilisées ont été les feuilles suivies par les racines. La principale méthode de préparation reste la décoction. Conclusion La région maritime du Togo dispose d'une biodiversité floristique importante en matière de plantes antidiabétiques. Ces résultats constituent une bonne base de données pour le criblage biologique dans la recherche de molécules antidiabétiques à base des plantes. PMID:26309469

  3. The Mars Plant Growth Experiment and Implications for Planetary Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Heather

    Plants are the ultimate and necessary solution for O2 production at a human base on Mars. Currently it is unknown if seeds can germinate on the Martian surface. The Mars Plant growth experiment (MPX) is a proposal for the first step in the development of a plant- based O2 production system by demonstrating plant germination and growth on the Martian surface. There is currently no planetary protection policy in place that covers plants on the Martian surface. We describe a planetary protection plan in compliance with NASA and COSPAR policy for a closed plant growth chamber on a Mars rover. We divide the plant growth chamber into two categories for planetary protection, the Outside: the outside of the chamber exposed to the Martian environment, and the Inside: the inside of the chamber which is sealed off from Mars atmosphere and contains the plant seeds and ancillary components for seed growth. We will treat outside surfaces of the chamber as other outside surfaces on the rover, wiped with a mixture of isopropyl alcohol and water as per Category IVb planetary protection requirements. All internal components of the MPX except the seeds and camera (including the water system, the plant growth stage and interior surface walls) will be sterilized by autoclave and subjected to sterilizing dry heat at a temperature of 125°C at an absolute humidity corresponding to a relative humidity of less than 25 percent referenced to the standard conditions of 0°C and 760 torr pressure. The seeds and internal compartments of the MPX in contact with the growth media will be assembled and tested to be free of viable microbes. MPX, once assembled, cannot survive Dry Heat Microbial Reduction. The camera with the radiation and CO2 sensors will be sealed in their own container and vented through HEPA filters. The seeds will be vernalized (microbe free) as per current Space Station methods described by Paul et al. 2001. Documentation of the lack of viable microbes on representative seeds from the same seed lot as used in the flight unit and lack of viable microbes in the interior of the MPX will be confirmed by the assay methods outlined in NASA HDBK 6022. In this method surfaces are swabbed and the cells collected on the swabs are extracted and then cultured following a standard protocol. All operations involving the manipulation of sterile items and sample processing shall be performed in laminar flow environments meeting Class 100 air cleanliness requirements of Federal Standard 209B. The entire MPX will be assembled in a sterile environment within a month of launch if possible, but could withstand an earlier assembly if required.

  4. Cold Protection Strategies for Landscape PlantsCold Protection Strategies for Landscape Plants When the thermometer hovers nearWhen the thermometer hovers near

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    degrees, plants can be damaged by frost formation or freezing.by frost formation or freezing. ·· Cold is common.containers is common. ·· Roots of plants in theRoots of plants in the ground have moreground have more protection from cold.protection from cold. ·· If the soil freezes, rootsIf the soil freezes, roots

  5. Protective action alternatives for accidents at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tingle, A.; Pratt, W.T.; McGuire, S.A.

    1987-06-01

    Protective action calculations have been performed for five different light water reactors (LWRs) and containment designs using high and low fission product releases for early and late containment failures for each plant. These fission product release estimates were obtained from studies performed for the recently published ''Reactor Risk Reference Document'' (NUREG-1150). Five protective actions were considered for the risks of exceeding various dose levels to the red marrow versus centerline distance from the plants using site-specific meteorology. The strategies considered were 4 hours of normal activity, basement sheltering, large building sheltering, evacuation at release, and evacuation 1 hour after release. The evacuations were computed using 10 mph evacuation speed for all sites. Additional calculations were performed for the dose contributions due to the cloud, ground, and inhalation pathways.

  6. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE), Draft Report for...

  7. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE).'' In response...

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-09-24

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

  9. Worker protection during mercury electrolysis cell plant decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Besson, Jean-Claude; Augarde, Estelle; Nasterlack, Michael

    2012-06-01

    This article brings information on how to protect worker health during the decommissioning of mercury-based electrolysis facilities. It relies on the Euro Chlor document "Health 2, Code of practice, Control of worker exposure to mercury in the chlor-alkali industry" that provides protection guidelines for both normal production and decommissioning activities, and on hands-on experience gained during chlor-alkali plant decommissioning operations.Decommissioning and dismantling of mercury-containing chlorine production plants presents challenges to industrial hygiene and health protection that are usually not present during normal operations. These involve meticulous training and enforcement of the appropriate use of personal protective equipment to prevent excessive mercury exposure.The best practice guidelines and recommendations available from Euro Chlor can help employers and occupational physicians to manage these challenges, as they provide state-of-the-art procedures. Our experience is that rigorous implementation of these procedures and worker training ensured acceptable hygiene at the workplace and prevented mercury-related adverse health effects. PMID:22728793

  10. A Domain-Specific Safety Analysis for Digital Nuclear Plant Protection Systems

    E-print Network

    A Domain-Specific Safety Analysis for Digital Nuclear Plant Protection Systems Sanghyun Yoon through safety analy- sis is strongly mandated for safety-critical systems. Nuclear plant protection, NuFTA, for nuclear plant protection systems. NuFTA mechanically constructs a software fault tree

  11. Plant protection under conditions of radioactive contamination of agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Filipas, A.S.; Oulianenko, L.N.; Pimenov, E.P.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing influence of anthropogenic contaminants as well as substantiated risk of the action of ionizing radiation on agroecosystems suggest the necessity of studying both the state of separate components of cenosis and search for methods on retention of ecosystem stability as a whole. In this case it should be taken into account that by retention of resistance of living organisms to the action of stress agents not only genetically conditioned potential but induction of protective reactions at the expense of ecogene action is of deciding significance as well. Protection of agricultural plants on the territories subjected to radioactive contamination resulting from the ChNPP accident brings attention of research works to a series of problems, the main one being the minimization of pesticide use by the total ecologization of technological processes, in plant growing. But an ordinary discontinuance of conducting protective chemical measures leads to growth in the number of harmful organisms in crop sowings and as a consequence an increase of crop loss and decrease of its quality. It is possible to solve this problem by introduction of measures increasing the resistance of agricultural plants to the action of unfavorable factors of environment. Application of biologically active substances (BAS) of natural and synthetic nature for incrustation of seeds fits into these methods. For the territories with increased content of radionuclides and especially by their rehabilitation the methods of preventive treatments directed to retarding the development of harmful organisms in crop sowings and excluding subsequent technological operations on chemical protection of sowings takes on special significance as it is directly connected with the problem of radiation burden on workers of agroindustrial complex.

  12. A formal software requirements specification method for digital nuclear plant protection systems

    E-print Network

    A formal software requirements specification method for digital nuclear plant protection systems plant protection system in nuclear power plants. NuSCR improves the readability and specifiability of software requirements for instrumentation and control system for nuclear power plant has become the subject

  13. 76 FR 36896 - Notice of Establishment of a New Plant Protection and Quarantine Stakeholder Registry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ...applicable to the public. Notices of hearings and investigations, committee...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...Notice of Establishment of a New Plant Protection and Quarantine Stakeholder...Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  14. 77 FR 75606 - Renewal of the Plant Variety Protection Board Charter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...to developers of new varieties of plants, which are reproduced sexually by...tuber-propagated. A Certificate of Plant Variety Protection is awarded to...representing expertise in seed technology, plant breeding, and variety development,...

  15. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Specially Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25...

  16. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Specially Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25...

  17. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...species of native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Specially Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of...

  18. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...species of native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Specially Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of...

  19. Leaf mimicry in a climbing plant protects against herbivory.

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Ernesto; Carrasco-Urra, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Mimicry refers to adaptive similarity between a mimic organism and a model. Mimicry in animals is rather common, whereas documented cases in plants are rare, and the associated benefits are seldom elucidated [1, 2]. We show the occurrence of leaf mimicry in a climbing plant endemic to a temperate rainforest. The woody vine Boquila trifoliolata mimics the leaves of its supporting trees in terms of size, shape, color, orientation, petiole length, and/or tip spininess. Moreover, sequential leaf mimicry occurs when a single individual vine is associated with different tree species. Leaves of unsupported vines differed from leaves of climbing plants closely associated with tree foliage but did not differ from those of vines climbing onto leafless trunks. Consistent with an herbivory-avoidance hypothesis, leaf herbivory on unsupported vines was greater than that on vines climbing on trees but was greatest on vines climbing onto leafless trunks. Thus, B. trifoliolata gains protection against herbivory not merely by climbing and thus avoiding ground herbivores [3] but also by climbing onto trees whose leaves are mimicked. Unlike earlier cases of plant mimicry or crypsis, in which the plant roughly resembles a background or color pattern [4-7] or mimics a single host [8, 9], B. trifoliolata is able to mimic several hosts. PMID:24768053

  20. Carbohydrates in plant immunity and plant protection: roles and potential application as foliar sprays

    PubMed Central

    Trouvelot, Sophie; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Poinssot, Benoît; Gauthier, Adrien; Paris, Franck; Guillier, Christelle; Combier, Maud; Trdá, Lucie; Daire, Xavier; Adrian, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest is devoted to carbohydrates for their roles in plant immunity. Some of them are elicitors of plant defenses whereas other ones act as signaling molecules in a manner similar to phytohormones. This review first describes the main classes of carbohydrates associated to plant immunity, their role and mode of action. More precisely, the state of the art about perception of “PAMP, MAMP, and DAMP (Pathogen-, Microbe-, Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns) type” oligosaccharides is presented and examples of induced defense events are provided. A particular attention is paid to the structure/activity relationships of these compounds. The role of sugars as signaling molecules, especially in plant microbe interactions, is also presented. Secondly, the potentialities and limits of foliar sprays of carbohydrates to stimulate plant immunity for crop protection against diseases are discussed, with focus on the roles of the leaf cuticle and phyllosphere microflora. PMID:25408694

  1. Modeling of plant protection and control systems for SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1980-06-01

    Plant protection and feedback control systems for dynamic simulation of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors are developed. The models include manual and automatic shutdown systems with provision for selective suppression of PPS signals. The control system models include (1) supervisory control, (2) the reactor power control and rod drive mechanism, (3) primary and intermediate flow-speed control and pump drive system, and (4) steam generator flow-speed control and valve/pump actuator dynamics. These models have been incorporated into the SSC code using a flexible programming approach, in order to accommodate some design dependent variations. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria protect plants against plant and human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Reyes, Casandra; Schenk, Sebastian T; Neumann, Christina; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of beneficial microorganisms for plant protection has a long history. Many rhizobia bacteria are able to influence the immune system of host plants by inducing resistance towards pathogenic microorganisms. In this report, we present a translational approach in which we demonstrate the resistance-inducing effect of Ensifer meliloti (Sinorhizobium meliloti) on crop plants that have a significant impact on the worldwide economy and on human nutrition. Ensifer meliloti is usually associated with root nodulation in legumes and nitrogen fixation. Here, we suggest that the ability of S. meliloti to induce resistance depends on the production of the quorum-sensing molecule, oxo-C14-HSL. The capacity to enhanced resistance provides a possibility to the use these beneficial bacteria in agriculture. Using the Arabidopsis-Salmonella model, we also demonstrate that the application of N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria could be a successful strategy to prevent plant-originated infections with human pathogens. PMID:25234390

  3. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially...

  4. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially...

  5. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially...

  6. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially...

  7. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially...

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  9. Aging assessment of surge protective devices in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.F.; Subudhi, M.; Carroll, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    An assessment was performed to determine the effects of aging on the performance and availability of surge protective devices (SPDs), used in electrical power and control systems in nuclear power plants. Although SPDs have not been classified as safety-related, they are risk-important because they can minimize the initiating event frequencies associated with loss of offsite power and reactor trips. Conversely, their failure due to age might cause some of those initiating events, e.g., through short circuit failure modes, or by allowing deterioration of the safety-related component(s) they are protecting from overvoltages, perhaps preventing a reactor trip, from an open circuit failure mode. From the data evaluated during 1980--1994, it was found that failures of surge arresters and suppressers by short circuits were neither a significant risk nor safety concern, and there were no failures of surge suppressers preventing a reactor trip. Simulations, using the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were performed to determine the adequacy of high voltage surge arresters.

  10. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for public comment.../CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire...

  11. In vitro maintenance and cryopreservation of Plant Variety Protection vouchers germplasm of Solanum tuberosum cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS, National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation maintains the voucher germplasm of Plant Variety Protection (PVP) potato (S. tuberosum) cultivars registered with the U.S. Plant Variety Protection Office. The potato cultivars are deposited at the Center as tissue culture and are main...

  12. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY..., ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE), Draft... this document. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Felix Gonzalez, Fire Research Branch, Division of...

  13. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ..., 2013, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published in the Federal Register (78 FR 45573) a... Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY... Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE).'' In response to comments from members of the...

  14. CNRS/FSD/Scurit des Systmes d'Information Recommandations pour la protection

    E-print Network

    Jeanjean, Louis

    chiffrement En date du 17 avril 2008 Référence 08.1840/FSD Nature du document : Recommandations Destinataires connexions à distance, le mot de passe qui doit, par définition, rester secret circule en clair. Certes des données en cas de perte ou d'oubli du secret protégeant la clé ce déchiffrement. Pour les déplacements

  15. How to Protect DES Against Exhaustive Key Search (An Analysis of DESX)

    E-print Network

    Rogaway, Phillip

    in this vein. It seems to be quite se- cure, but eÆciency considerations make triple DES a rather painful way as simple as a couple of XORs. Yet working with the DESX de#12;nition for a while will convince the reader

  16. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    SciTech Connect

    Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA . Dept. of Botany); Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G. ); Freeman, S. . Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1999-02-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) plant-defense response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and-susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  17. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redman, R.S.; Freeman, S.; Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) 'plant-defense' response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and -susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1 colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  18. 52 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.18(2) 2003 The red coconut scale (Furcaspis oceanica

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    52 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.18(2) 2003 Summary The red coconut scale (Furcaspis oceanica agent of the red coconut scale. Keywords: Scale insect, Furcaspis oceanica, Homoptera, Diaspididae, parasitoid, Adelencyrtus oceanicus, Hy- menoptera, Encyrtidae, coconut, biologi- cal control, Guam

  19. Novel enabling technologies of gene isolation and plant transformation for improved crop protection

    SciTech Connect

    Torok, Tamas

    2013-02-04

    Meeting the needs of agricultural producers requires the continued development of improved transgenic crop protection products. The completed project focused on developing novel enabling technologies of gene discovery and plant transformation to facilitate the generation of such products.

  20. Past and present effectiveness of protected areas for conservation of naturally and anthropogenically rare plant species.

    PubMed

    Vellak, Ain; Tuvi, Eva-Liis; Reier, Ülle; Kalamees, Rein; Roosaluste, Elle; Zobel, Martin; Pärtel, Meelis

    2009-06-01

    The Global Strategy of Plant Conservation states that at least 60% of threatened plant species should be within protected areas. This goal has been met in some regions with long traditions of plant protection. We used gap analysis to explore how particular groups of species of conservation interest, representing different types of natural or anthropogenic rarity, have been covered by protected areas on a national scale in Estonia during the last 100 years. Species-accumulation curves indicated that plant species that are naturally rare (restricted global or local distribution, always small populations, or very rare habitat requirements) needed almost twice as many protected areas to reach the 60% target as plant species that are rare owing to lack of suitable management (species depending on grassland management, moderate forest disturbances, extensive traditional agriculture, or species potentially threatened by collecting). Temporal analysis of the establishment of protected areas suggested that grouping plant species according to the predominant cause of rarity accurately reflected the history of conservation decision making. Species found in very rare habitats have previously received special conservation attention; species dependent on traditional extensive agriculture have been largely ignored until recently. Legislative initiative and new nature-protection schemes (e.g., Natura 2000, network of protected areas in the European Union) have had a positive influence on all species groups. Consequently, the species groups needing similar action for their conservation are sensitive indicators of the effectiveness of protected-area networks. Different species groups, however, may not be uniformly conserved within protected areas, and all species groups should fulfill the target of 60% coverage within protected areas. PMID:19128324

  1. 77 FR 47591 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Plant Protection and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...Approval of an Information Collection; Plant Protection and Quarantine Stakeholder...Satisfaction Survey AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

  2. The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange; tectonic setting and melange formation in the Quebec Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, P.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange (RPOM) is the largest and best exposed of the three known ophiolitic melanges that contain blocks of Chain Lakes Massif (CLM). All three lie along the Baie Verte-Brompton line, which marks the suture between the continental rocks of the Humber zone and the oceanic rocks of the Dunnage zone. The ophiolitic melange is composed of: serpentinized ultramafic rocks, some of which are sheared and/or carbonatized; blocks of amphibolitized gabbro; basalt; volcanogenic breccia; and conglomerates. It also contains continental K-rich granitoid rocks and high-grade metamorphic (upper amphibolite facies) rocks. The RPOM is part of the Saint-Daniel Melange, an accretionary prism onto which the RPOM has been tectonically emplaced. The CLM was part of a terrane accreted to the Laurentian margin during the Taconian orogeny. Blocks of the CLM along the Baie Verte-Brompton line are interpreted as fragments of this terrane caught within the suture zone. It is proposed that the CLM could be the equivalent of Grenville-derived greywacke originally laid down during the phase of continental rifting that led to the formation of the Iapetus Ocean and was later tectonized and metamorphosed during the Taconian and Acadian orogenies. The RPOM would represent the relic of a serpentinite diapir that rose within a deep oceanic fault. The presence of continental rocks like the CLM suggest that a continental magmatic arc was put in contact with an oceanic crust along this fault.

  3. Communiqu de presse 3 mars 2015 Les stratgies des plantes pour optimiser l'utilisation des nitrates

    E-print Network

    van Tiggelen, Bart

    cultures moins consommatrices d'engrais, et donc aptes à conserver un rendement élevé en situation d'alimentation plantes sont capables de s'adapter à une alimentation en azote limitante. Les mécanismes qui

  4. Exposition au jardin dEs plantEs 11 fvriEr 2015 --21 mars 2016

    E-print Network

    sculptures grandeur nature L'exposition présente une sélection d'animaux naturalisés issue des collections du singes en position dynamique ont été réalisés spécialement pour l'exposition. Trois sculptures réalistes

  5. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Special Review and certain public health situations. (2) Data are required for pesticides to be used in forests and natural grasslands. For herbicide used in forest site preparation; the acquatic plant growth tests will be required. Data are...

  6. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Special Review and certain public health situations. (2) Data are required for pesticides to be used in forests and natural grasslands. For herbicide used in forest site preparation; the acquatic plant growth tests will be required. Data are...

  7. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Special Review and certain public health situations. (2) Data are required for pesticides to be used in forests and natural grasslands. For herbicide used in forest site preparation; the acquatic plant growth tests will be required. Data are...

  8. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Special Review and certain public health situations. (2) Data are required for pesticides to be used in forests and natural grasslands. For herbicide used in forest site preparation; the acquatic plant growth tests will be required. Data are...

  9. When do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi protect plant roots from pathogens?

    E-print Network

    Sikes, Benjamin A.

    2010-03-10

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are mainly thought to facilitate phosphorus uptake in plants, but they can also perform several other functions that are equally beneficial. Our recent study sheds light on the factors determining one such function...

  10. Nuclear plant-aging research on reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the rsults of a review of the Reactor Trip System (RTS) and the Engineered Safety Feature Actuating System (ESFAS) operating experiences reported in Licensee Event Reports (LER)s, the Nuclear Power Experience data base, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, and plant maintenance records. Our purpose is to evaluate the potential significance of aging, including cycling, trips, and testing as contributors to degradation of the RTS and ESFAS. Tables are presented that show the percentage of events for RTS and ESFAS classified by cause, components, and subcomponents for each of the Nuclear Steam Supply System vendors. A representative Babcock and Wilcox plant was selected for detailed study. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research guidelines were followed in performing the detailed study that identified materials susceptible to aging, stressors, environmental factors, and failure modes for the RTS and ESFAS as generic instrumentation and control systems. Functional indicators of degradation are listed, testing requirements evaluated, and regulatory issues discussed.

  11. The plant Apolipoprotein D ortholog protects Arabidopsis against oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Jean-Benoit F; Ouellet, Francois; Houde, Mario; Sarhan, Fathey

    2008-01-01

    Background Lipocalins are a large and diverse family of small, mostly extracellular proteins implicated in many important functions. This family has been studied in bacteria, invertebrate and vertebrate animals but little is known about these proteins in plants. We recently reported the identification and molecular characterization of the first true lipocalins from plants, including the Apolipoprotein D ortholog AtTIL identified in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana. This study aimed to determine its physiological role in planta. Results Our results demonstrate that the AtTIL lipocalin is involved in modulating tolerance to oxidative stress. AtTIL knock-out plants are very sensitive to sudden drops in temperature and paraquat treatment, and dark-grown plants die shortly after transfer to light. These plants accumulate a high level of hydrogen peroxide and other ROS, which causes an oxidative stress that is associated with a reduction in hypocotyl growth and sensitivity to light. Complementation of the knock-out plants with the AtTIL cDNA restores the normal phenotype. On the other hand, overexpression enhances tolerance to stress caused by freezing, paraquat and light. Moreover, this overexpression delays flowering and maintains leaf greenness. Microarray analyses identified several differentially-regulated genes encoding components of oxidative stress and energy balance. Conclusion This study provides the first functional evidence that a plant lipocalin is involved in modulating tolerance to oxidative stress. These findings are in agreement with recently published data showing that overexpression of ApoD enhances tolerance to oxidative stress and increases life span in mice and Drosophila. Together, the three papers strongly support a similar function of lipocalins in these evolutionary-distant species. PMID:18671872

  12. Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    R. Flint Hughes; Jean-Yves Meyer, jean-yves.meyer@recherche.gov.pf; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in Hawaii began in the 1970s, arguably at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout Hawaii and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in Hawaii are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.

  13. De-Novo Design of Antimicrobial Peptides for Plant Protection

    PubMed Central

    Zeitler, Benjamin; Herrera Diaz, Areli; Dangel, Alexandra; Thellmann, Martha; Meyer, Helge; Sattler, Michael; Lindermayr, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the de-novo design of peptides that inhibit a broad range of plant pathogens. Four structurally different groups of peptides were developed that differ in size and position of their charged and hydrophobic clusters and were assayed for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth and fungal spore germination. Several peptides are highly active at concentrations between 0,1 and 1 µg/ml against plant pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Importantly, no hemolytic activity could be detected for these peptides at concentrations up to 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the peptides are also active after spraying on the plant surface demonstrating a possible way of application. In sum, our designed peptides represent new antimicrobial agents and with the increasing demand for antimicrobial compounds for production of “healthy” food, these peptides might serve as templates for novel antibacterial and antifungal agents. PMID:23951222

  14. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES IN PLANT PROTECTION: ACHIEVEMENTS, NEW INITIATIVES AND PROSPECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the latest developments in the application of biotechnology to solve crop looses due to fungal disease. These include marker-assisted breeding, map-based cloning of genes, and development of transgenic plants. New areas of investigation which hold much promise are gene silenci...

  15. PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANT CROP MONITORING USING REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extent of past and anticipated plantings of transgenic corn in the United States requires a new approach to monitor this important crop for the development of pest resistance. Remote sensing by aerial and/or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pest...

  16. Biotechnological Approaches in Plant Protection: Achievements, New Initiatives and Prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the latest developments in the application of biotechnology to solve crop looses due to fungal disease. These include marker-assisted breeding, map-based cloning of genes, and development of transgenic plants. New areas of investigation which hold much promise are gene silenci...

  17. Biodegradation and plant protection from the herbicide 2,4-D by plant-microbial associations in cotton production systems.

    PubMed

    Feng, L; Kennedy, I R

    1997-06-20

    A significant "biosafening" protection of plants from the effect of 2,4-D in plant-microbial associations has been demonstrated in this study. The 2,4-D-degrading plasmid, pJP4 was transferred into Rhizobium sp. CB1024, which nodulates Dolichos lablab, and Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 carrying a nifA-lacZ gene marker, which can colonize cotton roots. Both transconjugants degraded 2,4-D in pure culture via cometabolism up to 50 microg mL(-1). When the transconjugants were inoculated onto Dolichos lablab and cotton, respectively, such plants were resistant to this herbicide when the nutrient solution was treated with 2,4-D up to 10 microg mL(-1) for Dolichos lablab and 0.5 microg mL(-1) for cotton. Plants inoculated with wild-type strains were dead (Dolichos lablab) or dying (cotton). Because cotton is more sensitive to herbicides, only incomplete protection of plants was achieved with the transconjugant. Improving the effect of colonization of Azospirillum on cotton roots may be critical for a complete degradation and plant protection. The transconjugant of Rhizobium sp. CB1024 was still able to nodulate Dolichos lablab, N(2)-fixing activity was only slightly affected. Other pesticide-degrading capacities may also be inserted into those plant-associated bacterial strains for the degradation of these chemicals by plant-microbial associations. Whether such systems will be successful when applied in the field with competition from other bacteria is being examined. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 53: 513-519, 1997. PMID:18636407

  18. DES RESSOURCES RENOUVELABLES

    E-print Network

    Laval, Université

    DES SCIENCES DE L'AGRICULTURE ET DE L'ALIMENTATION Vice-décanat à la recherche Pavillon Paul LA FSAA La Faculté des sciences de l'agriculture et de l'alimentation (FSAA) permet d'accéder à l plantes, contribuent à la réduction du diabète et des maladies cardiovasculaires par l'alimentation

  19. DC wiring system grounding and ground fault protection issues for central station photovoltaic power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simburger, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    The DC wiring system for a photovoltaic power plant presents a number of unique challenges to be overcome by the plant designers. There are a number of different configurations that the grounding of the DC wiring system can take, and the choice will affect the number and type of protective devices required to ensure safety of personnel and protection of equipment. The major grounding and fault protection considerations that must be taken into account when selecting the basic overall circuit configuration are summarized. The inherent advantages and disadvantages of each type of circuit grounding (resistance or solid) along with the personnel safety and equipment protection issues for each of these grounding methods are presented.

  20. The Plant Variety Protection Act: Information for Texas Small Grain Producers 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Steve; Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    or lease) or, if planting plans changes, sell this amount of saved seed to neighbors. All seed sales must com- ply with state laws, including Title V. Information for Texas Small Grain Producers ? 1994 Amended PVPA: An amendment to the Plant Variety... Protection Act of 1970, the 1994 PVPA prohib- its the sale of all farmer-saved seed without the variety owner?s permission. The 1994 PVPA increased the legal protection period to 20 years for most crops, including wheat and oats, and applied to all...

  1. Material protection, control and accounting cooperation at the Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP), Novouralsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S., LLNL

    1998-07-15

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is one of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy`s nuclear material production sites participating in the US Department of Energy`s Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is Russia`s largest uranium enrichment facility and blends tons of high-enriched uranium into low enriched uranium each year as part of the US high-enriched uranium purchase. The Electrochemical Integrated Plant and six participating national laboratories are cooperating to implement a series of enhancements to the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability systems at the site This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A program at Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant and the work completed as of the date of the presentation.

  2. Genetic Structure, Diversity and Long Term Viability of a Medicinal Plant, Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham. (Icacinaceae), in Protected and Non-Protected Areas in the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Shivaprakash, K. Nagaraju; Ramesha, B. Thimmappa; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Dayanandan, Selvadurai; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Question The harvesting of medicinal plants from wild sources is escalating in many parts of the world, compromising the long-term survival of natural populations of medicinally important plants and sustainability of sources of raw material to meet pharmaceutical industry needs. Although protected areas are considered to play a central role in conservation of plant genetic resources, the effectiveness of protected areas for maintaining medicinal plant populations subject to intense harvesting pressure remain largely unknown. We conducted genetic and demographic studies of Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham, one of the extensively harvested medicinal plant species in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India to assess the effectiveness of protected areas in long-term maintenance of economically important plant species. Methodology/Principal Findings The analysis of adults and seedlings of N. nimmoniana in four protected and four non-protected areas using 7 nuclear microsatellite loci revealed that populations that are distributed within protected areas are subject to lower levels of harvesting and maintain higher genetic diversity (He?=?0.816, Ho?=?0.607, A?=?18.857) than populations in adjoining non-protected areas (He?=?0.781, Ho?=?0.511, A?=?15.571). Furthermore, seedlings in protected areas had significantly higher observed heterozygosity (Ho?=?0.630) and private alleles as compared to seedlings in adjoining non-protected areas (Ho?=?0.426). Most populations revealed signatures of recent genetic bottleneck. The prediction of long-term maintenance of genetic diversity using BOTTLESIM indicated that current population sizes of the species are not sufficient to maintain 90% of present genetic diversity for next 100 years. Conclusions/Significance Overall, these results highlight the need for establishing more protected areas encompassing a large number of adult plants in the Western Ghats to conserve genetic diversity of economically and medicinally important plant species. PMID:25493426

  3. Hexanoic acid protects tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea by priming defence responses and reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Finiti, Ivan; de la O Leyva, María; Vicedo, Begonya; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; López-Cruz, Jaime; García-Agustín, Pilar; Real, Maria Dolores; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Treatment with the resistance priming inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) protects tomato plants from Botrytis cinerea by activating defence responses. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR), we compared the expression profiles of three different conditions: Botrytis-infected plants (Inf), Hx-treated plants (Hx) and Hx-treated + infected plants (Hx+Inf). The microarray analysis at 24?h post-inoculation showed that Hx and Hx+Inf plants exhibited the differential expression and priming of many Botrytis-induced genes. Interestingly, we found that the activation by Hx of other genes was not altered by the fungus at this time point. These genes may be considered to be specific targets of the Hx priming effect and may help to elucidate its mechanisms of action. It is noteworthy that, in Hx and Hx+Inf plants, there was up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor genes, DNA-binding factors, enzymes involved in plant hormone signalling and synthesis, and, remarkably, the genes involved in oxidative stress. Given the relevance of the oxidative burst occurring in plant-pathogen interactions, the effect of Hx on this process was studied in depth. We showed by specific staining that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in Hx+Inf plants was reduced and more restricted around infection sites. In addition, these plants showed higher ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and ascorbate, and normal levels of antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that Hx protects tomato plants from B.?cinerea by regulating and priming Botrytis-specific and non-specific genes, preventing the harmful effects of oxidative stress produced by infection. PMID:24320938

  4. Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.24(1) 2009 27 Ivy gourd or scarlet gourd, Coccinia gran-

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.24(1) 2009 27 Summary Ivy gourd or scarlet gourd, Coccinia gran- dis, Zehneria guamensis, Cucurbitaceae, life-history, host prefer- ence, Mariana Islands. Introduction Ivy gourd or scarlet gourd, Coccinia gran- dis (L.) Voigt (Violales: Cucurbitaceae), a native of East Africa is widely

  5. PLANT FRUCTANS: A NOVEL CLASS OF POLYMERIC PROTECTANTS FOR MEMBRANES DURING DRYING.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fructan (polyfructose)-family of oligo- and polysaccharides is a group of compounds that have for a long time been implicated as protective agents in the drought and freezing tolerance of many plant species. We have shown before that low concentrations (up to 10 mg/mL) of inulins (linear fructos...

  6. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... (78 FR 45573) a request for public comment on NUREG/CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG/CR, reopening of comment...

  7. INTRODUCTION Cocaine is a neurotoxin that protects the coca plant (Erythroxylem

    E-print Network

    Ha, Taekjip

    163 INTRODUCTION Cocaine is a neurotoxin that protects the coca plant (Erythroxylem spp.) from herbivory by critically disrupting insect motor control (Nathanson et al., 1993). In humans, cocaine is also reward' (Sullivan et al., 2008). Solutions to this paradox often propose that cocaine evolved to deter

  8. Molecular Characterization of Maize Inbreds with Expired U.S. Plant Variety Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize inbred lines with expired Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) certificates are publically available and potentially represent a new germplasm resource for many public and private breeding programs. However, accurate pedigree and genetic background information for ex-PVPA maize inbreds is nece...

  9. Plant Protect. Sci. Vol. 39, No. 2: 6164 Cereal aphids are a serious problem in wheat

    E-print Network

    Kratochvíl, Lukas

    61 Plant Protect. Sci. Vol. 39, No. 2: 61­64 Cereal aphids are a serious problem in wheat growing dirhodum (Walker), Sitobion avenae (F.) and Rhopalosiphum padi (L.). The aphids migrate to wheat stands padus L. (R. padi). Aphid populations stay on wheat for a short, distinct period during which they grow

  10. Seaweed Polysaccharides and Derived Oligosaccharides Stimulate Defense Responses and Protection Against Pathogens in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Gonzalez, Alberto; Moenne, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Plants interact with the environment by sensing “non-self” molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae) corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense responses in plants enhancing protection against pathogens. In addition, oligosaccharides obtained by depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides also induce protection against viral, fungal and bacterial infections in plants. In particular, most seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides trigger an initial oxidative burst at local level and the activation of salicylic (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and/or ethylene signaling pathways at systemic level. The activation of these signaling pathways leads to an increased expression of genes encoding: (i) Pathogenesis-Related (PR) proteins with antifungal and antibacterial activities; (ii) defense enzymes such as pheylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) which determine accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs) and oxylipins with antiviral, antifugal and antibacterial activities and iii) enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenes, terpenoids and/or alkaloids having antimicrobial activities. Thus, seaweed polysaccharides and their derived oligosaccharides induced the accumulation of proteins and compounds with antimicrobial activities that determine, at least in part, the enhanced protection against pathogens in plants. PMID:22363237

  11. 77 FR 75606 - Renewal of the Plant Variety Protection Board Charter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Renewal of the Plant Variety Protection Board Charter AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act..., USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), 1400 Independence Ave. SW.; Rm. 4512-South Bldg., Mail...

  12. FIELD ASSESSMENT OF INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT (IRM) FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED-PROTECTANTS (PIPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of target pest resistance to the products of transgene[s], e.g., plant-incorporated protectants is a serious risk both to the sustainability of these crops and to the wider utility of environmentally soft microbial pesticides. Therefore, the EPA requires growers...

  13. An ants-eye view of an ant-plant protection mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Lanan, M. C.; Bronstein, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Ant protection of extrafloral nectar-secreting plants (EFN plants) is a common form of mutualism found in most habitats around the world. However, very few studies have considered these mutualisms from the ant, rather than the plant, perspective. In particular, a whole-colony perspective that takes into account the spatial structure and nest arrangement of the ant colonies that visit these plants has been lacking, obscuring when and how colony-level foraging decisions might affect tending rates on individual plants. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that recruitment of Crematogaster opuntiae (Buren) ant workers to the extrafloral nectar-secreting cactus Ferocactus wislizeni (Englem) is not independent between plants up to 5m apart. Colony territories of C. opuntiae are large, covering areas of up to 5000m2, and workers visit between five and thirty-four extrafloral nectar-secreting barrel cacti within the territories. These ants are highly polydomous, with up to twenty nest entrances dispersed throughout the territory and interconnected by trail networks. Our study demonstrates that worker recruitment is not independent within large polydomous ant colonies, highlighting the importance of considering colonies rather than individual workers as the relevant study unit within ant/plant protection mutualisms PMID:23515612

  14. Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants.

    PubMed

    Ghormade, Vandana; Deshpande, Mukund V; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2011-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides and fertilizers causes environmental pollution, emergence of agricultural pests and pathogens, and loss of biodiversity. Nanotechnology, by virtue of nanomaterial related properties, has potential agro-biotechnological applications for alleviation of these problems. The literature pertaining to the role of nanotechnology in plant and soil systems demonstrates that nanomaterials may assist in a) the controlled release of agrochemicals for nutrition and protection against pests and pathogens, b) delivery of genetic material, c) sensitive detection of plant disease and pollutants and d) protection and formation of soil structure. For instance, porous silica (15nm) and biodegradable, polymeric chitosan (78nm) nanoparticles displayed slow release of encapsulated pesticide and fertilizer, respectively. Further, nanosized gold (5-25nm) delivered DNA to plant cells while iron oxide (30nm) based nanosensors detected pesticides at minute levels. These functions assist the development of precision farming by minimizing pollution and maximizing the value of farming practice. PMID:21729746

  15. Plant expressed EtMIC2 is an effective immunogen in conferring protection against chicken coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Sathish, K; Sriraman, R; Subramanian, B Mohana; Rao, N Hanumantha; Balaji, K; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Srinivasan, V A

    2011-11-15

    Coccidiosis is an economically important disease affecting poultry industry and remains one of the major problems globally. Developing a cost effective sub-unit vaccine may help mitigate loss in the industry. Here, we report expressing one of the microneme proteins, EtMIC2 from Eimeria tenella in tobacco using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression. The ability of plant expressed recombinant EtMIC2 in eliciting both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were measured in the immunized birds. The protective efficacy in the vaccinated birds against a homologous challenge was also evaluated. Birds immunized with plant expressed EtMIC2 showed good sero-conversion, reduced oocyst output and increased weight gain when compared to control birds. Our data indicate that use of plant expressed recombinant EtMIC2 in birds was safe and had the potential in imparting partial protection in chickens against homologous challenge. PMID:21986219

  16. The Effect of a Digital Learning Environment on Children's Conceptions about the Protection of Endemic Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrou, Stella; Korfiatis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of a pilot learning intervention for improving children's ideas about plant protection. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase aimed at exploring children's ideas about plant protection. These ideas were taken into account for the design and development of a digital learning environment.…

  17. Bio-based resistance inducers for sustainable plant protection against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Burketova, Lenka; Trda, Lucie; Ott, Peter G; Valentova, Olga

    2015-11-01

    An increasing demand for environmentally acceptable alternative for traditional pesticides provides an impetus to conceive new bio-based strategies in crop protection. Employing induced resistance is one such strategy, consisting of boosting the natural plant immunity. Upon infections, plants defend themselves by activating their immune mechanisms. These are initiated after the recognition of an invading pathogen via the microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) or other microbe-derived molecules. Triggered responses inhibit pathogen spread from the infected site. Systemic signal transport even enables to prepare, i.e. prime, distal uninfected tissues for more rapid and enhanced response upon the consequent pathogen attack. Similar defense mechanisms can be triggered by purified MAMPs, pathogen-derived molecules, signal molecules involved in plant resistance to pathogens, such as salicylic and jasmonic acid, or a wide range of other chemical compounds. Induced resistance can be also conferred by plant-associated microorganisms, including beneficial bacteria or fungi. Treatment with resistance inducers or beneficial microorganisms provides long-lasting resistance for plants to a wide range of pathogens. This study surveys current knowledge on resistance and its mechanisms provided by microbe-, algae- and plant-derived elicitors in different crops. The main scope deals with bacterial substances and fungus-derived molecules chitin and chitosan and algae elicitors, including naturally sulphated polysaccharides such as ulvans, fucans or carageenans. Recent advances in the utilization of this strategy in practical crop protection are also discussed. PMID:25617476

  18. Protection of Nuclear Plants Against Vehicular Bombs Via Full Spectrum Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Campagna, M. S.; Sawruk, W.

    2003-02-25

    A more urgent need now exists since 9/11 to protect vital assets at nuclear plants from physical security threats. Any approach to successful defense must result in the best possible risk profile , while also performing this defense against credible threats within the context of limited personnel and materiel resources. Engineered solutions need to be well thought out, and take advantage of each plant's available organic strengths and opportunities. A robust, well trained/equipped highly motivated protective force will help reduce concerns where there are weaknesses making the plant vulnerable to threats. A thorough risk assessment takes into account the proper combination of both deterministic and probabilistic application of resources as a most advantageous approach; this is postulated to be development of integrated protection methods and plans, which blend solid engineering design with the highest caliber of protection forces. By setting a clear and ambitious objective to shield the nuclear assets with this type of dynamic full spectrum defense in depth, the risk of harm-breach or likelihood of any opponent's threat being realized should be reduced to the lowest practicable levels.

  19. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Arjan – Parishan protected area in Fars Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhahi, Mehdi; Dolatkhahi, Ali; Nejad, Javad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Today, medicinal plants are widely used in remedies for several ailments and improvement of human health because of their pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to document important useful medicinal plants and their medicinal characteristics for treatment of human ailments in the Arjan _ Parishan protected area in Fars province of Iran during 2010-2012. Materials and Methods : Data were obtained using direct interviews with 80 informants particularly those who were more familiar with the herbs and their medicinal properties. Collected plants were recognized and families, genera, and species determined using indispensable references. In this paper, scientific name, local name, parts used, and ways of application and ailments treated using traditional medicinal plant species have been provided. Results : We documented 85 plant species belonging to 39 families and 78 genera used for treating ailments. Among which, Asteraceae with 13 species was the most frequently used family and fruits and leaves were the favored parts for local users. Our results indicated that in this area, the highest compliance in the use of plants in treating ailments were related to the intestinal digestive system (40.8%). Conclusion : The present study is the first contribution to the ethnobotany of this region. Our results showed that some plants are used for medicinal purposes in this region, either for the same or for different purposes. Generally, the results of the present investigation can be used as a basis for selecting useful medicinal plants and also help to preserve precious information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. PMID:25386404

  20. Protection of Operators and Environment - the Safety Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, J.; Kuttruf, H.; Lumpp, W.; Pfeifer, W.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.

    2002-02-26

    The Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) plant is a milestone in decommissioning and complete dismantling of the former Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant WAK, which is in an advanced stage of disassembly. The VEK is scheduled to vitrify approx. 70 m3 of the highly radioactive liquid waste (HLW) resulting from reprocessing. Site preparation, civil work and component manufacturing began in 1999. The building will be finalized by mid of 2002, hot vitrification operation is currently scheduled for 2004/2005. Provisions against damages arising from construction and operation of the VEK had to be made in accordance with the state of the art as laid down in the German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Regulations. For this purpose, the appropriate analysis of accidents and their external and internal impacts were investigated. During the detailed design phase, a failure effects analysis was carried out, in which single events were studied with respect to the objectives of protection and ensuring activity containment, limiting radioactive discharges to the environment and protecting of the staff. Parallel to the planning phase of the VEK plant a cold prototype test facility (PVA) covering the main process steps was constructed and operated at the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) of FZK. This pilot operation served to demonstrate the process technique and its operation with a simulated waste solution, and to test the main items of equipment, but was conducted also to use the experimental data and experience to back the safety concept of the radioactive VEK plant. This paper describes the basis of the safety concept of the VEK plant and results of the failure effect analysis. The experimental simulation of the failure scenarios, their effect on the process behavior, and the controllability of these events as well as the effect of the results on the safety concept of VEK are discussed. Additionally, an overview of the actual status of civil work and manufacturing of the technical equipment is given.

  1. Habitat models to assist plant protection efforts in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Manen, F.T.; Young, J.A.; Thatcher, C.A.; Cass, W.B.; Ulrey, C.

    2005-01-01

    During 2002, the National Park Service initiated a demonstration project to develop science-based law enforcement strategies for the protection of at-risk natural resources, including American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.), and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. [syn. Actaea racemosa L.]). Harvest pressure on these species is increasing because of the growing herbal remedy market. We developed habitat models for Shenandoah National Park and the northern portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway to determine the distribution of favorable habitats of these three plant species and to demonstrate the use of that information to support plant protection activities. We compiled locations for the three plant species to delineate favorable habitats with a geographic information system (GIS). We mapped potential habitat quality for each species by calculating a multivariate statistic, Mahalanobis distance, based on GIS layers that characterized the topography, land cover, and geology of the plant locations (10-m resolution). We tested model performance with an independent dataset of plant locations, which indicated a significant relationship between Mahalanobis distance values and species occurrence. We also generated null models by examining the distribution of the Mahalanobis distance values had plants been distributed randomly. For all species, the habitat models performed markedly better than their respective null models. We used our models to direct field searches to the most favorable habitats, resulting in a sizeable number of new plant locations (82 ginseng, 73 bloodroot, and 139 black cohosh locations). The odds of finding new plant locations based on the habitat models were 4.5 (black cohosh) to 12.3 (American ginseng) times greater than random searches; thus, the habitat models can be used to improve the efficiency of plant protection efforts, (e.g., marking of plants, law enforcement activities). The field searches also indicated that the level of occupancy of the most favorable habitats ranged from 49.4% for ginseng to 84.8% for black cohosh. Given the potential threats to these species from illegal harvesting, that information may serve as an important benchmark for future habitat and population assessments.

  2. 77 FR 47591 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Plant Protection and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Plant Health Programs (PHP) unit, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Animal and Plant Health Inspection... for continual improvement of its performance. In 2009, PHP did not renew its certification in the ISO 9001:2000 standard due to internal agency changes; however, PHP determined that it wanted to...

  3. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the electrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14

    The Electrochemical Plant (ECP) is the one of the Russian Federation`s four uranium enrichment plants and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. ECP is located approximately 200 km east of Krasnoyarsk in the closed city of Zelenogorsk (formerly Krasnoyarsk- 45). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with ECP in September of 1996. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with ECP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at ECP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  4. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the Urals electrochemical integrated plant

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) is the Russian Federation`s largest uranium enrichment plant and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. UEIP is located approximately 70 km north of Yekaterinburg in the closed city of Novouralsk (formerly Sverdlovsk- 44). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with UEIP in June of 1996, however because of some contractual issues the work did not start until September of 1997. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with UEIP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at UEIP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  5. Impacts of recreation and tourism on plant biodiversity and vegetation in protected areas in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Catherine Marina; Hill, Wendy

    2007-12-01

    This paper reviews recent research into the impact of recreation and tourism in protected areas on plant biodiversity and vegetation communities in Australia. Despite the international significance of the Australian flora and increasing visitation to protected areas there has been limited research on recreational and tourism impacts in Australia. As overseas, there are obvious direct impacts of recreation and tourism such as clearing of vegetation for infrastructure or damage from trampling, horse riding, mountain biking and off road vehicles. As well, there are less obvious but potentially more severe indirect impacts. This includes self-propagating impacts associated with the spread of some weeds from trails and roads. It also includes the severe impact on native vegetation, including many rare and threatened plants, from spread of the root rot fungus Phytopthora cinnamomi. This review highlights the need for more recreational ecology research in Australia. PMID:17234325

  6. Predicting the presence and cover of management relevant invasive plant species on protected areas.

    PubMed

    Iacona, Gwenllian; Price, Franklin D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-01-15

    Invasive species are a management concern on protected areas worldwide. Conservation managers need to predict infestations of invasive plants they aim to treat if they want to plan for long term management. Many studies predict the presence of invasive species, but predictions of cover are more relevant for management. Here we examined how predictors of invasive plant presence and cover differ across species that vary in their management priority. To do so, we used data on management effort and cover of invasive plant species on central Florida protected areas. Using a zero-inflated multiple regression framework, we showed that protected area features can predict the presence and cover of the focal species but the same features rarely explain both. There were several predictors of either presence or cover that were important across multiple species. Protected areas with three days of frost per year or fewer were more likely to have occurrences of four of the six focal species. When invasive plants were present, their proportional cover was greater on small preserves for all species, and varied with surrounding household density for three species. None of the predictive features were clearly related to whether species were prioritized for management or not. Our results suggest that predictors of cover and presence can differ both within and across species but do not covary with management priority. We conclude that conservation managers need to select predictors of invasion with care as species identity can determine the relationship between predictors of presence and the more management relevant predictors of cover. PMID:26599567

  7. Assessment of ethylene diurea-induced protection in plants against ozone phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya Abha; Singh, Shalini; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization, industrialization and unsustainable utilization of natural resources have made tropospheric ozone (03) one of the world's most significant air pollutants. Past studies reveal that 0 3 is a phytotoxic air pollutant that causes or enhances food insecurity across the globe. Plant sensitivity, tolerance and resistance to 0 3 involve a wide array of responses that range from growth to the physiological, biochemical and molecular. Although plants have an array of defense systems to combat oxidative stress from 0 3 exposure, they still suffer sizable yield reductions. In recent years, the ground-level 0 3 concentrations to which crop plants have been exposed have caused yield loses that are economically damaging. Several types of chemicals have been applied or used to mitigate the effects produced by 0 3 on plants. These include agrochemicals (fungicides, insecticides, plant growth regulators), natural antioxidants, and others. Such treatments have been effective to one degree to another, in ameliorating Or generated stress in plants. Ethylene diurea (EDU) has been the most effective protectant used and has also served as a monitoring agent for assessing plant yield losses from 0 3 exposure. In this review, we summarize the data on how EDU has been used, the treatment methods tested, and application doses found to be both protective and toxic in plants. We have also summarized data that address the nature and modes of action (biophysical and biochemical) of EDU. In general, the literature discloses that EDU is effective in reducing ozone damage to plants, and indicates that EDU should be more widely used on 0 3 sensitive plants as a tool for biomonitoring of 0 3 concentrations. Biomonitoring studies that utilize EDU are very useful for rural and remote areas and in developing countries where 0 3 monitoring is constrained from unavailability of electricity. The mechanism(s) by which EDU prevents 0 3 toxicity in plants is still not completely known. EDU possesses great utility for screening plant sensitivity under field conditions in areas that experience high 0 3 concentrations, because EDU prevents 0 3 toxicity only in 0 3 sensitive plants. Ozone-resistant plants do not respond positively to EDU applications. However, EDU application dose and frequency must be standardized before it can be effectively and widely used for screening 0 3 sensitivity in plants. EDU acts primarily by enhancing biochemical plant defense and delaying Or induced senescence, thereby reducing chlorophyll loss, and maintaining physiological efficiency and primary metabolites; these actions enhance growth, biomass and yield of plants. We believe that future studies are needed to better address the EDU dose response relationship for many plant species, and to screen for new cultivars that can resist 0 3 stress. Although some research on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of action of EDU have been performed, the new 'omics' tools have not been utilized to evaluate EDUs mechanism of action. Such data are needed, as is gene expression and proteome profiling studies on EDU-treated and -untreated plants. PMID:25367135

  8. Thermal tolerance affects mutualist attendance in an ant-plant protection mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Ginny; Lanan, Michele C.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Mutualism is an often-complex interaction among multiple species, each of which may respond differently to abiotic conditions. The effects of temperature on the formation, dissolution, and success of these and other species interactions remain poorly understood. We studied the thermal ecology of the mutualism between the cactus Ferocactus wislizeni and its ant defenders (Forelius pruinosus, Crematogaster opuntiae, Solenopsis aurea, and Solenopsis xyloni) in the Sonoran Desert, USA. The ants are attracted to extrafloral nectar produced by the plants and in exchange protect the plants from herbivores; there is a hierarchy of mutualist effectiveness based on aggression toward herbivores. We determined the relationship between temperature and ant activity on plants, the thermal tolerance of each ant species, and ant activity in relation to the thermal environment of plants. Temperature played a role in determining which species interact as mutualists. Three of the four ant species abandoned the plants during the hottest part of the day (up to 40°C), returning when surface temperature began to decrease in the afternoon. The least effective ant mutualist, F. pruinosus, had a significantly higher critical thermal maximum than the other three species, was active across the entire range of plant surface temperatures observed (13.8-57.0°C), and visited plants that reached the highest temperatures. F. pruinosus occupied some plants full-time and invaded plants occupied by more dominant species when those species were thermally excluded. Combining data on thermal tolerance and mutualist effectiveness provides a potentially powerful tool for predicting the effects of temperature on mutualisms and mutualistic species. PMID:25012597

  9. Thermal tolerance affects mutualist attendance in an ant-plant protection mutualism.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Ginny; Lanan, Michele C; Bronstein, Judith L

    2014-09-01

    Mutualism is an often complex interaction among multiple species, each of which may respond differently to abiotic conditions. The effects of temperature on the formation, dissolution, and success of these and other species interactions remain poorly understood. We studied the thermal ecology of the mutualism between the cactus Ferocactus wislizeni and its ant defenders (Forelius pruinosus, Crematogaster opuntiae, Solenopsis aurea, and Solenopsis xyloni) in the Sonoran Desert, USA. The ants are attracted to extrafloral nectar produced by the plants and, in exchange, protect the plants from herbivores; there is a hierarchy of mutualist effectiveness based on aggression toward herbivores. We determined the relationship between temperature and ant activity on plants, the thermal tolerance of each ant species, and ant activity in relation to the thermal environment of plants. Temperature played a role in determining which species interact as mutualists. Three of the four ant species abandoned the plants during the hottest part of the day (up to 40 °C), returning when surface temperature began to decrease in the afternoon. The least effective ant mutualist, F. pruinosus, had a significantly higher critical thermal maximum than the other three species, was active across the entire range of plant surface temperatures observed (13.8-57.0 °C), and visited plants that reached the highest temperatures. F. pruinosus occupied some plants full-time and invaded plants occupied by more dominant species when those species were thermally excluded. Combining data on thermal tolerance and mutualist effectiveness provides a potentially powerful tool for predicting the effects of temperature on mutualisms and mutualistic species. PMID:25012597

  10. Do fungivores trigger the transfer of protective metabolites from host plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae?

    PubMed

    Duhamel, Marie; Pel, Roel; Ooms, Astra; Bücking, Heike; Jansa, Jan; Ellers, Jacintha; van Straalen, Nico M; Wouda, Tjalf; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Kiers, E Toby

    2013-09-01

    A key objective in ecology is to understand how cooperative strategies evolve and are maintained in species networks. Here, we focus on the tri-trophic relationship between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, host plants, and fungivores to ask if host plants are able to protect their mutualistic mycorrhizal partners from being grazed. Specifically, we test whether secondary metabolites are transferred from hosts to fungal partners to increase their defense against fungivores. We grew Plantago lanceolata hosts with and without mycorrhizal inoculum, and in the presence or absence of fungivorous springtails. We then measured fungivore effects on host biomass and mycorrhizal abundance (using quantitative PCR) in roots and soil. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to measure host metabolites in roots, shoots, and hyphae, focusing on catalpol, aucubin, and verbascoside. Our most striking result was that the metabolite catalpol was consistently found in AM fungal hyphae in host plants exposed to fungivores. When fungivores were absent, catalpol was undetectable in hyphae. Our results highlight the potential for plant-mediated protection of the mycorrhizal hyphal network. PMID:24279273

  11. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  12. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  13. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  14. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  15. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues...

  16. Insecticidal activity of plant lectins and potential application in crop protection.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Oliveira, Caio F R; Oliveira, Carolina T

    2015-01-01

    Lectins constitute a complex group of proteins found in different organisms. These proteins constitute an important field for research, as their structural diversity and affinity for several carbohydrates makes them suitable for numerous biological applications. This review addresses the classification and insecticidal activities of plant lectins, providing an overview of the applicability of these proteins in crop protection. The likely target sites in insect tissues, the mode of action of these proteins, as well as the use of lectins as biotechnological tools for pest control are also described. The use of initial bioassays employing artificial diets has led to the most recent advances in this field, such as plant breeding and the construction of fusion proteins, using lectins for targeting the delivery of toxins and to potentiate expected insecticide effects. Based on the data presented, we emphasize the contribution that plant lectins may make as tools for the development of integrated insect pest control strategies. PMID:25633332

  17. Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Awl, D.J.; Pounds, L.R.; Rosensteel, B.A.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1996-06-01

    Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T&E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T&E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to listed species. T&E plant species found on or near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are identified. Twenty-eight species identified on the ORR are listed by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation as either endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Four of these have been under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for possible listing (listed in the formerly-used C2 candidate category). Additional species listed by the state occur near and may be present on the ORR. A range of habitats support the rare taxa on the ORR: river bluffs, sinkholes, calcareous barrens, wetlands, utility corridors, and forests. The list of T&E plant species and their locations on the ORR should be considered provisional because the entire ORR has not been surveyed, and state and federal status of all species continues to be updated. The purpose of this document is to present information on the listed T&E plant species currently known to occur on the ORR as well as listed species potentially occurring on the ORR based on geographic range and habitat availability. For the purpose of this report, {open_quotes}T&E species{close_quotes} include all federal- and state-listed species, including candidates for listing, and species of special concern. Consideration of T&E plant habitats is an important component of resource management and land-use planning; protection of rare species in their natural habitat is the best method of ensuring their long-term survival.

  18. Heat inactivation of leaf phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: Protection by aspartate and malate in C4 plants.

    PubMed

    Rathnam, C K

    1978-01-01

    The activity of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase EC 4.1.1.31 in leaf extracts of Eleusine indica L. Gaertn., a C4 plant, exhibited a temperature optimum of 35-37° C with a complete loss of activity at 50° C. However, the enzyme was protected effectively from heat inactivation up to 55° C by L-aspartate. Activation energies (Ea) for the enzyme in the presence of aspartate were 2.5 times lower than that of the control enzyme. Arrhenius plots of PEP carboxylase activity (±aspartate) showed a break in the slope around 17-20° C with a 3-fold increase in the Ea below the break. The discontinuity in the slopes was abolished by treating the enzyme extracts with Triton X-100, suggesting that PEP carboxylase in C4 plants is associated with lipid and may be a membrane bound enzyme. Depending upon the species, the major C4 acid formed during photosynthesis (malate or aspartate) was found to be more protective than the minor C4 acid against the heat inactivation of their PEP carboxylase. Oxaloacetate, the reaction product, was less effective compared to malate or aspartate. Several allosteric inhibitors of PEP carboxylase were found to be moderately to highly effective in protecting the C4 enzyme while its activators showed no significant effect. PEP carboxylase from C3 species was not protected from thermal inactivation by the C4 acids. The physiological significance of these results is discussed in relation to the high temperature tolerance of C4 plants. PMID:24414875

  19. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the plant protection schedule taken up for main crop and for intercrops, but was least in the insecticide sprayed to both the crops. Data on interaction of intercropping and plant protection schedules indicated that Bt cotton with chilli as intercrop and with zero plant protection showed the highest population of P-solubilizers, N2 fixers as well as urease and phosphatase activities at 135 days of crop growth. Similarly, population of total bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were highest in the treatment of Bt cotton + chilli + onion with zero protection but were on par with the treatment Bt cotton + chilli with zero protection at 135 days of crop growth. Dehydrogenase activity was found to be the highest in the treatment of Bt cotton + redgram with zero protection at 135 days of crop growth. Our studies showed harmful effects of insecticide sprays on soil microflora and enzyme activities.

  20. 77 FR 26569 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-R-2012-N023...Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/ Fish Screen Facility Protection Project, CA...and Environmental Impact Report AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior....

  1. 78 FR 16705 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-R-2013-N039...Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/ Fish Screen Facility Protection Project, CA...and Environmental Impact Report AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior....

  2. 78 FR 76317 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-R-2013-N271...Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/ Fish Screen Facility Protection Project, CA; Record of Decision AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior....

  3. 76 FR 20368 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-R-2011-N042...Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/ Fish Screen Facility Protection Project, California...Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior....

  4. Protection des ions organiques contre les dommages induits a l'ADN par les electrons de basse energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Ariane

    Il a ete demontre que les electrons de basse energie (EBE) peuvent induire des cassures simple brin (CSB) a l'ADN, via la formation d'anions transitoires qui decroissent par attachement dissociatif, ou dans d'autres etats electroniques dissociatifs menant a la fragmentation. Afin d'effectuer une etude complete des effets des electrons de basse energie sur la matiere biologique, il est necessaire de comprendre leur mecanismes d'interaction non seulement avec l'ADN, mais avec les constituants de son environnement. Les histones sont une composante importante de l'environnement moleculaire de l'ADN. Leur charge positive leur permet de s'associer aux groupements phosphate anionique de l'ADN. Le role principal de ces proteines basiques consiste a organiser l'ADN et l'empaqueter afin de former la chromatine. Les cations sont une autre composante importante de la cellule; ils jouent un role dans la stabilisation de la conformation B de l'ADN in vitro par leurs interactions avec les petits et grands sillons de l'ADN, ainsi qu'avec le groupement phosphate charge negativement. Avec les histones, ils participent egalement a la compaction de l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Cette etude a pour but de comprendre comment la presence d'ions organiques (sous forme de Tris et d'EDTA) a proximite de l'ADN modifie le rendement de cassures simple brin induit par les electrons de basse energie. Le Tris et l'EDTA ont-ete choisis comme objet d'etude, puisqu'en solution, ils forment le tampon standard pour solubiliser l'ADN dans les experiences in vitro (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA). De plus, la molecule Tris possede un groupement amine alors que l'EDTA possede 4 groupements carboxyliques. Ensembles, ils peuvent se comporter comme un modele simple pour les acides amines. Le ratio molaire de 10 :1 de Tris par rapport a l'EDTA a pour but d'imiter le comportement des histones qui sont riches en arginine et lysine, acides amines possedant un groupement amine charge positivement additionnel. Des films d'ADN de differentes epaisseurs, possedant entre 0 et 32 ions organiques/ nucleotide, ont ete irradies avec des electrons de 10eV. Les dommages induits par les electrons, sous forme de cassures, ont ete detectes par electrophorese. Nous avons demontre que le rendement de cassure simple brin diminuait de facon dramatique en fonction du nombre d'ions organiques/ nucleotide. Aussi peu que 2 ions organiques/ nucleotide sont suffisant pour decroitre le rendement de SSB de 70%. Cet effet radioprotecteur est en partie explique par l'augmentation de l'epaisseur des films, mais surtout par la modification du champ electrique a proximite de l'ADN, due a l'ajout de molecules chargees positivement. La modification du champ electrique pres de l'ADN altere les parametres de resonance comme le temps de vie de l'anion transitoire et la limite de dissociation, qui influent directement sur la section efficace d'attachement dissociatif. L'effet protecteur peut egalement etre explique par la restauration des bases anioniques deshydrogenees induites par l'attachement dissociatif de l'electron sur une base (G(-H)-). Ce sont les molecules Tris qui, en transferant un atome d'hydrogene ou un proton, restaurent les bases deshydrogenees et inhibent par le fait meme la formation de cassures simple brin. Ces resultats indiquent que les histones peuvent egalement participer a la reparation de dommages precoces induits a l'ADN avant qu'elles ne menent a des dommages encore plus nocifs et difficiles a reparer, comme les cassures simples brins. Mots cles : Electrons de basse energie, dommage a l'ADN, ions organiques, attachement dissociatif de l'electron.

  5. Paraheliotropism can protect water-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants against photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Pastenes, Claudio; Porter, Victor; Baginsky, Cecilia; Horton, Peter; González, Javiera

    2004-12-01

    In order to estimate the importance of leaf movements on photosynthesis in well-watered and water-stressed field grown bean cultivars (Arroz Tuscola (AT), Orfeo INIA (OI), Bayos Titan (BT), and Hallados Dorado (HD)), CO2 assimilation, leaf temperature, and capacity for the maximum quantum yield recovery, measured as Fv/Fm, were assessed. Leaf water potential was lower in water-stressed compared to control plants throughout the day. Water status determined a decrease in the CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance as light intensity and temperature increased up to maximal intensities at midday. Both parameters were lower in stressed compared to control plants. Even though high light intensity and water-stress induced stomatal closure is regarded as a photoinhibitory condition, the recovery of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) after 30min of darkness was nearly constant in both water regimes. In fact, higher values were observed in OI and AT when under stress. Photochemical and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching resulted in minor changes during the day and were similar between watered and stressed plants. It is concluded that paraheliotropism, present in the four bean cultivars, efficiently protects stressed plants from photoinhibition in the field and helps maintain leaf temperatures far below the ambient temperatures, however, it may also be responsible for low CO2 assimilation rates in watered plants. PMID:15658802

  6. A new class of plant lipid is essential for protection against phosphorus depletion

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Yozo; Otsuki, Hitomi; Narisawa, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Makoto; Sawai, Satoru; Kamide, Yukiko; Kusano, Miyako; Aoki, Toshio; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Saito, Kazuki

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus supply is a major factor responsible for reduced crop yields. As a result, plants utilize various adaptive mechanisms against phosphorus depletion, including lipid remodelling. Here we report the involvement of a novel plant lipid, glucuronosyldiacylglycerol, against phosphorus depletion. Lipidomic analysis of Arabidopsis plants cultured in phosphorus-depleted conditions revealed inducible accumulation of glucuronosyldiacylglycerol. Investigation using a series of sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol synthesis-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis determined that the biosynthesis of glucuronosyldiacylglycerol shares the pathway of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol synthesis in chloroplasts. Under phosphorus-depleted conditions, the Arabidopsis sqd2 mutant, which does not accumulate either sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol or glucuronosyldiacylglycerol, was the most severely damaged of three sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol-deficient mutants. As glucuronosyldiacylglycerol is still present in the other two mutants, this result indicates that glucuronosyldiacylglycerol has a role in the protection of plants against phosphorus limitation stress. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol was also found in rice, and its concentration increased significantly following phosphorus limitation, suggesting a shared physiological significance of this novel lipid against phosphorus depletion in plants. PMID:23443538

  7. Evaluation experimentale de l'efficacite des gants de protection contre les nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane dans des conditions de travail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinches, Ludwig

    Manufactured titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) enter into the formulation of several commercial products including cosmetics, paints, varnishes or food. An increasing number of people will be exposed to nanoparticles (NP), in particular, scientists during their research and workers in companies. As such, they are an emerging source of hazard. Indeed, an increasing number of studies are warning against their likely harmful effects on health. The International Agency for Research against Cancer has classified nTiO2 as being possibly carcinogenic to humans. Furthermore some studies have shown that the skin is not an impervious membrane to the NP and that NP penetration is possible when the skin is injured by abrasion, after repeated flexions or even intact. Therefore, dermal protection will be necessary in order to thoroughly protect NP users. Based upon the precautionary principle, gloves should be used as protection against chemicals. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study on their resistance towards NP has been conducted. In this study, the performance of protective gloves was evaluated with respect to nTiO2 solutions and powders, under conditions simulating occupational use. Mechanical deformations, simulating those produced by hand flexing, were applied to nitrile and butyl rubber and latex samples that were in contact with nTiO2 in water, in propylene glycol or in powder form. nTiO 2 penetration through the protective gloves was determined after deformations of the materials. Following these results, the physicochemical and mechanical phenomena that facilitate the penetration of nTiO2 were identified and studied. It was shown that mechanical deformations caused both damage to the sample surface but also a change in the degree of crystallinity of the glove material. Strain energy was also measured. It decreased significantly in presence and absence of nTiO2, indicating a weakening of the polymer chains. A qualitative study showed that repetitive deformations also lead to a decrease in the size of the agglomerates that were contained in the nTiO2 powder. Glove materials that were in contact with colloidal solutions produced a swelling phenomenon. Finally, measurements of the elongation of glove samples immersed in colloidal solutions were used to determine diffusion coefficients across the materials. The transport of the nanoparticles was driven by that of the carrier liquid (water or propylene glycol). Given the carrier solutions and nanoparticles could be transported through the gloves, exposure to skin could occur.

  8. 76 FR 20368 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... restoration and protection of the Princeton-Cordora- Glenn and Provident Irrigation Districts (PCGID-PID... directly across from the PCGID- PID pumping plant and fish screening facility. In 1999, the PCGID-PID...-screening efficiency of the new PCGID-PID pumping plant is now endangered by the bank erosion on the...

  9. "Built-In" Plant Protection: Screening Azalea Cultivars for Resistance to the Azalea Lace Bug, Stephanitis pyrioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Azalea Lace bug (ALB) are a major pest of azaleas in the southeast. Adults and nymphs cause visible damage on the upper leaf surface. Host plant resistance to ALB provides “built-in” plant protection and allows for reduced dependency on pesticide applications for both growers and consumers. We have...

  10. Unsaturated lipid matrices protect plant sterols from degradation during heating treatment.

    PubMed

    Barriuso, Blanca; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2016-04-01

    The interest in plant sterols enriched foods has recently enhanced due to their healthy properties. The influence of the unsaturation degree of different fatty acids methyl esters (FAME: stearate, oleate, linoletate and linolenate) on a mixture of three plant sterols (PS: campesterol, stigmasterol and ?-sitosterol) was evaluated at 180°C for up to 180min. Sterols degraded slower in the presence of unsaturated FAME. Both PS and FAME degradation fit a first order kinetic model (R(2)>0.9). Maximum oxysterols concentrations were achieved at 20min in neat PS and 120min in lipid mixtures and this maximum amount decreased with increasing their unsaturation degree. In conclusion, the presence of FAME delayed PS degradation and postponed oxysterols formation. This protective effect was further promoted by increasing the unsaturation degree of FAME. This evidence could help industries to optimize the formulation of sterol-enriched products, so that they could maintain their healthy properties during cooking or processing. PMID:26593514

  11. Companion Protease Inhibitors for the In Situ Protection of Recombinant Proteins in Plants.

    PubMed

    Robert, Stéphanie; Jutras, Philippe V; Khalf, Moustafa; D'Aoust, Marc-André; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Sainsbury, Frank; Michaud, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    We previously described a procedure for the use of plant protease inhibitors as "companion" accessory proteins to prevent unwanted proteolysis of clinically useful recombinant proteins in leaf crude protein extracts (Benchabane et al. Methods Mol Biol 483:265-273, 2009). Here we describe the use of these inhibitors for the protection of recombinant proteins in planta, before their extraction from leaf tissues. A procedure is first described involving inhibitors co-expressed along-and co-migrating-with the protein of interest in host plant cells. An alternative, single transgene scheme is then described involving translational fusions of the recombinant protein and companion inhibitor. These approaches may allow for a significant improvement of protein steady-state levels in leaves, comparable to yield improvements observed with protease-deficient strains of less complex protein expression hosts such as E. coli or yeasts. PMID:26614285

  12. Prospects for using proteinase inhibitors to protect transgenic plants against attack by herbivorous insects.

    PubMed

    Gatehouse, John A

    2011-08-01

    Proteinase inhibitors which act on the digestive enzymes of insect herbivores are a basic mechanism of plant defence. Attempts to exploit this defence mechanism in plant genetic engineering have used over-expression of both endogenous and exogenous inhibitors. While significant protection against insect pests has been routinely achieved, the engineered plants do not show levels of resistance considered commercially viable. As a result of selective pressures, insect herbivores have developed multiple mechanisms of adaptation to overcome the defensive effects of plant proteinase inhibitors. Common polyphagous crop pests are well adapted to deal with a range of different inhibitors, which have only limited effects on fitness as a result. A range of strategies have been attempted to improve effectiveness of proteinase inhibitors as antimetabolites towards insects, including selection for inhibitory activity against insect digestive enzymes, mutagenesis for novel inhibitory activity, and engineering inhibitors with multiple functions. However, proteinase inhibitor genes have only been used in transgenic crops in combination with other insecticidal genes. In Chinese genetically engineered cotton varieties which express Bt toxins as an insecticidal protein against lepidopteran larvae, the CpTI (cowpea trypsin inhibitor) gene has been employed as a second transgene to improve protection. This gene combination represents the only commercial deployment of a proteinase inhibitor transgene to date, with Bt/CpTI cotton grown on over 0.5 million hectares in 2005. Future prospects for using proteinase inhibitor genes to enhance insect resistance in transgenic crops will require reassessment of their mechanisms of action, particularly in affecting processes other than digestion, as exemplified by effects on sap-feeding hemipteran pests. PMID:21418023

  13. Creating an agricultural world order: regional plant protection problems and international phytopathology, 1878-1939.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in 1878 with the International Phylloxera Convention of Berne, international conventions have sought to relieve national agricultural industries from two specific burdens. First, by defining phytosanitary practices to be enforced by national plant protection services, these conventions attempted to prevent the introduction of plant diseases and pests into national territories from which they were previously absent. Second, by standardizing these practices - especially through the design of a unique certificate of inspection - the conventions attempted to eliminate barriers such as quarantines affection international agricultural trade. The succession of phytopathological conventions seemed to epitomize the coalescence of an international community against agricultural pests. What actually coalesced was bio-geopolitics wherein plant pathologists and economic entomologists from North America and the British Empire questioned the so-called internationality of the environmental and economic specificities of continental European agriculture, embodied in "international" conventions. Although an international phenomenon, the dissemination of agricultural pests provided opportunities for cooperation on a strictly regional albeit transnational basis that pitted bio-geopolitical spaces against each other. This article retraces the formation of these spaces by analyzing the deliberations of committees and congresses that gathered to define an international agricultural order based on the means to prevent the spread of plant diseases and pests. PMID:20329355

  14. Fire protection of safe shutdown capability at commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, K.

    1993-07-01

    The comprehensive industrial safety standards and codes that exist today have evolved from lessons learned through past experience, research results, and improvements in technological capabilities. The current requirements for fire safety features of commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US are a notable example of this practice. Although fire protection has always been an important design requirement, from the aftermath of a serious fire that occurred in 1975 at the Browns Ferry plant, it was learned that the life safety and property protection concerns of the major fire insurance underwriters may not sufficiently encompass nuclear safety issues, particularly with regard to the potential for fire damage to result in the common mode failure of redundant trains of systems, and components important to the safe shutdown of the reactor. Following its investigations into the Browns Ferry fire, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated guidance documents, which ultimately developed into mandatory regulations, necessary to assure the implementation of a fire protection program that would address nuclear safety concerns. The new criteria that evolved, contain prescriptive design features, as well as personnel and administrative requirements the Commission determined to be necessary to provide a defense-in-depth level of protection against the hazards of fire and its associated effects on safety related equipment. These criteria are primarily contained in Appendix R of Title 10 to the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50). Since 1983, various members of the Department of Nuclear Energy (DNE) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have provided technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of its evaluations of fire protection features implemented at commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US. This paper presents a discussion of the insights gained by the author during his active participation in this area.

  15. The role of selenium in protecting plants against prairie dog herbivory: implications for the evolution of selenium hyperaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Colin F; Freeman, John L; Galeas, Miriam L; Klamper, Erin M; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2008-03-01

    Some plants can hyperaccumulate the element selenium (Se) up to 10,000 mg Se kg(-1) dry weight. Hyperaccumulation has been hypothesized to defend against herbivory. In laboratory studies high Se levels protect plants from invertebrate herbivores and pathogens. However, field studies and mammalian herbivore studies that link Se accumulation to herbivory protection are lacking. In this study a combination of field surveys and manipulative field studies were carried out to determine whether plant Se accumulation in the field deters herbivory by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). The Se hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus (two-grooved milkvetch) occurs naturally on seleniferous soils in the Western USA, often on prairie dog colonies. Field surveys have shown that this Se hyperaccumulator is relatively abundant on some prairie dog colonies and suffers less herbivory than other forb species. This protection was likely owing to Se accumulation, as judged from subsequent manipulative field experiments. When given a choice between pairs of plants of the Se hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (prince's plume) that were pretreated with or without Se, prairie dogs preferred to feed on the plants with low Se; the same results were obtained for the non-hyperaccumulator Brassica juncea (Indian mustard). Plants containing as little as 38 mg Se kg(-1) DW were protected from herbivory. Taken together these results shed light on the functional significance of Se hyperaccumulation and the possible selection pressures driving its evolution. They also have implications for the use of plants in Se phytoremediation, or as Se-fortified crops. PMID:18278517

  16. Portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Berardinelli, S.P.; Rusczek, R.A.; Mickelsen, R.L.

    1987-10-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisorpropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals; nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protective clothing for its intended use.

  17. Programmed cell death in plants: protective effect of mitochondrial-targeted quinones.

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, L A; Dzyubinskaya, E V; Kiselevsky, D B; Shestak, A A; Samuilov, V D

    2011-10-01

    Ubiquinone or plastoquinone covalently linked to synthetic decyltriphenylphosphonium (DTPP(+)) or rhodamine cations prevent programmed cell death (PCD) in pea leaf epidermis induced by chitosan or CN(-). PCD was monitored by recording the destruction of cell nuclei. CN(-) induced the destruction of nuclei in both epidermal cells (EC) and guard cells (GC), whereas chitosan destroyed nuclei in EC not in GC. The half-maximum concentrations for the protective effects of the quinone derivatives were within the pico- and nanomolar range. The protective effect of the quinones was removed by a protonophoric uncoupler and reduced by tetraphenylphosphonium cations. CN(-)-Induced PCD was accelerated by the tested quinone derivatives at concentrations above 10(-8)-10(-7) M. Unlike plastoquinone linked to the rhodamine cation (SkQR1), DTPP(+) derivatives of quinones suppressed menadione-induced H(2)O(2) generation in the cells. The CN(-)-induced destruction of GC nuclei was prevented by DTPP(+) derivatives in the dark not in the light. SkQR1 inhibited this process both in the dark and in the light, and its effect in the light was similar to that of rhodamine 6G. The data on the protective effect of cationic quinone derivatives indicate that mitochondria are involved in PCD in plants. PMID:22098237

  18. Phenol-Oxidizing Peroxidases Contribute to the Protection of Plants from Ultraviolet Radiation Stress1

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Marcel A.K.; van den Noort, Ria E.; Tan, M.Y. Adillah; Prinsen, Els; Lagrimini, L. Mark; Thorneley, Roger N.F.

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the mechanism of UV protection in two duckweed species (Lemnaceae) by exploiting the UV sensitivity of photosystem II as an in situ sensor for radiation stress. A UV-tolerant Spirodela punctata G.F.W. Meyer ecotype had significantly higher indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels than a UV-sensitive ecotype. Parallel work on Lemna gibba mutants suggested that UV tolerance is linked to IAA degradation rather than to levels of free or conjugated IAA. This linkage is consistent with a role for class III phenolic peroxidases, which have been implicated both in the degradation of IAA and the cross-linking of various UV-absorbing phenolics. Biochemical analysis revealed increased activity of a specific peroxidase isozyme in both UV-tolerant duckweed lines. The hypothesis that peroxidases play a role in UV protection was tested in a direct manner using genetically modified tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris). It was found that increased activity of the anionic peroxidase correlated with increased tolerance to UV radiation as well as decreased levels of free auxin. We conclude that phenol-oxidizing peroxidases concurrently contribute to UV protection as well as the control of leaf and plant architecture. PMID:11457952

  19. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...

  20. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...

  1. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...

  2. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...

  3. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...

  4. Recommended practice for fire protection for electric generating plants and high voltage direct current converter stations. 2005 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    The standard outlines fire safety recommendations for gas, oil, coal, and alternative fuel electric generating plants including high voltage direct current converter stations and combustion turbine units greater than 7500 hp used for electric generation. Provisions apply to both new and existing plants. The document provides fire prevention and fire protection recommendations for the: safety of construction and operating personnel; physical integrity of plant components; and continuity of plant operations. The 2005 edition includes revisions and new art that clarify existing provisions. 5 annexes.

  5. Hydrolysates of citrus plants stimulate melanogenesis protecting against UV-induced dermal damage.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Jen-Wen; Hsiao, Pei-Ling; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Wen, Kuo-Ching

    2011-04-01

    The sun-tanning process occurs as a spontaneous response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. UV will induce tanning and DNA damage, processes that can lead to photoaging and skin disorders such as hyperpigmentation and cancer. The pigment melanin protects skin from UV damage; therefore, an efficient melanin-promoting suntan lotion could be highly beneficial. In this study, a process was developed to increase the content of naringenin in citrus extracts and to determine whether a higher naringenin content of citrus would induce melanogenesis. Melanin content and tyrosinase expression in mouse B16 melanoma cells were assayed after treatment with citrus plant extracts and their hydrolysates. The results indicate that hydrolysis increased the naringenin content in citrus extracts and that citrus preparations stimulated cellular melanogenesis and tyrosinase expression. It is suggested that this method is applicable to the industrial production of melanin-promoting suntan lotions with antiphotocarcinogenic properties derived from citrus rind and citrus products. PMID:20857432

  6. Nanomaterials in plant protection and fertilization: current state, foreseen applications, and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-10-01

    Scientific publications and patents on nanomaterials (NM) used in plant protection or fertilizer products have exponentially increased since the millennium shift. While the United States and Germany have published the highest number of patents, Asian countries released most scientific articles. About 40% of all contributions deal with carbon-based NM, followed by titanium dioxide, silver, silica, and alumina. Nanomaterials come in many diverse forms (surprisingly often ?100 nm), from solid doped particles to (often nonpersistent) polymer and oil-water based structures. Nanomaterials serve equally as additives (mostly for controlled release) and active constituents. Product efficiencies possibly increased by NM should be balanced against enhanced environmental NM input fluxes. The dynamic development in research and its considerable public perception are in contrast with the currently still very small number of NM-containing products on the market. Nanorisk assessment and legislation are largely in their infancies. PMID:22963545

  7. Protective effects of three extracts from Antarctic plants against ultraviolet radiation in several biological models.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Betina Kappel; Rosa, Renato Moreira; da Silva, Juliana; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Oliveira, Iuri Marques de; Ianistcki, Martus; Benvegnú, Vinícius Cosmos; Furtado, Gabriel Vasata; Ferraz, Alexandre; Richter, Marc François; Schroder, Nádia; Pereira, Antônio Batista; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2009-08-01

    The photoprotective effect of the methanolic extracts of three Antarctic plant species - Deschampsia antarctica Desv., Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl., and Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. against UV-induced DNA damage was investigated in hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells) and in a biomonitor organism Helix aspersas, using comet assay. The protective, mutagenic, and antimutagenic profiles of these extracts were also evaluated using haploid strains of the simple eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and antioxidant activity were investigated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay, as well as the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay. At the concentration range employed, the extracts were not cytotoxic or mutagenic to S. cerevisiae. In addition, the treatment with these extracts enhanced survival, and decreased induced reverse, frameshift, and forward mutations in a dose-response manner in all UVC doses employed. The plants extracts did not generate DNA strand breaks in V79 cells, and the treatment significantly decreased DNA damage induced by UVC. Extracts significantly decreased UVC-induced lipid peroxidation in V79 cells, showing a clear antioxidant property. Moreover, results of comet assay in V79 cells, employing Fpg, Endo III, and Endo V enzymes, demonstrated significant reduction of UVC-induced DNA damage after pre-incubation with these extracts. The treatment with all tested extracts were much less efficient against UVC-induced cytotoxicity in the yeast strain defective in photolyase as compared to the wild type strain, suggesting that this DNA repair pathway is stimulated by substances present in the extracts. All extracts showed a significant inhibitory effect in the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay, and they had the ability to scavenge DPPH. In H. aspersas, the treatment was able to protect against UVC-induced damage. In conclusion, D. antarctica, C. quitensis, and P. juniperinum extracts present photoprotective properties, which can be attributed to molecules, such as flavonoids and carotenoids, which act as UV-absorbing molecules and as antioxidants, as well as stimulate DNA-repair processes. PMID:19464923

  8. Side effects of plant protection products and biological interactions on the European earwig Forficula auricularia L.

    PubMed

    Peusens, G; Moerkens, R; Beliën, T; Gobin, B

    2009-01-01

    Plant protection products are designed to control pests but can have negative side effects on non-target arthropods thus disturbing the important population of natural enemies required for biological control. Although the European earwig, Forficula auricularia L, (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) is not considered to be a key beneficial in pome fruit, it is an important predator of several pests, e.g. woolly apple aphid and pear sucker. The impact of non-selective plant protection products at crucial moments in their (univoltine) life cycle can be of significant relevance compared to insects with numerous generations. Foliar applications in spring when nymphs are migrating into the trees can reduce the number of adults in summer and subsequently affect the population size next year. Multiple and/or combined spraying during summer on adults may have a cumulative effect resulting in less over wintering females which possibly exhibit poor reproductive performance. Previous residual contact bioassays already revealed the harmful side effect of several formulated products on adults. Insects showing sub lethal symptoms recovered partially or died eventually. As spinosad caused significant toxicological effects it was subsequently tested in 3 different dose rates on adults and N4-nymphs. We noticed not only a clear dose-response relationship but N4-nymphs proved to be more susceptible than adults; even a dilution of 1/9-th of the registered dose rate still caused a mortality of 45.5 % after 20 days. Understanding the earwig's population dynamics is essential for efficient practical biocontrol. It proves difficult to increase population levels to sufficient high numbers for optimal pest control. Local biological factors might be limiting. Therefore, we tested two hypotheses that pertain to population limitation: 1. Bird predation during summer, 2. Small mammal nest predation during winter. Enclosure experiments showed no negative bird effect on earwig densities unless large bird flocks inhabited the area. Small mammals did not actively predate the over wintering nests, although other predatory arthropods may be important. PMID:20222599

  9. Benefits of protective fencing to plant and rodent communities of the western Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Matthew L.

    1995-01-01

    Human disturbance in the western Mojave Desert takes many forms. The most pervasive are livestock grazing and off-highway vehicle use. Over the past few decades several areas within this region have been fenced to preclude human disturbance. These areas provide opportunities to study the impact of human activities in a desert ecosystem. This paper documents the response of plant and small mammal populations to fencing constructed between 1978 and 1979 at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural Area, Kern County, California. Aboveground live annual plant biomass was generally greater inside than outside the fenced plots during April 1990, 1991, and 1992. The alien grass Schismus barbatus was a notable exception, producing more biomass in the unprotected area. Forb biomass was greater than that of alien annual grasses inside the fence during all three years of the study. Outside the fence, forb biomass was significantly higher than that of alien grasses only during spring 1992. Percent cover of perennial shrubs was higher inside the fence than outside, while no significant trend was detected in density. There was als more seed biomass inside the fence; this may have contributed to the greater diversity and density of Merriam's kangaroo rats ( Dipodomys merriami), long-tailed pocket mice ( Chaetodipus formosus), and southern grasshopper mice ( Onychomys torridus) in the protected area. These results show that protection from human disturbance has many benefits, including greater overall community biomass and diversity. The significance and generality of these results can be further tested by studying other exclosures of varying age and configurations in different desert regions of the southwestern United States.

  10. Y-12 Plant groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1999 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by the Y-12 Plant Environmen~ Safety, and Health Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Progratn (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring . during CY 1999 will be petiormed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater and surface water monitoring petiormed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant GWPP during CY 1999

  11. The Application of Regulating Plant Growth into Protective Engineering of The Western Mansions Area in The Old Summer Palace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, W.; Song, Y.

    2015-08-01

    The Western Mansions (X?yáng Lóu) in the Old Summer Palace (Yuánmíngyuán ) are extremely valuable set of heritage. When it was first conceived and constructed, it was an important part of the successful exchange between Chinese and the Western cultures. It marked the entry of European architecture and the art of gardening into Chinese royal gardens. Therefore, the Western Mansions occupies a vital position in the garden history of China and even the world. Since the 1980s, the Administrative Office of the Old Summer Place (Yuánmíngyuán) had cleared and reorganized the Western Mansions relics. But currently, both the protection and display of the Western Mansions are far from satisfactory. With regards to the outlook of the cultural relics, there is cracking and collapses, relics are damaged by tourists, there is rainwater erosion, plant aggression, pollutants, weathering, crumbling and other threats. This is caused by the improper protective measures and the yearslong erosion through natural causes. Therefore, in order to protect the important heritage and show people the situation of the plant growth. As the basis of the copper planting, the historical conditions of planting can be speculated at the time of the western building, which become an important basis for the recovery of history. This paper also further researches on the informationg of plant form in history,to avoid destabilising the heritage.Some destruction from plant growth can be controled.

  12. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) R R R TEP or TGAI 1... Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) CR CR CR TEP or TGAI...

  13. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) R R R TEP or TGAI 1... Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) CR CR CR TEP or TGAI...

  14. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) R R R TEP or TGAI 1... Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) CR CR CR TEP or TGAI...

  15. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) R R R TEP or TGAI 1... Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) CR CR CR TEP or TGAI...

  16. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) R R R TEP or TGAI 1... Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) CR CR CR TEP or TGAI...

  17. VI. Surface des plantes marque par l'impact de bolides extraterrestres La formation de cratres par impact de bolides extraterrestres (comtes ou astrodes) a

    E-print Network

    Miller, Scott

    changements abrupts dans la séquence des fossiles. Ces changements, notamment l'extinction des dinosaures, déterminent la limite entre le Crétacé et le Tertiaire (appelée communément « limite K/T ») dans l'échelle des sous des sédiments plus jeunes. La formation du cratère a provoqué des extinctions massives il y a 65

  18. A plant-produced protective antigen vaccine confers protection in rabbits against a lethal aerosolized challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores

    PubMed Central

    Chichester, Jessica A.; Manceva, Slobodanka D.; Rhee, Amy; Coffin, Megan V.; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Mett, Vadim; Shamloul, Moneim; Norikane, Joey; Streatfield, Stephen J.; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2013-01-01

    The potential use of Bacillus anthracis as a bioterrorism weapon threatens the security of populations globally, requiring the immediate availability of safe, efficient and easily delivered anthrax vaccine for mass vaccination. Extensive research efforts have been directed toward the development of recombinant subunit vaccines based on protective antigen (PA), the principal virulence factor of B. anthracis. Among the emerging technologies for the production of these vaccine antigens is our launch vector-based plant transient expression system. Using this system, we have successfully engineered, expressed, purified and characterized full-length PA (pp-PA83) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using agroinfiltration. This plant-produced antigen elicited high toxin neutralizing antibody titers in mice and rabbits after two vaccine administrations with Alhydrogel. In addition, immunization with this vaccine candidate protected 100% of rabbits from a lethal aerosolized B. anthracis challenge. The vaccine effects were dose-dependent and required the presence of Alhydrogel adjuvant. In addition, the vaccine antigen formulated with Alhydrogel was stable and retained immunogenicity after two-week storage at 4°C, the conditions intended for clinical use. These results support the testing of this vaccine candidate in human volunteers and the utility of our plant expression system for the production of a recombinant anthrax vaccine. PMID:23324615

  19. SYMPOSIUM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC PROGRAMS FOR MONITORING ECOLOGICAL IMPACT FROM PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE

    Historically, monitoring programs in association with field releases of crops with plant incorporated protectants (PIPs) have been, explicitly or implicitly, called for as a part of risk assessment/management schemes or regulatory agenda. However...

  20. Hanford Waste Simulants Created to Support the Research and Development on the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.E.

    2001-07-26

    The development of nonradioactive waste simulants to support the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant bench and pilot-scale testing is crucial to the design of the facility. The report documents the simulants development to support the SRTC programs and the strategies used to produce the simulants.

  1. Geoheritage, Geodiversity and natural landscape enhanced and protected through anthropogenic activity: a case study using the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne Fault, Afar and Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Hagos, Miruts; Guilbaud, Marie-Noelle

    2015-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage (WH) committee called in 2014 for all thematic geological and volcanological studies to be revised in light of a widening gap between current dogma and the progressive geoheritage science views. We discuss question of natural sites and anthropogenic activity. The Chaîne des Puys and Limagne fault UNESCO WH project is the basis of this presentation, but we also the Afar Region of Ethiopia and UNAM campus, Mexico City. It is now difficult to find any totally 'natural' (devoid of human influence) landscape. This very definition of natural ignores that humankind is a geological force, and humans are part of the natural process. The UNESCO WH guidelines recognise this in paragraph 90: 'it is recognized that no area is totally pristine and that all natural areas are in a dynamic state, and to some extent involve contact with people'. A geological landscape, may be large enough to accommodate human occupation without significantly changing landforms: this is the case of the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne fault. Human activity works in some ways to protect geological landscape: regulating vegetation and erosion. The aesthetic nature of humans may work to enhance the landscape's visibility by organisation of land use, and ceremonial use based on the sense of place. Humans also exercise economic activity such as quarrying and mining, which if uncontrolled can seriously modify a landscape. However, isolated works may not have an impact, or may even enhance the value of the site by uncovering geological features that would not naturally be seen. In the Chaîne des Puys only 0,3% of the land surface has been worked by artisanal methods and certain sites, like the Lemptégy volcano have been extracted with the view of enhancing the landscape's scientific value without detracting from the aesthetic. The site preserves its natural, scientific and aesthetic qualities, because of the human presence. The local population have always been and continue to be the guardians of the exceptional universal value of the site. The Afar is an example of anthropogenic influence on a natural site, where traditional salt extraction has no impact on a natural site constantly renewed by the environmental activity renews the landscape. Introducing modern usage however requires greater levels of protection, and closer monitoring. UNAM campus is urban, but small pockets of superbly preserved lava from the Xitle volcano provide an opportunity to observe an important natural hazard in the heart of the city. This example shows how resistant natural features are at a small scale. In conclusion, it is clear that anthropogenic influences on landscape are omnipresent and the definition of natural landscape as devoid of any human presence has little meaning. Human activity needs to be acknowledged to be an essential part of geodiversity. The current revisions called for by UNESCO ask the geoscience community to take a greater part in this process, and our community should use this opportunity to make a stronger impact in the world heritage process.

  2. Root Disease, Associated with Verticicladiella alacris, of Pines in South Africa M. J. WINGFIELD, Plant Pathologist, Plant Protection Research Institute, and P. S. KNOX-DA VIES, Professor of

    E-print Network

    . Plant Disease 64:569-571. A disease of Pinus pinasrer and P. radiara associated with root infectionRoot Disease, Associated with Verticicladiella alacris, of Pines in South Africa M. J. WINGFIELD, Plant Pathologist, Plant Protection Research Institute, and P. S. KNOX-DA VIES, Professor of Plant

  3. Recombinant adenovirus expressing the haemagglutinin of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) protects goats against challenge with pathogenic virus; a DIVA vaccine for PPR

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that can cause severe disease in sheep and goats, characterised by pyrexia, pneumo-enteritis, and gastritis. The socio-economic burden of the disease is increasing in underdeveloped countries, with poor livestock keepers being affected the most. Current vaccines consist of cell-culture attenuated strains of PPRV, which induce a similar antibody profile to that induced by natural infection. Generation of a vaccine that enables differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would benefit PPR control and eradication programmes, particularly in the later stages of an eradication campaign and for countries where the disease is not endemic. In order to create a vaccine that would enable infected animals to be distinguished from vaccinated ones (DIVA vaccine), we have evaluated the immunogenicity of recombinant fowlpox (FP) and replication-defective recombinant human adenovirus 5 (Ad), expressing PPRV F and H proteins, in goats. The Ad constructs induced higher levels of virus-specific and neutralising antibodies, and primed greater numbers of CD8+ T cells than the FP-vectored vaccines. Importantly, a single dose of Ad-H, with or without the addition of Ad expressing ovine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or ovine interleukin-2, not only induced strong antibody and cell-mediated immunity but also completely protected goats against challenge with virulent PPRV, 4 months after vaccination. Replication-defective Ad-H therefore offers the possibility of an effective DIVA vaccine. PMID:24568545

  4. Recombinant adenovirus expressing the haemagglutinin of Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) protects goats against challenge with pathogenic virus; a DIVA vaccine for PPR.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Rebecca; Baron, Jana; Batten, Carrie; Baron, Michael; Taylor, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that can cause severe disease in sheep and goats, characterised by pyrexia, pneumo-enteritis, and gastritis. The socio-economic burden of the disease is increasing in underdeveloped countries, with poor livestock keepers being affected the most. Current vaccines consist of cell-culture attenuated strains of PPRV, which induce a similar antibody profile to that induced by natural infection. Generation of a vaccine that enables differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would benefit PPR control and eradication programmes, particularly in the later stages of an eradication campaign and for countries where the disease is not endemic. In order to create a vaccine that would enable infected animals to be distinguished from vaccinated ones (DIVA vaccine), we have evaluated the immunogenicity of recombinant fowlpox (FP) and replication-defective recombinant human adenovirus 5 (Ad), expressing PPRV F and H proteins, in goats. The Ad constructs induced higher levels of virus-specific and neutralising antibodies, and primed greater numbers of CD8+ T cells than the FP-vectored vaccines. Importantly, a single dose of Ad-H, with or without the addition of Ad expressing ovine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or ovine interleukin-2, not only induced strong antibody and cell-mediated immunity but also completely protected goats against challenge with virulent PPRV, 4 months after vaccination. Replication-defective Ad-H therefore offers the possibility of an effective DIVA vaccine. PMID:24568545

  5. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...525 E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from the requirement of...

  6. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...525 E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from the requirement of...

  7. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...525 E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from the requirement of...

  8. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...525 E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from the requirement of...

  9. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...525 E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from the requirement of...

  10. Leaf-cutting ant nests near roads increase fitness of exotic plant species in natural protected areas.

    PubMed

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Ghermandi, Luciana

    2008-06-22

    Understanding the mechanisms that promote the invasion of natural protected areas by exotic plants is a central concern for ecology. We demonstrated that nests of the leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex lobicornis, near roadsides promote the abundance, growth and reproduction of two exotic plant species, Carduus nutans and Onopordum acanthium, in a national park in northern Patagonia, Argentina and determine the mechanisms that produce these effects. Refuse dumps (RDs) from ant nests have a higher nutrient content than nearby non-nest soils (NNSs); foliar nutrient content and their 15N isotopic signature strongly suggest that plants reach and use these nutrients. Both species of exotic plants in RDs were 50-600% more abundant; seedlings had 100-1000% more foliar area and root and leaf biomass; and adult plants produced 100-300% more seeds than nearby NNS plants. Plants can thus gain access to and benefit from the nutrient content of ant RD, supporting the hypotheses that enhanced resource availability promotes exotic plant performance that could increase the likelihood of biological invasions. The two exotics produce an estimated of 8385000 more seeds ha(-1) in areas with ant nests compared with areas without; this exceptional increase in seed production represents a potential threat to nearby non-invaded communities. We propose several management strategies to mitigate this threat. Removal efforts of exotics should be focused on ant RDs, where plants are denser and represent a higher source of propagules. PMID:18364316

  11. Changing flowering times protect tobacco plants against insect herbivory | EurekAlert! ..

    E-print Network

    ... visitors to many plant species. Plants attract insect pollinators with the colors, forms, nectars ... Outbreak of tomato hornworms ... day to exclude night-active pollinators . A second pair of plants remained uncovered and thereby accessible ...

  12. Audit of construction of protective force training facilities at the Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-05

    A goal of the Department of Energy project management system is to ensure that projects are necessary to fulfill mission needs and are cost effective. This requires that the Department justify each project and explore competitive alternatives. The objective of this audit was to assess the need to construct protective force training facilities at the Department`s Pantex Plant. Our audit disclosed that (1) construction of a physical training facility was not necessary to fulfill mission needs, and (2) the Department did not consider all viable alternatives to constructing a weapons tactics and training facility. These conditions occurred, in part, because a Justification for New Start was never prepared and approved for the Security Enhancements Major System Acquisition, which included these two projects. We recommended that the Manager, Albuquerque Operations Office, cancel construction of the physical training facility, make needed repairs and upgrades to the existing facilities, and reduce the cost of the Security Enhancements Major System Acquisition accordingly. Implementation of this recommendation will save about $1.7 million. We also recommended that the Manager direct Mason & Hanger to perform economic analyses of all viable alternatives to constructing a weapons tactics and training facility before proceeding with construction. Such analyses could lead to cancellation or rescoping of the proposed facility and result in savings to the Department. Albuquerque management did not agree to cancel construction of the physical training facility, but did agree to perform economic analyses of all viable alternatives to the proposed weapons tactics and training facility before proceeding with construction.

  13. Plant virus particles carrying tumour antigen activate TLR7 and Induce high levels of protective antibody.

    PubMed

    Jobsri, Jantipa; Allen, Alex; Rajagopal, Deepa; Shipton, Michael; Kanyuka, Kostya; Lomonossoff, George P; Ottensmeier, Christian; Diebold, Sandra S; Stevenson, Freda K; Savelyeva, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Induction of potent antibody is the goal of many vaccines targeted against infections or cancer. Modern vaccine designs that use virus-like particles (VLP) have shown efficacy for prophylactic vaccination against virus-associated cancer in the clinic. Here we used plant viral particles (PVP), which are structurally analogous to VLP, coupled to a weak idiotypic (Id) tumour antigen, as a conjugate vaccine to induce antibody against a murine B-cell malignancy. The Id-PVP vaccine incorporates a natural adjuvant, the viral ssRNA, which acts via TLR7. It induced potent protective anti-Id antibody responses in an in vivo mouse model, superior to the "gold standard" Id vaccine, with prevalence of the IgG2a isotype. Combination with alum further increased antibody levels and maintained the IgG2a bias. Engagement of TLR7 in vivo was followed by secretion of IFN-? by plasmacytoid dendritic cells and by activation of splenic CD11chi conventional dendritic cells. The latter was apparent from up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and from secretion of a wide range of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including the Th1-governing cytokine IL-12, in keeping with the IgG2a antibody isotype distribution. PVP conjugates are a novel cancer vaccine design, offering an attractive molecular form, similar to VLP, and providing T-cell help. In contrast to VLP, they also incorporate a safe "in-built" ssRNA adjuvant. PMID:25692288

  14. MPH1 is a thylakoid membrane protein involved in protecting photosystem II from photodamage in land plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Last, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is highly susceptible to photoinhibition caused by environmental stimuli such as high light; therefore plants have evolved multifaceted mechanisms to efficiently protect PSII from photodamage. We previously published data suggesting that Maintenance of PSII under High light 1 (MPH1, encoded by AT5G07020), a PSII-associated proline-rich protein found in land plants, participates in the maintenance of normal PSII activity under photoinhibitory stress. Here we provide additional evidence for the role of MPH1 in protecting PSII against photooxidative damage. Two Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking a functional MPH1 gene suffer from severe photoinhibition relative to the wild-type plants under high irradiance light. The mph1 mutants exhibit significantly decreased PSII quantum yield and electron transport rate after exposure to photoinhibitory light. The mutants also display drastically elevated photodamage to PSII reaction center proteins after high-light treatment. These data add further evidence that MPH1 is involved in PSII photoprotection in Arabidopsis. MPH1 homologs are found across phylogenetically diverse land plants but are not detected in algae or prokaryotes. Taken together, these results suggest that MPH1 protein began to play a role in protecting PSII against excess light following the transition from aquatic to terrestrial conditions. PMID:26337456

  15. FREEDOM TO OPERATE: Intellectual Property Protection in Plant Biology and Its Implications for the Conduct of Research.

    PubMed

    Kimpel, J A

    1999-09-01

    ? Abstract? Research endeavors are being affected by issues involving intellectual property (patents, copyrights, and trademarks). The acquisition of rights in intellectual property by universities can result in the transfer of new innovations to the private sector, with the university recouping a share of the profits for support of further scientific research. Intellectual property rights available for new plant cultivars include plant patents, plant variety protection certificates, plant breeder's rights, and utility patents. Under the patent laws, there is no explicit exemption for research use, so researchers are increasingly being required to execute materials transfer agreements to obtain permission to use patented materials, such as techniques, genes, seeds, and cell lines, in laboratory research and in breeding programs. Research scientists must educate themselves on these issues so that they can make informed decisions regarding their research practices and the licensing of their discoveries. PMID:11701816

  16. The influence of woody plants on the seepage of flood protection levees: Experiences from a test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, W.; Meixner, H.; Florineth, F.

    2009-04-01

    The past flood events have once more drawn the attention to the stability and maintenance of flood protection levees. The attention has also been focused on the relationship between vegetation and the structural integrity of dikes. Current standards regard dense turf to be safest vegetation cover for dikes. Many guidelines ban woody vegetation from dikes and levees to provide structural integrity, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. The refusal of woody plants is mainly based on the argument that root penetration of woody plants facilitates water movement along their path. Within the frame of a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction (University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna), focusing on woody plants on levees, the effects of small to medium growing woody (shrubby) plants on the seepage are tested. Data are drawn from two natural-scaled research levees. The homogenous levees consist of a mineral silt-sand-gravel and have a fill height of 2.7 m and a slope inclination of 2:3. The tests investigate the impact of woody plants (living brush mattress - transversal) in comparison to compact turf (jute netting mulch seeding). Measured plant parameters, characterising the vegetation structures were shoot lengths, shoot diameters, and above ground biomass. Root growth is investigated in an extra plot area allowing excavation of the plants. Percolation is monitored using seepage monitoring pipes, soil moisture sensors and soil temperature probes, which were build into the embankment during construction. The proposed contribution discusses the effects of woody plants (shrubs) on seepage of flood protection levees. Methodology of research and results after three initial seepage tests are presented.

  17. Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) development survivorship and damage on cotton plants expressing insecticidal plant-incorporated protectants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), plants expressing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner are planted on significant acreage across the Southern region of the United States. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), can be a significant cotton pest in ...

  18. Cooperative efforts of the materials protection control and accounting program at the electrochemical plant (Krasnoyarsk-45) in Russia-011

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.

    1998-07-22

    The USDOE Material Protection Control and Accountability Program (MPC&A) has established a Project Team with the goal of providing the Russian Electrochemical Plant (ECP) with equipment and training to enable ECP to evaluate, develop, and implement a comprehensive plan and systems for physical protection, material controls, and accountancy upgrades. The MPC&A project will provide for improvements such as risk assessments, access control upgrades, computerized MC&A, communications systems upgrades, building perimeter surveillance and intrusion detection upgrades, vault upgrades, metal and nuclear material detection upgrades, along with mass measurement and non- destructive analysis (NDA) instrumentation. This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A project at the Electrochemical Plant.

  19. The Material Protection, Control and Accounting Sustainability Program Implementation at the Electrochemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sirotenko, Vladimir; Antonov, Eduard; Sirotenko, Alexei; Kukartsev, Alexander; Krivenko, Vladimir; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Esther M.

    2008-06-10

    Joint efforts by the Electrochemical Plant (ECP) in Zelenogorsk, Russia, and the United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (US DOE/NNSA) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program to upgrade ECP security systems began in 1996. The commissioning of major MPC&A systems at ECP occurred in December 2004. Since that time, the US Project Team (USPT) and ECP personnel have focused jointly on the development and implementation of an enterprise-wide MPC&A Sustainability Program (SP) that address the seven essential MPC&A Program sustainability elements. This paper describes current operational experience at the ECP with the full implementation of the site SP utilizing an earned-value methodology. In support of this site program, ECP has established a Document Control Program (DCP) for sustainability-related documents; developed a robust master Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) that outlines all ECP MPC&A sustainability activities; and chartered an Enterprise-Wide Sustainability Working Group (ESWG) The earned value methodology uses ECP-completed (and USPT-verified) analyses to assess project performance on a quarterly basis. The MPC&A SP, presently operational through a contract between ECP and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), incorporates the seven essential MPC&A Program sustainability elements and governs all sustainability activities associated with MPC&A systems at ECP. The site SP is designed to ensure over the near term the upgraded MPC&A systems continuous operation at ECP as funding transitions from US-assisted to fully Russian supported and sustained.

  20. Association of Diplodia pinea with a Root Disease of Pines in South Africa M. J. WINGFIELD, Plant Pathologist, Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017,and P. S. KNOX-

    E-print Network

    . Diplodia twig blight of pine. Pages 189-191 in: Important Forest Insects and Diseases of Mutual ConcernAssociation of Diplodia pinea with a Root Disease of Pines in South Africa M. J. WINGFIELD, Plant Pathologist, Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017,and P. S. KNOX- DAVIES, Professor of Plant

  1. Rangeland Watershed Management for Texans: Know Your Plants to Protect Your Watershed 

    E-print Network

    Rector, Barron S.

    2000-10-30

    Plants are the foundation of the range ecosystem. The plant species growing on a property can indicate the health of the watershed and the success of the land manager. Learn how to "read your plants to understand the effect of your management....

  2. The Utility of DNA Fingerprinting for Plant Patent Protection: An example for Lagerstroemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Patent and Trademark Office defines a plant as a “living plant organism which expresses a set of characteristics determined by its single genetic makeup, or genotype…” Here we demonstrate the utility of molecular markers to characterize the genome of a crapemyrtle plant that was re...

  3. Induction of systemic protection against rust infection in broad bean by saccharin: effects on plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Celia; Walters, Dale

    2005-08-01

    Here, we examine the effect of saccharin on the induction of systemic resistance in broad bean (Vicia faba) to the rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae. Saccharin was applied to beans at the three-leaf stage, either as a soil drench or by painting the solution on to first leaves. Plants were then challenge inoculated with the rust 1, 6, 10 and 14 d following saccharin treatment, after which they were harvested, assessed for the intensity of rust infection and plant growth measurements conducted. Foliar application of saccharin did not induce systemic protection to rust infection until 14 d after application and was less effective than saccharin applied as a soil drench. When saccharin was applied as a drench, systemic protection was not observed until 6 d after application, but was still apparent in plants 14 d after application of the drench. Irrespective of the method of application, saccharin had no significant effect on fresh and dry weights or leaf area of the plants. Saccharin applied as a drench did, however, reduce the number of leaflets produced. PMID:15998410

  4. The use of ECAS in plant protection: a green and efficient antimicrobial approach that primes selected defense genes.

    PubMed

    Zarattini, Marco; De Bastiani, Morena; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Ferro, Sergio; De Battisti, Achille

    2015-11-01

    The use of highly polluting chemicals for plant and crop protection is one of the components of the negative environmental impact of agricultural activities. In the present paper, an environmentally friendly alternative to pesticide application has been studied, based on the so-called electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS). Experiments have been carried out, by applying ECAS having different contents of active ingredients, on tobacco plants at a laboratory scale and on apple trees at fruit garden scale. The results, accumulated during a couple of years, have shown that properly selected dilute solutions of chlorides, once activated by an electrochemical treatment, exhibit a very effective protecting action of plants, irrespective of their nature. Extension of the research has shown that the observed effect is the result of two distinct factors: the expected anti-microbial action of the electrochemically synthesized oxidants, and an unexpected priming of immune plant defenses, which is clearly due to the treatment with ECAS. Interestingly, the repetition of ECAS application triggers an even stronger activation of defense genes. No oxidative damages, due to the use of the activated solutions, could be detected. PMID:26350548

  5. An update on polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), a leucine-rich repeat protein that protects crop plants against pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kalunke, Raviraj M.; Tundo, Silvio; Benedetti, Manuel; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall proteins that inhibit the pectin-depolymerizing activity of polygalacturonases secreted by microbial pathogens and insects. These ubiquitous inhibitors have a leucine-rich repeat structure that is strongly conserved in monocot and dicot plants. Previous reviews have summarized the importance of PGIP in plant defense and the structural basis of PG-PGIP interaction; here we update the current knowledge about PGIPs with the recent findings on the composition and evolution of pgip gene families, with a special emphasis on legume and cereal crops. We also update the information about the inhibition properties of single pgip gene products against microbial PGs and the results, including field tests, showing the capacity of PGIP to protect crop plants against fungal, oomycetes and bacterial pathogens. PMID:25852708

  6. Modeling diffuse sources of surface water contamination with plant protection products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendland, Sandra; Bock, Michael; Böhner, Jürgen; Lembrich, David

    2015-04-01

    Entries of chemical pollutants in surface waters are a serious environmental problem. Among water pollutants plant protection products (ppp) from farming practice are of major concern not only for water suppliers and environmental agencies, but also for farmers and industrial manufacturers. Lost chemicals no longer fulfill their original purpose on the field, but lead to severe damage of the environment and surface waters. Besides point-source inputs of chemical pollutants, the diffuse-source inputs from agricultural procedures play an important and not yet sufficiently studied role concerning water quality. The two most important factors for diffuse inputs are erosion and runoff. The latter usually occurs before erosion begins, and is thus often not visible in hindsight. Only if it has come to erosion, it is obvious to expect runoff in foresight at this area, too. In addition to numerous erosion models, there are also few applications to model runoff processes available. However, these conventional models utilize approximations of catchment parameters based on long-term average values or theoretically calculated concentration peaks which can only provide indications to relative amounts. Our study aims to develop and validate a simplified spatially-explicit dynamic model with high spatiotemporal resolution that enables to measure current and forecast runoff potential not only at catchment scale but field-differentiated. This method allows very precise estimations of runoff risks and supports risk reduction measures to be targeted before fields are treated. By focusing on water pathways occurring on arable land, targeted risk reduction measures like buffer strips at certain points and adapted ppp use can be taken early and pollution of rivers and other surface waters through transported pesticides, fertilizers and their products could be nearly avoided or largely minimized. Using a SAGA-based physical-parametric modeling approach, major factors influencing runoff (relief, soil properties, weather conditions and crop coverage) are represented. Water balance parameters are modeled in daily steps, taking into account relief determined discharge pathways, runoff velocity and number of field boundaries passed until receiving streams are reached. Model development is based on a comprehensive monitoring campaign at 3 smaller catchments in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), equipped with two gauges each, upstream and downstream, an optical Trios probe and four Isco-Samplers. The temporal high resolution monitoring of discharge, ppp, orthophosphate and nitrate-nitrogen enables an evaluation of runoff simulations in relation with rain events. First model results suggest that the simulation of surface runoff pathways enables a spatial-explicit identification of fields contributing to pollutant inputs. We assume that targeted actions on few fields will help solving the problem of diffuse inputs of ppp in our surface water to a considerable extent.

  7. Plant Phenolics as Radiation Protectants For The Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen phenolics were tested as ultraviolet (UV) protectants for the nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner). After 30 minute exposure to UVB/UVB radiation, eleven SeMNPV/phenolic combinations provided good to excellent UV protection when used at a concentra...

  8. Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Development, Survivorship, and Damage on Cotton Plants Expressing Insecticidal Plant-Incorporated Protectants.

    PubMed

    Hardke, Jarrod T; Jackson, Ryan E; Leonard, B Rogers; Temple, Joshua H

    2015-06-01

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), plants expressing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner are planted on significant acreage across the southern region of the United States. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), can be a significant cotton pest in some years, but this species has not been a primary target of Bt cotton technologies. The objective of this study was to quantify fall armyworm larval survivorship and fruiting form injury on transgenic cotton lines expressing Cry1Ac (Bollgard), Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab (Bollgard II), and Cry1Ac+Cry1F (WideStrike) Bt proteins. Larval survivorship and fruiting form damage of fall armyworm on Bollgard, Bollgard II, WideStrike, and non-Bt (control) cotton lines were evaluated in no-choice field studies. Fall armyworm (third instars) were placed on flower buds (squares), white flowers, and bolls, enclosed within a nylon mesh exclusion cage, and evaluated at selected intervals after infestation. Exposure of fall armyworm larvae to Bollgard cotton lines generally resulted in no significant effects on survivorship compared with larvae exposed to the non-Bt cotton line. Survivorship and plant injury by fall armyworm on Bollgard II cotton lines was variable compared with that on non-Bt cotton lines, and significant differences between treatments were inconsistent. Fall armyworm had significantly lower survivorship and caused less plant injury on WideStrike cotton lines than on non-Bt cotton lines across all plant structures. Development and survivorship of fall armyworm larvae on these cotton lines also were evaluated in no-choice laboratory assays by offering the previously described fruiting forms to third instars. Bollgard II and WideStrike cotton lines significantly reduced fall armyworm development and survivorship compared with those larvae offered non-Bt tissue. These results suggest that differences exist among selected Bt cotton technologies in their performance against fall armyworm. PMID:26470233

  9. How caterpillar-damaged plants protect themselves by attracting parasitic wasps.

    PubMed Central

    Turlings, T C; Loughrin, J H; McCall, P J; Röse, U S; Lewis, W J; Tumlinson, J H

    1995-01-01

    Parasitic and predatory arthropods often prevent plants from being severely damaged by killing herbivores as they feed on the plants. Recent studies show that a variety of plants, when injured by herbivores, emit chemical signals that guide natural enemies to the herbivores. It is unlikely that herbivore-damaged plants initiate the production of chemicals solely to attract parasitoids and predators. The signaling role probably evolved secondarily from plant responses that produce toxins and deterrents against herbivores and antibiotics against pathogens. To effectively function as signals for natural enemies, the emitted volatiles should be clearly distinguishable from background odors, specific for prey or host species that feed on the plant, and emitted at times when the natural enemies forage. Our studies on the phenomena of herbivore-induced emissions of volatiles in corn and cotton plants and studies conducted by others indicate that (i) the clarity of the volatile signals is high, as they are unique for herbivore damage, produced in relatively large amounts, and easily distinguishable from background odors; (ii) specificity is limited when different herbivores feed on the same plant species but high as far as odors emitted by different plant species and genotypes are concerned; (iii) the signals are timed so that they are mainly released during the daytime, when natural enemies tend to forage, and they wane slowly after herbivory stops. PMID:7753779

  10. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Auclair, K. D.

    2002-02-25

    This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order to produce first glass in 2007. The Waste Treatment Plant is a large complex project that is driven by both technology and contractual requirements. It is also part of a larger overall mission, as a component of the River Protection Project, which is driven by programmatic requirements and regulatory, legal, and fiscal constraints. These issues are further complicated by the fact that both of the major contractors involved have a different contract type with DOE, and neither has a contract with the other. This combination of technical and programmatic drivers, constraints, and requirements will continue to provide challenges and opportunities for improvement and optimization. The Bechtel National, Inc. team is under contract to engineer, procure, construct, commission and test the Waste Treatment Plant on or ahead of schedule, at or under cost, and with a throughput capacity equal to or better than specified. The Department of Energy is tasked with the long term mission of waste retrieval, treatment, and disposal. While each mission is a compliment and inextricably linked to one another, they are also at opposite ends of the spectrum, in terms of expectations of one another. These mission requirements, that are seemingly in opposition to one another, pose the single largest challenge and opportunity for optimization: one of balance. While it is recognized that design maturation and optimization are the normal responsibility of any engineering firm responsible for any given project, the aspects of integrating requirements and the management of issues across contract boundaries is a more difficult matter. This aspect, one of a seamless systems approach to the treatment of tank wastes at the Hanford site, is the focus of the Optimization Studies. This ''big O''Optimization of Life-Cycle operations is what is meant when the term ''optimization'' is used on the River Protection Project and initiatives cited in this paper. From the early contractor centric methods and processes used to move toward an integrated solution, through extensive partnering approaches, to the current quality initiatives with multi-organizational participation, significant progress is being made towards achieving the goal of truly integrated life-cycle optimization for the Department of Energy's River Protection Project and Waste Treatment Plant.

  11. 110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc-

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    2002 and was causing serious damage to papaya, Plumeria spp., Hibiscus spp. and other plants such as Annona squamosa, Carica papaya, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Ipomoea spp., Manihot esculenta and Solanum in Plumeria spp. (Apocynaceae) plants. On Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) the tender shoots covered by mealybugs

  12. Aalborg Universitet Control and Protection of Wind Power Plants with VSC-HVDC Connection

    E-print Network

    Chaudhary, Sanjay

    energy. The European Union expects to generate 230 GW wind power, in which the offshore wind power is expected to contribute 40 GW. Offshore wind power plants have better wind velocity profile leading and sustainable resource. All these have led to the development of offshore wind power plants. However, overall

  13. PARTICIPATION OF CHITIN SPECIFIC ISOFORMS OF PEROXIDASE IN PROTECTIVE REACTION OF PLANTS INFECTED BY PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are interested in how isoforms of peroxidases may influence the cotton plant's resistance to pathogens. Cotton is a member of the Malvaceae and we have been investigating the resistance of wild members of the Malvaceae to the plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Using electrophoresis, we have obs...

  14. ADVANCES IN THE APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING TO PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANT CROP MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current forecasts call for significant increases to the plantings of transgenic corn in the United States for the 2007 growing season and beyond. Transgenic acreage approaching 80% of the total corn plantings could be realized by 2009. These conditions call for a new approach to ...

  15. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a... E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from...

  16. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a... E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from...

  17. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a... E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from...

  18. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a... E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from...

  19. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a... E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from...

  20. "Working with others to conserve, protect, and enhance fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people."

    E-print Network

    McCalley, James D.

    for the continuing benefit of the American people." www.kiwifoto.com #12;National Wildlife Refuge System Ecological"Working with others to conserve, protect, and enhance fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitats and Wildlife Coordination Act ·Natural Resources Protection ·Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program ·Projects

  1. Predators indirectly protect tundra plants by reducing herbivore Peter A. Hamback, Lauri Oksanen, Per Ekerholm, A sa Lindgren, Tarja Oksanen and Michael Schneider

    E-print Network

    Oksanen, Lauri

    Predators indirectly protect tundra plants by reducing herbivore abundance Peter A. Hamba¨ck, Lauri., Ekerholm, P., Lindgren, A° ., Oksanen, T. and Schneider, M. 2004. Predators indirectly protect tundra cascades are rare in terrestrial habitats. To examine the potential of trophic cascades in a shrubby tundra

  2. 76 FR 35349 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...Protections for the Virginia Northern Flying Squirrel in Compliance With a Court Order...amended, for the Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus...reinstates the Virginia northern flying squirrel listing as endangered....

  3. Probabilistic evaluation of fire protection features found in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Azarm, M.A.; Boccio, J.L.; Ruger, C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a method which can be used to evaluate, on a relative basis, the NRC Fire Protection (FP) guidelines as found in Section 9.5.1 (Fire Protection) of the Standard Review Plan (SRP). The approach, a hybrid of existing physical models for fire propagation determinations and probabilistic models for fire-mitigation system reliability, can potentially be used as an adjunct to the present fire safety review process.

  4. Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Trás-os-Montes, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered. Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs. PMID:22112242

  5. Antioxidant activity of herbaceous plant extracts protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbaceous plants containing antioxidants can protect against DNA damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant substances, antioxidant activity, and protection of DNA from oxidative damage in human lymphocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Our methods used acidic methanol and water extractions from six herbaceous plants, including Bidens alba (BA), Lycium chinense (LC), Mentha arvensis (MA), Plantago asiatica (PA), Houttuynia cordata (HC), and Centella asiatica (CA). Methods Antioxidant compounds such as flavonol and polyphenol were analyzed. Antioxidant activity was determined by the inhibition percentage of conjugated diene formation in a linoleic acid emulsion system and by trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Their antioxidative capacities for protecting human lymphocyte DNA from H2O2-induced strand breaks was evaluated by comet assay. Results The studied plants were found to be rich in flavonols, especially myricetin in BA, morin in MA, quercetin in HC, and kaemperol in CA. In addition, polyphenol abounded in BA and CA. The best conjugated diene formation inhibition percentage was found in the acidic methanolic extract of PA. Regarding TEAC, the best antioxidant activity was generated from the acidic methanolic extract of HC. Water and acidic methanolic extracts of MA and HC both had better inhibition percentages of tail DNA% and tail moment as compared to the rest of the tested extracts, and significantly suppressed oxidative damage to lymphocyte DNA. Conclusion Quercetin and morin are important for preventing peroxidation and oxidative damage to DNA, and the leaves of MA and HC extracts may have excellent potential as functional ingredients representing potential sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:24279749

  6. United States Department of Energy`s reactor core protection evaluation methodology for fires at RBMK and VVER nuclear power plants. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This document provides operators of Soviet-designed RBMK (graphite moderated light water boiling water reactor) and VVER (pressurized light water reactor) nuclear power plants with a systematic Methodology to qualitatively evaluate plant response to fires and to identify remedies to protect the reactor core from fire-initiated damage.

  7. Genetic structure of the rattan Calamus thwaitesii in core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in central Western Ghats, India: do protected areas serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants?

    PubMed

    Ramesha, B T; Ravikanth, G; Nageswara Rao, M; Ganeshaiah, K N; Uma Shaanker, R

    2007-04-01

    Given the increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, the various protected areas--national parks, sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves--serve as the last footholds for conserving biological diversity. However, because protected areas are often targeted for the conservation of selected species, particularly charismatic animals, concerns have been raised about their effectiveness in conserving nontarget taxa and their genetic resources. In this paper, we evaluate whether protected areas can serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants that are threatened due to extraction pressures. We examine the population structure and genetic diversity of an economically important rattan, Calamus thwaitesii, in the core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in the central Western Ghats, southern India. Our results indicate that in all the three protected areas, the core and buffer regions maintain a better population structure, as well as higher genetic diversity, than the peripheral regions of the protected area. Thus, despite the escalating pressures of extraction, the protected areas are effective in conserving the genetic resources of rattan. These results underscore the importance of protected areas in conservation of nontarget species and emphasize the need to further strengthen the protected-area network to offer refugia for economically important plant species. PMID:17656844

  8. Physical protection solutions for security problems at nuclear power plants. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, J.L.; Jacobs, J.

    1980-09-01

    Under Department of Energy sponsorship, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a broad technological base of components and integrated systems to address security concerns at facilities of importance, including nuclear reactors. The primary security concern at a light water reactor is radiological sabotage, a deliberate set of actions at a plant which could expose the public to a significant amount of radiation (on the order of 10 CFR 100 limits). (Also of importance to plant operators are acts of industrial sabotage that could prevent a plant from producing electrical power).

  9. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: SIDESTREAMS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance problems at publicly-owned treatment works are often attributed to the recycling of sidestreams generated in the wastewater treatment and sludge handling systems. Although the volumes of these sidestreams are generally small compared to plant influent flows, sidestrea...

  10. Indirect Contributions of AM Fungi and Soil Aggregation to Plant Growth and Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil ecological and biological engineering are processes by which soil organisms modify their physiochemical environment resulting indirectly to enhancements in plant growth. The formation and stabilization of soil aggregates is an example biologically-mediated engineering. For soil organisms, wate...

  11. Molecular Tools for Plant Protection, True-to-Name Verification and Parentage Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA-based tools are available to improve ornamental plant cultivars through accelerated breeding and other practical applications. Highlights include examples where DNA fingerprints identified mislabeled cultivars, verified the renaming of cultivars and demonstrated some similar-looking cultivars ar...

  12. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2000 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by tie Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2000 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant GWPP during CY 2000 will comply with: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (SWDF); and DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Some of the data collected for these monitoring drivers also will be used to meet monitoring requirements of the Integrated Water Quality Program, which is managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. Data from five wells that are monitored for SWDF purposes in the Chestnut Ridge Regime will be used to comply with requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act post closure permit regarding corrective action monitoring. Modifications to the CY 2000 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in regulatory or programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  13. A review of the nest protection hypothesis: does inclusion of fresh green plant material in birds' nests reduce parasite infestation?

    PubMed

    Scott-Baumann, James F; Morgan, Eric R

    2015-07-01

    The use of aromatic plants and their essential oils for ectoparasite treatment is a field of growing interest. Several species of birds regularly introduce aromatic herbs into their nests putatively to reduce parasites. The behaviour is most often seen in cavity nesting birds and after nest building has finished. The plants are included in a non-structural manner and are often strongly aromatic. Various different hypotheses have been proposed regarding the function of this behaviour; from the plants altering some non-living factor in the nest (crypsis, water loss and insulation hypotheses) to them being involved in mate selection (mate hypothesis) or even having a beneficial effect, direct or indirect, on chicks (drug or nest protection hypothesis, NPH). Many studies have been carried out over the years observing and experimentally testing these hypotheses. This review focuses on studies involving the most popular of these hypotheses, the NPH: that plants decrease nest parasites or pathogens, thereby conveying positive effects to the chicks, allowing the behaviour to evolve. Studies providing observational evidence towards this hypothesis and those experimentally testing it are discussed. PMID:25804728

  14. 76 FR 47490 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Preble's to remove protections for the mouse in Wyoming (73 FR 39790). In that rule, we determined that... promulgated pursuant to Section 4(d) of the Act and published in the Federal Register in 2001 (66 FR 28125, May 22, 2001), amended in 2002 (67 FR 61531, October 1, 2002), and extended indefinitely in 2004...

  15. 76 FR 35349 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... flying squirrel, more commonly known as the West Virginia northern flying squirrel (WVNFS) (73 FR 50226...; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the Virginia Northern Flying Squirrel in Compliance With a Court Order... Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus). Pursuant to the District of...

  16. Aqueous extract of some indigenous medicinal plants inhibits glycation at multiple stages and protects erythrocytes from oxidative damage-an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tupe, Rashmi S; Sankhe, Neena M; Shaikh, Shamim A; Phatak, Devyani V; Parikh, Juhi U; Khaire, Amrita A; Kemse, Nisha G

    2015-04-01

    Azadirachta indica, Emblica officinalis, Syzygium cumini and Terminalia bellirica are common in Indian system of traditional medicine for the prevention of diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively and comparatively investigate the antiglycation potential of these plant extracts at multiple stages and their possible protective effect against glycated albumin mediated toxicity to erythrocytes. Antiglycation activities of these plant extracts was measured by co-incubation of plant extract with bovine serum albumin-fructose glycation model. The multistage glycation markers- fructosamines (early stage), protein carbonyls (intermediate stage) and AGEs (late stage) are investigated along with measurement of thiols and ? aggregation of albumin using amyloid-specific dyes-Congo red and Th T. Protection of erythrocytes from glycated albumin induced toxicity by these plant extracts was assessed by measuring erythrocytes hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and intracellular antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics, reducing power and antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were also measured. In vitro glycation assays showed that plant extracts exerted site specific inhibitory effects at multiple stages, with T. bellirica showing maximum attenuation. In erythrocytes, along with the retardation of glycated albumin induced hemolysis and lipid-peroxidation, T. bellirica considerably maintained cellular antioxidant potential. Significant positive correlations were observed between erythrocyte protection parameters with total phenolics. These plant extracts especially T. bellirica prevents glycation induced albumin modifications and subsequent toxicity to erythrocytes which might offer additional protection against diabetic vascular complications. PMID:25829572

  17. Plant polyphenols effectively protect HaCaT cells from ultraviolet C-triggered necrosis and suppress inflammatory chemokine expression.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Saveria; Potapovich, Alla; Kostyuk, Vladimir; Mariani, Valentina; Lulli, Daniela; De Luca, Chiara; Korkina, Liudmila

    2009-08-01

    Oxidative stress is a common response of epidermal cells to a variety of noxious stimuli such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation from solar light and proinflammatory cytokines from skin-infiltrating leukocytes. Here, we report that two types of plant-derived antioxidants, the phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside as well as the flavonoids rutin and quercetin possess protective effects against UVC-induced cell damage and proinflammatory activation. The molecules under investigation were effective against the loss of cell integrity associated with necrosis in doses consistent with their antioxidant activity, whereas they did not significantly oppose UVC-induced proliferation arrest and apoptosis. By contrast, only verbascoside effectively inhibited cytokine-induced release of proinflammatory mediators in a dose-dependent fashion. Verbascoside and its homologue teupolioside dramatically impaired NF-kappaB and AP-1 DNA binding activity. These results suggest that plant polyphenols with antioxidant properties have distinct mechanisms in the suppression of oxidative stress induced in keratinocytes by different stimuli. Verbascoside and teupolioside are hence of potential interest in the protection of the skin from both environmental and inflammatory insults. PMID:19723070

  18. A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbi?, Miodrag; Feyereisen, René; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to ?-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera. The recombinant mite enzyme had both ?-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase activity but enzyme kinetics showed that cyanide detoxification activity was strongly favored. Our results therefore suggest that an ancient horizontal transfer of a gene originally involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria was co-opted by herbivorous arthropods to detoxify plant produced cyanide. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02365.001 PMID:24843024

  19. 148 American EntomologistFall 2012 man Resources. 2012. Plant and Enviromental Protection Sciences.

    E-print Network

    Mousseau, Timothy A.

    of nuclear power plants (NAS 2012), and from nuclear accidentssuchasthoseattheThreeMileIsland,Chernobyl increased levelsofmutationsbyafactoroftwoto20aroundChernobyl(review in Møller and Mousseau 2006). Impacts on Wildlife in Chernobyl We have been studying the impacts of nuclear accidents on wildlife for more than 12

  20. An Investigation of Two Modes of Plant Protection by the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma virens 

    E-print Network

    Crutcher, Frankie

    2012-02-14

    when grown in association with plant roots and in still-culture. The Pichia pastoris protein expression system was used to generate sufficient quantities of SM3 to allow characterization of its function. The purified protein from the yeast system (pic...

  1. Drowning out the protection racket: partner manipulation or drought can strengthen ant-plant mutualism.

    PubMed

    Denison, R Ford

    2014-07-01

    Two recent reports discuss interactions between plants and ants that defend them from herbivores. Acacia trees provide their ant bodyguards with a diet that reduces their ability to benefit from alternate hosts. Provisioning of ants by Cordia trees during drought may buy insurance against extreme defoliation events, not just average-year benefits. PMID:24815041

  2. NON-TARGET AND ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS CONTAINING PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The risk of unintended and unexpected adverse impacts on non-target organisms and ecosystems is a key issue in environmental risk assessment of PIP crop plants. While there has been considerable examination of the effects of insect resistant crops on certain non-target organisms...

  3. Proposed Methodology for Specifying Atrazine Levels of Concern for Protection of Plant Communities in Freshwater Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes a proposed methodology for setting levels of concern (LOCs) for atrazine in natural freshwater systems to prevent unacceptably adverse effects on the aquatic plant communities in those systems. LOCs regarding effects on humans and possible effects on amph...

  4. NH4 + protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by activation of systemic acquired acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Scalschi, Loredana; Llorens, Eugenio; García-Agustín, Pilar; Camañes, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    NH4 + nutrition provokes mild toxicity by enhancing H2O2 accumulation, which acts as a signal activating systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). Until now, induced resistance mechanisms in response to an abiotic stimulus and related to SAA were only reported for exposure to a subsequent abiotic stress. Herein, the first evidence is provided that this acclimation to an abiotic stimulus induces resistance to later pathogen infection, since NH4 + nutrition (N-NH4 +)-induced resistance (NH4 +-IR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) in tomato plants was demonstrated. N-NH4 + plants displayed basal H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and putrescine (Put) accumulation. H2O2 accumulation acted as a signal to induce ABA-dependent signalling pathways required to prevent NH4 + toxicity. This acclimatory event provoked an increase in resistance against later pathogen infection. N-NH4 + plants displayed basal stomatal closure produced by H2O2 derived from enhanced CuAO and rboh1 activity that may reduce the entry of bacteria into the mesophyll, diminishing the disease symptoms as well as strongly inducing the oxidative burst upon Pst infection, favouring NH4 +-IR. Experiments with inhibitors of Put accumulation and the ABA-deficient mutant flacca demonstrated that Put and ABA downstream signalling pathways are required to complete NH4 +-IR. The metabolic profile revealed that infected N-NH4 + plants showed greater ferulic acid accumulation compared with control plants. Although classical salicylic acid (SA)-dependent responses against biotrophic pathogens were not found, the important role of Put in the resistance of tomato against Pst was demonstrated. Moreover, this work revealed the cross-talk between abiotic stress acclimation (NH4 + nutrition) and resistance to subsequent Pst infection. PMID:26246613

  5. NH4 + protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by activation of systemic acquired acclimation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Scalschi, Loredana; Llorens, Eugenio; García-Agustín, Pilar; Camañes, Gemma

    2015-11-01

    NH4 (+) nutrition provokes mild toxicity by enhancing H2O2 accumulation, which acts as a signal activating systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). Until now, induced resistance mechanisms in response to an abiotic stimulus and related to SAA were only reported for exposure to a subsequent abiotic stress. Herein, the first evidence is provided that this acclimation to an abiotic stimulus induces resistance to later pathogen infection, since NH4 (+) nutrition (N-NH4 (+))-induced resistance (NH4 (+)-IR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) in tomato plants was demonstrated. N-NH4 (+) plants displayed basal H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and putrescine (Put) accumulation. H2O2 accumulation acted as a signal to induce ABA-dependent signalling pathways required to prevent NH4 (+) toxicity. This acclimatory event provoked an increase in resistance against later pathogen infection. N-NH4 (+) plants displayed basal stomatal closure produced by H2O2 derived from enhanced CuAO and rboh1 activity that may reduce the entry of bacteria into the mesophyll, diminishing the disease symptoms as well as strongly inducing the oxidative burst upon Pst infection, favouring NH4 (+)-IR. Experiments with inhibitors of Put accumulation and the ABA-deficient mutant flacca demonstrated that Put and ABA downstream signalling pathways are required to complete NH4 (+)-IR. The metabolic profile revealed that infected N-NH4 (+) plants showed greater ferulic acid accumulation compared with control plants. Although classical salicylic acid (SA)-dependent responses against biotrophic pathogens were not found, the important role of Put in the resistance of tomato against Pst was demonstrated. Moreover, this work revealed the cross-talk between abiotic stress acclimation (NH4 (+) nutrition) and resistance to subsequent Pst infection. PMID:26246613

  6. Plant protection and growth stimulation by microorganisms: biotechnological applications of Bacilli in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Alejandro; Romero, Diego; de Vicente, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    The increasing demand for a steady, healthy food supply requires an efficient control of the major pests and plant diseases. Current management practices are based largely on the application of synthetic pesticides. The excessive use of agrochemicals has caused serious environmental and health problems. Therefore, there is a growing demand for new and safer methods to replace or at least supplement the existing control strategies. Biological control, that is, the use of natural antagonists to combat pests or plant diseases has emerged as a promising alternative to chemical pesticides. The Bacilli offer a number of advantages for their application in agricultural biotechnology. Several Bacillus-based products have been marketed as microbial pesticides, fungicides or fertilisers. Bacillus-based biopesticides are widely used in conventional agriculture, by contrast, implementation of Bacillus-based biofungicides and biofertilizers is still a pending issue. PMID:21211960

  7. Acute phytotoxicity of seven metals alone and in mixture: Are Italian soil threshold concentrations suitable for plant protection?

    PubMed

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Ciaccia, Gianluca; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    Metals can pollute soils in both urban and rural areas with severe impacts on the health of humans, plants and animals living there. Information on metal toxicity is therefore important for ecotoxicology. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of different metals frequently found as pollutants in soils: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds were used as models for other plants used in human nutrition such as cereals, rice, fruits and vegetables. The 72-h germination rate and root elongations were selected as short-term ecotoxicological endpoints in seeds exposed to single metals and mixtures. Metals were spiked onto OECD standard soils in concentrations comparable to current Italian contamination threshold concentrations for residential and commercial soils. Arsenic, chromium, mercury and nickel were the most toxic metals in our experimental conditions, particularly to cress seeds (5.172, 152 and 255.4 mg/kg as 72 h IC50 for arsenic, mercury and nickel respectively). Italian limits were acceptable for plant protection only for exposure to each metal alone but not for the mixtures containing all the metals concentrations expected by their respective legislative threshold. The effects of the mixture were class-specific: trends were comparable in dicots but different in monocots. The response induced by the mixture at high concentrations differed from that theoretically obtainable by summing the effects of the individual metals. This might be due to partial antagonism of the metals in soil or to the formation of complexes between the metals, which reduce the bioavailability of the pollutants for plants. PMID:25841179

  8. New risk indicator approach for Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents for a sustainable use of plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Sacchettini, Gabriele; Calliera, Maura; Marchis, Alexandru; Glass, Richard; Ellis, Clare Butler; Machera, Kyriaki; Gerritsen-Ebben, Rianda; Spanoghe, Pieter; Capri, Ettore

    2015-11-01

    In 2009, the European Union adopted the Directive on Sustainable Use of pesticides (SUD, Directive 2009/128/EC) establishing a framework for achieving a sustainable use of Plant Protection Products (PPPs) through reducing the risks and impacts of PPP use on human health and the environment, promoting integrated pest management and stimulating effective non-chemical alternatives. The core idea of the SUD is that it is necessary to monitor the use of PPPs through the implementation of an appropriate set of risk indicators to monitor progress and trends in risk reduction within the Member States. To contribute to this direction, following a comprehensive analysis of the risk (including procedures of risk assessment and risk management) and involving stakeholders in the decision process, specific toolboxes of practical indirect risk indicators of exposure of Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents were developed and are now available to be used by Member States (MSs) based on their specific context. PMID:26143544

  9. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Vulin, D.S.; Lane, S.G.; Baum, J.W. )

    1991-10-01

    In the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants, the ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. This is the sixth report in that series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of information databases of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from the use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Also included is material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations, as well as on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. This report contains 266 abstracts along with subject and author indices. The author index is exclusively for this volume. The subject index contains headings for this volume in bold face, as well as reference to previous volumes. All information in this and previous volumes of the series is also available through our on-line information system called ACE (ALARA Center Exchange). ACE is accessible through fax machines or personal computers interfaced with modems. The bibliography database and other databases are kept current with new abstracts, information on research projects, and recent news of international events related to ALARA at nuclear power plants. Access to the system is provided freely to the ALARA community. For password certification, manuals, and other information about our system, please contact the ALARA CENTER, Building 703M, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, or call (516) 282-3228.

  10. Chloroplast Movement in the Shade Plant Tradescantia albiflora Helps Protect Photosystem II against Light Stress.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Y. I.; Chow, W. S.; Anderson, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    The role of high-light-induced chloroplast movement in the photoprotection of the facultative shade plant Tradescantia albiflora was investigated by comparison with pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves, both grown in 50 [mu]mol photons m-2 s-1. Photoinactivation of photosystem II (PSII) in vivo was induced in 1.1% CO2 by varying either duration (0-2 h) of illumination (fixed at 1800 [mu]mol m-2 s-1) or irradiance (0-3000 [mu]mol m-2 s-1) at a fixed duration (1 h) after infiltration of leaves with water or lincomycin (an inhibitor of chloroplast-encoded protein synthesis). At all photon exposures, PSII of T. albiflora leaves showed a greater resistance to light stress than pea leaves, although both utilization of absorbed light by photosynthesis and psbA gene product synthesis were smaller than for pea leaves. This greater tolerance was not due to differences in PSII antenna size or the index of susceptibility of PSII to light stress, because these two parameters were comparable in both plants. However, the transmittance increase mediated by chloroplast movement was greater in T. albiflora than pea, resulting in a 10% decrease of absorbed light at high light. We suggest that the greater tolerance of PSII against light stress in T. albiflora may be partly ascribed to its light-induced chloroplast rearrangement. PMID:12226333

  11. Curcuma and Scutellaria plant extracts protect chickens against inflammation and Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    PubMed

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Gerzova, Lenka; Cejkova, Darina; Gardan-Salmon, Delphine; Panhéleux, Marina; Robert, Fabrice; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    After a ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in farm animals in the European Union in 2006, an interest in alternative products with antibacterial or anti-inflammatory properties has increased. In this study, we therefore tested the effects of extracts from Curcuma longa and Scutellaria baicalensis used as feed additives against cecal inflammation induced by heat stress or Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection in chickens. Curcuma extract alone was not enough to decrease gut inflammation induced by heat stress. However, a mixture of Curcuma and Scutellaria extracts used as feed additives decreased gut inflammation induced by heat or S. Enteritidis, decreased S. Enteritidis counts in the cecum but was of no negative effect on BW or humoral immune response. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA we found out that supplementation of feed with the 2 plant extracts had no effect on microbiota diversity. However, if the plant extract supplementation was provided to the chickens infected with S. Enteritidis, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus, both bacterial genera with known positive effects on gut health were positively selected. The supplementation of chicken feed with extracts from Curcuma and Scutelleria thus may be used in poultry production to effectively decrease gut inflammation and increase chicken performance. PMID:26188032

  12. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and ?-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

  13. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  14. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  15. The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Sustainability Program of Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Vakhonin, Alexander; Yuldashev, Rashid; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Eshter M.

    2009-09-30

    UEIP has been working on a comprehensive sustainability program that includes establishing a site sustainability working group, information gathering, planning, organizing, developing schedule and estimated costs, trhough joint UEIP-US DOE/NNSA National Laboratory sustainability contracts. Considerable efforts have been necessary in the sustainability planning, monitoring, and control of the scope of work using tools such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Project and SAP R/3. While information interchanges within the sustainability program provides adequate US assurances that US funds are well spent through its quarterly reporting methodology, proper information security and protection measures are taken throughout the process. Decommissioning of outdated equipment has also become part of determining sustainability requirements and processes. The site’s sustainability program has facilitated the development of a transition plan toward eventual full Russian funding of sustaining nuclear security upgrades.

  16. Signaling via the Trichoderma atroviride mitogen-activated protein kinase Tmk1 differentially affects mycoparasitism and plant protection

    PubMed Central

    Reithner, Barbara; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Stoppacher, Norbert; Pucher, Marion; Brunner, Kurt; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma atroviride is a mycoparasite of a number of plant pathogenic fungi thereby employing morphological changes and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and antibiotics. The function of the tmk1 gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) during fungal growth, mycoparasitic interaction, and biocontrol was examined in T. atroviride. ?tmk1 mutants exhibited altered radial growth and conidiation, and displayed de-regulated infection structure formation in the absence of a host-derived signal. In confrontation assays, tmk1 deletion caused reduced mycoparasitic activity although attachment to Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea hyphae was comparable to the parental strain. Under chitinase-inducing conditions, nag1 and ech42 transcript levels and extracellular chitinase activities were elevated in a ?tmk1 mutant, whereas upon direct confrontation with R. solani or B. cinerea a host-specific regulation of ech42 transcription was found and nag1 gene transcription was no more inducible over an elevated basal level. ?tmk1 mutants exhibited higher antifungal activity caused by low molecular weight substances, which was reflected by an over-production of 6-pentyl-?-pyrone and peptaibol antibiotics. In biocontrol assays, a ?tmk1 mutant displayed a higher ability to protect bean plants against R. solani. PMID:17509915

  17. Insect repellent activity of medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles minimus (Theobald) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say based on protection time and biting rate.

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated insect bite protection and length of the protection with 30 repellents which were divided into 3 categories: plant oil, essential oil and essential oil with ethyl alcohol, tested against three mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles minimus and Culex quinquefasciatus, under laboratory conditions. The plant oil group was comprised of Phlai (Zingiber cassumunar) and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Both substances were effective as repellents and feeding deterrents against An. minimus (205 minutes protection time and a biting rate of 0.9%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (165 minutes protection time and 0.9% biting rate) and Ae. aegypti (90 minutes protection time and 0.8% biting rate). Essential oil from citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) exhibited protection against biting from all 3 mosquito species: for An. minimus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, the results were 130 minutes and 0.9%, 140 minutes and 0.8%, and 115 minutes and 0.8%, respectively. The period of protection time against Ae. aegypti for all repellent candidates tested was lower than the Thai Industrial Standards Institute (TISI) determined time of greater than 2 hours. PMID:21073057

  18. Unsaturation of Very-Long-Chain Ceramides Protects Plant from Hypoxia-Induced Damages by Modulating Ethylene Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lu-Jun; Huang, Li; Chen, Liang; Wang, Feng-Zhu; Xia, Fan-Nv; Zhu, Tian-Ren; Wu, Jian-Xin; Yin, Jian; Liao, Bin; Shi, Jianxin; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Aharoni, Asaph; Yao, Nan; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Lipid remodeling is crucial for hypoxic tolerance in animals, whilst little is known about the hypoxia-induced lipid dynamics in plants. Here we performed a mass spectrometry-based analysis to survey the lipid profiles of Arabidopsis rosettes under various hypoxic conditions. We observed that hypoxia caused a significant increase in total amounts of phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid and oxidized lipids, but a decrease in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Particularly, significant gains in the polyunsaturated species of PC, PE and phosphatidylinositol, and losses in their saturated and mono-unsaturated species were evident during hypoxia. Moreover, hypoxia led to a remarkable elevation of ceramides and hydroxyceramides. Disruption of ceramide synthases LOH1, LOH2 and LOH3 enhanced plant sensitivity to dark submergence, but displayed more resistance to submergence under light than wild type. Consistently, levels of unsaturated very-long-chain (VLC) ceramide species (22:1, 24:1 and 26:1) predominantly declined in the loh1, loh2 and loh3 mutants under dark submergence. In contrast, significant reduction of VLC ceramides in the loh1-1 loh3-1 knockdown double mutant and lacking of VLC unsaturated ceramides in the ads2 mutants impaired plant tolerance to both dark and light submergences. Evidence that C24:1-ceramide interacted with recombinant CTR1 protein and inhibited its kinase activity in vitro, enhanced ER-to-nucleus translocation of EIN2-GFP and stabilization of EIN3-GFP in vivo, suggests a role of ceramides in modulating CTR1-mediated ethylene signaling. The dark submergence-sensitive phenotypes of loh mutants were rescued by a ctr1-1 mutation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that unsaturation of VLC ceramides is a protective strategy for hypoxic tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:25822663

  19. High resource-capture and -use efficiency, and effective antioxidant protection contribute to the invasiveness of Alnus formosana plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiliang; Luo, Yiming; Yang, Rongjie; He, Chengxiang; Cheng, Qingsu; Tao, Jianjun; Ren, Bo; Wang, Maohua; Ma, Mingdong

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the traits contributing to the invasiveness of Alnus formosana and the mechanisms underlying its invasiveness, we compared A. formosana with its native congener (Alnus cremastogyne) under three light treatments (13%, 56%, and 100%). The consistently higher plant height, total leaf area, light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Amax), light saturation point (LSP), light compensation point (LCP), respiration efficiency (RE), and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) but lower root mass fraction (RMF) and specific leaf area (SLA) of the invader than of its native congener contributed to the higher RGR and total biomass of A. formosana across light regimes. The total biomass and RGR of the invader increased markedly with increased RMF, Amax, LSP, LCP, RE, stomatal conductance (Gs) and total leaf area. Furthermore, compared with the native species, the higher plasticity index in plant height, RMF, leaf mass fraction (LMF), SMF, SLA, Amax and dark respiration rate (Rd) within the range of total light contributed to the higher performance of the invader. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in the invader compared to the native, contributing to its invasion success under high/low light via photoprotection. With a decrease in light level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased significantly, whereas total carotenoid (Car) and total chlorophyll (Chl) decreased; ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities remained unchanged. These responses may help the invader to spread and invade a wide range of habitats and form dense monocultures, displacing native plant species. The results suggest that both resource capture-related traits (morphological and photosynthetic) and adaptation-related traits (antioxidant protection) contribute to the competitive advantage of the invader. PMID:26433486

  20. In the Right Place at the Right Time: Habitat Representation in Protected Areas of South American Nothofagus-Dominated Plants after a Dispersal Constrained Climate Change Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Diego; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of climate change in temperate rainforest plants in southern South America in terms of habitat size, representation in protected areas, considering also if the expected impacts are similar for dominant trees and understory plant species, we used niche modeling constrained by species migration on 118 plant species, considering two groups of dominant trees and two groups of understory ferns. Representation in protected areas included Chilean national protected areas, private protected areas, and priority areas planned for future reserves, with two thresholds for minimum representation at the country level: 10% and 17%. With a 10% representation threshold, national protected areas currently represent only 50% of the assessed species. Private reserves are important since they increase up to 66% the species representation level. Besides, 97% of the evaluated species may achieve the minimum representation target only if the proposed priority areas were included. With the climate change scenario representation levels slightly increase to 53%, 69%, and 99%, respectively, to the categories previously mentioned. Thus, the current location of all the representation categories is useful for overcoming climate change by 2050. Climate change impacts on habitat size and representation of dominant trees in protected areas are not applicable to understory plants, highlighting the importance of assessing these effects with a larger number of species. Although climate change will modify the habitat size of plant species in South American temperate rainforests, it will have no significant impact in terms of the number of species adequately represented in Chile, where the implementation of the proposed reserves is vital to accomplish the present and future minimum representation. Our results also show the importance of using migration dispersal constraints to develop more realistic future habitat maps from climate change predictions. PMID:25786226

  1. In the right place at the right time: habitat representation in protected areas of South American Nothofagus-dominated plants after a dispersal constrained climate change scenario.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Diego; Cavieres, Lohengrin A

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of climate change in temperate rainforest plants in southern South America in terms of habitat size, representation in protected areas, considering also if the expected impacts are similar for dominant trees and understory plant species, we used niche modeling constrained by species migration on 118 plant species, considering two groups of dominant trees and two groups of understory ferns. Representation in protected areas included Chilean national protected areas, private protected areas, and priority areas planned for future reserves, with two thresholds for minimum representation at the country level: 10% and 17%. With a 10% representation threshold, national protected areas currently represent only 50% of the assessed species. Private reserves are important since they increase up to 66% the species representation level. Besides, 97% of the evaluated species may achieve the minimum representation target only if the proposed priority areas were included. With the climate change scenario representation levels slightly increase to 53%, 69%, and 99%, respectively, to the categories previously mentioned. Thus, the current location of all the representation categories is useful for overcoming climate change by 2050. Climate change impacts on habitat size and representation of dominant trees in protected areas are not applicable to understory plants, highlighting the importance of assessing these effects with a larger number of species. Although climate change will modify the habitat size of plant species in South American temperate rainforests, it will have no significant impact in terms of the number of species adequately represented in Chile, where the implementation of the proposed reserves is vital to accomplish the present and future minimum representation. Our results also show the importance of using migration dispersal constraints to develop more realistic future habitat maps from climate change predictions. PMID:25786226

  2. Protection from phenytoin-induced cognitive deficit by Bacopa monniera, a reputed Indian nootropic plant.

    PubMed

    Vohora, D; Pal, S N; Pillai, K K

    2000-08-01

    Many epileptic patients suffer from cognitive impairments; both the underlying pathology and antiepileptic drug therapy can cause such deficits. Phenytoin, one of the widely used anticonvulsants, is known to adversely affect cognitive function. A reputed Indian nootropic plant Bacopa monniera (BM) was evaluated alone and in combination with phenytoin for its effect on (a) passive-avoidance (PA) task; (b) maximal electroshock seizures; and (c) locomotor activity in mice. Phenytoin (PHT, 25 mg/kg po x 14 days) adversely affected cognitive function in the PA task. BM extract (40 mg/kg x 7 days), given along with phenytoin in the second week of the two-week regimen, significantly reversed PHT-induced impairment. Both acquisition and retention of memory showed improvement without affecting its anticonvulsant activity. The observed cognitive effects of PHT and BM were found to be independent of motor stimulation. The results provide evidence for potential corrective effect of BM in cognitive deficit associated with PHT therapy. PMID:10940574

  3. Leaf volatile compounds and the distribution of ant patrollingin an ant-plant protection mutualism: Preliminary results on Leonardoxa (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) and Petalomyrmex(Formicidae: Formicinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouat, Carine; McKey, Doyle; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Pascal, Laurence; Hossaert-McKey, Martine

    2000-12-01

    While observations suggest that plant chemicals could be important in maintaining the specificity and permitting the functioning of ant-plant symbioses, they have been little studied. We report here the strongest evidence yet for chemical signalling between ants and plants in a specific ant-plant protection symbiosis. In the mutualism between Leonardoxa africana subsp. africana and Petalomyrmex phylax, ants continuously patrol young leaves, which are vulnerable to attacks by phytophagous insects. We provide experimental evidence for chemical mediation of ant attraction to young leaves in this system. By a comparative analysis of the related non-myrmecophytic tree L. africana subsp. gracilicaulis, we identify likely candidates for attractant molecules, and suggest they may function not only as signals but also as resources. We also propose hypotheses on the evolutionary origin of these plant volatiles, and of the responses to them by mutualistic ants.

  4. Does protecting humans protect the environment? A crude examination for UK nuclear power plants and the marine environment using information in the public domain.

    PubMed

    Brownless, G P

    2008-12-01

    Current activity around radiological protection of the environment implies concerns over the effectiveness of the current approach to this--namely if humans are adequately protected, then so are non-human species. This study uses models and data currently available in the public domain to carry out a 'quick and dirty' examination of whether protecting humans does indeed imply that other species are well protected. Using marine discharges and human habits data for operational coastal UK nuclear power stations, this study compares doses to humans and a set of reference non-human species. The study concludes that the availability of data and models, and consequent ease of studying potential effects on non-humans (as well as humans), vindicates recent efforts in this area, and that these imply a high level of protection, in general, for non-human biota from UK nuclear power station marine discharges. In general terms, the study finds that protection of non-human biota relies on taking ingestion and external exposure doses to humans into account; where only one of these pathways is considered, the level of protection of non-human biota through protection of humans would depend on the radionuclide(s) in question. PMID:19029588

  5. Plant Food Delphinidin-3-Glucoside Significantly Inhibits Platelet Activation and Thrombosis: Novel Protective Roles against Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Shi, Zhenyin; Reheman, Adili; Jin, Joseph W.; Li, Conglei; Wang, Yiming; Andrews, Marc C.; Chen, Pingguo; Zhu, Guangheng; Ling, Wenhua; Ni, Heyu

    2012-01-01

    Delphinidin-3-glucoside (Dp-3-g) is one of the predominant bioactive compounds of anthocyanins in many plant foods. Although several anthocyanin compounds have been reported to be protective against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the direct effect of anthocyanins on platelets, the key players in atherothrombosis, has not been studied. The roles of Dp-3-g in platelet function are completely unknown. The present study investigated the effects of Dp-3-g on platelet activation and several thrombosis models in vitro and in vivo. We found that Dp-3-g significantly inhibited human and murine platelet aggregation in both platelet-rich plasma and purified platelets. It also markedly reduced thrombus growth in human and murine blood in perfusion chambers at both low and high shear rates. Using intravital microscopy, we observed that Dp-3-g decreased platelet deposition, destabilized thrombi, and prolonged the time required for vessel occlusion. Dp-3-g also significantly inhibited thrombus growth in a carotid artery thrombosis model. To elucidate the mechanisms, we examined platelet activation markers via flow cytometry and found that Dp-3-g significantly inhibited the expression of P-selectin, CD63, CD40L, which reflect platelet ?- and ?-granule release, and cytosol protein secretion, respectively. We further demonstrated that Dp-3-g downregulated the expression of active integrin ?IIb?3 on platelets, and attenuated fibrinogen binding to platelets following agonist treatment, without interfering with the direct interaction between fibrinogen and integrin ?IIb?3. We found that Dp-3-g reduced phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which may contribute to the observed inhibitory effects on platelet activation. Thus, Dp-3-g significantly inhibits platelet activation and attenuates thrombus growth at both arterial and venous shear stresses, which likely contributes to its protective roles against thrombosis and CVDs. PMID:22624015

  6. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  7. Regulation of non-relevant metabolites of plant protection products in drinking and groundwater in the EU: Current status and way forward.

    PubMed

    Laabs, V; Leake, C; Botham, P; Melching-Kollmuß, S

    2015-10-01

    Non-relevant metabolites are defined in the EU regulation for plant protection product authorization and a detailed definition of non-relevant metabolites is given in an EU Commission DG Sanco (now DG SANTE - Health and Food Safety) guidance document. However, in water legislation at EU and member state level non-relevant metabolites of pesticides are either not specifically regulated or diverse threshold values are applied. Based on their inherent properties, non-relevant metabolites should be regulated based on substance-specific and toxicity-based limit values in drinking and groundwater like other anthropogenic chemicals. Yet, if a general limit value for non-relevant metabolites in drinking and groundwater is favored, an application of a Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) concept for Cramer class III compounds leads to a threshold value of 4.5 ?g L(-1). This general value is exemplarily shown to be protective for non-relevant metabolites, based on individual drinking water limit values derived for a set of 56 non-relevant metabolites. A consistent definition of non-relevant metabolites of plant protection products, as well as their uniform regulation in drinking and groundwater in the EU, is important to achieve legal clarity for all stakeholders and to establish planning security for development of plant protection products for the European market. PMID:26192637

  8. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  9. The Cerato-Platanin protein Epl-1 from Trichoderma harzianum is involved in mycoparasitism, plant resistance induction and self cell wall protection

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Costa, Mariana do Nascimento; de Paula, Renato Graciano; Ricci de Azevedo, Rafael; da Silva, Francilene Lopes; Noronha, Eliane F.; José Ulhoa, Cirano; Neves Monteiro, Valdirene; Elena Cardoza, Rosa; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Nascimento Silva, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum species are well known as biocontrol agents against important fungal phytopathogens. Mycoparasitism is one of the strategies used by this fungus in the biocontrol process. In this work, we analyzed the effect of Epl-1 protein, previously described as plant resistance elicitor, in expression modulation of T. harzianum genes involved in mycoparasitism process against phytopathogenic fungi; self cell wall protection and recognition; host hyphae coiling and triggering expression of defense-related genes in beans plants. The results indicated that the absence of Epl-1 protein affects the expression of all mycoparasitism genes analyzed in direct confrontation assays against phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum as well as T. harzianum itself; the host mycoparasitic coiling process and expression modulation of plant defense genes showing different pattern compared with wild type strain. These data indicated the involvement T. harzianum Epl-1 in self and host interaction and also recognition of T. harzianum as a symbiotic fungus by the bean plants. PMID:26647876

  10. The Cerato-Platanin protein Epl-1 from Trichoderma harzianum is involved in mycoparasitism, plant resistance induction and self cell wall protection.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Costa, Mariana do Nascimento; de Paula, Renato Graciano; Ricci de Azevedo, Rafael; da Silva, Francilene Lopes; Noronha, Eliane F; José Ulhoa, Cirano; Neves Monteiro, Valdirene; Elena Cardoza, Rosa; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Nascimento Silva, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum species are well known as biocontrol agents against important fungal phytopathogens. Mycoparasitism is one of the strategies used by this fungus in the biocontrol process. In this work, we analyzed the effect of Epl-1 protein, previously described as plant resistance elicitor, in expression modulation of T. harzianum genes involved in mycoparasitism process against phytopathogenic fungi; self cell wall protection and recognition; host hyphae coiling and triggering expression of defense-related genes in beans plants. The results indicated that the absence of Epl-1 protein affects the expression of all mycoparasitism genes analyzed in direct confrontation assays against phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum as well as T. harzianum itself; the host mycoparasitic coiling process and expression modulation of plant defense genes showing different pattern compared with wild type strain. These data indicated the involvement T. harzianum Epl-1 in self and host interaction and also recognition of T. harzianum as a symbiotic fungus by the bean plants. PMID:26647876

  11. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1998 by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 was performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), and the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV), and the Chestnut Ridge Regime which is located south of the Y-12 Plant.

  12. A critical review on fungi mediated plant responses with special emphasis to Piriformospora indica on improved production and protection of crops.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Trivedi, Dipesh Kumar; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-09-01

    The beneficial fungi are potentially useful in agriculture sector to avail several services to crop plants such as water status, nutrient enrichment, stress tolerance, protection, weed control and bio-control. Natural agro-ecosystem relies on fungi because of it takes part in soil organic matter decomposition, nutrient acquisition, organic matter recycling, nutrient recycling, antagonism against plant pests, and crop management. The crucial role of fungi in normalizing the toxic effects of phenols, HCN and ROS by ?-CAS, ACC demainase and antioxidant enzymes in plants is well documented. Fungi also play a part in various physiological processes such as water uptake, stomatal movement, mineral uptake, photosynthesis and biosynthesis of lignan, auxins and ethylene to improve growth and enhance plant fitness to cope heat, cold, salinity, drought and heavy metal stress. Here, we highlighted the ethylene- and cyclophilin A (CypA)-mediated response of Piriformospora indica for sustainable crop production under adverse environmental conditions. PMID:23831950

  13. Some lessons on radiological protection learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Kai, M

    2012-03-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant released a large quantity of radioactive iodine and caesium into the environment. In terms of radiological protection, the evacuation and food restrictions that were adopted in a timely manner by the authorities effectively reduced the dose received by people living in the affected area. Since late March, the transition from an emergency to an existing exposure situation has been in progress. In selecting the reference exposure levels in some areas under an existing exposure situation, the authorities tried to follow the situation-based approach recommended by the ICRP. However, a mixture of emergency and post-emergency approaches confused the people living in the contaminated areas because the reactor conditions continued to be not completely stable. In deriving the criteria in an existing exposure situation, the regulatory authority selected 20 mSv y(-1). The mothers in the affected area believed that a dose of 20 mSv y(-1) was unacceptably high for children since 1 mSv y(-1) is the dose limit for the public under normal conditions. Internet information accelerated concern about the internal exposure to children and the related health effects. From some experiences after the accident the following lessons could be learned. The selection of reference doses in existing exposure situations after an accident must be openly communicated with the public using a risk-informed approach. The detriment-adjusted nominal risk coefficient was misused for calculating the hypothetical number of cancer deaths by some non-radiation experts. It would not be possible to resolve this problem unless the ICRP addressed an alternative risk assessment to convey the meaning and associated uncertainty of the risk to an exposed population. A situation-based approach in addition to a risk-informed approach needs to be disseminated properly in order to select the level of protection that would be the best possible under the prevailing circumstances. A dialogue between radiation and other risk experts such as those dealing with chemical exposures is now needed. PMID:22394670

  14. Ces plantes venues Toujours un grand succs lors

    E-print Network

    'Histoire Naturelle Fête de la Nature2014 Fête de la Nature2014 ©GérardFaure #12;maïs, riz, quinoa, etc. Ils ont pu cas du quinoa, du maïs). Daniel Vigouroux, jardinier, responsable des plantes vivaces, des plantes

  15. Roles of FtsH protease in choloroplast biogensis and protection of photosystems from high temperatures stress in higher plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AtFtsH11 protease gene is essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate heat stress. Under high and normal light at 21ºC, ftsh11 mutants were indistinguishable from wild type plants in photosynthesis capability and in overall growth. However, mutant plants display a host of dramatic change...

  16. Service des immeubles Service des Immeubles

    E-print Network

    Laval, Université

    les gaz ayant un effet de serre, trois des six gaz pris en compte par le protocole de Kyoto, soit le travail employés dans la réalisation du bilan des GES est basé sur les références suivantes : GHG Protocol

  17. Are different facets of plant diversity well protected against climate and land cover changes? A test study in the French Alps

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Guéguen, Maya; Georges, Damien; Bonet, Richard; Chalmandrier, Loïc; Garraud, Luc; Renaud, Julien; Roquet, Cristina; Van Es, Jérémie; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Lavergne, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Climate and land cover changes are important drivers of the plant species distributions and diversity patterns in mountainous regions. Although the need for a multifaceted view of diversity based on taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic dimensions is now commonly recognized, there are no complete risk assessments concerning their expected changes. In this paper, we used a range of species distribution models in an ensemble-forecasting framework together with regional climate and land cover projections by 2080 to analyze the potential threat for more than 2,500 plant species at high resolution (2.5 km × 2.5 km) in the French Alps. We also decomposed taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity facets into ? and ? components and analyzed their expected changes by 2080. Overall, plant species threats from climate and land cover changes in the French Alps were expected to vary depending on the species’ preferred altitudinal vegetation zone, rarity, and conservation status. Indeed, rare species and species of conservation concern were the ones projected to experience less severe change, and also the ones being the most efficiently preserved by the current network of protected areas. Conversely, the three facets of plant diversity were also projected to experience drastic spatial re-shuffling by 2080. In general, the mean ?-diversity of the three facets was projected to increase to the detriment of regional ?-diversity, although the latter was projected to remain high at the montane-alpine transition zones. Our results show that, due to a high-altitude distribution, the current protection network is efficient for rare species, and species predicted to migrate upward. Although our modeling framework may not capture all possible mechanisms of species range shifts, our work illustrates that a comprehensive risk assessment on an entire floristic region combined with functional and phylogenetic information can help delimitate future scenarios of biodiversity and better design its protection. PMID:25722539

  18. Landscape Plants: Fertilizing & Watering

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Landscape Plants: Fertilizing & Watering Landscape Plants: Fertilizing & Watering Prevent runoff and shrubs, either through directly killing plants or making them more prone to disease. Fertilizer runoff into storm drains pollutes waterways. Maintain plant health and protect water quality by fertilizing

  19. Protective effects of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum on soil and Viburnum tinus plants irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bellot, María José; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Nortes, Pedro Antonio; Vicente-Sánchez, Javier; Martín, Félix Fernández; Bañón, Sebastián; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2015-07-01

    Currently, irrigation using recycled water is increasing, especially in semiarid environments, but a potential problem of using reclaimed wastewater is its elevated salt levels. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could be a suitable option to mitigate the negative effects produced by the salinity. In this work, the combined effect of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum and two types of water: Control, C, with EC <0.9 dS m(-1) and reclaimed water (wastewater previously treated in a sewage treatment plant) with EC 4 dS m(-1) during a first saline period (11 weeks) and with EC 6 dS m(-1) during a second saline period (25 weeks), was evaluated for laurustinus (Viburnum tinus) plants under field conditions. This plant is a popular shrub very used for gardening. Chemical properties of soil as well as physiological behavior, leaf nutrition, and esthetic value of plants were evaluated. Due to the high salinity from wastewater at 6 dS m(-1), laurustinus plants decreased their stem water potential values and, to a lesser extent, the stomatal conductance. Also, the visual quality of the plants was diminished. The inoculated AMF satisfactorily colonized the laurustinus roots and enhanced the structure of the soil by increasing the glomalin and carbon contents. Furthermore, G. iranicum var. tenuihypharum inoculation decreased Na and Cl content, stimulated flowering and improved the stem water potential of the plants irrigated with both types of reclaimed water. The AMF also had a positive effect as a consequence of stimulation of plant physiological parameters, such as the stem water potential and stomatal conductance. Effective AMF associations that avoid excessive salinity could provide wastewater reuse options, especially when the plants grow in soils. PMID:25492808

  20. [Significance and importance of enzyme diagnosis in the framework of toxicological studies of plant protectives, pesticides and agents for biological process control].

    PubMed

    Plass, R; Lewerenz, H J

    1981-01-01

    In toxicological experimentation, clinico-chemical and biochemical data are increasingly involved in the comprehensive evaluation of adverse effects of plant protectives, pesticides and agents for the biological process control on the mammalian organism. Blood serum and urine or organic homogenates from experimental animals kept under standardized conditions are chiefly used for enzymodiagnostic analyses. Changes in enzyme activity occurring under the influence of the bioactive test substances must be regarded as indicative of direct effects on the biocatalyst, metabolic changes or impairments of certain organs. PMID:7278945

  1. Onondaga County Department of Water Environment Protection: Process Optimization Saves Energy at Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Onondaga County, New York, is saving nearly 3 million kWh and 270 million Btu annually at a wastewater treatment plant after replacing inefficient motors and upgrading pumps.

  2. Onondaga County Department of Water Environment Protection: Process Optimization Saves Energy at Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-12-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Onondaga County, New York, is saving nearly 3 million kWh and 270 million Btu annually at a wastewater treatment plant after replacing inefficient motors and upgrading pumps.

  3. Hydroxycinnamic acid degradation, a broadly conserved trait, protects Ralstonia solanacearum from chemical plant defenses and contributes to root colonization and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Tiffany M.; Ailloud, Florent; Allen, Caitilyn

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce hydroxycinnamic acid defense compounds (HCAs) to combat pathogens, such as the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. We showed that an HCA degradation pathway is genetically and functionally conserved across diverse R. solanacearum strains. Further, a ?fcs (feruloyl-CoA synthetase) mutant that cannot degrade HCAs was less virulent on tomato plants. To understand the role of HCA degradation in bacterial wilt disease, we tested the following hypotheses: HCA degradation helps the pathogen (1) grow, as a carbon source; (2) spread, by reducing physical barriers HCA-derived; and (3) survive plant antimicrobial compounds. Although HCA degradation enabled R. solanacearum growth on HCAs in vitro, HCA degradation was dispensable for growth in xylem sap and root exudate, suggesting that HCAs are not significant carbon sources in planta. Acetyl-bromide quantification of lignin demonstrated that R. solanacearum infections did not affect the gross quantity or distribution of stem lignin. However, the ?fcs mutant was significantly more susceptible to inhibition by two HCAs: caffeate and p-coumarate. Finally, plant colonization assays suggested that HCA degradation facilitates early stages of infection and root colonization. Together, these results indicated that ability to degrade HCAs contributes to bacterial wilt virulence by facilitating root entry and by protecting the pathogen from HCA toxicity. PMID:25423265

  4. Plant growth-promoting fungus Penicillium spp. GP15-1 enhances growth and confers protection against damping-off and anthracnose in the cucumber.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Motaher; Sultana, Farjana; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) have the potential to confer several benefits to plants in terms of growth and protection against pests and pathogens. In the present study, we tested whether a PGPF isolate, Penicillium spp. GP15-1 (derived from zoysiagrass rhizospheres), stimulates growth and disease resistance in the cucumber plant. The use of the barley grain inoculum GP15-1 significantly enhanced root and shoot growth and biomass of cucumber plants. A root colonization study revealed that GP15-1 was a very rapid and efficient root colonizer and was isolated in significantly higher frequencies from the upper root parts than from the middle and lower root parts during the first 14 d of seedling growth. Inoculating the cucumber seedlings with GP15-1 significantly reduced the damping-off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and the disease suppression effects of GP15-1 were considerably influenced by the inoculum potential of both GP15-1 and the pathogen. Treatment with the barley grain inoculum or a cell-free filtrate of GP15-1 increased systemic resistance against leaf infection by the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare, resulting in a significant decrease in lesion number and size. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer sequences of the genomic DNA of GP15-1 revealed that the fungal isolate is a strain of either Penicillium neoechinulatum or Penicillium viridicatum. PMID:24671024

  5. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Degradation, a Broadly Conserved Trait, Protects Ralstonia solanacearum from Chemical Plant Defenses and Contributes to Root Colonization and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Tiffany M; Ailloud, Florent; Allen, Caitilyn

    2015-03-01

    Plants produce hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) defense compounds to combat pathogens, such as the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. We showed that an HCA degradation pathway is genetically and functionally conserved across diverse R. solanacearum strains. Further, a feruloyl-CoA synthetase (?fcs) mutant that cannot degrade HCA was less virulent on tomato plants. To understand the role of HCA degradation in bacterial wilt disease, we tested the following hypotheses: HCA degradation helps the pathogen i) grow, as a carbon source; ii) spread, by reducing HCA-derived physical barriers; and iii) survive plant antimicrobial compounds. Although HCA degradation enabled R. solanacearum growth on HCA in vitro, HCA degradation was dispensable for growth in xylem sap and root exudate, suggesting that HCA are not significant carbon sources in planta. Acetyl-bromide quantification of lignin demonstrated that R. solanacearum infections did not affect the gross quantity or distribution of stem lignin. However, the ?fcs mutant was significantly more susceptible to inhibition by two HCA, namely, caffeate and p-coumarate. Finally, plant colonization assays suggested that HCA degradation facilitates early stages of infection and root colonization. Together, these results indicated that ability to degrade HCA contributes to bacterial wilt virulence by facilitating root entry and by protecting the pathogen from HCA toxicity. PMID:25423265

  6. Protection from ground faults in the stator winding of generators at power plants in the Siberian networks

    SciTech Connect

    Vainshtein, R. A.; Lapin, V. I.; Naumov, A. M.; Doronin, A. V.; Yudin, S. M.

    2010-05-15

    The experience of many years of experience in developing and utilization of ground fault protection in the stator winding of generators in the Siberian networks is generalized. The main method of protection is to apply a direct current or an alternating current with a frequency of 25 Hz to the primary circuits of the stator. A direct current is applied to turbo generators operating in a unit with a transformer without a resistive coupling to the external grid or to other generators. Applying a 25 Hz control current is appropriate for power generation systems with compensation of a capacitive short circuit current to ground. This method forms the basis for protection of generators operating on busbars, hydroelectric generators with a neutral grounded through an arc-suppression reactor, including in consolidated units with generators operating in parallel on a single low-voltage transformer winding.

  7. Fe-Al Weld Overlay and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Thermal Spray Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Waterwalls in Fossil Fired Plants with Low NOx Burners

    SciTech Connect

    Regina, J.R.

    2002-02-08

    Iron-aluminum-chromium coatings were investigated to determine the best candidates for coatings of boiler tubes in Low NOx fossil fueled power plants. Ten iron-aluminum-chromium weld claddings with aluminum concentrations up to 10wt% were tested in a variety of environments to evaluate their high temperature corrosion resistance. The weld overlay claddings also contained titanium additions to investigate any beneficial effects from these ternary and quaternary alloying additions. Several High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings with higher aluminum concentrations were investigated as well. Gaseous corrosion testing revealed that at least 10wt%Al is required for protection in the range of environments examined. Chromium additions were beneficial in all of the environments, but additions of titanium were beneficial only in sulfur rich atmospheres. Similar results were observed when weld claddings were in contact with corrosive slag while simultaneously, exposed to the corrosive environments. An aluminum concentration of 10wt% was required to prevent large amounts of corrosion to take place. Again chromium additions were beneficial with the greatest corrosion protection occurring for welds containing both 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr. The exposed thermal spray coatings showed either significant cracking within the coating, considerable thickness loss, or corrosion products at the coating substrate interface. Therefore, the thermal spray coatings provided the substrate very little protection. Overall, it was concluded that of the coatings studied weld overlay coatings provide superior protection in these Low NOx environments; specifically, the ternary weld composition of 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr provided the best corrosion protection in all of the environments tested.

  8. Genotype composition of populations of grapefruit-cross-protecting citrus tristeza virus strain GFMS12 in different host plants and aphid-transmitted sub-isolates.

    PubMed

    Scott, Katherine Anne; Hlela, Quinsile; Zablocki, Olivier; Read, David; van Vuuren, Stephanus; Pietersen, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes severe losses in grapefruit production in South Africa and requires mild-strain cross-protection to maintain production. Unfortunately, cross-protection breakdown of the pre-immunizing CTV grapefruit mild source GFMS12 is prevalent in grapefruit in South Africa. The CTV genotype composition of the GFMS12 population inoculated onto different hosts was determined by sequencing part of ORF1a and the p23 gene of multiple clones from each plant. Analysis of the GFMS12 population in Mexican lime and Marsh and Star Ruby grapefruit varieties revealed that at least four genotypes occur in the GFMS12 population and that genotype compositions differed amongst the populations in different host plants. Single-aphid-transmitted sub-isolates derived from the GFMS12 mother population on Mexican lime appeared to contain three populations of a mixture of VT-like and recombinant B165/VT-like genotypes; a mixture of recombinant RB/VT- and B165/VT-like genotypes; and a single recombinant B165/VT-like genotype. This study underlines the importance of determining the genotype composition of a potential CTV pre-immunizing source on a range of inoculated host species before utilization. PMID:22932923

  9. Expression of a synthesized gene encoding cationic peptide cecropin B in transgenic tomato plants protects against bacterial diseases.

    PubMed

    Jan, Pey-Shynan; Huang, Hsu-Yuang; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2010-02-01

    The cationic lytic peptide cecropin B (CB), isolated from the giant silk moth (Hyalophora cecropia), has been shown to effectively eliminate Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, the effects of chemically synthesized CB on plant pathogens were investigated. The S(50)s (the peptide concentrations causing 50% survival of a pathogenic bacterium) of CB against two major pathogens of the tomato, Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, were 529.6 microg/ml and 0.29 microg/ml, respectively. The CB gene was then fused to the secretory signal peptide (sp) sequence from the barley alpha-amylase gene, and the new construct, pBI121-spCB, was used for the transformation of tomato plants. Integration of the CB gene into the tomato genome was confirmed by PCR, and its expression was confirmed by Western blot analyses. In vivo studies of the transgenic tomato plant demonstrated significant resistance to bacterial wilt and bacterial spot. The levels of CB expressed in transgenic tomato plants ( approximately 0.05 microg in 50 mg of leaves) were far lower than the S(50) determined in vitro. CB transgenic tomatoes could therefore be a new mode of bioprotection against these two plant diseases with significant agricultural applications. PMID:19966019

  10. Plant-derived H7 VLP vaccine elicits protective immune response against H7N9 influenza virus in mice and ferrets.

    PubMed

    Pillet, S; Racine, T; Nfon, C; Di Lenardo, T Z; Babiuk, S; Ward, B J; Kobinger, G P; Landry, N

    2015-11-17

    In March 2013, the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed the first reported case of human infection with an avian influenza A H7N9 virus. Infection with this virus often caused severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting in a case fatality rate >35%. The risk of pandemic highlighted, once again, the need for a more rapid and scalable vaccine response capability. Here, we describe the rapid (19 days) development of a plant-derived VLP vaccine based on the hemagglutinin sequence of influenza H7N9 A/Hangzhou/1/2013. The immunogenicity of the H7 VLP vaccine was assessed in mice and ferrets after one or two intramuscular dose(s) with and without adjuvant (alum or GLA-SE™). In ferrets, we also measured H7-specific cell-mediated immunity. The mice and ferrets were then challenged with H7N9 A/Anhui/1/2013 influenza virus. A single immunization with the adjuvanted vaccine elicited a strong humoral response and protected mice against an otherwise lethal challenge. Two doses of unadjuvanted vaccine significantly increased humoral response and resulted in 100% protection with significant reduction of clinical signs leading to nearly asymptomatic infections. In ferrets, a single immunization with the alum-adjuvanted H7 VLP vaccine induced strong humoral and CMI responses with antigen-specific activation of CD3(+) T cells. Compared to animals injected with placebo, ferrets vaccinated with alum-adjuvanted vaccine displayed no weight loss during the challenge. Moreover, the vaccination significantly reduced the viral load in lungs and nasal washes 3 days after the infection. This candidate plant-made H7 vaccine therefore induced protective responses after either one adjuvanted or two unadjuvanted doses. Studies are currently ongoing to better characterize the immune response elicited by the plant-derived VLP vaccines. Regardless, these data are very promising for the rapid production of an immunogenic and protective vaccine against this potentially pandemic virus. PMID:26432915

  11. La conservation des phoques gris (Halichoerus grypus)

    E-print Network

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    » · Pollution ­ Dégradation et perte d'habitat · Exploitation des ressources marines ­ Energie renouvelable Protection Act » de 1972 · Chasse interdite en 1987 (Pêche et Océan Canada) #12;Energie renouvelable marine (Exemple de l'Irlande) Marine Policy 35 (2011) 748­755 #12;Energie renouvelable marine #12;Pêches

  12. [The role of trace elements in radiation protection of plants and animals on radionuclide contaminated territories of Poles'e].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, I N; Lazarev, N M; Grusha, V V; Bidenko, V N

    2011-01-01

    The retrospective review and analysis of works on some physiologically active trace elements influence on the radionuclides transfer from soil to plants and with forage to animals are presented. Also reviewed is their radioresistance in the contaminated territories. It is shown that some elements--zinc, manganese, cobalt--being appled to the soil at seeding or spraying plants with aqueous solutions and also in complex compounds are capable of reducing significantly the 90Sr and 137Cs transit to agricultural plants, and with forage--into the animals bodies. We have also shown that trace elements reduce the effects of radiation injury. The mechanisms of the radioprotective action of trace elements are also discussed in the paper. PMID:21520614

  13. Will climate change drive alien invasive plants into areas of high protection value? An improved model-based regional assessment to prioritise the management of invasions.

    PubMed

    Vicente, J R; Fernandes, R F; Randin, C F; Broennimann, O; Gonçalves, J; Marcos, B; Pôças, I; Alves, P; Guisan, A; Honrado, J P

    2013-12-15

    Species distribution models (SDMs) studies suggest that, without control measures, the distribution of many alien invasive plant species (AIS) will increase under climate and land-use changes. Due to limited resources and large areas colonised by invaders, management and monitoring resources must be prioritised. Choices depend on the conservation value of the invaded areas and can be guided by SDM predictions. Here, we use a hierarchical SDM framework, complemented by connectivity analysis of AIS distributions, to evaluate current and future conflicts between AIS and high conservation value areas. We illustrate the framework with three Australian wattle (Acacia) species and patterns of conservation value in Northern Portugal. Results show that protected areas will likely suffer higher pressure from all three Acacia species under future climatic conditions. Due to this higher predicted conflict in protected areas, management might be prioritised for Acacia dealbata and Acacia melanoxylon. Connectivity of AIS suitable areas inside protected areas is currently lower than across the full study area, but this would change under future environmental conditions. Coupled SDM and connectivity analysis can support resource prioritisation for anticipation and monitoring of AIS impacts. However, further tests of this framework over a wide range of regions and organisms are still required before wide application. PMID:24161807

  14. Assessment of antioxidative, chelating, and DNA-protective effects of selected essential oil components (eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, borneol, eucalyptol) of plants and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil.

    PubMed

    Horvathova, Eva; Navarova, Jana; Galova, Eliska; Sevcovicova, Andrea; Chodakova, Lenka; Snahnicanova, Zuzana; Melusova, Martina; Kozics, Katarina; Slamenova, Darina

    2014-07-16

    Selected components of plant essential oils and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil (RO) were investigated for their antioxidant, iron-chelating, and DNA-protective effects. Antioxidant activities were assessed using four different techniques. DNA-protective effects on human hepatoma HepG2 cells and plasmid DNA were evaluated with the help of the comet assay and the DNA topology test, respectively. It was observed that whereas eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol showed high antioxidative effectiveness in all assays used, RO manifested only antiradical effect and borneol and eucalyptol did not express antioxidant activity at all. DNA-protective ability against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA lesions was manifested by two antioxidants (carvacrol and thymol) and two compounds that do not show antioxidant effects (RO and borneol). Borneol was able to preserve not only DNA of HepG2 cells but also plasmid DNA against Fe(2+)-induced damage. This paper evaluates the results in the light of experiences of other scientists. PMID:24955655

  15. PLANT PROTECTIVE RESPONSE TO ENHANCED UV-B RADIATION UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS: LEAF OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants of Vicia faba were grown in the field during early to midsummer while receiving two levels of supplemental UV-B radiation. Light-saturated photosynthesis and stomatal diffusive conductance of intact leaves did not show any indications of UV-radiation damage. Supplemental U...

  16. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... products that contained DES. DES Product Names Nonsteroidal Estrogens Benzestrol Chlorotrianisene Comestrol Cyren A. Cyren B. Delvinal ... Stils Synestrin Synestrol Synthosestrin Tace Vallestril Willestrol Nonsteroidal Estrogen-Androgen Combinations Amperone Di-Erone Estan Metystil Teserene ...

  17. Programmed cell death in plants: protective effect of phenolic compounds against chitosan and H2O2.

    PubMed

    Samuilov, V D; Vasil'ev, L A; Dzyubinskaya, E V; Kiselevsky, D B; Nesov, A V

    2010-02-01

    Addition of chitosan or H2O2 caused destruction of nuclei of epidermal cells (EC) in the epidermis isolated from pea leaves. Phenol, a substrate of the apoplastic peroxidase-oxidase, in concentrations of 10(-10)-10(-6) M prevented the destructive effect of chitosan. Phenolic compounds 2,4-dichlorophenol, catechol, and salicylic acid, phenolic uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation pentachlorophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol, and a non-phenolic uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, but not tyrosine or guaiacol, displayed similar protective effects. A further increase in concentrations of the phenolic compounds abolished their protective effects against chitosan. Malate, a substrate of the apoplastic malate dehydrogenase, replenished the pool of apoplastic NADH that is a substrate of peroxidase-oxidase, prevented the chitosan-induced destruction of the EC nuclei, and removed the deleterious effect of the increased concentration of phenol (0.1 mM). Methylene Blue, benzoquinone, and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) capable of supporting the optimal catalytic action of peroxidase-oxidase cancelled the destructive effect of chitosan on the EC nuclei. The NADH-oxidizing combination of TMPD with ferricyanide promoted the chitosan-induced destruction of the nuclei. The data suggest that the apoplastic peroxidase-oxidase is involved in the antioxidant protection of EC against chitosan and H2O2. PMID:20367614

  18. Programmed cell death in plants: protective effect of tetraphenylphosphonium and tetramethylrhodamine cations used as transmembrane quinone carriers.

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, L A; Kiselevsky, D B; Dzyubinskaya, E V; Nesov, A V; Samuilov, V D

    2012-04-01

    Tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP(+)) and tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE(+)) cations used as transmembrane carriers of ubiquinone (MitoQ) and plastoquinone (SkQ, SkQR) in mitochondria prevented at nanomolar concentrations the chitosan- or H(2)O(2)-induced destruction of the nucleus in epidermal cells of epidermis isolated from pea leaves. The protective effect of the cations was potentiated by palmitate. Penetrating anions of tetraphenylboron (TB(-)) and phenyl dicarbaundecaborane also displayed protective effects at micromolar concentrations; the effect of TB(-) was potentiated by NH(4)Cl. It is proposed that the protective effect of the penetrating cations and anions against chitosan is due to suppression of the generation of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria as a result of the protonophoric effect of the cations plus fatty acids and the anions plus NH(4)(+). Phenol was suitable as the electron donor for H2O2 reduction catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase, preventing the destruction of cell nuclei. The penetrating cations and anions, SkQ1, and SkQR1 did not maintain the peroxidase or peroxidase/oxidase reactions measured by their suitability as electron donors for H(2)O(2) reduction or by the oxidation of exogenous NADH. PMID:22809154

  19. Immunostimulatory complexes containing Eimeria tenella antigens and low toxicity plant saponins induce antibody response and provide protection from challenge in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Berezin, V E; Bogoyavlenskyi, A P; Khudiakova, S S; Alexuk, P G; Omirtaeva, E S; Zaitceva, I A; Tustikbaeva, G B; Barfield, R C; Fetterer, R H

    2010-01-20

    Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are unique multimolecular structures formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids and triterpene saponins and are one of the most successful antigen delivery systems for microbial antigens. In the current study, both the route of administration and the antigen concentration of ISCOMs, containing Eimeria tenella antigens and saponins from native plants, were evaluated in their ability to stimulate humoral immunity and to protect chickens against a challenge infection with E. tenella. Broiler chickens were immunized with ISCOM preparations containing E. tenella antigens and the purified saponins Gg6, Ah6 and Gp7 isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aesculus hippocastanum and Gipsophila paniculata, respectively. The effects of the route of administration, dose of antigen and type of saponin used for construction of ISCOMs were evaluated for ability to stimulate serum IgG and IgM and to protect chickens against a homologous challenge. A single intranasal immunization was the most effective route for administering ISCOMs although the in ovo route was also quite effective. Dose titration experiments demonstrated efficacy after single immunization with various ISCOM doses but maximum effects were observed when ISCOMs contain 5-10mug antigen. Immunization of birds by any of the three routes with E. tenella antigens alone or antigens mixed with alum hydroxide adjuvant resulted in lower serum antibody and reduced protection to challenge relative to immunization with ISCOMs. Overall the results of this study confirm that significant immunostimulation and protection to challenge are achieved by immunization of chickens with ISCOMs containing purified saponins and native E. tenella antigens and suggest that ISCOMs may be successfully used to develop a safe and effective vaccine for prevention of avian coccidiosis. PMID:19879050

  20. Direction des Relations Internationales

    E-print Network

    Debarre, Olivier

    Direction des Relations Internationales ERASMUS : liste des accords par pays Les candidatures Philosophie des Sciences 15/06 15/12 COLOGNE Universität zu Köln Littérature et linguistique 15/06 15/12 WÜRZBOURG Université J. Maximilians Littérature et Linguistique 15/06 15/01 AUTRICHE VIENNE Université de

  1. Liver Fibrosis and Protection Mechanisms Action of Medicinal Plants Targeting Apoptosis of Hepatocytes and Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Cuevas, Jorge E.; González-Garza, Maria Teresa; Rodríguez-Montalvo, Carlos; Cruz-Vega, Delia Elva

    2014-01-01

    Following chronic liver injury, hepatocytes undergo apoptosis leading to activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Consequently, activated HSC proliferate and produce excessive extracellular matrix, responsible for the scar formation. The pandemic trend of obesity, combined with the high incidence of alcohol intake and viral hepatitis infections, highlights the urgent need to find accessible antifibrotic therapies. Treatment strategies should take into account the versatility of its pathogenesis and act on all the cell lines involved to reduce liver fibrosis. Medicinal plants are achieving popularity as antifibrotic agents, supported by their safety, cost-effectiveness, and versatility. This review will describe the role of hepatocytes and HSC in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and detail the mechanisms of modulation of apoptosis of both cell lines by twelve known hepatoprotective plants in order to reduce liver fibrosis. PMID:25505905

  2. Liver Fibrosis and Mechanisms of the Protective Action of Medicinal Plants Targeting Inflammation and the Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Cuevas, Jorge E.; González-Garza, María Teresa; Maldonado-Bernal, Carmen; Cruz-Vega, Delia Elva

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a central feature of liver fibrosis as suggested by its role in the activation of hepatic stellate cells leading to extracellular matrix deposition. During liver injury, inflammatory cells are recruited in the injurious site through chemokines attraction. Thus, inflammation could be a target to reduce liver fibrosis. The pandemic trend of obesity, combined with the high incidence of alcohol intake and viral hepatitis infections, highlights the urgent need to find accessible antifibrotic therapies. Medicinal plants are achieving popularity as antifibrotic agents, supported by their safety, cost-effectiveness, and versatility. The aim of this review is to describe the role of inflammation and the immune response in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and detail the mechanisms of inhibition of both events by medicinal plants in order to reduce liver fibrosis. PMID:25954568

  3. Pre?historic eating patterns in Latin America and protective effects of plant?based diets on cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Acosta Navarro, Julio C; Cárdenas Prado, Silvia M; Cárdenas, Pedro Acosta; Santos, Raul D; Caramelli, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we present the contributions to nutrition science from Latin American native peoples and scientists, appreciated from a historic point of view since pre?historic times to the modern age. Additionally, we present epidemiological and clinical studies on the area of plant?based diets and their relation with the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases conducted in recent decades, and we discuss challenges and perspectives regarding aspects of nutrition in the region. PMID:21120310

  4. Application of heat stress in situ demonstrates a protective role of irradiation on photosynthetic performance in alpine plants.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Othmar; Stoll, Magdalena; Karadar, Matthias; Kranner, Ilse; Neuner, Gilbert

    2015-04-01

    The impact of sublethal heat on photosynthetic performance, photosynthetic pigments and free radical scavenging activity was examined in three high mountain species, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Senecio incanus and Ranunculus glacialis using controlled in situ applications of heat stress, both in darkness and under natural solar irradiation. Heat treatments applied in the dark reversibly reduced photosynthetic performance and the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv /Fm), which remained impeded for several days when plants were exposed to natural light conditions subsequently to the heat treatment. In contrast, plants exposed to heat stress under natural irradiation were able to tolerate and recover from heat stress more readily. The critical temperature threshold for chlorophyll fluorescence was higher under illumination (Tc (')) than in the dark (Tc). Heat stress caused a significant de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle pigments both in the light and in the dark conditions. Total free radical scavenging activity was highest when heat stress was applied in the dark. This study demonstrates that, in the European Alps, heat waves can temporarily have a negative impact on photosynthesis and, importantly, that results obtained from experiments performed in darkness and/or on detached plant material may not reliably predict the impact of heat stress under field conditions. PMID:25256247

  5. Application of heat stress in situ demonstrates a protective role of irradiation on photosynthetic performance in alpine plants

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, Othmar; STOLL, Magdalena; Karadar, Matthias; Kranner, Ilse; Neuner, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    The impact of sublethal heat on photosynthetic performance, photosynthetic pigments and free radical scavenging activity was examined in three high mountain species, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Senecio incanus and Ranunculus glacialis using controlled in situ applications of heat stress, both in darkness and under natural solar irradiation. Heat treatments applied in the dark reversibly reduced photosynthetic performance and the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), which remained impeded for several days when plants were exposed to natural light conditions subsequently to the heat treatment. In contrast, plants exposed to heat stress under natural irradiation were able to tolerate and recover from heat stress more readily. The critical temperature threshold for chlorophyll fluorescence was higher under illumination (Tc?) than in the dark (Tc). Heat stress caused a significant de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle pigments both in the light and in the dark conditions. Total free radical scavenging activity was highest when heat stress was applied in the dark. This study demonstrates that, in the European Alps, heat waves can temporarily have a negative impact on photosynthesis and, importantly, that results obtained from experiments performed in darkness and/or on detached plant material may not reliably predict the impact of heat stress under field conditions. PMID:25256247

  6. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. [Demonstration plant at Newman, KY

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-21

    This document and its several appendices constitute an application for a Kentucky Permit to Construct an Air Contaminant Source as well as a Prevention of Significant Air Quality Deterioration (PSD) Permit Application. The information needed to satisfy the application requirements for both permits has been integrated into a complete and logical description of the proposed source, its emissions, control systems, and its expected air quality impacts. The Department of Energy believes that it has made every reasonable effort to be responsive to both the letter and the spirit of the PSD regulations (40 CFR 52.21) and Kentucky Regulation No. 401 KAR 50:035. In this regard, it is important to note that because of the preliminary status of some aspects of the process engineering and engineering design for the Demonstration Plant, it is not yet possible precisely to define some venting operations or their associated control systems. Therefore, it is not possible precisely to quantify some atmospheric emissions or their likely impact on air quality. In these instances, DOE and ICRC have used assumptions that produce impact estimates that are believed to be worst case and are not expected to be exceeded no matter what the outcome of future engineering decisions. As these decisions are made, emission quantities and rates, control system characteristics and efficiencies, and vent stack parameters are more precisely defined; this Permit Application will be supplemented or modified as appropriate. But, all needed modifications are expected to represent either decreases or at worst no changes in the air quality impact of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant.

  7. Troxerutin, a plant flavonoid, protects cells against oxidative stress-induced cell death through radical scavenging mechanism.

    PubMed

    Panat, Niranjan A; Maurya, Dharmendra K; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S; Sandur, Santosh K

    2016-03-01

    Troxerutin (TRX) is a flavonoid present in tea, coffee, cereal grains, various fruits and vegetables have been reported to exhibit radioprotective, antithrombotic, nephro and hepato-protective effects. A systematic study was undertaken to evaluate its free radical scavenging ability and anti-apoptotic activity in cell-free and cellular systems. TRX scavenged superoxide, nitric oxide and also other model stable radicals like 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydazyl, and 2,2'-azinobis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid. It reacted with hydroxyl radicals, carbonate and thiocyanate anions, as evaluated by pulse radiolysis and stopped flow techniques. TRX protected different cell types (epithelial cells, fibroblasts and lymphocytes) against peroxyl radical-induced apoptosis, necrosis and mitotic death. It scavenged intracellular basal and inducible ROS levels and also restored depletion of intracellular GSH levels, suggesting that free radical scavenging ability may be responsible for the observed cytoprotection of different cell types. TRX may find application as an adjuvant in treating various diseases attributed to oxidative stress. PMID:26471524

  8. Creation and application of voxelised dosimetric models, and a comparison with the current methodology as used for the International Commission on Radiological Protection's Reference Animals and Plants.

    PubMed

    Higley, K; Ruedig, E; Gomez-Fernandez, M; Caffrey, E; Jia, J; Comolli, M; Hess, C

    2015-06-01

    Over the past decade, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed a comprehensive approach to environmental protection that includes the use of Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) to assess radiological impacts on the environment. For the purposes of calculating radiation dose, the RAPs are approximated as simple shapes that contain homogeneous distributions of radionuclides. As uncertainties in environmental dose effects are larger than uncertainties in radiation dose calculation, some have argued against more realistic dose calculation methodologies. However, due to the complexity of organism morphology, internal structure, and density, dose rates calculated via a homogenous model may be too simplistic. The purpose of this study is to examine the benefits of a voxelised phantom compared with simple shapes for organism modelling. Both methods typically use Monte Carlo methods to calculate absorbed dose, but voxelised modelling uses an exact three-dimensional replica of an organism with accurate tissue composition and radionuclide source distribution. It is a multi-stage procedure that couples imaging modalities and processing software with Monte Carlo N-Particle. These features increase dosimetric accuracy, and may reduce uncertainty in non-human biota dose-effect studies by providing mechanistic answers regarding where and how population-level dose effects arise. PMID:25856572

  9. Dietary protection against free radicals: a case for multiple testing to establish structure-activity relationships for antioxidant potential of anthocyanic plant species.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Martin; Lim, Chiara Cheng; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2009-03-01

    DNA damage by reactive species is associated with susceptibility to chronic human degenerative disorders. Anthocyanins are naturally occurring antioxidants, that may prevent or reverse such damage. There is considerable interest in anthocyanic food plants as good dietary sources, with the potential for reducing susceptibility to chronic disease. While structure-activity relationships have provided guidelines on molecular structure in relation to free hydroxyl-radical scavenging, this may not cover the situation in food plants where the anthocyanins are part of a complex mixture, and may be part of complex structures, including anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs). Additionally, new analytical methods have revealed new structures in previously-studied materials. We have compared the antioxidant activities of extracts from six anthocyanin-rich edible plants (red cabbage, red lettuce, blueberries, pansies, purple sweetpotato skin, purple sweetpotato flesh and Maori potato flesh) using three chemical assays (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC), and the in vitro Comet assay. Extracts from the flowering plant, lisianthus, were used for comparison. The extracts showed differential effects in the chemical assays, suggesting that closely related structures have different affinities to scavenge different reactive species. Integration of anthocyanins to an AVI led to more sustained radical scavenging activity as compared with the free anthocyanin. All but the red lettuce extract could reduce endogenous DNA damage in HT-29 colon cancer cells. However, while extracts from purple sweetpotato skin and flesh, Maori potato and pansies, protected cells against subsequent challenge by hydrogen peroxide at 0 degrees C, red cabbage extracts were pro-oxidant, while other extracts had no effect. When the peroxide challenge was at 37 degrees C, all of the extracts appeared pro-oxidant. Maori potato extract, consistently the weakest antioxidant in all the chemical assays, was more effective in the Comet assays. These results highlight the dangers of generalising to potential health benefits, based solely on identification of high anthocyanic content in plants, results of a single antioxidant assay and traditional approaches to structure activity relationships. Subsequent studies might usefully consider complex mixtures and a battery of assays. PMID:19399239

  10. Dietary Protection Against Free Radicals: A Case for Multiple Testing to Establish Structure-activity Relationships for Antioxidant Potential of Anthocyanic Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Philpott, Martin; Lim, Chiara Cheng; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2009-01-01

    DNA damage by reactive species is associated with susceptibility to chronic human degenerative disorders. Anthocyanins are naturally occurring antioxidants, that may prevent or reverse such damage. There is considerable interest in anthocyanic food plants as good dietary sources, with the potential for reducing susceptibility to chronic disease. While structure-activity relationships have provided guidelines on molecular structure in relation to free hydroxyl-radical scavenging, this may not cover the situation in food plants where the anthocyanins are part of a complex mixture, and may be part of complex structures, including anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs). Additionally, new analytical methods have revealed new structures in previously-studied materials. We have compared the antioxidant activities of extracts from six anthocyanin-rich edible plants (red cabbage, red lettuce, blueberries, pansies, purple sweetpotato skin, purple sweetpotato flesh and Maori potato flesh) using three chemical assays (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC), and the in vitro Comet assay. Extracts from the flowering plant, lisianthus, were used for comparison. The extracts showed differential effects in the chemical assays, suggesting that closely related structures have different affinities to scavenge different reactive species. Integration of anthocyanins to an AVI led to more sustained radical scavenging activity as compared with the free anthocyanin. All but the red lettuce extract could reduce endogenous DNA damage in HT-29 colon cancer cells. However, while extracts from purple sweetpotato skin and flesh, Maori potato and pansies, protected cells against subsequent challenge by hydrogen peroxide at 0°C, red cabbage extracts were pro-oxidant, while other extracts had no effect. When the peroxide challenge was at 37°C, all of the extracts appeared pro-oxidant. Maori potato extract, consistently the weakest antioxidant in all the chemical assays, was more effective in the Comet assays. These results highlight the dangers of generalising to potential health benefits, based solely on identification of high anthocyanic content in plants, results of a single antioxidant assay and traditional approaches to structure activity relationships. Subsequent studies might usefully consider complex mixtures and a battery of assays. PMID:19399239

  11. Very high resolution Earth observation features for monitoring plant and animal community structure across multiple spatial scales in protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairota, Paola; Cafarelli, Barbara; Labadessa, Rocco; Lovergine, Francesco; Tarantino, Cristina; Lucas, Richard M.; Nagendra, Harini; Didham, Raphael K.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the status and future trends in biodiversity can be prohibitively expensive using ground-based surveys. Consequently, significant effort is being invested in the use of satellite remote sensing to represent aspects of the proximate mechanisms (e.g., resource availability) that can be related to biodiversity surrogates (BS) such as species community descriptors. We explored the potential of very high resolution (VHR) satellite Earth observation (EO) features as proxies for habitat structural attributes that influence spatial variation in habitat quality and biodiversity change. In a semi-natural grassland mosaic of conservation concern in southern Italy, we employed a hierarchical nested sampling strategy to collect field and VHR-EO data across three spatial extent levels (landscape, patch and plot). Species incidence and abundance data were collected at the plot level for plant, insect and bird functional groups. Spectral and textural VHR-EO image features were derived from a Worldview-2 image. Three window sizes (grains) were tested for analysis and computation of textural features, guided by the perception limits of different organisms. The modelled relationships between VHR-EO features and BS responses differed across scales, suggesting that landscape, patch and plot levels are respectively most appropriate when dealing with birds, plants and insects. This research demonstrates the potential of VHR-EO for biodiversity mapping and habitat modelling, and highlights the importance of identifying the appropriate scale of analysis for specific taxonomic groups of interest. Further, textural features are important in the modelling of functional group-specific indices which represent BS in high conservation value habitat types, and provide a more direct link to species interaction networks and ecosystem functioning, than provided by traditional taxonomic diversity indices.

  12. Profil des candidats : Master de Biologie ou Biologie des Systmes

    E-print Network

    Radulescu, Ovidiu

    Profil des candidats : Master de Biologie ou Biologie des Systèmes Candidatures en ligne : sur le approche de biologie des systèmes du contrôle de l'entrée et de la sortie mitotiques chez les eucaryotes

  13. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  14. Improvement of growth, fruit weight and early blight disease protection of tomato plants by rhizosphere bacteria is correlated with their beneficial traits and induced biosynthesis of antioxidant peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Narendra Babu, Anupama; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Kestur Nagaraj, Amruthesh; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-02-01

    Five plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) of different genera, newly isolated from healthy tomato rhizosphere, were characterized with phosphate solubilizing and root colonizing ability. Treatment with these isolates recorded a significant increase in seed germination and seedling vigor as well as tomato growth and fruit weight which might be partly attributed to the ability of the PGPRs to produce IAA and enhance nutrient uptake and chlorophyll content in treated plants. More importantly, a strong protection against early blight disease was observed in PGPR-pretreated tomato plants infected with Alternaria solani which is in accordance with the presence of siderophores, HCN, chitinase and glucanase in the isolated PGPRs. Additionally, a significantly enhanced accumulation of antioxidant peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzymes was observed in the PGPR-pretreated plants with or without pathogen infection in comparison with water or pathogen control. Notably, the highest increase in POX and PPO accumulations was recorded in tomato plants raised from seeds primed with TN_Vel-35 strain. A significant upregulation of POX and PPO in tomato plants subjected to similar treatment with TN_Vel-35 versus respective control was also noticed, further strengthening that the PGPR-induced POX and PPO biosyntheses also contribute to PGPR-mediated protection against early blight disease in tomato plants. PMID:25575992

  15. RPERTOIRE DES PROJETS DE LA

    E-print Network

    .................................................................................. 57 Département des sciences animales Élaboration, mise à l'essai et implantation de mesure de la qualité des services de soutien Contrat

  16. Ultraviolet-B protection of ascorbate and tocopherol in plants related with their function on the stability on carotenoid and phenylpropanoid compounds.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yinan; You, Jingjing; Ou, Yongbin; Ma, Jinbiao; Wu, Xiuli; Xu, Gang

    2015-05-01

    Ascorbate and tocopherol are important hydrophilic or lipophilic antioxidants in plants, while their crucial roles in the antioxidant defense system under ultraviolet B radiation were not well understood. The mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana deficient in ascorbate (vtc1 and vtc2) or tocopherol (vte1) were used to analyze their physiological, biochemical and metabolic change in responses to Ultraviolet B radiation. Results showed that loss of either ascorbate or tocopherol caused reduction in phenylpropanoid and flavonol glycosides compounds, as well as reduction in superoxide dismutase activity and total cellular antioxidant capacity. This ultimately led to higher oxidative stress as well as lower levels of photosynthetic pigments (carotenoid and chlorophyll) and CO2 assimilation rate in the vtc1, vtc2, and vte1 mutants than the wild type under UV-B radiation, besides unstable early light-induced protein (ELIP1) in those mutants. On the other hand, the loss of tocopherol in vte1 mutants was compensated by the increase of zeaxanthin and anthocyanin contents, which armed vte1 mutants with higher heat dissipation capacity in PS II and higher antioxidative capacity than vtc mutants. Consequently the tolerance to UV-B radiation were much higher in vte1 mutant than in vtc mutants, furthermore, PS II function and light harvesting protein (LHCb1) abundance were reduced only in ascorbate-deficient mutant relative to wild type. Our results suggested that the ascorbate and tocopherol provided not only direct protective function against UV-B radiation but also indirect effects by influencing other protective system, in particular by affecting the stability of various carotenoid and phenylpropanoid compounds. PMID:25749732

  17. Portail des maths & PLM 2.0 Jacquelin Charbonnel -Journes des DU -Paris, 11 avril 2013 Portail des maths

    E-print Network

    Menichi, Luc

    Portail des maths & PLM 2.0 Jacquelin Charbonnel - Journées des DU - Paris, 11 avril 2013 Portail des maths et PLM 2.0 Jacquelin Charbonnel - Mathrice Journées des DU - Paris, 11 avril 2013 #12;Portail des maths & PLM 2.0 Jacquelin Charbonnel - Journées des DU - Paris, 11 avril 2013 Portail des

  18. Jahresbericht des Hochschulrates

    E-print Network

    Ferrari, Patrik L.

    1 Jahresbericht 2014 des Hochschulrates der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelm-Universität Bonn #12;2 I Engels als Vorsitzender. Am 15. Juli 2014 wurde Prof. Dr. E. Jürgen Zöllner, auf Vorschlag des. Helmut Schwarz, Dr. Katrin Vernau und Prof. Dr. Dieter Engels, der zum Vorsitzenden dieser Kommission

  19. Direction des Ressources Humaines Bureau du recrutement et des

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Christian

    2015 Contact Direction des Ressources Humaines Bureau du recrutement et des concours Bâtiment Julie Maîtriser au moins une méthode de spécification et de conception . Maîtriser des méthodes et techniques de langages Objet (C++, Java), Web (PHP), SQL, script... . Avoir des compétences en programmation web et dans

  20. Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers, Des Moines, Iowa

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers, Des Moines, Iowa 18 October 2006 Abstract: The recommended plan opportunities along the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers in the areas of Birdland Park, Central Place and downtown Additional Information: Mississippi Valley Division Rock Island District Des Moines and Raccoon River Damage

  1. Basis for the development of a scenario for ground water risk assessment of plant protection products to banana crop in the frame work of regulation 1107/2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Prados, Elena; Fernández-Getino, Ana Patricia; Alonso-Prados, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    The risk assessment to ground water of pesticides and their main metabolites is a data requirement under regulation 1107/2009, concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) are calculated according to the recommendations of Forum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and Their Use (FOCUS). The FOCUS groundwater working group developed scenarios for the main crops in European Union. However there are several crops which grow under specific agro-environmental conditions not covered by these scenarios and it is frequent to use the defined scenarios as surrogates. This practice adds an uncertainty factor in the risk assessment. One example is represented by banana crop which in Europe is limited to sub-tropical environmental conditions and with specific agronomic practices. The Canary Islands concentrates the higher production of banana in the European Union characterized by volcanic soils. Banana is located at low altitudes where soils have been eroded or degraded, and it is a common practice to transport soil materials from the high-mid altitudes to the low lands for cultivation. These cultivation plots are locally named "sorribas". These volcanic soils, classified as Andosols according to the FAO classification, have special physico-chemical properties due to noncrystalline materials and layer silicates. The good stability of these soils and their high permeability to water make them relatively resistant to water erosion. Physical properties of volcanic clayey soils are strongly affected by allophone and Fe and Al oxyhidroxides. The rapid weathering of porous volcanic material results in accumulation of stable organo-mineral complexes and short-range-order mineral such as allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite. These components induce strong aggregation that partly favors properties such as: reduced swelling, increased aggregate stability of clay minerals, high soil water retention capacity, low bulk density and high infiltration rate. They are also characterized by a pH around 6, high concentration in organic matter and a great capacity to fix P, which make them very fertile soils. Most of Andosols have excellent internal drainage because of their high porosity. Regarding this fact, the main distributive source of the drainage under banana plant is the stem-flow. It is a spatially localized input of water in the soil at the foot of the banana plant and it has a significant influence in the ground water recharge. In this work, we present a literature review of agronomic aspects for banana crop and specific hydraulic properties for soils in the Canary Islands. These data are compared with the ones for the surrogate scenarios. Based on the results, recommendations for further work on the development of specific scenario for banana crop are given.

  2. Visualiser un PC dport et en temps rel des vidos de l'vnement, au plus prs du Vidos dans le visible et l'infrarouge, la vido IR doit tre disponible pour le pompier

    E-print Network

    Baudoin, Geneviève

    « VITRES ». Le CEA-LETI est l'un des principaux centres européens de recherche appliquée en électronique brevets. CEA-FLS : La Formation Locale de Sécurité du CEA/Grenoble, en charge de la protection des

  3. Performance assessment methodology demonstration: Methodology development for evaluating compliance with EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) 40 CFR 191, Subpart B, for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Marietta, M.G.; Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Anderson, D.R.; Rechard, R.P. ); Brinster, K.F.; Guzowski, R.V. ); Iuzzolino, H. )

    1989-12-01

    This report describes a demonstration of the performance assessment methodology for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to be used in assessing compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency. This demonstration incorporates development and screening of potentially disruptive scenarios. A preliminary analysis of the WIPP disposal system's response to human intrusion scenarios produces preliminary complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) used to assess the compliance of the WIPP with the Containment Requirements of the Standard. The conceptual model of the disposal system consists of geologic, hydrologic, and disposal system subsystems along with the physical and chemical processes associated with these subsystems. Parameter values defining the systems contain uncertainties and modeling approximations of such a disposal system contributes to those uncertainties. The WIPP compliance assessment methodology consists of a system of techniques and computer codes that estimate releases of radionuclides from the disposal system, incorporating analysis of the parameter uncertainties in the estimates. Demonstration CCDFs are presented, but are not yet credible enough to judge the probability of compliance of the WIPP with the EPA Standard. 60 refs., 75 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. 78 FR 22257 - Updates to Protective Action Guides Manual: Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and Planning Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ...Guides and Protective Actions for Nuclear Incidents, referred to as...PAGs to incidents other than just nuclear power plant accidents, updates...health protection in light of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, which...

  5. Radiation Protection

    MedlinePLUS

    EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  6. Les bonhommes-foumis Il y a des annes, bien des saisons et bien des jours, vivaient des petits

    E-print Network

    van Tiggelen, Bart

    Les bonhommes-foumis Il y a des années, bien des saisons et bien des jours, vivaient des petits petites colonies sur leur territoire principal ou en territoire éloigné. Un jour, elles se sont retrouvées sur un petit territoire charmant du nom de Cargèse. Les petits bonhommes-fourmis se sont retrouvés

  7. Food ProtectionTrends,Vol. 25, No. 12, Pages 981990 2005, International Association for Food Protection

    E-print Network

    Food ProtectionTrends,Vol. 25, No. 12, Pages 981­990 Copyright© 2005, International Association for Food Protection 6200 Aurora Ave., Suite 200W, Des Moines, IA 50322-2864 Factors Impacting Food Workers' and Managers' Safe Food Preparation Practices: A Qualitative Study LAURA R. GREEN1* and CAROL SELMAN2 1 Health

  8. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The East Fork Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  9. VIE DES RESEAUX Exploration pluridisciplinaire des identits

    E-print Network

    van Tiggelen, Bart

    sous concentration solaire, caractérisée à l'iEs Dans le contexte budgétaire français des prochaines revues LIVRE REVUE PHOTO ©CNRsPhotothèque-FOUCARANAlain,CUMiNALYvan �LAUNEwww.cnrs.fr Cellule solaire

  10. Facult des arts et des sciences Sciences sociales et psychologie | Cartographie de la recherche 2012 TABLE DES MATIRES

    E-print Network

    Montréal, Université de

    #12;Faculté des arts et des sciences ­ Sciences sociales et psychologie | Cartographie de la ..................................................................................................................................................................... 2 La Faculté des arts et des sciences (FAS), c'est....................................................................................... 3 Sciences sociales et psychologie

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-TIERED INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED CORN HYBRIDS EXPRESSING THE PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANT, BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant increase in genetically modified corn planting driven by biofuel demand is expected for the 2007 growing season with future planted acreages approaching 80% of total corn plantings anticipated by 2009. As demand increases, incidence of farmer non-compliance with ma...

  12. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  13. Institut National des Sciences Appliquees Dept. of Engineering Mathematics,

    E-print Network

    27, 2010 Supervisors: Prof. Arnaud Trouv´e Dept. of Fire Protection Engineering UniversityInstitut National des Sciences Appliqu´ees Dept. of Engineering Mathematics, Numerical Modeling INTERNSHIP REPORT Forest Fire Propagation using Data Assimilation M´elanie Rochoux February 22, 2010 - August

  14. Sun Protection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... both UVB and UVA protection). Use a broad-spectrum (protecting from both UVA and UVB) sunscreen with ... sunscreen, chose one that is labeled as broad-spectrum because it will help protect you from both ...

  15. Rpertoire des emplois en dcembre 2011 Des diplms de Master

    E-print Network

    Jeanjean, Louis

    du texte (UFR SLHS) - Sport langage et intervention (UPFR Sports) - Théâtres et cultures du monde administratif et financier (Entreprise) (IAE) - Management des relations humaines (UFR STGI) - Marketing et) - Sociologie et anthropologie des savoirs et des normes (UFR SLHS) - Sports, loisir, développement territorial

  16. Zoom mtierssur Les mtiers desLes mtiers des

    E-print Network

    de la Londe. DIFFUSION, COMMERCIALISATION, MARKETING Directeur du département: Philippe Gille ONISEP VPC, 12 mail Barthélemy Thimonnier, Lognes, 77437 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2 Internet: http (allocation des fréquences, gestion des appels), l'internet (concep- tion des protocoles de communication

  17. The DES Story: Lessons Learned

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Robert Hoover discusses the DES followup study, which follows diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposed and unexposed mothers, daughters and sons, and granddaughters for adverse health effects resulting from this exposure.

  18. Effets perturbateurs endocriniens des pesticides organochlores.

    PubMed

    Charlier, C; Plomteux, G

    2002-01-01

    Xenoestrogens such organochlorine pesticides are known to induce changes in reproductive development, function or behaviour in wildlife. Because these compounds are able to modify the estrogens metabolism, or to compete with estradiol for binding to the estrogen receptor, it may be possible that these products affect the risk of developing impaired fertility, precocious puberty or some kinds of cancer in man. Le plus ancien récit de lutte contre la pollution remonte à une légende indienne racontant que la divinité Sing-bonga était incommodée par les émanations des fours dans lesquels les Asuras fondaient leurs métaux (1). Evidemment depuis, la problématique n-a cessé de s-accroître et la contamination de la Terre par de nombreux polluants est devenue aujourd-hui un problème majeur de notre Société. La protection de notre environnement est une question capitale qui doit être respectée malgré la pression économique actuelle et qui ne cessera de croître au cours des prochaines années même si l-identification objective et indiscutable de ce qui est essentiel - donc devant être prioritairement garanti sur la planète - est difficile à cerner (2). « Un oiseau en mauvais état ne pond pas de bons oeufs » disait un proverbe grec. Mais ce n-est qu-à partir de la seconde moitié du XXème siècle que les toxicologues ont commencé à identifier les effets qu-avaient entraînés à l-échelle mondiale les pollutions émises aux XIXème siècle sur la faune sauvage et sur le cheptel (3). L-histoire contemporaine des pesticides industriels commence vers 1874 (synthèse des organochlorés) et se poursuit tout au long de ces 2 siècles en passant par la synthèse des organophosphorés (1950), des carbamates (1970) et des pyréthroïdes (1975) (4). Le dichlorodiphényltrichloroéthane (DDT) a été synthétisé pour la première fois par un étudiant en cours de préparation de sa thèse de doctorat : Othmer Zeidler. La production, reprise par les entreprises F.Mayo puis par la Geigy Co. a d-abord intéressé l-armée, puis l-agriculture. Dès la fin de la 2(ème) guerre mondiale, des mises en garde furent lancées à propos des effets nocifs du produit (4). Un déclin des populations de grives, d-aigles chauves, d-orfaies et de mammifères consommateurs de poissons fut constaté à partir des années 50 et dénoncé par Rachel Carson dans son célèbre appel du « Silent Spring » de 1962. Bien qu-il soit interdit en Occident depuis les années 70, ce produit a été tellement utilisé et présente une rémanence si longue qu-une contamination ubiquitaire existe aujourd-hui encore. De plus, ce produit continue à être produit aux USA pour être utilisé à des fins de démoustification dans les pays en voie de développement. Il en va de même de l-Hexachlorobenzène (HCB), un autre organochloré dont l-usage est interdit sous nos latitudes, mais reste fréquent dans d-autres pays. Ces deux exemples indiquent que le problème de la contamination continue à nous concerner, même pour des produits dont l-usage est aujourd-hui strictement réglementé ou interdit. Des effets sur la faune semblent encore actuellement devoir être attribués à ces produits. La diminution de la population des phoques dans la mer de Wadden pourrait être due à la forte contamination en composants organochlorés des poissons dont ces phoques se nourrissent (5). Exposé au DDT et à son métabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroéthylène (DDE), le Seratherodon mossambicus présente une réduction de la sécrétion de cortisol par une action toxique cytospécifique sur l-axe hypothalamo-hypophysaire (6). Des travaux récents ont montré que le DDT et le DDE se lient chez les oiseaux et les mammifères au moyen de liaisons covalentes aux cellules de la zona fasciculata - homologue du tissu interrénal du poisson - induisant des microhémorragies. Cette « défaillance » cortisolique peut s-accompagner d-une perturbation du métabolisme glucidique et notamment d-un taux élevé de glycogène hépatique (7). Les pesticides organochlorés (

  19. Etudes physiques des mélanges eau-cryoprotecteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassoille, R.; Perez, J.

    The aim of the following review is to present the most important studies concerning the physical properties of water-solutes mixtures used in cryobiology. Cryobiology is a branch of biology which deals with the very low temperature behaviour of cells. This technique is developed today in several directions. The creation of banks of cells and perhaps in a short time of small organs, is the purpose of much research in this domain. Before freezing, living cells are generally put in a solution containing one or more solutes. The role of these solutes is to protect the cells against damage due to crystallization of water (cryoprotectors). The mechanisms of cryoprotection are not well known ; nevertheless the vitreous state formation during cooling is often invoked. So, it is possible to avoid crystallization damage such as mechanical strain (due to an increase of volume of about 10 %) and salt effects (due to osmotic pressure). The conditions in which the vitreous state is obtained, maintained during cooling, storage at low temperature and rewarming can be defined by physical studies presented in the following review. Le présent travail est essentiellement une revue bibliographique des principales études physiques qui ont été réalisées avec des solutions de composés habituellement employés en cryobiologie. La cryobiologie est une branche de la biologie qui s'intéresse au comportement des cellules à basse température. Cette discipline est actuellement en plein développement dans des domaines très divers. Son principal but est la création de banques de cellules de plus en plus complexes avec comme perspective la conservation des organes. Les cellules vivantes sont généralement placées avant congélation dans une solution contenant divers composés dont le rôle est de protéger les cellules contre les effets de la cristallisation de l'eau. L'action protectrice de ces cryoprotecteurs est encore mal connue; cependant, la formation d'un état vitreux lors du refroidissement est souvent invoquée. Ainsi, il est possible d'éviter les dommages liés à la cristallisation : contrainte mécanique due à l'augmentation de volume, effets de sel dus à l'existence d'un gradient de pression osmotique de part et d'autre de la membrane cellulaire. Les conditions d'obtention et de maintien de cet état vitreux lors des opérations de congélation peuvent être définies par des études physiques dont nous proposons une revue.

  20. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas...

  1. 50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas...

  2. 50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas...

  3. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas...

  4. La biogenèse des mélanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Delevoye, Cédric; Giordano, Francesca; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2012-01-01

    Les mélanocytes situés à la base de l’épiderme produisent des mélanosomes qui sont transférés aux kératinocytes pour assurer la pigmentation de l’épiderme et sa photoprotection contre les rayons ultraviolets. Les mélanosomes, organites apparentés aux lysosomes, sont le lieu de synthèse et de stockage d’un pigment, la mélanine. Leur formation dépend de protéines mélanosomales qui transitent par les voies de biosynthèse et d’endocytose et exploitent les mécanismes moléculaires du trafic intracellulaire. Les acteurs moléculaires impliqués dans le transport des protéines mélanosomales et la biogenèse des mélanosomes sont la cible de mutations dans des maladies génétiques accompagnées d’hypopigmentation comme l’albinisme et les maladies lysosomales. Les études menées sur les mélanocytes issus de souris modèles de ces maladies permettent de comprendre certaines des étapes-clés de la mélanogenèse ainsi que les dysfonctionnements associés à ces pathologies. De plus, décrypter la mélanogenèse facilite également la compréhension d’autres processus physiologiques, comme l’illustrent les similitudes inattendues avec l’amyloïdogenèse dans les maladies neurodégénératives. PMID:21382323

  5. Protection via parasitism: Datura odors attract parasitoid flies, which inhibit Manduca larvae from feeding and growing but may not help plants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J K; Woods, H A

    2015-12-01

    Insect carnivores frequently use olfactory cues from plants to find prey or hosts. For plants, the benefits of attracting parasitoids have been controversial, partly because parasitoids often do not kill their host insect immediately. Furthermore, most research has focused on the effects of solitary parasitoids on growth and feeding of hosts, even though many parasitoids are gregarious (multiple siblings inhabit the same host). Here, we examine how a gregarious parasitoid, the tachinid fly Drino rhoeo, uses olfactory cues from the host plant Datura wrightii to find the sphingid herbivore Manduca sexta, and how parasitism affects growth and feeding of host larvae. In behavioral trials using a Y-olfactometer, female flies were attracted to olfactory cues emitted by attacked plants and by cues emitted from the frass produced by larval Manduca sexta. M. sexta caterpillars that were parasitized by D. rhoeo grew to lower maximum weights, grew more slowly, and ate less of their host plant. We also present an analytical model to predict how tri-trophic interactions change with varying herbivory levels, parasitization rates and plant sizes. This model predicted that smaller plants gain a relatively greater benefit compared to large plants in attracting D. rhoeo. By assessing the behavior, the effects of host performance, and the variation in ecological parameters of the system, we can better understand the complex interactions between herbivorous insects, the plants they live on and the third trophic level members that attack them. PMID:26298191

  6. Architecture des ordinateurs I Prsentation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Michel

    version anglaise o Structured Computer Organization, 5th edition. page 8IFT1227 ­ Architecture des99-06-09 1 IFT1227 Architecture des ordinateurs I Présentation El Mostapha Aboulhamid Em.aboulhamid@umontreal.ca Université de Montréal page 2IFT1227 ­ Architecture des ordinateurs 1 ­ JP DAVID & EM Aboulhamid Plan de

  7. 10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by the Corporation, a...

  8. 10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by the Corporation, a...

  9. 10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by the Corporation, a...

  10. 10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by the Corporation, a...

  11. 10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by the Corporation, a...

  12. The conserved role of FtsH11 protease in protection of photosynthetic system from high temperature stress in higher plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As sessile organisms, plants employ multiple mechanisms to cope with seasonal and daily temperature fluctuations associated with their habitats. AtFtsH11 protease gene was identified via map-based cloning as essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate high temperatures. There are 12 predi...

  13. The mitochondrial small heat-shock protein protects NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase of the electron transport chain during heat stress in plants

    E-print Network

    Heckathorn, Scott

    is correlated with the induction of Hsps [12^16]. Potent inhibitors of electron transport or ATP production, it was demonstrated the lmw Hsp in the chloroplast protects photosynthetic electron transport during heat stress [24

  14. Plant Importation Importing "Plant Material" From Outside Canada

    E-print Network

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    Plant Importation Importing "Plant Material" From Outside Canada 1) Determine whether or not a permit is required for your plant or insect material by contacting the Canadian Food Inspection Agency download the "Application for Permit to Import Plants and Other Things Under the Plant Protection Act". 3

  15. TABLE OF CONTENTS Fall Protection

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ............................................................................... 21-10 21.E Controlled Access Zones .................................................. 21-32 Figures: 21-1 ­ Control Zone/Safe Zone Fall Protection Section 24.A.01.d. Note 1: Floating Plant and Vessels are excluded from these requirements except where

  16. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    Plasma outflows from a central gravitating object are a widespread phenomenon in astrophysics. They include the solar and stellar winds, jets from Young Stellar Objects, jets from compact stellar objects and extra-galactic jets associated with Active Galactic Nuclei and quasars. Beyond this huge zoology, a common theoretical ground exists. The aim of this review is to present qualitatively the various theories of winds (Part 1) and how different astrophysical domains interplay. A more or less complete catalog of the ideas proposed for explaining the acceleration and the morphologies of winds and jets is intended. All this part avoids getting into any mathematical formalism. Some macroscopic properties of such outflows may be described by solving the time-independent and axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equations. This formalism, underlying most of the theories, is presented in Part 2. It helps to introduce quantitatively the free integrals that such systems possess. Those integrals play an important role in the basic physics of acceleration and collimation, in particular the mass loss rate, the angular momentum loss rate and the energy of the magnetic rotator. Most of the difficulty in modelling flows lies in the necessity to cross critical points, characteristic of non linear equations. The physical nature and the location of such critical points is debated because they are the clue towards the resolution. We thus introduce the notions of topology and critical points (Parts 3 and 4) from the simplest hydrodynamic and spherically symmetric case to the most sophisticated, MHD and axisymmetric cases. Particular attention is given to self-similar models which allows to give some general and simple ideas on the problem due to their semi-analytical treatment. With the use of these notions, a more quantitative comparison of the various models is given (Parts 3 and 4), especially on the shape of the flows. It is thus shown that magnetic collimation of winds into jets is a well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la résolution. Nous introduisons donc la notion de topologie des points critiques (Parties 3 et 4

  17. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  18. Sun protection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... age spots, are caused by exposure to the sun. The two types of sun rays that can injure the skin are ultraviolet ... changes is to protect your skin from the sun. This includes using sunscreen and other protective measures. ...

  19. Studiengang:_____________________________________________ Name des/der Stud. Matr. Nr.

    E-print Network

    Wichmann, Felix

    :_____________________________________________ ................................................................. ........................................... Name des/der Stud. Matr. Nr. Titel des Moduls (deutsch

  20. Fire Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Avco has drawn upon its heat shield experience to develop a number of widely-accepted commercial fire protection materials. Originating from NASA's space shuttle thermal protection system, one such material is Chartek 59 fireproofing, an intumescent epoxy coating specifically designed for outdoor use by industrial facilities dealing with highly flammable products such as oil refineries and chemical plants. The coating is applied usually by spray gun to exterior structural steel conduits, pipes and valves, offshore platforms and liquefied petroleum gas tanks. Fireproofing provides two types of protection: ablation or dissipation of heat by burn-off and "intumescence" or swelling; the coating swells to about five times its original size, forming a protective blanket of char which retards transfer of heat to the metal structure preventing loss of structural strength and possible collapse which would compound the fire fighting problem.

  1. The antagonistic strain Bacillus subtilis UMAF6639 also confers protection to melon plants against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate-and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses

    PubMed Central

    García-Gutiérrez, Laura; Zeriouh, Houda; Romero, Diego; Cubero, Jaime; Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Biological control of plant diseases has gained acceptance in recent years. Bacillus subtilis?UMAF6639 is an antagonistic strain specifically selected for the efficient control of the cucurbit powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera fusca, which is a major threat to cucurbits worldwide. The antagonistic activity relies on the production of the antifungal compounds iturin and fengycin. In a previous study, we found that UMAF6639 was able to induce systemic resistance (ISR) in melon and provide additional protection against powdery mildew. In the present work, we further investigated in detail this second mechanism of biocontrol by UMAF6639. First, we examined the signalling pathways elicited by UMAF6639 in melon plants, as well as the defence mechanisms activated in response to P. fusca. Second, we analysed the role of the lipopeptides produced by UMAF6639 as potential determinants for ISR activation. Our results demonstrated that UMAF6639 confers protection against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate- and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses, which include the production of reactive oxygen species and cell wall reinforcement. We also showed that surfactin lipopeptide is a major determinant for stimulation of the immune response. These results reinforce the biotechnological potential of UMAF6639 as a biological control agent. PMID:23302493

  2. The antagonistic strain Bacillus subtilis?UMAF6639 also confers protection to melon plants against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate- and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses.

    PubMed

    García-Gutiérrez, Laura; Zeriouh, Houda; Romero, Diego; Cubero, Jaime; de Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro

    2013-05-01

    Biological control of plant diseases has gained acceptance in recent years. Bacillus subtilis?UMAF6639 is an antagonistic strain specifically selected for the efficient control of the cucurbit powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera fusca, which is a major threat to cucurbits worldwide. The antagonistic activity relies on the production of the antifungal compounds iturin and fengycin. In a previous study, we found that UMAF6639 was able to induce systemic resistance (ISR) in melon and provide additional protection against powdery mildew. In the present work, we further investigated in detail this second mechanism of biocontrol by UMAF6639. First, we examined the signalling pathways elicited by UMAF6639 in melon plants, as well as the defence mechanisms activated in response to P.?fusca. Second, we analysed the role of the lipopeptides produced by UMAF6639 as potential determinants for ISR activation. Our results demonstrated that UMAF6639 confers protection against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate- and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses, which include the production of reactive oxygen species and cell wall reinforcement. We also showed that surfactin lipopeptide is a major determinant for stimulation of the immune response. These results reinforce the biotechnological potential of UMAF6639 as a biological control agent. PMID:23302493

  3. Colloque "Microstructure et Proprietes des Materiaux" ENPC, 17 et 18 mars 2005 MECANIQUE DES ROCHES EN GEOLOGIE : DES PROCESSUS

    E-print Network

    Fortin, Jérôme

    Colloque "Microstructure et Propri´et´es des Mat´eriaux" ENPC, 17 et 18 mars 2005 MECANIQUE DES.gueguen@ens.fr R´esum´e : Le domaine couvert par la M´ecanique des Roches en G´eologie s'´etend sur des ´echelles 1 Introduction La M´ecanique des roches intervient en G´eologie pour tenter d'apporter des r

  4. Plant Regulatory Organizations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Plant Regulatory Organizations is part of a book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. It covers the role of plant regulatory organizations from the international to state level in protecting plant health. At on...

  5. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) COMPLEX TERRAIN MODEL DEVELOPMENT: DESCRIPTION OF A COMPUTER DATA BASE FROM THE FULL SCALE PLUME STUDY, TRACY POWER PLANT, NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the EPA's Complex Terrain Model Development Program, the Full Scale Study was conducted at the Tracy Power Plant near Reno, Nevada. SO6 tracer gas and oil-fog particles were injected into the base of a 91.4 smokestack, and CF3Br tracer was released from one of three le...

  6. 75 FR 10410 - Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events; Correcting Amendment...protection against pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events for pressurized...power plants and reactors, Radiation protection, Reactor siting...protection against pressurized thermal shock...

  7. 40 CFR 194.51 - Consideration of protected individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of protected individual. 194.51 Section 194.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART...

  8. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Appendix D. Impact assessment. [Demonstration plant at Newman, KY

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-21

    In appendix D, the air quality condition for various pollutants in the areas surrounding the proposed demonstration plant site is given with respect to attainment or non-attainment of US EPA regulations. The minimum pollutant emission rates for these regulated and for several other pollutants are given. Then the estimated emission rates from the proposed plant are given for a dozen pollutants which exceed these limits and therefore require an ambient air quality analysis. This involves taking into account the estimated emission of these pollutants from the proposed plant and from other sources in the surrounding area. Finally, background data from the surrounding area including meteorological data and sampling of regulated pollutants are given. (LTN)

  9. Analyse des intensités et filtrage des énergies en émission électronique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, P.; Blaise, G.; Henry, L.

    1991-10-01

    A different method for using a dispersive system consisting of a magnetic prism and an electrostatic mirror is proposed. This method allows one to study electron intensities and energies coming from the surface of a sample which has been bombarded by an electron beam of a given energy. Le système dispersif constitué d'un prisme magnétique et d'un miroir électrostatique, utilisé jusqu'à présent en microscopie électronique par transmission pour l'analyse et le filtrage des énergies des électrons transmis à travers une couche mince, peut être adapté pour constituer une nouvelle méthode d'étude des intensités et des énergies des électrons diffusés par la surface d'un échantillon bombardé par un faisceau d'électrons d'énergie choisie.

  10. Insider protection

    SciTech Connect

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-07-01

    The government community is broadly addressing the insider threat. The first section of this paper defines protection approaches and the latter sections present various applicable technology developments. The bulk of the paper discusses technology developments applied to (1) personnel and material tracking and inventory, (2) classified document protection, and (3) protecting security systems. The personnel and material tracking system uses a PC based-host to (1) collect information from proximity tags and material movement sensors, (2) apply rules to this input to assure that the ongoing activity meets the site selectable rules and, (3) forward the results to either an automated inventory system or an alarm system. The document protection system uses a PC network to efficiently and securely control classified material which is stored on write-once-read-mostly optical media. The protection of sensor to multiplexer communications in a security system is emphasized in the discussion of protecting security systems.

  11. Tornado protection by venting

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability to protect a modern nuclear power plant from the effects of a tornado by the use of a system of venting in all safety-related structures outside of the containment. The paper demonstrates this by presenting a method of analysis and of equipment selection that fully complies with the intent and the letter of applicable federal regulatory guides. A report of an actual tornado in the City of Kalamazoo, Michigan, suggests that the concept of sealing a plant during a tornado may not always be applicable.

  12. vigie-nature Des citoyens au coeur de la recherche

    E-print Network

    vigie-nature Des citoyens au coeur de la recherche sur la biodiversité Dossier De presse 2013 #12'est Possible ? coMMent évaluer les Grands ProGraMMes de Protection de la nature ?coMMent Mes données sont©JoséMaríaEscolano coMMent réaGissent les esPèces Face à l'urbanisation ? viGie-nature, PourQuoi ? #12;-- 3 -- Photos en

  13. Hexanoic acid is a resistance inducer that protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by priming the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Scalschi, Loredana; Vicedo, Begonya; Camañes, Gemma; Fernandez-Crespo, Emma; Lapeña, Leonor; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2013-05-01

    Hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) is effective against several pathogens in tomato plants. Our study of the mechanisms implicated in Hx-IR against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato?DC3000 suggests that hexanoic acid (Hx) treatment counteracts the negative effect of coronatine (COR) and jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) on the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. In Hx-treated plants, an increase in the expression of jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) and the SA marker genes PR1 and PR5 indicates a boost in this signalling pathway at the expense of a decrease in JA-Ile. Moreover, Hx treatment potentiates 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid accumulation, which suggests that this molecule might play a role per se in Hx-IR. These results support a positive relationship between the SA and JA pathways in Hx-primed plants. Furthermore, one of the mechanisms of virulence mediated by COR is stomatal re-opening on infection with P.?syringae. In this work, we observed that Hx seems to inhibit stomatal opening in?planta in the presence of COR, which suggests that, on infection in tomato, this treatment suppresses effector action to prevent bacterial entry into the mesophyll. PMID:23279078

  14. Etude de l'effet du vieillissement sur les proprietes d'un tissu en melange KevlarRTM-PBI utilise dans le revetement exterieur des habits de protection contre le feu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, Carlos

    The aim of this work is to study and model the effect of three aging factors, temperature, humidity and light radiation, on the properties of a fabric made of a blend of KevlarRTM and PBI fibers frequently used to manufacture fire-protective garments. Accelarated-aging treatments carried out at carefully chosen conditions for the three factors resulted in a sizeable loss of mechanical performance. The breaking force of both the fabric and the yarns extracted from it decreases to less than 50% after one month of continuous exposure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests performed on thermally-aged samples indicated an increase of the crystallinity of the fabric, whereas the disappearance of Raman spectral lines suggested instead a reduction of the crystallinity following thermal aging. To explain these seemingly contradictory results, a hypothesis was introduced, stating that two different processes occurred simultaneously during thermal aging. The first one, an increase of size of the crystallites in the direction of the fibers' axis, accounted for the increase in crystallinity observed in XRD tests. The second one, an increase in the gap separating lamellar crystallites that causes a non-measurable reduction of the crystallinity of the sample, was highlighted by the Raman analyses. The results of the dielectric spectroscopy analyses carried out on thermally-aged samples confirmed the XRD results showing a significant change in the Kevlar's morphology during thermal aging. Despite the important decrease of the breaking force that ensued thermal aging, no evidence of a chemical structure modification of KevlarRTM was found. On the other hand, differential thermal analyses conducted on thermally aged fabric samples indicated a reduction of the glass transition temperature of the other component of the blend, namely the PBI, a fact that suggests a decrease of molecular weight after thermal aging. Infrared spectroscopy analyses performed on samples exposed to high humidity levels showed the development of a new absorbing band in the spectrum of aged KevlarRTM yarns. This band was ascribed to the formation of carboxylic acid groups. Based on these results, the humidity aging mechanism was inferred. This mechanism corresponds to the hydrolysis of the amide bond of KevlarRTM catalyzed by an acid. The progress of the hydrolysis reaction was modeled mathematically using the evolution of the concentration of carboxylic acid groups. The mechanism of light radiation aging was also determined from infrared spectroscopy analyses as the absorbing band attributed to the carboxylic acid groups was once again observed. In the case of light radiation, the degradation mechanism corresponds to a photo-oxidation reaction initiated by the photolysis of the amide bond of KevlarRTM. The accumulation of Photo-Fries products on the surface of yarns is believed to slow down of the oxidation reaction, as indicated by the overlapping of breaking force vs. aging time curves for the light-radiation aged samples. Expressions based on the Arrhenius law were used to characterize both the thermal and hydrolytic aging, whereas an expression taking into account the irradiance as well as the temperature was used to model the light radiation aging. The global damage produced by the joint action of the three aging factors was modeled after Palmgren-Miner's linear cumulative damage theory.

  15. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans l'agenda politique du pays. Notre projet de recherche, par le truchement de l'approche des reseaux de politique publique, s'attarde a decrire et a expliquer le processus de la formulation d'une politique particuliere, soit la politique energetique a des fins de protection de l'environnement, elaboree en 1993. Il s'agit de mettre en evidence les facteurs affectant le choix des instruments de ces politiques publiques dans leur contexte national. Ainsi, la question generale de cette recherche est: Comment les phases evolutives de la formation d'un reseau de politique, en l'occurrence le Conseil canadien de l'energie (CCE), menent a des caracteristiques particulieres a ce reseau; et comment celles-ci determinent-elles les types des instruments de politique publique choisis, particulierement ceux de la recente orientation des politiques energetiques canadiennes a des fins environnementales elaborees en 1993? Afin d'atteindre l'objectif de notre recherche, deux facteurs primordiaux sont utilises, soit la circulation de l'information et l'exercice du controle sur les ressources des acteurs. L'analyse des caracteristiques du reseau en fonction des liens forts et des liens faibles autant que la presence ou l'absence des trous structuraux nous permettent de bien identifier les positions des differents acteurs, etatiques et non etatiques, sur le plan de l'information et du controle, qui a leur tour, nous semble-t-il, constituent des facteurs affectant les types des instruments des politiques publiques choisis: instruments substantifs, qui indiquent le degre de l'intervention du gouvernement, et instruments proceduraux, qui mettent plutot l'accent sur le degre de l'influence du gouvernement sur les acteurs non etatiques. L'etude soutient que l'approche des reseaux se distingue notamment par son potentiel a expliquer l'interrelation relative entre idees, interets et institutions, ce qui a son tour est susceptible de permettre une meilleure comprehension des processus de l'elaboration des politiques energetiques et environnementales canadiennes. Qui plus est, le fait de rec

  16. Coatings to protect concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, B.O.

    1995-10-01

    At Eastman Chemical`s Tennessee plant, acetic acid is used in large quantities to manufacture cellulose esters. Acetic acid is very corrosive to concrete, such as floors, curbs and equipment bases. The original corrosion resistant acid brick used to protect concrete surfaces in the plant showed no outward sign of failure, but small hairline cracks between the brick and mortar had allowed acid to reach the concrete and corrode it away over time in a small catalyst makeup area. After performing laboratory tests to screen potential replacements for the acid brick, Eastman engineers replaced the brick with a vinyl-ester coating. The vinyl-ester coating proved superior to the acid brick because failures can be detected almost immediately and the coating is less costly to install and maintain that the brick. In general, monolithic coatings cost less in installation and maintanence, are easily inspected, and have similar protection qualities as acid brick.

  17. rencontre du non-lineaire 2000 1 Sur la similitude des morphologies des nervations des feuilles et de

    E-print Network

    Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar

    de celles des fractures Y. Couder*, L. Pauchard**, C. Allain**, M. Adda-Bedia* et S. Douady* *LPS, 24´esentent les formes de ces nervations diff`erent des formes engendr´ees lors de croissances dans des champs possible effet sur la diff´erentiation des nervures. 1 Introduction Les figures form´ees par les nervures

  18. Mecanique et mecanisme de la dechirure des materiaux textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triki, Ennouri

    Cette thèse vise à apporter une contribution à l’étude et à la modélisation de la déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits. Notons que la résistance à la déchirure est l’une des caractéristiques mesurées pour les équipements de protection contre les agresseurs mécaniques en milieu de travail. Jusqu'à présent, ce comportement en déchirure a été étudié en mesurant la force de déchirure et le travail de déchirure. De fait, aucun critère de rupture en déchirure n’existe actuellement. Par conséquent, en s’inspirant de la théorie du Griffith et de la mécanique de la rupture, une formulation d’un nouveau critère de rupture des structures textiles a été proposée. Cette approche offre la possibilité de déterminer d’une manière plus précise l’énergie nécessaire pour la création d’une nouvelle surface de rupture. Ce critère nous permet d’analyser l’effet des caractéristiques des tissus sur la variation de l’énergie de rupture. Cette étude montre que la résistance au glissement des fils dans la structure est le principal facteur qui contrôle la propagation de la fissure. En se basant sur la théorie de la mécanique de la rupture, un modèle de calcul de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a été aussi élaboré. Ce modèle de déchirure relie l’énergie aux paramètres caractérisant les phénomènes affectant la déchirure des tissus, notamment la force de glissement et la force à la rupture des fils. Cette modélisation a tenu compte de certaines caractéristiques des tissus tels que l’épaisseur du matériau, la densité des fils, etc. Par l’étude de la variation de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure en fonction du rapport établi entre la force à la rupture et la force de glissement d’un fil ( FYB/FS), l’effet des mécanismes de la propagation de la fissure dans les tissus sur leur comportement en déchirure a été aussi observé. Les résultats obtenus permettent de distinguer deux différentes catégories de déchirure. Pour les basses densités des fils, la fissure se propage dans le tissu par glissement des fils, alors que pour les hautes densités des fils, la déchirure est obtenue par la rupture des fils. Ainsi, il est important de noter que l’énergie de rupture par déchirure des tissus est maximale lorsque le rapport FYB/FS est proche de l’unité. En ce qui a trait à la déchirure des textiles enduits, la propagation de la fissure est obtenue par déchirure du support textile et de l’enduit de manière simultanée ainsi que par le délaminage du système textile-enduit. La définition d’un critère de rupture pour les textiles enduits nous a permis de constater que l’enduction d’un support textile par une couche d’élastomère engendre une diminution de son énergie de rupture. En outre, l’étude de la déchirure du support textile, de l’enduit et des textiles enduits a montré que l’énergie obtenue pour la couche de l’enduit est très faible si nous la comparons avec celles du support textile et du textile enduit. L’étude de l’effet du vieillissement sur l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a aussi fait l’objet de cette thèse. L’exposition des textiles enduits à différentes températures de vieillissement montre que le comportement en déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits est similaire pour les durées les plus faibles. Par contre, une accélération de la réduction de la résistance à la déchirure est observée pour les textiles enduits aux temps de vieillissement plus élevés. Ce phénomène peut éventuellement être attribué à une augmentation de l’adhésion du système textile-enduit suite au traitement de vieillissement. La diminution de la mobilité des fils ainsi engendrée cause alors une importante chute de la valeur de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure. Mots clés : Textiles, Textiles enduits, Énergie de rupture, Modélisation, Vieillissement thermique.

  19. A without-prejudice list of generic names of fungi for protection under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Paul M; Stalpers, Joost A; Braun, Uwe; Crous, Pedro W; Hansen, Karen; Hawksworth, David L; Hyde, Kevin D; Lücking, Robert; Lumbsch, Thorsten H; Rossman, Amy Y; Seifert, Keith A; Stadler, Mark

    2013-12-01

    As a first step towards the production of a List of Protected Generic Names for Fungi, a without-prejudice list is presented here as a basis for future discussion and the production of a List for formal adoption. We include 6995 generic names out of the 17072 validly published names proposed for fungi and invite comments from all interested mycologists by 31 March 2014. The selection of names for inclusion takes note of recent major publications on different groups of fungi, and further the decisions reached so far by international working groups concerned with particular families or genera. Changes will be sought in the Code to provide for this and lists at other ranks to be protected against any competing unlisted names, and to permit the inclusion of names of lichen-forming fungi. A revised draft will be made available for further discussion at the 10(th) International Mycological Congress in Bangkok in August 2014. A schedule is suggested for the steps needed to produce a list for adoption by the International Botanical Congress in August 2017. This initiative provides mycologists with an opportunity to place nomenclature at the generic level on a more secure and stable base. PMID:24563844

  20. Protecting beans from ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    1983-03-01

    A chemical treatment to protect navy beans from ozone damage increased yields by an average of more than 20% in 3 years of tests. An experimental antioxidant chemical, EDU, made by the DuPont company was tested as soil applications and sprays on several varieties and under a variety of soil and planting conditions. The average yield increases were between 16 and 24%. Chemical treatment also increased snap bean pod production by 12%.

  1. Juillet 2014 Sur les plages des Canaries, des grains de sable...

    E-print Network

    Huck, Thierry

    1 Juillet 2014 Sur les plages des Canaries, des grains de sable... et des micro-plastiques Les îles Canaries ne sont pas à l'abri de la pollution par les matières plastiques. Mais la localisation des plages'est focalisée sur une des composantes du problème (les micro-plastiques), une région côtière (les îles Canaries

  2. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Jr., John F.

    1981-02-13

    In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

  3. Influence of protein formulation and carrier solution on asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation: a case study of the plant-produced recombinant anthrax protective antigen pp-PA83.

    PubMed

    Palais, Caroline; Chichester, Jessica A; Manceva, Slobodanka; Yusibov, Vidadi; Arvinte, Tudor

    2015-02-01

    Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (afFFF) was used to investigate the properties of a plant-produced anthrax toxin protective antigen, pp-PA83. The afFFF fractogram consisted of two main peaks with molar masses similar to the molecular mass of pp-PA83 monomer. afFFF carrier solutions strongly influenced the ratio and the intensity of the two main peaks. These differences indicate that conformation changes in the pp-PA83 molecule occurred during the afFFF analysis. Similar fractograms were obtained for different pp-PA83 formulations when the afFFF carrier solution and the protein formulation were the same (or very similar). The data show that in specific cases, afFFF could be used to study protein conformation and document the importance of studying the influence of the carrier solution on afFFF. PMID:25417936

  4. Modlisation des connaissances gographiques Pr. Robert Laurini

    E-print Network

    Laurini, Robert

    Modélisation des connaissances géographiques 1 Pr. Robert Laurini « 80 % des données existantes ont;Modélisation des connaissances géographiques 2 Pr. Robert Laurini 1.1 ­ Modélisation des objets géographiques géographiques 3 Pr. Robert Laurini Géodésie · La terre n'est pas tout à fait ronde ­ ellipsoïde ­ altitude

  5. FLORENT MARTOS Structuration ecologique et evolutive des

    E-print Network

    FLORENT MARTOS Structuration ´ecologique et ´evolutive des symbioses mycorhiziennes des orchid th`ese intitul´ee: Structuration ´ecologique et ´evolutive des symbioses mycorhiziennes des orchid`eces d'orchid´ees actuelles qui d´ependent toutes de champignons mycorhiziens pour accomplir leur cycle

  6. Sciences des aliments Mention : Nutrition, sant, aliments

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    Sciences des aliments Mention : Nutrition, santé, aliments Nature de la formation : Diplôme-Ferrand) #12;2 Sciences des aliments UFR Sciences et Technologies PRÉSENTATION Objectifs Mention Nutrition scientifiques et techniques solides dans le domaine de la Nutrition, des Sciences des Aliments et de la Santé

  7. Transferring cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain coat protein gene into Cucumis melo L. and evaluating transgenic plants for protection against infections

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, C.; Xue, B.; Yepes, M.; Fuchs, M.; Ling, K.; Namba, S. . Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1994-03-01

    A single regeneration procedure using cotyledon examples effectively regenerated five commercially grown muskmelon cultivars. This regeneration scheme was used to facilitate gene transfers using either Agrobacterium tumefaciens or microprojectile bombardment methods. In both cases, the transferred genes were from the T-DNA region of the binary vector plasmid pGA482GG/cp cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain (CMV-WL), which contains genes that encode neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS), and the CMV-WL coat protein (CP). Explants treated with pGA482GG/cpCMV-WL regenerated shoots on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 4.4 [mu]m 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), kanamycin (Km) at 150 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1] and carbenicillin (Cb) at 500 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1]. The authors' comparison of A. tumefaciens- and microprojectile-mediated gene transfer procedures shows that both methods effectively produce nearly the same percentage of transgenic plants. R[sub 0] plants were first tested for GUS or NPT II expression, then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other tests were used to verify the transfer of the NPT II, GUS, and CMV-WL CP genes.

  8. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field. PMID:20919590

  9. DESULFURIZATION OF STEEL MILL SINTER PLANT GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of using limestone scrubbing technology to control sinter plant emissions. Data from Soviet and Japanese sinter plants employing limestone scrubbing technology were used to develop a realistic des...

  10. Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l?on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

  11. DYNAMIQUE DES SYST ` EMES D'ISOM '

    E-print Network

    Gaboriau, Damien

    DYNAMIQUE DES SYST ` EMES D'ISOM ' ETRIES : SUR LES BOUTS DES ORBITES Damien Gaboriau Un syst`eme d'isom ; ' 2 ; : : : ; ' k d'isom'etries entre sous­intervalles ferm'es de D. Ces objets sont des syst : celui des actions de groupes par isom'etries sur des arbres r'eels. Un arbre r'eel est un espace m

  12. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    SciTech Connect

    Yanochko, Ronald M; Corcoran, Connie

    2012-11-15

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  13. Fonction diélectrique des milieux inhomogènes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, Serge

    This review article is based on the thesis of Berthier — Laboratoire d'Optique des solides, Université P. et M. Curie— and on various contributions or ulterior works. Its aim is to present a critical and detailed review of the main theories of the optical dielectric function of inhomogeneous media. Together with a mathematical description of the theories, we give a physical interpretation of the results and the practical limits of validity. Each theory is compared to experimental results and other theoretical predictions as well. This study is introduced by theoretical reminders about the electric polarization and considerations about the physical meaning of some fundamental parameters when going from a microscopic to a macroscopic point of view. Cette revue est tirée de la thèse de Berthier préparée au Laboratoire d'Optique des Solides, Université P. et M. Curie, ainsi que des travaux qui lui font suite (thèse en préparation de Driss-Khodja) ou de ceux menés parallèlement (systèmes 2D) par d'autres membres de l'équipe. Son ambition est de présenter une étude approfondie et critique des différentes théories de la fonction diélectrique optique des milieux inhomogènes à trois dimensions. Après une description mathématique détaillée des principales théories, nous donnons une interprétation physique des résultats et les limites concrètes d'utilisation de chacune d'elles. Chaque grande théorie est confrontée à la fois à des résultats expérimentaux et aux prédictions des autres théories. Cette étude est précédée de rappels théoriques sur la polarisation électrique et de considérations sur la signification réelle de certains paramètres lors du passage d'un système microscopique isolé à un système macroscopique aléatoire.

  14. Power Plant Power Plant

    E-print Network

    Stillwater Power Plant Wabuska Power Plant Casa Diablo Power Plant Glass Mountain Geothermal Area Lassen Geothermal Area Coso Hot Springs Power Plants Lake City Geothermal Area Thermo Geothermal Area Lakeview Geothermal Area Raft River Geothermal Area Cove Fort Power Plant Roosevelt Power Plant Borax Lake

  15. Anticipating the spatio-temporal response of plant diversity and vegetation structure to climate and land use change in a protected area

    PubMed Central

    Boulangeat, Isabelle; Georges, Damien; Dentant, Cédric; Bonet, Richard; Van Es, Jérémie; Abdulhak, Sylvain; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation is a key driver of ecosystem functioning (e.g. productivity and stability) and of the maintenance of biodiversity (e.g. creating habitats for other species groups). While vegetation sensitivity to climate change has been widely investgated, its spatio-temporally response to the dual efects of land management and climate change has been ignored at landscape scale. Here we use a dynamic vegetation model called FATE-HD, which describes the dominant vegetation dynamics and associated functional diversity, in order to anticipate vegetation response to climate and land-use changes in both short and long-term perspectives. Using three contrasted management scenarios for the Ecrins National Park (French Alps) developed in collaboration with the park managers, and one regional climate change scenario, we tracked the dynamics of vegetation structure (forest expansion) and functional diversity over 100 years of climate change and a further 400 additional years of stabilization. As expected, we observed a slow upward shift in forest cover distribution, which appears to be severely impacted by pasture management (i.e. maintenance or abandonment). The tme lag before observing changes in vegetation cover was the result of demographic and seed dispersal processes. However, plant diversity response to environmental changes was rapid. Afer land abandonment, local diversity increased and spatial turnover was reduced, whereas local diversity decreased following land use intensification. Interestingly, in the long term, as both climate and management scenarios interacted, the regional diversity declined. Our innovative spatio-temporally explicit framework demonstrates that the vegetation may have contrasting responses to changes in the short and the long term. Moreover, climate and land-abandonment interact extensively leading to a decrease in both regional diversity and turnover in the long term. Based on our simulations we therefore suggest a continuing moderate intensity pasturing to maintain high levels of plant diversity in this system. PMID:25722538

  16. Crystal structures of apo-form and binary/ternary complexes of Podophyllum secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in formation of health-protecting and plant defense lignans.

    PubMed

    Youn, Buhyun; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G; Kang, Chulhee

    2005-04-01

    (-)-Matairesinol is a central biosynthetic intermediate to numerous 8-8'-lignans, including the antiviral agent podophyllotoxin in Podophyllum species and its semi-synthetic anticancer derivatives teniposide, etoposide, and Etopophos. It is formed by action of an enantiospecific secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase, an NAD(H)-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of (-)-secoisolariciresinol. Matairesinol is also a plant-derived precursor of the cancer-preventative "mammalian" lignan or "phytoestrogen" enterolactone, formed in the gut following ingestion of high fiber dietary foodstuffs, for example. Additionally, secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase is involved in pathways to important plant defense molecules, such as plicatic acid in the western red cedar (Thuja plicata) heartwood. To understand the molecular and enantiospecific basis of Podophyllum secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase, crystal structures of the apo-form and binary/ternary complexes were determined at 1.6, 2.8, and 2.0 angstrom resolution, respectively. The enzyme is a homotetramer, consisting of an alpha/beta single domain monomer containing seven parallel beta-strands flanked by eight alpha-helices on both sides. Its overall monomeric structure is similar to that of NAD(H)-dependent short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases, with a conserved Asp47 forming a hydrogen bond with both hydroxyl groups of the adenine ribose of NAD(H), and thus specificity toward NAD(H) instead of NADP(H). The highly conserved catalytic triad (Ser153, Tyr167, and Lys171) is adjacent to both NAD(+) and substrate molecules, where Tyr167 functions as a general base. Following analysis of high resolution structures of the apo-form and two complex forms, the molecular basis for both the enantio-specificity and the reaction mechanism of secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase is discussed and compared with that of pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase. PMID:15653677

  17. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater monitoring is performed at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities located in the regime per the requirements of applicable operating/post closure permits and governing state/federal regulations and guidelines, including DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A require evaluation of available monitoring data with regard to: (1) groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by Y-12 Plant operations, (2) the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. This report presents the results of these DOE Order 5400.1A evaluations based on available data for the network of monitoring wells and springs in the Chestnut Ridge Regime sampled during calendar year (CY) 1998. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  18. Rgles administratives Carrefour des arts et des sciences

    E-print Network

    Montréal, Université de

    , contrat et responsabilités Les demandes de réservation Frais de location, contrat et responsabilités Contrat - Le locataire doit obligatoirement signer le contrat de location disponible sur le site du Carrefour des arts et

  19. A DES ASIC Suitable for Network Encryption at 10 Gbps and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Gass, Karl; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Robertson, Perry J.; Wilcox, D. Craig; Witzke, Edward L.

    1999-04-30

    The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Data Encryption Standard (DES) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is the fastest known implementation of the DES algorithm as defined in the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Publication 46-2. DES is used for protecting data by cryptographic means. The SNL DES ASIC, over 10 times faster than other currently available DES chips, is a high-speed, filly pipelined implementation offering encryption, decryption, unique key input, or algorithm bypassing on each clock cycle. Operating beyond 105 MHz on 64 bit words, this device is capable of data throughputs greater than 6.7 Billion bits per second (tester limited). Simulations predict proper operation up to 9.28 Billion bits per second. In low frequency, low data rate applications, the ASIC consumes less that one milliwatt of power. The device has features for passing control signals synchronized to throughput data. Three SNL DES ASICS may be easily cascaded to provide the much greater security of triple-key, triple-DES.

  20. Des widgets aux comets pour la Plasticit des Systmes Interactifs

    E-print Network

    Des widgets aux comets pour la Plasticité des Systèmes Interactifs From widgets to comets utilisabilité. L'article propose une nouvelle génération de widgets, les « comets » (COntext Mouldable widgETs), pour la construction de systèmes interactifs plastiques. Une comet est, par définition, un widget

  1. Fiabilité des structures mécaniques adaptatives: effet de la panne des actionneurs ou des capteurs sur la stabilité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, H.; Charon, W.; Kouta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Ces dernières décennies, des activités significatives dans le monde étaient dirigées autour du contrôle actif. Le but de ces recherches était essentiellement d'améliorer les performances, la fiabilité et la sécurité des systèmes. Notamment dans le cas des structures soumises à des vibrations aléatoires. D'importants travaux ont été consacré à l'utilisation des “matériaux intelligents” comme capteurs et actionneurs. Cette article propose l'analyse de la fiabilité des systèmes mécaniques en étudiant les pannes des actionneurs ou des capteurs. L'effet de ces pannes sur la stabilité et la performance du système y est démontré. Les méthodologies de conception y sont rappelées. Des exemples numériques sont fournis à travers le contrôle d'un panneau sous chargement dynamique pour illustrer la méthode proposée.

  2. Corrosion protection

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  3. ZONES MARINES MRITANT DES MESURES DE PROTECTION ET DE GESTION

    E-print Network

    Boudouresque, Charles F.

    GROUPE DE TRAVAIL CRÉATION DE ZONES PROTÉGÉES DANS LA ZONE RAMOGE RAMOGE ZONE MARINE MERITEVOLI DI MISURE PROTEZIONE E LA GESTIONE RAZIONALE DELL'AMBIENTE NATURALE MARINO COSTIERO...9 ESPACES LITTORAUX MARINS

  4. des sciences Dlai de candidature

    E-print Network

    Halazonetis, Thanos

    faculté des sciences Délai de candidature: Chaque année au 15 mars* Un montant de CHF 10 000.- à 15 archaeology, geology, environmental sciences, pharmacy, and neurosciences. There is also the possibility

  5. Information -Communication Communication des entreprises

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    Information - Communication 2 PARCOURS Communication des entreprises Communication et solidarité;2 Information - Communication UFR Langues Appliquées, Commerce et Communication PRÉSENTATION Objectifs La Licence Information et communication est destinée aux étudiants qui souhaitent suivre un parcours

  6. Jahresbericht des Instituts fr Kognitionswissenschaft

    E-print Network

    Kallenrode, May-Britt

    die Arbeitsgruppe Philosophie des Geistes und der Kognition. Darüber hinaus wurde Prof. Dr. Robert C. Richardson (Cincinnati) das erste und landesweit einzige Gervinus-Fellowship zugesprochen, der damit ab 2008

  7. Thorie des probabilits LAVOISIER, 2008

    E-print Network

    Rioul, Olivier

    Théorie des probabilités #12;© LAVOISIER, 2008 LAVOISIER 11, rue Lavoisier 75008 Paris www.hermes-science.com www.lavoisier.fr ISBN 978-2-7462-1720-1 ISSN 1952­2401 Le Code de la propriété intellectuelle n

  8. Comprendre le langage des toiles

    E-print Network

    Le Coroller, Hervé

    spectre. #12;Un spectre dans la nature Le spectre le plus simple est l'arc- en a expliqué l'origine de l'arc-en-ciel. #12;Le secret des spectres Mais il a fallu'est au début du 19ème siècle que l'on a découvert le secret des spectres

  9. Experimental and Mathematical Simulation Techniques for Determining AN In-Situ Response Testing Method for Neutron Sensors Used in Reactor Power Plant Protection Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behbahani, Alireza

    An analytical neutron sensor response model and methods for transient response measurements of neutron sensors (Compensated Ionization Chamber), including possible in-situ techniques have been developed and evaluated to meet the provisions of Draft Standard ISA Sd67.06, IEEE 338-1977, and NRC Guide 1.118. One in-situ method requires the perturbation of the high voltage detector (sensor) power supply and measurement of the sensor response. The response to a perturbation of the power supply is related to the response of the sensor to a transient change in neutron flux. Random signal analysis is another in-situ technique to monitor the neutron sensor response. In this method the power spectrum of the inherent fluctuations from the neutron sensor output (Current in CIC) are measured and evaluated. Transient response techniques (including in-situ methods) are experimentally and analytically evaluated to identify the mechanisms which may cause degradation in the response of the neutron sensors. Response time degradation was investigated through a change in sensor and signal cable response time in a predictable manner (through changes in the detector fill gas and use of a delay box for signal cable). Sensors and attached cables having different response times are evaluated using power supply perturbation, transient change in radiation flux (both x-ray and neutron flux), and analysis of the random signals from neutron sensors. The objective of the experimental evaluation was to correlate the measured response time using transient radiation flux changes and power supply perturbation. The objective of the analytical model of the different sensor response was to predict response time and degradation mechanisms. Completion of this work contributed to improved understanding, monitoring, and the response time verification of neutron sensors. As a consequence improved and safer nuclear power plant operation may be attained.

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection

    E-print Network

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor that selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation protects plants from a variety of herbivores and pathogens. Selenium herbivores. Selenium distribution and speciation studies using micro- focused X-ray fluorescence (XRF

  11. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lightning Technologies, Inc., Pittsfield, MA, - a spinoff company founded by president J. Anderson Plumer, a former NASA contractor employee who developed his expertise with General Electric Company's High Voltage Laboratory - was a key player in Langley Research Center's Storm Hazards Research Program. Lightning Technologies used its NASA acquired experience to develop protective measures for electronic systems and composite structures on aircraft, both of which are particularly susceptible to lightning damage. The company also provides protection design and verification testing services for complete aircraft systems or individual components. Most aircraft component manufacturers are among Lightning Technologies' clients.

  12. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. 174.705 Section 174.705 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS List of Approved...Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. An inert ingredient, and...

  13. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. 174.705 Section 174.705 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS List of Approved...Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. An inert ingredient, and...

  14. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. 174.705 Section 174.705 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS List of Approved...Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. An inert ingredient, and...

  15. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. 174.705 Section 174.705 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS List of Approved...Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. An inert ingredient, and...

  16. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. 174.705 Section 174.705 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS List of Approved...Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. An inert ingredient, and...

  17. 77 FR 66650 - Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR...that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As...

  18. Structure, caractrisation et comportement mcanique des failles sismiques : Etude des pseudotachylites et gouges

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Structure, caractérisation et comportement mécanique des failles sismiques : Etude des pseudotachylites et gouges Résumé L'objectif de ce projet est de mieux caractériser la structure et la formation des processus de formation des failles actives en prenant comme objet d'étude les gouges de failles et

  19. Nr. 057 / 2014 // 3. April 2014 Knstlerische Darstellung des ,,Giant impact", des Aufpralls eines kleineren

    E-print Network

    Schittkowski, Klaus

    Nr. 057 / 2014 // 3. April 2014 1/7 Künstlerische Darstellung des ,,Giant impact", des Aufpralls freundlicher Genehmigung des NASA/Jet Propulsion Labors am California Institute of Technology. In ,,Nature- zeichnet. Der ,,Giant impact" und seine Folgen: Die Entstehung des Mondes und Veränderungen im Erdmantel

  20. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. 76 FR 4258 - Occupational Radiation Protection; Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...CFR Part 835 Federal buildings and facilities, Nuclear energy, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Nuclear safety, Occupational safety and health, Radiation protection, and Reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

  2. 76 FR 20489 - Occupational Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...CFR Part 835 Federal buildings and facilities, Nuclear energy, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Nuclear safety, Occupational safety and health, Radiation protection, and Reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

  3. 78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...NRC-2012-0268] Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR...that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As...

  4. Cogeneration at wastewater treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Oyler, A. . Wastewater Utilities Dept.); Klem, E.

    1993-11-01

    This article describes an energy saving wastewater treatment plant incorporating cogeneration through powering of gas driven engine-generators by methane collected from the plants anaerobic digester system. The topics of the article include a description of the plant, gas storage and explosion protection, generating electricity, and energy expense savings.

  5. Des Lacs River and Souris River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

     The Des Lacs River coming in to the Souris River. Des Lacs River is the darker water, which is sediment and the Souris River is the lighter water. >Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

  6. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  7. Peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Parida, S; Muniraju, M; Mahapatra, M; Muthuchelvan, D; Buczkowski, H; Banyard, A C

    2015-12-14

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  8. Diffusion incohérente des neutrons : modèles analytiques pour la dynamique interne des protéines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicout, D. J.

    2005-11-01

    La dynamique interne des protéines joue un rôle central dans la stabilité, la fonction et l'activité biologique de ces biomolécules. Il est maintenant établi que les fluctuations d'états conformationnels des protéines influencent fortement la plupart des réactions biochimiques et s'accompagnent d'une augmentation brutale des déplacements carrés moyens des atomes au dessus de la température de la transition dynamique. Dans cette contribution, nous présentons une revue critique de quelques modèles théoriques couramment utilisés dans la littérature pour l'analyse des mouvements internes des protéines et la description de la transition dynamique.

  9. 10 CFR 73.40 - Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements...Fixed Sites § 73.40 Physical protection: General...licensee shall provide physical protection at a fixed...sites where licensed activities are...

  10. 10 CFR 73.60 - Additional requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements...Additional requirements for physical protection at nonpower reactors...material access area. No activities other than those...

  11. 10 CFR 73.40 - Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements...Fixed Sites § 73.40 Physical protection: General...licensee shall provide physical protection at a fixed...sites where licensed activities are...

  12. 75 FR 72653 - Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ...Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events; Correction AGENCY: Nuclear...requirements for protection against pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events for pressurized...Nuclear power plants and reactors, Radiation protection, Reactor siting...

  13. Plant stress signalling: understanding and exploiting plant-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Pickett, J A; Rasmussen, H B; Woodcock, C M; Matthes, M; Napier, J A

    2003-02-01

    When plants are attacked by insects, volatile chemical signals can be released, not only from the damaged parts, but also systemically from other parts of the plant and this continues after cessation of feeding by the insect. These signals are perceived by olfactory sensory mechanisms in both the herbivorous insects and their parasites. Molecular structures involved can be characterized by means of electrophysiological assays, using the insect sensory system linked to chemical analysis. Evidence is mounting that such signals can also affect neighbouring intact plants, which initiate defence by the induction of further signalling systems, such as those that increase parasitoid foraging. Furthermore, insect electrophysiology can be used in the identification of plant compounds having effects on the plants themselves. It has been found recently that certain plants can release stress signals even when undamaged, and that these can cause defence responses in intact plants. These discoveries provide the basis for new crop protection strategies, that are either delivered by genetic modification of plants or by conventionally produced plants to which the signal is externally applied. Delivery can also be made by means of mixed seed strategies in which the provoking and recipient plants are grown together. Related signalling discoveries within the rhizosphere seem set to extend these approaches into new ways of controlling weeds, by exploiting the elusive potential of allelopathy, but through signalling rather than by direct physiological effects. PMID:12546668

  14. L'astronomie des Anciens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2009-04-01

    Quelle que soit la civilisation à laquelle il appartient, l'être humain cherche dans le ciel des réponses aux questions qu'il se pose sur son origine, son avenir et sa finalité. Le premier mérite de ce livre est de nous rappeler que l'astronomie a commencé ainsi à travers les mythes célestes imaginés par les Anciens pour expliquer l'ordre du monde et la place qu'ils y occupaient. Mais les savoirs astronomiques passés étaient loin d'être négligeables et certainement pas limités aux seuls travaux des Grecs : c'est ce que l'auteur montre à travers une passionnante enquête, de Stonehenge à Gizeh en passant par Pékin et Mexico, fondée sur l'étude des monuments anciens et des sources écrites encore accessibles. Les tablettes mésopotamiennes, les annales chinoises, les chroniques médiévales, etc. sont en outre d'une singulière utilité pour les astronomes modernes : comment sinon remonter aux variations de la durée du jour au cours des siècles, ou percer la nature de l'explosion qui a frappé tant d'observateurs en 1054 ? Ce livre offre un voyage magnifiquement illustré à travers les âges, entre astronomie et archéologie.

  15. Exploration des mécanismes de repliement des protéines par dynamique moléculaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilquin, B.

    2005-11-01

    Comment se replient les protéines? Cette question est ancienne. En introduction nous rappellerons ce qu'est le paradoxe de Levinthal et comment on est passé de la notion de chemin de repliement à la notion de paysage énergétique. Les simulations de dynamique moléculaire ont permis d'aborder la compréhension du processus de repliement au niveau atomique. Cependant l'échelle de temps des processus de repliement (de l'ordre de la milliseconde) n'est pas accessible aux simulations numériques (de l'ordre de la nanoseconde). Plusieurs auteurs ont donc proposé de simuler le dépliement des protéines par dynamique moléculaire. En admettant le principe de micro-réversibilité l'étude du processus de dépliement renseigne sur celui de repliement. Cependant, il est nécessaire d'accélérer le dépliement en introduisant un biais afin que les états dépliées soient accessibles aux échelles de temps des simulations. Nous présenterons un exemple de ce qui a été réalise dans le cas de l'étude de protéines de petite taille suivant un repliement simple, globalement à deux états. Nous présenterons ensuite ce que nous avons réalisé dans le cas d'une protéine de taille plus importante et pour laquelle le processus de repliement est plus complexe car il existe un intermédiaire transitoire de repliement. C'est le cas du lysozyme pour lequel les simulations de dépliement permettent d'accéder au mécanisme atomique de repliement et de comprendre pourquoi des mutants de cette protéine se replient plus lentement et forment des fibres amyloïdiques. Ainsi les intermédiaires de repliement seraient à l'origine de formes pathogènes des protéines observées dans les maladies neuro-dégéneratives. Enfin nous montrerons comment à partir de plusieurs simulations longues de dynamique moléculaire, le paysage énergétique pour de petites protéines peut être calculé.

  16. Demographic variation and conservation of the narrow endemic plant Ranunculus weyleri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cursach, Joana; Besnard, Aurélien; Rita, Juan; Fréville, Hélène

    2013-11-01

    Ranunculus weyleri is a narrow endemic protected plant from Majorca Island. It is known from only five populations located in two mountain areas 48 km apart. Using demographic data collected from 2007 to 2010, we assessed the demographic status of two populations - font des Coloms (FC) and talaia Moreia (TM) - using Integral Projection Models (IPMs). We showed that none of the two populations were declining under a deterministic model. Population FC was stable (? = 1.026, CI95% = 0.965-1.093), while population TM showed sign of demographic expansion (? = 1.113, CI95% = 1.032-1.219). Plant survival, flowering probability and the mean number of seedlings per floral peduncle were lower in TM, whereas growth and the number of floral peduncles per reproductive plant were lower in FC. Elasticity analyses showed that management strategies increasing plant survival and growth would be the most efficient to increase ? for both populations. Herbivory pressure by goats has been shown to be high in TM, resulting in high predation rate on floral peduncles. Controlling goat pressure may thus represent a promising management option, provided that we can demonstrate a negative impact of herbivory by goats on survival and growth which are the most critical parts of the life cycle in this species. Meanwhile, initiating a long-term monitoring is of crucial importance to get more insights into the relationships between environmental variation, plant performance and population dynamics.

  17. Ansprache des Prsidenten anlsslich der Festveranstaltung

    E-print Network

    Falge, Eva

    Ansprache des Präsidenten anlässlich der Festveranstaltung zum 100jährigen Jubiläum des Fritz-Haber herzlich willkommen, 100 Jahre Fritz-Haber-Institut bzw. Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für physikalische Chemie heute einen Einblick geben in 100 Jahre Fritz-Haber-Institut. MAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT Rede des

  18. Descriptif des fonctions postules CORPS EMPLOIS

    E-print Network

    Pouyanne, Nicolas

    - Architecte des systèmes d'information - Chef de projet ou expert en développement et déploiement d - Architecte des systèmes d'information - Chef de projet ou expert en développement et déploiement d télécommunications - Ingénieur statisticien - Ingénieur en calcul scientifique IR - Architecte des systèmes d

  19. Direction de la documentation, des archives

    E-print Network

    Ghorbel, Amin

    le travail des groupes. Désormais au nombre de trois, les espaces- projets ont fait l'objet de plus Bibliothèque #12;5 Le succès des espaces-projets de la Bibliothèque Pour toujours mieux répondre aux attentes des élèves, une nouvelle salle de travail, la salle Jean Rouch, a été ouverte en septembre 2014 au

  20. Emmanuel Frenod Professeur des Universites -Mathematiques Appliquees

    E-print Network

    Frénod, Emmanuel

    Emmanuel Fr´enod Professeur des Universit´es - Math´ematiques Appliqu´ees Professor - Applied, ´equations cin´etiques, homog´en´eisation, m´ethodes math´ematiques de mod´elisation, analyse num´erique, calcul scientifique, Lo- giciels encapsulant des math´ematiques, mod´elisation des environnements

  1. 10 CFR 52.5 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Employee protection. 52.5 Section 52.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.5 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by a Commission licensee, holder of a standard design approval, an applicant for...

  2. 10 CFR 52.5 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employee protection. 52.5 Section 52.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.5 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by a Commission licensee, holder of a standard design approval, an applicant for...

  3. PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL RESEARCH Plant defense, herbivory, and the growth of Cordia alliodora trees

    E-print Network

    Gordon, Deborah

    defense, tolerance, and herbivore pressure. In symbiotic ant­plant mutualisms, plants provide nesting, as long as the tree continues to grow. Keywords Allometry Á Ant­plant mutualism Á Chamela of the mutualists. In symbiotic ant­plant protection mutualisms, plants (known as myrmecophytes) provide ants

  4. Infections fongiques des brûlé : revue

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, JF.; Le Floch, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les infections fongiques locales ou générales sont souvent d’une extrême gravité chez les brûlés. Les brûlés combinent de nombreux facteurs de risque à une immunodépression induite par la brûlure. Les infections de plaies sont le fait des genres Candida, Aspergillus et des agents de mucormycoses. Ces deux derniers cas sont à l’origine de lésions particulièrement sévères. Leur diagnostic repose sur la biopsie cutanée avec examens mycologique et anatomopathologique. Le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical, associé à une antibiothérapie adaptée. Les septicémies sont le fait de levures, essentiellement du genre Candida. Le diagnostic en est difficile dans le contexte des brûlés et repose souvent sur une forte suspicion clinique. Leur traitement repose sur les échinocandines et plus secondairement sur le fluconazole. PMID:26668558

  5. Prise en charge en soins primaires des troubles liés à l’usage d’alcool et de la consommation à risque

    PubMed Central

    Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Fournir aux médecins de soins primaires de l’information et des conseils fondés sur des données probantes sur le dépistage et l’évaluation de la consommation d’alcool à risque et des troubles liés à l’usage d’alcool (TUA). Sources des données Nous avons effectué une recherche documentaire non systématique en utilisant des expressions de recherche portant sur les soins primaires, les TUA, la dépendance à l’alcool, l’abus d’alcool, l’usage abusif d’alcool, la consommation d’alcool néfaste pour la santé, ainsi que le dépistage, la détermination et l’évaluation dans le contexte des soins primaires. Principaux messages Les médecins de famille devraient faire passer un test validé de dépistage de l’abus d’alcool à tous les patients, au moins une fois par année. Dépister les patients qui se présentent avec des problèmes médicaux ou psychosociaux pouvant être reliés à l’usage d’alcool. Déterminer si les patients qui obtiennent des résultats positifs lors du dépistage sont des consommateurs d’alcool à risque ou s’ils ont des TUA. Si les patients ont des TUA, déterminer si les troubles sont légers, modérés ou sévères en utilisant les critères de la 5e édition du Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux. Communiquer le diagnostic aux patients et leur offrir de l’aide. Effectuer une évaluation plus approfondie des patients ayant des TUA. Procéder à un dépistage de la consommation d’autres substances, des troubles concomitants et des traumatismes. Déterminer s’il est nécessaire de rapporter le cas aux services de protection de l’enfance ou au ministère des Transports. Déterminer les besoins en matière de prise en charge médicale du sevrage alcoolique. Effectuer un bref examen physique et prescrire l’exécution de tests de laboratoire pour évaluer la formule sanguine complète et les taux de transaminases hépatiques, comprenant les ?-glutamyl-transpeptidases. Conclusion Le milieu des soins primaires est bien adapté au dépistage et à l’évaluation de l’abus d’alcool.

  6. Classification of 4 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, K.; Amon, A.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  7. Classification of 15 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Gshwend, Julia; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  8. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  9. Classification of 14 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Mould, J.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  10. Classification of 6 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G. F.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Martini, P.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  11. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission d’un article et seulement la moitié des journaux avait donné une définition de la qualité d’auteur. La publication scientifique de travaux sur les pratiques pharmaceutiques n’est pas à l’abri des manques de transparence liés à la publication. L’utilisation d’une grille décrivant la contribution de chaque auteur et la publication en ligne des travaux peuvent contribuer à limiter ces risques. PMID:24970938

  12. Transport quantique dans des nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C.

    2002-09-01

    Quantum transport in nanostructures This work is devoted to the design, fabrication and magnetotransport investigations of mesoscopic devices. The sample are obtain by e-beam lithography and the measurements are performed at low temperature in a dilution refrigerator in the presence of a magnetic field. We have used MBE grown AlGaAs/GaAs heterojonctions as starting material to fabricate a bipartite tiling of rhombus called mathcal{T}3 lattice. We observe for the first time large amplitude h/e oscillations in this network as compared to the one measured in square lattices of similar size. These oscillations are the signature of a recently predited localization phenomenon induced by Aharonov-Bohm interferences on this peculiar topology. For particular values of the magnetic field the propagation of the electron wave function is bounded in a small number of cells, called Aharonov-Bohm cages. More strikingly, at high magnetic field, h/2e oscillations appear whose amplitude can be much higher than the fundamental period. Their temperature dependence is similar to that of the h/e signal. These observations withdraw a simple interpretation in terms of harmonics generation. The origin of this phenomenon is still unclear and needs more investigations. The influence electrical width of the wire defining the network and so the rule of the number of channels can be studied using a gate deposited over the lattice. In particular we have measured the amplitude dependence of the h/e and h/2e signal versus the gate voltage. Ce travail est consacré à la réalisation d'échantillons mésoscopiques à partir de la lithographie électronique ainsi qu'à leur caractérisation à très basse température en magnétotransport. Nous avons pour cela exploité le gaz bidimensionnel d'électrons situé à l'interface d'une hétérojonction AlGaAs/GaAs pour réaliser un réseau de boucle d'une géométrie particulière baptisée la géométrie mathcal{T}3. Nous avons observé sur cette structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

  13. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA 59A (incorporated by reference, see § 193.2013). However, LNG plants existing on March 31, 2000, need not...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA 59A (incorporated by reference, see § 193.2013). However, LNG plants existing on March 31, 2000, need not...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA 59A (incorporated by reference, see § 193.2013). However, LNG plants existing on March 31, 2000, need not...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA 59A (incorporated by reference, see § 193.2013). However, LNG plants existing on March 31, 2000, need not...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA 59A (incorporated by reference, see § 193.2013). However, LNG plants existing on March 31, 2000, need not...

  18. Biotechnological applications of plant freezing associated Ghislain Breton1

    E-print Network

    Sarhan, Fathey

    , oxidative stress, plants, regulators, transgenic plants. Introduction Life is virtually impossible without, osmolyte producing enzymes, oxidative stress scavenging enzymes, lipid desaturases and gene regulators have genes to protect against temperature related stresses. In some cases, transgenic plants with significant

  19. Eye Protection

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries. ImagesFigures 2a, bFigure 3Figures 4a, b, c, dFigure 5 PMID:21267100

  20. Fire protection system HMI in power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainal, Yuda Bakti

    2015-05-01

    The central power station, a place where there are machines that generate power, equipped with substation where the voltage is produced by the generator and increased to a certain voltage with a step up voltage transformer. Effect on transformer oil is very important, transformer may malfunction if the oil that serves as a coolant and insulator gradually decreased its ability, over time their use. Power transformer on usability is vital, so it needs to be maintained so that the temperature rise must be overcome by applying a temperature control that can inform and control the control valve to open the hydrant tap transformer cooling. HMI implemented to facilitate the operators cope with excess heat in the transformer using thermocouple censor. Test results show that the control transformer and monitored using PLC and HMI. Transformer can maintain the condition of a maximum of 80 degrees Celsius heat.