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1

Plant Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant protection involves the proper selection, placement and es- tablishment of a plant in a favorable environment that will maintain its health, thus minimizing the need for chemical control of pests and diseases. The concept is as applicable to the backyard gardener as it is to the commercial grower. Selection is the key to successful establishment and plant longevity. Aside

KENNETH SHAW

2

Biological Plant Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effective plant protection calls for a judicious use of pesticides, herbicides and other agronomic measures. Biological plant protection has introduced new dimensions and concepts in plant protection. To develop rational biological plant protection measur...

V. A. Shapa

1985-01-01

3

Integrated Plant Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Written by a team of authors from the member-countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Aid (CMEA), this book for the first time generalizes the achievements of science and advanced practices in integrated plant protection. Special attention has been pa...

I. N. Fadeev K. V. Novozhilov

1987-01-01

4

Systems of plant protection.  

PubMed

A framework for associating pest management with farming systems may be characterized by a cropping index (number of crop cycles per year); a plant species homogeneity rank, described as the degree of monoculture or polyculture and intensity of use of modern, high-yielding varieties versus land races or traditional varieties; intensity of use of synthetic agrochemicals; the availability of societal infrastructure to support agriculture, such as irrigation and roads; and availability of support services such as credit, public/private sector research and extension services. Traditional methods of plant protection in the tribal areas of the Philippines rely heavily on ritual-based cultural practices that recognize the crop calendar and its activities as part of a larger social agenda. Most groundnut growers in West Africa utilize minimal inputs with little infrastructural support but they have often adopted improved varieties. Extensive farming systems with modern inputs are exemplified by wheat in the mid-western USA, where pests are managed mainly through host plant resistance. In intensive farming systems--vegetables in South-East Asia, wheat in The Netherlands and orchards in the USA--crop intensification is greatest and pest problems arising from overuse of pesticides are most noticeable. Unsustainable farming systems evolve if realistic plant protection is not taken into consideration. PMID:8149817

Teng, P S; Savary, S; Revilla, I

1993-01-01

5

Chitosan in Plant Protection  

PubMed Central

Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR) proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions.

El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Adam, Lorne R.; El Hadrami, Ismail; Daayf, Fouad

2010-01-01

6

Chitosan in plant protection.  

PubMed

Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR) proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:20479963

El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Adam, Lorne R; El Hadrami, Ismail; Daayf, Fouad

2010-03-30

7

Fire Protection Survey Pinellas Plant Largo, Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fire protection personnel provide effective fire protection advice for all major aspects of fire protection, namely: (1) major construction projects, (2) test and maintenance of fire protection equipment, and (3) training of Plant Fire Brigade members. In...

P. H. Dobson J. R. Sharland

1989-01-01

8

Plant Protection with Inorganic Ions  

PubMed Central

Gradients of salts of the specific ion repellents for Meloidogyne incognita -- NH??, K?, Cl?, and NO?? -- have been demonstrated to shield tomato roots from infestation in soil. The strategy of these greenhouse experiments was to interpose a salt barrier in a soil column between the plant roots and the nematodes. The relative effectiveness of the salts as a barrier to infective second-stage juveniles in a sandy loam was NH?NO?, NH?Cl > KNO? > KCl. Some of these ions are beneficial to plant growth, and the results suggest that a new environmentally tolerable means of plant protection is possible.

Castro, C. E.; McKinney, H. E.; Lux, S.

1991-01-01

9

Protective action recommendations based upon plant conditions.  

PubMed

Analyses conducted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) indicate that timely and effective protective action would be necessary to protect the public in a major nuclear power plant accident. Given the large amount of time required to implement an evacuation around most reactor sites, protective action recommendations (PARs) must be based upon specific plant indicators regarding the status of the core and systems that protect the core. This article describes the assumptions made, and the analyses conducted, by the NRC in developing its procedures for PARs based upon plant conditions. PMID:10838240

McKenna, T J

2000-07-28

10

Plant protection products: assessing the risk for terrestrial plants.  

PubMed

The fundamental data requirements for the authorization of plant protection products and the inclusion of active ingredients in Annex I of Council Directive 91/414/EEC (Council Directive of 15 July 1991 referring to placing plant protection products on the market (91/414/EEC). Official Journal of European Communities L 230, 19 August 1991) are described in the Annexes II and III of this Directive. Definite instructions with regard to preconditions for implementation and methodology (guidelines) concerning investigations with terrestrial plants are deficient. In addition to that, the uniform principles for the registration of plant protection products in the Member States described in Annex VI of the directive do not include any criteria concerning the risk assessment for non-target plants. However, plant protection products often show effects on non-target plants which need to be assessed as a requirement for the authorisation of the product. Hence, the German Federal Environmental Agency has developed a tiered approach to assess the effects of plant protection products on non-terrestrial plants. The risk is assessed using the effect-concentration evaluated in ecotoxicological tests and the environmental concentration predicted by validated exposure models. To protect non-target plants in terrestrial ecosystems assessment factors need to be considered. In the future, the risk for terrestrial plants needs to be addressed, also with regard to the revision of the Annexes of Directive 91/414/EEC. PMID:10819231

Füll, C; Jung, S; Schulte, C

2000-08-01

11

7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section... COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board....

2013-01-01

12

Tritium protection at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Plant produces tritium for the nation's defense. In addition to the planned production, unwanted tritium results from neutron irradiation of the heavy water moderator in the plant's reactors. During the past 30 years, continual improvements have been made in methods to protect the large workforce at the reactors and at the tritium facility from the potential hazards of tritium. This paper describes the current protection program.

Reinig, W.C.

1988-01-01

13

[Ziedses des Plantes: inventor of planigraphy and subtraction].  

PubMed

Bernard George Ziedses des Plantes (1902-1993) trained in Utrecht, the Netherlands, as specialist in nervous diseases, but his lifelong passion was to improve X-ray imaging of living tissues. In the 1930s he not only built the first machine for planigraphy, in which the X-ray tube and the film moved together around the plane of interest, but he also designed the subtraction method to improve images after injection of contrast agents. Eventually a full-time radiologist, he also developed the 'somersault' technique of ventriculography and pioneered isotope scintigraphy. PMID:21418697

van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

2011-01-01

14

Evolution Des Recherches Sur Les Plants Mycorhizes Par la Truffe et Perspectives de Developpement  

Microsoft Academic Search

La mise au point d'une méthode de production de plants mycorhizés par la truffe, en France, date du début des années 70. Depuis, les grands principes de la méthode utilisée n'ont pas subi d'évolution importante. La majorité des plants sont obtenus par semis et inoculés avec des préparations à base de spores de truffe. Cette pratique entraïne une hétérogénéité du

G. Chevalier

1994-01-01

15

Plant protection products: assessing the risk for terrestrial plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental data requirements for the authorization of plant protection products and the inclusion of active ingredients in Annex I of Council Directive 91\\/414\\/EEC (Council Directive of 15 July 1991 referring to placing plant protection products on the market (91\\/414\\/EEC). Official Journal of European Communities L 230, 19 August 1991) are described in the Annexes II and III of this

Christine Füll; Simone Jung; Christoph Schulte

2000-01-01

16

Genetically Modified Pest Protected Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on April 5, this widely anticipated report on genetically modified foods from a twelve-member panel of the National Research Council, part of the US National Academy of Sciences, offers a cautious endorsement of biotech foods, but also calls for more oversight and regulation. Focusing only on plants that have been genetically engineered to produce their own pesticides, the report finds no evidence that any foods made from these plants are unsafe to eat. It also finds no inherent danger in the insertion of genes from one species into another. However, the report does advise the government to conduct studies on the long-term health effects of eating biotech foods and recommends that the EPA regulate crops modified to resist viruses. As would be expected, the report has been welcomed by biotechnology companies and blasted by foes of genetic engineering, some of whom accused the panel of a pro-industry bias. A free pre-publication copy of the report is available online at the National Academy Press Website. Users can view the text as page images in HTML format or as .pdf files.

17

Protection of goats against rinderpest by vaccination with attenuated peste des petits ruminants virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the attenuated peste des petits ruminants vaccine virus to protect small ruminants against virulent rinderpest virus was investigated. Out of four susceptible goats that were infected with the highly virulent Saudi strain of rinderpest virus by intranasal ioculation, three developed mild clinical signs of disease and infected susceptible in-contact goats and cattle with rinderpest virus. However, four

A Diallo

1995-01-01

18

Optimisation du rééchantillonnage dans un logiciel d'Amélioration des Plantes  

Microsoft Academic Search

RÉSUMÉ. DIOGENE, un logiciel d'Amélioration des Plantes conçu et développé au sein du Département EFPA de l'INRA, fonctionne sous Solaris et Linux. C'est un logiciel libre (licence GPL), en évolution constante, qui traite de modèles de Biométrie générale, de Génétique Quantitative et de Génétique des Populations. Il fait largement appel aux techniques de rééchantillonnage (jackknife et bootstrap) pour tester des

Service Forêt-Bois; Unité EPHYSE

19

40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Exemptions...

2012-07-01

20

40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Exemptions...

2011-07-01

21

40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Exemptions...

2013-07-01

22

Vehicle bomb protection for nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The six-step methodology presented in this paper can be applied to nuclear power reactors to provide protection measures and considerations against vehicle bomb threats. The methodology provides a structured framework for examining the potential vulnerability of a plant to a postulated vehicle bomb and for developing contingency planning strategies for dealing with such a possibility. The six steps are as

J. W. James; J. D. Veatch; L. Goldman; R. Massa

1989-01-01

23

Biological and Chemical Methods of Plant Protection,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Integrated plant protection implies the judicious use of biological and chemical methods of pest control. However, too much reliance on any single method may lead to a change in the ecological balance. The book includes selected articles devoted to the st...

I. S. Popushoi

1986-01-01

24

Transgenic plants protected from insect attack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces proteins which are specifically toxic to a variety of insect species. Modified genes have been derived from bt2, a toxin gene cloned from one Bacillus strain. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes synthesize insecticidal proteins which protect them from feeding damage by larvae of the tobacco hornworm.

Vaeck, Mark; Reynaerts, Arlette; Höfte, Herman; Jansens, Stefan; de Beuckeleer, Marc; Dean, Caroline; Zabeau, Marc; Montagu, Marc Van; Leemans, Jan

1987-07-01

25

Utilisation des masques de protection respiratoire chez les soignants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different types of filtering respiratory masks are available in healthcare settings. The first ones are used to protect patients from droplets coming from the mouth of healthcare workers (HCW) and the second ones are protective masks. For the moment, we lack information regarding application of Ministry of Health recommendations and on adherence of HCW to mask use. Geres, the

C. Ciotti; E. Bouvet; D. Abiteboul

2008-01-01

26

7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...plant permit shall be submitted to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Permit...

2009-01-01

27

7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...plant permit shall be submitted to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Permit...

2010-01-01

28

48 CFR 31.205-29 - Plant protection costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant protection costs. 31.205-29 Section...Commercial Organizations 31.205-29 Plant protection costs. Costs of items such...and equipment of personnel engaged in plant protection, (b) depreciation on...

2012-10-01

29

48 CFR 31.205-29 - Plant protection costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plant protection costs. 31.205-29 Section...Commercial Organizations 31.205-29 Plant protection costs. Costs of items such...and equipment of personnel engaged in plant protection, (b) depreciation on...

2011-10-01

30

Protection of power plant transformers using digital technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following specific areas of transformer protection are addressed in this paper. (1) Power plant transformer protection: overexcitation and differential restraint; generator step-up unit (GSU) transformer ground fault protection; and auxiliary\\/start-up and industrial transformer protection; (2) Transmission substation transformer protection: overexcitation (V\\/Hz); protection; and sudden pressure relay (SPR) blocking. (3) Distribution substation transformer protection: underfrequency\\/undervoltage load shedding. (4) Distribution substation

C. J. Mozina

1999-01-01

31

Plant Species Checklist for the Lac des Allemands Swamp Area of Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is a compilation of a checklist of plants found in Lac Des Allemands Swamp area of Louisiana. The following list is composed of those plants personally observed by the authors. Within the swamp two forest types were studied--bottomland and...

W. H. Conner R. E. Noble J. W. Day

1975-01-01

32

Plant Protection and Quarantine: Safeguarding America's Harvest and Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) program is an integral part of USDAs Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). PPQ safeguards agricultural and natural resources from the risks associated with the entry, establishment, or spread of anim...

2004-01-01

33

Immune responses to hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of peste des petits ruminants virus expressed in transgenic peanut plants in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious disease of small ruminants caused by a morbillivirus, Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). The disease is prevalent in equatorial Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. A live attenuated vaccine is in use in some of the countries and has been shown to provide protection for at least

Abha Khandelwal; Gourapura. J. Renukaradhya; Malleshappa Rajasekhar; G. Lakshmi Sita; Melkote S. Shaila

2011-01-01

34

Rubber linings as surface protection in flue gas desulfurization plants  

SciTech Connect

The manufacturers of the German rubber lining industry have executed the rubber lining of over 1 million m{sup 2} of steel surfaces in over 150 scrubbers of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants, thereby effectively protecting them against corrosion. The application of rubber linings as surface protection in FGD plants has proven effective.

Fenner, J.

1997-04-01

35

The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange; tectonic setting and melange formation in the Quebec Appalachians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange (RPOM) is the largest and best exposed of the three known ophiolitic melanges that contain blocks of Chain Lakes Massif (CLM). All three lie along the Baie Verte-Brompton line, which marks the suture between the continental rocks of the Humber zone and the oceanic rocks of the Dunnage zone. The ophiolitic melange is composed

Pierre A. Cousineau

1991-01-01

36

U.S. Plant Variety Protection: Sound and Fury...?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article offers a critical reassessment of U.S. approaches to intellectual property protection for plant innovation. Three developments make this reassessment timely. First, the Supreme Court has finally confirmed that utility patent claims to plants and seeds satisfy the 35 U.S.C. Section 101 subject matter eligibility requirement. Plant innovation in the United States is now subject to utility patent protection,

Mark D. Janis; Jay P. Kesan

2002-01-01

37

Transgenic Trees: Implementation and Outcomes of the Plant Protection Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responsibility for protecting U.S. agriculture from pests and diseases is assigned by the Federal Plant Pest Act (FPPA) to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the Department of Agriculture. The Plant Protection Act (Title 7 U.S.C. Sections 7701 et seq.) gives Aphis statutory authority over genetically modified organisms (GMO), in effect assigning to APHIS a related

Roger A. Sedjo

2004-01-01

38

Exposure of pollinators to plant protection products.  

PubMed

As a general rule, environmental risk for chemicals is characterised by comparing an expected exposure level (e.g. PEC) with an ecotoxicological endpoint. The same approach is generally used for plant protection products (PPPs). However, in some cases, suitable procedures for a precise quantification of exposure are not available. The common risk assessment procedure for pollinators based on the hazard quotient, where the agronomic application rate is assumed as an exposure indicator, is an example. In this work, a semi-quantitative index to assess exposure to PPPs for organisms with a large forage area is presented. The proposed index was already applied in a previous work on risk assessment for pollinators, for this reason the validation steps (sampling area, collected samples, samples distribution) were planned bearing in mind the characteristic and the behaviour of these organisms and using Apis mellifera as representative of pollinators. The starting point for the development of the index is the assumption that exposure depends not only on environmental fate of pesticides but also on the feeding behaviour of the target organisms (in this context meant as target of the assessment). The developed index was applied and validated in different experimental areas of 4 × 4 km located in North-East Italy (Veneto region) characterised by a different level of impact. A sensitivity analysis of the index was performed evaluating the influence of the dataset resolution on the predictive efficiency. The obtained results indicate a good agreement between predicted and measured concentrations, supporting the suitability of the index to improve exposure assessment for pollinators. PMID:22752801

Barmaz, Stefania; Vaj, Claudia; Ippolito, Alessio; Vighi, Marco

2012-07-03

39

40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant...

2012-07-01

40

40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant...

2011-07-01

41

40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant...

2013-07-01

42

Cathodic protection current testing for large plant structures  

SciTech Connect

Design of cathodic protection (CP) for underground facilities in large plants is a problem. A method is described for performing data interpretation of field cathodic current requirement tests on large plant structures. It is possible to perform meaningful tests with small temporary current sources and arrive at a design where final requirements are many times larger. Examples of its use at a power plant and an air separation plant are given.

Maynard, R.J. [Aurora Corrosion Control, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-07-01

43

48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The Contractor shall also provide whatever additional safeguards are necessary to protect the plant and work in process from espionage, sabotage, and enemy action. (1) The Government shall reimburse the Contractor for that portion of the costs of...

2012-10-01

44

7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...measures. (6) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO). NAPPO is...

2009-01-01

45

Plant Protection Problems in Southeast Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Improved crop protection can do little to reduce the population explosion in East Asia, but it can make important contributions toward assuring an adequate food supply until populations become stabilized through family planning and birth control. This doc...

E. H. Glass R. J. Smith I. J. Thomason H. D. Thurston

1971-01-01

46

A novel plant protection strategy for transient reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel plant protection system designed for use in the TREAT Upgrade (TU) reactor is described. The TU reactor is designed for controlled transient operation in the testing of reactor fuel behavior under simulated reactor accident conditions. Safe operation of the reactor is of paramount importance and the Plant Protection System (PPS) had to be designed to exacting requirements. Researchers believe that the strategy developed for the TU has potential application to the multimegawatt space reactors and represents the state of the art in terrestrial transient reactor protection systems.

Bhattacharyya, Samit K.; Lipinski, Walter C.; Hanan, Nelson A.

47

Plant Protection. Volume 22, Number 114, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci) with reference to host plants in Serbia; Contribution to the study of natural enemies of the Ceral Leaf Beetle (Lema melanopa) in Yugoslavia; A study of the morphology and ecology of Phyllosticta prunicola; In...

1973-01-01

48

Water protection in coke-plant design  

SciTech Connect

Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15

49

Protective films for pilot-plant deodorizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  With mild agitation, soybean oil is not appreciably contaminated by contact with clean steel surfaces unless the fatty acid\\u000a content is above 0.1% and the temperature above 150C.\\u000a \\u000a It has been shown that an oxidized oil film is an effective coating for metals used in the construction of pilot-plant deodorizers.\\u000a Such a film, to be most effective, should be washed

R. E. Beal; E. B. Lancaster

1951-01-01

50

Internationalizing Plant Protection through Extension:The International Plant Diagnostic Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global tourism and industrial trade are unwitting partners in the movement of exotic and invasive plant pests and pathogens. Coupled with natural movement by wind and storms, these factors are increasing the transfer plant pests and impacting agricultural operations around the world. It is important to develop plans for protecting agriculture through early detection and accurate diagnosis of new plant

Carrie Lapaire Harmon; P. Vergot; J. Xin; T. Momol; S. Miller

51

Protective clothing laundering and monitoring at nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that a small but significant number of skin contamination incidents at Northern States Power Company's Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant were believed to have been caused by residual contamination in laundered, clean protective clothing. Since very little information was available on this mode of skin contamination, a two-part study was undertaken to evaluate it more fully. The first part of this study consisted of a survey of protective clothing laundering and monitoring practices at 24 nuclear power plants. The second part of the study was a simple experiment to evaluate the effect of perspiration on the transfer of residual contamination from laundered clothing.

Hylko, J.M. (Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Miller, M.L. (Weston (Roy F.), Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Brehm, L.E.; Peterson, S.K. (Northern States Power Co., Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant, Monticello, MN (US))

1988-02-01

52

Optimization of solutions for the one plant protection problem.  

PubMed

Plant protection problems are simulated by a system of ordinary differential equations with given initial conditions. The sensitivity and resistance of pathogen subpopulations to fungicide mixtures, fungicide weathering, plant growth, etc. are taken into consideration. The system of equations is solved numerically for each set of initial conditions and parameters of the disease and fungicide applications. Optimization algorithms were investigated and a computer program was developed for optimization of these solutions. 14 typical cases of the disease were simulated and optimized in order to determine optimal fungicide treatments. The optimized strategy for fungicide application differs considerably from the commonly used method and seems to be an important new principle in plant protection. The approach developed in this study may be useful for a wide spectrum of purposes in the simulation of leaf diseases. It may also help the biologist to decrease or pinpoint experimental work and analyze its results and is perspective for plant disease control. PMID:11368479

Kelman, E; Levy, R S; Levy, Y

2001-03-01

53

A novel plant protection strategy for transient reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present plant protection system (PPS) has been defined for use in the TREAT-upgrade (TU) reactor for controlled transient operation of reactor-fuel behavior testing under simulated reactor-accident conditions. A PPS with energy-dependent trip set points lowered worst-case clad temperatures by as much as 180 K, relative to the use of conventional fixed-level trip set points. The multilayered multilevel protection strategy represents the state-of-the-art in terrestrial transient reactor protection systems, and should be applicable to multi-MW space reactors.

Bhattacharyya, Samit K.; Lipinski, Walter C.; Hanan, Nelson A.

54

The role of phytoalexins in plant protection.  

PubMed

Plants resist pathogens with combinations of constitutive and induced defences. Of the induced defences, phytoalexin production has received much attention since the phytoalexin concept was introduced over 50 years ago. However, the specific role of phytoalexins in disease resistance is not clear for the majority of host-parasite systems. Much of the research on phytoalexins has relied on the identification of induced antifungal compounds and correlating their presence with resistance. Although an important first step, more definitive studies are needed. Approaches that use in situ localization and quantification have provided good evidence that phytoalexins can accumulate at the right time, concentration, and location to be effective in resistance. Studies on phytoalexin tolerance in pathogenic fungi have also shown a relationship between virulence and the ability of fungi to detoxify phytoalexins. Use of mutants deficient in phytoalexin synthesis and elucidating biosynthetic pathways provide other approaches to evaluating the role of phytoalexins. These approaches will be illustrated using the Arabidopsis-camalexin system and other selected examples. Studies on natural variation in phytoalexin production and the accumulation of phytoalexins under field conditions will be presented as another means of evaluating the role of these compounds in resistance to pathogens and other pests. PMID:10549555

Hammerschmidt, R; Dann, E K

1999-01-01

55

Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment of Plant Protection Products: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant protection products (PPPs) pose a serious dilemma; although their application contributes to the fight against poverty and diseases, at the same time these agrochemicals represent a significant public health threat. As part of Ireland's commitment to the Water Framework Directive (WFD), the country's groundwater sources and resources have to be properly monitored and specific standards in groundwater quality need

Michail Pavlis; Enda Cummins; Kevin McDonnell

2010-01-01

56

Protective clothing laundering and monitoring at nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that a small but significant number of skin contamination incidents at Northern States Power Company's Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant were believed to have been caused by residual contamination in laundered, clean protective clothing. Since very little information was available on this mode of skin contamination, a two-part study was undertaken to evaluate it more fully. The first

J. M. Hylko; M. L. Miller; L. E. Brehm; S. K. Peterson

1988-01-01

57

Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

NONE

1996-06-01

58

Symbiotic microorganisms, a key for ecological success and protection of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-associated microbial diversity encompasses symbionts, protecting their host against various aggressions. Mycorrhizal and rhizospheric microorganisms buffer effects of soil toxic compounds and soil-borne pathogens. Endophytic bacteria and fungi, some of which are vertically inherited through seeds, take part in plant protection by acting directly on aggressive factors (mainly pathogens and herbivores) or by enhancing plant responses. Plant protective microbial symbionts

Marc-André Selosse; Ezékiel Baudoin; Philippe Vandenkoornhuyse

2004-01-01

59

Diversity protects plant communities against generalist molluscan herbivores  

PubMed Central

Wildflower strips are used to increase natural enemies of crop pests and to conserve insect diversity on farmland. Mollusks, especially slugs, can affect the vegetation development in these strips considerably. Although recent theoretical work suggests that more diverse plant communities will exhibit greater resistance against herbivore pressure, empirical studies are scarce. We conducted a semi-natural experiment in wildflower strips, manipulating trophic structure (reduction in herbivorous mollusks and reduction in major predators) and plant diversity (2, 6, 12, 20 and 24 sown species). This design allowed us to assess the effect of plant diversity, biomass and composition on mollusks, and vice versa, the effect of mollusc abundance on vegetation. Seven species of mollusks were found in the strips, with the slugs Arion lusitanicus, Deroceras reticulatum and Deroceras panormitanum being most frequent. We found a negative relationship between plant diversity and mollusk abundance, which was due predominantly to a decrease in the agricultural pest species A. lusitanicus. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that plant diversity can reduce the impact of herbivores. However, plant identity also had an effect on mollusks, and accounted for a much larger fraction of the variation in mollusk communities than biodiversity effects. While overall plant diversity decreased during the 3 years of the study, in the final year the highest plant diversity was found in the plots where mollusk populations were experimentally reduced. We conclude that selective feeding by generalist herbivores leads to changes in plant community composition and hence reduced plant diversity. Our results highlight the importance of plant biodiversity as protection against generalist herbivores, which if abundant can in the long term negatively impact plant diversity, driving the system along a “low plant diversity – high mollusk abundance” trajectory.

Fabian, Yvonne; Sandau, Nadine; Bruggisser, Odile T; Kehrli, Patrik; Aebi, Alexandre; Rohr, Rudolf P; Naisbit, Russell E; Bersier, Louis-Felix

2012-01-01

60

Protective action alternatives for accidents at nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Protective action calculations have been performed for five different light water reactors (LWRs) and containment designs using high and low fission product releases for early and late containment failures for each plant. These fission product release estimates were obtained from studies performed for the recently published ''Reactor Risk Reference Document'' (NUREG-1150). Five protective actions were considered for the risks of exceeding various dose levels to the red marrow versus centerline distance from the plants using site-specific meteorology. The strategies considered were 4 hours of normal activity, basement sheltering, large building sheltering, evacuation at release, and evacuation 1 hour after release. The evacuations were computed using 10 mph evacuation speed for all sites. Additional calculations were performed for the dose contributions due to the cloud, ground, and inhalation pathways.

Tingle, A.; Pratt, W.T.; McGuire, S.A.

1987-06-01

61

[Intoxications caused by plant protection chemicals in 1997].  

PubMed

In 1997 were registered 140 cases of intoxications caused by chemicals used for plant protection. The most of the intoxications occurred after the intake of pesticides (70.7% of diseases). Accidental intake made 36.4% of the total number of cases, and intended intake was 34.3%. During the agricultural labour it came to exposure in 28.6% of cases. Insecticides caused 68.6% of the total number of intoxications by pesticides. In rural regions 79.3% of the sick people were submitted to intoxication and 20.7% in the urban regions. The morbidity of men was almost three times higher than morbidity of women (respectively 0.54 and 0.20). In 1997 three outbreaks of intoxication by pesticides were noted: two of three people and one of two people. Because of intoxication by chemicals for plant protection 10 people died. PMID:10402858

Przybylska, A

1999-01-01

62

[Poisonings caused by plant protection chemicals in Poland in 1999].  

PubMed

Total number 121 cases of intoxications caused by the chemicals used for plant protection were registered in 1999 in Poland (morbidity 0.31/100,000). The most of intoxications (69.4%) occurred after intake of pesticides. In 43 cases (35.5%) it was intended (suicidal) intake. Accidental intake was in 35 cases (29.9%). In 27 cases (22.3%) exposure took place at agricultural labour. Insecticides caused 66.1% of the total number of cases. 81.0% of the sick people were subject of intoxication by pesticides in rural regions and 19.0% in the urban regions. The incidence of men was 2.8 times higher than incidence of women (respectively 0.47 and 0.17). In 1999 no group intoxications by pesticides were noted. As the result of intoxication by chemicals for plant protection 15 people died. PMID:11556066

Przybylska, A

2001-01-01

63

[Storage of plant protection products in farms: minimum safety requirements].  

PubMed

Failure to comply with requirements for proper storage and use of pesticides in farms can be extremely hazardous and the risk of accidents involving farm workers, other persons and even animals is high. There are still wide differences in the interpretation of the concept of "securing or making safe", by workers in this sector. One of the critical points detected, particularly in the fruit sector, is the establishment of an adequate storage site for plant protection products. The definition of "safe storage of pesticides" is still unclear despite the recent enactment of Legislative Decree 81/2008 regulating health and work safety in Italy. In addition, there are no national guidelines setting clear minimum criteria for storage of plant protection products in farms. The authors, on the basis of their professional experience and through analysis of recent legislation, establish certain minimum safety standards for storage of pesticides in farms. PMID:23369994

Dutto, Moreno; Alfonzo, Santo; Rubbiani, Maristella

64

[Intoxications caused by plant protection chemicals in 1998].  

PubMed

In 1998 were registered 118 cases of intoxications caused by chemicals used for plant protection. The most of intoxications occurred after the intake of pesticides (66.9%). Intended intake (suicidal) made 38 cases (32.2%) and accidental intake made 37 cases (31.4%). During the agricultural labour it came to exposure in 35 cases (29.7%). Insecticides caused 66.9% of the total number of cases. In rural regions 85.6% of the sick people were submitted to intoxication by pesticides and 14.4% in the urban regions. The morbidity of the men was more than three times higher than morbidity of the women (respectively 0.48 and 0.14). In 1998 three of two people outbreaks of intoxication by pesticides were noted. Because of intoxication by chemicals for plant protection 14 people died. PMID:11076153

Przybylska, A

2000-01-01

65

[The role of proteolytic enzymes and their inhibitors in plant protection (review)].  

PubMed

Literature data on possible ways of involvement of proteolytic enzymes and their inhibitors in protection of plants from pests and diseases are analyzed. Certain practical applications of natural protease inhibitors to plant protection are discussed. PMID:11357415

Mosolov, V V; Grigor'eva, L I; Valueva, T A

66

78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE).'' In response...

2013-09-11

67

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

Washington TRU Solutions

2002-09-24

68

Glycinebetaine protects plants against abiotic stress: mechanisms and biotechnological applications.  

PubMed

Various compatible solutes enable plants to tolerate abiotic stress, and glycinebetaine (GB) is one of the most-studied among such solutes. Early research on GB focused on the maintenance of cellular osmotic potential in plant cells. Subsequent genetically engineered synthesis of GB-biosynthetic enzymes and studies of transgenic plants demonstrated that accumulation of GB increases tolerance of plants to various abiotic stresses at all stages of their life cycle. Such GB-accumulating plants exhibit various advantageous traits, such as enlarged fruits and flowers and/or increased seed number under non-stress conditions. However, levels of GB in transgenic GB-accumulating plants are relatively low being, generally, in the millimolar range. Nonetheless, these low levels of GB confer considerable tolerance to various stresses, without necessarily contributing significantly to cellular osmotic potential. Moreover, low levels of GB, applied exogenously or generated by transgenes for GB biosynthesis, can induce the expression of certain stress-responsive genes, including those for enzymes that scavenge reactive oxygen species. Thus, transgenic approaches that increase tolerance to abiotic stress have enhanced our understanding of mechanisms that protect plants against such stress. PMID:20946588

Chen, Tony H H; Murata, Norio

2010-10-15

69

[Genetically modified plants and the problems of plant protection: progress and estimation of potential risks].  

PubMed

The review deals with advances and prospects in development of transgenic plants. At present virtually all commercial GM crops are those created for solving plant protection problems--they carry transgenes conferring resistance to herbicides, pests, viruses. Approaches employed for development of commercial GM crops with herbicide, pest and virus resistance, as well as strategies and prospects of development of commercial GM plants with resistance to fungal and bacterial diseases and nematodes, are considered. Ecological (including agronomical) and social risks associated with commercial growing of transgenic plants are briefly discussed. PMID:23074966

Kozub, N O; Pylypenko, L A; Sozinov, I O; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, O O

70

Development, registration and commercialization of microbial pesticides for plant protection.  

PubMed

Plant protection against pathogens, pests and weeds has been progressively reoriented from a therapeutic approach to a rational use of pesticide chemicals in which consumer health and environmental preservation prevail over any other productive or economic considerations. Microbial pesticides are being introduced in this new scenario of crop protection and currently several beneficial microorganisms are the active ingredients of a new generation of microbial pesticides or the basis for many natural products of microbial origin. The development of a microbial pesticide requires several steps addressed to its isolation in pure culture and screening by means of efficacy bioassays performed in vitro, ex vivo, in vivo, or in pilot trials under real conditions of application (field, greenhouse, post-harvest). For the commercial delivery of a microbial pesticide, the biocontrol agent must be produced at an industrial scale (fermentation), preserved for storage and formulated by means of biocompatible additives to increase survival and to improve the application and stability of the final product. Despite the relative high number of patents for biopesticides, only a few of them have materialized in a register for agricultural use. The excessive specificity in most cases and biosafety or environmental concerns in others are major limiting factors. Non-target effects may be possible in particular cases, such as displacement of beneficial microorganisms, allergenicity, toxinogencity (production of secondary metabolites toxic to plants, animals, or humans), pathogenicity (to plants or animals) by the agent itself or due to contaminants, or horizontal gene transfer of these characteristics to non-target microorganisms. However, these non-target effects should not be evaluated in an absolute manner, but relative to chemical control or the absence of any control of the target disease (for example, toxins derived from the pathogen). Consumer concerns about live microbes due to emerging food-borne diseases and bioterrorism do not help to create a socially receptive environment to microbial pesticides. The future of microbial pesticides is not only in developing new active ingredients based on microorganisms beneficial to plants, but in producing self-protected plants (so-called plant-incorporated pesticides) by transforming agronomically high-value crop plants with genes from biological control agents. PMID:12955583

Montesinos, Emilio

2003-09-03

71

Plant foods and plant-based diets: protective against childhood obesity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to review the epidemiologic literature examining the role of plant foods and plant-based diets in the pre- vention of childhood obesity. Available data suggest a protective ef- fect of ready-to-eat cereal on risk of obesity, although prospective studies are still needed. Studies on fruit and vegetables; grains other than cereal; high-protein foods, including beans,

PK Newby

2009-01-01

72

45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Specially Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25...

2009-10-01

73

45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Specially Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25...

2010-10-01

74

Protection of goats against peste des petits ruminants with recombinant capripoxviruses expressing the fusion and haemagglutinin protein genes of rinderpest virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goats were protected against a lethal challenge of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus following vaccination with a recombinant capripoxvirus containing either the fusion (F) gene of rinderpest virus or the haemagglutinin (H) gene of rinderpest virus. The H gene recombinant produced high titres of neutralizing antibody to rinderpest virus in the vaccinated goats, whereas the F gene recombinant failed

C. H. Romero; T. Barrett; R. P. Kitching; C. Bostock; D. N. Black

1995-01-01

75

Towards acceptability criteria of probabilistic risks of plant protection products.  

PubMed

The risk assessment of plant protection products in the EU has started from a relatively simple basis using risk quotients. In the past years probabilistic approaches have been developed to quantify the inherent variability and uncertainty of exposure and effects. Probabilistic risk outcomes can, in our view, only change the conclusions of a deterministic risk outcome provided that regulators are willing to develop more differentiated (i.e. contextualised) risk acceptability criteria. This paper contributes to the discussion by providing questions for more differentiated risk acceptability criteria and by presenting the relationship between deterministic and probabilistic risk outcomes. PMID:17390773

Verdonck, F A M; Van Sprang, P; Vanrolleghem, P A

2006-01-01

76

[Occurrence of plant protection product residues in apples in 2007].  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to present occurrence of plant protection product residues in apples in 2007. Gas chromatographic and spectroscopy methods were used. The most frequently found were fungicides: dithiocarbamate residues (18% of the analysed samples), captan residues (13%), pyrimethanil residues (6%) and insecticides: chlorpiryfos residues (6%), diazinon residues (6%) and pirimicarb residues (5%). 5.6% of analysed samples exceeded the national Maximum Residue Level established for apples. Violations were found for: flusilazole (n = 2), propiconazole (n = 2), cyprodinil (n = 1), dimethoate (n = 1), fenitrothion (n = 1). PMID:19143426

Machowska, Anna; S?owik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Szpyrka, Ewa; Sad?o, Stanis?aw

2008-01-01

77

Modeling of plant protection and control systems for SSC  

SciTech Connect

Plant protection and feedback control systems for dynamic simulation of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors are developed. The models include manual and automatic shutdown systems with provision for selective suppression of PPS signals. The control system models include (1) supervisory control, (2) the reactor power control and rod drive mechanism, (3) primary and intermediate flow-speed control and pump drive system, and (4) steam generator flow-speed control and valve/pump actuator dynamics. These models have been incorporated into the SSC code using a flexible programming approach, in order to accommodate some design dependent variations. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Khatib-Rahbar, M.

1980-06-01

78

Optimization of plant protection products treatments against Plasmopara viticola.  

PubMed

Plant protection in conventional farming, and even more so in organic farming, requires careful and prudent action agro-environmental monitoring and epidemic risk assessment. Often, however, the plant protection products are distributed in a non-targeted way, even when reduced incidence of pests do not require any treatment. In order to optimize the treatments against downy mildew, multi-annual field trials, both in conventional and organic vineyards, have been carried out. In all farms were considered 3 thesis: 1 untreated control thesis (Test), in order to follow the coarse of infection, 1 standard farm reference thesis (St), where the treatments were carried out according to the usual farm procedures and 1 experimental thesis (X). Guideline EPPO/OEPP PP 1/31 (3) have been carried out. We monitored different environmental parameters capable to influence Plasmopora viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and De Toni development. In fact by a network of RTUs (Remote Terminal Units) distributed all over the vineyards transmitting every 15 minutes via radio or via GPRS to a centralized Data Base 12 environmental parameters: time, data, precipitation, soil temperature, solar radiation, wind direction, wind speed, atmospheric relative humidity, atmospheric temperature, leaf wetness, soil humidity to cm 20 and soil humidity to cm 40. In different phenological growth stages we carried out careful disease assessments on leaves and bunches to evaluate the onset and development of P. viticola. We have studied the downy mildew infections through monitoring the environmental parameters, knowledge of P. viticola biological cycle, the evaluation of cultivar sensibility, the agricultural production method and the area characteristics, to try to optimize the anti- downy mildew treatments. The achieved results have underlined the possibility to obtain a satisfactory protection against P. viticola by correct placing of treatments. In experimental thesis (X) the number of treatments was generally lower than the number made on the thesis standard (ST), with efficacy comparable if not better. This result is most evident in conventional farms where surveillance is less accurate because is can also use plant protection products with a curative action. The trial showed the possibility of obtaining real cost containment management and a lower environmental impact associated with reduced fungicidal treatments. PMID:19226753

La Torre, A; Gianferro, M; Spera, G

2008-01-01

79

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

2005-07-01

80

The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange; tectonic setting and melange formation in the Quebec Appalachians  

SciTech Connect

The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange (RPOM) is the largest and best exposed of the three known ophiolitic melanges that contain blocks of Chain Lakes Massif (CLM). All three lie along the Baie Verte-Brompton line, which marks the suture between the continental rocks of the Humber zone and the oceanic rocks of the Dunnage zone. The ophiolitic melange is composed of: serpentinized ultramafic rocks, some of which are sheared and/or carbonatized; blocks of amphibolitized gabbro; basalt; volcanogenic breccia; and conglomerates. It also contains continental K-rich granitoid rocks and high-grade metamorphic (upper amphibolite facies) rocks. The RPOM is part of the Saint-Daniel Melange, an accretionary prism onto which the RPOM has been tectonically emplaced. The CLM was part of a terrane accreted to the Laurentian margin during the Taconian orogeny. Blocks of the CLM along the Baie Verte-Brompton line are interpreted as fragments of this terrane caught within the suture zone. It is proposed that the CLM could be the equivalent of Grenville-derived greywacke originally laid down during the phase of continental rifting that led to the formation of the Iapetus Ocean and was later tectonized and metamorphosed during the Taconian and Acadian orogenies. The RPOM would represent the relic of a serpentinite diapir that rose within a deep oceanic fault. The presence of continental rocks like the CLM suggest that a continental magmatic arc was put in contact with an oceanic crust along this fault.

Cousineau, P.A. (Universite du Quebec, Chicoutimi (Canada))

1991-01-01

81

Protect nuclear plant fasteners from boric acid corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Boric acid corrosion of pump and valve fasteners in pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants can be prevented by implementing appropriate fastener steel replacement and extended inspections to detect and correct the cause of leakage. In this paper a three-phase corrosion protection program based on system operability, outage-related accessibility, and cost of fastener replacement versus maintenance frequency increase is presented. A selection criteria for fastener material is also presented. Degradation or failure of pressure retaining fasteners at pumps and valves has been reported in several areas exposed to leakage of closures in long-term service. The resulting boric acid corrosion experienced in PWR systems is defined as an accelerated process produced when water evaporates from leaking coolant. The primary detrimental effect of boric acid leakage is wastage (or general dissolution corrosion) of low-alloy carbon steel fasteners.

Moisidis, N.; Popescu, M.; Ratiu, M. (ABB Impell Corp. (US))

1992-03-01

82

Aging assessment of surge protective devices in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

An assessment was performed to determine the effects of aging on the performance and availability of surge protective devices (SPDs), used in electrical power and control systems in nuclear power plants. Although SPDs have not been classified as safety-related, they are risk-important because they can minimize the initiating event frequencies associated with loss of offsite power and reactor trips. Conversely, their failure due to age might cause some of those initiating events, e.g., through short circuit failure modes, or by allowing deterioration of the safety-related component(s) they are protecting from overvoltages, perhaps preventing a reactor trip, from an open circuit failure mode. From the data evaluated during 1980--1994, it was found that failures of surge arresters and suppressers by short circuits were neither a significant risk nor safety concern, and there were no failures of surge suppressers preventing a reactor trip. Simulations, using the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were performed to determine the adequacy of high voltage surge arresters.

Davis, J.F.; Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Carroll, D.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)] [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)

1996-01-01

83

45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Specially Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially...

2011-10-01

84

45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Specially Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially...

2012-10-01

85

Procedure de qualification des garnitures mecaniques des pompes principales des centrales nucleaires Francaises. (Mechanical seals qualification procedure of the main pumps of nuclear power plants in France).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many important pumps in the nuclear power plants are equipped with mechanical seals. The good behaviour and reliability of mechanical seals depend specially on the quality and the stability of an interface of several microns. Peripheral speed reaches 50 m...

D. Buchdahl R. Martin J. M. Girault

1992-01-01

86

Multiple-model structural control for seismic protection of nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for multiple-model structural control is developed for seismic protection of nuclear power plant, based on active structural control systems. Structural control provides opportunity to realize measures for reduction of seismic vulnerability of high risk structures, like nuclear power plants. The reliability of devices and systems for seismic protection is proved after modelling and simulation of seismic structural control

Svetla Radeva

2010-01-01

87

Case study: Adaptative overcurrent protection scheme applied to an industrial plant with cogeneration units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although digital protection has been widely employed in power system industry, many protection practices are still the same employed to electromechanical relays. Consequently, the potentialities and benefits of digital relays are not fully explored. In this context, this work presents the advantages of digital protection to coordinate overcurrent relays in an industrial plant with three cogeneration units, resulting in three

Antonio H. M. Soares; Jose C. M. Vieira

2008-01-01

88

A hundred and more years of plant protection in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the occasion of the Centenary of the Netherlands Society of Plant Pathology a reflection on past, present and future of\\u000a plant protection, the subject matter of the Society, was thought to be appropriate.\\u000a \\u000a Developments in plant protection are projected against a general stream of thought. Three turning points are distinguished\\u000a which can be seen as paradigm changes. The first

J. C. Zadoks

1991-01-01

89

40 CFR 158.2250 - Nontarget plant protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1, 3 850.4400 Aquatic plant growth (aquatic vascular plant) Tier II... 4, 10 850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal) Tier II (dose response...the risk quotient from any aquatic plant growth Tier II study exceeds a level...

2013-07-01

90

10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

2013-01-01

91

7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...submitted to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant...the best of my knowledge and belief.â (c) Each application...in accordance with rules of practice which shall be...

2013-01-01

92

40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances...507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant;...

2011-07-01

93

40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances...507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant;...

2012-07-01

94

40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances...507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant;...

2013-07-01

95

Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna  

SciTech Connect

A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) plant-defense response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and-susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States) Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Botany); Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States)); Freeman, S. (Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

1999-02-01

96

Biochemical Analysis of Plant Protection Afforded by a Nonpathogenic Endophytic Mutant of Colletotrichum magna1  

PubMed Central

A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) “plant-defense” response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and -susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

Redman, Regina S.; Freeman, Stanley; Clifton, David R.; Morrel, Jed; Brown, Gayle; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

1999-01-01

97

Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of colletotrichum magna  

PubMed

A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) "plant-defense" response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and -susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection. PMID:9952476

Redman; Freeman; Clifton; Morrel; Brown; Rodriguez

1999-02-01

98

[Questions and countermeasure of plant protection in produce of Chinese medicinal materials].  

PubMed

Based on large inquest, the authors point out the questions of plant protection in produce of Chinese medicinal materials, meanwhile present the methods to solve them and list the research subjects which now must be down. PMID:11341020

Cheng, H; Chen, J; Ding, W

2001-01-01

99

A UV-B-specific signaling component orchestrates plant UV protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

UV-B radiation in sunlight has diverse effects on humans, animals, plants, and microorganisms. UV-B can cause damage to molecules and cells, and consequently organisms need to protect against and repair UV damage to survive in sunlight. In plants, low nondamaging levels of UV-B stimulate transcription of genes involved in UV-protective responses. However, remarkably little is known about the underlying mechanisms

Bobby A. Brown; Catherine Cloix; Guang Huai Jiang; Eirini Kaiserli; Pawel Herzyk; Daniel J. Kliebenstein; Gareth I. Jenkins

2005-01-01

100

Safety and Advantages of Bacillus thuringiensis-Protected Plants to Control Insect Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants modified to express insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (referred to as Bt-protected plants) provide a safe and highly effective method of insect control. Bt-protected corn, cotton, and potato were introduced into the United States in 1995\\/1996 and grown on a total of approximately 10 million acres in 1997, 20 million acres in 1998, and 29 million acres globally in

Fred S. Betz; Bruce G. Hammond; Roy L. Fuchs

2000-01-01

101

Evaluation of Respiratory Protection in Coal Preparation Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surface coal mine (SIC-1211) and preparation facility operations were studied to determine respirable dust and vapor hazards and the effectiveness of respiratory protective equipment. Eight coal preparation facilities were surveyed. Dust samples were take...

1980-01-01

102

Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Groundwater Protection Program at the Savannah River Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major goals of the groundwater protection program are to evaluate the impact on groundwater quality as a result of Savannah River Plant operations, to take corrective measures as required to restore or protect groundwater quality, and to ensure that f...

D. E. Gordon

1984-01-01

103

Expression of protective antigen in transgenic plants: a step towards edible vaccine against anthrax.  

PubMed

Protective antigen (PA) is the most potent molecule for vaccination against anthrax. In the present study, we have successfully integrated protective antigen gene in nuclear genome of tobacco plants by Agrobacterium mediated leaf-disc transformation method. Expression of protective antigen gene was detected by immunoblot analysis using antisera raised against purified PA. A distinct band of approximately 83kDa lighted up in the protein extracted from transformed plants while there was no such band in untransformed plants. The plant expressed PA showed biological activity just like native PA, which was demonstrated by cytolytic assay on macrophage like cell lines with lethal factor. This study establishes for the first time expression of PA gene in a plant system and thus marks the first milestone towards developing edible vaccine against anthrax. PMID:12445805

Aziz, Mohd Azhar; Singh, Samer; Anand Kumar, P; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

2002-12-01

104

Isoprene as a tool for plant protection against abiotic stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoprene is emitted from numerous plant species of different genera. Due to its high volatility it is rapidly lost from plant tissue into the atmosphere where it undergoes chemical reactions. Since isoprene synthesis takes place in chloroplasts, it was suggested that a link may exist between isoprene production and environmental stresses affecting the photosynthetic apparatus. Isoprene synthesis is therefore of

Violeta B. Velikova

2008-01-01

105

40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Nonfood Aquatic Food crop Nonfood Greenhouse Food crop Nonfood Forestry Domestic...if a 25 percent or greater detrimental effect was found in 1 or more plant species...if a 50 percent or greater detrimental effect was found on any plant species in...

2013-07-01

106

SPECIAL PROTECTION SCHEMES IN OPERATION AT ITAIPU POWER PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Nowadays, the installed power capacity of Itaipu Power Plant is 14.000 MW, with a energy production around 90.000 GWh per year. This amount of energy makes the plant responsible for the supplying about 23% of Brazil and 90% of Paraguay electricity markets. Another parameter gives an idea of the dimension of the involved systems: only 6% of the energy

JOVITA G. CORRÊA DA SILVA; JOSÉ BENEDITO; MOTA JÚNIOR; ROBSON ALMIR DE OLIVEIRA; GREGÓRIO ACHA NAVARRO; MARCELINO PEREIRA DE ALMEIDA; FERNANDO VEGA DAHER; ALEXANDRE GONÇALVES LEITE; ITAIPU BINACIONAL

107

Pathogenesis-Related Proteins for the Plant Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi are far more complex organisms than viruses or bacteria and can developed numerous diseases in plants that cause loss of big portion of the crop every year. Plants have developed various mechanisms to defend themselves against these fungi which include the production of low molecular weight secondary metabolites, proteins and peptides having antifungal activity. In this review, brief information

V. Borad; S. Sriram

2008-01-01

108

Role of plant peroxisomes in protection against herbivores.  

PubMed

Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles of vital importance. They are ubiquitous, have a single membrane and execute numerous metabolic reactions in plants. Plant peroxisomes are multifaceted and have diverse functions including, but not limited to, photomorphogenesis, lipid metabolism, photorespiration, nitrogen metabolism, detoxification and plant biotic interactions. Plants have evolved a variety of defence barriers against herbivory. These barriers are unique and loaded with various metabolites. Peroxisomes play an important role in cells, maintaining the compartmentation of certain specific reactions. They serve as a first line of defence, as peroxisomes generate primary signals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Both ROS and RNS sense the invasion by herbivores and dramatically reshape the plant transcriptomes, proteomes, and metabolomes, so indicating the importance of signals generated by peroxisomes. Peroxisomes also store a plethora of important enzymes, which have a key role in producing defence molecules. Some of the main enzymes in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids are present in peroxisomes. These enzymes generate plant volatiles, which have numerous functions and important roles in plant-herbivore communication.Although disputed, the enzyme myrosinase has also been reported to be present in peroxisomes, and myrosinases are well known for their role in the mustard bomb, a powerful defence against herbivores. This chapter focuses on the diverse roles of peroxisomes in the generation of direct and indirect defenses against herbivores. PMID:23821156

Shabab, Mohammed

2013-01-01

109

Modelling of core protection and monitoring system for PWR nuclear power plant simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear power plant simulator was developed for Younggwang units 3 and 4 nuclear power plant (YGN Nos 3 and 4) in Korea; it has been in operation on training center since November 1996. The core protection calculator (CPC) and the core operating limit supervisory system (COLSS) for the simulator were also developed. The CPC is a digital computer-based core

Jung Kun Lee; Byoung Sung Han

1998-01-01

110

Phytochemicals of Brassicaceae in plant protection and human health – Influences of climate, environment and agronomic practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we provide an overview of the role of glucosinolates and other phytochemical compounds present in the Brassicaceae in relation to plant protection and human health. Current knowledge of the factors that influence phytochemical content and profile in the Brassicaceae is also summarized and multi-factorial approaches are briefly discussed. Variation in agronomic conditions (plant species, cultivar, developmental stage,

Maria Björkman; Ingeborg Klingen; Andrew N. E. Birch; Atle M. Bones; Toby J. A. Bruce; Tor J. Johansen; Richard Meadow; Jørgen Mølmann; Randi Seljåsen; Lesley E. Smart; Derek Stewart

2011-01-01

111

The Impacts of Macroergonomics on Environmental Protection and Human Performance in Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human and his performance is a vital factor in protection of asset including environmental properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of total system design factors (TSD) on human performance in a power plant. The TSD factors are defined as design factors, which have impact on overall performance of the power plants in context of total

A Azadeh; J Nouri; I Mohammad Fam

2005-01-01

112

Tobacco growth enhancement and blue mold disease protection by rhizobacteria: Relationship between plant growth promotion and systemic disease protection by PGPR strain 90-166  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on plant growth and systemic protection against blue mold disease of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), caused by Peronospora tabacina, was investigated in the greenhouse. Five PGPR strains with known plant growth promotion and induced resistance activities in other crops were used in these studies. PGPR strains were applied as seed treatments alone at planting

Shouan Zhang; Munagala S. Reddy; Joseph W. Kloepper

2004-01-01

113

Nuclear plant-aging research on reactor protection systems  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the rsults of a review of the Reactor Trip System (RTS) and the Engineered Safety Feature Actuating System (ESFAS) operating experiences reported in Licensee Event Reports (LER)s, the Nuclear Power Experience data base, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, and plant maintenance records. Our purpose is to evaluate the potential significance of aging, including cycling, trips, and testing as contributors to degradation of the RTS and ESFAS. Tables are presented that show the percentage of events for RTS and ESFAS classified by cause, components, and subcomponents for each of the Nuclear Steam Supply System vendors. A representative Babcock and Wilcox plant was selected for detailed study. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research guidelines were followed in performing the detailed study that identified materials susceptible to aging, stressors, environmental factors, and failure modes for the RTS and ESFAS as generic instrumentation and control systems. Functional indicators of degradation are listed, testing requirements evaluated, and regulatory issues discussed.

Meyer, L.C.

1988-01-01

114

Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115

Škrovánková, So?a; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Mach?, Ludmila

2012-01-01

115

Salicylic Acid Protects Potato Plants-from Phytoplasma-associated Stress and Improves Tuber Photosynthate Assimilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a pathogen attack, cells triggers the overproduction of reactive oxygen species causing oxidative stress and physiological\\u000a damage. Plants develop strategies using these reactive molecules for protection against pathogen attack. Phytoplasma are bacteria\\u000a lacking cell walls that inhabit plant phloem and reduce yield, tuber quality, and commercial harvest value. Sprayed salicylic\\u000a acid (SA) activated plant defense response against phytoplasma attack

Silvia Sánchez-Rojo; Humberto A. López-Delgado; Martha E. Mora-Herrera; Humberto I. Almeyda-León; Hilda Araceli Zavaleta-Mancera; David Espinosa-Victoria

2011-01-01

116

Protection against cancer by plant phenylpropenoids: induction of mammalian anticarcinogenic enzymes.  

PubMed

Chemoprotection has established itself as a "major arm" in the "war against cancer" and induction of phase 2 detoxification enzymes as an effective strategy. Prominent among inducers are Michael reaction acceptors. Such functionalities are intrinsic to many phenylpropanoids present in edible plants, where they play roles in plant defense. This minireview focuses on the ability of such plant metabolites to elevate phase 2 enzymes in various cell culture and animal models and ultimately to protect against carcinogenesis. PMID:12370043

Dinkova-Kostova, A T

2002-12-01

117

A bivalent vaccine against goat pox and Peste des Petits ruminants induces protective immune response in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety and immunogenicity of an experimental combined vaccine comprising attenuated strains of Peste des Petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and goat poxvirus (GTPV) was evaluated in goats. Goats immunized subcutaneously with 1ml of vaccine consisting of 103TCID50 of each of PPRV and GTPV were monitored for clinical and serological responses for a period of 4 weeks postimmunization (pi) and postchallenge (pc).

Madhusudan Hosamani; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Bimalendu Mondal; Arnab Sen; V. Bhanuprakash; Santanu Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Mahendra Pal Yadav; Raj Kumar Singh

2006-01-01

118

De-novo design of antimicrobial peptides for plant protection.  

PubMed

This work describes the de-novo design of peptides that inhibit a broad range of plant pathogens. Four structurally different groups of peptides were developed that differ in size and position of their charged and hydrophobic clusters and were assayed for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth and fungal spore germination. Several peptides are highly active at concentrations between 0,1 and 1 µg/ml against plant pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Importantly, no hemolytic activity could be detected for these peptides at concentrations up to 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the peptides are also active after spraying on the plant surface demonstrating a possible way of application. In sum, our designed peptides represent new antimicrobial agents and with the increasing demand for antimicrobial compounds for production of "healthy" food, these peptides might serve as templates for novel antibacterial and antifungal agents. PMID:23951222

Zeitler, Benjamin; Herrera Diaz, Areli; Dangel, Alexandra; Thellmann, Martha; Meyer, Helge; Sattler, Michael; Lindermayr, Christian

2013-08-12

119

De-Novo Design of Antimicrobial Peptides for Plant Protection  

PubMed Central

This work describes the de-novo design of peptides that inhibit a broad range of plant pathogens. Four structurally different groups of peptides were developed that differ in size and position of their charged and hydrophobic clusters and were assayed for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth and fungal spore germination. Several peptides are highly active at concentrations between 0,1 and 1 µg/ml against plant pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Importantly, no hemolytic activity could be detected for these peptides at concentrations up to 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the peptides are also active after spraying on the plant surface demonstrating a possible way of application. In sum, our designed peptides represent new antimicrobial agents and with the increasing demand for antimicrobial compounds for production of “healthy” food, these peptides might serve as templates for novel antibacterial and antifungal agents.

Zeitler, Benjamin; Herrera Diaz, Areli; Dangel, Alexandra; Thellmann, Martha; Meyer, Helge; Sattler, Michael; Lindermayr, Christian

2013-01-01

120

Protection of tomato plants against fusaric acid by resistance induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The rhizobacteria Bacillus sphaericus B43, Pseudomonas fluorescens T58, and P. putida 53 are able to induce systemic resistance (ISR) against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato. This study investigated if ISR reduced damage by the toxin Fusaric Acid (FA) that is produced by F. oxysporum. Methodology and Results: Bacteria were applied to the rhizosphere of tomato plants. Chlorophyll content

Maina FM; Hauschild R

121

Plant responses to stresses: Role of ascorbate peroxidase in the antioxidant protection  

PubMed Central

When plants are exposed to stressful environmental conditions, the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) increases and can cause significant damage to the cells. Antioxidant defenses, which can detoxify ROS, are present in plants. A major hydrogen peroxide detoxifying system in plant cells is the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, in which, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) enzymes play a key role catalyzing the conversion of H2O2 into H2O, using ascorbate as a specific electron donor. Different APX isoforms are present in distinct subcellular compartments, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisome, and cytosol. The expression of APX genes is regulated in response to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during plant development. The APX responses are directly involved in the protection of plant cells against adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, mutant plants APX genes showed alterations in growth, physiology and antioxidant metabolism revealing those enzymes involvement in the normal plant development.

Caverzan, Andreia; Passaia, Gisele; Rosa, Silvia Barcellos; Ribeiro, Carolina Werner; Lazzarotto, Fernanda; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia

2012-01-01

122

Design of self-processing antimicrobial peptides for plant protection.  

PubMed

Small antimicrobial peptides are excellent candidates for inclusion in self-processing proteins that could be used to confer pathogen resistance in transgenic plants. Antimicrobial peptides as small as 22 amino acids in length have been designed to incorporate the residual amino acids left from protein processing by the tobacco etch virus'(TEVs') NIa protease. Also, by minimizing the length of these peptides and the number of highly hydrophobic residues, haemolytic activity was reduced without affecting the peptide's antimicrobial activity. PMID:10972721

Powell, W A; Catranis, C M; Maynard, C A

2000-08-01

123

Soil Bacteria Take Up D-Amino Acids, Protect Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, many groups reported D-amino acid uptake by plant roots, raising the question of whether soil D-amino acids represent a source of nitrogen or a source of toxicity. The discussion needs to be placed in the context of competition with rhizosphere bacteria. To provide this context, we followed the concentrations of D- and L-enantiomers of alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and leucine after they were added to soils in the laboratory. In all cases, the uptake of L-enantiomer began immediately and proceeded rapidly until exhausted. In contrast, the uptake of D-enantiomer required induction: an initial period of inactivity followed by rapid consumption comparable in rate to L-enantiomer. The induced nature of the D activity was confirmed by the addition of rifampicin, an mRNA synthesis inhibitor. Preventing the synthesis of new enzymes abolished soil flora's ability to consume D-amino acids, but not L-amino acids. These results suggest that inducible special racemase enzymes, which can convert D-amino acids back to their native L-forms, are widespread among soil microorganisms. This finding does not rule out the possibility that some plants may out-compete microorganisms and be able to access D-amino acids. It does suggest, however, that rhizosphere bacteria can shield plants from the toxic effect of D-amino acids.

Sun, H. J.; Zhang, G.

2011-12-01

124

[Intoxications caused by chemicals for plant protection in Poland in 2000].  

PubMed

A total number of 107 cases of intoxications caused by chemicals for plant protection were registered in Poland in 2000 (incidence 0.28 per 100,000 population). The majority of intoxications (74.8%) occurred after an intake of substances. In 28.0% cases it was suicidal intake, in 43.0% cases accidental intake, and in 3.7% with food. In 15.9% cases exposure took place at agricultural labor. Insecticides caused 64.5% of the total number of cases. In rural regions 83.2% of the sick people were subject of intoxication by chemicals for plant protection and in the urban regions 16.8%. The incidence among men was higher than incidence among women (0.37 and 0.19 respectively). In 2000, no group intoxications were noted. In the result of intoxication by chemicals for plant protection seven people died. PMID:12371365

Przybylska, Anna

2002-01-01

125

Use of plant extracts in a cosmetic composition to protect keratinous fibers  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention provides a method of protecting keratinous fiber from extrinsic damage, e.g., protein loss caused by exposure to heat, chemicals, etc., comprising the application of a composition comprising at least one plant extract. The invention also contemplates a method of improving combability and/or a method of improving curl formation of keratinous fibers. In another embodiment, the invention is drawn to a composition for the treatment or protection of keratinous fiber comprising willowherb extract.

Cannell; David W. (Plainfield, NJ); Fadeeva; Natalya (Clark, NJ); Mathur; Hitendra (Woodbridge, NJ); Nguyen; Nghi Van (Edison, NJ)

2005-03-01

126

Scientific basis and regulatory aspects for the toxicology of plant protection products in the European Union.  

PubMed

Authorization of plant protection products/agrochemicals/pesticides in the European Union is done on the basis of their toxicological properties. This paper reviews the current legislation for placing an agrochemical on the market (ie a new substance or a existing active substance), and the toxicology studies needed for inclusion of a substance in any of the annexes of the Council Directive of the European Economic Community 91/414/ EEC. Risk analysis and its steps is discussed. The "threshold toxicity" employed to allow risk characterisation of plant protection products is described, such as acceptable daily intake, acceptable operator exposure level, acute reference dose, and maximum admissible concentration in water. PMID:11577939

Anadón, A; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Martínez, M A

2001-10-01

127

L'arsenal phytosanitaire face aux ennemis des plantes. Considérations générales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are attacked, not only by various microorganisms, but also by other enemies, such as molluscs, nematods, mites, and insects. They have evolved complex and efficient mechanisms to defend themselves against pathogens (hypersensitive response, systemic acquired resistance) and herbivores (release of volatile compounds that attract predators of the herbivores, accumulation of proteinase inhibitors). Yet, the confrontation of the plants with

Jean-Louis Bonnemain; Jean-François Chollet

2003-01-01

128

Quantitative synthesis of context dependency in ant-plant protection mutualisms.  

PubMed

Context dependency, variation in the outcome of species interactions with biotic and abiotic conditions, is increasingly considered ubiquitous among mutualisms. Despite several qualitative reviews of many individual empirical studies, there has been little quantitative synthesis examining the generality of context dependency, or conditions that may promote it. We conducted a meta-analysis of ant-plant protection mutualisms to examine the generality of context-dependent effects of ants on herbivory and plant performance (growth, reproduction). Our results show that ant effects on plants are not generally context dependent, but instead are routinely positive and rarely neutral, as overall effect sizes of ants in reducing herbivory and increasing plant performance were positive and significantly greater than 0. The magnitude of these positive effects did vary, however. Variation in plant performance was not explained by the type of biotic or abiotic factor examined, including plant rewards (extrafloral nectar, food bodies, domatia), ant species richness, plant growth form, or latitude. With the exception of plant growth form, these factors did contribute to the effects of ants in reducing herbivory. Reductions in herbivory were greater for plants with than without domatia, and greatest for plants with both domatia and food bodies. Effect sizes of ants in reducing herbivory decreased, but remained positive, with latitude and ant species richness. Effect sizes in reducing herbivory were greater in tropical vs. temperate systems. Although ant-plant interactions have been pivotal in the study of context dependency of mutualisms, our results, along with other recent meta-analyses, indicate that context dependency may not be a general feature of mutualistic interactions. Rather, ant-plant protection mutualisms appear to be routinely positive for plants, and only occasionally neutral. PMID:19769117

Chamberlain, Scott A; Holland, J Nathaniel

2009-09-01

129

Efficacy of some plant products as grain protectants against Rhizopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera; Bostrichidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty?two medicinal plant powders, ash of plant origin and sorbic acid were evaluated as grain protectants against Rhizopertha dominica (F.). Rauwolfia serpentina sorbic acid, Acorus calamus, Messua ferrea and Alblzia lebbeck were found effective at 1 % (w\\/w) in a first screening test and all these products were further assessed at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0% (w\\/w). Rauwolfia serpentina completely inhibited

S. N. Tiwari

1994-01-01

130

Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T&E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T&E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to

D. J. Awl; L. R. Pounds; B. A. Rosensteel; A. L. King; P. A. Hamlett

1996-01-01

131

Protective effect of selenium in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) plants subjected to cadmium exposure.  

PubMed

The protective effect of selenium against the cadmium-induced oxidative effect in broccoli ( Brassica oleracea) plants was studied. Plants grown in hydroponic culture were supplied with selenium [as Se(IV)] and cadmium [as Cd(II)], individually or simultaneously. Cadmium accumulation in roots was noticeably higher than in the aerial parts of the plants, and this effect was even more acute when selenium was simultaneously added. Cadmium phytotoxicity was evidenced by an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the roots and a decrease of photosynthetic pigment and tocopherol concentration in the aerial parts of the plant. The simultaneous addition of selenium alleviated cadmium-induced stress in the roots after 40 days of exposition. In the leaves, a more remarkable decrease of tocopherol and chlorophyll concentration was observed in the cadmium-enriched plants after 10 days of exposure. The results provided evidence that selenium supplementation helps the plant to minimize the cadmium oxidant effect. Tocopherol concentration in broccoli fruit of cadmium-supplied plants was not affected in comparison to control. However, the proportion of alpha-tocopherol increases with the addition of selenium. This response is important not only for the protective effect against oxidative damage in the plant but also in terms of human nutrition. PMID:18044833

Pedrero, Zoyne; Madrid, Yolanda; Hartikainen, Helinä; Cámara, Carmen

2007-11-29

132

Protective effects of three extracts from Antarctic plants against ultraviolet radiation in several biological models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photoprotective effect of the methanolic extracts of three Antarctic plant species –Deschampsia antarctica Desv., Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl., and Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. against UV-induced DNA damage was investigated in hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells) and in a biomonitor organism Helix aspersas, using comet assay. The protective, mutagenic, and antimutagenic profiles of these extracts were also evaluated using haploid strains

Betina Kappel Pereira; Renato Moreira Rosa; Juliana da Silva; Temenouga Nikolova Guecheva; Iuri Marques de Oliveira; Martus Ianistcki; Vinícius Cosmos Benvegnú; Gabriel Vasata Furtado; Alexandre Ferraz; Marc François Richter; Nádia Schroder; Antônio Batista Pereira; João Antonio Pêgas Henriques

2009-01-01

133

Reliability and safety study of three proposed LOFT Plant Protection (Reactor Shutdown) System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods used in selecting an optimum LOFT Plant Protection System (PPS) circuitry design are described. Three possible configurations were proposed for the LOFT PPS. To make the proper selection, the three configurations were studied on the basis of safety, reliability, and maintenance.

Hunt

1979-01-01

134

Purine Receptor Agonists protect the genome of Plant and Animal cells from Clastogen Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purine receptor agonists adenosine, cyclohexyladenosine, phenylisopropyladenosine, dimethylaminopurine riboside, ATP, and ADP reduced the level of chromosome aberrations and the number of micronuclei induced by ethylmethane sulfonate and cyclophosphamide in plants (Crepis capillaris) and mice. Possible mechanisms of the protective effect of these ligands are discussed.

V. S. Kharitonov; V. V. Semenov; B. I. Barabanshchikov

2001-01-01

135

Application of Fusible Overcurrent Protection for Electrical Distribution Systems in Glass Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most glass plants in operation today have been in existence for many years. In some cases maintenance of existing electrical equipment and upgrading of electrical distribution systems to comply with today's standards has been neglected. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the characteristics and applications of current-limiting fuses for the protection of existing electrical distribution systems and

Albert F. Cox

1977-01-01

136

Protections impact on the availability of a wind power plant operating in real conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a number of aspects referred to availability of the wind turbines operating in a wind power plant. Starting from the experimental data gathered on-site through SCADA systems, and from a recorded data indicating the operation of various types of protections, the causes of unavailability are investigated in terms of determining the impact of the different types of

Irinel-Sorin Ilie; Gianfranco Chicco; P. Di Leo; F. Spertino

2009-01-01

137

Valve control for low temperature overpressure protection in a nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a nuclear power plant having a reactor coolant system and associated coolant pressure boundary, a control system is described for overpressure protection of the reactor coolant boundary to prevent violating a prescribed pressure-temperature relationship. The control system consists of: a relief nozzle connected to the reactor coolant boundary; a fluid collector remote from the reactor coolant boundary; first and

C. W. McMullin; S. E. Weismantel

1986-01-01

138

The requirements for registration of plant protection products in the EU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread concern about the hazard to human health and the environment posed by chemicals has become over the past few years a priority issue, recognized by international organizations, governments and industry. Criteria for hazard and risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs) for registration at EU level are established by Council Directive 91\\/414\\/EEC. The assessment of hazard for a

P. Ciocca; P. Grasso

139

PLANT FRUCTANS: A NOVEL CLASS OF POLYMERIC PROTECTANTS FOR MEMBRANES DURING DRYING.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fructan (polyfructose)-family of oligo- and polysaccharides is a group of compounds that have for a long time been implicated as protective agents in the drought and freezing tolerance of many plant species. We have shown before that low concentrations (up to 10 mg/mL) of inulins (linear fructos...

140

Molecular Characterization of Maize Inbreds with Expired U.S. Plant Variety Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize inbred lines with expired Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) certifi cates are pub- licly available and potentially represent a new germplasm resource for many public and pri- vate breeding programs. However, accurate pedigree and genetic background information for ex-PVPA maize inbreds is necessary if they are to be effectively utilized in breeding efforts. We have used single nucleotide polymorphism

Paul T. Nelson; Nathan D. Coles; James B. Holland; David M. Bubeck; Stephen Smith; Major M. Goodman

2008-01-01

141

Anti-corrosion protection for structural members and buildings at metallurgical plants  

SciTech Connect

This article describes anti-corrosion measures implemented by the contractor Ankor to protect the metal structures in existing shops at the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant. The method used to choose the coating system and technology is described along with the practical application of an effective method for protecting metal structures from corrosion. The anti-corrosion protection given natural draft cooling tower No. 1 at the coke and coal chemicals plant is used as an example. At a low cost in materials, the coating application system proposed by the contractor made it possible to guarantee a service life of 6-7 years for the metal structures, decrease the consumption of paint and lacquer by 18%, reduce the job cost by 20%, and complete the repair on schedule.

Strebkov, V.T. [Chelyabinsk Meteorology Plant, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

2005-06-01

142

Experiences and perspectives for the use of a Paenibacillus strain as a plant protectant.  

PubMed

A study on the microbial ecology in an active slow sand filter, used for disinfecting the circulating plant nutrient solutions, showed that spore-forming plant-associated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus-Paenibacillus complex are well adapted for transmission in the solutions and passage through the filter. Therefore, strains from this bacterial group were suitable candidates for biological control in irrigated and closed plant growth systems. The spore-forming Paenibacillus polymyxa strain PpDGB was selected in in vitro tests as a potent pathogen-antagonist and was tested as a prophylactic protection agent in the plant rhizosphere, especially for cultures stages that are highly susceptible to stress and disease. Plant cuttings, in vitro plants and seeds of different plant types were bacterized and planted in their typical disease-conducive environment where nutrient solutions or water irrigation was applied and further plant development was monitored. Observed plant parameters were plant survival, weight, chlorophyll concentration in the leaf mesophyl, root health and root hair formation. The PpDGB treatment initially induced stress in the plants, which was observed as a transient stop in plant transpiration. This effect caused some necrosis in the most stress-sensitive in vitro plant species. In the other plants this stress period was followed by a significant enhancement in plant growth. In case of seed treatment, more seeds germinated and seedling growth was faster. In the tested formulation, PpDGB enhanced growth but not disease resistance, probably due to simultaneous activation of the residual plant pathogens. Therefore variant formulations have to be tested. The influence of PpDGB on the composition of the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere was assessed by DGGE profiling. In soilless plant cultures, PpDGB-driven profile changes could be observed from the 5th day after the initial treatment. P. polymyxa bacteria were shown to be widely present in association with plants and specific PpDGB detection in plant and rhizosphere was only possible with newly developed strain-specific PCR primers based on Nif H gene sequences. Quantitative PCR based on SYBR Green fluorescence enabled detection of low PpDGB concentrations in the plant rhizosphere. PMID:15151278

Maes, M; Baeyen, S

2003-01-01

143

Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants.  

PubMed

Indiscriminate use of pesticides and fertilizers causes environmental pollution, emergence of agricultural pests and pathogens, and loss of biodiversity. Nanotechnology, by virtue of nanomaterial related properties, has potential agro-biotechnological applications for alleviation of these problems. The literature pertaining to the role of nanotechnology in plant and soil systems demonstrates that nanomaterials may assist in a) the controlled release of agrochemicals for nutrition and protection against pests and pathogens, b) delivery of genetic material, c) sensitive detection of plant disease and pollutants and d) protection and formation of soil structure. For instance, porous silica (15nm) and biodegradable, polymeric chitosan (78nm) nanoparticles displayed slow release of encapsulated pesticide and fertilizer, respectively. Further, nanosized gold (5-25nm) delivered DNA to plant cells while iron oxide (30nm) based nanosensors detected pesticides at minute levels. These functions assist the development of precision farming by minimizing pollution and maximizing the value of farming practice. PMID:21729746

Ghormade, Vandana; Deshpande, Mukund V; Paknikar, Kishore M

2011-06-25

144

Plant cytochromes P450: tools for pharmacology, plant protection and phytoremediation.  

PubMed

Cytochromes P450 catalyse extremely diverse and often complex regiospecific and/or stereospecific reactions in the biosynthesis or catabolism of plant bioactive molecules. Engineered P450 expression is needed for low-cost production of antineoplastic drugs such as taxol or indole alkaloids and offers the possibility to increase the content of nutraceuticals such as phytoestrogens and antioxidants in plants. Natural products may serve important functions in plant defence and metabolic engineering of P450s is a prime target to improve plant defence against insects and pathogens. Herbicides, pollutants and other xenobiotics are metabolised by some plant P450 enzymes. These P450s are tools to modify herbicide tolerance, as selectable markers and for bioremediation. PMID:12732316

Morant, Marc; Bak, Søren; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

2003-04-01

145

Guide for Studies of the Protection of Insulated Substations Against Lightning Guide pour les Etudes de Protection des Postes Blindes Contre la Foudre.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods for representing the elements of electricity substations in numerical models used for lightning protection studies are described. System configurations are classed according to the chances of insulation capacity being exceeded. For configurations ...

G. Bernard

1982-01-01

146

Indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal assemblages protect grassland host plants from pathogens.  

PubMed

Plant roots can establish associations with neutral, beneficial and pathogenic groups of soil organisms. Although it has been recognized from the study of individual isolates that these associations are individually important for plant growth, little is known about interactions of whole assemblages of beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms associating with plants.We investigated the influence of an interaction between local arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal and pathogenic/saprobic microbial assemblages on the growth of two different plant species from semi-arid grasslands in NE Germany (Mallnow near Berlin). In a greenhouse experiment each plant species was grown for six months in either sterile soil or in sterile soil with one of three different treatments: 1) an AM fungal spore fraction isolated from field soil from Mallnow; 2) a soil pathogen/saprobe fraction consisting of a microbial community prepared with field soil from Mallnow and; 3) the combined AM fungal and pathogen/saprobe fractions. While both plant species grew significantly larger in the presence of AM fungi, they responded negatively to the pathogen/saprobe treatment. For both plant species, we found evidence of pathogen protection effects provided by the AM fungal assemblages. These results indicate that interactions between assemblages of beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms can influence the growth of host plants, but that the magnitude of these effects is plant species-specific. PMID:22110635

Wehner, Jeannine; Antunes, Pedro M; Powell, Jeff R; Caruso, Tancredi; Rillig, Matthias C

2011-11-16

147

Electric power plants: Protective coatings and corrosion inhibition. (Latest citations from the Metals Abstracts alloys index database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning protective coatings for power plants. Corrosion protection by means of applied coatings or the use of electrochemical inhibition is discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the effect of corrosion on the strength of materials used in various types of power plants and includes stress corrosion cracking and erosion protection. The effects of cyclic loading and thermal expansion of heat exchanger tubes on corrosion is also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

148

An ant's-eye view of an ant-plant protection mutualism.  

PubMed

Ant protection of extrafloral nectar (EFN)-secreting plants is a common form of mutualism found in most habitats around the world. However, very few studies have considered these mutualisms from the ant, rather than the plant, perspective. In particular, a whole-colony perspective that takes into account the spatial structure and nest arrangement of the ant colonies that visit these plants has been lacking, obscuring when and how colony-level foraging decisions might affect tending rates on individual plants. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that recruitment of Crematogaster opuntiae (Buren) ant workers to the EFN-secreting cactus Ferocactus wislizeni (Englem) is not independent between plants up to 5 m apart. Colony territories of C. opuntiae are large, covering areas of up to 5,000 m(2), and workers visit between five and 34 EFN-secreting barrel cacti within the territories. These ants are highly polydomous, with up to 20 nest entrances dispersed throughout the territory and interconnected by trail networks. Our study demonstrates that worker recruitment is not independent within large polydomous ant colonies, highlighting the importance of considering colonies rather than individual workers as the relevant study unit within ant/plant protection mutualisms. PMID:23515612

Lanan, M C; Bronstein, J L

2013-03-21

149

Protection of Nuclear Plants Against Vehicular Bombs Via Full Spectrum Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect

A more urgent need now exists since 9/11 to protect vital assets at nuclear plants from physical security threats. Any approach to successful defense must result in the best possible risk profile , while also performing this defense against credible threats within the context of limited personnel and materiel resources. Engineered solutions need to be well thought out, and take advantage of each plant's available organic strengths and opportunities. A robust, well trained/equipped highly motivated protective force will help reduce concerns where there are weaknesses making the plant vulnerable to threats. A thorough risk assessment takes into account the proper combination of both deterministic and probabilistic application of resources as a most advantageous approach; this is postulated to be development of integrated protection methods and plans, which blend solid engineering design with the highest caliber of protection forces. By setting a clear and ambitious objective to shield the nuclear assets with this type of dynamic full spectrum defense in depth, the risk of harm-breach or likelihood of any opponent's threat being realized should be reduced to the lowest practicable levels.

Campagna, M. S.; Sawruk, W.

2003-02-25

150

Highly concentrated emulsified microemulsions as solvent-free plant protection formulations.  

PubMed

Effective plant protection agents are readily available and well implemented in industry. However, delivery to the plant and application on the leaf are processes that still need to be optimized. Up to now plant protection formulations represent either emulsion or suspension concentrates that often contain environmentally harmful organic solvents and/or adjuvants. Emulsified microemulsions are hierarchically organized systems comprising emulsion droplets that confine a water-in-oil microemulsion. In the present contribution we show that emulsified microemulsions prepared from environmentally friendly components can be loaded with the plant-protection agent Fenpropimorph® up to 48 wt.% without organic solvent. The emulsion itself is highly concentrated, containing 60 wt.% of dispersed phase, and can be readily diluted with water for spraying in farming applications. Small-angle X-ray measurements reveal the existence of a water-in-Fenpropimorph® microemulsion confined inside the emulsion droplets. Dynamic light scattering shows that the emulsions prepared are monomodal, comprising droplet radii in the hundred nanometer range. PMID:23010322

Engelskirchen, Sandra; Maurer, Reinhard; Levy, Tatjana; Berghaus, Rainer; Auweter, Helmut; Glatter, Otto

2012-07-25

151

A plant-produced plague vaccine candidate confers protection to monkeys.  

PubMed

Production of vaccine antigens in plants has received considerable attention over the last decade. However, despite many antigens being expressed in plant systems, and promising efficacy data with rodent models, few vaccine candidates have advanced into studies in non-human primates or human clinical trials. Here, we report on the transient expression of the F1 and LcrV antigens of Yersinia pestis in Nicotiana benthamiana. The antigens were expressed as fusions to the thermostable enzyme of Clostridium thermocellum. When administered to Cynomolgus Macaques the purified plant-produced antigens induced serum IgG and IgA responses specific to F1 and LcrV, and conferred complete protection against lethal challenge with Y. pestis. This study clearly demonstrates the efficacy of a plant-produced plague vaccine candidate in a primate model. PMID:17287055

Mett, Vadim; Lyons, Jarred; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Chichester, Jessica A; Brasil, Trevor; Couch, Ronald; Sherwood, Robert; Palmer, Gene A; Streatfield, Stephen J; Yusibov, Vidadi

2007-01-22

152

Cathodic protection criteria for controlling microbially influenced corrosion in power plants  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project was to evaluate galvanic corrosion on coupled samples and to determine cathodic protection criteria and effectiveness on four materials in an untreated seawater cooling system with microbially influenced corrosion. Hydrogen embrittlement of two cathodically protected high performance condenser tube materials was also evaluated. The long-term field testing was conducted at the intake structure of Florida Power Corporation's Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Power Plant. The test results indicate that Type 304L stainless steel can be galvanically corroded when coupled to Cu/Ni and fully cathodically protected when coupled to a carbon steel anode. Cathodic protection did protect carbon steel, but less than expected from the literature. The cathodic protection effectiveness on carbon steel was approximately 82% at {minus}1.01 V (SCE). To prevent hydrogen embrittlement, the tested titanium or ferritic stainless steel should not be polarized to more negative potentials than {minus}0.75 V (SCE). This report consists of a literature search, preliminary laboratory polarization testing, laboratory testing to determine microbial effects caused by an interruption of cathodic current, development of exposure racks for long-term electrochemical testing and analyses of corrosion, metallurgical, microbial and chemical data. 44 refs., 26 figs., 9 tabs.

Nekoksa, G. (Corrosion Failure Analysis and Control, San Ramon, CA (USA)); Gutherman, B. (Florida Power Corp., St. Petersburg, FL (USA))

1991-05-01

153

Immunization with Potato Plants Expressing VP60 Protein Protects against Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus  

PubMed Central

The major structural protein VP60 of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been produced in transgenic potato plants under the control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter or a modified 35S promoter that included two copies of a strong transcriptional enhancer. Both types of promoters allowed the production of specific mRNAs and detectable levels of recombinant VP60, which were higher for the constructs carrying the modified 35S promoter. Rabbits immunized with leaf extracts from plants carrying this modified 35S promoter showed high anti-VP60 antibody titers and were fully protected against the hemorrhagic disease.

Castanon, S.; Marin, M. S.; Martin-Alonso, J. M.; Boga, J. A.; Casais, R.; Humara, J. M.; Ordas, R. J.; Parra, F.

1999-01-01

154

Protection of the containment of the twin BWR KRB II plant against overpressure failure during severe accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2 × 1310 MWel plant KRB II as the newest design BWR plant in Germany (with prestressed concrete containment) had to go, with respect to the other BWRs, slightly different ways in solving the problem of containment overpressure protection during severe accidents. The basic concept of the plant and the special boundary conditions of the twin unit concept required

Walter Reim; Dieter Hurlebaus

1995-01-01

155

Coil protection for a utility scale superconducting magnetic energy storage plant  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is proposed for electric utility load leveling. Attractive costs, high diurnal energy efficiency (greater than or equal to 92%), and rapid response are advantages relative to other energy storage technologies. Recent industry-led efforts have produced a conceptual design for a 5000 MWh/1000 MW energy storage plant which is technically feasible at commercially attractive estimated costs. The SMES plant design includes a protection system which prevents damage to the magnetic coil if events require a rapid discharge of stored energy. This paper describes the design and operation of the coil protection system, which is primarily passive and uses the thermal capacity of the coil itself to absorb the stored electromagnetic energy.

Loyd, R.J.; Schoenung, S.M.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Rogers, J.D.; Purcell, J.R.

1986-01-01

156

Impacts of recreation and tourism on plant biodiversity and vegetation in protected areas in Australia.  

PubMed

This paper reviews recent research into the impact of recreation and tourism in protected areas on plant biodiversity and vegetation communities in Australia. Despite the international significance of the Australian flora and increasing visitation to protected areas there has been limited research on recreational and tourism impacts in Australia. As overseas, there are obvious direct impacts of recreation and tourism such as clearing of vegetation for infrastructure or damage from trampling, horse riding, mountain biking and off road vehicles. As well, there are less obvious but potentially more severe indirect impacts. This includes self-propagating impacts associated with the spread of some weeds from trails and roads. It also includes the severe impact on native vegetation, including many rare and threatened plants, from spread of the root rot fungus Phytopthora cinnamomi. This review highlights the need for more recreational ecology research in Australia. PMID:17234325

Pickering, Catherine Marina; Hill, Wendy

2007-01-17

157

Integration of AI, database and telecommunication-techniques for the plant protection expert system PRO PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high input of pesticides in farming has led to a growing The farmer expects specialized expertise from plant protec- contamination of ground and surface water in Europe. To tion experts regarding decisions about treatment, treatment improve this situation, the farmers have to reduce the input of selection and the time of its application. Certain cultures are pesticides to a

Ubbo Visser; Uwe Voges; Ulrich Streit

1994-01-01

158

[Poisoning caused by chemicals for plant protection in Poland in 2001].  

PubMed

A total number of 220 cases of poisoning caused by chemicals for plant protection were registered in Poland in 2001 (incidence 0.57 per 100,000 population). The large number of cases occurred in one outbreak (104 cases; 47.3%). In this outbreak inhalation exposure took place in a school after spraying of HUKINOL AL (repelant for animals) by pupils. Course of disease in these cases was mild. Among remaining cases there were:--poisoning after intake of chemicals for plant protection (14.5% after suicidal intake, 21.4% after accidental intake, 1.4% after intake with fruits and one case--undetermined circumstances of intake);--poisoning after exposure at agricultural labour (10.0%); and--exposition in other or undetermined situation (2.3%). In 2001 were registered two outbreaks: above mentioned 104 cases and two cases (children) after intake of plums before lapse of a currency period. In total in 2001 eleven people died as a result of poisoning by chemicals for plant protection. PMID:12926316

Przybylska, Anna

2003-01-01

159

Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T&E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T&E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to listed species. T&E plant species found on or near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are identified. Twenty-eight species identified on the ORR are listed by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation as either endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Four of these have been under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for possible listing (listed in the formerly-used C2 candidate category). Additional species listed by the state occur near and may be present on the ORR. A range of habitats support the rare taxa on the ORR: river bluffs, sinkholes, calcareous barrens, wetlands, utility corridors, and forests. The list of T&E plant species and their locations on the ORR should be considered provisional because the entire ORR has not been surveyed, and state and federal status of all species continues to be updated. The purpose of this document is to present information on the listed T&E plant species currently known to occur on the ORR as well as listed species potentially occurring on the ORR based on geographic range and habitat availability. For the purpose of this report, {open_quotes}T&E species{close_quotes} include all federal- and state-listed species, including candidates for listing, and species of special concern. Consideration of T&E plant habitats is an important component of resource management and land-use planning; protection of rare species in their natural habitat is the best method of ensuring their long-term survival.

Awl, D.J.; Pounds, L.R.; Rosensteel, B.A.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

1996-06-01

160

Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the plant protection schedule taken up for main crop and for intercrops, but was least in the insecticide sprayed to both the crops. Data on interaction of intercropping and plant protection schedules indicated that Bt cotton with chilli as intercrop and with zero plant protection showed the highest population of P-solubilizers, N2 fixers as well as urease and phosphatase activities at 135 days of crop growth. Similarly, population of total bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were highest in the treatment of Bt cotton + chilli + onion with zero protection but were on par with the treatment Bt cotton + chilli with zero protection at 135 days of crop growth. Dehydrogenase activity was found to be the highest in the treatment of Bt cotton + redgram with zero protection at 135 days of crop growth. Our studies showed harmful effects of insecticide sprays on soil microflora and enzyme activities.

Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

2012-04-01

161

For ant-protected plants, the best defense is a hungry offense.  

PubMed

Animal foraging has been characterized as an attempt to maximize the intake of carbon and nitrogen at appropriate ratios. Plant species in over 90 families produce carbohydrate-rich extrafloral nectar (EFN), a resource attractive to ants and other omnivorous insects. This attraction can benefit the plant if those arthropods subsequently attack herbivores. This protective response has been attributed to the increased visitation and "ownership" of plants that provide a predictable source of fuel. Here, we propose and test an alternative (but non-mutually exclusive) hypothesis, that access to C-rich carbohydrates increases the ants' desire for N-rich protein and hence the likelihood that they will attack herbivorous insects on the host plant. This "deficit hypothesis" would be rejected if (1) EFN were itself a sufficiently balanced food source in terms of C and N, (2) ant dietary preferences were similar in the presence vs. absence of EFN, (3) protein-hungry ants were not more predaceous, or (4) ants provided access to protein were more aggressive toward potential prey items than were ants provided access to carbohydrates. We test these predictions in a protective mutualism between a guild of desert ants and the barrel cactus Ferocactus wislizeni. C:N ratios of EFN exceeded that of ants or potential prey items by an order of magnitude (i.e., EFN is an N-poor food for ants). Baiting studies demonstrated that plant-tending ant species recruited more workers to N-rich protein baits than to C-rich sugar baits; this difference was more pronounced when the ants had access to F. wislizeni EFN. From these data, we infer that protein is a valuable resource and that its relative value increases when carbohydrates are readily available. Moreover, ant colonies provided access to supplemental carbohydrates responded more aggressively to surrogate herbivores than did control colonies (to which no additional resources were provided) or colonies provided protein. These results support the predictions of the "deficit" hypothesis, wherein plant protection is elicited by plant-mediated dietary imbalances. PMID:19886490

Ness, J H; Morris, W F; Bronstein, Judith L

2009-10-01

162

Role of uncondensed 1,2,4-triazine derivatives as biocidal plant protection agents--a review.  

PubMed

The role of uncondensed 1,2,4-triazine derivatives and the related compounds as biocidal plant protection agents such as herbicides, bactericidal, fungicidal, antimicrobial, protozacides, anticoccidal, parasiticides, insecticides, acaricdes and pesticides, is reviewed. PMID:11265582

Abdel-Rahman, R M

2001-03-01

163

The role of selenium in protecting plants against prairie dog herbivory: implications for the evolution of selenium hyperaccumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some plants can hyperaccumulate the element selenium (Se) up to 10,000 mg Se kg?1 dry weight. Hyperaccumulation has been hypothesized to defend against herbivory. In laboratory studies high Se levels protect\\u000a plants from invertebrate herbivores and pathogens. However, field studies and mammalian herbivore studies that link Se accumulation\\u000a to herbivory protection are lacking. In this study a combination of field surveys

Colin F. Quinn; John L. Freeman; Miriam L. Galeas; Erin M. Klamper; Elizabeth A. H. Pilon-Smits

2008-01-01

164

ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH DEPLOYMENT OF A TYPE OF PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANT (PIP), SPECIFICALLY THOSE BASED ON PLANT VIRAL COAT PROTEINS  

EPA Science Inventory

FIFRA Scientific Adivsory Panel Meeting, October 13-15,2004 held at the Holiday Inn-National Airport, Arlington, Virginia on: Issues Associated with Deployment of a Type of Plant-Incorporated Protectant (PIP), Specifically those based on Plant Viral Coat Proteins...

165

Protective coatings for materials in coal gasification plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and use of protective coatings in coal gasification plants. The citations emphasize materials selection and problems associated with erosion and wear on internal surfaces. Refractory materials for corrosion and erosion protection, high temperature corrosion, and sulfidization corrosion are also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-04-01

166

Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F(1) adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F(1) adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

Rahman, A; Talukder, F A

2006-01-01

167

Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area. PMID:3378897

Koch, J; Tadmor, J

1988-06-01

168

[Poisoning caused by chemicals for plant protection in Poland in 2002].  

PubMed

A total number of 103 cases and 4 deaths of poisoning caused by chemicals for plant protection were registered in Poland in 2002 (incidence 0.27 per 100,000 population). There were: 68 cases (66% of total) after intake of chemicals (after suicidal intake--36% and 3 deaths, after accidental intake--22%, after intake with food--6% and 2%--after exposition at undetermined circumstances of intake); 22 cases (21%) after exposition at agricultural labour, connected with spray of chemicals without adequate protective clothing; 11% (1 death) after exposition in other situation; and 2%--after exposition in undetermined situation. In 2002 were registered four outbreaks: two (four and two cases) after intake of food, one (two cases) after exposition during weeding before lapse of a currency period and one (two cases) after exposition at chemical in spray and during connected weeding. PMID:15218649

Przybylska, Anna

2004-01-01

169

Recombinant Anthrax Toxin Receptor-Fc Fusion Proteins Produced in Plants Protect Rabbits against Inhalational Anthrax ? †  

PubMed Central

Inhalational anthrax, a zoonotic disease caused by the inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores, has a ?50% fatality rate even when treated with antibiotics. Pathogenesis is dependent on the activity of two toxic noncovalent complexes: edema toxin (EdTx) and lethal toxin (LeTx). Protective antigen (PA), an essential component of both complexes, binds with high affinity to the major receptor mediating the lethality of anthrax toxin in vivo, capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2). Certain antibodies against PA have been shown to protect against anthrax in vivo. As an alternative to anti-PA antibodies, we produced a fusion of the extracellular domain of human CMG2 and human IgG Fc, using both transient and stable tobacco plant expression systems. Optimized expression led to the CMG2-Fc fusion protein being produced at high levels: 730 mg/kg fresh leaf weight in Nicotiana benthamiana and 65 mg/kg in N. tabacum. CMG2-Fc, purified from tobacco plants, fully protected rabbits against a lethal challenge with B. anthracis spores at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight administered at the time of challenge. Treatment with CMG2-Fc did not interfere with the development of the animals' own immunity to anthrax, as treated animals that survived an initial challenge also survived a rechallenge 30 days later. The glycosylation of the Fc (or lack thereof) had no significant effect on the protective potency of CMG2-Fc in rabbits or on its serum half-life, which was about 5 days. Significantly, CMG2-Fc effectively neutralized, in vitro, LeTx-containing mutant forms of PA that were not neutralized by anti-PA monoclonal antibodies.

Wycoff, Keith L.; Belle, Archana; Deppe, Dorothee; Schaefer, Leah; Maclean, James M.; Haase, Simone; Trilling, Anke K.; Liu, Shihui; Leppla, Stephen H.; Geren, Isin N.; Pawlik, Jennifer; Peterson, Johnny W.

2011-01-01

170

ICPP Fluorinel Dissolution Process (FDP) Plant Protection System (PPS) baseline criteria evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a baseline criteria evaluation of the FAST Plant Protection System (PPS) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), Computer Process Application (CPA) personnel originally prepared this report as requested by the FAST Fluorinel Dissolution Process (FDP) Operational Readiness Review (ORR) committee. It was required by the ORR committee for the 1992 restart of FDP operations. However on April 29, 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) directed WINCO to discontinue reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at the ICPP. This eliminated the mission of the FDP. The report includes an evaluation of the PPS against criteria requested by the ORR committee and against criteria contained in the WINCO PPS Requirements Manual. This second criteria evaluation is summarized in Appendix A.

Allen, G.W.; Clayton, R.J.; Fielding, K.D.; Mozes, M.L.

1993-06-01

171

Protection of Oilseed Rape ( Brassica napus ) Toward Fungal Pathogens by Strains of Plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, four Bacillus strains were tested for effects on plant fitness and disease protection of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The strains belonged to newly discovered plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and a recently proposed species, Bacillus endophyticus. The fungal pathogens tested represented different infection strategies and included Alternaria brassicae, Botrytis cinerea, Leptosphaeria maculans, and Verticillium longisporum. The B. amyloliquefaciens strains

Jesper Danielsson; Oleg Reva; Johan Meijer

2007-01-01

172

77 FR 47591 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Plant Protection and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request an extension of approval of an information collection associated with a Plant Protection and Quarantine stakeholder/customer satisfaction...

2012-08-09

173

A companion protease inhibitor for the protection of cytosol-targeted recombinant proteins in plants.  

PubMed

We reported earlier the potential of tomato cathepsin D inhibitor (SlCDI) as an in-built stabilizing agent for the protection of recombinant proteins in transgenic plant leaf crude extracts (Plant Biotechnol J.4, 359-368). Here we document the potential of SlCDI for the in situ protection of proteins in potato leaves. Total protein assays with control and SlCDI-expressing potato lines indicated a positive impact of slcdi transgene expression on leaf protein content, with a mean relative increase of 35%-40% depending on the light regime. Out of approximately 700 proteins detected on 2-D gels, only 20 exhibited a significantly altered level on a protein-specific basis, whereas most proteins were up-regulated on a leaf fresh weight basis, albeit at variable rates. Quantitative reverse trancriptase-PCR assays for rubisco activase showed similar transcript levels in leaves of test and control lines despite protein levels increased by two- to threefold in SlCDI-expressing lines. These observations, along with the unrelated biological functions assigned to MS-identified proteins up-regulated in leaves and protease assays showing slightly increased proteasome activity in protein extracts of SlCDI-expressing lines, suggest a general, proteasome-independent protein stabilizing effect of SlCDI in planta. Transient expression assays with human alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin also showed a stabilizing effect for SlCDI on heterologous proteins, leading to net levels of the human protein increased by approximately 2.5-fold in SlCDI-expressing plants. These data illustrate, overall, the potential of SlCDI as an in vivo protein-stabilizing agent in transgenic plant systems, useful to improve protein levels and recombinant protein accumulation. PMID:20051033

Goulet, Charles; Benchabane, Meriem; Anguenot, Raphaël; Brunelle, France; Khalf, Moustafa; Michaud, Dominique

2009-12-28

174

Prospects for using proteinase inhibitors to protect transgenic plants against attack by herbivorous insects.  

PubMed

Proteinase inhibitors which act on the digestive enzymes of insect herbivores are a basic mechanism of plant defence. Attempts to exploit this defence mechanism in plant genetic engineering have used over-expression of both endogenous and exogenous inhibitors. While significant protection against insect pests has been routinely achieved, the engineered plants do not show levels of resistance considered commercially viable. As a result of selective pressures, insect herbivores have developed multiple mechanisms of adaptation to overcome the defensive effects of plant proteinase inhibitors. Common polyphagous crop pests are well adapted to deal with a range of different inhibitors, which have only limited effects on fitness as a result. A range of strategies have been attempted to improve effectiveness of proteinase inhibitors as antimetabolites towards insects, including selection for inhibitory activity against insect digestive enzymes, mutagenesis for novel inhibitory activity, and engineering inhibitors with multiple functions. However, proteinase inhibitor genes have only been used in transgenic crops in combination with other insecticidal genes. In Chinese genetically engineered cotton varieties which express Bt toxins as an insecticidal protein against lepidopteran larvae, the CpTI (cowpea trypsin inhibitor) gene has been employed as a second transgene to improve protection. This gene combination represents the only commercial deployment of a proteinase inhibitor transgene to date, with Bt/CpTI cotton grown on over 0.5 million hectares in 2005. Future prospects for using proteinase inhibitor genes to enhance insect resistance in transgenic crops will require reassessment of their mechanisms of action, particularly in affecting processes other than digestion, as exemplified by effects on sap-feeding hemipteran pests. PMID:21418023

Gatehouse, John A

2011-08-01

175

From beans to berries and beyond: teamwork between plant chemicals for protection of optimal human health.  

PubMed

It is now well known to consumers around the world that certain fruits and vegetables can help prevent or treat chronic human diseases. But, what many people don't fully appreciate is that it is not a single component in these plant-derived foods, but rather complex mixtures of interacting natural chemicals, that produce such powerful health-protective effects. These natural components accumulate simultaneously together in a plant, and provide a multifaceted defensive strategy for both the plant, and the human consumer. In order to investigate the strength of natural chemical cooperation in highly-pigmented, flavonoid-rich functional foods, our lab has relied on analysis of both whole fruits, and continuous, reliable plant cell culture production systems which accumulate anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in high concentrations. Successive rounds of relatively gentle, rapid, and large-volume fractionations are linked to bioassay of complex to simple mixtures and semi-purified compounds. By means of this strategy, additive interactions or synergies between related compounds in health maintenance can be sorted out. Interestingly, phytochemical interactions between the same classes of compounds intensify the efficacy of flavonoid-rich fruits against multiple, not necessarily discrete, human disease conditions including CVD, cancer, metabolic syndrome, and others. PMID:17986598

Lila, Mary Ann

2007-10-01

176

Creating an agricultural world order: regional plant protection problems and international phytopathology, 1878-1939.  

PubMed

Beginning in 1878 with the International Phylloxera Convention of Berne, international conventions have sought to relieve national agricultural industries from two specific burdens. First, by defining phytosanitary practices to be enforced by national plant protection services, these conventions attempted to prevent the introduction of plant diseases and pests into national territories from which they were previously absent. Second, by standardizing these practices - especially through the design of a unique certificate of inspection - the conventions attempted to eliminate barriers such as quarantines affection international agricultural trade. The succession of phytopathological conventions seemed to epitomize the coalescence of an international community against agricultural pests. What actually coalesced was bio-geopolitics wherein plant pathologists and economic entomologists from North America and the British Empire questioned the so-called internationality of the environmental and economic specificities of continental European agriculture, embodied in "international" conventions. Although an international phenomenon, the dissemination of agricultural pests provided opportunities for cooperation on a strictly regional albeit transnational basis that pitted bio-geopolitical spaces against each other. This article retraces the formation of these spaces by analyzing the deliberations of committees and congresses that gathered to define an international agricultural order based on the means to prevent the spread of plant diseases and pests. PMID:20329355

Castonguay, Stéphane

2010-01-01

177

Antifungal and peroxidative activities of nonheme chloroperoxidase in relation to transgenic plant protection.  

PubMed

Nonheme chloroperoxidase (CPO-P) of Pseudomonas pyrrocinia catalyzes the oxidation of alkyl acids to peracids by hydrogen peroxide. Alkyl peracids possess potent antifungal activity as found with peracetate: 50% killing (LD(50)) of Aspergillus flavus occurred at 25 microM compared to 3.0 mM for the hydrogen peroxide substrate. To evaluate whether CPO-P could protect plants from fungal infection, tobacco was transformed with a gene for CPO-P from P. pyrrocinia and assayed for antifungal activity. Leaf extracts from transformed plants inhibited growth of A. flavus by up to 100%, and levels of inhibition were quantitatively correlated to the amounts of CPO-P activity expressed in leaves. To clarify if the peroxidative activity of CPO-P could be the basis for the increased resistance, the antifungal activity of the purified enzyme was investigated. The LD(50) of hydrogen peroxide combined with CPO-P occurred at 2.0 mM against A. flavus. Because this value was too small to account for the enhanced antifungal activity of transgenic plants, the kinetics of the enzyme reaction was examined and it was found that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide needed for enzyme saturation (K(m) = 5.9 mM) was already lethal. Thus, the peroxidative activity of CPO-P is not the basis for antifungal activity or enhanced resistance in transgenic plants expressing the gene. PMID:11052700

Jacks, T J; De Lucca, A J; Rajasekaran, K; Stromberg, K; van Pée, K

2000-10-01

178

Identification and rational design of novel antimicrobial peptides for plant protection.  

PubMed

Peptides and small proteins exhibiting antimicrobial activity have been isolated from many organisms ranging from insects to humans, including plants. Their role in defense is established, and their use in agriculture was already being proposed shortly after their discovery. However, some natural peptides have undesirable properties that complicate their application. Advances in peptide synthesis and high-throughput activity screening have made possible the de novo and rational design of novel peptides with improved properties. This review summarizes findings in the identification and design of short antimicrobial peptides with activity against plant pathogens, and will discuss alternatives for their heterologous production suited to plant disease control. Recent studies suggest that peptide antimicrobial action is not due solely to microbe permeation as previously described, but that more subtle factors might account for the specificity and absence of toxicity of some peptides. The elucidation of the mode of action and interaction with microbes will assist the improvement of peptide design with a view to targeting specific problems in agriculture and providing new tools for plant protection. PMID:18439131

Marcos, Jose F; Muñoz, Alberto; Pérez-Payá, Enrique; Misra, Santosh; López-García, Belén

2008-01-01

179

Dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum protects cucumber and tomato plants against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation into soil of dry mycelium ofPenicillium chrysogenum, a waste product of the pharmacological industry, enhanced plant growth and reduced root galling caused by the root-knot\\u000a nematodeMeloidogyne javanica in cucumber and tomato plants. Incorporation into sandy loam soil in pots of dry mycelium at a concentration of 0.25% (w\\/w)\\u000a resulted in complete protection of cucumber plants from the nematode. The

Dror Gotlieb; Yuji Oka; Bat-Hen Ben-Daniel; Yigal Cohen

2003-01-01

180

Specialized bees fail to develop on non-host pollen: do plants chemically protect their pollen?  

PubMed

Bees require large amounts of pollen for their own reproduction. While several morphological flower traits are known to have evolved to protect plants against excessive pollen harvesting by bees, little is known on how selection to minimize pollen loss acts on the chemical composition of pollen. In this study, we traced the larval development of four solitary bee species, each specialized on a different pollen source, when reared on non-host pollen by transferring unhatched eggs of one species onto the pollen provisions of another species. Pollen diets of Asteraceae and Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae) proved to be inadequate for all bee species tested except those specialized on these plants. Further, pollen of Sinapis (Brassicaceae) and Echium (Boraginaceae) failed to support larval development in one bee species specialized on Campanula (Campanulaceae). Our results strongly suggest that pollen of these four taxonomic groups possess protective properties that hamper digestion and thus challenge the general view of pollen as an easy-to-use protein source for flower visitors. PMID:18459342

Praz, Christophe J; Müller, Andreas; Dorn, Silvia

2008-03-01

181

Portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant  

SciTech Connect

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisorpropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals; nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protective clothing for its intended use.

Berardinelli, S.P.; Rusczek, R.A.; Mickelsen, R.L.

1987-10-01

182

Application of the dangerous Preparation Directive: consequences on plant protection products in the internal market.  

PubMed

Legislative Decree March 2003, n. 65 brought about implementation of Directive 1999/45/ EC of the European Parliament and of the Council dated 31 May 1999 and Directive 2001/60/EC of the Commission dated 7 August 2001 concerning laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous preparations come into force. Directive 1999/45/EC brought about a series of modifications representing the new regulatory framework for dangerous preparations. The above-mentioned Decree supplies the criteria for the evaluation of hazardous preparations, regardless of their intended use, and completes previously undertaken steps, in strict connection with the analogous Directives of the EU, for the problematic complexity of the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances and preparations. The applicative importance of Directive 99/45/EC derives directly from these innovations. Among these, for the first time, the category of "dangerous for the environment" has been extended also to preparations. Moreover, also for the first time, the scope of the Directive is extended to plant protection products and biocides. This paper provides an overview on the results of the hazard classification procedure carried out at national level for plant protection products in light of the new rules and the outcomes in terms of variations of the labels through comparison between previous and new classification. Furthermore the most significant issue which come up during the classification process and the criteria applied for their solution are also reported. PMID:20348623

Rubbiani, Maristella; Fornarelli, Laura; Bascherini, Susanna; Binetti, Roberto

2010-01-01

183

Challenging the requirement for chronic fish toxicity studies on formulated plant protection products.  

PubMed

Ecotoxicity testing of pesticide active ingredients and formulated plant protection products (PPPs) prior to their commercial use is required by authorities around the world. Such studies are important for the conduct of risk assessments to protect wildlife and the environment, but they should only be conducted when their use is scientifically justified. One test of questionable scientific merit is the chronic fish toxicity test when conducted with formulated PPPs, which is a potential requirement under European legislation: chronic exposure to the formulated product per se rarely occurs in the environment and therefore it is generally not possible to use the data from chronic formulation studies in a meaningful risk assessment. A recent survey of European crop protection companies to explore the scientific merits and regulatory drivers for chronic fish toxicity studies has shown that current practice in deciding on the need for chronic fish toxicity testing of formulated PPPs varies substantially between companies. The most commonly cited reason for conducting such studies was solely to meet regulatory requirements. We conclude that chronic formulation testing is rarely if ever scientifically justified, and recommend that the forthcoming revision of the EU Aquatic Toxicology Guidance Document takes account of this by including a requirement that justification must be provided for conducting the test, rather than the current situation where the onus is on the registrant to provide a justification for not conducting the test. PMID:20832457

Creton, Stuart; Douglas, Mark; Wheeler, James R; Hutchinson, Thomas H

2010-09-08

184

Phytochemicals of Brassicaceae in plant protection and human health--influences of climate, environment and agronomic practice.  

PubMed

In this review, we provide an overview of the role of glucosinolates and other phytochemical compounds present in the Brassicaceae in relation to plant protection and human health. Current knowledge of the factors that influence phytochemical content and profile in the Brassicaceae is also summarized and multi-factorial approaches are briefly discussed. Variation in agronomic conditions (plant species, cultivar, developmental stage, plant organ, plant competition, fertilization, pH), season, climatic factors, water availability, light (intensity, quality, duration) and CO(2) are known to significantly affect content and profile of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals such as the glucosinolates and leaf surface waxes play an important role in interactions with pests and pathogens. Factors that affect production of phytochemicals are important when designing plant protection strategies that exploit these compounds to minimize crop damage caused by plant pests and pathogens. Brassicaceous plants are consumed increasingly for possible health benefits, for example, glucosinolate-derived effects on degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, factors influencing phytochemical content and profile in the production of brassicaceous plants are worth considering both for plant and human health. Even though it is known that factors that influence phytochemical content and profile may interact, studies of plant compounds were, until recently, restricted by methods allowing only a reductionistic approach. It is now possible to design multi-factorial experiments that simulate their combined effects. This will provide important information to ecologists, plant breeders and agronomists. PMID:21315385

Björkman, Maria; Klingen, Ingeborg; Birch, Andrew N E; Bones, Atle M; Bruce, Toby J A; Johansen, Tor J; Meadow, Richard; Mølmann, Jørgen; Seljåsen, Randi; Smart, Lesley E; Stewart, Derek

2011-05-01

185

A functional cutin matrix is required for plant protection against water loss  

PubMed Central

The plant cuticle, a cutin matrix embedded with and covered by wax, seals the aerial organ's surface to protect the plant against uncontrolled water loss. The cutin matrix is essential for the cuticle to function as a barrier to water loss. Recently, we identified from wild barley a drought supersensitive mutant, eibi1, which is caused by a defective cutin matrix as the result of the loss of function of HvABCG31, an ABCG full transporter. Here, we report that eibi1 epidermal cells contain lipid-like droplets, which are supposed to consist of cutin monomers that have not been transported out of the cells. The eibi1 cuticle is fragile due to a defective cutin matrix. The rice ortholog of the EIBI1 gene has a similar pattern of expression, young shoot but not flag leaf blade, as the barley gene. The model of the function of Eibi1 is discussed. The HvABCG31 full transporter functions in the export of cutin components and contributed to land plant colonization, hence also to terrestrial life evolution.

Ma, Jian Feng; Li, Chao; Yamaji, Naoki; Nevo, Eviatar

2011-01-01

186

Predation and aggressiveness in host plant protection: a generalization using ants from the genus Azteca.  

PubMed

In studying the ant genus Azteca, a Neotropical group of arboreal species, we aimed to determine the extent to which the ants use predation and/or aggressiveness to protect their host plants from defoliating insects. We compared a territorially dominant, carton-nester, Azteca chartifex, and three plant-ant species. Azteca alfari and Azteca ovaticeps are associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) and their colonies shelter in its hollow branches; whereas Azteca bequaerti is associated with Tococa guianensis (Melastomataceae) and its colonies shelter in leaf pouches situated at the base of the laminas. Whereas A. bequaerti workers react to the vibrations transmitted by the lamina when an alien insect lands on a leaf making it unnecessary for them to patrol their plant, the workers of the three other species rather discover prey by contact. The workers of all four species use a predatory behaviour involving spread-eagling alien insects after recruiting nestmates at short range, and, in some cases, at long range. Because A. alfari and A. ovaticeps discard part of the insects they kill, we deduced that the workers' predatory behaviour and territorial aggressiveness combine in the biotic defence of their host tree. PMID:18850082

Dejean, Alain; Grangier, Julien; Leroy, Céline; Orivel, Jerôme

2008-10-03

187

Predation and aggressiveness in host plant protection: a generalization using ants from the genus Azteca  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In studying the ant genus Azteca, a Neotropical group of arboreal species, we aimed to determine the extent to which the ants use predation and/or aggressiveness to protect their host plants from defoliating insects. We compared a territorially dominant, carton-nester, Azteca chartifex, and three plant-ant species. Azteca alfari and Azteca ovaticeps are associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) and their colonies shelter in its hollow branches; whereas Azteca bequaerti is associated with Tococa guianensis (Melastomataceae) and its colonies shelter in leaf pouches situated at the base of the laminas. Whereas A. bequaerti workers react to the vibrations transmitted by the lamina when an alien insect lands on a leaf making it unnecessary for them to patrol their plant, the workers of the three other species rather discover prey by contact. The workers of all four species use a predatory behaviour involving spread-eagling alien insects after recruiting nestmates at short range, and, in some cases, at long range. Because A. alfari and A. ovaticeps discard part of the insects they kill, we deduced that the workers’ predatory behaviour and territorial aggressiveness combine in the biotic defence of their host tree.

Dejean, Alain; Grangier, Julien; Leroy, Céline; Orivel, Jerôme

2009-01-01

188

A functional cutin matrix is required for plant protection against water loss.  

PubMed

The plant cuticle, a cutin matrix embedded with and covered by wax, seals the aerial organ's surface to protect the plant against uncontrolled water loss. The cutin matrix is essential for the cuticle to function as a barrier to water loss. Recently, we identified from wild barley a drought supersensitive mutant, eibi1, which is caused by a defective cutin matrix as the result of the loss of function of HvABCG31, an ABCG full transporter. Here, we report that eibi1 epidermal cells contain lipid-like droplets, which are supposed to consist of cutin monomers that have not been transported out of the cells. The eibi1 cuticle is fragile due to a defective cutin matrix. The rice ortholog of the EIBI1 gene has a similar pattern of expression, young shoot but not flag leaf blade, as the barley gene. The model of the function of Eibi1 is discussed. The HvABCG31 full transporter functions in the export of cutin components and contributed to land plant colonization, hence also to terrestrial life evolution. PMID:22019635

Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Li, Chao; Yamaji, Naoki; Nevo, Eviatar

2011-09-01

189

Plant self-defense mechanisms against oxidative injury and protection of the forest by planting trees of triploids and tetraploids.  

PubMed

The depletion of the ozone layer, and the resulting substantial increase in incident ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and subsequent oxygen radical formation on the Earth, have caused an extensive variety of damage to the world's forests. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), which scavenge harmful oxygen radicals and inhibit lipid peroxides, were examined in two types of Japanese cedars, black pines, and cypresses, namely those with leaves showing premature withering, shedding, or dying and those with leaves not showing these effects prematurely. The effect of homogenates from these trees on lipid peroxide formation in a reaction system which UV light induces was also studied. The results indicate that strong black pines have significantly higher SOD activities than ordinary black pines, the leaves of which prematurely wither or die. Remarkably, trees that had triploid or tetraploid chromosomes showed higher SOD levels than diploid trees and markedly inhibited lipid peroxide formation since the SOD gene resides on a chromosome. This was especially true of plus trees of Japanese cypress, some of which had five times higher SOD activities than common Japanese cypresses although GSH-Px appears to play less of a role in this regard. Rice leaves and osmunda which are resistant to UV damage showed markedly higher SOD and GSH-Px activity. Our experiments suggest that the trees that have high SOD can protect themselves by scavenging oxygen radicals induced by UV irradiation and inhibit harmful lipid peroxide formation. In order to protect forests from oxidative damage by UV light, we should plant trees of natural mutants and artificially crossed triploids and tetraploids. PMID:12706395

Niwa, Yukie; Sasaki, Yoshinori

2003-05-01

190

Design features and protection of valve actuator motors in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a status report on the effort underway by the working group IEEE-NPEC-SC4.7, and discusses the performance requirements, selection, design, and protection of valve actuator motors (VAMs) commonly used as components in direct gear driven valve actuator assemblies in nuclear power plants. VAMs are short time rated, high torque-to-inertia ratio motors. The actuator manufacturer selects the performance parameters for the VAM based on the maximum thrust required by the valve for tight shutoff. Since valve actuators require a high starting torque, the rating system begins with the assignment of nominal starting torque. The requirement for minimum frame size dictates a minimal (running) torque and a minimum run time.

Dougherty, R.H. (Reliance Electric Co., Cleveland, OH (US)); Richards, A.E. (Limitorgue Corp., Lynchburg, VA (US)); Kueck, J.D. (Carolina Power and Light Co., Raleigh, NC (US)); Rebbapragada, R.V.

1990-09-01

191

Environmental assessment of plant protection strategies using scenarios for pig feed production.  

PubMed

Two scenarios for future pig meat production were constructed. The first was a "business as usual" scenario, where the pig feed was based on domestic grain and imported soy-meal, and no efforts were made to reduce pesticide use. The second scenario had a strong environmental focus, and both peas and rapeseed were grown at pig-farm level to produce grain and protein feed. Preventive measures, such as a more diverse crop rotation and mechanical weed control, were combined to reduce pesticide use. The two scenarios were environmentally assessed by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and a pesticide risk indicator model (PRI-Farm). The results showed environmentally sound possibilities to reduce pesticide dependency and risks by using altered plant protection strategies in pig-feed production. Organizing on-farm feed production so that protein feed crops are integrated with grain crops contributes to a more diverse crop rotation. PMID:16092277

Cederberg, Christel; Wivstad, Maria; Bergkvist, Peter; Mattsson, Berit; Ivarsson, Kjell

2005-06-01

192

Nanomaterials in plant protection and fertilization: current state, foreseen applications, and research priorities.  

PubMed

Scientific publications and patents on nanomaterials (NM) used in plant protection or fertilizer products have exponentially increased since the millennium shift. While the United States and Germany have published the highest number of patents, Asian countries released most scientific articles. About 40% of all contributions deal with carbon-based NM, followed by titanium dioxide, silver, silica, and alumina. Nanomaterials come in many diverse forms (surprisingly often ?100 nm), from solid doped particles to (often nonpersistent) polymer and oil-water based structures. Nanomaterials serve equally as additives (mostly for controlled release) and active constituents. Product efficiencies possibly increased by NM should be balanced against enhanced environmental NM input fluxes. The dynamic development in research and its considerable public perception are in contrast with the currently still very small number of NM-containing products on the market. Nanorisk assessment and legislation are largely in their infancies. PMID:22963545

Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D

2012-09-21

193

Testicular disorders induced by plant growth regulators: cellular protection with proanthocyanidins grape seeds extract.  

PubMed

The present study aims to investigate the adverse effects of plant growth regulators : gibberellic acid (GA3) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) on testicular functions in rats, and extends to investigate the possible protective role of grape seed extract, proanthocyanidin (PAC). Male rats were divided into six groups; control group, PAC, GA3, IAA, GA3 + PAC and IAA + PAC groups. The data showed that GA3 and IAA caused significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, concomitant with a significant decrease in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total protein, and testosterone levels. In addition, there was significant decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. A significant decrease was detected also in epididymyal fructose along with a significant reduction in sperm count. Testicular lipid peroxidation product and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were significantly increased. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, sulphahydryl group content, as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were significantly decreased. Moreover, there were a number of histopathological testicular changes including Leydig's cell degeneration, reduction in seminiferous tubule and necrotic symptoms and sperm degeneration in both GA3- and IAA-treated rats. However, an obvious recovery of all the above biochemical and histological testicular disorders was detected when PAC seed extract was supplemented to rats administered with GA3 or IAA indicating its protective effect. Therefore it was concluded that supplementation with PAC had ameliorative effects on those adverse effects of the mentioned plant growth regulators through its natural antioxidant properties. PMID:23292365

Hassan, Hanaa A; Isa, Ahmed M; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

2013-01-06

194

[Replacement of dogs as research animals for the approval testing of plant protection products].  

PubMed

The replacement of animal testing using dogs for the registration of plant protection products requires a long-term step-by-step procedure. The first goal should be to achieve international agreement on using only one single study in dogs. This would result in a significant short-term reduction of the use of dogs for this purpose. The competent working groups both in the EU and the United States EPA have declared this to be their intended aim. In this context, the 90-day study is to be the preferred study from the scientific as well as the animal welfare points of view. It is proposed to set up an international expert task force within the next 12 months, which should seek to initiate a process of international harmonization of the testing requirements following the example of the International Conference of Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Medical Products, ICH. The goal should be to achieve international agreement on only one single study with dogs within the next 2 to 3 years. In addition, other valid scientific procedures, with which the use of dogs for testing can be reduced, should be critically assessed. A complete replacement of the use of dogs for plant protection product testing is suggested to take place at a later stage. This may be achieved by either deriving safety threshold values by applying a safety factor to chronic NOAEL values obtained in studies using rats for those groups of substances, for which there is evidence that the dog is the more sensitive species, or by combining the chronic rat study with other animal tests stipulated for the registration of pesticides. PMID:16477345

Box, Rainer J

2006-01-01

195

Side effects of plant protection products and biological interactions on the European earwig Forficula auricularia L.  

PubMed

Plant protection products are designed to control pests but can have negative side effects on non-target arthropods thus disturbing the important population of natural enemies required for biological control. Although the European earwig, Forficula auricularia L, (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) is not considered to be a key beneficial in pome fruit, it is an important predator of several pests, e.g. woolly apple aphid and pear sucker. The impact of non-selective plant protection products at crucial moments in their (univoltine) life cycle can be of significant relevance compared to insects with numerous generations. Foliar applications in spring when nymphs are migrating into the trees can reduce the number of adults in summer and subsequently affect the population size next year. Multiple and/or combined spraying during summer on adults may have a cumulative effect resulting in less over wintering females which possibly exhibit poor reproductive performance. Previous residual contact bioassays already revealed the harmful side effect of several formulated products on adults. Insects showing sub lethal symptoms recovered partially or died eventually. As spinosad caused significant toxicological effects it was subsequently tested in 3 different dose rates on adults and N4-nymphs. We noticed not only a clear dose-response relationship but N4-nymphs proved to be more susceptible than adults; even a dilution of 1/9-th of the registered dose rate still caused a mortality of 45.5 % after 20 days. Understanding the earwig's population dynamics is essential for efficient practical biocontrol. It proves difficult to increase population levels to sufficient high numbers for optimal pest control. Local biological factors might be limiting. Therefore, we tested two hypotheses that pertain to population limitation: 1. Bird predation during summer, 2. Small mammal nest predation during winter. Enclosure experiments showed no negative bird effect on earwig densities unless large bird flocks inhabited the area. Small mammals did not actively predate the over wintering nests, although other predatory arthropods may be important. PMID:20222599

Peusens, G; Moerkens, R; Beliën, T; Gobin, B

2009-01-01

196

Upgrade of Control and Protection System of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect

The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Units 1 and 2 are Soviet-designed, RBMK (Reaktor Bolshoi Moschnosti Kipyashchiy), channelized, large power-type reactors. The original-design electrical capacity for each unit was 1500 Megawatts. Unit 1 began operating in 1983, and Unit 2 was started up in 1987. In 1994, the government of Lithuania agreed to accept grant support for the Ignalina NPP Safety Improvement Program with funding supplied by the Nuclear Safety Account of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). As conditions for receiving this funding, Ignalina NPP agreed to prepare a comprehensive Safety Analysis Report that would undergo independent peer review after it was issued. The EBRD Safety Panel oversaw preparation and review of the report. In 1996, the Safety Analysis Report for Unit 1 was completed and delivered to the EBRD. Part of the analyses covered anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). The analysis showed that some ATWS scenarios could lead to unacceptable consequences in less than a minute. The EBRD Safety Panel recommended to the Government of Lithuania that Ignalina NPP develop and implement a Program of Compensatory Measures for the Control and Protection System before the unit would be allowed to return to operation following its 1998 maintenance outage. A compensatory control and protection system that would mitigate the unacceptable consequences was designed, procured, manufactured, tested, and installed. The project was funded by U.S. Department of Energy.

Wright, Ronald E.; Fletcher, Norman; Pearsall, Raymond; Sidnev, Victor; Bickel, John; Vianello, Aldo

2003-08-01

197

A plant-produced protective antigen vaccine confers protection in rabbits against a lethal aerosolized challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores.  

PubMed

The potential use of Bacillus anthracis as a bioterrorism weapon threatens the security of populations globally, requiring the immediate availability of safe, efficient and easily delivered anthrax vaccine for mass vaccination. Extensive research efforts have been directed toward the development of recombinant subunit vaccines based on protective antigen (PA), the principal virulence factor of B. anthracis. Among the emerging technologies for the production of these vaccine antigens is our launch vector-based plant transient expression system. Using this system, we have successfully engineered, expressed, purified and characterized full-length PA (pp-PA83) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using agroinfiltration. This plant-produced antigen elicited high toxin neutralizing antibody titers in mice and rabbits after two vaccine administrations with Alhydrogel. In addition, immunization with this vaccine candidate protected 100% of rabbits from a lethal aerosolized B. anthracis challenge. The vaccine effects were dose-dependent and required the presence of Alhydrogel adjuvant. In addition, the vaccine antigen formulated with Alhydrogel was stable and retained immunogenicity after two-week storage at 4°C, the conditions intended for clinical use. These results support the testing of this vaccine candidate in human volunteers and the utility of our plant expression system for the production of a recombinant anthrax vaccine. PMID:23324615

Chichester, Jessica A; Manceva, Slobodanka D; Rhee, Amy; Coffin, Megan V; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Mett, Vadim; Shamloul, Moneim; Norikane, Joey; Streatfield, Stephen J; Yusibov, Vidadi

2013-01-16

198

40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TEP 1, 2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) R ...1, 3, 4, 5, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) CR...

2010-07-01

199

Confiance, approbation et opposition : une approche simultanée des déterminants de l'opposition aux OGM en Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'apparition des plantes génétiquement modifiées, en Europe, a donné lieu à des débats importants notamment en ce qui a trait à la consommation des produits alimentaires issus des procédures de génie génétique. Dans ce contexte le mouvement collectif associatif est apparu comme un acteur important de diffusion de l'information sur le sujet, influençant de cette manière les comportements individuels des

Samira Chaklatti; Damien Rousselière

2006-01-01

200

[Dietary risk assessment for pesticide residues in food of plant origin during the plant protection product's registration process].  

PubMed

One of the main goals of risk assessment during registration of plant protection product is to approve (or not) the proposed Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) derived from the field trials conducted under Good Agricultural Practice (GAP). Generally, risk assessment at this stage is based on comparison of potential long- and short-term dietary intake of given pesticide with two earlier established outputs of hazard characterisation, i.e. Acceptable Daily Intake - ADI and Acute Reference Dose--ARfD. The first estimate of long-term hazard, which overestimates the risk, is comparing the Theoretical Maximum Daily Intake (TMDI) to the ADI of the pesticide. TMDI is based on assumption that all food products consumed over the lifetime of the consumer contain residues at level of MRL. Afterwards, the ADI is compared against International/National Estimated Daily Intake (IEDI/NEDI). I(N)EDI values provide a "best estimate" of dietary intake as they take into account residues in edible portions at level of median residue values from supervised trials. In case of short-term dietary exposure to acute toxic pesticides, the intake is compared to ARfD. The calculation of International/National Estimated Short-Term Intake IESTI/NESTI) requires single-day consumption data for the 97.5th percentile for each subgroups of consumers (so called "large portions") together with typical unit weight, and percentage of edible portion for each commodity as well as high, and median residue levels derived from the field trials. Additionally, in intake calculations for commodities with unit weight over 25 g, the variability factor (from 3 to 10) has been introduced, which reflects the possible high deposition of a pesticide on the individual unit, even when the quantified residue level in composite sample is relatively low. PMID:17713193

Struci?ski, Pawe?; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Ludwicki, Jan K

2006-01-01

201

Characteristics of organization execution of groundwater protection for elimination of failure consequences at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

The writers describe the organization, methods, and work execution for construction of an antifiltration diaphragm wall intended to protect groundwater and subsurface flow of the Pripyat` River against radioactive contamination during elimination of the consequences of the failure of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.

Dmitriev, N.V., Zhivoderov, V.N.

1994-07-01

202

EFFECTS OF ROAD DISTANCE AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES ON DEICING NaCl DEPOSITION AND SOIL SOLUTION CHEMISTRY IN PLANTED  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition pattern of deicing salt and the resulting concentrations in the soil water were determined in planted median strips of two major approach roads with speed restrictions of 70 kmh (43.5 mph) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of distance from the roadside and to test differ- ent straw mat protective measures. Deposition and soil

Lars Bo Pedersen; Thomas B. Randrup; Morten Ingerslev

203

Some lessons on radiological protection learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant released a large quantity of radioactive iodine and caesium into the environment. In terms of radiological protection, the evacuation and food restrictions that were adopted in a timely manner by the authorities effectively reduced the dose received by people living in the affected area. Since late March, the transition from an

M Kai

2012-01-01

204

40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...525 E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from the requirement of...

2013-07-01

205

Leaf-cutting ant nests near roads increase fitness of exotic plant species in natural protected areas  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanisms that promote the invasion of natural protected areas by exotic plants is a central concern for ecology. We demonstrated that nests of the leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex lobicornis, near roadsides promote the abundance, growth and reproduction of two exotic plant species, Carduus nutans and Onopordum acanthium, in a national park in northern Patagonia, Argentina and determine the mechanisms that produce these effects. Refuse dumps (RDs) from ant nests have a higher nutrient content than nearby non-nest soils (NNSs); foliar nutrient content and their 15N isotopic signature strongly suggest that plants reach and use these nutrients. Both species of exotic plants in RDs were 50–600% more abundant; seedlings had 100–1000% more foliar area and root and leaf biomass; and adult plants produced 100–300% more seeds than nearby NNS plants. Plants can thus gain access to and benefit from the nutrient content of ant RD, supporting the hypotheses that enhanced resource availability promotes exotic plant performance that could increase the likelihood of biological invasions. The two exotics produce an estimated of 8?385?000 more seeds?ha?1 in areas with ant nests compared with areas without; this exceptional increase in seed production represents a potential threat to nearby non-invaded communities. We propose several management strategies to mitigate this threat. Removal efforts of exotics should be focused on ant RDs, where plants are denser and represent a higher source of propagules.

Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Ghermandi, Luciana

2008-01-01

206

Soil-plant-animal transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines: a case study from Portugal.  

PubMed

Food chain models are essential tools to assess risks of soil contamination in view of product quality including fodder crops and animal products. Here we link soil to plant transfer (SPT) models for potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, U and Zn with models describing accumulation in animal organs. Current EU standards for food products and acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) for humans were used as critical limits. The combined model is used to assess the impact of soil contamination on animal health, product quality and human health using data from 100 arable fields. Results indicate that 42 existing arable fields near industrial and mining sites are unsuitable for animal grazing in view of food safety due to elevated intake of Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb by cows and sheep. At 10 sites daily intake levels of As by cows exceeded threshold concentrations regarding the quality of animal products. The food chain model also was used inversely to derive soil threshold concentrations in view of EU fodder standards. Calculated threshold levels in soil for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn appear to be in line with those proposed or used in other EU countries. As such the approach applied here can form a conceptual basis for a more harmonized risk assessment strategy regarding the protection of animal and human health. PMID:22208740

Rodrigues, S M; Pereira, M E; Duarte, A C; Römkens, P F A M

2011-10-29

207

Audit of construction of protective force training facilities at the Pantex Plant  

SciTech Connect

A goal of the Department of Energy project management system is to ensure that projects are necessary to fulfill mission needs and are cost effective. This requires that the Department justify each project and explore competitive alternatives. The objective of this audit was to assess the need to construct protective force training facilities at the Department`s Pantex Plant. Our audit disclosed that (1) construction of a physical training facility was not necessary to fulfill mission needs, and (2) the Department did not consider all viable alternatives to constructing a weapons tactics and training facility. These conditions occurred, in part, because a Justification for New Start was never prepared and approved for the Security Enhancements Major System Acquisition, which included these two projects. We recommended that the Manager, Albuquerque Operations Office, cancel construction of the physical training facility, make needed repairs and upgrades to the existing facilities, and reduce the cost of the Security Enhancements Major System Acquisition accordingly. Implementation of this recommendation will save about $1.7 million. We also recommended that the Manager direct Mason & Hanger to perform economic analyses of all viable alternatives to constructing a weapons tactics and training facility before proceeding with construction. Such analyses could lead to cancellation or rescoping of the proposed facility and result in savings to the Department. Albuquerque management did not agree to cancel construction of the physical training facility, but did agree to perform economic analyses of all viable alternatives to the proposed weapons tactics and training facility before proceeding with construction.

NONE

1995-05-05

208

Decommissioning a phosphoric acid production plant: a radiological protection case study.  

PubMed

During a preliminary survey at the area of an abandoned fertilizer plant, increased levels of radioactivity were measured at places, buildings, constructions and materials. The extent of the contamination was determined and the affected areas were characterized as controlled areas. After the quantitative and qualitative determination of the contaminated materials, the decontamination was planned and performed step by step: the contaminated materials were categorized according to their physical characteristics (scrap metals, plastic pipes, scales and residues, building materials, etc) and according to their level of radioactivity. Depending on the material type, different decontamination and disposal options were proposed; the most appropriate technique was chosen taking into account apart from technical issues, the legal framework, radiation protection issues, the opinion of the local authorities involved as well as the owner's wish. After taking away the biggest amount of the contaminated materials, an iterative process consisting of surveys and decontamination actions was performed in order to remove the residual traces of contamination from the area. During the final survey, no residual surface contamination was detected; some sparsely distributed low level contaminated materials deeply immersed into the soil were found and removed. PMID:20813440

Stamatis, V; Seferlis, S; Kamenopoulou, V; Potiriadis, C; Koukouliou, V; Kehagia, K; Dagli, C; Georgiadis, S; Camarinopoulos, L

2010-09-01

209

Influence of scale deposition on cathodic-protection performance in desalination plant conditions.  

PubMed

This paper describes an investigation into the interrelationships between the performance of an impressed current cathodic protection (CP) system and the deposition of scale compounds in a seawater pipe system. Some experiments were conducted on a laboratory set-up but the emphasis was on tests on a 0.25 m diameter steel pipe fed by seawater flowing to a thermal desalination plant. The experimental approach involved monitoring the CP current as a function of time at various set potentials and correlating this data with evidence from visual inspection of the pipe-wall surfaces and small probe specimens. The influences of control potential and seawater flow rate at temperatures of 25-35 degrees C were studied. Selected scale samples were subjected to examination by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The overall findings are discussed in terms of fundamental scale/CP-operation interactions and aspects relevant to practical operation of CP systems on seawater pipe installations. PMID:14982184

Hodgkiess, T; Najm-Mohammed, N A

2004-01-01

210

The accession countries benefit in the field of plant protection products.  

PubMed

Ten candidate countries are expected to join EU in 2004. In the field of plant protection product (PPP) regulation, at EU level, acceding states will have roles in evaluation for listing of active substances in Annex I of Directive 91/414/EEC and ensuring that at national level, regulatory procedures comply with the acquis communautaire. This paper briefly outlines the impact of the acquis on the roles of Member States at both EU and national levels. It then briefly explains the current Czech Republic regulatory system as operated by the State Phytosanitary Administration and the National Institute of Public Health and the steps that the Czech Republic will have to take to implement the acquis requirements. Finally it makes an assessment as to how successful implementation of the acquis will prove beneficial to the acceding states and the parties which rely on the service that the regulatory authorities provide (i.e. the public, farmers and growers and the agrochemical industry). PMID:15093291

Stanek, A

2004-04-01

211

Monitoring of systemic exposure to plant protection products and DNA damage in orchard workers.  

PubMed

The systemic exposure of plum tree growers and operators to plant protection products (PPPs) and effects on DNA were assessed. Specifically, a GC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the analysis of serum samples for the presence of seven active substances of PPPs. The analytical results verified the presence of myclobutanil, propargite, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in 7 out of 19 serum samples. The incidence of DNA damage was monitored using the single cell electrophoresis assay (comet assay). A paired Student's t-test revealed a statistically significant increase of SSBs in the blood samples collected at the end of the cropping period as compared to the samples collected from the same subjects before the start of PPPs application period. Moreover, the group of seven subjects with detectable serum pesticides levels revealed statistically significant increase of SSBs as compared to the group of subjects with no detectable PPP levels. The results of the present study demonstrate that the agriculture workers may exhibit detectable level of systemic exposure to the applied PPPs which are correlated to increased DNA damage during the cultivation period. PMID:22115631

Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Kyriakopoulou, Katerina; Emmanouil, Christina; Tsantila, Nektaria; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Souki, Helen; Manakis, Sotiris; Machera, Kyriaki

2011-10-31

212

Proposal on a sustainable strategy to avoid point source pollution of water with plant protection products.  

PubMed

Based on the results and lessons learned from the TOPPS project (Training the Operators to prevent Pollution from Point Sources), a proposal on a sustainable strategy to avoid point source pollution from Plant Protection Products (PPPs) was made. Within this TOPPS project (2005-2008), stakeholders were interviewed and research and analysis were done in 6 pilot catchment areas (BE, FR, DE, DK, IT, PL). Next, there was a repeated survey on operators' perception and opinion to measure changes resulting from TOPPS activities and good and bad practices were defined based on the Best Management Practices (risk analysis). Aim of the proposal is to suggest a strategy considering the differences between countries which can be implemented on Member State level in order to avoid PPP pollution of water through point sources. The methodology used for the up-scaLing proposal consists of the analysis of the current situation, a gap analysis, a consistency analysis and organisational structures for implementation. The up-scaling proposal focuses on the behaviour of the operators, on the equipment and infrastructure available with the operators. The proposal defines implementation structures to support correct behaviour through the development and updating of Best Management Practices (BMPs) and through the transfer and the implementation of these BMPs. Next, the proposal also defines requirements for the improvement of equipment and infrastructure based on the defined key factors related to point source pollution. It also contains cost estimates for technical and infrastructure upgrades to comply with BMPs. PMID:20218516

Mestdagh, Inge; Bonicelli, Bernard; Laplana, Ramon; Roettele, Manfred

2009-01-01

213

Peptaibiomics: Screening for polypeptide antibiotics (peptaibiotics) from plant-protective Trichoderma species.  

PubMed

Eight strains of Trichoderma species (T. strigosum, T. erinaceus, T. pubescens, T. stromaticum, and T. spirale as well as T. cf. strigosum, T. cf. pubescens) were selected because of their antagonistic potential against Eutypa dieback and Esca which are fungal diseases of grapevine trunks. These isolates were screened for the production of a group of polypeptide antibiotics named peptaibiotics, including its subgroups peptaibols and lipopeptaibols. Fully-grown fungal cultures on potato-dextrose agar were extracted with CH(2)Cl(2)/MeOH, and these extracts were subjected to SPE using C(18) cartridges. The methanolic eluates were analyzed by on-line LC/ESI-MS(n) coupling--a method which is referred to as 'peptaibiomics'. New seven-, ten-, and eleven-residue lipopeptaibols, with N-terminal alkanoyl, and C-terminal leucinol or isoleucinol residues were found and named lipostrigocins and lipopubescins. Furthermore, new 18-residue peptaibols named trichostromaticins and 19-residue peptaibols named trichostrigocins were discovered. One peptaibiotic carrying a free C-terminal valine (or isovaline) named trichocompactin XII was also sequenced. These results corroborate the hypothesis that peptaibiotics might contribute to the plant-protective action of their fungal producers. The data also point out that comparison of peptaibiotic sequences is of limited relevance in order to establish chemotaxonomic relationships among species of the genus Trichoderma. PMID:17193294

Degenkolb, Thomas; Gräfenhan, Tom; Berg, Albrecht; Nirenberg, Helgard I; Gams, Walter; Brückner, Hans

2006-06-01

214

A non-glycosylated, plant-produced human monoclonal antibody against anthrax protective antigen protects mice and non-human primates from B. anthracis spore challenge.  

PubMed

The health and economic burden of infectious diseases in general and bioterrorism in particular necessitate the development of medical countermeasures. One proven approach to reduce the disease burden and spread of pathogen is treatment with monoclonal antibodies (mAb). mAbs can prevent or reduce severity of the disease by variety of mechanisms, including neutralizing pathogen growth, limiting its spread from infected to adjacent cells, or by inhibiting biological activity of toxins, such as anthrax lethal toxin. Here, we report the production of glycosylated (pp-mAb (PA) ) and non-glycosylated (pp-mAb (PANG) ) versions of a plant-derived mAb directed against protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using agroinfiltration. Both forms of the antibody were able to neutralize anthrax lethal toxin activity in vitro and protect mice against an intraperitoneal challenge with spores of B. anthracis Sterne strain. A single 180 µg intraperitoneal dose of pp-mAb (PA) or pp-mAb (PANG) provided 90% and 100% survival, respectively. When tested in non-human primates, pp-mAb (PANG) was demonstrated to be superior to pp-mAb (PA) in that it had a significantly longer terminal half-life and conferred 100% protection against a lethal dose of aerosolized anthrax spore challenge after a single 5 mg/kg intravenous dose compared to a 40% survival rate conferred by pp-mAb (PA) . This study demonstrates the potential of a plant-produced non-glycosylated antibody as a useful tool for the treatment of inhalation anthrax. PMID:21270531

Mett, Vadim; Chichester, Jessica A; Stewart, Michelle L; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Bi, Hong; Reifsnyder, Carolyn J; Hull, Anna K; Albrecht, Mark T; Goldman, Stanley; Baillie, Les W J; Yusibov, Vidadi

2011-01-01

215

Environmental Protection implementation plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, November 9, 1994, to November 9, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (EPIP) has been prepared to meet federal, state, and local requirements by delineating how the Carlsbad Area office (CAO) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site Branch (WSB) intends to implement the provisions of DOE Order 5400.1. Its purpose is to list environmental protection goals and objectives for the WIPP; identify strategies, manpower allocations, and timetables for attaining these goals and objectives; describe the WIPP organizational structure; discuss the development of procedures; and assign responsibilities for compliance with federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations. This EPIP covers the periods from November 9, 1994 through November 9, 1995.

Not Available

1994-11-01

216

Design and implementation of IEC61850 for power generating plant protection, control and automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are growing IEC61850 based substation (switchyard) protection, control, and automation systems built in the world. This paper highlights the essential and basic aspects of implementing IEC61850 GOOSE Messaging and necessary logic programming on protective relay IEDs to achieve system protection and control for a nearly completed Combined Cycle Power Generating Facilities. During the design phase of the project, some

P. E. K. Tang

2010-01-01

217

FREEDOM TO OPERATE: Intellectual Property Protection in Plant Biology and Its Implications for the Conduct of Research.  

PubMed

Research endeavors are being affected by issues involving intellectual property (patents, copyrights, and trademarks). The acquisition of rights in intellectual property by universities can result in the transfer of new innovations to the private sector, with the university recouping a share of the profits for support of further scientific research. Intellectual property rights available for new plant cultivars include plant patents, plant variety protection certificates, plant breeder's rights, and utility patents. Under the patent laws, there is no explicit exemption for research use, so researchers are increasingly being required to execute materials transfer agreements to obtain permission to use patented materials, such as techniques, genes, seeds, and cell lines, in laboratory research and in breeding programs. Research scientists must educate themselves on these issues so that they can make informed decisions regarding their research practices and the licensing of their discoveries. PMID:11701816

Kimpel, Janice A.

1999-01-01

218

The influence of woody plants on the seepage of flood protection levees: Experiences from a test site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past flood events have once more drawn the attention to the stability and maintenance of flood protection levees. The attention has also been focused on the relationship between vegetation and the structural integrity of dikes. Current standards regard dense turf to be safest vegetation cover for dikes. Many guidelines ban woody vegetation from dikes and levees to provide structural integrity, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. The refusal of woody plants is mainly based on the argument that root penetration of woody plants facilitates water movement along their path. Within the frame of a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction (University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna), focusing on woody plants on levees, the effects of small to medium growing woody (shrubby) plants on the seepage are tested. Data are drawn from two natural-scaled research levees. The homogenous levees consist of a mineral silt-sand-gravel and have a fill height of 2.7 m and a slope inclination of 2:3. The tests investigate the impact of woody plants (living brush mattress - transversal) in comparison to compact turf (jute netting mulch seeding). Measured plant parameters, characterising the vegetation structures were shoot lengths, shoot diameters, and above ground biomass. Root growth is investigated in an extra plot area allowing excavation of the plants. Percolation is monitored using seepage monitoring pipes, soil moisture sensors and soil temperature probes, which were build into the embankment during construction. The proposed contribution discusses the effects of woody plants (shrubs) on seepage of flood protection levees. Methodology of research and results after three initial seepage tests are presented.

Lammeranner, W.; Meixner, H.; Florineth, F.

2009-04-01

219

A DES ASIC Suitable for Network Encryption at 10 Gbps and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Data Encryption Standard (DES) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is the\\u000a fastest known implementation of the DES algorithm as defined in the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Publication\\u000a 46-2. DES is used for protecting data by cryptographic means. The SNL DES ASIC, over 10 times faster than other currently\\u000a available DES chips, is a high-speed,

D. Craig Wilcox; Lyndon G. Pierson; Perry J. Robertson; Edward L. Witzke; Karl Gass

1999-01-01

220

Application of Digital Technology for the Plant Protection System in Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 5 and 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the completion of construction of Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4 (UCN 3 and 4), the first units of the OPR (Optimized Power Reactor) series, various advanced design features have been incorporated to the following OPRs. The Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 5 and 6(UCN 5 and 6) which started commercial operation in Korea from 2004 and

Lee Deucksoo; Kim Insik

2006-01-01

221

Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) development survivorship and damage on cotton plants expressing insecticidal plant-incorporated protectants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), plants expressing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner are planted on significant acreage across the Southern region of the United States. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), can be a significant cotton pest in ...

222

Reducing the number of fish in bioconcentration studies for plant protection products by reducing the number of test concentrations.  

PubMed

Fish bioconcentration tests are time consuming, expensive, and use many animals. Alternative methods that replace, reduce or refine the use of fish for BCF testing would therefore be of value. Test guidelines generally require that bioconcentration factors (BCFs) are determined at two exposure concentrations. However, recent revisions to the OECD Test Guideline for BCF testing (TG 305) provide the option to use only one exposure concentration, when justification is provided, although two concentrations may still be required for some regulatory purposes. Analysis of 55 studies on plant protection products demonstrates that BCF values do not significantly differ between the two exposure concentrations. This analysis therefore provides evidence to support the revision of OECD TG 305, and in particular provides justification for using the one test concentration approach for plant protection product active substances. PMID:23040052

Creton, Stuart; Weltje, Lennart; Hobson, Hannah; Wheeler, James R

2012-10-02

223

Presence of plant protection products in three agricultural areas of Regione Lazio.  

PubMed

Aim of the research was to verify the impact of plant protection products on three significant agricultural areas of Regione Lazio: Maccarese, Cisterna di Latina, Sabaudia-Terracina. This research studied the presence of some active ingredients, indicated by technicians as distributed, on soil, water, crop and air samples, the last one in greenhouse; the analysis, carried out by multi-residue methods, allowed to investigate also on a large amount of active ingredients not indicated by technicians. The determinations have been obtained, using internal standards, by GC-NPD, GC-ECD, HPLC-UV, HPLC-DAD, with different columns, conditions and wavelength of adsorption. Taking into account the results we could to assert that only a small part of the molecules searched were found in the samples and that they are typical for the crops and the environment treated. In greenhouse, more persistence was founded in wood greenhouse, treated from the outside, probably for the release of a.i. in time from wood and for a better distribution. The active ingredients more frequently founded must be controlled to avoid possible accumulation or leaching, especially for herbicides in the areas of Maccarese and Cisterna di Latina. Furthermore, the molecule on which more attention must be done when applied, are: linuron on carrots, penconazole on zucchini and cymoxanil, often used inappropriately, particularly on minor crops, like red-radish. Although the number of sampling was limited, it has been possible to outline the situation in the three zones considered, for directing choices, that could be more sensible at sanitary spin-off and at the environment. PMID:15151325

Conte, E; Rossi, E; Spera, G; Pompi, V; Carfi', F; Spadoni, A R; Rosati, M; Montereali, M R; Donnarumma, L; Perconti, W

2003-01-01

224

Technical experiences made with the litter bag test as required for the risk assessment of plant protection products in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The aim of this review was to assess the degree to which recent litter bag studies performed between 2002 and 2004 have followed\\u000a the recommendations laid down in the ‘Effects of plant protection products on functional endpoints in soil (EPFES)’ guidance\\u000a document and the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) Guidance Document on the Breakdown of

Axel Dinter; Mike Coulson; Fred Heimbach; Jürgen Keppler; Wolfgang Krieg; Uschi Kölzer

2008-01-01

225

Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes and Agricultural Trade: Challenges and Opportunities for Regulatory Plant Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) entered into force for all member\\u000a countries in 2000. It states that measures to protect human, animal and plant health or life shall be based on international\\u000a standards where possible. These measures shall be based on a scientific risk assessment and should be implemented only to\\u000a the extent

C. Devorshak

226

The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Process for Managing Equipment Intended for Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1996, the Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) located in the town of Novouralsk, Russia, (previously known as Sverdlovsk-44) and the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) have been cooperating under the Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. Because UEIP is involved in the processing of highly enriched uranium (HEU) into low enriched uranium (LEU), and there

Rashid Yuldashev; Andrei Nosov; Michael F. Carroll; Albert G. Garrett; Richard D. Dabbs; Esther M. Ku

2008-01-01

227

DETERMINATION OF PROGRAM PROTECTION FACTORS FOR HALF-MASK RESPIRATORS USED AT A MINERAL SANDS SEPARATION PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted at a mineral sands separation plant to evaluate the workplace performance of half-mask filter cartridge respirators. Inhalation exposure was estimated by measuring the dust and radioactivity concentration inside the respirator while it was worn or hanging around the worker's neck. The program protection factor was determined by simultaneously measuring inside-mask and ambient (outside-mask) concentrations. A total

Gregory S. Hewson; Martin I. Ralph

1992-01-01

228

Using ecological and biogeographical features to achieve a typology of the plant species used in riverbank protection bioengineering in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common goal for nature managers is to provide new riverbank protection guidelines in terms of environmental requirements for many species simultaneously. In this study, we propose to achieve a double typology of the plant species used in riverbank protection bioengineering in Europe using ecological and biogeographical features. The statistical analyses highlight the predominant role played by the light exposure in the structure of their classification but other ecological features such as soil productivity and tolerance to flooding were also found to be significantly selective. Independent biogeographical and ecological typologies allow the managers to be in adequation with the regional altitudinal and climatic context and to select species adapted to the very local environmental conditions of the considered riverbank. This study could take on a great interest since its methodology and its results are nearly applicable to slopes protection in general but also an interest in the context of the current climatic change.

Evette, A.; Balique, C.; Lavaine, C.

2009-04-01

229

Role of Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip) IV Transcription Factors in Plant Development and Plant Protection from Deleterious Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Homeobox genes comprise an important group of genes that are responsible for regulation of developmental processes. These genes determine cell differentiation and cell fate in all eukaryotic organisms, starting from the early stages of embryo development. Homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom. Members of the HD-Zip IV subfamily have a complex domain topology and can bind several cis-elements with overlapping sequences. Many of the reported HD-Zip IV genes were shown to be specifically or preferentially expressed in plant epidermal or sub-epidermal cells. HD-Zip IV TFs were found to be associated with differentiation and maintenance of outer cell layers, and regulation of lipid biosynthesis and transport. Insights about the role of these proteins in plant cuticle formation, and hence their possible involvement in plant protection from pathogens and abiotic stresses has just started to emerge. These roles make HD-Zip IV proteins an attractive tool for genetic engineering of crop plants. To this end, there is a need for in-depth studies to further clarify the function of each HD-Zip IV subfamily member in commercially important plant species.

Chew, William; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

2013-01-01

230

Role of Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip) IV Transcription Factors in Plant Development and Plant Protection from Deleterious Environmental Factors.  

PubMed

Homeobox genes comprise an important group of genes that are responsible for regulation of developmental processes. These genes determine cell differentiation and cell fate in all eukaryotic organisms, starting from the early stages of embryo development. Homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom. Members of the HD-Zip IV subfamily have a complex domain topology and can bind several cis-elements with overlapping sequences. Many of the reported HD-Zip IV genes were shown to be specifically or preferentially expressed in plant epidermal or sub-epidermal cells. HD-Zip IV TFs were found to be associated with differentiation and maintenance of outer cell layers, and regulation of lipid biosynthesis and transport. Insights about the role of these proteins in plant cuticle formation, and hence their possible involvement in plant protection from pathogens and abiotic stresses has just started to emerge. These roles make HD-Zip IV proteins an attractive tool for genetic engineering of crop plants. To this end, there is a need for in-depth studies to further clarify the function of each HD-Zip IV subfamily member in commercially important plant species. PMID:23584027

Chew, William; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

2013-04-12

231

Des Moines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

Gore, Deborah, Ed.

1988-01-01

232

The potential use of microbial communities inside suppres- sive banana plants for banana root protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has demonstrated that plants lose up to 33% of their assimilates to the soil. Why does a plant, in this case banana, exert large amounts of energy to produce nutrients that land unused in the soil? We believe that: (1) roots are damaged by pests and diseases and the plant cannot utilize the nutrients produced in the shoot; and\\/or

Luis Pocasangre; Richard A. Sikora

233

Textiles Protection and Poverty in South Africa\\/La protection du secteur des textiles et la pauvreté en Afrique du Sud: une analyse en équilibre général calculable dynamique micro-simulé  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an important debate going on in South Africa on whether to apply safeguard trade barriers to protect textiles. This presents an interesting case of how a country might use safeguard trade barriers in order to better achieve a domestic policy objective. Much of the current discourse on textiles protection focuses on static effects of protection. The aim of

Ramos Mabugu; Margaret Chitiga

2006-01-01

234

Overcurrent protection device miscoordination issues that result in plant outages and costly down time  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the phase and ground overcurrent protection of chemical facility electrical supply systems with emphasis on situations that can result in unnecessary shutdown of services. Ground overcurrent relay coordination with downstream fusing, the coordination of successive levels of protection with instantaneous devices, coordination of low voltage secondary devices with primary devices through delta-wye connected transformers, and coordinating successive

M. T. Bishop; S. R. Mendis; J. F. Witte; P. Myers

1996-01-01

235

Plant Phenolics as Radiation Protectants For The Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Nucleopolyhedrovirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thirteen phenolics were tested as ultraviolet (UV) protectants for the nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner). After 30 minute exposure to UVB/UVB radiation, eleven SeMNPV/phenolic combinations provided good to excellent UV protection when used at a concentra...

236

Xplicit, a novel approach in probabilistic spatiotemporally explicit exposure and risk assessment for plant protection products.  

PubMed

The quantification of risk (the likelihood and extent of adverse effects) is a prerequisite in regulatory decision making for plant protection products and is the goal of the Xplicit project. In its present development stage, realism is increased in the exposure assessment (EA), first by using real-world data on, e.g., landscape factors affecting exposure, and second, by taking the variability of key factors into account. Spatial and temporal variability is explicitly addressed. Scale dependencies are taken into account, which allows for risk quantification at different scales, for example, at landscape scale, an overall picture of the potential exposure of nontarget organisms can be derived (e.g., for all off-crop habitats in a given landscape); at local scale, exposure might be relevant to assess recovery and recolonization potential; intermediate scales might best refer to population level and hence might be relevant for risk management decisions (e.g., individual off-crop habitats). The Xplicit approach is designed to comply with a central paradigm of probabilistic approaches, namely, that each individual case that is derived from the variability functions employed should represent a potential real-world case. This is mainly achieved by operating in a spatiotemporally explicit fashion. Landscape factors affecting the local exposure of habitats of nontarget species (i.e., receptors) are derived from geodatabases. Variability in time is resolved by operating at discrete time steps, with the probability of events (e.g., application) or conditions (e.g., wind conditions) defined in probability density functions (PDFs). The propagation of variability of parameters into variability of exposure and risk is done using a Monte Carlo approach. Among the outcomes are expectancy values on the realistic worst-case exposure (predicted environmental concentration [PEC]), the probability p that the PEC exceeds the ecologically acceptable concentration (EAC) for a given fraction of habitats, and risk curves. The outcome can be calculated at any ecologically meaningful organization level of receptors. An example application of Xplicit is shown for a hypothetical risk assessment for nontarget arthropods (NTAs), demonstrating how the risk quantification can be improved compared with the standard deterministic approach. PMID:21538833

Schad, Thorsten; Schulz, Ralf

2011-07-22

237

Prodotti Fitosanitari: Orientamenti su Limiti Massimi di Residui e Relativa Valtazione del Rischio (Plant Protection Products: A Guidance on Maximum Residue Levels and Their Risk Assessment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Direct human exposure to chemical substances can occur in several ways within the personal, domestic and professional sphere. Pesticides, particularly those intended for agricultural purposes (i.e. plant protection products), represent an important field ...

A. Santilio D. A. Barbini F. Roberti R. Dommarco

2007-01-01

238

[Plant protection products and their residues : Aspects of consumer safety in context of the new EU regulations].  

PubMed

The law regulating plant protection products (PPP) in the European Union (EU) was fundamentally revised through the introduction of Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009 which is due to enter into force on 14 June 2011. EU-wide harmonized maximum residue levels (MRLs) for the active substances of PPP in foods are laid down in Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 and apply since entry into force of the regulation on 1 September 2008. The goal of both regulations is to strengthen the level of consumer protection. PPP are subject to a strict assessment of active substances, which is regulated at the EU level as well as an authorization procedure in the EU Member States. Prior to application for authorization of a PPP, the active substance(s) it contains must be included in a positive list. Tests regarding the toxicity and residue behavior of PPP must be conducted by the applicant, and the respective documents must be submitted to the authorities for evaluation. Following review of the required data, toxicological threshold values are derived, consumer exposure is assessed, and the risk to health is evaluated. The goal of this evaluation is to ensure that the use of PPP according to good plant protection practice does not have any harmful effects on human health. PMID:20464351

Banasiak, U; Michalski, B; Pfeil, R; Solecki, R

2010-06-01

239

Molecular Chaperones as Mediators of Stress Protective Effect of Plant Adaptogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The ability of plant adaptogens to enhance the “state of non-specific resistance” of an organism to stress by augmenting resistance\\u000a to physical, biological, chemical and psychological stresses, and increasing concentration, performance and endurance during\\u000a fatigue have placed it in a unique position among medicinal plants. However, the molecular mechanism by which plant adaptogens\\u000a exerts its beneficial effects is thus far

Alexander Panossian; Georg Wikman; Punit Kaur; Alexzander Asea

240

Design Fundamentals for Nemp Protection of Nike-X Power Plants and Facilities Electrical Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents design fundamentals which will enable an architect engineer to incorporate NEMP protection for electrical and communications systems into the NIKE-X facilities design. The design fundamentals are based on the most recent authoritative...

1968-01-01

241

Aromatic plants in nests of the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus protect chicks from bacteria.  

PubMed

Several bird species add fresh fragments of plants which are rich in volatile secondary compounds to their nests. It has been suggested, although never tested, that birds use fresh plants to limit the growth of nest microorganisms. On Corsica, blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) incorporate fresh fragments of aromatic plants into their nests. These plants do not reduce infestation by nest ectoparasites, but have been shown to improve growth and condition of chicks at fledging. To understand the mechanisms underlying such benefits, we experimentally tested the effects of these plants on the bacteria living on blue tits. Aromatic plants significantly affected the structure of bacterial communities, in particular reducing bacterial richness on nestlings. In addition, in this population where there is a strong association between bacterial density and infestation by blood-sucking Protocalliphora blow fly larvae, these plants reduced bacterial density on the most infested chicks. Aromatic plants had no significant effect on the bacteria living on adult blue tits. This study provides the first evidence that fresh plants brought to the nests by adult birds limit bacterial richness and density on their chicks. PMID:19633988

Mennerat, Adèle; Mirleau, Pascal; Blondel, Jacques; Perret, Philippe; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Heeb, Philipp

2009-07-26

242

How caterpillar-damaged plants protect themselves by attracting parasitic wasps.  

PubMed Central

Parasitic and predatory arthropods often prevent plants from being severely damaged by killing herbivores as they feed on the plants. Recent studies show that a variety of plants, when injured by herbivores, emit chemical signals that guide natural enemies to the herbivores. It is unlikely that herbivore-damaged plants initiate the production of chemicals solely to attract parasitoids and predators. The signaling role probably evolved secondarily from plant responses that produce toxins and deterrents against herbivores and antibiotics against pathogens. To effectively function as signals for natural enemies, the emitted volatiles should be clearly distinguishable from background odors, specific for prey or host species that feed on the plant, and emitted at times when the natural enemies forage. Our studies on the phenomena of herbivore-induced emissions of volatiles in corn and cotton plants and studies conducted by others indicate that (i) the clarity of the volatile signals is high, as they are unique for herbivore damage, produced in relatively large amounts, and easily distinguishable from background odors; (ii) specificity is limited when different herbivores feed on the same plant species but high as far as odors emitted by different plant species and genotypes are concerned; (iii) the signals are timed so that they are mainly released during the daytime, when natural enemies tend to forage, and they wane slowly after herbivory stops.

Turlings, T C; Loughrin, J H; McCall, P J; Rose, U S; Lewis, W J; Tumlinson, J H

1995-01-01

243

Hexaconazole induces antioxidant protection and apigenin-7-glucoside accumulation in Matricaria chamomilla plants subjected to drought stress.  

PubMed

In this experiment, the possibility of enhancing the water deficit stress tolerance of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) during two growth stages by the exogenous application of hexaconazole (HEX) was investigated. To improve water deficit tolerance, HEX was applied in three concentrations during two different stages (50 and 80 days after sowing). After HEX applications, the plants were subjected to water deficit stress. Although all HEX concentrations improved the water deficit stress tolerance in chamomile plants, the application of 15 mg L(-1) provided better protection when compared to the other concentration. The exogenous application of HEX provided significant protection against water deficit stress compared to non-HEX-treated plants, significantly affecting the morphological characteristics and aspects of productivity, the relative water, protein and proline contents; non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants; and the flower's apigenin-7-glucoside content. These results suggest that the HEX-induced tolerance to water deficit stress in chamomile was related to the changes in growth variables, antioxidants and the apigenin-7-glucoside content. PMID:21208683

Hojati, Mostafa; Modarres-Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Ghanati, Faezeh; Panahi, Mehdi

2011-01-03

244

Induced plant defenses breached? Phytochemical induction protects an herbivore from disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although wound-induced responses in plants are widespread, neither the ecological nor the evolutionary significance of phytochemical induction is clear. Several studies have shown, for example, that induced responses can act against both plant pathogens and herbivores simultaneously. We present the first evidence that phytochemical induction can inhibit a pathogen of the herbivore responsible for the defoliation. In 1990, we generated

Mark D. Hunter; Jack C. Schultz

1993-01-01

245

Ozone protects plants from air pollution with 2,4-D  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1967 the authors reported apparent antagonistic action of ozone and 2,4-D when used as air pollutants. Continued work has shown several horticultural plants like zinnia, tomato, and elm survive otherwise lethal dosages of 2,4-D when exposed to otherwise damaging concentrations of Oâ simultaneously or shortly before or after exposure of plants to 2,4-D.

C. H. Sherwood; G. D. Rolph

1969-01-01

246

The contribution of a planted roof to the thermal protection of buildings in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planted roofs contribute positively to the improvement of the thermal performance of a building. They block solar radiation, and reduce daily temperature variations and thermal ranges between winter and summer. In this paper, a calculation has been done, using a stationary method, in order to determine the thermal behaviour of the planted roof and the way it influences the thermal

Ekaterini Eumorfopoulou; Dimitris Aravantinos

1998-01-01

247

PARTICIPATION OF CHITIN SPECIFIC ISOFORMS OF PEROXIDASE IN PROTECTIVE REACTION OF PLANTS INFECTED BY PATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We are interested in how isoforms of peroxidases may influence the cotton plant's resistance to pathogens. Cotton is a member of the Malvaceae and we have been investigating the resistance of wild members of the Malvaceae to the plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Using electrophoresis, we have obs...

248

Rutin in buckwheat - Protection of plants and its importance for the production of functional food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of ultraviolet (UV)-B absorbing compounds in buckwheat is related to UV-B radiation. The increased terminal electron transport system (ETS) activity of mitochondria of plants, exposed to UV radiation , is suggested to reflect the energetic cost of generating the internal mechanisms for photoprotection. Rutin , quercetin, quercitrin and other flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites and are synthesized in

Ivan KREFT; Nina FABJANI; Mateja GERM

2003-01-01

249

Plant-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloid protects eggs of a moth (Utetheisa ornatrix) against a parasitoid wasp (Trichogramma ostriniae)  

PubMed Central

Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA), sequestered by the moth Utetheisa ornatrix from its larval food plant, is transmitted by both males and females to the eggs. Males confer PA on the female by seminal infusion, and females pass this gift, together with PA that they themselves procured as larvae, to the eggs. Here we show that PA protects the eggs against parasitization by the chalcidoid wasp, Trichogramma ostriniae. Eggs laid subsequent to a first mating of an Utetheisa female receive most of their PA from the female. The amount they receive from the male is insufficient to provide for full protection. However, female Utetheisa are promiscuous and therefore likely to receive PA on a cumulative basis from their male partners.

Bezzerides, Alexander; Yong, Tze-Hei; Bezzerides, Julie; Husseini, Jad; Ladau, Joshua; Eisner, Maria; Eisner, Thomas

2004-01-01

250

Plant-derived human acetylcholinesterase-R provides protection from lethal organophosphate poisoning and its chronic aftermath.  

PubMed

Therapeutically valuable proteins are often rare and/or unstable in their natural context, calling for production solutions in heterologous systems. A relevant example is that of the stress-induced, normally rare, and naturally unstable "read-through" human acetylcholinesterase variant, AChE-R. AChE-R shares its active site with the synaptic AChE-S variant, which is the target of poisonous organophosphate anticholinesterase insecticides such as the parathion metabolite paraoxon. Inherent AChE-R overproduction under organophosphate intoxication confers both short-term protection (as a bioscavenger) and long-term neuromuscular damages (as a regulator). Here we report the purification, characterization, and testing of human, endoplasmic reticulum-retained AChE-R(ER) produced from plant-optimized cDNA in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. AChE-R(ER) purified to homogeneity showed indistinguishable biochemical properties, with IC50 = 10(-7) M for the organophosphate paraoxon, similar to mammalian cell culture-derived AChE. In vivo titration showed dose-dependent protection by intravenously injected AChE-R(ER) of FVB/N male mice challenged with a lethal dose of paraoxon, with complete elimination of short-term clinical symptoms at near molar equivalence. By 10 days postexposure, AChE-R prophylaxis markedly limited postexposure increases in plasma murine AChE-R levels while minimizing the organophosphate-induced neuromuscular junction dismorphology. Our findings present plant-produced AChE-R(ER) as a bimodal agent, conferring both short- and long-term protection from organophosphate intoxication. PMID:17475919

Evron, Tama; Geyer, Brian C; Cherni, Irene; Muralidharan, Mrinalini; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Fletcher, Samuel P; Soreq, Hermona; Mor, Tsafrir S

2007-05-02

251

Définition des priorités sanitaires et rationnement. L'opinion des Suisses, des Administrateurs hospitaliers et des Départements sanitaires des Cantons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectifs. Le but de cette analyse est,[i] de présenter l'opinion actuelle de la population suisse sur des thèmes liés à la limitation des ressources, à la définition des priorités et au rationnement dans le secteur sanitaire, [ii] de comparer cette opinion avec celle d'autres groupes professionnellement engagés dans le secteur (administrateurs des hôpitaux et directions des Départements sanitaires des cantons)

Gianfranco DOMENIGHETTI; Jenny MAGGI

2000-01-01

252

Protecting against water loss: analysis of the barrier properties of plant cuticles.  

PubMed

The cuticle is the major barrier against uncontrolled water loss from leaves, fruits and other primary parts of higher plants. More than 100 mean values for water permeabilities determined with isolated leaf and fruit cuticles from 61 plant species are compiled and discussed in relation to plant organ, natural habitat and morphology. The maximum barrier properties of plant cuticles exceed that of synthetic polymeric films of equal thickness. Cuticular water permeability is not correlated to the thickness of the cuticle or to wax coverage. Relationships between cuticular permeability, wax composition and physical properties of the cuticle are evaluated. Cuticular permeability to water increases on the average by a factor of 2 when leaf surface temperature is raised from 15 degrees C to 35 degrees C. Organic compounds of anthropogenic and biogenic origin may enhance cuticular permeability. The pathway taken by water across the cuticular transport barrier is reviewed. The conclusion from this discussion is that the bulk of water diffuses as single molecules across a lipophilic barrier while a minor fraction travels along polar pores. Open questions concerning the mechanistic understanding of the plant cuticular transport barrier and the role the plant cuticle plays in ensuring the survival and reproductive success of an individual plant are indicated. PMID:11559738

Riederer, M; Schreiber, L

2001-10-01

253

United States Department of Energy`s reactor core protection evaluation methodology for fires at RBMK and VVER nuclear power plants. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document provides operators of Soviet-designed RBMK (graphite moderated light water boiling water reactor) and VVER (pressurized light water reactor) nuclear power plants with a systematic Methodology to qualitatively evaluate plant response to fires and to identify remedies to protect the reactor core from fire-initiated damage.

NONE

1997-06-01

254

Physical protection solutions for security problems at nuclear power plants. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

Under Department of Energy sponsorship, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a broad technological base of components and integrated systems to address security concerns at facilities of importance, including nuclear reactors. The primary security concern at a light water reactor is radiological sabotage, a deliberate set of actions at a plant which could expose the public to a significant amount of radiation (on the order of 10 CFR 100 limits). (Also of importance to plant operators are acts of industrial sabotage that could prevent a plant from producing electrical power).

Darby, J.L.; Jacobs, J.

1980-09-01

255

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Design Information Report: Sidestreams in Wastewater Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Performance problems at publicly-owned treatment works are often attributed to the recycling of sidestreams generated in the wastewater treatment and sludge handling systems. Although the volumes of these sidestreams are generally small compared to plant ...

1987-01-01

256

Environmental Protection Agency's White Paper on 'Bacillus thuringiensis' Plant-Pesticide Resistance Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze data generated in the 1996 growing season for current resistance management plans for Bacillus thuringiensis plant-pesticides for Bt potato, Bt corn and Bt cotton, identify technical modifications that might improve...

1998-01-01

257

[Contribution of cell and molecular biology and genetics to plant protection].  

PubMed

Plants resist to the majority of their potential aggressors by opposing physical and chemical barriers: cell walls, secondary metabolites.... Phenomena of specific recognition between a plant variety and a pathovar induce on the one hand, a local (hypersensitive) reaction that tends to limit pathogen growth and, on the other hand, a cascade of signals that allows the activation of a non-specific general (systemic) resistance. The contribution of genetics to the fight against pathogens depends on the natural variability that comes from the co-evolution between plants and their aggressors. Many plant varieties resistant to one or several pathogens have been obtained and are cultivated. The use of biotechnology will facilitate the rapid generation of new, resistant cultivars and cultivars with multiple resistances. New methods in order to increase the efficiency and the durability of resistance are envisaged. PMID:12741179

Durand-Tardif, Mylène; Pelletier, Georges

2003-01-01

258

Silencing of the AV2 gene by antisense RNA protects transgenic plants against a bipartite begomovirus  

PubMed Central

Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (genus Begomovirus) are phytopathogens that cause heavy losses to crops worldwide. Efforts to engineer resistance against these viruses are focused mainly on silencing of complementary-sense virus genes involved in virus replication. Here we have targeted a virion-sense gene (AV2) to develop resistance against Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus, a bipartite begomovirus prevalent throughout the Indian subcontinent. We show that tobacco plants transformed with an antisense construct targeting this gene are resistant to the virus. Following challenged with the virus, transgenic plants remained symptomless, although viral DNA could be detected in some plants by PCR. This is the first report of transgenic resistance against a bipartite begomovirus obtained by targeting a virion-sense gene. The relatively conserved nature of the gene suggests that the technology may be useful to develop broad-spectrum resistance which is required because of the fact that plants are often infected with multiple begomoviruses in the field.

Mubin, Muhammad; Mansoor, Shahid; Hussain, Mazhar; Zafar, Yusuf

2007-01-01

259

Protective role of Scoparia dulcis plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipidperoxidation in STZ diabetic male Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of rats during diabetes by measuring the extent of oxidative damage as well as the status of the antioxidant defense system. Methods Aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) and the effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard reference drug. Results A significant increase in the activities of plasma insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione was observed in brain on treatment with 200 mg/kg body weight of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt) and glibenclamide for 6 weeks. Both the treated groups showed significant decrease in TBARS and hydroperoxides formation in brain, suggesting its role in protection against lipidperoxidation induced membrane damage. Conclusions Since the study of induction of the antioxidant enzymes is considered to be a reliable marker for evaluating the antiperoxidative efficacy of the medicinal plant, these findings suggest a possible antiperoxidative role for Scoparia dulcis plant extract. Hence, in addition to antidiabetic effect, Scoparia dulcis possess antioxidant potential that may be used for therapeutic purposes.

Pari, Leelavinothan; Latha, Muniappan

2004-01-01

260

A method for rapid production of heteromultimeric protein complexes in plants: assembly of protective bluetongue virus-like particles.  

PubMed

Plant expression systems based on nonreplicating virus-based vectors can be used for the simultaneous expression of multiple genes within the same cell. They therefore have great potential for the production of heteromultimeric protein complexes. This work describes the efficient plant-based production and assembly of Bluetongue virus-like particles (VLPs), requiring the simultaneous expression of four distinct proteins in varying amounts. Such particles have the potential to serve as a safe and effective vaccine against Bluetongue virus (BTV), which causes high mortality rates in ruminants and thus has a severe effect on the livestock trade. Here, VLPs produced and assembled in Nicotiana benthamiana using the cowpea mosaic virus-based HyperTrans (CPMV-HT) and associated pEAQ plant transient expression vector system were shown to elicit a strong antibody response in sheep. Furthermore, they provided protective immunity against a challenge with a South African BTV-8 field isolate. The results show that transient expression can be used to produce immunologically relevant complex heteromultimeric structures in plants in a matter of days. The results have implications beyond the realm of veterinary vaccines and could be applied to the production of VLPs for human use or the coexpression of multiple enzymes for the manipulation of metabolic pathways. PMID:23647743

Thuenemann, Eva C; Meyers, Ann E; Verwey, Jeanette; Rybicki, Edward P; Lomonossoff, George P

2013-05-06

261

Transgenic crop plants expressing synthetic cry9Aa gene are protected against insect damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthetic gene sequence of cry9Aa was made to achieve high expression levels in a plant cell. Tobacco, potato, cauliflower and turnip rape plants were transformed with this synthetic gene driven by the double 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404. The presence and expression of the synthetic cry9Aa gene was evaluated in Southern, Northern and Western analysis and with insect

Viktor Kuvshinov; Kimmo Koivu; Anne Kanerva; Eija Pehu

2001-01-01

262

Invasive alien plants in marine protected areas: the Spartina anglica affair in the European Wadden Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cord-grass Spartina anglica, a fertile hybrid of S. maritima and S. alterniflora, was planted in the European Wadden Sea extensively during the late 1920s and 1930s to promote sediment accretion. After\\u000a establishment, it colonised as a pioneer plant in the upper tidal zone, where it occurs frequently in coherent swards at the\\u000a seaward front of saltmarshes and in patches on

Stefan Nehring; Karl-Jürgen Hesse

2008-01-01

263

A plant-produced plague vaccine candidate confers protection to monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of vaccine antigens in plants has received considerable attention over the last decade. However, despite many antigens being expressed in plant systems, and promising efficacy data with rodent models, few vaccine candidates have advanced into studies in non-human primates or human clinical trials. Here, we report on the transient expression of the F1 and LcrV antigens of Yersinia pestis

Vadim Mett; Jarred Lyons; Konstantin Musiychuk; Jessica A. Chichester; Trevor Brasil; Ronald Couch; Robert Sherwood; Gene A. Palmer; Stephen J. Streatfield; Vidadi Yusibov

2007-01-01

264

New Plant Growth Regulators Protect Photosynthesis and Enhance Growth Under Drought of Jack Pine Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   To determine whether natural plant growth regulators (PGRs) can enhance drought tolerance and the competitive ability of\\u000a transplanted seedlings, 1.5-year-old jack pine (Pinus banksana Lamb.) seedlings were treated with homobrassinolide, salicylic acid, and two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, triacontanol,\\u000a abscisic acid (ABA), and the synthetic antioxidant, Ambiol. PGRs were fed into the xylem for 7 days and plants were

L. R. Rajasekaran; T. J. Blake

1999-01-01

265

The Antitranspirant Di1- p -menthene, a Potential Chemical Protectant of Ozone Damage to Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pinolene-based film-forming Vapor Gard (VG) emulsion (di-1-p-menthene), a commercial antitranspirant, on the response of the sensitive bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto) plants to realistic ozone fumigations. Plants treated with the chemical were significantly less damaged in comparison\\u000a with untreated controls when exposed to as much as 150 ppb of ozone in the

Alessandra Francini; Giacomo Lorenzini; Cristina Nali

2011-01-01

266

Molecular responses to drought, salinity and frost: common and different paths for plant protection.  

PubMed

Drought, high salinity and low temperature are major environmental factors that limit plant productivity. Plants respond and adapt to these stresses in order to survive. Signaling pathways are induced in response to environmental stress and recent molecular and genetic studies have revealed that these pathways involve many components. In this review, we highlight recent findings on the gene expression associated with stress responses and the signaling pathways that are either common or specific to the response. PMID:12732320

Seki, Motoaki; Kamei, Ayako; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

2003-04-01

267

Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program: Groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis plan for Calendar Year 1998  

SciTech Connect

This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1998 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant. These monitoring activities are managed by the Y-12 Plant Environmental Compliance Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located within Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed during CY 1998 to comply with: (1) requirements specified in Resource Conservation and Recover Act (RCRA) post-closure permits regarding RCRA corrective action monitoring and RCRA detection monitoring; (2) Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste management facilities; and (3) DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway monitoring. Data from some of the sampling locations in each regime will be used to meet the requirements of more than one of the monitoring drivers listed above. Modifications to the CY 1998 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. For example, changes in regulatory requirements may alter the parameters specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

NONE

1997-09-01

268

Methylobacterium-Induced Endophyte Community Changes Correspond with Protection of Plants against Pathogen Attack  

PubMed Central

Plant inoculation with endophytic bacteria that normally live inside the plant without harming the host is a highly promising approach for biological disease control. The mechanism of resistance induction by beneficial bacteria is poorly understood, because pathways are only partly known and systemic responses are typically not seen. The innate endophytic community structures change in response to external factors such as inoculation, and bacterial endophytes can exhibit direct or indirect antagonism towards pathogens. Earlier we showed that resistance induction by an endophytic Methylobacterium sp. in potato towards Pectobacterium atrosepticum was dependent on the density of the inoculum, whereas the bacterium itself had no antagonistic activity. To elucidate the role of innate endophyte communities in plant responses, we studied community changes in both in vitro and greenhouse experiments using various combinations of plants, endophyte inoculants, and pathogens. Induction of resistance was studied in several potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars by Methylobacterium sp. IMBG290 against the pathogens P. atrosepticum, Phytophthora infestans and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by M. extorquens DSM13060 against Gremmeniella abietina. The capacities of the inoculated endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains to induce resistance were dependent on the plant cultivar, pathogen, and on the density of Methylobacterium spp. inoculum. Composition of the endophyte community changed in response to inoculation in shoot tissues and correlated with resistance or susceptibility to the disease. Our results demonstrate that endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains have varying effects on plant disease resistance, which can be modulated through the endophyte community of the host.

Ardanov, Pavlo; Sessitsch, Angela; Haggman, Hely; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Pirttila, Anna Maria

2012-01-01

269

Cotton plants transformed with a bacterial degradation gene are protected from accidental spray drift damage by the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agronomic performance of broad leaved crop plants such as cotton would be greatly improved if genetically-engineered resistance to broadleaf herbicides could both protect the plants from accidental spray drift damage and allow the suppression of problem broadleaf weeds by chemical means. Followingin vitro modification and the addition of plant expression signals, the gene for 2,4-D monooxygenase, a bacterial enzyme

Bruce R. Lyon; Yvonne L. Cousins; Danny J. Llewellyn; Elizabeth S. Dennis

1993-01-01

270

Feasibility of Plant Operation with One Protective System Dump Valve Failed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the first week of June 1991 a dump valve of channel B in the protective system became slow to open. The 'slow in opening' alarm is set at 0.5 seconds. As per policy the dump valve is to be locked open if the opening time is greater than 0.5 seconds but...

N. Saqib M. Ansari

1992-01-01

271

Evaluation of respiratory protection in coal preparation plants. Contract report (final)  

SciTech Connect

Surface coal mine (SIC-1211) and preparation facility operations were studied to determine respirable dust and vapor hazards and the effectiveness of respiratory protective equipment. Eight coal preparation facilities were surveyed. Dust samples were taken at strip mining, raw coal processing, coal preparation and coal loading operations, and at quality control laboratories. Area and personal air samples and area samples of methyl isobutyl carbinol (108112) (MIBC) were collected and quantitative respirator fit tests were performed. Concentrations of respirable coal dust in excess of Mining Safety and Health Administration's (MSHA's) permissible exposure limits (PEL) were found only in one coal loader at one facility. Respirable dust concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 2.73 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/cu m). The highest concentrations were measured on workers performing surface mine and coal loading activities. Only 1 out of 80 personal samples was greater than 2mg/cu m. Out of 51 area samples of respirable coal dust, 15 exceeded the MSHA PEL. Only 72 percent of the workers tested used acceptable respiratory protection. The occurrence of facial hair was significant in the workers who did not obtain satisfactory protection. The authors recommend that engineering controls be implemented to reduce dust concentrations, and a respiratory protection program be implemented.

Not Available

1980-07-01

272

Probability analysis of unrevealed faults in nuclear power plant protection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In reliability analysis of an equipment within automatic protection systems the safety assessor is faced with two distinct failure conditions namely: fail-safe failures which place the equipment in a safe condition, and fail-dangerous failures which may render the equipment inoperative since the fault may not reveal itself unless extensive tests are done upon it. This paper develops basic probability models

J. J. Lisboa

1989-01-01

273

Plant responses to abiotic stresses: heavy metal-induced oxidative stress and protection by mycorrhization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review is to assess the mode of action and role of antioxidants as protection from heavy metal stress in roots, mycorrhizal fungi and mycor- rhizae. Based on their chemical and physical proper- ties three different molecular mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity can be distinguished: (a) production of reactive oxygen species by autoxidation and Fenton reaction; this

Andres Schutzendubel; Andrea Polle

2002-01-01

274

Proline does not quench singlet oxygen: evidence to reconsider its protective role in plants.  

PubMed

Plants are commonly subjected to several environmental stresses that lead to an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). As plants accumulate proline in response to stress conditions, some authors have proposed that proline could act as a non-enzymatic antioxidant against ROS. One type of ROS aimed to be quenched by proline is singlet oxygen ((1)O(2))-molecular oxygen in its lowest energy electronically excited state-constitutively generated in oxygenic, photosynthetic organisms. In this study we clearly prove that proline cannot quench (1)O(2) in aqueous buffer, giving rise to a rethinking about the antioxidant role of proline against (1)O(2). PMID:23384940

Signorelli, Santiago; Arellano, Juan Bautista; Melø, Thor Bernt; Borsani, Omar; Monza, Jorge

2013-01-17

275

“In vitro” protection of DNA from Fenton reaction by plant polyphenol verbascoside  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protection effect of verbascoside (Ver) against Fenton reaction on plasmid pBR322 DNA was studied using agarose gel electrophoresis and UV-visible spectroscopy. The pBR322 plasmid DNA is damaged by hydroxyl radical (OH) generated from the Fenton reaction with H2O2 and Fe(II) or Fe(III). This DNA damage is characterized by the diminution of supercoiled DNA forms or by the increase of

Chenyang Zhao; Guy Dodin; Chenshan Yuan; Haifeng Chen; Rongliang Zheng; Zhongjian Jia; Bo-Tao Fan

2005-01-01

276

Globalisation and sustainable exports of Indian medicinal and aromatic plants: A protection study  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has a rich heritage of traditional systems of medicine viz. Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Tibetan which are mostly based on botanical formulations. Although biologically, the region is extremely rich in medicinal plants, due to years of unwise use, the availability of raw materials in desired quality and quantity has become difficult to obtain raising serious doubt about the safety and

Soumitra Kumar Bera

2010-01-01

277

Urban tree-planting programs — A model for encouraging environmentally protective behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to increase environmentally sound behaviors and practices have in the past often focussed on consciousness-raising and attitude change. Research indicates that such efforts are less effective than interventions designed to make environmentally sound behaviors easier to engage in, or to make personal advantages resulting from such behaviors more clear to individuals. Four nonprofit tree planting organizations were studied as

Joshua Summit; Robert Sommer

1998-01-01

278

Polevkivienergeetika ja keskkonna saastumine. (Utilization of oil shale in power plants and environmental protection).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Estonia n oil shale was first used as a power fuel in 1924 at the Tallinn Power Plant. The first pulverized oil-shale-fired steam boilers were used in the end of forties. A new period in the utilization of the Estonia n oil shale began in the years of 195...

A. Ots

1994-01-01

279

Problematic natural gas power plant pumping\\/irrigation: Station lightning protection success story  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents activities resulting from the formation of a design and engineering team that was created to develop and implement an effective solution to prevent damage from lightning. The lightning-caused damage was frequently occurring to an eastern New Mexico natural gas power plant grey water pumping\\/irrigation facility. This problem was solved through improved grounding including installation of a ground

D. Miller; S. Hudson; E. Teague

2010-01-01

280

Proposed Methodology for Specifying Atrazine Levels of Concern for Protection of Plant Communities in Freshwater Ecosystems  

EPA Science Inventory

This document describes a proposed methodology for setting levels of concern (LOCs) for atrazine in natural freshwater systems to prevent unacceptably adverse effects on the aquatic plant communities in those systems. LOCs regarding effects on humans and possible effects on amph...

281

Soil-plant-animal transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines: A case study from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food chain models are essential tools to assess risks of soil contamination in view of product quality including fodder crops and animal products. Here we link soil to plant transfer (SPT) models for potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, U and Zn with models describing accumulation in animal organs. Current EU standards

S. M. Rodrigues; M. E. Pereira; A. C. Duarte; P. F. A. M. Römkens

2012-01-01

282

Physical protection solutions for security problems at nuclear power plants. [PWR; BWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under Department of Energy sponsorship, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a broad technological base of components and integrated systems to address security concerns at facilities of importance, including nuclear reactors. The primary security concern at a light water reactor is radiological sabotage, a deliberate set of actions at a plant which could expose the public to a significant amount of

J. L. Darby; J. Jacobs

1980-01-01

283

Protection from phenytoin-induced cognitive deficit by Bacopa monniera, a reputed Indian nootropic plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many epileptic patients suffer from cognitive impairments; both the underlying pathology and antiepileptic drug therapy can cause such deficits. Phenytoin, one of the widely used anticonvulsants, is known to adversely affect cognitive function. A reputed Indian nootropic plant Bacopa monniera (BM) was evaluated alone and in combination with phenytoin for its effect on (a) passive-avoidance (PA) task; (b) maximal electroshock

Divya Vohora; S. N Pal; K. K Pillai

2000-01-01

284

Moderate Livestock Grazing Protects Sagebrush Plant Communities From Post-fire Cheatgrass Invasion.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Livestock grazing and fire are common disturbances on sagebrush rangelands. However, little is known about the influence of pre-fire grazing on post-fire plant community recovery. We evaluated the impacts of long-term grazing compared to not grazing prior to fire on sagebrush rangeland. We found ...

285

A conserved lysine residue of plant Whirly proteins is necessary for higher order protein assembly and protection against DNA damage  

PubMed Central

All organisms have evolved specialized DNA repair mechanisms in order to protect their genome against detrimental lesions such as DNA double-strand breaks. In plant organelles, these damages are repaired either through recombination or through a microhomology-mediated break-induced replication pathway. Whirly proteins are modulators of this second pathway in both chloroplasts and mitochondria. In this precise pathway, tetrameric Whirly proteins are believed to bind single-stranded DNA and prevent spurious annealing of resected DNA molecules with other regions in the genome. In this study, we add a new layer of complexity to this model by showing through atomic force microscopy that tetramers of the potato Whirly protein WHY2 further assemble into hexamers of tetramers, or 24-mers, upon binding long DNA molecules. This process depends on tetramer–tetramer interactions mediated by K67, a highly conserved residue among plant Whirly proteins. Mutation of this residue abolishes the formation of 24-mers without affecting the protein structure or the binding to short DNA molecules. Importantly, we show that an Arabidopsis Whirly protein mutated for this lysine is unable to rescue the sensitivity of a Whirly-less mutant plant to a DNA double-strand break inducing agent.

Cappadocia, Laurent; Parent, Jean-Sebastien; Zampini, Eric; Lepage, Etienne; Sygusch, Jurgen; Brisson, Normand

2012-01-01

286

[Mechanisms of the protective action of plant preparation erakond in influenza].  

PubMed

The results of the study of some mechanisms of the protective action of Erakond, a phytopreparation intended for use in acute influenza infection are presented. In controlled animal observations Erakond was shown to induce the synthesis of antibodies in infected and immunized mice, the production of lymphokine, endogenic interferon; to increase the phagocytic and adhesive activity of mononuclears. The preparation facilitated the normalization of the process of the peroxide oxidation of lipids in mice and rendered a positive effect on the course of the inflammatory process in the lungs of mice at the final stage of influenza infection. PMID:12630362

Slobodeniuk, A V; Grigor'eva, Iu V; Pashnina, N Ia

287

Plant protection and growth stimulation by microorganisms: biotechnological applications of Bacilli in agriculture.  

PubMed

The increasing demand for a steady, healthy food supply requires an efficient control of the major pests and plant diseases. Current management practices are based largely on the application of synthetic pesticides. The excessive use of agrochemicals has caused serious environmental and health problems. Therefore, there is a growing demand for new and safer methods to replace or at least supplement the existing control strategies. Biological control, that is, the use of natural antagonists to combat pests or plant diseases has emerged as a promising alternative to chemical pesticides. The Bacilli offer a number of advantages for their application in agricultural biotechnology. Several Bacillus-based products have been marketed as microbial pesticides, fungicides or fertilisers. Bacillus-based biopesticides are widely used in conventional agriculture, by contrast, implementation of Bacillus-based biofungicides and biofertilizers is still a pending issue. PMID:21211960

Pérez-García, Alejandro; Romero, Diego; de Vicente, Antonio

2011-01-04

288

Protection of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. plants from salt stress by paclobutrazol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot culture experiment was conducted to estimate the stress ameliorating ability of paclobutrazol, a triazole fungicide in Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. plants. Treatments were given as 80mM NaCl, 80mM NaCl+15mgl?1 paclobutrazol and 15mgl?1 paclobutrazol alone. The samples were collected on 60 and 80 days after sowing (DAS). NaCl stress inhibited the root and stem length, total leaf area, fresh

P. Manivannan; C. Abdul Jaleel; A. Kishorekumar; B. Sankar; R. Somasundaram; R. Panneerselvam

2008-01-01

289

Expression of snowdrop lectin in transgenic tobacco plants results in added protection against aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of sap-sucking insect pests to which GNA, (the mannose specific lectin from snowdrops (Galanthus nivalis) has been shown to be insecticidal in artificial diets has been extended to include the peach potato aphid (Myzus persicae). A gene construct for constitutive expression of GNA from the CaMV35S gene promoter has been introduced into tobacco plants. A transgenic tobacco line

V. A. Hilder; K. S. Powell; A. M. R. Gatehouse; J. A. Gatehouse; L. N. Gatehouse; Y. Shi; W. D. O. Hamilton; A. Merryweather; C. A. Newell; J. C. Timans; W. J. Peumans; E. van Damme; D. Boulter

1995-01-01

290

Defined plant extracts can protect human cells against combined xenobiotic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pollutants representative of common environmental contaminants induce intracellular toxicity in human cells, which is generally amplified in combinations. We wanted to test the common pathways of intoxication and detoxification in human embryonic and liver cell lines. We used various pollutants such as Roundup residues, Bisphenol-A and Atrazine, and five precise medicinal plant extracts called Circ1, Dig1, Dig2, Sp1, and

Céline Gasnier; Claire Laurant; Cécile Decroix-Laporte; Robin Mesnage; Emilie Clair; Carine Travert; Gilles-Eric Séralini

2011-01-01

291

Simoun: Un Nouveau Moyen d'Essais pour le Developpement des Protections Thermiques d'Hermes (Simoun: New Test Methods for Development Work on the Hermes Thermal Protection Systems).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SIMOUN test apparatus is described. It is designed for testing the thermal protection systems developed for the Hermes Manned Space Plane. It develops a flow of extremely hot air by means of a plasma generator. The potential uses and various configura...

P. Charpentier R. Leroux

1990-01-01

292

[The change in efficiency of protective measures for reduction of 137Cs accumulation by agricultural plants in various periods after the Chernobyl accident].  

PubMed

Dynamics of 137Cs transfer factors to plants and the effects of protective measures on this radionuclide accumulation in the agricultural production is estimated on the example of the south-western regions of Bryansk District. Three periods in decreasing the 137Cs content in plants during 20 years after the Chernobyl accident are identified. The contribution of radionuclide decay, natural biogeochemical processes and protective measures aimed at reduction of the 137Cs accumulation in agricultural plants during various periods after radioactive fallout is shown. Maximum permissible levels of 137Cs contamination of cultivated lands, where crop products meeting current standards may be obtained, at different scopes of protective measures on radioactive-contaminated territories are forecasted. Periods after radioactive fallout, when crop and forage products meeting radiological standards are obtained, are assessed. PMID:21520624

Panov, A V; Aleksakhin, R M; Muzalevskaia, A A

293

Der Sauerstoffverbrauch des stillstehenden, des leerschlagenden und des flimmernden Herzens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Hunden mit offenem Thorax wurden unter Verwendung eines extrakorporalen Kreislaufs vergleichende Messungen von O2-Verbrauch und Durchblutung des stillstehenden, leerschlagenden und flimmernden Herzens durchgeführt. Durch eine besondere Technik war es möglich, ohne Kanulierung beide Coronarien zu durchströmen und damit den O2-Verbrauch des ganzen Herzens zu messen.

Hans-Eberhard Hoffmeister; Heinrich Kreuzer; Wilhelm Schoeppe

1959-01-01

294

Accumulation des profits et désendettement des entreprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

En modélisant un arbitrage intertemporel, le désendettement est un choix rationnel en présence d'un rendement marginal des nouveaux investissements inférieur au taux d'intérêt réel sur l'encours de la dette et supérieur au coût d'opportunité des placements des fonds internes. Dans ce cas, le désendettement évince l'investissement ; les profits n'ont pas d'effet sur l'investissement et un effet négatif sur le

Jean-Bernard Chatelain

1998-01-01

295

Status report of SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site instrumentation, control, and plant protection system activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site is a facility in which the prototype of a 100 kWe space reactor will be tested. The important systems which are being designed to conduct these tests and to acquire and manage data include those required for control, plant protection and test data handling. These systems are being designed and procured by the Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) section of the Test Site Engineering team. This paper describes the progress which has been made in the I&C area to date. Design reviews of all I&C systems have been conducted at the 60 percent completion point. The Facility Process Control System, a modern distributed system with CRT operator interfaces, has been ordered. Specifications for all other systems have been drafted.

Carlson, William F.; Bennett, Kenneth L.; Delisle, Gerald V.; Hampsten, Kenneth L.; Philipp, Barbara L.; Schneider, Thomas C.

296

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-containing rhizobacteria protect Ocimum sanctum plants during waterlogging stress via reduced ethylene generation.  

PubMed

Ocimum sanctum grown as rain-fed crop, is known to be poorly adapted to waterlogged conditions. Many a times the crop suffers extreme damages because of anoxia and excessive ethylene generation due to waterlogging conditions present under heavy rain. The usefulness of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-containing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria was investigated under waterlogging stress. The comparison of herb yield and stress induced biochemical changes of waterlogged and non-waterlogged plants with and without ACC deaminase-containing microbiological treatments were monitored in this study. Ten plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains containing ACC-deaminase were isolated and characterized. Four selected isolates Fd2 (Achromobacter xylosoxidans), Bac5 (Serratia ureilytica), Oci9 (Herbaspirillum seropedicae) and Oci13 (Ochrobactrum rhizosphaerae) had the potential to protect Ocimum plants from flood induced damage under waterlogged glass house conditions. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of these ACC deaminase-containing selected strains for reducing the yield losses caused by waterlogging conditions. Bacterial treatments protected plants from waterlogging induced detrimental changes like stress ethylene production, reduced chlorophyll concentration, higher lipid peroxidation, proline concentration and reduced foliar nutrient uptake. Fd2 (A. xylosoxidans) induced maximum waterlogging tolerance as treated waterlogged plants recorded maximum growth and herb yield (46.5% higher than uninoculated waterlogged plants) with minimum stress ethylene levels (53% lower ACC concentration as compared to waterlogged plants without bacterial inoculation) whereas under normal non-waterlogged conditions O. rhizosphaerae was most effective in plant growth promotion. PMID:22846334

Barnawal, Deepti; Bharti, Nidhi; Maji, Deepamala; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Kalra, Alok

2012-07-20

297

RNAi-Mediated Protection Against Citrus Tristeza Virus in Transgenic Citrus Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a RNA silencing is a sequence-specific mechanism of inhibition of gene expression evolutionarily conserved in most eukaryotes.\\u000a RNA interference (RNAi), a technology based on the use of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to trigger RNA silencing, can be achieved\\u000a in plants by genetic transformation with sense and antisense cDNAs derived from target viral sequences separated by an intron\\u000a (intron-hairpin constructs). Upon transcription, the

Nuria Soler; Carmen Fagoaga; Sinda Chiibi; Carmelo López; Pedro Moreno; Luis Navarro; Ricardo Flores; Leandro Peña

298

Joint toxicity of three plant protection products to Triticum aestivum (L.) and Brassica rapa (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of mixtures of chemicals in terrestrial environment. Thus, it seems\\u000a important to evaluate if the combined application of pesticides currently used in agricultural fields may pose a risk to terrestrial\\u000a plants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  The effects of binary combinations of glyphosate, dimethoate, and spirodiclofen, applied to LUFA 2.2 soil, on the growth

Miguel João G. Santos; Amadeu M. V. M. Soares; Susana Loureiro

299

Delayed treatment of Ebola virus infection with plant-derived monoclonal antibodies provides protection in rhesus macaques  

PubMed Central

Filovirus infections can cause a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates, including great apes. Here, three anti-Ebola virus mouse/human chimeric mAbs (c13C6, h-13F6, and c6D8) were produced in Chinese hamster ovary and in whole plant (Nicotiana benthamiana) cells. In pilot experiments testing a mixture of the three mAbs (MB-003), we found that MB-003 produced in both manufacturing systems protected rhesus macaques from lethal challenge when administered 1 h postinfection. In a pivotal follow-up experiment, we found significant protection (P < 0.05) when MB-003 treatment began 24 or 48 h postinfection (four of six survived vs. zero of two controls). In all experiments, surviving animals that received MB-003 experienced little to no viremia and had few, if any, of the clinical symptoms observed in the controls. The results represent successful postexposure in vivo efficacy by a mAb mixture and suggest that this immunoprotectant should be further pursued as a postexposure and potential therapeutic for Ebola virus exposure.

Olinger, Gene Garrard; Pettitt, James; Kim, Do; Working, Cara; Bohorov, Ognian; Bratcher, Barry; Hiatt, Ernie; Hume, Steven D.; Johnson, Ashley K.; Morton, Josh; Pauly, Michael; Whaley, Kevin J.; Lear, Calli M.; Biggins, Julia E.; Scully, Corinne; Hensley, Lisa; Zeitlin, Larry

2012-01-01

300

Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7  

SciTech Connect

The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-07-01

301

Pectic polysaccharides isolated from Malian medicinal plants protect against Streptococcus pneumoniae in a mouse pneumococcal infection model.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the pectic polysaccharides BP-II, Oc50A1.I.A and CC1P1 isolated from the Malian medicinal plants Biophytum petersianum, Opilia celtidifolia and Cola cordifolia, respectively, were able to protect against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. The pectin preparations were administered intraperitoneally 3 h before challenge with S. pneumoniae serotype 6B. Blood samples were obtained from all animals before and at 3 h, 24 h and 72 h after challenge with the pneumococci. The number of bacteria in blood was recorded and the blood concentration of a range of cytokines measured. The pretreatment with BP-II, Oc50A1.I.A and CC1P1 demonstrated a protective activity against S. pneumoniae serotype 6B infection, albeit at different range of concentrations. The pectins showed no direct antibacterial effects towards S. pneumonia; however, they induced the production of a range of cytokines and chemokines. We have previously shown that BP-II, Oc50A1.I.A and CC1P1 exhibit complement fixation activity and also that BP-II and Oc50A1.I.A stimulate macrophages to produce NO. The observed clinical effect might therefore be linked to the ability of the pectic polysaccharides to stimulate the innate immune system. PMID:23611658

Inngjerdingen, K T; Langerud, B K; Rasmussen, H; Olsen, T K; Austarheim, I; Grønhaug, T E; Aaberge, I S; Diallo, D; Paulsen, B S; Michaelsen, T E

2013-05-01

302

Chloroplast Movement in the Shade Plant Tradescantia albiflora Helps Protect Photosystem II against Light Stress.  

PubMed Central

The role of high-light-induced chloroplast movement in the photoprotection of the facultative shade plant Tradescantia albiflora was investigated by comparison with pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves, both grown in 50 [mu]mol photons m-2 s-1. Photoinactivation of photosystem II (PSII) in vivo was induced in 1.1% CO2 by varying either duration (0-2 h) of illumination (fixed at 1800 [mu]mol m-2 s-1) or irradiance (0-3000 [mu]mol m-2 s-1) at a fixed duration (1 h) after infiltration of leaves with water or lincomycin (an inhibitor of chloroplast-encoded protein synthesis). At all photon exposures, PSII of T. albiflora leaves showed a greater resistance to light stress than pea leaves, although both utilization of absorbed light by photosynthesis and psbA gene product synthesis were smaller than for pea leaves. This greater tolerance was not due to differences in PSII antenna size or the index of susceptibility of PSII to light stress, because these two parameters were comparable in both plants. However, the transmittance increase mediated by chloroplast movement was greater in T. albiflora than pea, resulting in a 10% decrease of absorbed light at high light. We suggest that the greater tolerance of PSII against light stress in T. albiflora may be partly ascribed to its light-induced chloroplast rearrangement.

Park, Y. I.; Chow, W. S.; Anderson, J. M.

1996-01-01

303

Exploratory study of the radiation-protection training programs in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to examine current radiation training programs at a sample of utilities operating nuclear reactors and to evaluate employee information on radiation health. The study addressed three elements: (1) employee perceptions and understanding of ionizing radiation; (2) utility trainers-their background, training, and problems; (3) the content, materials, and conduct of training programs; (4) program uniformity and completeness. These areas were examined through visits to utilities, surveys, and employee interviews. The programs reviewed were developed by utility personnel who have backgrounds, for the most part, in health physics but who may have little formal training in adult education. This orientation, coupled with the inherent nature of the subject, has produced training programs that appear to be too technical to achieve the educational job intended. The average nuclear power plant worker does not have the level of sophistication needed to understand some of the information. It became apparent that nuclear power plant workers have concerns that do not necessarily reflect those of the scientific community. Many of these result from misunderstandings about radiation. Unfortunately, the training programs do not always address these unfounded but very real fears.

Fields, C.D.

1982-06-01

304

Technical evaluation report on the monitoring of electric power to the reactor-protection system for the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the technical evaluation of the monitoring of electric power to the reactor protection system (RPS) at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2. The evaluation is to determine if the proposed design modification will protect the RPS from abnormal voltage and frequency conditions which could be supplied from the power supplies and will meet certain requirements set forth by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed design modifications with time delays verified by GE, will protect the RPS from sustained abnormal voltage and frequency conditions from the supplying sources.

Selan, J.C.

1982-04-26

305

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

Berneski, Miss

2011-12-10

306

Évaluation des produits combinés  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... des Centres respectifs. Les cases du tableau présentent quelques- unes des principales étapes d'examen. Veuillez noter ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/internationalactivities

307

Coexpression of potato type I and II proteinase inhibitors gives cotton plants protection against insect damage in the field.  

PubMed

Potato type I and II serine protease inhibitors are produced by solanaceous plants as a defense mechanism against insects and microbes. Nicotiana alata proteinase inhibitor (NaPI) is a multidomain potato type II inhibitor (pin II) that is produced at high levels in the female reproductive tissues of the ornamental tobacco, Nicotiana alata. The individual inhibitory domains of NaPI target the major classes of digestive enzymes, trypsin and chymotrypsin, in the gut of lepidopteran larval pests. Although consumption of NaPI dramatically reduced the growth and development of a major insect pest, Helicoverpa punctigera, we discovered that surviving larvae had high levels of chymotrypsin activity resistant to inhibition by NaPI. We found a potato type I inhibitor, Solanum tuberosum potato type I inhibitor (StPin1A), was a strong inhibitor of the NaPI-resistant chymotrypsin activity. The combined inhibitory effect of NaPI and StPin1A on H. armigera larval growth in the laboratory was reflected in the increased yield of cotton bolls in field trials of transgenic plants expressing both inhibitors. Better crop protection thus is achieved using combinations of inhibitors in which one class of proteinase inhibitor is used to match the genetic capacity of an insect to adapt to a second class of proteinase inhibitor. PMID:20696895

Dunse, K M; Stevens, J A; Lay, F T; Gaspar, Y M; Heath, R L; Anderson, M A

2010-08-09

308

Coexpression of potato type I and II proteinase inhibitors gives cotton plants protection against insect damage in the field  

PubMed Central

Potato type I and II serine protease inhibitors are produced by solanaceous plants as a defense mechanism against insects and microbes. Nicotiana alata proteinase inhibitor (NaPI) is a multidomain potato type II inhibitor (pin II) that is produced at high levels in the female reproductive tissues of the ornamental tobacco, Nicotiana alata. The individual inhibitory domains of NaPI target the major classes of digestive enzymes, trypsin and chymotrypsin, in the gut of lepidopteran larval pests. Although consumption of NaPI dramatically reduced the growth and development of a major insect pest, Helicoverpa punctigera, we discovered that surviving larvae had high levels of chymotrypsin activity resistant to inhibition by NaPI. We found a potato type I inhibitor, Solanum tuberosum potato type I inhibitor (StPin1A), was a strong inhibitor of the NaPI-resistant chymotrypsin activity. The combined inhibitory effect of NaPI and StPin1A on H. armigera larval growth in the laboratory was reflected in the increased yield of cotton bolls in field trials of transgenic plants expressing both inhibitors. Better crop protection thus is achieved using combinations of inhibitors in which one class of proteinase inhibitor is used to match the genetic capacity of an insect to adapt to a second class of proteinase inhibitor.

Dunse, K. M.; Stevens, J. A.; Lay, F. T.; Gaspar, Y. M.; Heath, R. L.; Anderson, M. A.

2010-01-01

309

Signaling via the Trichoderma atroviride mitogen-activated protein kinase Tmk 1 differentially affects mycoparasitism and plant protection.  

PubMed

Trichoderma atroviride is a mycoparasite of a number of plant pathogenic fungi thereby employing morphological changes and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and antibiotics. The function of the tmk 1 gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) during fungal growth, mycoparasitic interaction, and biocontrol was examined in T. atroviride. Deltatmk 1 mutants exhibited altered radial growth and conidiation, and displayed de-regulated infection structure formation in the absence of a host-derived signal. In confrontation assays, tmk 1 deletion caused reduced mycoparasitic activity although attachment to Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea hyphae was comparable to the parental strain. Under chitinase-inducing conditions, nag 1 and ech 42 transcript levels and extracellular chitinase activities were elevated in a Deltatmk 1 mutant, whereas upon direct confrontation with R. solani or B. cinerea a host-specific regulation of ech 42 transcription was found and nag 1 gene transcription was no more inducible over an elevated basal level. Deltatmk 1 mutants exhibited higher antifungal activity caused by low molecular weight substances, which was reflected by an over-production of 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone and peptaibol antibiotics. In biocontrol assays, a Deltatmk 1 mutant displayed a higher ability to protect bean plants against R. solani. PMID:17509915

Reithner, Barbara; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Stoppacher, Norbert; Pucher, Marion; Brunner, Kurt; Zeilinger, Susanne

2007-04-12

310

Database "SIGMA Pro" information system and bibliographical management of active substances of plant protection products and biocides.  

PubMed

In order to satisfy its obligations as stipulated in European legislative, in 1998, the Management of Surface Waters in the Walloon Region modified its monitoring of plant protection products in surface waters in co-operation with the Regional Phyto Committee (LLN). Notably, this monitoring network takes into account the agricultural specifics of the main watersheds in Wallonia. It has led to the publication of a specific decree (A.G.W. of June 29th, 2000), which, among others, specifies the list of dangerous relevant substances in Walloon Region as well as their investigation methods (quality, monitoring network, action programmes). Together with the implementation of Directive 76/464/EEC concerning the pollution caused by some dangerous substances in aquatic environment, the Management of Surface Waters is also finalizing a database connected with plant production products. It contains technical data on active ingredients and relevant metabolites (nomenclature, toxicology, physico-chemical properties, ...), bibliographical information referring to these (synthesis of documents, table with results, ...) and some Internet connections. It has been elaborated so as to help Walloon public authorities make their decision. PMID:12425110

Rung, J; Tricot, B; Copin, A; Culot, M

2001-01-01

311

State oversight review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant radiation protection and measurement programs  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG), an interdisciplinary organization attached to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, has been providing an independent scientific oversight of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant WIPP project since 1978. Evaluations cover all aspects of the project that have potential radiological health and safety considerations. During the early years, most of the review emphasis was on site suitability and involved heavy emphasis on the disciplines of geology and hydrogeology. During the middle years, the amount of emphasis on facility design, waste characterization, waste transportation package development, and quality assurance increased. Now, as final preparations are being made for the receipt of radioactive wastes, EEG is heavily involved in evaluating on-site health physics programs and radiation-measurement systems. Also, EEG is conducting an independent environmental radiation-monitoring program.

Channell, J.K.

1989-01-01

312

Does protecting humans protect the environment? A crude examination for UK nuclear power plants and the marine environment using information in the public domain.  

PubMed

Current activity around radiological protection of the environment implies concerns over the effectiveness of the current approach to this--namely if humans are adequately protected, then so are non-human species. This study uses models and data currently available in the public domain to carry out a 'quick and dirty' examination of whether protecting humans does indeed imply that other species are well protected. Using marine discharges and human habits data for operational coastal UK nuclear power stations, this study compares doses to humans and a set of reference non-human species. The study concludes that the availability of data and models, and consequent ease of studying potential effects on non-humans (as well as humans), vindicates recent efforts in this area, and that these imply a high level of protection, in general, for non-human biota from UK nuclear power station marine discharges. In general terms, the study finds that protection of non-human biota relies on taking ingestion and external exposure doses to humans into account; where only one of these pathways is considered, the level of protection of non-human biota through protection of humans would depend on the radionuclide(s) in question. PMID:19029588

Brownless, G P

2008-11-24

313

Mechanosensitive Channels Protect Plastids from Hypoosmotic Stress During Normal Plant Growth  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Cellular response to osmotic stress is critical for survival and involves volume control through the regulated transport of osmolytes [1–3]. Organelles may respond similarly to abrupt changes in cytoplasmic osmolarity [4–6]. The plastids of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf epidermis provide a model system for the study of organellar response to osmotic stress within the context of the cell. An Arabidopsis mutant lacking two plastid-localized homologs of the bacteria mechanosensitive channel MscS (MscS-Like (MSL) 2 and 3) exhibits large round epidermal plastids that lack dynamic extensions known as stromules [7]. This phenotype is present under normal growth conditions and does not require exposure to extracellular osmotic stress. Here, we show that increasing cytoplasmic osmolarity through a genetic lesion known to produce elevated levels of soluble sugars, exogenously providing osmolytes in the growth media, or withholding water rescues the msl2-1 msl3-1 leaf epidermal plastid phenotype, producing plastids that resemble the wild type in shape and size. Furthermore, the epidermal plastids in msl2-1 msl3-1 leaves undergo rapid and reversible volume and shape changes in response to extracellular hypertonic or hypotonic challenges. We conclude that plastids are under hypoosmotic stress during normal plant growth and dynamic response to this stress requires MSL2 and MSL3.

Veley, Kira M.; Marshburn, Sarah; Clure, Cara E.

2012-01-01

314

EFFECTS OF ROAD DISTANCE AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES ON DEICING NaCI DEPOSITION AND SOIL SOLUTION CHEMISTRY IN PLANTED MEDIAN STRIPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition pattern of deicing salt and the resulting concentrations in the soil water were determined in planted median strips of two major approach roads with speed restrictions of 70 kmh (43.5 mph) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of distance from the roadside and to test differ- ent straw mat protective measures. Deposition and soil

Lars Bo Pedersen; Thomas B. Randrup; Morten Ingerslev

315

Development of a safety critical software requirements verification method with combined CPN and PVS: a nuclear power plant protection system application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety-critical software systems such as certain nuclear instrumentation and control (NI&C) systems should be developed with thorough verification. This study presents a method of software requirement verification with a case study for a nuclear power plant (NPP) protection system. The verification introduces colored petri net (CPN) for system modeling and prototype verification system (PVS) for mathematical verification. In order to

Han Seong Son; Poong Hyun Seong

2003-01-01

316

Selection of areas for protecting rare plants with integration of land use conflicts: A case study for the west coast of Newfoundland, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the west coast of Newfoundland (Canada) about 40% of the provincially rare plant species are not protected within the system of three national parks and two ecological reserves existing in the region. This study examines how heuristic algorithms can be used for selecting areas filling this gap while minimizing potential land use conflicts. One algorithm selected 78 areas of

Patrick Nantel; André Bouchard; Luc Brouillet; Stuart Hay

1998-01-01

317

The protective ability of the Mediterranean plant extracts against the oxidative DNA damage. The role of the radical oxygen species and the polyphenol content.  

PubMed

The polyphenol plant extracts content seems to be responsible for the scavenging activity of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in protection against DNA damage induced by the oxidative stress. This assumption was verified analyzing the effect of six Mediterranean plant extracts (Crepis vesicaria L, Origanum heracleoticum, Scandix australis L, Amaranthus sp., Scolymus hispanicus L, Thymus piperella L) on the oxidative DNA damage induced in lymphocytes by H(2)O(2) in relation to the polyphenolic content and the lymphocyte scavenging ability of ROS. The comet assay was used to evaluate oxidative DNA damage and the polyphenol content was analyzed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The fluorescence resulting from oxidation of ROS-sensitive dye, dihydrorofluorescein (DHF), was utilized as indicator of the ROS level. Pretreatment with all plant extracts produced the dose-dependent increase in the DNA protection up to the 0.2 microg/ml polyphenol content and the decrease above that dose. Only the Thymus piperella, similarly to quercetin, showed a strong positive correlation between the DNA protection and the polyphenol content, but negative correlation with ROS formation. In conclusion, the DNA protective ability of plant extracts seems to be related to the low polyphenol concentration and only to certain extent depends on the polyphenol ROS scavenging activity. PMID:15800394

Kapiszewska, M; So?tys, E; Visioli, F; Cierniak, A; Zajac, G

2005-03-01

318

The design, fabrication and deployment of an ice boom to protect two hydroelectric power plant water intakes from ice blockages during winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ice boom was designed, fabricated and deployed on the Ottawa River, in Hull, Quebec, upstream, and at the north end of the Arch Dam. The boom was to protect two hydroelectric power plants, owned and operated by Hydro-Quebec and E. B. Eddy Forest Product Ltd, from ice. The boom was placed about 200 m upstream of the two intakes

Razek Abdelnour; Corby Nicholson; Yuxiang Gong

1998-01-01

319

Influence of Soil Organic Carbon on Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Plant Protection Products to Poecilus cupreus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) Larvae (4 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aims and Scope. Variability of results from terrestrial ecotoxicological tests with arthropods demonstrate the importance of understanding the impact of soil composition has on the bioavailability of pollutants. Beside other soil parameters, the organic C content is known to be relevant to bioavailability. The aim of the present paper was to detect lethal and sublethal effects of plant protection

Julia Heise; Udo Heimbach; Stefan Schrader

2005-01-01

320

Article Title: PLANT AND CROP SCIENCE, PRODUCTION AND PROTECTION: BIBLIOMETRIC EVALUATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA IN DOCUMENTS PUBLISHED IN SLOVENIA BETWEEN 1994-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

documents related to plant and crop science, production and protection among 2844 documents (D) published in Slovenia in the period 1994-2000 and indexed by the Slovenian Agris Center for inclusion in Agris database were assessed with regard to bibliographic elements. Yearly occurrences differed highly due to intensive production of proceedings papers in certain years. 60% of D were published in

Tomaz Bartol

321

The analysis and specification of large high-pressure, high-temperature valves for combustion turbine protection in second-generation PFB power plants: Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to provide a specification for the high-pressure/high-temperature valves for turbine overspeed protection in a commercial-scale second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant. In the event of a loss of external (generator) load, the gas turbine rapidly accelerates from its normal operating speed. Protection from excessive overspeed can be maintained by actuation of fuel isolation and air bypass valves. A design specification for these valves was developed by analyses of the turbine/compressor interaction during a loss of load and analyses of pressure and flow transients during operation of the overspeed protection valves. The basis for these analyses was the Phase 1 plant conceptual design prepared in 1987.

Not Available

1994-08-01

322

Scoparia dulcis, a traditional antidiabetic plant, protects against streptozotocin induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. The experiments were performed on normal and experimental male Wistar rats treated with Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt). The effect of SPEt was tested on streptozotocin (STZ) treated Rat insulinoma cell lines (RINm5F cells) and isolated islets in vitro. Administration of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis by intragastric intubation (po) at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight significantly decreased the blood glucose and lipid peroxidative marker thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with significant increase in the activities of plasma insulin, pancreatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in streptozotocin diabetic rats at the end of 15 days treatment. Streptozotocin at a dose of 10 mug/mL evoked 6-fold stimulation of insulin secretion from isolated islets indicating its insulin secretagogue activity. The extract markedly reduced the STZ-induced lipidperoxidation in RINm5F cells. Further, SPEt protected STZ-mediated cytotoxicity and nitric oxide (NO) production in RINm5F cells. Treatment of RINm5F cells with 5 mM STZ and 10 mug of SPEt completely abrogated apoptosis induced by STZ, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress. Flow cytometric assessment on the level of intracellular peroxides using fluorescent probe 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) confirmed that STZ (46%) induced an intracellular oxidative stress in RINm5F cells, which was suppressed by SPEt (21%). In addition, SPEt also reduced (33%) the STZ-induced apoptosis (72%) in RINm5F cells indicating the mode of protection of SPEt on RIN m5Fcells, islets, and pancreatic beta-cell mass (histopathological observations). Present study thus confirms antihyperglycemic effect of SPEt and also demonstrated the consistently strong antioxidant properties of Scoparia dulcis used in the traditional medicine. PMID:15549711

Latha, Muniappan; Pari, Leelavinothan; Sitasawad, Sandhya; Bhonde, Ramesh

2004-01-01

323

Risk exposures for human ornithosis in a poultry processing plant modified by use of personal protective equipment: an analytical outbreak study.  

PubMed

Ornithosis outbreaks in poultry processing plants are well-described, but evidence for preventive measures is currently lacking. This study describes a case-control study into an outbreak of ornithosis at a poultry processing plant in the East of England, identified following three employees being admitted to hospital. Workers at the affected plant were recruited via their employer, with exposures assessed using a self-completed questionnaire. Cases were ascertained using serological methods or direct antigen detection in sputum. 63/225 (28%) staff participated, with 10% of participants showing evidence of recent infection. Exposure to the killing/defeathering and automated evisceration areas, and contact with viscera or blood were the main risk factors for infection. Personal protective equipment (goggles and FFP3 masks) reduced the effect of exposure to risk areas and to self-contamination with potentially infectious material. Our study provides some evidence of effectiveness for respiratory protective equipment in poultry processing plants where there is a known and current risk of ornithosis. Further studies are required to confirm this tentative finding, but in the meantime respiratory protective equipment is recommended as a precautionary measure in plants where outbreaks of ornithosis occur. PMID:23176790

Williams, C J; Sillis, M; Fearne, V; Pezzoli, L; Beasley, G; Bracebridge, S; Reacher, M; Nair, P

2012-11-26

324

Leaf volatile compounds and the distribution of ant patrollingin an ant-plant protection mutualism: Preliminary results on Leonardoxa (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) and Petalomyrmex(Formicidae: Formicinae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While observations suggest that plant chemicals could be important in maintaining the specificity and permitting the functioning of ant-plant symbioses, they have been little studied. We report here the strongest evidence yet for chemical signalling between ants and plants in a specific ant-plant protection symbiosis. In the mutualism between Leonardoxa africana subsp. africana and Petalomyrmex phylax, ants continuously patrol young leaves, which are vulnerable to attacks by phytophagous insects. We provide experimental evidence for chemical mediation of ant attraction to young leaves in this system. By a comparative analysis of the related non-myrmecophytic tree L. africana subsp. gracilicaulis, we identify likely candidates for attractant molecules, and suggest they may function not only as signals but also as resources. We also propose hypotheses on the evolutionary origin of these plant volatiles, and of the responses to them by mutualistic ants.

Brouat, Carine; McKey, Doyle; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Pascal, Laurence; Hossaert-McKey, Martine

2000-12-01

325

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the cycle plants go through? First use Write out the Plant Cycle Watch the Plant Powerpoint write down what you learned. Next watch the movie Plant Cycle Movie What did you think was interesting? Next, search around on the website and write down facts about plants. LIfe Cycle of Plants Next, play around with the part of the plants http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/lifecycles.htmlFinally learn all about growing a plant. Growing a plant After you are finished come see me ...

Barron, Anne

2011-04-14

326

Chronique des tendances de la société française  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Cette chronique porte sur quatre des tendances que Louis Dirn suit régulièrement : • L'effort pour assurer une meilleure égalité des chances sco- laires se heurte à des effets pervers qui résultent des politiques de gestion des établissements et des stratégies des familles. La diver- sification des établissements offre une nouvelle liberté de choix aux familles qui en jouent

Alain Beurdeley; Jean-Pierre Jaslin; Nicolas Herpin; Serge Paugam

1995-01-01

327

Status report of SP-100 ground engineering system test site instrumentation, control, and plant protection system activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site is a facility in which the prototype of a 100 kWe space reactor will be tested. The important systems which are being designed to conduct these tests and to acquire and manage data include those required for control, plant protection and test data handling. These systems are being designed and procured by the Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) section of the Test Site Engineering team. Conceptual and Preliminary design phases have been completed, and the Project is now in the Definitive, or final design stage. This paper describes the progress which has been made in the I&C area to date. Design reviews of all I&C systems have been conducted at the 60% completion point. The Facility Process Control System, a modern distributed sytem with CRT operator interfaces, has been ordered. Specifications for all other systems have been drafted, and will be finalized as soon as all required inputs from other sources (such as General Electric, the reactor supplier) are received. Procurement will then be initiated and schedules to mesh with facility acceptance testing schedules.

Carlson, William F.; Bennett, Kenneth L.; Delisle, Gerald V.; Hampsten, Kenneth L.; Philipp, Barbara L.; Scheneider, Thomas C.

1991-01-01

328

Joint effects of three plant protection products to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus and the collembolan Folsomia candida.  

PubMed

The effects of simultaneous application of plant protection products are of concern since the uses of different products pose an additional risk to non-target soil organisms. The effects of binary combinations of dimethoate, glyphosate and spirodiclofen, an insecticide an herbicide and an acaricide, on the avoidance behaviour of the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus and the reproductive effort of Folsomia candida were assessed using the two reference models of concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA). Results of single exposure to the three pesticides indicated a clear dose related avoidance response of the isopods in the highest concentrations tested of the three as well as a strong decrease in collembolan adult survival and concomitant number of juveniles produced. In the combined experiments, antagonism was found in 7 out of the 12 combinations, four combinations followed the reference models, and only in one combination synergism was detected (lower doses of glyphosate and spirodiclofen applied to P. pruinosus). In conclusion, it seems that mixing and applying these products, at the recommended field application rate, does not lead to enhanced toxicity, hence limited risk is associated with the joint application of these pesticides. PMID:20579688

Santos, Miguel J G; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

2010-06-25

329

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does a plant grow? Fill this out as you look through the websites Worksheet First watch the video Plant Life Cycle Video Then click around on this website and learn all about plants LIfe Cycle of Plants Next review and play with parts of a plant learning parts of the plant Next watch the video and learn What does it need to grow? Then learn how to Growing a plant Once you are finished come to my desk to plant your own flower! ...

Barron, Anne

2011-04-21

330

Plant-derived hemagglutinin protects ferrets against challenge infection with the A/Indonesia/05/05 strain of avian influenza.  

PubMed

The global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1 subtype) has promoted efforts to develop human vaccines against potential pandemic outbreaks. However, current platforms for influenza vaccine production are cumbersome, limited in scalability and often require the handling of live infectious virus. We describe the production of hemagglutinin from the A/Indonesia/05/05 strain of H5N1 influenza virus by transient expression in plants, and demonstrate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the vaccine candidate in animal models. Immunization of mice and ferrets with plant-derived hemagglutinin elicited serum hemagglutinin-inhibiting antibodies and protected the ferrets against challenge infection with a homologous virus. This demonstrates that plant-derived H5 HA is immunogenic in mice and ferrets, and can induce protective immunity against infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Plants could therefore be suitable as a platform for the rapid, large-scale production of influenza vaccines in the face of a pandemic. PMID:19100806

Shoji, Yoko; Bi, Hong; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Rhee, Amy; Horsey, April; Roy, Gourgopal; Green, Brian; Shamloul, Moneim; Farrance, Christine E; Taggart, Barbara; Mytle, Nutan; Ugulava, Natalia; Rabindran, Shailaja; Mett, Vadim; Chichester, Jessica A; Yusibov, Vidadi

2008-12-25

331

Atypical Adaptive and Cross-Protective Responses Against Peroxide Killing in a Bacterial Plant Pathogen, Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological adaptive and cross-protection responses to oxidants were investigated in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Exposure of A. tumefaciens to sublethal concentrations of H 2O 2 induced adaptive protection to lethal concentrations of H 2O 2. Similar treatments with organic peroxide and menadione did not produce adaptive protection to subsequent exposure to lethal concentrations of these oxidants. Pretreatment of A. tumefaciens with an

Paiboon Vattanaviboon; Warawan Eiamphungporn; Skorn Mongkolsuk

2003-01-01

332

Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1998 by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 was performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), and the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV), and the Chestnut Ridge Regime which is located south of the Y-12 Plant.

NONE

1999-03-01

333

Effets secondaires des androgènes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resume  Les androgènes utilisés à des doses 10 à 100 fois supérieures aux doses thérapeutiques provoquent des effets qui peuvent être\\u000a classés en 4 catégories: 1) Effets androgéniques: Chez l’homme, les androgènes provoquent atrophie testiculaire et azoospermie\\u000a avec stérilité, réversibles en 2 à 3 mois à l’arrêt du traitement. Il serait utile de surveiller à long terme la prostate\\u000a des sujets

I. Mowszowicz

1995-01-01

334

Some lessons on radiological protection learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.  

PubMed

The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant released a large quantity of radioactive iodine and caesium into the environment. In terms of radiological protection, the evacuation and food restrictions that were adopted in a timely manner by the authorities effectively reduced the dose received by people living in the affected area. Since late March, the transition from an emergency to an existing exposure situation has been in progress. In selecting the reference exposure levels in some areas under an existing exposure situation, the authorities tried to follow the situation-based approach recommended by the ICRP. However, a mixture of emergency and post-emergency approaches confused the people living in the contaminated areas because the reactor conditions continued to be not completely stable. In deriving the criteria in an existing exposure situation, the regulatory authority selected 20 mSv y(-1). The mothers in the affected area believed that a dose of 20 mSv y(-1) was unacceptably high for children since 1 mSv y(-1) is the dose limit for the public under normal conditions. Internet information accelerated concern about the internal exposure to children and the related health effects. From some experiences after the accident the following lessons could be learned. The selection of reference doses in existing exposure situations after an accident must be openly communicated with the public using a risk-informed approach. The detriment-adjusted nominal risk coefficient was misused for calculating the hypothetical number of cancer deaths by some non-radiation experts. It would not be possible to resolve this problem unless the ICRP addressed an alternative risk assessment to convey the meaning and associated uncertainty of the risk to an exposed population. A situation-based approach in addition to a risk-informed approach needs to be disseminated properly in order to select the level of protection that would be the best possible under the prevailing circumstances. A dialogue between radiation and other risk experts such as those dealing with chemical exposures is now needed. PMID:22394670

Kai, M

2012-03-06

335

Effects of Interactions of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Beneficial Saprophytic Mycoflora on Plant Growth and Disease Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and beneficial saprophytic mycoflora like plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) are capable\\u000a of promoting plant growth and may suppress several plant diseases. The interaction of these microorganisms in the plant rhizosphere\\u000a may affect plant growth and microbial community composition. Mixtures of these microorganisms generally increase the genetic\\u000a diversity in the rhizosphere microorganisms that may persist longer

M. G. B. Saldajeno; W. A. Chandanie; M. Kubota; M. Hyakumachi

336

Portrait des musiciens à l'heure du numérique  

Microsoft Academic Search

L’industrie musicale est en crise alors que dans le même temps la consommation de musique ne s’est jamais aussi bien portée. Ces difficultés ont conduit à des politiques publiques défensives, concentrées sur la protection de la filière musicale contre le piratage. Pourtant l’impact du numérique est bien plus large. Les opportunités qu’il offre devraient, au contraire, conduire à des politiques

Maya Bacache-Beauvallet; Marc Bourreau; François Moreau

337

Leaf Wilting Movement Can Protect Water-Stressed Cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) Plants Against Photoinhibition of Photosynthesis and Maintain Carbon Assimilation in the Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under severe water stress, leaf wilting is quite general in higher plants. This passive movement can reduce the energy load\\u000a on a leaf. This paper reports an experimental test of the hypothesis that leaf wilting movement has a protective function\\u000a that mitigates against photoinhibition of photosynthesis in the field. The experiments exposed cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to two water regimes:

Ya-Li Zhang; Hong-Zhi Zhang; Ming-Wei Du; Wei Li; Hong-Hai Luo; Wah-Soon Chow; Wang-Feng Zhang

2010-01-01

338

Testing the Feasibility of Using the ForSAFE-VEG Model to Map the Critical Load of Nitrogen to Protect Plant Biodiversity in the Rocky Mountains Region, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ForSAFE-VEG model was used to estimate atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate effects on soil chemistry and ground\\u000a vegetation in alpine and subalpine zones of the northern and central Rocky Mountains region in the USA from 1750 to 2500.\\u000a Model simulations for a generalized site illustrated how the critical load of atmospheric nitrogen deposition could be estimated\\u000a to protect plant

Harald Sverdrup; Todd C. McDonnell; Timothy J. Sullivan; Bengt Nihlgård; Salim Belyazid; Beat Rihm; Ellen Porter; William D. Bowman; Linda Geiser

339

The mitochondrial small heat-shock protein protects NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase of the electron transport chain during heat stress in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional inactivation of the mitochondrial small heat-shock protein (lmw Hsp) in submitochondrial vesicles using protein-specific antibodies indicated that this protein protects NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), and consequently electron transport from complex I to cytochrome c:O2 oxidoreductase (complex IV). Lmw Hsp function completely accounted for heat acclimation of complex I electron transport in pre-heat-stressed plants. Addition of purified lmw Hsp to

Craig A. Downs; Scott A. Heckathorn

1998-01-01

340

Odor Load Investigation for a Pharmaceutical Plant by Open Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR)\\/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Dispersion Model (AERMOD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a case study was conducted to correlate the odor index and possible pollutants from a pharmaceutical plant based on the odor threshold and Open Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) technique to model the results using American Meteorological Society\\/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Dispersion Model (AERMOD). Although nine different pollutants were obtained from OP-FTIR, the contribution to the detected

Wen-Shing Chang; Shiao-Shing Chen; Jung-Hua Chang; Chih-Hui Tang; Tzi-Chin Chang

2009-01-01

341

Application of the “threshold of toxicological concern” to derive tolerable concentrations of “non-relevant metabolites” formed from plant protection products in ground and drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limits for tolerable concentrations of ground water metabolites (“non-relevant metabolites” without targeted toxicities and specific classification and labeling) derived from active ingredients (AI) of plant protection products (PPPs) are discussed in the European Union. Risk assessments for “non-relevant metabolites” need to be performed when concentrations are above 0.75?g\\/L. Since oral uptake is the only relevant exposure pathway for “non-relevant metabolites”,

Stephanie Melching-Kollmuß; Wolfgang Dekant; Fritz Kalberlah

2010-01-01

342

Uncertainty Analysis in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA): Case Study on Plant-Protection Products and Implications for Decision Making (9 pp + 3 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope, and Background. Uncertainty analysis in LCA is important for sound decision support. Nevertheless, the actual influence of uncertainty on decision making in specific LCA case-studies has only been little studied so far. Therefore, we assessed the uncertainty in an LCA comparing two plant-protection products. Methods. Uncertainty and variability in LCI flows and characterization factors (CML-baseline method) were expressed

Georg Geisler; Stefanie Hellweg; Konrad Hungerbühler

2005-01-01

343

Does the actual standard of 0.1 microg/L overestimate or underestimate the risk of plant protection products to groundwater ecosystems?  

PubMed

The present groundwater standard of 0.1 microg/L for plant protection products (PPPs) has been under much debate because an ecotoxicological base is missing. In the present study, groundwater threshold values were calculated for all PPPs currently included in Annex I to Directive 91/414/EEC using three different approaches: (1) first-tier (Daphnia magna and Vibrio fisheri); (2) species sensitivity distributions, constructed for surrogate freshwater organisms for the truncated groundwater biodiversity; (3) the case-based model PERPEST. For the majority of the PPPs, the trigger value of 0.1 microg/L appears to be sufficiently protective. However, it may not fully protect groundwater life from several insecticides. Implications for the environmental risk assessment of groundwater and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:20083305

Daam, Michiel A; Silva, Emília; Leitão, Sara; Trindade, Manuel J; Cerejeira, Maria José

2010-01-18

344

Les vacances des Français  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Depuis 1964, l'INSEE effectue chaque année une enquête sur les vacances. De 1964 à 1977, la proportion des Français qui sont partis en vacances a augmenté de 44 % à 53 %; pendant la période, la part des séjours d'hiver est passée de 15 à 29 %. Il faut remarquer toutefois la baisse du taux de départ entre 1976

Jean Anfré; Jean-Michel Rempp

1978-01-01

345

La structure des verres étudiée par diffraction des neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La diffraction des neutrons est une méthode largement utilisée pour déterminer la structure des matériaux amorphes et en particulier des verres. L'utilisation de la méthode de substitution isotopique permet d'extraire les fonctions de distribution de paires partielles centrées autour d'un élément choisi. Nous présentons quelques exemples récents d'études par diffraction des neutrons sur des verres qui ont permis de mieux comprendre à la fois le réseau polymérique de la matrice vitreuse et l'environnement local et à moyenne distance autour des cations. Ces études ont révélées un ordre structural s'étendant au delà des premiers voisins, jusque vers de distances d'environ 10Å. Le couplage avec d'autres méthodes expérimentales (diffraction anormale des rayons X) et des techniques de simulations (dynamique moléculaire, Monte Carlo Inverse ou RMC) sont indispensables pour affiner nos connaissances de la structure des verres.

Cormier, L.

2003-09-01

346

A novel antimicrobial protein for plant protection consisting of a Xanthomonas oryzae harpin and active domains of cecropin A and melittin.  

PubMed

Discoveries about antimicrobial peptides and plant defence activators have made possible the de novo and rational design of novel peptides for use in crop protection. Here we report a novel chimeric protein, Hcm1, which was made by linking the active domains of cecropin A and melittin to the hypersensitive response (HR)-elicitor Hpa1 of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of rice bacterial leaf streak. The resulting chimeric protein maintained not only the HR-inducing property of the harpin, but also the antimicrobial activity of the cecropin A-melittin hybrid. Hcm1 was purified from engineered Escherichia coli and evaluated in terms of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the 50% effective dose (ED(50)) against important plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Importantly, the protein acted as a potential pesticide by inducing disease resistance for viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens. This designed drug can be considered as a lead compound for use in plant protection, either for the development of new broad-spectrum pesticides or for expression in transgenic plants. PMID:21895994

Che, Yi-Zhou; Li, Yu-Rong; Zou, Hua-Song; Zou, Li-Fang; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Gong-You

2011-09-06

347

Immunization with Plant-Expressed Hemagglutinin Protects Chickens from Lethal Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Challenge Infection?  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a striking disease in susceptible poultry, which leads to severe economic losses. Inactivated vaccines are the most widely used vaccines in avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccination programs. However, these vaccines interfere with the serological detection of wild-type AIV infections in immunized populations. The use of vaccines that allow differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA strategy) would stop current stamping-out policies. Therefore, novel vaccination strategies are needed to allow improved protection of animals and humans against HPAI virus (HPAIV) infection. The presented study analyzed for the first time the immunogenic capacity of plant-expressed full-length hemagglutinin (rHA0) of HPAIV H5N1 in several vaccine formulations within the highly relevant host species chicken. We were able to express plant-expressed rHA0 at high levels and could show that, when administered with potent adjuvants, it is highly immunogenic and can fully protect chicken against lethal challenge infection. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and serological tests demonstrated only marginally increased virus replication in animals vaccinated with plant-derived rHA0 compared to animals immunized with an inactivated reference vaccine. In addition, the use of plant-expressed rHA0 also allowed an easy serological differentiation of vaccinated from AIV-infected animals based on antibodies against the influenza virus NP protein.

Kalthoff, Donata; Giritch, Anatoli; Geisler, Katharina; Bettmann, Ulrike; Klimyuk, Victor; Hehnen, Hans-Robert; Gleba, Yuri; Beer, Martin

2010-01-01

348

An Implementation of DES and AES, Secure against Some Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since Power Analysis on smart cards was introduced by Paul Kocher [7], many countermeasures have been proposed to protect implementations of cryptographic algorithms. In this paper we propose\\u000a a new protection principle: the transformed masking method. We apply this method to protect two of the most popular block\\u000a ciphers: DES and the AES Rijndael. To this end we introduce some

Mehdi-laurent Akkar; Christophe Giraud

2001-01-01

349

US-Russian collaboration for enhancing nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting at the Elektrostal uranium fuel-fabrication plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 1993, an implementing agreement was signed that authorized collaborative projects to enhance Russian national materials control and accounting, physical protection, and regulatory activities, with US assistance funded by the Nunn-Lugar Act. At the first US-Russian technical working group meeting in Moscow in February 1994, it was decided to identify a model facility where materials protection, control, and accounting

H. Smith; J. Allentuck; M. Barham; M. Bishop; D. Wentz; B. Steele; K. Bricker; R. Cherry; T. Snegosky

1996-01-01

350

Novel Plant Virus-Based Vaccine Induces Protective Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Mediated Antiviral Immunity through Dendritic Cell Maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently used vaccines protect mainly through the production of neutralizing antibodies. However, anti- bodies confer little or no protection for a majority of chronic viral infections that require active involvement of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Virus-like particles (VLPs) have been shown to be efficient inducers of cell-mediated immune responses, but administration of an adjuvant is generally required. We recently reported

Patrick Lacasse; Jerome Denis; R. Lapointe; D. Leclerc; A. Lamarre

2008-01-01

351

The relevance of "non-relevant metabolites" from plant protection products (PPPs) for drinking water: the German view.  

PubMed

"Non-relevant metabolites" are those degradation products of plant protection products (PPPs), which are devoid of the targeted toxicities of the PPP and devoid of genotoxicity. Most often, "non-relevant metabolites" have a high affinity to the aquatic environment, are very mobile within this environment, and, usually, are also persistent. Therefore, from the point of drinking water hygiene, they must be characterized as "relevant for drinking water" like many other hydrophilic/polar environmental contaminants of different origins. "Non-relevant metabolites" may therefore penetrate to water sources used for abstraction of drinking water and may thus ultimately be present in drinking water. The presence of "non-relevant metabolites" and similar trace compounds in the water cycle may endanger drinking water quality on a long-term scale. During oxidative drinking water treatment, "non-relevant metabolites" may also serve as the starting material for toxicologically relevant transformation products similar to processes observed by drinking water disinfection with chlorine. This hypothesis was recently confirmed by the detection of the formation of N-nitroso-dimethylamine from ozone and dimethylsulfamide, a "non-relevant metabolite" of the fungicide tolylfluanide. In order to keep drinking water preferably free of "non-relevant metabolites", the German drinking water advisory board of the Federal Ministry of Health supports limiting their penetration into raw and drinking water to the functionally (agriculturally) unavoidable extent. On this background, the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA) recently has recommended two health related indication values (HRIV) to assess "non-relevant metabolites" from the view of drinking water hygiene. Considering the sometimes incomplete toxicological data base for some "non-relevant metabolites", HRIV also have the role of health related precautionary values. Depending on the completeness and quality of the toxicological evaluation of a "non-relevant metabolite", its HRIV is either set as 1.0 microg/l (HRIV(a)) or as 3.0 microg/l (HRIV(b)) for lifelong exposure. In case a HRIV would be exceeded, UBA recommends to keep on a precautionary action value (PAV) of 10 microg/l for each "non-relevant metabolite". The HRIV(b) is similar to the maximal value derived by application of the TTC-concept for Cramer Class III (4.5 microg/l). The HRIV(a) and the PAV are similar to values in the EU-guidance document for assessing "non-relevant metabolites" in ground water, with the important difference that the drinking water PAV is not intended to be tolerated for permanent exposure. Drinking water containing "non-relevant metabolites" below the respective HRIVs can also be considered as being sufficiently protective against toxicologically relevant oxidative transformation products which may be formed from "non-relevant metabolites" during drinking water treatment with ozone. However, even drinking water where one or several "non-relevant metabolites" are detected above substance-specific HRIVs is suited for human consumption without health risks. Only in special cases (relatively high "non-relevant metabolite" - concentrations), it could be indicated to examine the finished water for transformation products after treatment with ozone if there are no further treatment steps to eliminate or degrade polar compounds. UBA's "non-relevant metabolite-Recommendation" from April 2008 was positively picked up in 2009 by four important stakeholders in the domain of drinking water management as part of a voluntary cooperation agreement. The aim of such cooperation is to limit the transport of "non-relevant metabolites" into the drinking water to the functionally (and agriculturally) unavoidable extent and insofar to meet special precautionary demands. PMID:19706317

Dieter, Hermann H

2009-08-23

352

La structure des solutions aqueuses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En commençant par l'étude par diffraction neutronique de la structure des liquides moléculaires puis de l'hydratation des ions en solution, ce cours montrera comment les principes présentés lors des cours précédents peuvent être appliqués à des systèmes aqueux. Des exemples tirés de la littérature seront utilisés pour illustrer les considérations expérimentales propre à ce domaine et le genre d'informations que nous pouvons obtenir. Ce cours montrera également l'applicaton de la diffraction neutronique à des systèmes d'intérêt biologique et environnemental et se terminera par un examen de la complémentarité fournie par la diffraction des rayons X, l'EXAFS et la RMN.

Powell, D. H.

2003-09-01

353

Calcium channel blockers protect against aluminium-induced DNA damage and block adaptive response to genotoxic stress in plant cells.  

PubMed

Calcium is an important second messenger in signal transduction pathways. The role of Ca(2+) signalling in Al-induced DNA damage, cell death, and adaptive response to genotoxic stress caused by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) or methylmercuric chloride (MMCl) in the root cells of Allium cepa was investigated in the current study. Root cells in planta were treated with Al(3+) (800?M of AlCl(3)) for 3h without or with 2h pre-treatment with the Ca(2+) chelator (EGTA) or Ca(2+) channel blockers (lanthanum chloride, verapamil) or CaM/CDPK antagonist (W7). In addition, root cells in planta were conditioned by treatment with Al(3+) (5 or 10?M of AlCl(3)) for 2h followed by the genotoxic challenge with MMCl (1.25?M) or EMS (2.5 or 5mM) for 3h without or with the pre-treatment of the chosen Ca(2+) chelator/channel blockers/antagonist. Following the treatments, cell death and DNA damage were investigated in the root cells by comet assay. Furthermore, genotoxicity in the root meristems was determined after 18-30h of recovery. These results revealed that Al(3+) (800?M) significantly induced DNA damage and cell death in the root cells of A. cepa. On the other hand, conditioning of the root cells with Al(3+) at low concentrations (5 or 10?M) offered adaptive response leading to the protection against genotoxic stress induced by MMCl and EMS. Pre-treatment of root cells with the Ca(2+) chelator/channel blockers/antagonist not only alleviated Al(3+)-induced DNA damage and cell death induced but also blocked the Al(3+)-mediated adaptive response to genotoxic stress induced by MMCl and EMS. For the first time, the results of the present study highlighted the role of Ca(2+) signalling underlying the biphasic mode of action of Al(3+) that induced DNA damage and cell death at high doses and offered adaptation to genotoxic response in plants at low doses. PMID:23313746

Achary, V Mohan M; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Panda, Brahma B

2013-01-08

354

Contaminazione Indiretta da Prodotti Fitosanitari: Il Caso dei Residui di Fungicidi Negli oli di Oliva. (Cross Contamination by Plant Protection Products: The Case of Fungicide Residues in Olive Oils.)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plant Protection Products (PPP) are chemical preparations containing one or more active substances able to guarantee and/or improve agricultural production. Currently, the number of PPP is very high and the European Union (EU) represents one quarter of th...

E. Coni F. Di Domenico G. E. Pellegrini M. Di Pasquale P. De Sanctis

2010-01-01

355

Plant-Produced Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus L1 Protein Protects against Tumor Challenge: a Proof-of-Concept Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The native cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) L1 capsid protein gene was expressed transgenically via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and transiently via a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) vector in Nicotiana spp. L1 protein was detected in concentrated plant extracts at concentrations up to 1.0 mg\\/kg in transgenic plants and up to 0.4 mg\\/kg in TMV-infected plants. The protein did not detectably assemble

T. Kohl; I. I. Hitzeroth; D. Stewart; A. Varsani; V. A. Govan; N. D. Christensen; A.-L. Williamson; E. P. Rybicki

2006-01-01

356

Zur Physiologie des Liegens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Durch Unterwasseraufnahmen wird die Winkelstellung in Hüfte und Knie bei maximaler Entspannung ermittelt sowie die Abhängigkeit des Kniewinkels vom Hüftwinkel bei Zwischenstellungen zwischen Sitzen und Liegen. Die gewonnenen Unterlagen können für die zweckmäßige Konstruktion von Liegestühlen verwendet werden.

Gunther Lehmann

1940-01-01

357

Anatomophysiologie des algies pudendales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Les algies pudendales sont périnéales de type tronculaire et somatique. Elles siègent dans le territoire du nerf atteint et\\u000a sont positionnelles, ce qui évoque un phénomène de compression lors de la position assise. L’anatomophysiologie de ces douleurs\\u000a met l’accent sur plusieurs items: a) définition et innervation du périnée; b) étude du parcours des voies de la douleur; étude\\u000a des structures

R. Robert; Y. Beaudic; O. Hamel; M. Khalfallah; J.-J. Labat; T. Riant

2007-01-01

358

Characterization of the Fungal Gibberellin Desaturase as a 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase and Its Utilization for Enhancing Plant Growth1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of gibberellic acid (GA3) by the fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is catalyzed by seven enzymes encoded in a gene cluster. While four of these enzymes are characterized as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, the nature of a fifth oxidase, GA4 desaturase (DES), is unknown. DES converts GA4 to GA7 by the formation of a carbon-1,2 double bond in the penultimate step of the pathway. Here, we show by expression of the des complementary DNA in Escherichia coli that DES has the characteristics of a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase. Although it has low amino acid sequence homology with known 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, putative iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-binding residues, typical of such enzymes, are apparent in its primary sequence. A survey of sequence databases revealed that homologs of DES are widespread in the ascomycetes, although in most cases the homologs must participate in non-gibberellin (GA) pathways. Expression of des from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in the plant species Solanum nigrum, Solanum dulcamara, and Nicotiana sylvestris resulted in substantial growth stimulation, with a 3-fold increase in height in S. dulcamara compared with controls. In S. nigrum, the height increase was accompanied by a 20-fold higher concentration of GA3 in the growing shoots than in controls, although GA1 content was reduced. Expression of des was also shown to partially restore growth in plants dwarfed by ectopic expression of a GA 2-oxidase (GA-deactivating) gene, consistent with GA3 being protected from 2-oxidation. Thus, des has the potential to enable substantial growth increases, with practical implications, for example, in biomass production.

Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Ward, Dennis A.; Thomas, Stephen G.; Gong, Fan; Powers, Stephen J.; Carrera, Esther; Taylor, Benjamin; de Caceres Gonzalez, Francisco Nunez; Tudzynski, Bettina; Phillips, Andrew L.; Davey, Michael R.; Hedden, Peter

2012-01-01

359

Protection from ground faults in the stator winding of generators at power plants in the Siberian networks  

SciTech Connect

The experience of many years of experience in developing and utilization of ground fault protection in the stator winding of generators in the Siberian networks is generalized. The main method of protection is to apply a direct current or an alternating current with a frequency of 25 Hz to the primary circuits of the stator. A direct current is applied to turbo generators operating in a unit with a transformer without a resistive coupling to the external grid or to other generators. Applying a 25 Hz control current is appropriate for power generation systems with compensation of a capacitive short circuit current to ground. This method forms the basis for protection of generators operating on busbars, hydroelectric generators with a neutral grounded through an arc-suppression reactor, including in consolidated units with generators operating in parallel on a single low-voltage transformer winding.

Vainshtein, R. A., E-mail: vra@tpu.ru [Tomsk Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Lapin, V. I. [ODU Sibiri (Integrated Dispatcher Control for Siberia), branch of JSC 'SO EES' (Russian Federation); Naumov, A. M.; Doronin, A. V. [JSC NPP 'EKRA' (Russian Federation); Yudin, S. M. [Tomsk Polytechnical University (Russian Federation)

2010-05-15

360

Kombiniertes Gas- und Dampfturbinenkraftwerk mit Kohlevergasung, Planung des Prototypkraftwerks (Phase 2 A). Schlussbericht. (Integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plant, design of the prototype power plant (phase 2 A). Final report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based upon the results of phase 1 the concept of an integrated Hard Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plant was developed in cooperation with the companies Linde and Krupp Koppers and the basic design of a 170 MW-prototype power plant was performed f...

G. Baumgaertel R. Mueller U. Schiffers

1991-01-01

361

Fe-Al Weld Overlay and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Thermal Spray Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Waterwalls in Fossil Fired Plants with Low NOx Burners  

SciTech Connect

Iron-aluminum-chromium coatings were investigated to determine the best candidates for coatings of boiler tubes in Low NOx fossil fueled power plants. Ten iron-aluminum-chromium weld claddings with aluminum concentrations up to 10wt% were tested in a variety of environments to evaluate their high temperature corrosion resistance. The weld overlay claddings also contained titanium additions to investigate any beneficial effects from these ternary and quaternary alloying additions. Several High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings with higher aluminum concentrations were investigated as well. Gaseous corrosion testing revealed that at least 10wt%Al is required for protection in the range of environments examined. Chromium additions were beneficial in all of the environments, but additions of titanium were beneficial only in sulfur rich atmospheres. Similar results were observed when weld claddings were in contact with corrosive slag while simultaneously, exposed to the corrosive environments. An aluminum concentration of 10wt% was required to prevent large amounts of corrosion to take place. Again chromium additions were beneficial with the greatest corrosion protection occurring for welds containing both 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr. The exposed thermal spray coatings showed either significant cracking within the coating, considerable thickness loss, or corrosion products at the coating substrate interface. Therefore, the thermal spray coatings provided the substrate very little protection. Overall, it was concluded that of the coatings studied weld overlay coatings provide superior protection in these Low NOx environments; specifically, the ternary weld composition of 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr provided the best corrosion protection in all of the environments tested.

Regina, J.R.

2002-02-08

362

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

Srowley

2006-04-28

363

Onondaga County Department of Water Environment Protection: Process Optimization Saves Energy at Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Onondaga County, New York, is saving nearly 3 million kWh and 270 million Btu annually at a wastewater treatment plant after replacing inefficient motors and upgrading pumps.

Not Available

2005-12-01

364

Plant-Based Vaccine: Mice Immunized with Chloroplast-Derived Anthrax Protective Antigen Survive Anthrax Lethal Toxin Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The currently available human vaccine for anthrax, derived from the culture supernatant of Bacillus anthracis, contains the protective antigen (PA) and traces of the lethal and edema factors, which may contribute to adverse side effects associated with this vaccine. Therefore, an effective expression system that can provide a clean, safe, and efficacious vaccine is required. In an effort to produce

Vijay Koya; Mahtab Moayeri; Stephen H. Leppla; Henry Daniell

2005-01-01

365

The influence of woody plants on the seepage of flood protection levees: Experiences from a test site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past flood events have once more drawn the attention to the stability and maintenance of flood protection levees. The attention has also been focused on the relationship between vegetation and the structural integrity of dikes. Current standards regard dense turf to be safest vegetation cover for dikes. Many guidelines ban woody vegetation from dikes and levees to provide structural

W. Lammeranner; H. Meixner; F. Florineth

2009-01-01

366

Environmental effects on age-dependent mortality: a test with a perennial plant species under natural and protected conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most experimental studies of senescence have been done with short-lived organisms under controlled laboratory conditions and it is not clear whether the insights gained from these studies can be broadly generalized. This study was designed to detect senescence in a natural population and to compare the patterns of mortality for a single species in natural and protected conditions. It was

D. A. Roach

2001-01-01

367

Epidemiological studies and radiation protection: The potential value of a new study at US nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk estimates of fatal cancer constitute the principal component of the health detriment after low doses of ionizing radiation protection recommendations by ICRP and NCRP are based upon them. These risks are presently derived from the Life Span Study of the A bomb survivors in Japan and have recently been supported by a number of relatively imprecise studies of occupational

W SINCLAIR

1994-01-01

368

Genotype composition of populations of grapefruit-cross-protecting citrus tristeza virus strain GFMS12 in different host plants and aphid-transmitted sub-isolates.  

PubMed

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes severe losses in grapefruit production in South Africa and requires mild-strain cross-protection to maintain production. Unfortunately, cross-protection breakdown of the pre-immunizing CTV grapefruit mild source GFMS12 is prevalent in grapefruit in South Africa. The CTV genotype composition of the GFMS12 population inoculated onto different hosts was determined by sequencing part of ORF1a and the p23 gene of multiple clones from each plant. Analysis of the GFMS12 population in Mexican lime and Marsh and Star Ruby grapefruit varieties revealed that at least four genotypes occur in the GFMS12 population and that genotype compositions differed amongst the populations in different host plants. Single-aphid-transmitted sub-isolates derived from the GFMS12 mother population on Mexican lime appeared to contain three populations of a mixture of VT-like and recombinant B165/VT-like genotypes; a mixture of recombinant RB/VT- and B165/VT-like genotypes; and a single recombinant B165/VT-like genotype. This study underlines the importance of determining the genotype composition of a potential CTV pre-immunizing source on a range of inoculated host species before utilization. PMID:22932923

Scott, Katherine Anne; Hlela, Quinsile; Zablocki, Olivier; Read, David; van Vuuren, Stephanus; Pietersen, Gerhard

2012-08-30

369

Evaluation of soil ecotoxicity tests with functional endpoints for the risk assessment of plant protection products: State-of-the-art.  

PubMed

This paper outlines the state-of-the-art in discussing tests with functional endpoints for the soil compartment for regulatory purposes. In spite of the fact that organic matter decomposition is one of the most important functions in the soil ecosystem, this process has not been the subject of a test requirement for risk assessment of plant protection products until very recently. Since EU Directive 91/414/EEC concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market requires in its Annex III, point 10.6.2 (entitled "Effects on other soil, non-target macro-organisms"), the evaluation of effects on organic matter breakdown, there is an urgent need to fulfil this requirement. The use of functional endpoints in terrestrial model ecosystems is also under discussion in the framework of the notification process for chemicals. Four potential methods (bait-lamina-test, litterbag test, minicontainer test, cotton-strip assay) taken from ecological literature are briefly reviewed and evaluated in this paper using several defined criteria regarding their usefulness for registration purposes. In this context, areas for further research are identified. The insecticide Dimilin (a.i. diflubenzuron) is used as an example to show how such a test improves risk assessment. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that a guidance paper describing the main principles of at least one test method on organic matter decomposition should be written in order to realise the EU requirement. PMID:19002629

Kula, C; Römbke, J

1998-01-01

370

Is the ability of biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonads to produce the antifungal metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol really synonymous with higher plant protection?  

PubMed

The antifungal compound 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) contributes to biocontrol in pseudomonads, but whether or not Phl(+) biocontrol pseudomonads display higher plant-protecting activity than Phl(-) biocontrol pseudomonads remains to be demonstrated. This issue was addressed by assessing 230 biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonads selected from a collection of 3132 bacterial isolates obtained from 63 soils worldwide. One-third of the biocontrol pseudomonads were Phl(+) and almost all Phl(+) isolates also produced hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The only Phl(+) HCN(-) strain did harbor hcn genes, but with the deletion of a 134 bp hcnC fragment corresponding to an ADP-binding motif. Statistical analysis of biocontrol isolate distributions indicated that Phl production ability was associated with superior disease suppression activity in the Pythium-cucumber and Fusarium-tomato pathosystems, but this was also the case with HCN production ability. However, HCN significance was not as strong, as indicated both by the comparison of Phl(-) HCN(+) and Phl(-) HCN(-) strains and by correlation analyses. This is the first population-level demonstration of the higher plant-protecting activity of Phl(+) biocontrol pseudomonads in comparison with Phl(-) biocontrol pseudomonads. PMID:17286834

Rezzonico, Fabio; Zala, Marcello; Keel, Christoph; Duffy, Brion; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Défago, Geneviève

2007-01-01

371

Effect of effluent contaminated water on micro and potentially toxic elements in soils and potato plants Effets sur les sols et des cultures de pommes de terre de l'épandage d'effluents industriels contenant des oligo- éléments et des éléments potentiellement toxiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of industrial effluent conta minated sewage water on the content of micro and potentially toxic elements in soils and potato plants was studied. The elemental composition of the sewage water changed after the addition of waste water of leather complex into it. Although the contents of all these elements in the sewage drain increased, a spectacular increase in

C. L. ARORA

372

Expression of a Synthesized Gene Encoding Cationic Peptide Cecropin B in Transgenic Tomato Plants Protects against Bacterial Diseases?  

PubMed Central

The cationic lytic peptide cecropin B (CB), isolated from the giant silk moth (Hyalophora cecropia), has been shown to effectively eliminate Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, the effects of chemically synthesized CB on plant pathogens were investigated. The S50s (the peptide concentrations causing 50% survival of a pathogenic bacterium) of CB against two major pathogens of the tomato, Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, were 529.6 ?g/ml and 0.29 ?g/ml, respectively. The CB gene was then fused to the secretory signal peptide (sp) sequence from the barley ?-amylase gene, and the new construct, pBI121-spCB, was used for the transformation of tomato plants. Integration of the CB gene into the tomato genome was confirmed by PCR, and its expression was confirmed by Western blot analyses. In vivo studies of the transgenic tomato plant demonstrated significant resistance to bacterial wilt and bacterial spot. The levels of CB expressed in transgenic tomato plants (?0.05 ?g in 50 mg of leaves) were far lower than the S50 determined in vitro. CB transgenic tomatoes could therefore be a new mode of bioprotection against these two plant diseases with significant agricultural applications.

Jan, Pey-Shynan; Huang, Hsu-Yuang; Chen, Hueih-Min

2010-01-01

373

La protection de l'environnement dans les pays développés  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] La protection de l'environnement dans les pays développés . Par leur poids dans la production et la consommation mondiale ou leur place prépondérante dans les échanges internationaux, les pays développés se trouvent au coeur des politiques à mener pour lutter contre la dégradation actuelle ou passée de l'environnement et pour sa préservation présente et future. Des résultats importants ont

Christian Avérous

1992-01-01

374

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Therapeutic Plants and Protection of Radiation-induced DNA Damage by Zingiber montanum Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free radical scavenging activities of rhizome extracts of Acorus calamus, Curcuma longa, Paris polyphylla, and Zingiber montanum were established in vitro Z. montanum in 60% methanol showed a significant radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 0.34 ± 0.06 mg.mL and 0.68 ± 0.08 mg.mL in DPPH and superoxide free radical assays. It also provided optimal protection of curcumin from

D. S. Thokchom; G. J. Sharma

2012-01-01

375

Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins wurde zu analysieren versucht durch Studium der Beeinflussung des Blutdrucks, der Herzaktion und der Gefäße, des Effekts am Atemzentrum und an den Bronchien, der Wirkung auf die Pupillenweite, auf den Darm und den Uterus, auf die Sekretion verschiedener Drüsen und den Blutzuckerspiegel.2.Es wurden folgende Wirkungen gefunden: Der Blutdruck wird erhöht durch kleine Dosen, erniedrigt

H. Kreitmair

1927-01-01

376

Programmed cell death in plants: protective effect of tetraphenylphosphonium and tetramethylrhodamine cations used as transmembrane quinone carriers.  

PubMed

Tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP(+)) and tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE(+)) cations used as transmembrane carriers of ubiquinone (MitoQ) and plastoquinone (SkQ, SkQR) in mitochondria prevented at nanomolar concentrations the chitosan- or H(2)O(2)-induced destruction of the nucleus in epidermal cells of epidermis isolated from pea leaves. The protective effect of the cations was potentiated by palmitate. Penetrating anions of tetraphenylboron (TB(-)) and phenyl dicarbaundecaborane also displayed protective effects at micromolar concentrations; the effect of TB(-) was potentiated by NH(4)Cl. It is proposed that the protective effect of the penetrating cations and anions against chitosan is due to suppression of the generation of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria as a result of the protonophoric effect of the cations plus fatty acids and the anions plus NH(4)(+). Phenol was suitable as the electron donor for H2O2 reduction catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase, preventing the destruction of cell nuclei. The penetrating cations and anions, SkQ1, and SkQR1 did not maintain the peroxidase or peroxidase/oxidase reactions measured by their suitability as electron donors for H(2)O(2) reduction or by the oxidation of exogenous NADH. PMID:22809154

Vasil'ev, L A; Kiselevsky, D B; Dzyubinskaya, E V; Nesov, A V; Samuilov, V D

2012-04-01

377

Programmed cell death in plants: protective effect of phenolic compounds against chitosan and H2O2.  

PubMed

Addition of chitosan or H2O2 caused destruction of nuclei of epidermal cells (EC) in the epidermis isolated from pea leaves. Phenol, a substrate of the apoplastic peroxidase-oxidase, in concentrations of 10(-10)-10(-6) M prevented the destructive effect of chitosan. Phenolic compounds 2,4-dichlorophenol, catechol, and salicylic acid, phenolic uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation pentachlorophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol, and a non-phenolic uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, but not tyrosine or guaiacol, displayed similar protective effects. A further increase in concentrations of the phenolic compounds abolished their protective effects against chitosan. Malate, a substrate of the apoplastic malate dehydrogenase, replenished the pool of apoplastic NADH that is a substrate of peroxidase-oxidase, prevented the chitosan-induced destruction of the EC nuclei, and removed the deleterious effect of the increased concentration of phenol (0.1 mM). Methylene Blue, benzoquinone, and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) capable of supporting the optimal catalytic action of peroxidase-oxidase cancelled the destructive effect of chitosan on the EC nuclei. The NADH-oxidizing combination of TMPD with ferricyanide promoted the chitosan-induced destruction of the nuclei. The data suggest that the apoplastic peroxidase-oxidase is involved in the antioxidant protection of EC against chitosan and H2O2. PMID:20367614

Samuilov, V D; Vasil'ev, L A; Dzyubinskaya, E V; Kiselevsky, D B; Nesov, A V

2010-02-01

378

EXAMINING THE POTENTIAL UTILITY OF POLYGALACTURONASE-POLYGALALACTURONASE INHIBITING PROTEIN INTERACTIONS FOR PROTECTING CROP PLANTS AGAINST LYGUS BUG  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lygus bug (Lygus hesperus) feeding causes significant economic losses to many important cultivated plants, including alfalfa and cotton. Strong (1970) suggested that crop damage caused by L. hesperus was principally due to the activity of the insect’s polygalacturonase (PG) secreted during feeding. ...

379

La diffraction des neutrons et des rayons X pour l'étude structurale des liquides et des verres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La compréhension de mainte propriété physique d'un verre ou d'un liquide nécessite la connaissance des facteurs de structure partiels (PSFs) qui décrivent chacun la distribution d'une espèce atomique autour d'une autre. La technique de diffraction des neutrons avec substitution isotopique (NDIS) [1,2,3], ayant bien réussi a déterminer les PSFs de certains composés [4,5], est pourtant restreinte aux isotopes présentant un contraste suffisant en longueur de diffusion. D'un autre cote, la technique de diffusion anomale des rayons X (AXS ou AXD) [6] permet de faire varier la longueur de diffusion d'une espèce atomique pourvu que son énergie d'absorption soit à la fois accessible et suffisamment élevée pour donner un assez grand transfert du moment. La combinaison des techniques de diffraction des neutrons (avec ou sans substitution isotopique) et de diffraction des rayons X (avec ou sans diffusion anomale) peut donc permettre d'obtenir un meilleur contraste en longueurs de diffusion pour un système donné, mais exige une analyse de données plus soignée pour pouvoir bien tenir compte des erreurs systématiques qui sont différentes pour les 2 techniques [7]. Pour les atomes ayant des distributions électroniques quasi-sphériques, e.g. dans le cas d'un alliage liquide, la combinaison des techniques de NDIS et de diffraction des rayons X s'est déjà montrée très avantageuse pour la détermination des PSFs [8,9]. Dans le cas des verres ayant d'importantes liaisons covalentes, l'effective combinaison des 2 techniques peut être moins directe mais facilitée lorsqu'il s'agit des atomes de grand Z [10,11]. Nous présentons ici un sommaire du méthode et quelques exemples des résultats.

Fischer, H. E.; Salmon, P. S.; Barnes, A. C.

2003-02-01

380

La vitalité des spermatozoïdes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Malgré l’existence de nombreux moyens d’étude de la vitalité des spermatozoïdes, la plupart restent dans le domaine de la\\u000a recherche biomédicale. Ce sont surtout les tests classiques, tels que le test à l’éosinenigrosine et le test de gonflement\\u000a flagellaire en milieu hypo-osmolaire (HOST) qui permettent d’apprécier le pourcentage de vitalité des spermatozoïdes en spermiologie\\u000a courante. Un résultat anormalement bas définit

T. Forges; P. Monnier-Barbarino; B. Foliguet

2001-01-01

381

Pseudomonas protegens sp. nov., widespread plant-protecting bacteria producing the biocontrol compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent Pseudomonas strains producing the antimicrobial secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) play a prominent role in the biocontrol of plant diseases. A subset of Phl-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas strains, which can additionally synthesize the antimicrobial compound pyoluteorin (Plt), appears to cluster separately from other fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and shares at most 98.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence

Alban Ramette; Michele Frapolli; Marion Fischer-Le Saux; C. Gruffaz; Jean-Marie Meyer; Geneviève Défago; Laurent Sutra; Yvan Moënne-Loccoz

2011-01-01

382

Pre-historic eating patterns in Latin America and protective effects of plant-based diets on cardiovascular risk factors  

PubMed Central

In this review, we present the contributions to nutrition science from Latin American native peoples and scientists, appreciated from a historic point of view since pre?historic times to the modern age. Additionally, we present epidemiological and clinical studies on the area of plant?based diets and their relation with the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases conducted in recent decades, and we discuss challenges and perspectives regarding aspects of nutrition in the region.

Acosta Navarro, Julio C; Cardenas Prado, Silvia M; Cardenas, Pedro Acosta; Santos, Raul D; Caramelli, Bruno

2010-01-01

383

Pre-historic eating patterns in Latin America and protective effects of plant-based diets on cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

In this review, we present the contributions to nutrition science from Latin American native peoples and scientists, appreciated from a historic point of view since pre-historic times to the modern age. Additionally, we present epidemiological and clinical studies on the area of plant-based diets and their relation with the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases conducted in recent decades, and we discuss challenges and perspectives regarding aspects of nutrition in the region. PMID:21120310

Navarro, Julio C Acosta; Prado, Silvia M Cárdenas; Cárdenas, Pedro Acosta; Santos, Raul D; Caramelli, Bruno

2010-01-01

384

Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs.

Klein, A.R.; Bloom, C.W.

1989-07-01

385

US-Russian collaboration for enhancing nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting at the Elektrostal uranium fuel-fabrication plant  

SciTech Connect

In September 1993, an implementing agreement was signed that authorized collaborative projects to enhance Russian national materials control and accounting, physical protection, and regulatory activities, with US assistance funded by the Nunn-Lugar Act. At the first US-Russian technical working group meeting in Moscow in February 1994, it was decided to identify a model facility where materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) and regulatory projects could be carried out using proven technologies and approaches. The low-enriched uranium (LEU or RBMK and VVER) fuel-fabrication process at Elektrostal was selected, and collaborative work began in June 1994. Based on many factors, including initial successes at Elektrostal, the Russians expanded the cooperation by proposing five additional sites for MPC and A development: the Elektrostal medium-enriched uranium (MEU or BN) fuel-fabrication process and additional facilities at Podolsk, Dmitrovgrad, Obninsk, and Mayak. Since that time, multilaboratory teams have been formed to develop and implement MPC and A upgrades at the additional sites, and much new work is underway. This paper summarizes the current status of MPC and A enhancement projects in the LEU fuel-fabrication process and discusses the status of work that addresses similar enhancements in the MEU (BN) fuel processes at Elektrostal, under the recently expanded US-Russian MPC and A cooperation.

Smith, H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Allentuck, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Barham, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bishop, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wentz, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Steele, B.; Bricker, K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cherry, R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Snegosky, T. [Dept. of Defense, Washington, DC (United States). Defense Nuclear Agency

1996-09-01

386

Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma outflows from a central gravitating object are a widespread phenomenon in astrophysics. They include the solar and stellar winds, jets from Young Stellar Objects, jets from compact stellar objects and extra-galactic jets associated with Active Galactic Nuclei and quasars. Beyond this huge zoology, a common theoretical ground exists. The aim of this review is to present qualitatively the various theories of winds (Part 1) and how different astrophysical domains interplay. A more or less complete catalog of the ideas proposed for explaining the acceleration and the morphologies of winds and jets is intended. All this part avoids getting into any mathematical formalism. Some macroscopic properties of such outflows may be described by solving the time-independent and axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equations. This formalism, underlying most of the theories, is presented in Part 2. It helps to introduce quantitatively the free integrals that such systems possess. Those integrals play an important role in the basic physics of acceleration and collimation, in particular the mass loss rate, the angular momentum loss rate and the energy of the magnetic rotator. Most of the difficulty in modelling flows lies in the necessity to cross critical points, characteristic of non linear equations. The physical nature and the location of such critical points is debated because they are the clue towards the resolution. We thus introduce the notions of topology and critical points (Parts 3 and 4) from the simplest hydrodynamic and spherically symmetric case to the most sophisticated, MHD and axisymmetric cases. Particular attention is given to self-similar models which allows to give some general and simple ideas on the problem due to their semi-analytical treatment. With the use of these notions, a more quantitative comparison of the various models is given (Parts 3 and 4), especially on the shape of the flows. It is thus shown that magnetic collimation of winds into jets is a well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la résolution. Nous introduisons donc la notion de topologie des points critiques (Parties 3 et 4

Sauty, C.

387

La rigidité des prix en France : quelques enseignements des relevés de prix à la consommation  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] La rigidité des prix en France: quelques enseignements des relevés de prix à la consommation . . Pour décrire À l’aide de l’échantillon des relevés de prix utilisés pour le calcul de l’indice des prix à la consommation (IPC), les la rigidité des prix à la consommation en France, divers indicateurs (durée de vie des prix, fréquence et amplitude

Laurent Baudry; Hervé Le Bihan; Patrick Sevestre; Sylvie Tarrieu

2005-01-01

388

Betriebliche Determinanten des Überstundeneinsatzes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auswertungen repräsentativer Daten des IAB-Betriebspanels für Westdeutschland von 1993 bis 1998 zeigen, dass nur zwischen 20 und 30 Prozent aller Betriebe bezahlte Überstunden einsetzten. In diesen Betrieben fielen im Durchschnitt 1,6 bezahlte Überstunden pro abhängig Beschäftigten und Woche an. Weniger als 7 Prozent der Betriebe griffen in jedem Jahr auf Überstunden zurück, wozu vor allem Großbetriebe zählten. Auch generell stieg

Thorsten Schank; Claus Schnabel

2004-01-01

389

Le Chemin des Ecoliers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is developed from extracts from a report of a study undertaken by the authors on the availability and use of television in primary and nursery schools. It looks at ‘Le Chemin des Ecoliers’ developed by CNDP (the Centre National de Documentation Pedagogique), Paris and transmitted on the French TV Channel TF1. It estimates the audiences, sees how the

Josette Blanc

1991-01-01

390

Die bestimmung des diacetyls im sprit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die für die Bestimmung des Diacetylgehaltes im Sprit entwickelte Methode beruht auf der photometrischen Messung der in einer Pyridin-Äthylendiaminhydrat-lösung des bis-2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazons des Diacetyls entstandenen violetten Färbung. Bis-2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazon des Diacetyls wird von anderen Hydrazonen, wenigstens von dem Hydrazon des Acetaldehydes and dem bei den Reaktionsumständen sich bildenden Monohydrazon des Acetylmethylearbinols Bowie von dem überschüssigen Reagens auf Grund seiner Schwerlöslichkeit in

Tapio Salo; Heikki Suomalainen

1957-01-01

391

On the Scientific Relationships in Plant Protection Research Between Institutes in the Soviet Union and in the German Democratic Republic. (Ueber die Wissenschaftlichen Bezichungen in der Pflanzenschutzforschung Zwischen Instituten in de Sowjotunion und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The USSR and East Germany re-established the scientific relations pertaining to questions of plant protection shortly after the end of World War II. The close collaboration of scientists in Soviet and German agencies was motivated by the need to secure ad...

1968-01-01

392

Les budgets des ménages  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] L'enquête sur les budgets des ménages effectuée en 1979 renoue avec la série interrompue en 1972. Au-delà du budget moyen, ses résultats mettent en lumière les comportements typiques de sous-groupes de la population : les jeunes, les familles, les vieux. Le niveau de vie reste la première variable selon laquelle s'agencent les comportements, mais il n'explique pas tout. Divers

Mireille Moutardier; Michel Glaude

1982-01-01

393

Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schädigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden für die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflächigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfügbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen führen jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfügbar, können in einzelnen Fällen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch über Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentöser Therapie können für den Patienten jedoch häufig schwerwiegende, möglicherweise lebensverkürzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezüchteten Geweben möglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die für den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

Mayer, Jörg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

394

Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans l'agenda politique du pays. Notre projet de recherche, par le truchement de l'approche des reseaux de politique publique, s'attarde a decrire et a expliquer le processus de la formulation d'une politique particuliere, soit la politique energetique a des fins de protection de l'environnement, elaboree en 1993. Il s'agit de mettre en evidence les facteurs affectant le choix des instruments de ces politiques publiques dans leur contexte national. Ainsi, la question generale de cette recherche est: Comment les phases evolutives de la formation d'un reseau de politique, en l'occurrence le Conseil canadien de l'energie (CCE), menent a des caracteristiques particulieres a ce reseau; et comment celles-ci determinent-elles les types des instruments de politique publique choisis, particulierement ceux de la recente orientation des politiques energetiques canadiennes a des fins environnementales elaborees en 1993? Afin d'atteindre l'objectif de notre recherche, deux facteurs primordiaux sont utilises, soit la circulation de l'information et l'exercice du controle sur les ressources des acteurs. L'analyse des caracteristiques du reseau en fonction des liens forts et des liens faibles autant que la presence ou l'absence des trous structuraux nous permettent de bien identifier les positions des differents acteurs, etatiques et non etatiques, sur le plan de l'information et du controle, qui a leur tour, nous semble-t-il, constituent des facteurs affectant les types des instruments des politiques publiques choisis: instruments substantifs, qui indiquent le degre de l'intervention du gouvernement, et instruments proceduraux, qui mettent plutot l'accent sur le degre de l'influence du gouvernement sur les acteurs non etatiques. L'etude soutient que l'approche des reseaux se distingue notamment par son potentiel a expliquer l'interrelation relative entre idees, interets et institutions, ce qui a son tour est susceptible de permettre une meilleure comprehension des processus de l'elaboration des politiques energetiques et environnementales canadiennes. Qui plus est, le fait de rec

Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

395

Mecanique et mecanisme de la dechirure des materiaux textiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette thèse vise à apporter une contribution à l’étude et à la modélisation de la déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits. Notons que la résistance à la déchirure est l’une des caractéristiques mesurées pour les équipements de protection contre les agresseurs mécaniques en milieu de travail. Jusqu'à présent, ce comportement en déchirure a été étudié en mesurant la force de déchirure et le travail de déchirure. De fait, aucun critère de rupture en déchirure n’existe actuellement. Par conséquent, en s’inspirant de la théorie du Griffith et de la mécanique de la rupture, une formulation d’un nouveau critère de rupture des structures textiles a été proposée. Cette approche offre la possibilité de déterminer d’une manière plus précise l’énergie nécessaire pour la création d’une nouvelle surface de rupture. Ce critère nous permet d’analyser l’effet des caractéristiques des tissus sur la variation de l’énergie de rupture. Cette étude montre que la résistance au glissement des fils dans la structure est le principal facteur qui contrôle la propagation de la fissure. En se basant sur la théorie de la mécanique de la rupture, un modèle de calcul de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a été aussi élaboré. Ce modèle de déchirure relie l’énergie aux paramètres caractérisant les phénomènes affectant la déchirure des tissus, notamment la force de glissement et la force à la rupture des fils. Cette modélisation a tenu compte de certaines caractéristiques des tissus tels que l’épaisseur du matériau, la densité des fils, etc. Par l’étude de la variation de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure en fonction du rapport établi entre la force à la rupture et la force de glissement d’un fil ( FYB/FS), l’effet des mécanismes de la propagation de la fissure dans les tissus sur leur comportement en déchirure a été aussi observé. Les résultats obtenus permettent de distinguer deux différentes catégories de déchirure. Pour les basses densités des fils, la fissure se propage dans le tissu par glissement des fils, alors que pour les hautes densités des fils, la déchirure est obtenue par la rupture des fils. Ainsi, il est important de noter que l’énergie de rupture par déchirure des tissus est maximale lorsque le rapport FYB/FS est proche de l’unité. En ce qui a trait à la déchirure des textiles enduits, la propagation de la fissure est obtenue par déchirure du support textile et de l’enduit de manière simultanée ainsi que par le délaminage du système textile-enduit. La définition d’un critère de rupture pour les textiles enduits nous a permis de constater que l’enduction d’un support textile par une couche d’élastomère engendre une diminution de son énergie de rupture. En outre, l’étude de la déchirure du support textile, de l’enduit et des textiles enduits a montré que l’énergie obtenue pour la couche de l’enduit est très faible si nous la comparons avec celles du support textile et du textile enduit. L’étude de l’effet du vieillissement sur l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a aussi fait l’objet de cette thèse. L’exposition des textiles enduits à différentes températures de vieillissement montre que le comportement en déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits est similaire pour les durées les plus faibles. Par contre, une accélération de la réduction de la résistance à la déchirure est observée pour les textiles enduits aux temps de vieillissement plus élevés. Ce phénomène peut éventuellement être attribué à une augmentation de l’adhésion du système textile-enduit suite au traitement de vieillissement. La diminution de la mobilité des fils ainsi engendrée cause alors une importante chute de la valeur de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure. Mots clés : Textiles, Textiles enduits, Énergie de rupture, Modélisation, Vieillissement thermique.

Triki, Ennouri

396

Le financement des agents non financiers en Europe : le rôle des intermédiaires financiers demeure prépondérant  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Le financement des agents non financiers en Europe: le rôle des intermédiaires financiers demeure prépondérant . . Le degré d’intermédiation des financements de treize pays européens entre 1994 et 2001 est évalué à partir des comptes financiers nationaux (base Eurostat). Deux approches sont distinguées. L’approche par la demande adopte le point de vue des agents à besoin de financement

Jézabel Couppey-Soubeyran; Gunther Capelle-Blancard

2003-01-01

397

Development and validation of a confirmative LC-MS/MS method for the determination of ß-exotoxin thuringiensin in plant protection products and selected greenhouse crops.  

PubMed

Bacterial products based on Bacillus thuringiensis are registered in many countries as plant protection products (PPPs) and are widely used as insecticides and nematocides. However, certain B. thuringiensis strains produce harmful toxins and are therefore not allowed to be used as PPPs. The serotype B. thuringiensis thuringiensis produces the beta-exotoxin thuringiensin (ßeT) which is considered to be toxic for almost all forms of life including humans (WHO 1999). The use of a non-registered PPP based on B. thuringiensis thuringiensis called bitoxybacillin was established through the determination of ßeT. First, an analytical reference standard of ßeT was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Then, a confirmatory quantitative method for the determination of ßeT in PPPs and selected greenhouse crops based on LC-MS/MS was developed and validated. A limit of quantitation of 0.028 mg/kg was established, and average recoveries ranged from 85.6 % to 104.8 % with repeatability (RSDr) of 1.5-7.7 % and within-lab reproducibility (RSD(WLR)) of 17 %. The method was used for analysis of >100 samples. ßeT was found in leaves of ornamentals, but no evidence was found for use in edible crops. PMID:23208288

de Rijk, Theo C; van Dam, Ruud C J; Zomer, Paul; Boers, Ed A M; de Waard, Pieter; Mol, Hans G J

2012-12-05

398

Impact of the plant protection practices on the operators' exposure: survey by the communes and ministry of equipment and transport (MET-RW).  

PubMed

In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, with a response rate of 60 out of 97 communes and 33 out of 65 districts. This article describes the health-related aspects of the surveys (environmental aspects are the subject of separate article). The surveys have brought to light a number of bad practices and a growing awareness of the non-agricultural users with respect to health risks. However, bad habits, legislation infringements and a failure to follow good plant protection practice are still a problem and pose major health risks (which endanger the operator and the public). Information, awareness-raising and, especially, training of people therefore remain a priority for non-agricultural users. PMID:19226831

Godeaux, D; Schiffers, B; Culot, M

2008-01-01

399

Le compte satellite de la protection sociale  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Depuis 1957 les recettes et les dépenses de protection sociale en France sont enregistrées dans le « Budget social de la Nation », devenu en 1975 « Effort social de la Nation »; il s'agit de l'un des comptes satellites s'articulant autour du cadre central de la comptabilité nationale. Parallèlement, le « Budget social européen », document publié sous

Jean-Pierre Launay

1980-01-01

400

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Des Protein: an Immunodominant Target for the Humoral Response of Tuberculous Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phoA gene fusion methodology permitted the identification of a new Mycobacterium tuberculosis exported protein, Des. This protein has significant sequence similarities to plant acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases, which are enzymes involved in general fatty acid biosynthesis as well as in mycolic acid biosynthesis in mycobacteria. As shown by Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments, the Des protein is

MARY JACKSON; DENIS PORTNOI; DANIEL CATHELINE; LAURE DUMAIL; JEAN RAUZIER; PHILIPPE LEGRAND; BRIGITTE GICQUEL

1997-01-01

401

Effet hypolipémiant des fractions méthanolique et aqueuse du basilic chez la souris hyperlipidémique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Le basilic, (Ocimum basilicum L.) est une plante condimentaire et médicinale largement utilisée au Maroc oriental pour le traitement des hyperlipidémies\\u000a et la prévention de l’athérosclérose. Ce travail est conçu pour étudier l’effet hypocholestérolémiant et hypotriglycéridémiant\\u000a des fractions méthanolique (FM) et aqueuse (FA) du basilic chez la souris hyperlipidémique. L’hyperlipidémie est développée\\u000a chez la souris pendant quatre semaines par un

H. Harnafi; T. Hennebelle; F. Martin-Nizard; S. Amrani

2010-01-01

402

Fonction diélectrique des milieux inhomogènes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review article is based on the thesis of Berthier — Laboratoire d'Optique des solides, Université P. et M. Curie— and on various contributions or ulterior works. Its aim is to present a critical and detailed review of the main theories of the optical dielectric function of inhomogeneous media. Together with a mathematical description of the theories, we give a physical interpretation of the results and the practical limits of validity. Each theory is compared to experimental results and other theoretical predictions as well. This study is introduced by theoretical reminders about the electric polarization and considerations about the physical meaning of some fundamental parameters when going from a microscopic to a macroscopic point of view. Cette revue est tirée de la thèse de Berthier préparée au Laboratoire d'Optique des Solides, Université P. et M. Curie, ainsi que des travaux qui lui font suite (thèse en préparation de Driss-Khodja) ou de ceux menés parallèlement (systèmes 2D) par d'autres membres de l'équipe. Son ambition est de présenter une étude approfondie et critique des différentes théories de la fonction diélectrique optique des milieux inhomogènes à trois dimensions. Après une description mathématique détaillée des principales théories, nous donnons une interprétation physique des résultats et les limites concrètes d'utilisation de chacune d'elles. Chaque grande théorie est confrontée à la fois à des résultats expérimentaux et aux prédictions des autres théories. Cette étude est précédée de rappels théoriques sur la polarisation électrique et de considérations sur la signification réelle de certains paramètres lors du passage d'un système microscopique isolé à un système macroscopique aléatoire.

Berthier, Serge

403

Experimental Plant Division  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant science is vital for food production and environment protection. The mission of this laboratory is to promote plant science through collection and distribution of bioresources. We participate with the National Bioresource Project and distribute Arabidopsis seeds, plant genetical materials and plant cultured cells to the international community of plant science. We also proceed to the development of novel technologies

Masatomo KOBAYASHI

404

Legal protection of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

adays, when the technical capabilities and the scale of the effects of human society on nature as a whole and on its separate systems are increasing continuously, prevention of the impoverishment of the gene stock is one of the most important problems confronting mankind. A wide range of measures is involved in its solution, not least the solution of a

M. A. Pashkov

1977-01-01

405

Über das Bandenspektrum des Wismuthydrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Im Bandenspektrum des Wismuthydrids sind drei Bandensysteme gefunden, ein1S*-1S- und ein1S*-1II-System, die gemeinsamen Anfangszustand haben, und ein1Sx-1Sy- System, welches mit den anderen Systemen nicht kombiniert. In1S und in1II sind die drei ersten Kernschwingungsniveaus und in1S* die zwei ersten Kernschwingungsniveaus festgestellt worden. Im1Sx-1Sy-System sind das gefundene Kernschwingungsniveau des Anfangszustandes alsv=0 und die beiden Kernschwingungsniveaus des Endzustandes alsv=0 undv=1 bezeichnet. Die

Alf Heimer

1935-01-01

406

A DES ASIC Suitable for Network Encryption at 10 Gbps and Beyond  

SciTech Connect

The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Data Encryption Standard (DES) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is the fastest known implementation of the DES algorithm as defined in the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Publication 46-2. DES is used for protecting data by cryptographic means. The SNL DES ASIC, over 10 times faster than other currently available DES chips, is a high-speed, filly pipelined implementation offering encryption, decryption, unique key input, or algorithm bypassing on each clock cycle. Operating beyond 105 MHz on 64 bit words, this device is capable of data throughputs greater than 6.7 Billion bits per second (tester limited). Simulations predict proper operation up to 9.28 Billion bits per second. In low frequency, low data rate applications, the ASIC consumes less that one milliwatt of power. The device has features for passing control signals synchronized to throughput data. Three SNL DES ASICS may be easily cascaded to provide the much greater security of triple-key, triple-DES.

Gass, Karl; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Robertson, Perry J.; Wilcox, D. Craig; Witzke, Edward L.

1999-04-30

407

Effet établissement et salaires des diplômés des universités françaises  

Microsoft Academic Search

A la suite notamment des travaux de Card et Krueger en 1992, une abondante littérature micro-économétrique, principalement développée aux Etats-Unis, a étudié les liens entre qualité de l'éducation, mesurée par différents inputs éducatifs et salaires des diplômés ou les rendements de l'éducation. À partir de données françaises provenant de l'enquête « Génération 98 » du Céreq enrichies pour les sortants

Jean-François Giret; Mathieu Goudard

2008-01-01

408

Application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in combination with a mild strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) associated with viral satellite RNAs to enhance growth and protection against a virulent strain of CMV in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indigenous strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) associated with a naturally occurring benign viral satellite RNA (345 bp long), referred to as CMV-KU1, although effective as a protective biocontrol agent against the damaging effects of the virulent CMV-16 strain, produced negative side-effects such as mild stunting, vigour reduction and about 20% yield loss in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants.

Narjes H. Dashti; Nedaa Y. Ali; Vineetha M. Cherian; Magdy S. Montasser

2012-01-01

409

10 CFR 73.26 - Transportation physical protection systems, subsystems, components, and procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Transportation physical protection systems, subsystems, components...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material...

2013-01-01

410

Die fermentative Spaltung des Acetylcholins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wird eine neue Methode zum Nachweis des Fermentes, das Acetylcholin in Cholin und Essigsäure hydrolysiert, die Cholinesterase, beschrieben. Das Verfahren ist nach derWarburgschen Methode aufgebaut.

R. Ammon

1934-01-01

411

CONTRÔLE DES RISQUES DE CONTAMINATION ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... avoisinants ne polluent pas les zone de culture de produits ... la conservation des ressources naturelles (National Resources Conservation Service ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

412

Vecteurs Singuliers des Theories des Champs Conformes Minimales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En 1984 Belavin, Polyakov et Zamolodchikov revolutionnent la theorie des champs en explicitant une nouvelle gamme de theories, les theories quantiques des champs bidimensionnelles invariantes sous les transformations conformes. L'algebre des transformations conformes de l'espace-temps presente une caracteristique remarquable: en deux dimensions elle possede un nombre infini de generateurs. Cette propriete impose de telles conditions aux fonctions de correlations qu'il est possible de les evaluer sans aucune approximation. Les champs des theories conformes appartiennent a des representations de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Virasoro, une extension centrale de l'algebre conforme du plan. Ces representations sont etiquetees par h, le poids conforme de leur vecteur de plus haut poids, et par la charge centrale c, le facteur de l'extension centrale, commune a toutes les representations d'une meme theorie. Les theories conformes minimales sont constituees d'un nombre fini de representations. Parmi celles-ci se trouvent des theories unitaires dont les representation forment la serie discrete de l'algebre de Virasoro; leur poids h a la forme h_{p,q}(m)=[ (p(m+1) -qm)^2-1] (4m(m+1)), ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs et p+q<= m+1. L'entier m parametrise la charge centrale: c(m)=1 -{6over m(m+1)} avec n>= 2. Ces representations possedent un sous-espace invariant engendre par deux sous-representations avec h_1=h_{p,q} + pq et h_2=h_{p,q} + (m-p)(m+1-q) dont chacun des vecteurs de plus haut poids portent le nom de vecteur singulier et sont notes respectivement |Psi _{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+1-q}>. . Les theories super-conformes sont une version super-symetrique des theories conformes. Leurs champs appartiennent a des representation de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz, une des deux extensions super -symetriques de l'algebre de Virasoro. Les theories super -conformes minimales possedent la meme structure que les theories conformes minimales. Les representations sont elements de la serie h_{p,q}= [ (p(m+2)-qm)^2-4] /(8m(m+2)) ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs, p et q etant de meme parite, et p+q<= m+2. La charge centrale est donnee par c(m)={3over 2}-{12over m(m+2)} avec m >= 2. Les vecteurs singuliers | Psi_{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+2-q} > sont respectivement de poids h _{p,q}+pq/2 et h_ {p,q}+(m-p)(m+2-q)/2.. Les vecteurs singuliers ont une norme nulle et on doit les eliminer des representations pour que celles -ci soient unitaires. Cette elimination engendrent des equations (super-)differentielles qui dependent directement de la forme explicite des vecteurs singuliers et auxquelles doivent obeir les fonctions de correlations de la theorie. Ainsi la connaissance de ces vecteurs singuliers est intimement reliee au calcul des fonctions de correlation. Les equations definissant les vecteurs singuliers forment un systeme lineaire surdetermine dont le nombre d'equations est de l'ordre de N(pq), le nombre de partitions de l'entier pq. Puisque les vecteurs singuliers jouent un role capital en theorie conforme, il est naturel de chercher des formes explicites pour les vecteurs (ou pour des familles infinies de ceux -ci). Nous donnons ici la forme explicite pour la famille infinie de vecteurs singuliers ayant un de ses indices egal a 1, pour les algebres de Virasoro et de Neveu-Schwarz. Depuis ces decouvertes, d'autres techniques de construction des vecteurs singuliers ont ete developpees, dont celle de Bauer, Di Francesco, Itzykson et Zuber pour l'algebre de Virasoro qui reproduit directement l'expression explicite des vecteurs singuliers |Psi _{1,q}> et |Psi_{p,1}>. Ils ont utilise l'algebre des produits d'operateurs et la fusion entre representations irreductibles pour engendrer des relations de recurence produisant les vecteurs singuliers. Dans le dernier chapitre de cette these nous adaptons cet algorithme a la construction des vecteurs singuliers de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz.

Benoit, Louis

413

Alloplastischer Ersatz des vorderen Kreuzbandes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Es wurden 24 Polythylenterephtalatbnder (acht Dacron-, elf Trevira-und fnf Ligaprobnder), die als Ersatz des vorderen\\u000a Kreuzbandes wegen Ruptur oder Lockerung explantiert werden muten, histologisch untersucht. Die wnschenswerte Ausbildung\\u000a von longitudinal orientiertem Typ-I-Kollagen entlang des Kunstbandes fand sich als eine Art “Neoligament” nur in einem Treviraband.\\u000a Die Kollagenfaserbndel haben sich bei allen drei Bandarten in nur geringer Menge gebildet und sich

G. Sowa; D. Sowa; J. Koebke

1991-01-01

414

Hemmstoffe des Folsäure-Stoffwechsels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Anders als die Antibiotika-Forschung steht die Erforschung des Folsäure-Stoffwechsels und der Folsäure-Antagonisten ganz in der klassischen aufPaul Ehrlich zurückgehenden Tradition der Chemotherapie. Mit der Aufklärung des Wirkungsmechanismus der Sulfonamide wurde eine wichtige Voraussetzung zum Verständnis der Biosynthese der Folsäure geschaffen. Die Synthese von Inhibitoren der Dihydrofolat-Reduktase orientierte sich einerseits an der Struktur der Dihydrofolsäure selbst, andererseits an der Tatsache,

J. Drews

1980-01-01

415

Nouvelles régulations territoriales et l'évaluation des activités des entreprises et de leurs système de parties prenantes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nous analysons dans ces travaux de recherche l'évolution des stratégies des entreprises et des territoires vers des logiques fonctionnelles comme conséquence de l'importance de plus en plus grande des enjeux environnementaux dans la création et l'évaluation de la valeur produite et partagée entre les acteurs. L'importance d'une cohérence des performances économiques, environnementales et sociales d'une part des activités des entreprises

Ingrid Vaileanu Paun

2011-01-01

416

Altération des sulfures des granulats dans les chaussées  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfides present in hornsfeld aggregates, used in light pavanent construction in contact with humid air alter rapidly. Crystallisation of sulfates at the interface of bitumastic material and sub-base creates serious problems (intumescence and crazing) that can lead to a total reconstruction of the project (roads, sidewalks, sports areas, etc). The sulfides in the aggregates and the sulfates produced due to alteration are studied by SEM and XRD. The results show that the intensity of this phenomenon is linked to the nature and the crystallinity of the sulfides. The evolution of the sulfates formed during this alteration process is slow and complex. In new pavements (3 years) the sulfates have a pulverised appearance and consist mostly of epsomite, associated with pickeringite and halotrichite. In older pavements (20 years) the sulfates form a fibrous concretion consisting of pickeringite and small quantities of halotrichite. Les sulfures présents dans les granulats élaborés à partir de cornéen nes s'altèrent rapidement dans les chaussées légères en présence d'air humide. La cristallisation des sulfates à l'interface enrobé-couche de fondation crée des désordres si importants (intumescences, faiençage) qu'il est bien souvent nécessaire d'assurer la réfection totale des ouvrages (routes, trottoirs, plateaux sportifs...). Les sulfures des granulats et les sulfates issus du processus d'altération ont été étudiés par diffractométrie X et examen su Microscope Electronique à Balayage équipé de microanalyse X. Les résultats montrent que !intensité des désordres est liée à la nature et à la cristallinité des sulfures. Les sulfates formés évoluent su cours du processus d'altération qui est long et complexe. Dans les chaussées récentes (3 ans) ils ont un aspect pulvérulent et sont constitués d'epsomite dominante associée à de la pickeringite et à de l'halotrichite. Dans les chaussées plus anciennes (20 ans) ils forment des concrétions fibreuses constituées de pickeringite et d'une faible quantité d'halotrichite.

Jigorel, A.; Jauberthie, R.

2002-07-01

417

Architecture gouvernementale ouverte:Évolution des normes, des standards de consortium et des logiciels libres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cette étude, réalisée pour le Conseil du trésor du Québec, a pour objectifs de présenter, dans un contexte d’architecture d’entreprise, les récents développements dans l’évolution des normes et standards par les différents acteurs du milieu, les consortiums industriels et les comités de normalisation internationaux en s’arrimant avec les logiciels ouverts.Pour pouvoir atteindre ses objectifs de services auprès des citoyens et

François Coallier; Robert Gérin-Lajoie

2005-01-01

418

Coordinating overcurrent protection devices  

SciTech Connect

Distribution, substation, and plant engineers can benefit from using an overcurrent protection program in commercial, industrial, and utility applications to aid in clearing temporary faults and isolating permanent faults. In the time it normally takes to check one coordination scheme manually, dozens of alternatives can be evaluated using a graphics-oriented program, because the engineer receives immediate feedback for quick decision-making. It is well known that accurately coordinating overcurrent protection devices can minimize or prevent equipment damage, and electrical power service to customers can be greatly improved. In addition to assisting experienced engineers, an overcurrent protection program is an excellent training tool for new engineers.

St. John, M.; Borgnino, A.

1996-07-01

419

Application of the "threshold of toxicological concern" to derive tolerable concentrations of "non-relevant metabolites" formed from plant protection products in ground and drinking water.  

PubMed

Limits for tolerable concentrations of ground water metabolites ("non-relevant metabolites" without targeted toxicities and specific classification and labeling) derived from active ingredients (AI) of plant protection products (PPPs) are discussed in the European Union. Risk assessments for "non-relevant metabolites" need to be performed when concentrations are above 0.75 microg/L. Since oral uptake is the only relevant exposure pathway for "non-relevant metabolites", risk assessment approaches as used for other chemicals with predominantly oral exposure in humans are applicable. The concept of "thresholds of toxicological concern" (TTC) defines tolerable dietary intakes for chemicals without toxicity data and is widely applied to chemicals present in food in low concentrations such as flavorings. Based on a statistical evaluation of the results of many toxicity studies and considerations of chemical structures, the TTC concept derives a maximum daily oral intake without concern of 90 microg/person/day for non-genotoxic chemicals, even for those with appreciable toxicity. When using the typical exposure assessment for drinking water contaminants (consumption of 2L of drinking water/person/day, allocation of 10% of the tolerable daily intake to drinking water), a TTC-based upper concentration limit of 4.5 microg/L for "non-relevant metabolites" in ground/drinking water is delineated. In the present publication it has been evaluated, whether this value would cover all relevant toxicities (repeated dose, reproductive and developmental, and immune effects). Taking into account, that after evaluation of specific reproduction toxicity data from chemicals and pharmaceuticals, a value of 1 microg/kgbw/day has been assessed as to cover developmental and reproduction toxicity, a TTC value of 60 microg/person/day was assessed as to represent a safe value. Based on these reasonable worst case assumptions, a TTC-derived threshold of 3 microg/L in drinking water is derived. When a non-relevant metabolite is present in concentration below 3 microg/L, animal testing for toxicity is not considered necessary for a compound-specific risk assessment since the application of the TTC covers all relevant toxicities to be considered in such assessment and any health risk resulting from these exposures is very low. PMID:19766683

Melching-Kollmuss, Stephanie; Dekant, Wolfgang; Kalberlah, Fritz

2009-09-18

420

10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by the Corporation, a...

2013-01-01

421

Sécurité virale des produits dérivés du plasma  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Par exemple, certaines étapes de précipitation et de séparation dans le processus de fabrication des produits dérivés du plasma et des produits ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/internationalactivities

422

Aktuelle Entwicklungen des Wettbewerbs der Gesellschaftsrechte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die drei causes célèbres des EuGH zur Niederlassungsfreiheit der Gesellschaften, Centros, Überseering und Inspire Art , haben eine Flut von Anmerkungen, Besprechungsaufsätzen und Monographien hervorgebracht, die den Beginn des Wettbewerbs der Gesellschaftsrechtsordnungen\\

Eva-Maria Kieninger

423

Les attitudes des ménages : leur signification  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Les attitudes des ménages : leur signification - Instrument privilégié d'analyse conjoncturelle, l'enquête de l'INSEE sur les « attitudes et intentions d'achats des particuliers» cherche également à connaître l'opinion des ménages sur la situation économique française récente et future. A la lumière d'une expérience de plus de quinze années, l'auteur, rapprochant l'évolution observée des opinions émises, s'interroge sur la

Philippe lHardy

1976-01-01

424

Ephémérides astronomiques 2011 : Connaissance des Temps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cet ouvrage d'éphémérides destiné aux astronomes, aux professeurs et aux étudiants est divisé en deux parties. Il donne les positions des astres pour l'année 2011. Le livre présente l'état actuel des connaissances sur les bases et les explications de calculs des éphémérides puis donne sous forme d'éphémérides tabulées les données permettant d'obtenir la position des astres à observer. En utilisant le CD-ROM, l'utilisateur peut préparer ses observations.

Bureau Des Longitudes (Bdl); Institut de Mécanique Céleste Et de Calcul Des Ephémérides (Imcce); Observatoire de Paris

2011-12-01

425

La Dyssymétrie des Régimes Pluviaux au Nord et au sud des Alpes Suisses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé L'indice de similitude calculé entre une station alpine, Sion en Valais, et quelques localités situées de part et d'autre des Alpes met en évidence la dissemblance des régimes pluviaux des deux versants. Au Nord, les indices quasi normaux reflètent la distribution homogène des pluies en plages de grandes dimensions; au Sud, les indices trop faibles trahissent l'irrégularité des zones

Max Bouët

1951-01-01

426

NaCl and ethylene-dependent cadaverine accumulation and its possible protective role in the adaptation of the common ice plant to salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of free polyamines is very important for plant resistance to abiotic stresses. In this study, a putative defensive role of free cadaverine (Cad) in the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. (the common ice plant) was studied. Under salinity conditions (500mM NaCl), Cad accumulation was accompanied by enhanced ethylene (Eth) production in true leaves of the common ice plants. The

Vladimir Kuznetsov; Marina Shorina; Evgenia Aronova; Larisa Stetsenko; Viktor Rakitin; Nina Shevyakova

2007-01-01

427

L'astronomie des Anciens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quelle que soit la civilisation à laquelle il appartient, l'être humain cherche dans le ciel des réponses aux questions qu'il se pose sur son origine, son avenir et sa finalité. Le premier mérite de ce livre est de nous rappeler que l'astronomie a commencé ainsi à travers les mythes célestes imaginés par les Anciens pour expliquer l'ordre du monde et la place qu'ils y occupaient. Mais les savoirs astronomiques passés étaient loin d'être négligeables et certainement pas limités aux seuls travaux des Grecs : c'est ce que l'auteur montre à travers une passionnante enquête, de Stonehenge à Gizeh en passant par Pékin et Mexico, fondée sur l'étude des monuments anciens et des sources écrites encore accessibles. Les tablettes mésopotamiennes, les annales chinoises, les chroniques médiévales, etc. sont en outre d'une singulière utilité pour les astronomes modernes : comment sinon remonter aux variations de la durée du jour au cours des siècles, ou percer la nature de l'explosion qui a frappé tant d'observateurs en 1054 ? Ce livre offre un voyage magnifiquement illustré à travers les âges, entre astronomie et archéologie.

Nazé, Yaël

2009-04-01

428

Safeguarding American Plant Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1998, the National Plant Board (NPB) reviewed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)'s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) efforts to safeguard American agriculture and plant resources. The NPB review is presented here in full (in .pdf format).

429

Une théorie des années quatre-vingt  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Les années quatre-vingt présentent, pour les analyses macroéconomiques habituelles, des énigmes majeures, dont, aux premiers rangs, la persistance d'un chômage élevé en Europe et la désynchronisation des conjonctures américaine et européennes pendant la première moitié de la décennie. Des «faits» nouveaux, qui distinguent la période considérée sont mal pris en compte par les modèles usuels. Cet article propose une

Jacques Le Cacheux; Jean-Paul Fitoussi

1989-01-01

430

Le contrôle des réseaux de franchise  

Microsoft Academic Search

La problématique du contrôle des réseaux de franchise doit prendre en compte la nature spécifique de ce type de réseau, les motivations et les comportements du franchiseur et des franchisés et les modalités techniques du contrôle mis en oeuvre. Une analyse du contrôle au sein des réseaux de franchise est développée mettant en évidence ses diverses modalités et leur évolution

Catherine Goullet; François Meyssonnier

2009-01-01

431

Le contrôle des réseaux de franchise  

Microsoft Academic Search

La problématique du contrôle des réseaux de franchise est dégagée, prenant en compte la nature spécifique de ce type de réseau, les motivations et les comportements du franchiseur et des franchisés et les différentes dimensions du contrôle mis en oeuvre. Une analyse du contrôle au sein des réseaux de franchise est développée mettant en évidence ses diverses modalités et leur

Catherine Goullet; François Meyssonnier

2009-01-01

432

Le piratage des biens d'information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Où se situe le juste milieu entre les propos alarmistes des uns (“le piratage tue la production musicale!”) et les appels libertaires des autres (“l'accès à toute information doit être libre!”) ? Une analyse économique simple nous permet de mieux comprendre les enjeux et de dégager des pistes de réflexion pour l'avenir.

Paul Belleflamme

2003-01-01

433

Diffusion et usage des comptes de chèques  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Actuellement, les dépôts à vue représentent en France les deux tiers des disponibilités monétaires alors qu'ils en constituaient seulement la moitié en 1950 et environ le tiers en 1938. . Ces dépôts à vue proviennent, pour une grande part, des ménages. Quelles sont les caractéristiques des titulaires de compte-chèque ? . Une enquête par sondage réalisée en 1967 (8

André Villeneuve

1969-01-01

434

Chronique des tendances de la société française  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Cette chronique couvre quatre domaines : • Le mouvement d'égalisation des revenus des ménages a marqué les années 1965- 1979 et a contribué à la prépondérance de la classe moyenne durant ces années. Depuis, différentes enquêtes permettent de constater que l'échelle des revenus se distend de nouveau, amenant de plus en plus de ménages à la lisière de la

Louis Dirn

1997-01-01

435

PERFORMANCE COMPTABLE ET GESTION DES RESULTATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'étude porte sur la gestion des résultats afin d'éviter les pertes et les baisses de résultats. L'analyse des distributions de résultats et de variation des résultats, et la mise en oeuvre de tests complémentaires, permettent de vérifier les hypothèses sur un échantillon de 294 entreprises françaises cotées.

Yves Mard

2003-01-01

436

L'INFLUENCE SUR LA REMUNERATION DES DIRIGEANTS DES LIENS HUMAINS ENTRE LES ADMINISTRATEURS DES SOCIETES COTEES : UNE ANALYSE DU RESEAU DES SOCIETES COTEES AU SBF 250  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cet article a pour objectif d'étudier la structure des liens humains entre les conseils d'administration et son influence sur la rémunération incitative du premier dirigeant. Un échantillon de 181 dirigeants des sociétés du SBF 250 entre 2002 et 2005 est retenu. Nos résultats montrent que la position du conseil dans le réseau des liens, appréhendée par la centralité de proximité,

Ali Dardour

2009-01-01

437

Qualité environnementale des bâtiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental protection is today a reality which is being progressively imposed on actors of the construction process. The environmental quality of a building will increasingly become an additional quality criterion. It corresponds to the properties of the building to satisfy environmental requirements. These requirements concern reduced using of resources, reduced pollution and a satisfied relation of the building with its

Gilbert Achard; Youssef Diab; Catherine Buhé; Nadège Chatagnon

1998-01-01

438

Ermittlung praxisbezogener Transferfaktoren fuer (sup 137)Cs und (sup 90)Sr aus dem Fallout des Reaktorunfalles in Tschernobyl. (Investigations on (sup 137)Cs and (sup 90)Sr soil-to-plant transfer from soils contaminated by Chernobyl fallout).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiological models use transfer factors to describe the movement of radionuclides in ecosystems. One of the most important factors is the soil-to-plant transfer value: TF = (Bq/kg plant-fresh weight)/(Bq/kg soil-dry weight). In the present paper results ...

C. Artner M. H. Gerzabek O. Horak K. Muech

1991-01-01

439

Coordinating overcurrent protection devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution, substation, and plant engineers can benefit from using an overcurrent protection program in commercial, industrial, and utility applications to aid in clearing temporary faults and isolating permanent faults. In the time it normally takes to check one coordination scheme manually, dozens of alternatives can be evaluated using a graphics-oriented program, because the engineer receives immediate feedback for quick decision-making.

M. St. John; A. Borgnino

1996-01-01

440

Justification in Radiation Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the concept of Justification has increasingly come to the fore of the minds of legislators, users of radioactive materials and radiation protection specialists alike. Perhaps the most well known manifestation of this was the lengthy debate, ending in judicial review, about the Justification for the operation of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp) at Sellafield and, more

David Owen

1999-01-01

441

40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

2009-07-01

442

40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

2010-07-01

443

The conserved role of FtsH11 protease in protection of photosynthetic system from high temperature stress in higher plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As sessile organisms, plants employ multiple mechanisms to cope with seasonal and daily temperature fluctuations associated with their habitats. AtFtsH11 protease gene was identified via map-based cloning as essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate high temperatures. There are 12 predi...

444

10 CFR 50.48 - Fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Appendix R to this part do not apply to nuclear power plants licensed to operate before...reflected in NRC fire protection safety evaluation reports issued before...features covered by Appendix R, all nuclear power plants licensed to operate...

2013-01-01

445

Toxicity assessment strategies, data requirements, and risk assessment approaches to derive health based guidance values for non-relevant metabolites of plant protection products.  

PubMed

In Europe, limits for tolerable concentrations of "non-relevant metabolites" for active ingredients (AI) of plant protection products in drinking water between 0.1 and 10 microg/L are discussed depending on the toxicological information available. "Non-relevant metabolites" are degradation products of AIs, which do not or only partially retain the targeted toxicities of AIs. For "non-relevant metabolites" without genotoxicity (to be confirmed by testing in vitro), the application of the concept of "thresholds of toxicological concern" results in a health-based drinking water limit of 4.5 microg/L even for Cramer class III compounds, using the TTC threshold of 90 microg/person/day (divided by 10 and 2). Taking into account the thresholds derived from two reproduction toxicity data bases a drinking water limit of 3.0 microg/L is proposed. Therefore, for "non-relevant metabolites" whose drinking water concentration is below 3.0 microg/L, no toxicity testing is necessary. This work develops a toxicity assessment strategy as a basis to delineate health-based limits for "non-relevant metabolites" in ground and drinking water. Toxicological testing is recommended to investigate, whether the metabolites are relevant or not, based on the hazard properties of the parent AIs, as outlined in the SANCO Guidance document. Also, genotoxicity testing of the water metabolites is clearly recommended. In this publication, tiered testing strategies are proposed for non-relevant metabolites, when drinking water concentrations >3.0 microg/L will occur. Conclusions based on structure-activity relationships and the detailed toxicity database on the parent AI should be included. When testing in animals is required for risk assessment, key aspects are studies along OECD-testing guidelines with "enhanced" study designs addressing additional endpoints such as reproductive toxicity and a developmental screening test to derive health-based tolerable drinking water limits with a limited number of animals. The testing strategies are similar to those used in the initial hazard assessment of high production volume (HPV) chemicals. For "non-relevant metabolites" which are also formed as products of the biotransformation of the parent AI in mammals, the proposed toxicity testing strategies uses the repeat-dose oral toxicity study combined with a reproductive/developmental screening as outlined in OECD test guidelines 407 and 422 with integration of determination of hormonal activities. For "non-relevant metabolites" not formed during biotransformation of the AI in mammals, the strategy relies on an "enhanced" 90-day oral study covering additional endpoints regarding hormonal effects and male and female fertility in combination with a prenatal developmental toxicity study (OECD test guideline 414). The integration of the results of these studies into the risk assessment process applies large minimal margins of exposure (MOEs) to compensate for the shorter duration of the studies. The results of the targeted toxicity testing will provide a science basis for setting tolerable drinking water limits for "non-relevant metabolites" based on their toxicology. Based on the recommendations given in the SANCO guidance document and the work described in this and the accompanying paper, a concise re-evaluation of the Guidance document is proposed. PMID:19883711

Dekant, Wolfgang; Melching-Kollmuss, Stephanie; Kalberlah, Fritz

2009-10-31

446

Vascular protection by dietary polyphenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of polyphenol-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables, and beverages derived from plants, such as cocoa, red wine and tea, may represent a beneficial diet in terms of cardiovascular protection. Indeed, epidemiological studies demonstrate a significant inverse correlation between polyphenol consumption and cardiovascular risk. Among the numerous plausible mechanisms by which polyphenols may confer cardiovascular protection, improvement of the

Jean-Claude Stoclet; Thierry Chataigneau; Mamadou Ndiaye; Min-Ho Oak; Jasser El Bedoui; Marta Chataigneau; Valérie B. Schini-Kerth

2004-01-01

447

Application des methodes d'interrogation neutronique active a l'analyse en ligne dans les usines de retraitement. (Application of active neutronic interrogation method to the line analysis in reprocessing plant).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a reprocessing plant of irradiated spent fuels, the knowledge in real time (line analysis) of uranium and plutonium quantities present in solutions is an extremely important parameter to control the proceeding and for the apparatus safety. The active n...

C. Passard

1993-01-01

448

Transport quantique dans des nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum transport in nanostructures This work is devoted to the design, fabrication and magnetotransport investigations of mesoscopic devices. The sample are obtain by e-beam lithography and the measurements are performed at low temperature in a dilution refrigerator in the presence of a magnetic field. We have used MBE grown AlGaAs/GaAs heterojonctions as starting material to fabricate a bipartite tiling of rhombus called mathcal{T}3 lattice. We observe for the first time large amplitude h/e oscillations in this network as compared to the one measured in square lattices of similar size. These oscillations are the signature of a recently predited localization phenomenon induced by Aharonov-Bohm interferences on this peculiar topology. For particular values of the magnetic field the propagation of the electron wave function is bounded in a small number of cells, called Aharonov-Bohm cages. More strikingly, at high magnetic field, h/2e oscillations appear whose amplitude can be much higher than the fundamental period. Their temperature dependence is similar to that of the h/e signal. These observations withdraw a simple interpretation in terms of harmonics generation. The origin of this phenomenon is still unclear and needs more investigations. The influence electrical width of the wire defining the network and so the rule of the number of channels can be studied using a gate deposited over the lattice. In particular we have measured the amplitude dependence of the h/e and h/2e signal versus the gate voltage. Ce travail est consacré à la réalisation d'échantillons mésoscopiques à partir de la lithographie électronique ainsi qu'à leur caractérisation à très basse température en magnétotransport. Nous avons pour cela exploité le gaz bidimensionnel d'électrons situé à l'interface d'une hétérojonction AlGaAs/GaAs pour réaliser un réseau de boucle d'une géométrie particulière baptisée la géométrie mathcal{T}3. Nous avons observé sur cette structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

Naud, C.

2002-09-01

449

Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier thématique sur un sujet d'actulaité, pour cette année : "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après".

Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

2005-07-01

450

Proprietes optiques et mecanismes de relaxation de l'energie des porteurs dans des boites quantiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'objet de ce doctorat est l'etude des proprietes optiques, et en particulier de la relaxation de l'energie des porteurs dans des structures a boites quantiques d'InAs/GaAs. Le travail experimental a ete realise grace aux techniques de photoluminescence (PL) continue et de photoluminescence resolue dans le temps, sur des echantillons comprenant un tres grand nombre de boites. A l'aide des mesures experimentales effectuees sur une serie d'echantillons de boites quantiques interdiffusees a divers degres, et des calculs variationnels de leurs etats electroniques, nous avons demontre clairement que la largeur des raies d'emission de la PL, qui est due aux inhomogeneites dans l'ensemble de boites etudie, peut etre attribuee principalement a des fluctuations de la hauteur des boites. D'autre part, la determination des temps de montee et de decroissance des intensites de photoluminescence a montre l'importance de certains mecanismes de transport et de relaxation, en fonction des conditions experimentales. En effet, les temps caracteristiques de la capture, de la relaxation interniveaux et de la recombinaison des porteurs varient significativement, selon le mecanisme predominant, en fonction de la temperature, de la densite d'excitation et de la separation interniveaux quantiques. Ainsi, les principaux mecanismes mis en evidence sont: la localisation des porteurs dans les barrieres a basse temperature dans le cas des echantillons interdiffuses, les collisions de type Auger sous forte excitation, les processus multiphononiques et la re-emission thermique a haute temperature. Un modele de relaxation, base sur les equations d'evolution de la population de porteurs de chaque niveau quantique, a aussi ete developpe pour mieux identifier l'effet de chacun des principaux mecanismes de relaxation des porteurs considere separement. Ces simulations ont permis une analyse plus approfondie du role de ces mecanismes. Ainsi, nous avons mis en evidence l'importance de la localisation des porteurs dans la couche de mouillage, ainsi que l'importance des mecanismes de collisions Auger lors de la capture, la capture et la relaxation interniveaux des porteurs vers tous les niveaux d'energie inferieure simultanement. Finalement, les resultats experimentaux montrent que la relaxation de l'energie des porteurs est beaucoup plus rapide que cela avait ete predit initialement par la theorie du "phonon bottleneck". Nos resultats indiquent que l'intensite lumineuse emise par les boites est regie principalement par le taux de capture/relaxation interniveaux des porteurs dans les boites. Mais elle est limitee par la re-emission thermique des porteurs hors des boites, a haute temperature. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Perret, Nathalie Emmanuelle

451

Therapeutic use of plants by local communities in and around Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary: implications for protected area management in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional systems of medicine have become a topic of global importance recently. Increased commercialization of economically\\u000a important medicinal plants has resulted in overharvesting, threatening their survival. The present study was carried out to\\u000a document the indigenous uses of medicinal plants by the local communities in and around Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary, Bangladesh.\\u000a Data collection was predominantly qualitative recording the species use,

Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury; Masao Koike

2010-01-01

452

Slippery ant-plants and skilful climbers: selection and protection of specific ant partners by epicuticular wax blooms in Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many ant-plant species of the genus Macaranga in South-East Asia, conspicuous blooms of epicuticular wax crystals cover the stem surface. We found that many ant species\\u000a were unable to walk on these surfaces. Only the specific ant partners of glaucous Macaranga host plants were capable of moving on the slippery stems without difficulty. Therefore, the epicuticular coatings of Macaranga

Walter Federle; Ulrich Maschwitz; Brigitte Fiala; Markus Riederer; B. Hölldobler

1997-01-01

453

The protective ability of Mediterranean dietary plants against the oxidative damage: The role of radical oxygen species in inflammation and the polyphenol, flavonoid and sterol contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten hydroalcoholic extracts of edible plants from the Calabria region (Italy) were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and antiradical properties and in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity. All the extracts had radical-scavenging and\\/or antioxidant properties, the most active plants being hawkweed oxtongue and viper’s bugloss. The best free radical (DPPH·)-scavenging activity was found in hawkweed oxtongue and chicory leaves extracts

Filomena Conforti; Silvio Sosa; Mariangela Marrelli; Federica Menichini; Giancarlo A. Statti; Dimitar Uzunov; Aurelia Tubaro; Francesco Menichini

2009-01-01