Sample records for protection des plantes

  1. Pathologie vgtale Maladies des plantes dues Rhizoctonia

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pathologie végétale Maladies des plantes dues à Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn) : stratégie et techniques; Plant diseases induced by Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) : strategy and methods of study. Results profession agricole demandant de résoudre des problèmes posés par Rhizoctonia solani ont notablement augmenté

  2. NOTE TECHNIQUE. PROTECTION DU BOIS DES RUCHES.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Apiculture, ]B1ontfa veto ir&dquo; PARTIE. I. - INTRODUCTION L'Apiculteur a longtemps logé ses aheilles dans. Depuis la naissance de l'apiculture moderne utilisant la ruche en bois, à cadres mobiles, le problème de protection du bois. C'est pourquoi la Station expéri- mentale d'Apiculture de Montfavet a entrepris des

  3. Chitosan in Plant Protection

    PubMed Central

    El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Adam, Lorne R.; El Hadrami, Ismail; Daayf, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR) proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:20479963

  4. Les plantes du mois Anthyllide des montagnes

    E-print Network

    Jeanjean, Louis

    Plante commune des forêts claires, lisières. Attention : Les baies noires, luisantes, très tentantes pour les enfants sont très toxiques (3 à 5 baies sont mortelles pour un enfant) Notons sur le pied du

  5. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  6. Pinellas Plant groundwater protection management program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-10-01

    The Groundwater Protection Management Program (GPMP) Plan outlines the program in place at the Pinellas Plant to detect and monitor contaminated groundwater, which may have become contaminated by materials and waste.

  7. [Evaluation of plant protectants against pest insects].

    PubMed

    Pang, X; Zhang, M; Hou, Y; Jiao, Y; Cen, Y

    2000-02-01

    An interference index of population control (IIPC) was constructed for investigating the complex effects of plant protectants, including the effects of repelling insect pests away from the plant, deterring the egg laying of adults and the continuation of feeding, and causing death by toxicity. At the same time, indicated by IIPC, the alcohol extracts of some common plants, such as Eucalytus rubusta, Wedelia chinensis etc. and the neem oil gave very good results to protect the plant against Plutella xylostella. The D-C-Tron NR Petroleum Spray Oil (CALTEX) also gave an excellent effect to protect citrus against red mite. All the experiments show the important role of the repellent effect on the pests. PMID:11766564

  8. PROTECTION DES VERRES D'OPTIQUE ET MIROIRS ALUMINIS Par Mlle FLAMANT.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PROTECTION DES VERRES D'OPTIQUE ET MIROIRS ALUMINIÉS Par Mlle FLAMANT. Summary.2014 The object faits pour essayer de protéger les verres très altérables et les miroirs aluminiés, des attaques ou corrosions provoquées par l'air extérieur, et surtout l'air marin. 1. Protection des verres. --- Nous avons

  9. Amlioration des plantes Polymorphisme de l'? amylase chez le pcher.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Amélioration des plantes Polymorphisme de l'? amylase chez le pêcher. Étude génétique R Monet-de-la-Maye, France (Reçu le 16 octobre 1990; accepté le 13 mars 1991) Résumé — L'a amylase a été étudiée chez'? amylase et celui responsable de la forme des fleurs; en revanche le locus de l'a amylase est indépendant

  10. DEUX ANNES D'EXPRIMENTATION SUR LA PROTECTION DU BOIS DES RUCHES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Station expérimentale d'apiculture, Montfavet. 1. - Introduction Les méthodes de protection des bois des vents dominants. Ces ruches ne suivent pas la transhumance habituelle de l'apiculture provençale

  11. Amlioration des plantes Evolution des caractristiques de la graine

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'évolution de l'humidité du capitule et des graines de 25 variétés de tournesol (Helianthus annuus L.), de la of 25 sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) varieties were followed from flowering to maturity, the oil

  12. Transgenic plants protected from insect attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaeck, Mark; Reynaerts, Arlette; Höfte, Herman; Jansens, Stefan; de Beuckeleer, Marc; Dean, Caroline; Zabeau, Marc; Montagu, Marc Van; Leemans, Jan

    1987-07-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces proteins which are specifically toxic to a variety of insect species. Modified genes have been derived from bt2, a toxin gene cloned from one Bacillus strain. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes synthesize insecticidal proteins which protect them from feeding damage by larvae of the tobacco hornworm.

  13. Transgenic plants protected from insect attack

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Vaeck; Arlette Reynaerts; Herman Höfte; Stefan Jansens; Marc de Beuckeleer; Caroline Dean; Marc Zabeau; Marc Van Montagu; Jan Leemans

    1987-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces proteins which are specifically toxic to a variety of insect species. Modified genes have been derived from bt2, a toxin gene cloned from one Bacillus strain. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes synthesize insecticidal proteins which protect them from feeding damage by larvae of the tobacco hornworm.

  14. Pinellas Plant groundwater protection management program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-10-01

    The objectives of the Groundwater Protection Management Program (GPMP) are to establish that current operations and transition of the facility are not affecting groundwater in a way that creates unacceptable risks to human health and safety, or to the environment, and that the plant is working to address any such risks previously identified.

  15. Protection remontante des communications multicast Mohand Yazid SAIDI, Bernard COUSIN et Mikls MOLNR

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Protection remontante des communications multicast Mohand Yazid SAIDI, Bernard COUSIN et Miklós Beaulieu 35042 Rennes, France msaidi@irisa.fr, bcousin@irisa.fr, molnar@irisa.fr Résumé : La protection des de protection multicast proactive ont été développées. Ces techniques permettent de maintenir les

  16. LA PROTECTION DES VARITS VGTALES EN AFRIQUE DE L'OUEST ET CENTRALE

    E-print Network

    Spino, Claude

    ARTICLE LA PROTECTION DES VARIÉTÉS VÉGÉTALES EN AFRIQUE DE L'OUEST ET CENTRALE par Konstantia intellectuelle sont analysés comme une possibilité d'instrument juridique pour la protection de ces méthodes conventionnels de protection juridique ne peuvent pas nécessairement satisfaire les besoins des gens qui tentent

  17. Wind Plant Collector System Fault Protection and Coordination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bradt; M. R. Behnke; W. G. Bloethe; C. Brooks; E H Camm; W. Dilling; B. Goltz; J. Li; J. Niemira; K. Nuckles; J. Patino; M Reza; B. Richardson; N. Samaan; Jens Schoene; Travis M Smith; Isabelle B Snyder; Michael R Starke; R. Walling; G. Zahalka

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the most important protection and coordination considerations for wind power plants. Short-circuit characteristics of both aggregate wind plant and individual wind turbine genera- tors, as well as general interconnection protection requirements are discussed. Many factors such as security, reliability, and safety are considered for proper conservative protection of the wind power plant and individual

  18. Wind Plant Collector System Fault Protection and Coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Bradt, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Behnke, M. R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bloethe, W.G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Brooks, C. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Camm, E H [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Dilling, W. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Goltz, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Li, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Niemira, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Nuckles, K. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Patino, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Reza, M [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Richardson, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Samaan, N. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Schoene, Jens [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Smith, Travis M [ORNL; Snyder, Isabelle B [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Walling, R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Zahalka, G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the most important protection and coordination considerations for wind power plants. Short-circuit characteristics of both aggregate wind plant and individual wind turbine genera- tors, as well as general interconnection protection requirements are discussed. Many factors such as security, reliability, and safety are considered for proper conservative protection of the wind power plant and individual turbines.

  19. Strategies for viral cross protection in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changyong; Zhou, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Viral cross protection in plants is known as an acquired immunity phenomenon, where a mild virus isolate/strain can protect plants against economic damage caused by a severe challenge strain/isolate of the same virus. Mild strain cross protection (MSCP) has been used extensively to control losses caused by a few major virus diseases in some parts of the world. So far, none of the many proposed mechanisms can fully explain the intact process of MSCP. In fact, it may be that different mechanisms are involved in MSCP against different viruses, even when different research approaches are used for the same virus, different mechanisms could be proposed. The molecular detail of MSCP still remains unclear, although several lines of evidence imply that the resistance is protein and/or RNA mediated. Some data to date have shown that a minimum time (a few days to less than a month) is required for the mild virus strain to establish MSCP. To investigate interference among virus strains and the plant host at an early stage of MSCP at a subcellular level, we developed a rapid micro-extraction method for the preparation of total nucleic acid (TNA), combined with other molecular methods, to monitor the interaction of virus strains at short time intervals in young plants. This method was initially developed to further study the mechanism of MSCP against Citrus tristeza virus, but has potentially widespread application to other viruses after having been efficiently used to extract over 50,000 TNA samples of citrus viruses, viroids, and bacteria. PMID:22678573

  20. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION...

  1. Les relations plantes-insectes phytophages chez les femelles pondeuses : le rle des stimulus chi-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    comportement de ponte ; - la découverte de l'action des allomones des plantes-non-hôtes et aussi des plantes avec les signaux chimiques à toutes les étapes du comportement de ponte ; - les mécanismes chimiques et optiques mis en œuvre pour empêcher les pontes multiples sur un hôte et évi- ter la compétition

  2. U.S. Plant Variety Protection: Sound and Fury...?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Janis; Jay P. Kesan

    2002-01-01

    This Article offers a critical reassessment of U.S. approaches to intellectual property protection for plant innovation. Three developments make this reassessment timely. First, the Supreme Court has finally confirmed that utility patent claims to plants and seeds satisfy the 35 U.S.C. Section 101 subject matter eligibility requirement. Plant innovation in the United States is now subject to utility patent protection,

  3. Fires: what plant locations should we really protect

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A fire protection analysis technique was developed from earlier work involving the protection of nuclear power plants against acts of sabotage. Characteristics unique to fire phenomena were used to modify the sabotage analysis methodology. These characteristics include the effects of fuel loads, ventilation rates, heat loss areas, barrier ratings, and plant locations. The new fire analysis technique was applied to an example nuclear power plant having 85 different plant areas. It was found that some safety and nonsafety areas were both highly vulnerable to fire spread and important to overall safety, while other areas were found to be of marginal importance to fire safety.

  4. 48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...The Contractor shall also provide whatever additional safeguards are necessary to protect the plant and work in process from espionage, sabotage, and enemy action. (1) The Government shall reimburse the Contractor for that portion of the costs of...

  5. 48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...The Contractor shall also provide whatever additional safeguards are necessary to protect the plant and work in process from espionage, sabotage, and enemy action. (1) The Government shall reimburse the Contractor for that portion of the costs of...

  6. 48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...The Contractor shall also provide whatever additional safeguards are necessary to protect the plant and work in process from espionage, sabotage, and enemy action. (1) The Government shall reimburse the Contractor for that portion of the costs of...

  7. 48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...The Contractor shall also provide whatever additional safeguards are necessary to protect the plant and work in process from espionage, sabotage, and enemy action. (1) The Government shall reimburse the Contractor for that portion of the costs of...

  8. 48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...The Contractor shall also provide whatever additional safeguards are necessary to protect the plant and work in process from espionage, sabotage, and enemy action. (1) The Government shall reimburse the Contractor for that portion of the costs of...

  9. Public Lakes, Private Lakeshore: Modeling Protection of Native Aquatic Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey ( n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  10. Public lakes, private lakeshore: modeling protection of native aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Susan A; Fulton, David C

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey (n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property. PMID:23609308

  11. Wind Power Plant Grounding, Overvoltage Protection, and Insulation Coordination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E H Camm; M. R. Behnke; O. Bolado; M. Bollen; M. Bradt; C. Brooks; W. Dilling; M. Edds; W. J. Hejdak; D. Houseman; S. Klein; Fangxing Li; J. Li; P. Maibach; T. Nicolai; S. V. Pasupulati; J. Patino; N. Samaan; S. Saylors; T. Siebert; Travis M Smith; Michael R Starke; R. Walling

    2009-01-01

    Proper insulation coordination is critical to achieving expected life from wind plant equipment. The collector systems of large wind plants require the application of surge arresters to protect the equipment insulation from transient overvoltages. The application of surge arresters is constrained by maximum operating and temporary overvoltage levels. This paper provides a tutorial description of the process of selecting and

  12. Benefits of upgrading protection schemes for hydroelectric power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Wright; A. Kanagala; M. Sahni; W. J. Lee; R. Kenarangui; H. F. Threlkeld; M. A. Martinez

    2005-01-01

    The role played by various energy sources has undergone a sweeping change during the post-deregulation era in the power industry. In the wake of this transformation, hydroelectric power plants, primarily employed as peaking units, assume great opportunities in participating on load balancing and other ancillary services market. A comprehensive protection plan for hydroelectric power plants would be of great importance

  13. Wind Power Plant Grounding, Overvoltage Protection, and Insulation Coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Camm, E H [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Behnke, M. R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bolado, O. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bollen, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bradt, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Brooks, C. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Dilling, W. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Edds, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Hejdak, W. J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Houseman, D. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Klein, S. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Li, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Maibach, P. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Nicolai, T. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Pasupulati, S. V. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Patino, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Samaan, N. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Saylors, S. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Siebert, T. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Smith, Travis M [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Walling, R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group

    2009-01-01

    Proper insulation coordination is critical to achieving expected life from wind plant equipment. The collector systems of large wind plants require the application of surge arresters to protect the equipment insulation from transient overvoltages. The application of surge arresters is constrained by maximum operating and temporary overvoltage levels. This paper provides a tutorial description of the process of selecting and applying surge arresters to wind plant medium voltage collector systems, with emphasis on the peculiar properties of this application.

  14. Paris, mai 2014 LA MNAGERIE, LE ZOO DU JARDIN DES PLANTES

    E-print Network

    Paris, mai 2014 LA MÉNAGERIE, LE ZOO DU JARDIN DES PLANTES Exposition : les coulisses en bande dessinée Ouverte en 1794, la Ménagerie, zoo historique au coeur de Paris, fête ses 220 ans cette année ! À exposer le travail qu'elle a réalisé lors de son immersion au sein du zoo du Jardin des Plantes pour la

  15. Paris, le 24 janvier 2013 MNAGERIE, LE ZOO DU JARDIN DES PLANTES

    E-print Network

    Paris, le 24 janvier 2013 MÉNAGERIE, LE ZOO DU JARDIN DES PLANTES Après l'épisode neigeux, la Ménagerie rouvre ses portes au public et sonne la fin de la récréation pour les Orangs-outans ! Le zoo a du zoo de Twycross (Angleterre). Infos pratiques Accès par le Jardin des Plantes, 57 rue Cuvier. Ouvert

  16. Are you prepared Protecting your hydro plant from lightning strikes

    SciTech Connect

    Clemen, D.M. (Harza Engineering Co., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1993-12-01

    A properly designed lightning protection system requires a basic understanding of the physics of lightning and the means available to both divert and conduct lightning stroke energy around structures. Once the basics are understood, an engineer can using existing codes and standards to design an effective protection scheme for a given structure. A well-implemented scheme ensures that direct or close-proximity lightning strokes will not cause forced outages of hydroturbine-generator units. Lightning protection should be a part of the design of any new hydroelectric plant. If protection was not provided when the project was constructed, rehabilitation projects and activities offer opportunities to make corrections.

  17. Effectiveness of Protected Areas in Maintaining Plant Production

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun; Sun, Jinyu; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Given the central importance of protected area systems in local, regional and global conservation strategies, it is vital that there is a good understanding of their effectiveness in maintaining ecological functioning. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first such global analysis, focusing on plant production, a “supporting” ecosystem function necessary for multiple other ecosystem services. We use data on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of variation in plant production in the core, boundary and surroundings of more than 1000 large protected areas over a 25 year period. Forested protected areas were higher (or similar), and those non-forested were lower (or similar), in NDVI than their surrounding areas, and these differences have been sustained. The differences from surrounding areas have increased for evergreen broadleaf forests and barren grounds, decreased for grasslands, and remained similar for deciduous forests, woodlands, and shrublands, reflecting different pressures on those surroundings. These results are consistent with protected areas being effective both in the representation and maintenance of plant production. However, widespread overall increases in NDVI during the study period suggest that plant production within the core of non-forested protected areas has become higher than it was in the surroundings of those areas in 1982, highlighting that whilst the distinctiveness of protected areas from their surroundings has persisted the nature of that difference has changed. PMID:21552560

  18. 66 FR 37855 - Plant-Incorporated Protectants (Formerly Plant-Pesticides), Supplemental Proposal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-07-19

    ...plant-incorporated protectant poses a low probability of risk to the environment and is not...whether there is any difference in the probability of this occurring in plants in sexually...levels than crop plants, what is the probability that outcrossing of the ability...

  19. VACCINATION ANTI-K99 ET PROTECTION COLOSTRALE DES VEAUX INFECTS EXPRIMENTALEMENT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the colostrum of B41 vaccinated cows are infected with E. coli B44 (09: K30: H-K99, F41Vaccination multiplies K99 antibodies in colostrum by seven. In B44 infected calves, specific K99, F41 antibodies protect 62 % (Acres et al., 19771 des veaux âgés de moins de 4 ou 5 jours. Un colostrum de vaches ne

  20. Protection of goats against rinderpest by vaccination with attenuated peste des petits ruminants virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Diallo

    1995-01-01

    The ability of the attenuated peste des petits ruminants vaccine virus to protect small ruminants against virulent rinderpest virus was investigated. Out of four susceptible goats that were infected with the highly virulent Saudi strain of rinderpest virus by intranasal ioculation, three developed mild clinical signs of disease and infected susceptible in-contact goats and cattle with rinderpest virus. However, four

  1. Water protection in coke-plant design

    SciTech Connect

    G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  2. Regulatory Guidance for Lightning Protection in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Ewing, Paul D [ORNL; Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Antonescu, Christina E [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects.

  3. Regulatory guidance for lightning protection in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R. A.; Wilgen, J. B.; Ewing, P. D.; Korsah, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P. O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6007 (United States); Antonescu, C. E. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects. (authors)

  4. Protective barrier program: Test plan for plant community dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, M.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Chatters, J.C.; Link, S.O.; Brandt, C.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are jointly developing protective barriers for the long term isolation of low-level radioactive defense waste for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Arid Sites. Protective barriers have been identified as an integral part of the overall final disposal strategy for low-level defense waste at the Arid Sites (DOE 1987). At present, the conceptual design of the Arid Site protective barrier is a multilayer structure that will minimize waster infiltration into and through the underlying waste, and will prevent intrusion into the waste by plant roots, animals, and humans. This multilayer system consists of a fine soil layer overlying a coarse sand and/or gravel geo-filter overlying a layer of large cobbles or basalt riprap. Plants contribute several crucial functions to the overall performance of the protective barrier.Through transpiration, plants are capable of removing considerably more moisture from a given volume of soil than the physical process of evaporation alone. This becomes especially important after periods of excessive precipitation when the possibility of saturation of the textural break and leeching to the buried waste is increased. Plants also function in significantly reducing the amount of wind and water erosion that would be expected to occur on the barrier surface. In addition to these physical functions, plants also influence other biotic effects on barrier performance.

  5. Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment of Plant Protection Products: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michail Pavlis; Enda Cummins; Kevin McDonnell

    2010-01-01

    Plant protection products (PPPs) pose a serious dilemma; although their application contributes to the fight against poverty and diseases, at the same time these agrochemicals represent a significant public health threat. As part of Ireland's commitment to the Water Framework Directive (WFD), the country's groundwater sources and resources have to be properly monitored and specific standards in groundwater quality need

  6. AMLIORATION DES PLANTES Nouveau regard sur le comportement de l'as-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AMÉLIORATION DES PLANTES Nouveau regard sur le comportement de l'as- perge (Asparagus officinalis L'asperge (Asparagus officinalis L.), de la famille des Liliacées, est une espèce dioïque et pérenne dont la in vitro, griffe, arbre, marqueurs biochimiques, rujeunissement, pérennité. SUMMARY Asparagus cloning

  7. Degraded voltage protection for nuclear plant safety-related loads

    SciTech Connect

    Wisniewski, J.B.; Ashrafi, S.G.H.; Haddad, S.Z. (Sargent Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The safety loads at a nuclear power plant perform a function critical to plant safety. After the degraded system voltage events at the Millstone Nuclear Plant in 1976, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concluded that system design alone does not ensure the adequacy of the off-site power supply; therefore, an additional undervoltage relaying scheme should be installed on the system to protect against the possibility of degraded system voltage. Experience with the added protection system over the past several years revealed problems that sometimes caused undesired loss of the off-site power supply. These problems were discussed in NRC information notices 82-50, 84-02, and 86-100. Also, in Information Notice 91-29, the NRC discussed common deficiencies related to inadequate and incomplete analysis of the degraded voltage relay setpoints that were identified during recent electrical distribution system functional inspections. This paper outlines the analysis that should be performed to develop and support recommended degraded voltage protection setpoints and describes a new degraded voltage protection scheme that aims at enhancing the reliability and functionality of the safety systems.

  8. The Mars Plant Growth Experiment and Implications for Planetary Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Heather

    Plants are the ultimate and necessary solution for O2 production at a human base on Mars. Currently it is unknown if seeds can germinate on the Martian surface. The Mars Plant growth experiment (MPX) is a proposal for the first step in the development of a plant- based O2 production system by demonstrating plant germination and growth on the Martian surface. There is currently no planetary protection policy in place that covers plants on the Martian surface. We describe a planetary protection plan in compliance with NASA and COSPAR policy for a closed plant growth chamber on a Mars rover. We divide the plant growth chamber into two categories for planetary protection, the Outside: the outside of the chamber exposed to the Martian environment, and the Inside: the inside of the chamber which is sealed off from Mars atmosphere and contains the plant seeds and ancillary components for seed growth. We will treat outside surfaces of the chamber as other outside surfaces on the rover, wiped with a mixture of isopropyl alcohol and water as per Category IVb planetary protection requirements. All internal components of the MPX except the seeds and camera (including the water system, the plant growth stage and interior surface walls) will be sterilized by autoclave and subjected to sterilizing dry heat at a temperature of 125°C at an absolute humidity corresponding to a relative humidity of less than 25 percent referenced to the standard conditions of 0°C and 760 torr pressure. The seeds and internal compartments of the MPX in contact with the growth media will be assembled and tested to be free of viable microbes. MPX, once assembled, cannot survive Dry Heat Microbial Reduction. The camera with the radiation and CO2 sensors will be sealed in their own container and vented through HEPA filters. The seeds will be vernalized (microbe free) as per current Space Station methods described by Paul et al. 2001. Documentation of the lack of viable microbes on representative seeds from the same seed lot as used in the flight unit and lack of viable microbes in the interior of the MPX will be confirmed by the assay methods outlined in NASA HDBK 6022. In this method surfaces are swabbed and the cells collected on the swabs are extracted and then cultured following a standard protocol. All operations involving the manipulation of sterile items and sample processing shall be performed in laminar flow environments meeting Class 100 air cleanliness requirements of Federal Standard 209B. The entire MPX will be assembled in a sterile environment within a month of launch if possible, but could withstand an earlier assembly if required.

  9. Isoprene synthesis protects transgenic tobacco plants from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Claudia E; Possell, Malcolm; Cojocariu, Cristian I; Velikova, Violeta B; Laothawornkitkul, Jullada; Ryan, Annette; Mullineaux, Philip M; Nicholas Hewitt, C

    2009-05-01

    Isoprene emission represents a significant loss of carbon to those plant species that synthesize this highly volatile and reactive compound. As a tool for studying the role of isoprene in plant physiology and biochemistry, we developed transgenic tobacco plants capable of emitting isoprene in a similar manner to and at rates comparable to a naturally emitting species. Thermotolerance of photosynthesis against transient high-temperature episodes could only be observed in lines emitting high levels of isoprene; the effect was very mild and could only be identified over repetitive stress events. However, isoprene-emitting plants were highly resistant to ozone-induced oxidative damage compared with their non-emitting azygous controls. In ozone-treated plants, accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) was inhibited, and antioxidant levels were higher. Isoprene-emitting plants showed remarkably decreased foliar damage and higher rates of photosynthesis compared to non-emitting plants immediately following oxidative stress events. An inhibition of hydrogen peroxide accumulation in isoprene-emitting plants may stall the programmed cell death response which would otherwise lead to foliar necrosis. These results demonstrate that endogenously produced isoprene provides protection from oxidative damage. PMID:19183288

  10. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE), Draft Report for...

  11. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE).'' In response...

  12. The Plant Variety Protection Act: Information for Texas Small Grain Producers

    E-print Network

    Brown, Steve; Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    E-338 1/05 Gaylon D. Morgan, State Extension Small Grains Specialist Texas Cooperative Extension ? TAMU-System Steve Brown, Texas Foundation Seed, Lockett, TX T he Plant Variety Protection Act: Enforcement of the Plant Variety Protection Act...

  13. Protective action alternatives for accidents at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tingle, A.; Pratt, W.T.; McGuire, S.A.

    1987-06-01

    Protective action calculations have been performed for five different light water reactors (LWRs) and containment designs using high and low fission product releases for early and late containment failures for each plant. These fission product release estimates were obtained from studies performed for the recently published ''Reactor Risk Reference Document'' (NUREG-1150). Five protective actions were considered for the risks of exceeding various dose levels to the red marrow versus centerline distance from the plants using site-specific meteorology. The strategies considered were 4 hours of normal activity, basement sheltering, large building sheltering, evacuation at release, and evacuation 1 hour after release. The evacuations were computed using 10 mph evacuation speed for all sites. Additional calculations were performed for the dose contributions due to the cloud, ground, and inhalation pathways.

  14. Isoprene emission protects photosynthesis but reduces plant productivity during drought in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Annette C; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Possell, Malcolm; Vickers, Claudia E; Purnell, Anna; Mullineaux, Philip M; Davies, William J; Dodd, Ian C

    2014-01-01

    Isoprene protects the photosynthetic apparatus of isoprene-emitting plants from oxidative stress. The role of isoprene in the response of plants to drought is less clear. Water was withheld from transgenic isoprene-emitting and non-emitting tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, to examine: the response of isoprene emission to plant water deficit; a possible relationship between concentrations of the drought-induced phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and isoprene; and whether isoprene affected foliar reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation levels. Isoprene emission did not affect whole-plant water use, foliar ABA concentration or leaf water potential under water deficit. Compared with well-watered controls, droughted non-emitting plants significantly increased ROS content (31-46%) and lipid peroxidation (30-47%), concomitant with decreased operating and maximum efficiencies of photosystem II photochemistry and lower leaf and whole-plant water use efficiency (WUE). Droughted isoprene-emitting plants showed no increase in ROS content or lipid peroxidation relative to well-watered controls, despite isoprene emission decreasing before leaf wilting. Although isoprene emission protected the photosynthetic apparatus and enhanced leaf and whole-plant WUE, non-emitting plants had 8-24% more biomass under drought, implying that isoprene emission incurred a yield penalty. PMID:24102245

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-09-24

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

  16. Le desschement prcoce des tournesols. Dyna-mique de la colonisation des plantes par les

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    maturation des graines. Mots clés additionnels : Helianthus annuus L., Fusarium spp., Cylindrocarpon spp words : Helianthus annuus L., Fusarium spp., Cylindrocarpon spp., Pythium spp., roots, stems, critical

  17. AMELIORATION DES PLANTES Heredity of resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Ferrand Cedex SUMMARY Sunflower capitulum attacks resulting from infection by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.87 for natural attack and between 4.49 and 2.74 for the ascospore test. Some interaction effects were significant utilisable dans les programmes de sélection des lignées parentales aptes à donner des hybrides ayant un bon

  18. UNPALATABLE PLANTS PROTECT NEIGHBORS FROM GRAZING AND INCREASE PLANT COMMUNITY DIVERSITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ragan M. Callaway; David Kikodze; Marina Chiboshvili; Liana Khetsuriani

    2005-01-01

    2 Institute of Botany of the Georgian Academy of Sciences, 1 Kojori Road, 380007, Tbilisi, Georgia Abstract. Tasty plants can be protected from herbivores by unpalatable neighbors. We used experimental exclosures, removal of unpalatable species, and transplants of palatable and unpalatable species in subalpine meadows of the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia to study the effects of two unpalatable species on

  19. Modeling of plant protection and control systems for SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1980-06-01

    Plant protection and feedback control systems for dynamic simulation of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors are developed. The models include manual and automatic shutdown systems with provision for selective suppression of PPS signals. The control system models include (1) supervisory control, (2) the reactor power control and rod drive mechanism, (3) primary and intermediate flow-speed control and pump drive system, and (4) steam generator flow-speed control and valve/pump actuator dynamics. These models have been incorporated into the SSC code using a flexible programming approach, in order to accommodate some design dependent variations. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. When defense backfires: Detrimental effect of a plant’s protective trichomes on an insect beneficial to the plant

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Eisner, Maria; Hoebeke, E. Richard

    1998-01-01

    The plant Mentzelia pumila (family Loasaceae) has leaves and stems densely covered with tiny hooked trichomes. The structures entrap and kill insects and therefore are most probably protective. But they are also maladaptive in that they incapacitate a coccinellid beetle (Hippodamia convergens) that preys upon an aphid enemy (Macrosiphum mentzeliae) of the plant. The adaptive benefit provided by the trichomes is evidently offset by a cost. PMID:9539750

  1. Unified system simulation of relay protection and its settings system for hydropower plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nian Shi; Xianshan Li

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a unified relay protection system modeling method both for simulation and settings calculation of hydropower plant protection systems. In this method, the coordination of protection systems is described by the coordination matrix which is corresponding to the state of hydropower plant operation conditions and the topology of the electrical network. Based on coordination matrix, the settings calculation

  2. Optimization of plant protection products treatments against Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    La Torre, A; Gianferro, M; Spera, G

    2008-01-01

    Plant protection in conventional farming, and even more so in organic farming, requires careful and prudent action agro-environmental monitoring and epidemic risk assessment. Often, however, the plant protection products are distributed in a non-targeted way, even when reduced incidence of pests do not require any treatment. In order to optimize the treatments against downy mildew, multi-annual field trials, both in conventional and organic vineyards, have been carried out. In all farms were considered 3 thesis: 1 untreated control thesis (Test), in order to follow the coarse of infection, 1 standard farm reference thesis (St), where the treatments were carried out according to the usual farm procedures and 1 experimental thesis (X). Guideline EPPO/OEPP PP 1/31 (3) have been carried out. We monitored different environmental parameters capable to influence Plasmopora viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and De Toni development. In fact by a network of RTUs (Remote Terminal Units) distributed all over the vineyards transmitting every 15 minutes via radio or via GPRS to a centralized Data Base 12 environmental parameters: time, data, precipitation, soil temperature, solar radiation, wind direction, wind speed, atmospheric relative humidity, atmospheric temperature, leaf wetness, soil humidity to cm 20 and soil humidity to cm 40. In different phenological growth stages we carried out careful disease assessments on leaves and bunches to evaluate the onset and development of P. viticola. We have studied the downy mildew infections through monitoring the environmental parameters, knowledge of P. viticola biological cycle, the evaluation of cultivar sensibility, the agricultural production method and the area characteristics, to try to optimize the anti- downy mildew treatments. The achieved results have underlined the possibility to obtain a satisfactory protection against P. viticola by correct placing of treatments. In experimental thesis (X) the number of treatments was generally lower than the number made on the thesis standard (ST), with efficacy comparable if not better. This result is most evident in conventional farms where surveillance is less accurate because is can also use plant protection products with a curative action. The trial showed the possibility of obtaining real cost containment management and a lower environmental impact associated with reduced fungicidal treatments. PMID:19226753

  3. N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria protect plants against plant and human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Reyes, Casandra; Schenk, Sebastian T; Neumann, Christina; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of beneficial microorganisms for plant protection has a long history. Many rhizobia bacteria are able to influence the immune system of host plants by inducing resistance towards pathogenic microorganisms. In this report, we present a translational approach in which we demonstrate the resistance-inducing effect of Ensifer meliloti (Sinorhizobium meliloti) on crop plants that have a significant impact on the worldwide economy and on human nutrition. Ensifer meliloti is usually associated with root nodulation in legumes and nitrogen fixation. Here, we suggest that the ability of S. meliloti to induce resistance depends on the production of the quorum-sensing molecule, oxo-C14-HSL. The capacity to enhanced resistance provides a possibility to the use these beneficial bacteria in agriculture. Using the Arabidopsis-Salmonella model, we also demonstrate that the application of N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria could be a successful strategy to prevent plant-originated infections with human pathogens. PMID:25234390

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  5. Amlioration des plantes valuation de la rsistance au bayoud

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -mycologie, BP 533, Marrakech, Maroc (Reçu le 12 novembre 1992; accepté le 12 août 1994) Résumé — Pour Maroc et en Algérie (Pereau-Leroy, 1958 ; Djerbi, 1988). Le bayoud fait partie des maladies d qui a été privilégiée au Maroc pour lutter contre cette maladie. Les 6 cultivars marocains

  6. Amlioration des plantes Comportement au champ de 32 cultivars

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    bayoud : 25 années d'observations M Saaidi INRA Maroc, centre régional de Haouz-Présahara, BP 533 au Bayoud. Le degré de résistance des génotypes est traduit par le taux cumulé de mortalité au bout / bayoud / cultivar / résistance au champ Summary — Field behaviour of 32 date palm cultivars towards

  7. Protect nuclear plant fasteners from boric acid corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Moisidis, N.; Popescu, M.; Ratiu, M. (ABB Impell Corp. (US))

    1992-03-01

    Boric acid corrosion of pump and valve fasteners in pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants can be prevented by implementing appropriate fastener steel replacement and extended inspections to detect and correct the cause of leakage. In this paper a three-phase corrosion protection program based on system operability, outage-related accessibility, and cost of fastener replacement versus maintenance frequency increase is presented. A selection criteria for fastener material is also presented. Degradation or failure of pressure retaining fasteners at pumps and valves has been reported in several areas exposed to leakage of closures in long-term service. The resulting boric acid corrosion experienced in PWR systems is defined as an accelerated process produced when water evaporates from leaking coolant. The primary detrimental effect of boric acid leakage is wastage (or general dissolution corrosion) of low-alloy carbon steel fasteners.

  8. Immune responses to hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of peste des petits ruminants virus expressed in transgenic peanut plants in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abha Khandelwal; Gourapura. J. Renukaradhya; Malleshappa Rajasekhar; G. Lakshmi Sita; Melkote S. Shaila

    2011-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious disease of small ruminants caused by a morbillivirus, Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). The disease is prevalent in equatorial Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. A live attenuated vaccine is in use in some of the countries and has been shown to provide protection for at least

  9. Plant foods and plant-based diets: protective against childhood obesity?

    PubMed

    Newby, P K

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the epidemiologic literature examining the role of plant foods and plant-based diets in the prevention of childhood obesity. Available data suggest a protective effect of ready-to-eat cereal on risk of obesity, although prospective studies are still needed. Studies on fruit and vegetables; grains other than cereal; high-protein foods, including beans, legumes, and soy; fiber; and plant-based dietary patterns are inconsistent or generally null. The evidence base is limited, and most studies are fraught with methodologic limitations, including cross-sectional design, inadequate adjustment for potential confounders, and lack of consideration of reporting errors, stage of growth, and genetic influences. Well-designed prospective studies are needed. The lack of evidence showing an association between plant-based diets and childhood obesity does not mean that such diets should not be encouraged. Plant foods are highlighted in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and children do not meet the current recommendations for most plant foods. Although the advice to consume a plant-based, low-energy-dense diet is sound, ethical questions arise concerning the relatively high price of these diets in the United States and the way in which such diets are perceived in other parts of the world. Reducing the burden of childhood obesity, eliminating health disparities, and preventing the further spread of the disease around the globe will require not only policy interventions to ensure that plant foods are affordable and accessible to children of all income levels but also awareness of sociocultural norms that affect consumption. PMID:19321559

  10. Anti-Corrosion Protection for Structural Members and Buildings at Metallurgical Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. T. Strebkov

    2005-01-01

    This article describes anti-corrosion measures implemented by the contractor Ankor to protect the metal structures in existing shops at the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant. The method used to choose the coating system and technology is described along with the practical application of an effective method for protecting metal structures from corrosion. The anti-corrosion protection given natural draft cooling tower No. 1

  11. Amlioration des plantes Saponosides strodiques de l'aubergine

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ces substances sont discutés. solanacées - saponines - alcaloïdes - qualité organoleptique Summary — Saponins and steroidic alcaloids of Egg-plant (Solanum melongena L.)I. Food interest, analytical of compounds with saponin steroidic structure. The first one, glycoalkaloids with solasonin structure

  12. Vascular plant and bryophytes species representation in the protected areas network on the national scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai VellakNele; Nele Ingerpuu; Ain Vellak; Meelis Pärtel

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of nature conservation raises questions about biodiversity protection at the level of species as well as their\\u000a spatial distribution between differently designated nature conservation areas. We have concentrated on comparison of the existing\\u000a protected areas and recently established conservation initiative areas—Important Plant Areas. We have estimated how well these\\u000a areas support the protection of two plant groups—bryophytes and

  13. Protective immune response of live attenuated thermo-adapted peste des petits ruminants vaccine in goats.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, V; Sen, A; Venkatesan, G; Bhanuprakash, V; Singh, R K

    2014-01-01

    Virulent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) of Indian origin (PPRV Jhansi 2003) initially adapted in Vero cells was further propagated in thermo-adapted (Ta) Vero cells grown at 40 °C for attaining thermo-adaption and attenuation of virus for development of Ta vaccine against PPR in goats and sheep. The virus was attenuated up to 50 passages in Ta Vero cells, at which, the virus was found sterile, innocuous in mice and guinea pigs and safe in seronegative goats and sheep. The developed vaccine was tested for its immunogenicity in goats and sheep by subcutaneous inoculation of 100 TCID50 (0.1 field dose), 10(3) TCID50 (one field dose) and 10(5) TCID50 (100 field doses) of the attenuated virus along with controls as per OIE described protocols for PPR vaccine testing and were assessed for PPRV-specific antibodies 7-28 days post vaccination (dpv) by PPR competitive ELISA and serum neutralization tests. The PPRV antibodies were detected in all immunized goats and sheep and goats were protective when challenged with virulent PPRV at 28th dpv along with controls for potency testing of the vaccine. The attenuated vaccine did not induce any adverse reaction at high dose (10(5) TCID50) in goats and sheep and provided complete protection even at low dose (10(2) TCID50) in goats when challenged with virulent virus. There was no shedding and horizontal transmission of the attenuated virus to in-contact controls. The results indicate that the developed PPR Ta attenuated virus is innocuous, safe, immunogenic and potent or efficacious vaccine candidate alternative to the existing vaccines for the protection of goats and sheep against PPR in the tropical countries like India. PMID:25674603

  14. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

  15. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

  16. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

  17. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

  18. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

  19. Wind power plant grounding, overvoltage protection, and insulation coordination: IEEE PES wind plant collector system design working group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Camm; M. R. Behnke; O. Bolado; M. Bollen; M. Bradt; C. Brooks; W. Dilling; M. Edds; W. J. Hejdak; D. Houseman; S. Klein; F. Li; J. Li; P. Maibach; T. Nicolai; J. Patino; S. V. Pasupulati; N. Samaan; S. Saylors; T. Siebert; T. Smith; M. Starke; R. Walling

    2009-01-01

    Proper insulation coordination is critical to achieving expected life from wind plant equipment. The collector systems of large wind plants require the application of surge arresters to protect the equipment insulation from transient overvoltages. The application of surge arresters is constrained by maximum operating and temporary overvoltage levels. This paper provides a tutorial description of the process of selecting and

  20. When Defense Backfires: Detrimental Effect of a Plant's Protective Trichomes on an Insect Beneficial to the Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Eisner; Maria Eisner; E. Richard Hoebeke

    1998-01-01

    The plant Mentzelia pumila (family Loasaceae) has leaves and stems densely covered with tiny hooked trichomes. The structures entrap and kill insects and therefore are most probably protective. But they are also maladaptive in that they incapacitate a coccinellid beetle (Hippodamia convergens) that preys upon an aphid enemy (Macrosiphum mentzeliae) of the plant. The adaptive benefit provided by the trichomes

  1. Variation in the effectiveness of biotic defence: the case of an opportunistic ant-plant protection mutualism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Di Giusto; Marie-Charlotte Anstett; Edmond Dounias; Doyle B. McKey

    2001-01-01

    Benefits to plants in facultative ant protection mutualisms are highly variable. This allows examination of the sources of this variation and the mechanisms by which ants protect plants. We studied opportunistic interactions between ants and an extrafloral nectary-bearing vine, Dioscorea praehensilis, during 3 different years. Variation in plant protection among years was striking. Several factors affected the effectiveness of the

  2. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    SciTech Connect

    Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States) Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Botany); Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States)); Freeman, S. (Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1999-02-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) plant-defense response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and-susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  3. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Koch; Jacob Tadmor

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability

  4. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Nonfood Aquatic Food crop Nonfood Greenhouse Food crop Nonfood Forestry Domestic...if a 25 percent or greater detrimental effect was found in 1 or more plant species...if a 50 percent or greater detrimental effect was found on any plant species in...

  5. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Nonfood Aquatic Food crop Nonfood Greenhouse Food crop Nonfood Forestry Domestic...if a 25 percent or greater detrimental effect was found in 1 or more plant species...if a 50 percent or greater detrimental effect was found on any plant species in...

  6. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Nonfood Aquatic Food crop Nonfood Greenhouse Food crop Nonfood Forestry Domestic...if a 25 percent or greater detrimental effect was found in 1 or more plant species...if a 50 percent or greater detrimental effect was found on any plant species in...

  7. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Nonfood Aquatic Food crop Nonfood Greenhouse Food crop Nonfood Forestry Domestic...if a 25 percent or greater detrimental effect was found in 1 or more plant species...if a 50 percent or greater detrimental effect was found on any plant species in...

  8. The plant Apolipoprotein D ortholog protects Arabidopsis against oxidative stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Benoit F Charron; Francois Ouellet; Mario Houde; Fathey Sarhan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lipocalins are a large and diverse family of small, mostly extracellular proteins implicated in many important functions. This family has been studied in bacteria, invertebrate and vertebrate animals but little is known about these proteins in plants. We recently reported the identification and molecular characterization of the first true lipocalins from plants, including the Apolipoprotein D ortholog AtTIL identified

  9. 110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc-

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 Summary The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc- cus 2002 and was causing serious damage to papaya, Plumeria spp., Hibiscus spp. and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki, Pseudleptomastix mexicana and Acerophagous papayae totalling 46 200 individuals

  10. Distribution, cenotic characteristic and protection of habitats of plants of the Bern Convention in East Polesye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLEKSANDR LUKASH

    The author reports on the results of the studies on distribution, cenotic characteristic and analysis of protection of habitats of plants of the Bern Convention in East Polesye. In 1995- 2006 the species of plants, which are given in the list of Appendix I of \\

  11. Control and Protection of Wind Power Plants with VSC-HVDC Connection

    E-print Network

    Chaudhary, Sanjay

    . VSC-HVDC cable transmission is a favourable option for a large and remote offshore wind power plantControl and Protection of Wind Power Plants with VSC-HVDC Connection By Sanjay K Chaudhary, which needs a long distance cable connection to the onshore power grid. It has lower power losses

  12. Salicylic Acid Protects Potato Plants-from Phytoplasma-associated Stress and Improves Tuber Photosynthate Assimilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Sánchez-Rojo; Humberto A. López-Delgado; Martha E. Mora-Herrera; Humberto I. Almeyda-León; Hilda Araceli Zavaleta-Mancera; David Espinosa-Victoria

    2011-01-01

    During a pathogen attack, cells triggers the overproduction of reactive oxygen species causing oxidative stress and physiological\\u000a damage. Plants develop strategies using these reactive molecules for protection against pathogen attack. Phytoplasma are bacteria\\u000a lacking cell walls that inhabit plant phloem and reduce yield, tuber quality, and commercial harvest value. Sprayed salicylic\\u000a acid (SA) activated plant defense response against phytoplasma attack

  13. When defense backfires: detrimental effect of a plant's protective trichomes on an insect beneficial to the plant.

    PubMed

    Eisner, T; Eisner, M; Hoebeke, E R

    1998-04-14

    The plant Mentzelia pumila (family Loasaceae) has leaves and stems densely covered with tiny hooked trichomes. The structures entrap and kill insects and therefore are most probably protective. But they are also maladaptive in that they incapacitate a coccinellid beetle (Hippodamia convergens) that preys upon an aphid enemy (Macrosiphum mentzeliae) of the plant. The adaptive benefit provided by the trichomes is evidently offset by a cost. PMID:9539750

  14. De-Novo Design of Antimicrobial Peptides for Plant Protection

    PubMed Central

    Zeitler, Benjamin; Herrera Diaz, Areli; Dangel, Alexandra; Thellmann, Martha; Meyer, Helge; Sattler, Michael; Lindermayr, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the de-novo design of peptides that inhibit a broad range of plant pathogens. Four structurally different groups of peptides were developed that differ in size and position of their charged and hydrophobic clusters and were assayed for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth and fungal spore germination. Several peptides are highly active at concentrations between 0,1 and 1 µg/ml against plant pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Importantly, no hemolytic activity could be detected for these peptides at concentrations up to 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the peptides are also active after spraying on the plant surface demonstrating a possible way of application. In sum, our designed peptides represent new antimicrobial agents and with the increasing demand for antimicrobial compounds for production of “healthy” food, these peptides might serve as templates for novel antibacterial and antifungal agents. PMID:23951222

  15. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D. L.

    1980-05-01

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method.

  16. Digital simulation of LMFBR plant protection and control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Guppy, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a fairly generalized and detailed modeling of the PPS-PCS that has been developed and incorporated into the SSC series of computer codes. These models have been formulated to be more easily adaptable to plants of similar design and characteristics. (JDB)

  17. PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANT CROP MONITORING USING REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extent of past and anticipated plantings of transgenic corn in the United States requires a new approach to monitor this important crop for the development of pest resistance. Remote sensing by aerial and/or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pest...

  18. Soil Bacteria Take Up D-Amino Acids, Protect Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H. J.; Zhang, G.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, many groups reported D-amino acid uptake by plant roots, raising the question of whether soil D-amino acids represent a source of nitrogen or a source of toxicity. The discussion needs to be placed in the context of competition with rhizosphere bacteria. To provide this context, we followed the concentrations of D- and L-enantiomers of alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and leucine after they were added to soils in the laboratory. In all cases, the uptake of L-enantiomer began immediately and proceeded rapidly until exhausted. In contrast, the uptake of D-enantiomer required induction: an initial period of inactivity followed by rapid consumption comparable in rate to L-enantiomer. The induced nature of the D activity was confirmed by the addition of rifampicin, an mRNA synthesis inhibitor. Preventing the synthesis of new enzymes abolished soil flora's ability to consume D-amino acids, but not L-amino acids. These results suggest that inducible special racemase enzymes, which can convert D-amino acids back to their native L-forms, are widespread among soil microorganisms. This finding does not rule out the possibility that some plants may out-compete microorganisms and be able to access D-amino acids. It does suggest, however, that rhizosphere bacteria can shield plants from the toxic effect of D-amino acids.

  19. UVR8 mediated plant protective responses under low UV-B radiation leading to photosynthetic acclimation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, S B; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-08-01

    The UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 regulates the expression of several genes leading to acclimation responses in plants. Direct role of UVR8 in maintaining the photosynthesis is not defined but it is known to increase the expression of some chloroplastic proteins like SIG5 and ELIP. It provides indirect protection to photosynthesis by regulating the synthesis of secondary metabolites and photomorphogenesis. Signaling cascades controlled by UVR8 mediate many protective responses thus promotes plant acclimation against stress and secures its survival. PMID:24780386

  20. Regulatory Review of the Digital Plant Protection System for Advanced Power Reactor 1400

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, DAI. I.; Ji, S.H.; Park, H.S.; Kim, B.R.; Kang, Y.D.; Oh, S.H. [Dept. of Instrumentation and Control, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Ku Sung Dong 19, Yusung Ku, Daejeon City, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the evaluation result and the regulatory approach of digital plant protection system (DPPS) for Advanced Power Reactor (APR-1400). Firstly, we discuss the issue associated with the integration of bistable processor (BP) and local coincidence logic processor (LCLP) as one of design changes over digital plant protection system. Secondly, regulatory approach is presented on the safety classification and the independence of the soft controller to be installed in digital engineered safety features actuation system (DESFAS). Finally, hardwired back up systems against common mode failure of a digital system and the safety classification of Remote Shutdown Panel (RSP) are described. (authors)

  1. Salt-induced oxidative stress in rosemary plants: Damage or protection?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taieb Tounekti; Ahmedou M. Vadel; Marta Oñate; Habib Khemira; Sergi Munné-Bosch

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms of photoprotection and antioxidant protection, including changes in chlorophylls, xanthophyll cycle components and levels of low-molecular-weight chloroplastic antioxidants (lutein, ?-carotene and ?-tocopherol) were studied together with levels of malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, in the response of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) plants to salt stress. Plants were exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (50, 100 and 150mM) for 6

  2. Significance of Sulfur Compounds in the Protection of Plants Against Pests and Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elke Bloem; Silvia Haneklaus; Ewald Schnug

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness of targeted nutrition in the protection of plants against pests and diseases is called nutrient-induced resistance. Though the significance of individual nutrients for maintaining or promoting plant health prompted some interest in the 1960s and 1970s, research in the field of nutrient-induced resistance mechanisms has been scarce because of its complexity and limited practical significance due to the

  3. Efficacy of some plant products as grain protectants against Rhizopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera; Bostrichidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Tiwari

    1994-01-01

    Twenty?two medicinal plant powders, ash of plant origin and sorbic acid were evaluated as grain protectants against Rhizopertha dominica (F.). Rauwolfia serpentina sorbic acid, Acorus calamus, Messua ferrea and Alblzia lebbeck were found effective at 1 % (w\\/w) in a first screening test and all these products were further assessed at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0% (w\\/w). Rauwolfia serpentina completely inhibited

  4. Thick liquid protection in inertial fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pemberton, Steven James

    Liquid jets are designed and developed for the construction of a thick-liquid first wall in fusion power plants, with attention to preventing line-of-sight interaction between target debris and solid structural materials in inertial fusion power plants. First, an introduction is given to basic fusion concepts in order to set the background for inertial fusion plant design. After this introduction, scaling relationships for experimental studies are presented and different jet types for thick-liquid inertial fusion chambers are described, including stationary cylindrical jet grids, large oscillating liquid slabs, and vortex tubes created from centrifugal flow inside pipes. The design of vortex tubes is given in some detail with an illustration of some simple concepts from fluid mechanics for the evolution of flow in the tubes, and the results of this basic analysis are compared to empirical results from a prototype device. The actual thickness of the vortex layer is found to depart from the ideal, laminar consideration of the flow development. However, the basic considerations also predict that flow in the vortex layer will remain stable in the region of interest, and will be independent of the volumetric flow rate. These estimates are supported by experimental observations. The construction of a prototype slab jet is also described, and one chapter of this dissertation is dedicated to the analysis of impulse delivery to and dispersion within a slab jet with finely dispersed voids. The reaction of a slab jet to impulse loading is predicted using a simple compressible flow model for incompressible fluid with dispersed voids. The model is compared with experimental impulse-load data, and it is found that this simple model does a fair job of predicting the empirical results. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of some important factors in vortex flow and slab jet disruption, and possible sources of departure from the basic analyses.

  5. Large gas turbine peaking plant emphasizes environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Wadman, B.

    1995-04-01

    Washington Water Power is an investor-owned electric utility headquartered in Spokane, Washington, U.S.A., and serving portions of Washington and Idaho with primarily hydro-produced electric power. To meet increased electricity demands in the area, the utility has found it necessary to install a relatively large gas turbine peaking plant in the town of Rathdrum, Idaho, near Spokane. This plant consists of two GE Frame 7EA natural gas-fired, simple-cycle gas turbine generating units, each rated 83.5 MW. Washington Water Power decided to seek an alternate source of standby natural gas fuel. They have succeeded in making arrangements with gas utilities to store natural gas that can then be substituted for gas that would normally be cut off in the interruptible rate situation. The GE gas turbines are equipped with the latest dry low-NO{sub x} combustion systems and GE is guaranteeing 15 ppm NO{sub x} and 25 ppm CO at 100% load. A Horiba continuous emission monitoring system is installed to monitor the exhaust emissions of both gas turbines. 3 figs.

  6. The Main Environmental Driving Forces of the Invasive Plant Species in the Romanian Protected Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Dumitrascu; Ines Grigorescu; Mihaela Nastase; Carmen Dragota; Gheorghe Kucsicsa

    2010-01-01

    The invasive flora of Romania currently includes more than 400 species (13.87% of the Romanian flora) and according to the third National Report of Biological Diversity Convention, six of them are tree species. Within the protected areas, some of the most representative invasive plant species (IPS) are: Amorpha fruticosa in Balta Mica a Brailei National Park, Ailanthus altissima in Muntii

  7. Broad-Spectrum Protection against Tombusviruses Elicited by Defective Interfering RNAs in Transgenic Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TERESA RUBIO; HERMAN B. SCHOLTHOF; PAUL A. FELDSTEIN; T. JACK MORRIS; ANDREW O. JACKSON

    1999-01-01

    We have designed a DNA cassette to transcribe defective interfering (DI) RNAs of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and have investigated their potential to protect transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants from tom- busvirus infections. To produce RNAs with authentic 5* and 3* termini identical to those of the native B10 DI RNA, the DI RNA sequences were flanked by ribozymes (RzDI).

  8. INTRODUCTION Cocaine is a neurotoxin that protects the coca plant (Erythroxylem

    E-print Network

    Ha, Taekjip

    163 INTRODUCTION Cocaine is a neurotoxin that protects the coca plant (Erythroxylem spp.) from herbivory by critically disrupting insect motor control (Nathanson et al., 1993). In humans, cocaine is also reward' (Sullivan et al., 2008). Solutions to this paradox often propose that cocaine evolved to deter

  9. Protective effects of three extracts from Antarctic plants against ultraviolet radiation in several biological models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betina Kappel Pereira; Renato Moreira Rosa; Juliana da Silva; Temenouga Nikolova Guecheva; Iuri Marques de Oliveira; Martus Ianistcki; Vinícius Cosmos Benvegnú; Gabriel Vasata Furtado; Alexandre Ferraz; Marc François Richter; Nádia Schroder; Antônio Batista Pereira; João Antonio Pêgas Henriques

    2009-01-01

    The photoprotective effect of the methanolic extracts of three Antarctic plant species –Deschampsia antarctica Desv., Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl., and Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. against UV-induced DNA damage was investigated in hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells) and in a biomonitor organism Helix aspersas, using comet assay. The protective, mutagenic, and antimutagenic profiles of these extracts were also evaluated using haploid strains

  10. FIELD ASSESSMENT OF INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT (IRM) FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED-PROTECTANTS (PIPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of target pest resistance to the products of transgene[s], e.g., plant-incorporated protectants is a serious risk both to the sustainability of these crops and to the wider utility of environmentally soft microbial pesticides. Therefore, the EPA requires growers...

  11. Experiences and perspectives for the use of a Paenibacillus strain as a plant protectant.

    PubMed

    Maes, M; Baeyen, S

    2003-01-01

    A study on the microbial ecology in an active slow sand filter, used for disinfecting the circulating plant nutrient solutions, showed that spore-forming plant-associated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus-Paenibacillus complex are well adapted for transmission in the solutions and passage through the filter. Therefore, strains from this bacterial group were suitable candidates for biological control in irrigated and closed plant growth systems. The spore-forming Paenibacillus polymyxa strain PpDGB was selected in in vitro tests as a potent pathogen-antagonist and was tested as a prophylactic protection agent in the plant rhizosphere, especially for cultures stages that are highly susceptible to stress and disease. Plant cuttings, in vitro plants and seeds of different plant types were bacterized and planted in their typical disease-conducive environment where nutrient solutions or water irrigation was applied and further plant development was monitored. Observed plant parameters were plant survival, weight, chlorophyll concentration in the leaf mesophyl, root health and root hair formation. The PpDGB treatment initially induced stress in the plants, which was observed as a transient stop in plant transpiration. This effect caused some necrosis in the most stress-sensitive in vitro plant species. In the other plants this stress period was followed by a significant enhancement in plant growth. In case of seed treatment, more seeds germinated and seedling growth was faster. In the tested formulation, PpDGB enhanced growth but not disease resistance, probably due to simultaneous activation of the residual plant pathogens. Therefore variant formulations have to be tested. The influence of PpDGB on the composition of the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere was assessed by DGGE profiling. In soilless plant cultures, PpDGB-driven profile changes could be observed from the 5th day after the initial treatment. P. polymyxa bacteria were shown to be widely present in association with plants and specific PpDGB detection in plant and rhizosphere was only possible with newly developed strain-specific PCR primers based on Nif H gene sequences. Quantitative PCR based on SYBR Green fluorescence enabled detection of low PpDGB concentrations in the plant rhizosphere. PMID:15151278

  12. Broad-Spectrum Protection against Tombusviruses Elicited by Defective Interfering RNAs in Transgenic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Teresa; Borja, Marisé; Scholthof, Herman B.; Feldstein, Paul A.; Morris, T. Jack; Jackson, Andrew O.

    1999-01-01

    We have designed a DNA cassette to transcribe defective interfering (DI) RNAs of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and have investigated their potential to protect transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants from tombusvirus infections. To produce RNAs with authentic 5? and 3? termini identical to those of the native B10 DI RNA, the DI RNA sequences were flanked by ribozymes (RzDI). When RzDI RNAs transcribed in vitro were mixed with parental TBSV transcripts and inoculated into protoplasts or plants, they became amplified, reduced the accumulation of the parental RNA, and mediated attenuation of the lethal syndrome characteristic of TBSV infections. Analysis of F1 and F2 RzDI transformants indicated that uninfected plants expressed the DI RNAs in low abundance, but these RNAs were amplified to very high levels during TBSV infection. By two weeks postinoculation with TBSV, all untransformed N. benthamiana plants and transformed negative controls died. Although infection of transgenic RzDI plants initially induced moderate to severe symptoms, these plants subsequently recovered, flowered, and set seed. Plants from the same transgenic lines also exhibited broad-spectrum protection against related tombusviruses but remained susceptible to a distantly related tombus-like virus and to unrelated viruses. PMID:10233970

  13. Floristic composition, biomass, and aboveground net plant production in grazed and protected sites in a mountain grassland of central Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Pucheta; Marcelo Cabido; Sandra Díaz; Guillermo Funes

    1998-01-01

    Changes in plant community composition, diversity, aboveground biomass, and aboveground net primary production (ANPP) of different plant growth-forms were assessed in sites protected from livestock grazing for 2, 4, and 15 years, and in a heavily-grazed site. Species richness was maximum at the grazed site and decreased significantly after 4 years of protection. Diversity decreased significantly only after 15 years

  14. Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants.

    PubMed

    Ghormade, Vandana; Deshpande, Mukund V; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2011-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides and fertilizers causes environmental pollution, emergence of agricultural pests and pathogens, and loss of biodiversity. Nanotechnology, by virtue of nanomaterial related properties, has potential agro-biotechnological applications for alleviation of these problems. The literature pertaining to the role of nanotechnology in plant and soil systems demonstrates that nanomaterials may assist in a) the controlled release of agrochemicals for nutrition and protection against pests and pathogens, b) delivery of genetic material, c) sensitive detection of plant disease and pollutants and d) protection and formation of soil structure. For instance, porous silica (15nm) and biodegradable, polymeric chitosan (78nm) nanoparticles displayed slow release of encapsulated pesticide and fertilizer, respectively. Further, nanosized gold (5-25nm) delivered DNA to plant cells while iron oxide (30nm) based nanosensors detected pesticides at minute levels. These functions assist the development of precision farming by minimizing pollution and maximizing the value of farming practice. PMID:21729746

  15. Indigenous Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Assemblages Protect Grassland Host Plants from Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Wehner, Jeannine; Antunes, Pedro M.; Powell, Jeff R.; Caruso, Tancredi; Rillig, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    Plant roots can establish associations with neutral, beneficial and pathogenic groups of soil organisms. Although it has been recognized from the study of individual isolates that these associations are individually important for plant growth, little is known about interactions of whole assemblages of beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms associating with plants. We investigated the influence of an interaction between local arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal and pathogenic/saprobic microbial assemblages on the growth of two different plant species from semi-arid grasslands in NE Germany (Mallnow near Berlin). In a greenhouse experiment each plant species was grown for six months in either sterile soil or in sterile soil with one of three different treatments: 1) an AM fungal spore fraction isolated from field soil from Mallnow; 2) a soil pathogen/saprobe fraction consisting of a microbial community prepared with field soil from Mallnow and; 3) the combined AM fungal and pathogen/saprobe fractions. While both plant species grew significantly larger in the presence of AM fungi, they responded negatively to the pathogen/saprobe treatment. For both plant species, we found evidence of pathogen protection effects provided by the AM fungal assemblages. These results indicate that interactions between assemblages of beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms can influence the growth of host plants, but that the magnitude of these effects is plant species-specific. PMID:22110635

  16. Protection of goats against peste des petits ruminants with recombinant capripoxviruses expressing the fusion and haemagglutinin protein genes of rinderpest virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Romero; T. Barrett; R. P. Kitching; C. Bostock; D. N. Black

    1995-01-01

    Goats were protected against a lethal challenge of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus following vaccination with a recombinant capripoxvirus containing either the fusion (F) gene of rinderpest virus or the haemagglutinin (H) gene of rinderpest virus. The H gene recombinant produced high titres of neutralizing antibody to rinderpest virus in the vaccinated goats, whereas the F gene recombinant failed

  17. Protection against virus infection in tobacco plants expressing the coat protein of grapevine fanleaf nepovirus.

    PubMed

    Bardonnet, N; Hans, F; Serghini, M A; Pinck, L

    1994-03-01

    Grapevine fanleaf nepovirus (GFLV) is responsible for the economically significant "court-noué" disease in vineyards. Its genome is made up of two single-stranded RNA molecules (RNA1 and RNA2) which direct the synthesis of polyproteins P1 and P2 respectively. A chimeric coat protein gene derived from the C-terminal part of P2 was constructed and subsequently introduced into a binary transformation vector. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing the coat protein under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter were engineered by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Protection against infection with virions or viral RNA was tested in coat protein-expressing plants. A significant delay of systemic invasion was observed in transgenic plants inoculated with virus compared to control plants. This effect was also observed when plants were inoculated with viral RNA. No coat protein-mediated cross-protection was observed when transgenic plants were infected with arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), a closely related nepovirus also responsible for a "court-noué" disease. PMID:24193837

  18. An ant's-eye view of an ant-plant protection mutualism.

    PubMed

    Lanan, M C; Bronstein, J L

    2013-07-01

    Ant protection of extrafloral nectar (EFN)-secreting plants is a common form of mutualism found in most habitats around the world. However, very few studies have considered these mutualisms from the ant, rather than the plant, perspective. In particular, a whole-colony perspective that takes into account the spatial structure and nest arrangement of the ant colonies that visit these plants has been lacking, obscuring when and how colony-level foraging decisions might affect tending rates on individual plants. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that recruitment of Crematogaster opuntiae (Buren) ant workers to the EFN-secreting cactus Ferocactus wislizeni (Englem) is not independent between plants up to 5 m apart. Colony territories of C. opuntiae are large, covering areas of up to 5,000 m(2), and workers visit between five and 34 EFN-secreting barrel cacti within the territories. These ants are highly polydomous, with up to 20 nest entrances dispersed throughout the territory and interconnected by trail networks. Our study demonstrates that worker recruitment is not independent within large polydomous ant colonies, highlighting the importance of considering colonies rather than individual workers as the relevant study unit within ant/plant protection mutualisms. PMID:23515612

  19. Protection of Nuclear Plants Against Vehicular Bombs Via Full Spectrum Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Campagna, M. S.; Sawruk, W.

    2003-02-25

    A more urgent need now exists since 9/11 to protect vital assets at nuclear plants from physical security threats. Any approach to successful defense must result in the best possible risk profile , while also performing this defense against credible threats within the context of limited personnel and materiel resources. Engineered solutions need to be well thought out, and take advantage of each plant's available organic strengths and opportunities. A robust, well trained/equipped highly motivated protective force will help reduce concerns where there are weaknesses making the plant vulnerable to threats. A thorough risk assessment takes into account the proper combination of both deterministic and probabilistic application of resources as a most advantageous approach; this is postulated to be development of integrated protection methods and plans, which blend solid engineering design with the highest caliber of protection forces. By setting a clear and ambitious objective to shield the nuclear assets with this type of dynamic full spectrum defense in depth, the risk of harm-breach or likelihood of any opponent's threat being realized should be reduced to the lowest practicable levels.

  20. Selenium accumulation protects plants from herbivory by Orthoptera via toxicity and deterrence.

    PubMed

    Freeman, John L; Lindblom, Stormy Dawn; Quinn, Colin F; Fakra, Sirine; Marcus, Matthew A; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2007-01-01

    To investigate whether selenium (Se) accumulation in plants provides a chemical defense against generalist insect herbivores, the feeding preference and performance of a mix of orthopteran species were investigated. The selenium hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata and accumulator Brassica juncea were used in herbivory studies in the laboratory, and S. pinnata was also used in a manipulative field experiment. In laboratory studies, both crickets and grasshoppers avoided plants pretreated with selenate, while those given no choice died after eating leaves with elevated Se (447 +/- 68 and 230 +/- 68 microg Se g(-1) DW, respectively). B. juncea has previously been shown to accumulate selenate, while S. pinnata hyperaccumulates methyl-selenocysteine. Thus, these findings demonstrate that both inorganic and organic forms of selenium protect plants from herbivory. Grasshoppers fed S. pinnata contained methylselenocysteine in their midgut and absorbed this form into surrounding tissues. In a manipulative field experiment, methylselenocysteine protected S. pinnata from invertebrate herbivory and increased its long-term survival rate over an entire growth season. * In native habitats of selenium hyperaccumulators, orthopterans represent a major group of insect herbivores. Protection offered by organic selenium accumulation against these herbivores may have promoted the evolution of selenium hyperaccumulation in plants. PMID:17635224

  1. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Arjan – Parishan protected area in Fars Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhahi, Mehdi; Dolatkhahi, Ali; Nejad, Javad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Today, medicinal plants are widely used in remedies for several ailments and improvement of human health because of their pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to document important useful medicinal plants and their medicinal characteristics for treatment of human ailments in the Arjan _ Parishan protected area in Fars province of Iran during 2010-2012. Materials and Methods : Data were obtained using direct interviews with 80 informants particularly those who were more familiar with the herbs and their medicinal properties. Collected plants were recognized and families, genera, and species determined using indispensable references. In this paper, scientific name, local name, parts used, and ways of application and ailments treated using traditional medicinal plant species have been provided. Results : We documented 85 plant species belonging to 39 families and 78 genera used for treating ailments. Among which, Asteraceae with 13 species was the most frequently used family and fruits and leaves were the favored parts for local users. Our results indicated that in this area, the highest compliance in the use of plants in treating ailments were related to the intestinal digestive system (40.8%). Conclusion : The present study is the first contribution to the ethnobotany of this region. Our results showed that some plants are used for medicinal purposes in this region, either for the same or for different purposes. Generally, the results of the present investigation can be used as a basis for selecting useful medicinal plants and also help to preserve precious information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. PMID:25386404

  2. Galactinol and raffinose constitute a novel function to protect plants from oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Ayako; Yabuta, Yukinori; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2008-07-01

    Galactinol synthase (GolS) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides that function as osmoprotectants in plant cells. In leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants overexpressing heat shock transcription factor A2 (HsfA2), the transcription of GolS1, -2, and -4 and raffinose synthase 2 (RS2) was highly induced; thus, levels of galactinol and raffinose increased compared with those in wild-type plants under control growth conditions. In leaves of the wild-type plants, treatment with 50 mum methylviologen (MV) increased the transcript levels of not only HsfA2, but also GolS1, -2, -3, -4, and -8 and RS2, -4, -5, and -6, the total activities of GolS isoenzymes, and the levels of galactinol and raffinose. GolS1- or GolS2-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants (Ox-GolS1-11, Ox-GolS2-8, and Ox-GolS2-29) had increased levels of galactinol and raffinose in the leaves compared with wild-type plants under control growth conditions. High intracellular levels of galactinol and raffinose in the transgenic plants were correlated with increased tolerance to MV treatment and salinity or chilling stress. Galactinol and raffinose effectively protected salicylate from attack by hydroxyl radicals in vitro. These findings suggest the possibility that galactinol and raffinose scavenge hydroxyl radicals as a novel function to protect plant cells from oxidative damage caused by MV treatment, salinity, or chilling. PMID:18502973

  3. Y-12 Plant groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 1999

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1998-01-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1999 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by the Y-12 Plant Environmen~ Safety, and Health Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Progratn (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring . during CY 1999 will

  4. Protection of Operators and Environment - the Safety Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, J.; Kuttruf, H.; Lumpp, W.; Pfeifer, W.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.

    2002-02-26

    The Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) plant is a milestone in decommissioning and complete dismantling of the former Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant WAK, which is in an advanced stage of disassembly. The VEK is scheduled to vitrify approx. 70 m3 of the highly radioactive liquid waste (HLW) resulting from reprocessing. Site preparation, civil work and component manufacturing began in 1999. The building will be finalized by mid of 2002, hot vitrification operation is currently scheduled for 2004/2005. Provisions against damages arising from construction and operation of the VEK had to be made in accordance with the state of the art as laid down in the German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Regulations. For this purpose, the appropriate analysis of accidents and their external and internal impacts were investigated. During the detailed design phase, a failure effects analysis was carried out, in which single events were studied with respect to the objectives of protection and ensuring activity containment, limiting radioactive discharges to the environment and protecting of the staff. Parallel to the planning phase of the VEK plant a cold prototype test facility (PVA) covering the main process steps was constructed and operated at the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) of FZK. This pilot operation served to demonstrate the process technique and its operation with a simulated waste solution, and to test the main items of equipment, but was conducted also to use the experimental data and experience to back the safety concept of the radioactive VEK plant. This paper describes the basis of the safety concept of the VEK plant and results of the failure effect analysis. The experimental simulation of the failure scenarios, their effect on the process behavior, and the controllability of these events as well as the effect of the results on the safety concept of VEK are discussed. Additionally, an overview of the actual status of civil work and manufacturing of the technical equipment is given.

  5. Reducing the Judicial Deficit in Multilevel Environmental Regulation: The Example of Plant Protection Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Keessen

    2011-01-01

    Th is article takes the regulation of plant protection products as an\\u000aexample in order to evaluate the impact of the Aarhus Convention in a multilevel\\u000aregulatory context and on the European composite administration in particular.\\u000aTh e author fi rst gives an overview of the decision-making procedures in this fi eld\\u000aand discusses two judgments by the Community courts

  6. Common vole (Microtus arvalis) ecology and management: implications for risk assessment of plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jens; Manson, Phil; Barfknecht, Ralf; Fredricks, Timothy

    2014-06-01

    Common voles (Microtus arvalis) are common small mammals in some European landscapes. They can be a major rodent pest in European agriculture and they are also a representative generic focal small herbivorous mammal species used in risk assessment for plant protection products. In this paper, common vole population dynamics, habitat and food preferences, pest potential and use of the common vole as a model small wild mammal species in the risk assessment process are reviewed. Common voles are a component of agroecosystems in many parts of Europe, inhabiting agricultural areas (secondary habitats) when the carrying capacity of primary grassland habitats is exceeded. Colonisation of secondary habitats occurs during multiannual outbreaks, when population sizes can exceed 1000 individuals ha(-1) . In such cases, in-crop common vole population control management has been practised to avoid significant crop damage. The species' status as a crop pest, high fecundity, resilience to disturbance and intermittent colonisation of crop habitats are important characteristics that should be reflected in risk assessment. Based on the information provided in the scientific literature, it seems justified to modify elements of the current risk assessment scheme for plant protection products, including the use of realistic food intake rates, reduced assessment factors or the use of alternativee focal rodent species in particular European regions. Some of these adjustments are already being applied in some EU member states. Therefore, it seems reasonable consistently to apply such pragmatic and realistic approaches in risk assessments for plant protection products across the EU. PMID:24293354

  7. Assessment of ethylene diurea-induced protection in plants against ozone phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya Abha; Singh, Shalini; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization, industrialization and unsustainable utilization of natural resources have made tropospheric ozone (03) one of the world's most significant air pollutants. Past studies reveal that 0 3 is a phytotoxic air pollutant that causes or enhances food insecurity across the globe. Plant sensitivity, tolerance and resistance to 0 3 involve a wide array of responses that range from growth to the physiological, biochemical and molecular. Although plants have an array of defense systems to combat oxidative stress from 0 3 exposure, they still suffer sizable yield reductions. In recent years, the ground-level 0 3 concentrations to which crop plants have been exposed have caused yield loses that are economically damaging. Several types of chemicals have been applied or used to mitigate the effects produced by 0 3 on plants. These include agrochemicals (fungicides, insecticides, plant growth regulators), natural antioxidants, and others. Such treatments have been effective to one degree to another, in ameliorating Or generated stress in plants. Ethylene diurea (EDU) has been the most effective protectant used and has also served as a monitoring agent for assessing plant yield losses from 0 3 exposure. In this review, we summarize the data on how EDU has been used, the treatment methods tested, and application doses found to be both protective and toxic in plants. We have also summarized data that address the nature and modes of action (biophysical and biochemical) of EDU. In general, the literature discloses that EDU is effective in reducing ozone damage to plants, and indicates that EDU should be more widely used on 0 3 sensitive plants as a tool for biomonitoring of 0 3 concentrations. Biomonitoring studies that utilize EDU are very useful for rural and remote areas and in developing countries where 0 3 monitoring is constrained from unavailability of electricity. The mechanism(s) by which EDU prevents 0 3 toxicity in plants is still not completely known. EDU possesses great utility for screening plant sensitivity under field conditions in areas that experience high 0 3 concentrations, because EDU prevents 0 3 toxicity only in 0 3 sensitive plants. Ozone-resistant plants do not respond positively to EDU applications. However, EDU application dose and frequency must be standardized before it can be effectively and widely used for screening 0 3 sensitivity in plants. EDU acts primarily by enhancing biochemical plant defense and delaying Or induced senescence, thereby reducing chlorophyll loss, and maintaining physiological efficiency and primary metabolites; these actions enhance growth, biomass and yield of plants. We believe that future studies are needed to better address the EDU dose response relationship for many plant species, and to screen for new cultivars that can resist 0 3 stress. Although some research on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of action of EDU have been performed, the new 'omics' tools have not been utilized to evaluate EDUs mechanism of action. Such data are needed, as is gene expression and proteome profiling studies on EDU-treated and -untreated plants. PMID:25367135

  8. Comptes Rendus des JNC 17 -Poitiers 2011 Caractrisation de protections thermiques carbone / phnolique sous impact

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    composites based on the same phenolic resin and same fibers have been investigated whose only difference la cinétique d'ablation. Abstract Carbon / phenolic composites are widely used for ablative aero thermal heat flow impacting a carbon / phenolic ablative thermal protection. Two different

  9. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the plant protection schedule taken up for main crop and for intercrops, but was least in the insecticide sprayed to both the crops. Data on interaction of intercropping and plant protection schedules indicated that Bt cotton with chilli as intercrop and with zero plant protection showed the highest population of P-solubilizers, N2 fixers as well as urease and phosphatase activities at 135 days of crop growth. Similarly, population of total bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were highest in the treatment of Bt cotton + chilli + onion with zero protection but were on par with the treatment Bt cotton + chilli with zero protection at 135 days of crop growth. Dehydrogenase activity was found to be the highest in the treatment of Bt cotton + redgram with zero protection at 135 days of crop growth. Our studies showed harmful effects of insecticide sprays on soil microflora and enzyme activities.

  10. Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Awl, D.J.; Pounds, L.R.; Rosensteel, B.A.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1996-06-01

    Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T&E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T&E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to listed species. T&E plant species found on or near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are identified. Twenty-eight species identified on the ORR are listed by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation as either endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Four of these have been under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for possible listing (listed in the formerly-used C2 candidate category). Additional species listed by the state occur near and may be present on the ORR. A range of habitats support the rare taxa on the ORR: river bluffs, sinkholes, calcareous barrens, wetlands, utility corridors, and forests. The list of T&E plant species and their locations on the ORR should be considered provisional because the entire ORR has not been surveyed, and state and federal status of all species continues to be updated. The purpose of this document is to present information on the listed T&E plant species currently known to occur on the ORR as well as listed species potentially occurring on the ORR based on geographic range and habitat availability. For the purpose of this report, {open_quotes}T&E species{close_quotes} include all federal- and state-listed species, including candidates for listing, and species of special concern. Consideration of T&E plant habitats is an important component of resource management and land-use planning; protection of rare species in their natural habitat is the best method of ensuring their long-term survival.

  11. Fusion proteins comprising a Fusarium-specific antibody linked to antifungal peptides protect plants against a fungal pathogen.

    PubMed

    Peschen, Dieter; Li, He-Ping; Fischer, Rainer; Kreuzaler, Fritz; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2004-06-01

    In planta expression of recombinant antibodies recognizing pathogen-specific antigens has been proposed as a strategy for crop protection. We report the expression of fusion proteins comprising a Fusarium-specific recombinant antibody linked to one of three antifungal peptides (AFPs) as a method for protecting plants against fungal diseases. A chicken-derived single-chain antibody specific to antigens displayed on the Fusarium cell surface was isolated from a pooled immunocompetent phage display library. This recombinant antibody inhibited fungal growth in vitro when fused to any of the three AFPs. Expression of the fusion proteins in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants conferred high levels of protection against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. matthiolae, whereas plants expressing either the fungus-specific antibody or AFPs alone exhibited only moderate resistance. Our results demonstrate that antibody fusion proteins may be used as effective and versatile tools for the protection of crop plants against fungal infection. PMID:15146196

  12. The role of selenium in protecting plants against prairie dog herbivory: implications for the evolution of selenium hyperaccumulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin F. Quinn; John L. Freeman; Miriam L. Galeas; Erin M. Klamper; Elizabeth A. H. Pilon-Smits

    2008-01-01

    Some plants can hyperaccumulate the element selenium (Se) up to 10,000 mg Se kg?1 dry weight. Hyperaccumulation has been hypothesized to defend against herbivory. In laboratory studies high Se levels protect\\u000a plants from invertebrate herbivores and pathogens. However, field studies and mammalian herbivore studies that link Se accumulation\\u000a to herbivory protection are lacking. In this study a combination of field surveys

  13. Non-native plant invasions in managed and protected ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir forests of the Colorado Front Range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula J Fornwalt; Merrill R Kaufmann; Laurie S Huckaby; Jason M Stoker; Thomas J Stohlgren

    2003-01-01

    We examined patterns of non-native plant diversity in protected and managed ponderosa pine\\/Douglas-fir forests of the Colorado Front Range. Cheesman Lake, a protected landscape, and Turkey Creek, a managed landscape, appear to have had similar natural disturbance histories prior to European settlement and fire protection during the last century. However, Turkey Creek has experienced logging, grazing, prescribed burning, and recreation

  14. Sulfite Reductase Protects Plants against Sulfite Toxicity1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Brychkova, Galina; Fluhr, Robert; Sagi, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Plant sulfite reductase (SiR; Enzyme Commission 1.8.7.1) catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide in the reductive sulfate assimilation pathway. Comparison of SiR expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Rheinlands Ruhm’) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants revealed that SiR is expressed in a different tissue-dependent manner that likely reflects dissimilarity in sulfur metabolism between the plant species. Using Arabidopsis and tomato SiR mutants with modified SiR expression, we show here that resistance to ectopically applied sulfur dioxide/sulfite is a function of SiR expression levels and that plants with reduced SiR expression exhibit higher sensitivity than the wild type, as manifested in pronounced leaf necrosis and chlorophyll bleaching. The sulfite-sensitive mutants accumulate applied sulfite and show a decline in glutathione levels. In contrast, mutants that overexpress SiR are more tolerant to sulfite toxicity, exhibiting little or no damage. Resistance to high sulfite application is manifested by fast sulfite disappearance and an increase in glutathione levels. The notion that SiR plays a role in the protection of plants against sulfite is supported by the rapid up-regulation of SiR transcript and activity within 30 min of sulfite injection into Arabidopsis and tomato leaves. Peroxisomal sulfite oxidase transcripts and activity levels are likewise promoted by sulfite application as compared with water injection controls. These results indicate that, in addition to participating in the sulfate assimilation reductive pathway, SiR also plays a role in protecting leaves against the toxicity of sulfite accumulation. PMID:23221833

  15. Paraheliotropism can protect water-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants against photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Pastenes, Claudio; Porter, Victor; Baginsky, Cecilia; Horton, Peter; González, Javiera

    2004-12-01

    In order to estimate the importance of leaf movements on photosynthesis in well-watered and water-stressed field grown bean cultivars (Arroz Tuscola (AT), Orfeo INIA (OI), Bayos Titan (BT), and Hallados Dorado (HD)), CO2 assimilation, leaf temperature, and capacity for the maximum quantum yield recovery, measured as Fv/Fm, were assessed. Leaf water potential was lower in water-stressed compared to control plants throughout the day. Water status determined a decrease in the CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance as light intensity and temperature increased up to maximal intensities at midday. Both parameters were lower in stressed compared to control plants. Even though high light intensity and water-stress induced stomatal closure is regarded as a photoinhibitory condition, the recovery of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) after 30min of darkness was nearly constant in both water regimes. In fact, higher values were observed in OI and AT when under stress. Photochemical and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching resulted in minor changes during the day and were similar between watered and stressed plants. It is concluded that paraheliotropism, present in the four bean cultivars, efficiently protects stressed plants from photoinhibition in the field and helps maintain leaf temperatures far below the ambient temperatures, however, it may also be responsible for low CO2 assimilation rates in watered plants. PMID:15658802

  16. Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, A.; Talukder, F. A.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F1 adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F1 adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

  17. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Koch, J; Tadmor, J

    1988-06-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area. PMID:3378897

  18. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.; Tadmor, J.

    1988-06-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area.

  19. Gene Flow Assessment for Plant-Incorporated Protectants by the Biopesticide and Pollution Prevention Division, U.S. EPA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris A. Wozniak

    The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act directs the U.S. EPA to examine all potentially adverse environmental impacts, including those which may arise from gene flow of plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs) to wild or feral populations of sexually compatible plants. In addition to this mandate, the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act requires the issuance of a food tolerance or exemption

  20. "Built-In" Plant Protection: Screening Azalea Cultivars for Resistance to the Azalea Lace Bug, Stephanitis pyrioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Azalea Lace bug (ALB) are a major pest of azaleas in the southeast. Adults and nymphs cause visible damage on the upper leaf surface. Host plant resistance to ALB provides “built-in” plant protection and allows for reduced dependency on pesticide applications for both growers and consumers. We have...

  1. Cold Protection of Landscape Plants1 Sydney Park Brown, Dewayne L. Ingram, and Thomas H. Yeager2

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    ENH1 Cold Protection of Landscape Plants1 Sydney Park Brown, Dewayne L. Ingram, and Thomas H/IFAS Extension. Winter temperatures in Florida are frequently low enough to cause cold injury to tropical plants may be more susceptible to cold injury. Types of Freezes - Radiational and Advective Freezes can

  2. Flora, life forms and chorotypes of plants of Salok protected area (North Khorassan Province Iran).

    PubMed

    Nadaf, M; Mortazavi, M; Halimi, M Khalilabad

    2011-01-01

    Salok protected Area is located in the 37 degrees 15' to 37 degrees 08' of the North latitude and 57 degrees 16' to 57 degrees 06' of East longitude, in West North Esfarayen in North khorassan province. In this research 52 families, 174 genera and 213 species were identified. The largest plant family is Asteraceae (34 species), Poaceae (18 species), Brassicaceae (17 species) and Fabaceae (17 species), respectively. Chief life forms are Hemicryptopytes (49.29%), Therophytes 23.47% and cryptophytes (12.67%). The most of plants chorotype with 62.91% is influenced by Irano-Touranina elements. Among 213 identified species of this region and 15 species endemic of Iran contain 0.87% of total endemic species of Iran's flora. PMID:21913495

  3. ICPP Fluorinel Dissolution Process (FDP) Plant Protection System (PPS) baseline criteria evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.W.; Clayton, R.J.; Fielding, K.D.; Mozes, M.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report documents a baseline criteria evaluation of the FAST Plant Protection System (PPS) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), Computer Process Application (CPA) personnel originally prepared this report as requested by the FAST Fluorinel Dissolution Process (FDP) Operational Readiness Review (ORR) committee. It was required by the ORR committee for the 1992 restart of FDP operations. However on April 29, 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) directed WINCO to discontinue reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at the ICPP. This eliminated the mission of the FDP. The report includes an evaluation of the PPS against criteria requested by the ORR committee and against criteria contained in the WINCO PPS Requirements Manual. This second criteria evaluation is summarized in Appendix A.

  4. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid ?-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid ? (A?) peptide. A? is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds’ aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on A? (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the Folin–Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against A?-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on A?-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in A?-induced HIPN. RESULTS: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from A? treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the A?-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. CONCLUSION: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against A?-mediated cell death. PMID:23833520

  5. Protective Immune Response to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus with VP1 Expressed in Transgenic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, C.; Wigdorovitz, A.; Oliveros, J. C.; Zamorano, P. I.; Sadir, A. M.; Gómez, N.; Salinas, J.; Escribano, J. M.; Borca, M. V.

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported recently that genes encoding antigens of bacterial and viral pathogens can be expressed in plants in a form in which they retain native immunogenic properties. The structural protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which has frequently been shown to contain critical epitopes, has been expressed in different vectors and shown to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies and protection in experimental and natural hosts. Here we report the production of transformed plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing VP1. Mice immunized with leaf plant extracts elicited specific antibody responses to synthetic peptides representing amino acid residues 135 to 160 of VP1, to VP1 itself, and to intact FMDV particles. Additionally, all of the immunized mice were protected against challenge with virulent FMDV. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing protection against a viral disease by immunization with an antigen expressed in a transgenic plant. PMID:9445079

  6. Influence des caractristiques physiques du substrat sur les systmes racinaires de plantes ornementales

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'architecture racinaire. Des essais ont été réalisés en minirhizotrons remplis de substrats à caractéristiques physiques of substrate can be also a factor in modifying the root system. Experiments were conducted in minirhizotrons

  7. The role of selenium in protecting plants against prairie dog herbivory: implications for the evolution of selenium hyperaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Colin F; Freeman, John L; Galeas, Miriam L; Klamper, Erin M; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2008-03-01

    Some plants can hyperaccumulate the element selenium (Se) up to 10,000 mg Se kg(-1) dry weight. Hyperaccumulation has been hypothesized to defend against herbivory. In laboratory studies high Se levels protect plants from invertebrate herbivores and pathogens. However, field studies and mammalian herbivore studies that link Se accumulation to herbivory protection are lacking. In this study a combination of field surveys and manipulative field studies were carried out to determine whether plant Se accumulation in the field deters herbivory by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). The Se hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus (two-grooved milkvetch) occurs naturally on seleniferous soils in the Western USA, often on prairie dog colonies. Field surveys have shown that this Se hyperaccumulator is relatively abundant on some prairie dog colonies and suffers less herbivory than other forb species. This protection was likely owing to Se accumulation, as judged from subsequent manipulative field experiments. When given a choice between pairs of plants of the Se hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (prince's plume) that were pretreated with or without Se, prairie dogs preferred to feed on the plants with low Se; the same results were obtained for the non-hyperaccumulator Brassica juncea (Indian mustard). Plants containing as little as 38 mg Se kg(-1) DW were protected from herbivory. Taken together these results shed light on the functional significance of Se hyperaccumulation and the possible selection pressures driving its evolution. They also have implications for the use of plants in Se phytoremediation, or as Se-fortified crops. PMID:18278517

  8. Portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Berardinelli, S.P.; Rusczek, R.A.; Mickelsen, R.L.

    1987-10-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisorpropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals; nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protective clothing for its intended use.

  9. Correlation between Sun Protection Factor and Antioxidant Activity, Phenol and Flavonoid Contents of some Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Enayatifard, Reza; Khalili, Masoumeh; Ghaffarloo, Mahdieh; Saeedi, Majid; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Long exposure of UV radiation increases risk of skin diseases such as cancer and photoallergic reactions. UV-B (280-320 nm) radiation is mainly responsible for inducing the skin problems. Skin protection is a suitable method against ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Various synthetic agents have been used as photo protective but because of their potential toxicity in humans, they have limited usage. Natural substances have been recently considered as potential sunscreen resources due to their absorption in the UV region and their antioxidant activity. In the present study, the UV protective effects of 20 extracts from four common medicinal plants were evaluated. Their phenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities were determined and correlation between SPF and these contents were evaluated. SPFs were between 0.102 and 24.470. The highest value was reached with ultrasonic extract of Crataegus pentagyna (SPF = 24.47) followed by methanolic extract of Feijoa sellowiana (SPF = 1.30). Good correlation was found between SPF and phenolic contents (Correlation Coefficient = 0.55 and p = 0.01) but no correlations were found between SPF and flavonoid contents or antioxidant activity. These extracts can be used alone or as additives in other sun screen formulations to enhance their SPF. PMID:25276206

  10. Challenging the requirement for chronic fish toxicity studies on formulated plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Creton, Stuart; Douglas, Mark; Wheeler, James R; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2010-11-30

    Ecotoxicity testing of pesticide active ingredients and formulated plant protection products (PPPs) prior to their commercial use is required by authorities around the world. Such studies are important for the conduct of risk assessments to protect wildlife and the environment, but they should only be conducted when their use is scientifically justified. One test of questionable scientific merit is the chronic fish toxicity test when conducted with formulated PPPs, which is a potential requirement under European legislation: chronic exposure to the formulated product per se rarely occurs in the environment and therefore it is generally not possible to use the data from chronic formulation studies in a meaningful risk assessment. A recent survey of European crop protection companies to explore the scientific merits and regulatory drivers for chronic fish toxicity studies has shown that current practice in deciding on the need for chronic fish toxicity testing of formulated PPPs varies substantially between companies. The most commonly cited reason for conducting such studies was solely to meet regulatory requirements. We conclude that chronic formulation testing is rarely if ever scientifically justified, and recommend that the forthcoming revision of the EU Aquatic Toxicology Guidance Document takes account of this by including a requirement that justification must be provided for conducting the test, rather than the current situation where the onus is on the registrant to provide a justification for not conducting the test. PMID:20832457

  11. Protective effects of a plant histaminase in myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion injury in vivo.

    PubMed

    Masini, Emanuela; Pierpaoli, Simone; Marzocca, Cosimo; Mannaioni, Pier Francesco; Pietrangeli, Paola; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru; Zelli, Massimo; Federico, Rodolfo; Mondovì, Bruno

    2003-09-19

    Grass pea seedling histaminase (a copper-diamine oxidase) was found to exert a significant cardioprotection against post-ischaemic reperfusion damage. Electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings from the rats subjected in vivo to ischaemia and reperfusion showed ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillations (VF) occurring in 9 out of 12 untreated rats whereas no ventricular arrhythmias were found under histaminase (80U/kg body weight) treatment (n=16 rats). Computer-assisted morphometry of the ischaemic reperfused hearts stained with nitroblue tetrazolium showed the extension of damaged myocardium (area at risk and infarct size) significantly reduced in rats treated with histaminase, in comparison with the non-treated rats, whereas no protection was found with the semicarbazide inactivated histaminase. Biochemical markers of ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial tissue damage: malonyldialdehyde (MDA), tissue calcium concentration, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and apoptosis indicator caspase-3 were significantly elevated in untreated post-ischaemic reperfused rats, but significantly reduced under histaminase protection. In conclusion, plant histaminase appears to protect hearts from ischaemia-reperfusion injury by more than one mechanism, essentially involving histamine oxidation, and possibly as reactive oxygen species scavenger, presenting good perspectives for a novel therapeutic approach in treatment of ischaemic heart pathology. PMID:12951068

  12. Priming by Rhizobacterium Protects Tomato Plants from Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogen Infections through Multiple Defense Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Il-Pyung; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kim, Min Gab; Park, Sang-Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul

    2011-01-01

    A selected strain of rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida strain LSW17S (LSW17S), protects tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Seokwang) from bacterial speck by biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (DC3000) and bacterial wilt by necrotrophic Ralstonia solanacearum KACC 10703 (Rs10703). To investigate defense mechanisms induced by LSW17S in tomato plants, transcription patterns of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and H2O2 production were analyzed in plants treated with LSW17S and subsequent pathogen inoculation. LSW17S alone did not induce transcriptions of employed PR genes in leaves and roots. DC3000 challenge following LSW17S triggered rapid transcriptions of PR genes and H2O2 production in leaves and roots. Catalase infiltration with DC3000 attenuated defense-related responses and resistance against DC3000 infection. Despite depriving H2O2 production and PR1b transcription by the same treatment, resistance against Rs10703 infection was not deterred significantly. H2O2 is indispensable for defense signaling and/or mechanisms primed by LSW17S and inhibition of bacterial speck, however, it is not involved in resistance against bacterial wilt. PMID:21710203

  13. Predation and aggressiveness in host plant protection: a generalization using ants from the genus Azteca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Grangier, Julien; Leroy, Céline; Orivel, Jerôme

    2009-01-01

    In studying the ant genus Azteca, a Neotropical group of arboreal species, we aimed to determine the extent to which the ants use predation and/or aggressiveness to protect their host plants from defoliating insects. We compared a territorially dominant, carton-nester, Azteca chartifex, and three plant-ant species. Azteca alfari and Azteca ovaticeps are associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) and their colonies shelter in its hollow branches; whereas Azteca bequaerti is associated with Tococa guianensis (Melastomataceae) and its colonies shelter in leaf pouches situated at the base of the laminas. Whereas A. bequaerti workers react to the vibrations transmitted by the lamina when an alien insect lands on a leaf making it unnecessary for them to patrol their plant, the workers of the three other species rather discover prey by contact. The workers of all four species use a predatory behaviour involving spread-eagling alien insects after recruiting nestmates at short range, and, in some cases, at long range. Because A. alfari and A. ovaticeps discard part of the insects they kill, we deduced that the workers’ predatory behaviour and territorial aggressiveness combine in the biotic defence of their host tree.

  14. Nanomaterials in plant protection and fertilization: current state, foreseen applications, and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-10-01

    Scientific publications and patents on nanomaterials (NM) used in plant protection or fertilizer products have exponentially increased since the millennium shift. While the United States and Germany have published the highest number of patents, Asian countries released most scientific articles. About 40% of all contributions deal with carbon-based NM, followed by titanium dioxide, silver, silica, and alumina. Nanomaterials come in many diverse forms (surprisingly often ?100 nm), from solid doped particles to (often nonpersistent) polymer and oil-water based structures. Nanomaterials serve equally as additives (mostly for controlled release) and active constituents. Product efficiencies possibly increased by NM should be balanced against enhanced environmental NM input fluxes. The dynamic development in research and its considerable public perception are in contrast with the currently still very small number of NM-containing products on the market. Nanorisk assessment and legislation are largely in their infancies. PMID:22963545

  15. Plant protection product residues in red grapes and Teran PTP wine.

    PubMed

    Baša ?esnik, Helena; Velikonja Bolta, Špela; Lisjak, Klemen

    2015-06-01

    Between 2011 and 2013, a total of 73 grape and 82 wine samples from winegrowing district Kras (Karst) were analysed for plant protection product (PPP) residues. The samples were analysed for the presence of 215 different active compounds using two multiresidual analytical methods: gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Residues were found in 91.8% of all grape samples and in 67.1% of all wine samples. In all grape samples, residues were below maximum residue levels (MRLs) and 58.9% of all grape samples contained active substances at a level of less then 10% of the MRL. Nearly 33% of all Teran PTP wines did not contain PPP residues at all. Residues diminish during processing of grapes to wine, so their content in wine was low. Therefore, it could be concluded that grapes and wine in the winegrowing district Kras are safe for consumers. PMID:25559701

  16. Benefits of protective fencing to plant and rodent communities of the western Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Matthew L.

    1995-01-01

    Human disturbance in the western Mojave Desert takes many forms. The most pervasive are livestock grazing and off-highway vehicle use. Over the past few decades several areas within this region have been fenced to preclude human disturbance. These areas provide opportunities to study the impact of human activities in a desert ecosystem. This paper documents the response of plant and small mammal populations to fencing constructed between 1978 and 1979 at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural Area, Kern County, California. Aboveground live annual plant biomass was generally greater inside than outside the fenced plots during April 1990, 1991, and 1992. The alien grass Schismus barbatus was a notable exception, producing more biomass in the unprotected area. Forb biomass was greater than that of alien annual grasses inside the fence during all three years of the study. Outside the fence, forb biomass was significantly higher than that of alien grasses only during spring 1992. Percent cover of perennial shrubs was higher inside the fence than outside, while no significant trend was detected in density. There was als more seed biomass inside the fence; this may have contributed to the greater diversity and density of Merriam's kangaroo rats ( Dipodomys merriami), long-tailed pocket mice ( Chaetodipus formosus), and southern grasshopper mice ( Onychomys torridus) in the protected area. These results show that protection from human disturbance has many benefits, including greater overall community biomass and diversity. The significance and generality of these results can be further tested by studying other exclosures of varying age and configurations in different desert regions of the southwestern United States.

  17. Side effects of plant protection products and biological interactions on the European earwig Forficula auricularia L.

    PubMed

    Peusens, G; Moerkens, R; Beliën, T; Gobin, B

    2009-01-01

    Plant protection products are designed to control pests but can have negative side effects on non-target arthropods thus disturbing the important population of natural enemies required for biological control. Although the European earwig, Forficula auricularia L, (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) is not considered to be a key beneficial in pome fruit, it is an important predator of several pests, e.g. woolly apple aphid and pear sucker. The impact of non-selective plant protection products at crucial moments in their (univoltine) life cycle can be of significant relevance compared to insects with numerous generations. Foliar applications in spring when nymphs are migrating into the trees can reduce the number of adults in summer and subsequently affect the population size next year. Multiple and/or combined spraying during summer on adults may have a cumulative effect resulting in less over wintering females which possibly exhibit poor reproductive performance. Previous residual contact bioassays already revealed the harmful side effect of several formulated products on adults. Insects showing sub lethal symptoms recovered partially or died eventually. As spinosad caused significant toxicological effects it was subsequently tested in 3 different dose rates on adults and N4-nymphs. We noticed not only a clear dose-response relationship but N4-nymphs proved to be more susceptible than adults; even a dilution of 1/9-th of the registered dose rate still caused a mortality of 45.5 % after 20 days. Understanding the earwig's population dynamics is essential for efficient practical biocontrol. It proves difficult to increase population levels to sufficient high numbers for optimal pest control. Local biological factors might be limiting. Therefore, we tested two hypotheses that pertain to population limitation: 1. Bird predation during summer, 2. Small mammal nest predation during winter. Enclosure experiments showed no negative bird effect on earwig densities unless large bird flocks inhabited the area. Small mammals did not actively predate the over wintering nests, although other predatory arthropods may be important. PMID:20222599

  18. Protective effects of three extracts from Antarctic plants against ultraviolet radiation in several biological models.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Betina Kappel; Rosa, Renato Moreira; da Silva, Juliana; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Oliveira, Iuri Marques de; Ianistcki, Martus; Benvegnú, Vinícius Cosmos; Furtado, Gabriel Vasata; Ferraz, Alexandre; Richter, Marc François; Schroder, Nádia; Pereira, Antônio Batista; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2009-08-01

    The photoprotective effect of the methanolic extracts of three Antarctic plant species - Deschampsia antarctica Desv., Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl., and Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. against UV-induced DNA damage was investigated in hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells) and in a biomonitor organism Helix aspersas, using comet assay. The protective, mutagenic, and antimutagenic profiles of these extracts were also evaluated using haploid strains of the simple eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and antioxidant activity were investigated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay, as well as the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay. At the concentration range employed, the extracts were not cytotoxic or mutagenic to S. cerevisiae. In addition, the treatment with these extracts enhanced survival, and decreased induced reverse, frameshift, and forward mutations in a dose-response manner in all UVC doses employed. The plants extracts did not generate DNA strand breaks in V79 cells, and the treatment significantly decreased DNA damage induced by UVC. Extracts significantly decreased UVC-induced lipid peroxidation in V79 cells, showing a clear antioxidant property. Moreover, results of comet assay in V79 cells, employing Fpg, Endo III, and Endo V enzymes, demonstrated significant reduction of UVC-induced DNA damage after pre-incubation with these extracts. The treatment with all tested extracts were much less efficient against UVC-induced cytotoxicity in the yeast strain defective in photolyase as compared to the wild type strain, suggesting that this DNA repair pathway is stimulated by substances present in the extracts. All extracts showed a significant inhibitory effect in the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay, and they had the ability to scavenge DPPH. In H. aspersas, the treatment was able to protect against UVC-induced damage. In conclusion, D. antarctica, C. quitensis, and P. juniperinum extracts present photoprotective properties, which can be attributed to molecules, such as flavonoids and carotenoids, which act as UV-absorbing molecules and as antioxidants, as well as stimulate DNA-repair processes. PMID:19464923

  19. Protected air-cooled condenser for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Louison, R.; Boardman, C.E.

    1981-05-29

    The long term residual heat removal for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is accomplished through the use of three protected air-cooled condensers (PACC's) each rated at 15M/sub t/ following a normal or emergency shutdown of the reactor. Steam is condensed by forcing air over the finned and coiled condenser tubes located above the steam drums. The steam flow is by natural convection. It is drawn to the PACC tube bundle for the steam drum by the lower pressure region in the tube bundle created from the condensing action. The concept of the tube bundle employs a unique patented configuration which has been commercially available through CONSECO Inc. of Medfore, Wisconsin. The concept provides semi-parallel flow that minimizes subcooling and reduces steam/condensate flow instabilities that have been observed on other similar heat transfer equipment such as moisture separator reheaters (MSRS). The improved flow stability will reduce temperature cycling and associated mechanical fatigue. The PACC is being designed to operate during and following the design basis earthquake, depressurization from the design basis tornado and is housed in protective building enclosure which is also designed to withstand the above mentioned events.

  20. Ralits et perspectives de la lutte biologique contre les maladies des plantes (*)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Sclerotinia, Protection croisée. Rhizoctonia, Verticillium ou autres parasites. En conjuguant l'action de control agents (such as Trichoderma ), attacks by Rhizoctonia, Sclerotium, Sclerotinia, Verticillium

  1. Proanthocyanidin as a cytogenetic protective agent against adverse effects of plant growth regulators supplementation in rats.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hanaa A; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of grape seed extract (containing proanthocyandin) against the adverse effects of plant growth regulators (GA3 (gibberellic acid) and IAA (indoleacetic acid)). The present data showed that the administration of either GA3 and IAA caused undesirable changes in both hepatic and testicular structure. This was evidenced by a disturbed hepatic strands, pyknotic nuclei, central vein with collapsed endothelium, dilatation in bile sinusoids, congested blood vessel, binucleatd hepatocytes, lymphocytic infiltration, vacuolation, giant hepatic cells, increased Kupffer cells and karyoryxis. Additionally, it was shown that degenerative changes in the testis, spermatogenic arrest, moderate tubular necrosis, Leydig cell degeneration and reduction in the number and size of the seminiferous tubules with some spermatogonia detached from the basement membrane. Concerning flow cytometric study of the liver a significant decrease in G0/1 % and a significant increase in S phase %, G2/M  %, P(53) % and apoptosis % (sub G1) were detected. However, in testis the data recorded a significant decrease in the percentage of mature sperm (percentage of haploid cells) and a significant increase in the percentage of spermatide, diploid cells, P(53) and of apoptotic cells. On the other hand, a distinct recovery of the mentioned hepatic and testicular histopathological and cytogenetic disorders was observed when proanthocyanidin was supplemented to rats administered either of the plant growth hormones (GA3 and IAA). PMID:23900525

  2. Environment protection and energy production in the municipality of Bolzano`s new refuse incineration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cipriani, U. [Ecocenter SPA, Bolzano (Italy); Pranghofer, G.G. [W.L. Gore and Associates GmbH, Putzbrunn, Bavaria (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    The municipal solid waste incinerator of Bolzano is owned by Commune di Bolzano, Italy, and operated by a private organization (association of 50 communities) named Ecocenter SPA. The paper gives a broad perspective on the history and performance of the incineration plant. Six years of operation experience with Line 1 has influenced the design of the newly built line, which was commissioned in January 1995. Each line is designed for the combustion of 5 to 8 tons of municipal waste per hour. The combustion capacity of the plant is defined by the calorific value of the waste (LHV 1,500 to 2,500 kcal/kg) and the thermal capacity of the boiler (12,500,000 kcal/h). Regardless of the EEC-legislation for environmental protection, which possibly will come into force initially in 1996, the Authorities of the Provincia di Bolzano decided to upgrade Line 1 and to design the new line to follow the regulations of the German 17. BImSchV (Federal Immission Control Act).

  3. Leaf volatile compounds and the distribution of ant patrollingin an ant-plant protection mutualism: Preliminary results on Leonardoxa (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) and Petalomyrmex (Formicidae: Formicinae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carine Brouat; Doyle McKey; Jean-Marie Bessière; Laurence Pascal; Martine Hossaert-McKey

    2000-01-01

    While observations suggest that plant chemicals could be important in maintaining the specificity and permitting the functioning of ant-plant symbioses, they have been little studied. We report here the strongest evidence yet for chemical signalling between ants and plants in a specific ant-plant protection symbiosis. In the mutualism between Leonardoxa africana subsp. africana and Petalomyrmex phylax, ants continuously patrol young

  4. A plant-produced protective antigen vaccine confers protection in rabbits against a lethal aerosolized challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores

    PubMed Central

    Chichester, Jessica A.; Manceva, Slobodanka D.; Rhee, Amy; Coffin, Megan V.; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Mett, Vadim; Shamloul, Moneim; Norikane, Joey; Streatfield, Stephen J.; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2013-01-01

    The potential use of Bacillus anthracis as a bioterrorism weapon threatens the security of populations globally, requiring the immediate availability of safe, efficient and easily delivered anthrax vaccine for mass vaccination. Extensive research efforts have been directed toward the development of recombinant subunit vaccines based on protective antigen (PA), the principal virulence factor of B. anthracis. Among the emerging technologies for the production of these vaccine antigens is our launch vector-based plant transient expression system. Using this system, we have successfully engineered, expressed, purified and characterized full-length PA (pp-PA83) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using agroinfiltration. This plant-produced antigen elicited high toxin neutralizing antibody titers in mice and rabbits after two vaccine administrations with Alhydrogel. In addition, immunization with this vaccine candidate protected 100% of rabbits from a lethal aerosolized B. anthracis challenge. The vaccine effects were dose-dependent and required the presence of Alhydrogel adjuvant. In addition, the vaccine antigen formulated with Alhydrogel was stable and retained immunogenicity after two-week storage at 4°C, the conditions intended for clinical use. These results support the testing of this vaccine candidate in human volunteers and the utility of our plant expression system for the production of a recombinant anthrax vaccine. PMID:23324615

  5. Some lessons on radiological protection learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Kai

    2012-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant released a large quantity of radioactive iodine and caesium into the environment. In terms of radiological protection, the evacuation and food restrictions that were adopted in a timely manner by the authorities effectively reduced the dose received by people living in the affected area. Since late March, the transition from an

  6. Characteristics of organization execution of groundwater protection for elimination of failure consequences at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, N.V., Zhivoderov, V.N.

    1994-07-01

    The writers describe the organization, methods, and work execution for construction of an antifiltration diaphragm wall intended to protect groundwater and subsurface flow of the Pripyat` River against radioactive contamination during elimination of the consequences of the failure of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.

  7. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Khan; H. Tan; J. W. Baum; B. J. Dionne

    1990-01-01

    One of the functions of the ALARA Center is to collect and disseminate information on dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is the fifth report in the series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA that the center publishes periodically. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches

  8. Hanford Waste Simulants Created to Support the Research and Development on the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.E.

    2001-07-26

    The development of nonradioactive waste simulants to support the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant bench and pilot-scale testing is crucial to the design of the facility. The report documents the simulants development to support the SRTC programs and the strategies used to produce the simulants.

  9. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...525 E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from the requirement of...

  10. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...525 E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from the requirement of...

  11. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...525 E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from the requirement of...

  12. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...525 E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from the requirement of...

  13. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...525 E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from the requirement of...

  14. Leaf-cutting ant nests near roads increase fitness of exotic plant species in natural protected areas.

    PubMed

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Ghermandi, Luciana

    2008-06-22

    Understanding the mechanisms that promote the invasion of natural protected areas by exotic plants is a central concern for ecology. We demonstrated that nests of the leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex lobicornis, near roadsides promote the abundance, growth and reproduction of two exotic plant species, Carduus nutans and Onopordum acanthium, in a national park in northern Patagonia, Argentina and determine the mechanisms that produce these effects. Refuse dumps (RDs) from ant nests have a higher nutrient content than nearby non-nest soils (NNSs); foliar nutrient content and their 15N isotopic signature strongly suggest that plants reach and use these nutrients. Both species of exotic plants in RDs were 50-600% more abundant; seedlings had 100-1000% more foliar area and root and leaf biomass; and adult plants produced 100-300% more seeds than nearby NNS plants. Plants can thus gain access to and benefit from the nutrient content of ant RD, supporting the hypotheses that enhanced resource availability promotes exotic plant performance that could increase the likelihood of biological invasions. The two exotics produce an estimated of 8385000 more seeds ha(-1) in areas with ant nests compared with areas without; this exceptional increase in seed production represents a potential threat to nearby non-invaded communities. We propose several management strategies to mitigate this threat. Removal efforts of exotics should be focused on ant RDs, where plants are denser and represent a higher source of propagules. PMID:18364316

  15. Protective effects of selected medicinal plants against protein degradation, lipid peroxidation and deformability loss of oxidatively stressed human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Suboh, S M; Bilto, Y Y; Aburjai, T A

    2004-04-01

    The effects of seven medicinal plants including Artemisia herba-alba, Ferula hermonis, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Nigella sativa, Teucrium polium, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Allium sativum on protein degradation, lipid peroxidation, erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes exposed in vitro to 10 mM H(2)O(2) for 60 min at 37 degrees C have been examined. Preincubation of erythrocytes with Nigella sativa and Allium sativum protected erythrocytes against protein degradation, loss of deformability and increased osmotic fragility caused by H(2)O(2), while the other plants failed to protect erythrocytes against these damages. Artemisia herba-alba did not protect erythrocytes against lipid peroxidation, while Trigonella foenum-graecum unexpectedly increased lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes exposed to H(2)O(2). Ferula hermonis, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Nigella sativa, Teucrium polium and Allium sativum protected erythrocytes against lipid peroxidation. The results indicate the importance of oxidatively damaged cellular proteins in compromising the rheologic behaviour of the erythrocytes, and that the medicinal plants which have anti-protein-oxidant activity (e.g. Nigella sativa and Allium sativum) could be rheologically useful, particularly in pathological conditions related to free radicals. PMID:15162361

  16. A bivalent vaccine against goat pox and Peste des Petits ruminants induces protective immune response in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madhusudan Hosamani; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Bimalendu Mondal; Arnab Sen; V. Bhanuprakash; Santanu Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Mahendra Pal Yadav; Raj Kumar Singh

    2006-01-01

    Safety and immunogenicity of an experimental combined vaccine comprising attenuated strains of Peste des Petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and goat poxvirus (GTPV) was evaluated in goats. Goats immunized subcutaneously with 1ml of vaccine consisting of 103TCID50 of each of PPRV and GTPV were monitored for clinical and serological responses for a period of 4 weeks postimmunization (pi) and postchallenge (pc).

  17. Decommissioning a phosphoric acid production plant: a radiological protection case study.

    PubMed

    Stamatis, V; Seferlis, S; Kamenopoulou, V; Potiriadis, C; Koukouliou, V; Kehagia, K; Dagli, C; Georgiadis, S; Camarinopoulos, L

    2010-12-01

    During a preliminary survey at the area of an abandoned fertilizer plant, increased levels of radioactivity were measured at places, buildings, constructions and materials. The extent of the contamination was determined and the affected areas were characterized as controlled areas. After the quantitative and qualitative determination of the contaminated materials, the decontamination was planned and performed step by step: the contaminated materials were categorized according to their physical characteristics (scrap metals, plastic pipes, scales and residues, building materials, etc) and according to their level of radioactivity. Depending on the material type, different decontamination and disposal options were proposed; the most appropriate technique was chosen taking into account apart from technical issues, the legal framework, radiation protection issues, the opinion of the local authorities involved as well as the owner's wish. After taking away the biggest amount of the contaminated materials, an iterative process consisting of surveys and decontamination actions was performed in order to remove the residual traces of contamination from the area. During the final survey, no residual surface contamination was detected; some sparsely distributed low level contaminated materials deeply immersed into the soil were found and removed. PMID:20813440

  18. Monitoring of systemic exposure to plant protection products and DNA damage in orchard workers.

    PubMed

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Kyriakopoulou, Katerina; Emmanouil, Christina; Tsantila, Nektaria; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Souki, Helen; Manakis, Sotiris; Machera, Kyriaki

    2012-04-25

    The systemic exposure of plum tree growers and operators to plant protection products (PPPs) and effects on DNA were assessed. Specifically, a GC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the analysis of serum samples for the presence of seven active substances of PPPs. The analytical results verified the presence of myclobutanil, propargite, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in 7 out of 19 serum samples. The incidence of DNA damage was monitored using the single cell electrophoresis assay (comet assay). A paired Student's t-test revealed a statistically significant increase of SSBs in the blood samples collected at the end of the cropping period as compared to the samples collected from the same subjects before the start of PPPs application period. Moreover, the group of seven subjects with detectable serum pesticides levels revealed statistically significant increase of SSBs as compared to the group of subjects with no detectable PPP levels. The results of the present study demonstrate that the agriculture workers may exhibit detectable level of systemic exposure to the applied PPPs which are correlated to increased DNA damage during the cultivation period. PMID:22115631

  19. Audit of construction of protective force training facilities at the Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-05

    A goal of the Department of Energy project management system is to ensure that projects are necessary to fulfill mission needs and are cost effective. This requires that the Department justify each project and explore competitive alternatives. The objective of this audit was to assess the need to construct protective force training facilities at the Department`s Pantex Plant. Our audit disclosed that (1) construction of a physical training facility was not necessary to fulfill mission needs, and (2) the Department did not consider all viable alternatives to constructing a weapons tactics and training facility. These conditions occurred, in part, because a Justification for New Start was never prepared and approved for the Security Enhancements Major System Acquisition, which included these two projects. We recommended that the Manager, Albuquerque Operations Office, cancel construction of the physical training facility, make needed repairs and upgrades to the existing facilities, and reduce the cost of the Security Enhancements Major System Acquisition accordingly. Implementation of this recommendation will save about $1.7 million. We also recommended that the Manager direct Mason & Hanger to perform economic analyses of all viable alternatives to constructing a weapons tactics and training facility before proceeding with construction. Such analyses could lead to cancellation or rescoping of the proposed facility and result in savings to the Department. Albuquerque management did not agree to cancel construction of the physical training facility, but did agree to perform economic analyses of all viable alternatives to the proposed weapons tactics and training facility before proceeding with construction.

  20. Transgenic plants expressing a functional single-chain Fv antibody are specifically protected from virus attack

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paraskevi Tavladoraki; Eugenio Benvenuto; Stefania Trinca; Domenico de Martinis; Antonino Cattaneo; Patrizia Galeffi

    1993-01-01

    EXPRESSION of viral genes in transgenic plants is a very effective tool for attenuating plant viral infection1-3. Nevertheless, the lack of generality and risk issues related to the expression of viral genes in plants4 might limit the exploitation of this strategy. Expression in plants of antibodies against essential viral proteins could provide an alternative approach to engineer viral resistance. Recently,

  1. Protecting against water loss: analysis of the barrier properties of plant cuticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Riederer; Lukas Schreiber

    2001-01-01

    The cuticle is the major barrier against uncontrolled water loss from leaves, fruits and other primary parts of higher plants. More than 100 mean values for water permeabilities determined with isolated leaf and fruit cuticles from 61 plant species are compiled and discussed in relation to plant organ, natural habitat and morphology. The maximum barrier prop- erties of plant cuticles

  2. Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) development survivorship and damage on cotton plants expressing insecticidal plant-incorporated protectants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), plants expressing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner are planted on significant acreage across the Southern region of the United States. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), can be a significant cotton pest in ...

  3. Overexpression of Superoxide Dismutase Protects Plants from Oxidative Stress' lnduction of Ascorbate Peroxidase in Superoxide Dismutase-Overexpressing Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashima Sen Gupta; Robert P. Webb; A. Scott Holaday; Randy D. Allen

    Photosynthesis of leaf discs from transgenic tobacco plants (Ni- cotiana tabacum) that express a chimeric gene that encodes chlo- roplast-localized Cu\\/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD+) was pro- tected from oxidative stress caused by exposure to high light intensity and low temperature. Under the same conditions, leaf discs of plants that did not express the pea SOD isoform (SOD-) had substantially lower

  4. Role of Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip) IV Transcription Factors in Plant Development and Plant Protection from Deleterious Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Chew, William; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2013-01-01

    Homeobox genes comprise an important group of genes that are responsible for regulation of developmental processes. These genes determine cell differentiation and cell fate in all eukaryotic organisms, starting from the early stages of embryo development. Homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom. Members of the HD-Zip IV subfamily have a complex domain topology and can bind several cis-elements with overlapping sequences. Many of the reported HD-Zip IV genes were shown to be specifically or preferentially expressed in plant epidermal or sub-epidermal cells. HD-Zip IV TFs were found to be associated with differentiation and maintenance of outer cell layers, and regulation of lipid biosynthesis and transport. Insights about the role of these proteins in plant cuticle formation, and hence their possible involvement in plant protection from pathogens and abiotic stresses has just started to emerge. These roles make HD-Zip IV proteins an attractive tool for genetic engineering of crop plants. To this end, there is a need for in-depth studies to further clarify the function of each HD-Zip IV subfamily member in commercially important plant species. PMID:23584027

  5. The effect of size and acetylation degree of chitosan derivatives on tobacco plant protection against Phytophthora parasitica nicotianae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro B. Falcón; Juan Carlos Cabrera; Daimy Costales; Miguel Angel Ramírez; Gustavo Cabrera; Verónica Toledo; Miguel Angel Martínez-Téllez

    2008-01-01

    Enzymatic degradation of chitosan polymer with Pectinex Ultra SPL was used to obtain derivatives with biological potential\\u000a as protective agents against Phytophthora parasitica nicotianae (Ppn) in tobacco plants. The 24 h hydrolysate showed the highest Ppn antipathogenic activity and the chitosan native polymer the lowest. The in vitro growth inhibition of several Phytophthora parasitica strains by two chitosans of different DA was

  6. The Material Protection, Control and Accounting Sustainability Program Implementation at the Electrochemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sirotenko, Vladimir; Antonov, Eduard; Sirotenko, Alexei; Kukartsev, Alexander; Krivenko, Vladimir; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Esther M.

    2008-06-10

    Joint efforts by the Electrochemical Plant (ECP) in Zelenogorsk, Russia, and the United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (US DOE/NNSA) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program to upgrade ECP security systems began in 1996. The commissioning of major MPC&A systems at ECP occurred in December 2004. Since that time, the US Project Team (USPT) and ECP personnel have focused jointly on the development and implementation of an enterprise-wide MPC&A Sustainability Program (SP) that address the seven essential MPC&A Program sustainability elements. This paper describes current operational experience at the ECP with the full implementation of the site SP utilizing an earned-value methodology. In support of this site program, ECP has established a Document Control Program (DCP) for sustainability-related documents; developed a robust master Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) that outlines all ECP MPC&A sustainability activities; and chartered an Enterprise-Wide Sustainability Working Group (ESWG) The earned value methodology uses ECP-completed (and USPT-verified) analyses to assess project performance on a quarterly basis. The MPC&A SP, presently operational through a contract between ECP and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), incorporates the seven essential MPC&A Program sustainability elements and governs all sustainability activities associated with MPC&A systems at ECP. The site SP is designed to ensure over the near term the upgraded MPC&A systems continuous operation at ECP as funding transitions from US-assisted to fully Russian supported and sustained.

  7. Year-round behaviour of soil microarthropod communities under plant protection product application.

    PubMed

    Vaj, Claudia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Vighi, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The use of plant protection products (PPPs) in agro-environments can lead to undesired exposure of non-target organisms in non-target compartments. A year-round field survey was conducted in a vineyard in Northern Italy, for monitoring the changes in the structure of soil microarthropod communities under the application of PPPs, focusing on springtails and mites, both inside and 4 and 10 m outside the vineyard. Exposure to PPPs was estimated as time-weighted average soil concentrations. The fluctuations in the abundances of the different organisms after the application of PPPs, especially insecticides, were recorded. A recovery in abundances was observed at the end of the productive season outside the field and at the beginning of the next spring within the vineyard. Using multivariate statistical tools, the behaviour of each taxon in relation to the stressors was assessed. Some organisms were affected by the stressors, while others were favoured because of low vulnerability to PPPs and the indirect effect of the absence of other taxa. The principal response curves (PRC) method was the most sensitive tool for assessing PPP effects on soil arthropod communities. Strong differences were evident in the structure of the communities inside and outside the vineyard, with the communities sampled 4 and 10 m outside the vineyard being fairly similar, the latter considered as control. The role of physical stressors on community composition is recognised. However, chemical stressors, and in particular PPP exposure seemed to have larger effects on structural and functional characteristics of soil arthropod communities than physical stressors. PMID:24671560

  8. Rythmes de croissance et de rgnration des racines de plants et boutures de chnes pdonculs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    plants et boutures de jeunes chênes pédonculés (Qtftvcus yedunculntcr Ehrh.) élevés en minirhizotrons différents types de boutures enracinées en minirhizotrons (RiEDACKF,IZ, 1974), afin de pouvoir mesurer leur'Amancc, près de Nancy. Les minirhizotrons de 1,5 m de long étaient enterrés dans le sol, inclinés à 45&dquo; et

  9. Performances des plantes herbacées forestières dans la dispersion de leurs graines par la fourmi Myrmica ruginodis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Émilie Delatte; Olivier Chabrerie

    2008-01-01

    We compared the ability of 33 plant species collected in forest to have their seeds dispersed by the wood red ant Myrmica ruginodis. The elaiosome-bearing seeds (species Chelidonium majus, Colchicum autumnale, Luzula forsteri, Viola reichenbachiana, Luzula multiflora, Melica uniflora) and the small and light caryopses of the grasses (Holcus mollis, Agrostis capillaris, Deschampsia flexuosa, Poa trivialis, Holcus lanatus) are the

  10. Protective efficacy of a single immunization with capripoxvirus-vectored recombinant peste des petits ruminants vaccines in presence of pre-existing immunity.

    PubMed

    Caufour, Philippe; Rufael, Tesfaye; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Lancelot, Renaud; Kidane, Menbere; Awel, Dino; Sertse, Tefera; Kwiatek, Olivier; Libeau, Geneviève; Sahle, Mesfin; Diallo, Adama; Albina, Emmanuel

    2014-06-24

    Sheeppox, goatpox and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) are highly contagious ruminant diseases widely distributed in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Capripoxvirus (CPV)-vectored recombinant PPR vaccines (rCPV-PPR vaccines), which have been developed and shown to protect against both Capripox (CP) and PPR, would be critical tools in the control of these important diseases. In most parts of the world, these disease distributions overlap each other leaving concerns about the potential impact that pre-existing immunity against either disease may have on the protective efficacy of these bivalent rCPV-PPR vaccines. Currently, this question has not been indisputably addressed. Therefore, we undertook this study, under experimental conditions designed for the context of mass vaccination campaigns of small ruminants, using the two CPV recombinants (Kenya sheep-1 (KS-1) strain-based constructs) developed previously in our laboratory. Pre-existing immunity was first induced by immunization either with an attenuated CPV vaccine strain (KS-1) or the attenuated PPRV vaccine strain (Nigeria 75/1) and animals were thereafter inoculated once subcutaneously with a mixture of CPV recombinants expressing either the hemagglutinin (H) or the fusion (F) protein gene of PPRV (10(3) TCID50/animal of each). Finally, these animals were challenged with a virulent CPV strain followed by a virulent PPRV strain 3 weeks later. Our study demonstrated full protection against CP for vaccinated animals with prior exposure to PPRV and a partial protection against PPR for vaccinated animals with prior exposure to CPV. The latter animals exhibited a mild clinical form of PPR and did not show any post-challenge anamnestic neutralizing antibody response against PPRV. The implications of these results are discussed herein and suggestions made for future research regarding the development of CPV-vectored vaccines. PMID:24837763

  11. An Investigation of Two Modes of Plant Protection by the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma virens 

    E-print Network

    Crutcher, Frankie

    2012-02-14

    The biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens is an avirulent symbiont with the ability to control plant disease by the production of antibiotic compounds, induction of plant resistance to pathogens, and mycoparasitism of other ...

  12. An update on polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), a leucine-rich repeat protein that protects crop plants against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kalunke, Raviraj M; Tundo, Silvio; Benedetti, Manuel; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall proteins that inhibit the pectin-depolymerizing activity of polygalacturonases secreted by microbial pathogens and insects. These ubiquitous inhibitors have a leucine-rich repeat structure that is strongly conserved in monocot and dicot plants. Previous reviews have summarized the importance of PGIP in plant defense and the structural basis of PG-PGIP interaction; here we update the current knowledge about PGIPs with the recent findings on the composition and evolution of pgip gene families, with a special emphasis on legume and cereal crops. We also update the information about the inhibition properties of single pgip gene products against microbial PGs and the results, including field tests, showing the capacity of PGIP to protect crop plants against fungal, oomycetes and bacterial pathogens. PMID:25852708

  13. A design project to evaluate the protective device settings for an industrial plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan Moghbelli; Ken Groen; Ted Zaplatosch; Timothy Skvarenina

    1993-01-01

    Results of an undergraduate student project to perform a short-circuit and coordination study for a major industrial plant are presented in the form of a tutorial. The plant was supplied by parallel 34.4 kV lines from the utility which was reduced to 4.16 kV and distributed to five, dual-fed substations within the plant. Expansion of the plant required the addition

  14. Rangeland Watershed Management for Texans: Know Your Plants to Protect Your Watershed 

    E-print Network

    Rector, Barron S.

    2000-10-30

    Plants are the foundation of the range ecosystem. The plant species growing on a property can indicate the health of the watershed and the success of the land manager. Learn how to "read your plants to understand the effect of your management....

  15. Modeling diffuse sources of surface water contamination with plant protection products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendland, Sandra; Bock, Michael; Böhner, Jürgen; Lembrich, David

    2015-04-01

    Entries of chemical pollutants in surface waters are a serious environmental problem. Among water pollutants plant protection products (ppp) from farming practice are of major concern not only for water suppliers and environmental agencies, but also for farmers and industrial manufacturers. Lost chemicals no longer fulfill their original purpose on the field, but lead to severe damage of the environment and surface waters. Besides point-source inputs of chemical pollutants, the diffuse-source inputs from agricultural procedures play an important and not yet sufficiently studied role concerning water quality. The two most important factors for diffuse inputs are erosion and runoff. The latter usually occurs before erosion begins, and is thus often not visible in hindsight. Only if it has come to erosion, it is obvious to expect runoff in foresight at this area, too. In addition to numerous erosion models, there are also few applications to model runoff processes available. However, these conventional models utilize approximations of catchment parameters based on long-term average values or theoretically calculated concentration peaks which can only provide indications to relative amounts. Our study aims to develop and validate a simplified spatially-explicit dynamic model with high spatiotemporal resolution that enables to measure current and forecast runoff potential not only at catchment scale but field-differentiated. This method allows very precise estimations of runoff risks and supports risk reduction measures to be targeted before fields are treated. By focusing on water pathways occurring on arable land, targeted risk reduction measures like buffer strips at certain points and adapted ppp use can be taken early and pollution of rivers and other surface waters through transported pesticides, fertilizers and their products could be nearly avoided or largely minimized. Using a SAGA-based physical-parametric modeling approach, major factors influencing runoff (relief, soil properties, weather conditions and crop coverage) are represented. Water balance parameters are modeled in daily steps, taking into account relief determined discharge pathways, runoff velocity and number of field boundaries passed until receiving streams are reached. Model development is based on a comprehensive monitoring campaign at 3 smaller catchments in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), equipped with two gauges each, upstream and downstream, an optical Trios probe and four Isco-Samplers. The temporal high resolution monitoring of discharge, ppp, orthophosphate and nitrate-nitrogen enables an evaluation of runoff simulations in relation with rain events. First model results suggest that the simulation of surface runoff pathways enables a spatial-explicit identification of fields contributing to pollutant inputs. We assume that targeted actions on few fields will help solving the problem of diffuse inputs of ppp in our surface water to a considerable extent.

  16. Predators indirectly protect tundra plants by reducing herbivore Peter A. Hamback, Lauri Oksanen, Per Ekerholm, A sa Lindgren, Tarja Oksanen and Michael Schneider

    E-print Network

    Oksanen, Lauri

    Predators indirectly protect tundra plants by reducing herbivore abundance Peter A. Hamba¨ck, Lauri., Ekerholm, P., Lindgren, A° ., Oksanen, T. and Schneider, M. 2004. Predators indirectly protect tundra cascades are rare in terrestrial habitats. To examine the potential of trophic cascades in a shrubby tundra

  17. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Auclair, K. D.

    2002-02-25

    This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order to produce first glass in 2007. The Waste Treatment Plant is a large complex project that is driven by both technology and contractual requirements. It is also part of a larger overall mission, as a component of the River Protection Project, which is driven by programmatic requirements and regulatory, legal, and fiscal constraints. These issues are further complicated by the fact that both of the major contractors involved have a different contract type with DOE, and neither has a contract with the other. This combination of technical and programmatic drivers, constraints, and requirements will continue to provide challenges and opportunities for improvement and optimization. The Bechtel National, Inc. team is under contract to engineer, procure, construct, commission and test the Waste Treatment Plant on or ahead of schedule, at or under cost, and with a throughput capacity equal to or better than specified. The Department of Energy is tasked with the long term mission of waste retrieval, treatment, and disposal. While each mission is a compliment and inextricably linked to one another, they are also at opposite ends of the spectrum, in terms of expectations of one another. These mission requirements, that are seemingly in opposition to one another, pose the single largest challenge and opportunity for optimization: one of balance. While it is recognized that design maturation and optimization are the normal responsibility of any engineering firm responsible for any given project, the aspects of integrating requirements and the management of issues across contract boundaries is a more difficult matter. This aspect, one of a seamless systems approach to the treatment of tank wastes at the Hanford site, is the focus of the Optimization Studies. This ''big O''Optimization of Life-Cycle operations is what is meant when the term ''optimization'' is used on the River Protection Project and initiatives cited in this paper. From the early contractor centric methods and processes used to move toward an integrated solution, through extensive partnering approaches, to the current quality initiatives with multi-organizational participation, significant progress is being made towards achieving the goal of truly integrated life-cycle optimization for the Department of Energy's River Protection Project and Waste Treatment Plant.

  18. Inactivated recombinant plant virus protects dogs from a lethal challenge with canine parvovirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan P. M Langeveld; Frank R Brennan; Jorge L Mart??nez-Torrecuadrada; Tim D Jones; Ronald S Boshuizen; Carmen Vela; J. Ignacio Casal; Søren Kamstrup; Kristian Dalsgaard; Rob H Meloen; Mary M Bendig; William D. O Hamilton

    2001-01-01

    A vaccine based upon a recombinant plant virus (CPMV-PARVO1), displaying a peptide derived from the VP2 capsid protein of canine parvovirus (CPV), has previously been described. To date, studies with the vaccine have utilized viable plant chimaeric particles (CVPs). In this study, CPMV-PARVO1 was inactivated by UV treatment to remove the possibility of replication of the recombinant plant virus in

  19. Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Trás-os-Montes, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered. Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs. PMID:22112242

  20. Probabilistic evaluation of fire protection features found in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Azarm, M.A.; Boccio, J.L.; Ruger, C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a method which can be used to evaluate, on a relative basis, the NRC Fire Protection (FP) guidelines as found in Section 9.5.1 (Fire Protection) of the Standard Review Plan (SRP). The approach, a hybrid of existing physical models for fire propagation determinations and probabilistic models for fire-mitigation system reliability, can potentially be used as an adjunct to the present fire safety review process.

  1. The Plant Variety Protection Act: Information for Texas Small Grain Producers 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Steve; Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    by the PVPA. Clear understanding of the PVPA, of Title V and of utility patents and their applications is essential for everyone involved in purchasing, conditioning or selling seed. Because a considerable amount of confusion exists about the PVPA and its... V. ? Utility Patents: Such patents protect certain varieties containing specific genes, usually developed through genetic engineering or biotechnology. Farmers may not save, clean/condition, or sell any seed protected under a utility patent...

  2. Investigation of aerosol kinetics in the protective envelope when analyzing accidental emissions at nuclear plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Ivkov; M. A. Zatevakhin; V. V. Bezlepkin; S. E. Semashko; A. A. Ignatiev

    2010-01-01

    The course of an unanticipated accident with serious damage to the core is characterized by the emission of a large quantity\\u000a of radioactive materials into the first loop and then into the space inside the protective shell. The majority of the fission\\u000a products enter the protective shell in the form of radioactive aerosols, whose leakage largely determines the consequences\\u000a of

  3. Plant-derived human acetylcholinesterase-R provides protection from lethal organophosphate poisoning and its chronic aftermath

    PubMed Central

    Evron, Tama; Geyer, Brian C.; Cherni, Irene; Muralidharan, Mrinalini; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Fletcher, Samuel P.; Soreq, Hermona; Mor, Tsafrir S.

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutically valuable proteins are often rare and/or unstable in their natural context, calling for production solutions in heterologous systems. A relevant example is that of the stress-induced, normally rare, and naturally unstable “read-through” human acetylcholinesterase variant, AChE-R. AChE-R shares its active site with the synaptic AChE-S variant, which is the target of poisonous organophosphate anticholinesterase insecticides such as the parathion metabolite paraoxon. Inherent AChE-R overproduction under organophosphate intoxication confers both short-term protection (as a bioscavenger) and long-term neuromuscular damages (as a regulator). Here we report the purification, characterization, and testing of human, endoplasmic reticulum-retained AChE-RER produced from plant-optimized cDNA in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. AChE-RER purified to homogeneity showed indistinguishable biochemical properties, with IC50 = 10?7 M for the organophosphate paraoxon, similar to mammalian cell culture-derived AChE. In vivo titration showed dose-dependent protection by intravenously injected AChE-RER of FVB/N male mice challenged with a lethal dose of paraoxon, with complete elimination of short-term clinical symptoms at near molar equivalence. By 10 days postexposure, AChE-R prophylaxis markedly limited postexposure increases in plasma murine AChE-R levels while minimizing the organophosphate-induced neuromuscular junction dismorphology. Our findings present plant-produced AChE-RER as a bi-modal agent, conferring both short- and long-term protection from organophosphate intoxication. PMID:17475919

  4. The contribution of a planted roof to the thermal protection of buildings in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ekaterini Eumorfopoulou; Dimitris Aravantinos

    1998-01-01

    Planted roofs contribute positively to the improvement of the thermal performance of a building. They block solar radiation, and reduce daily temperature variations and thermal ranges between winter and summer. In this paper, a calculation has been done, using a stationary method, in order to determine the thermal behaviour of the planted roof and the way it influences the thermal

  5. PARTICIPATION OF CHITIN SPECIFIC ISOFORMS OF PEROXIDASE IN PROTECTIVE REACTION OF PLANTS INFECTED BY PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are interested in how isoforms of peroxidases may influence the cotton plant's resistance to pathogens. Cotton is a member of the Malvaceae and we have been investigating the resistance of wild members of the Malvaceae to the plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Using electrophoresis, we have obs...

  6. High light intensity protects photosynthetic apparatus of pea plants against exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Romanowska, E; Wróblewska, B; Drozak, A; Siedlecka, M

    2006-01-01

    The electron transport rates and coupling factor activity in the chloroplasts; adenylate contents, rates of photosynthesis and respiration in the leaves as well as activity of isolated mitochondria were investigated in Pisum sativum L. leaves of plants grown under low or high light intensity and exposed after detachment to 5 mM Pb(NO(3))(2). The presence of Pb(2+) reduced rate of photosynthesis in the leaves from plants grown under the high light (HL) and low light (LL) conditions, whereas the respiration was enhanced in the leaves from HL plants. Mitochondria from Pb(2+) treated HL-leaves oxidized glycine at a higher rate than those isolated from LL leaves. ATP content in the Pb-treated leaves increased to a greater extend in the HL than LL grown plants. Similarly ATP synthase activity increased markedly when chloroplasts isolated from control and Pb-treated leaves of HL and LL grown plants were subjected to high intensity light. The presence of Pb ions was found inhibit ATP synthase activity only in chloroplasts from LL grown plants or those illuminated with low intensity light. Low light intensity during growth also lowered PSI electron transport rates and the Pb(2+) induced changes in photochemical activity of this photosystem were visible only in the chloroplasts isolated from LL grown plants. The activity of PSII was influenced by Pb ions on similar manner in both light conditions. This study demonstrates that leaves from plants grown under HL conditions were more resistant to lead toxicity than those obtained from the LL grown plants. The data indicate that light conditions during growth might play a role in regulation of photosynthetic and respiratory energy conservation in heavy metal stressed plants by increasing the flexibility of the stoichiometry of ATP to ADP production. PMID:16814557

  7. Adaptive mechanisms of insect pests against plant protease inhibitors and future prospects related to crop protection: a review.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria L R; de Oliveira, Caio F R; Costa, Poliene M; Castelhano, Elaine C; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2015-01-01

    The overwhelming demand for food requires the application of technology on field. An important issue that limits the productivity of crops is related to insect attacks. Hence, several studies have evaluated the application of different compounds to reduce the field losses, especially insecticide compounds from plant sources. Among them, plant protease inhibitors (PIs) have been studied in both basic and applied researches, displaying positive results in control of some insects. However, certain species are able to bypass the insecticide effects exerted by PIs. In this review, we disclosed the adaptive mechanisms showed by lepidopteran and coleopteran insects, the most expressive insect orders related to crop predation. The structural aspects involved in adaptation mechanisms are presented as well as the newest alternatives for pest control. The application of biotechnological tools in crop protection will be mandatory in agriculture, and it will be up to researchers to find the best candidates for effective control in long-term. PMID:25329404

  8. Cotton plants transformed with a bacterial degradation gene are protected from accidental spray drift damage by the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce R. Lyon; Yvonne L. Cousins; Danny J. Llewellyn; Elizabeth S. Dennis

    1993-01-01

    The agronomic performance of broad leaved crop plants such as cotton would be greatly improved if genetically-engineered resistance to broadleaf herbicides could both protect the plants from accidental spray drift damage and allow the suppression of problem broadleaf weeds by chemical means. Followingin vitro modification and the addition of plant expression signals, the gene for 2,4-D monooxygenase, a bacterial enzyme

  9. A method for rapid production of heteromultimeric protein complexes in plants: assembly of protective bluetongue virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Thuenemann, Eva C; Meyers, Ann E; Verwey, Jeanette; Rybicki, Edward P; Lomonossoff, George P

    2013-09-01

    Plant expression systems based on nonreplicating virus-based vectors can be used for the simultaneous expression of multiple genes within the same cell. They therefore have great potential for the production of heteromultimeric protein complexes. This work describes the efficient plant-based production and assembly of Bluetongue virus-like particles (VLPs), requiring the simultaneous expression of four distinct proteins in varying amounts. Such particles have the potential to serve as a safe and effective vaccine against Bluetongue virus (BTV), which causes high mortality rates in ruminants and thus has a severe effect on the livestock trade. Here, VLPs produced and assembled in Nicotiana benthamiana using the cowpea mosaic virus-based HyperTrans (CPMV-HT) and associated pEAQ plant transient expression vector system were shown to elicit a strong antibody response in sheep. Furthermore, they provided protective immunity against a challenge with a South African BTV-8 field isolate. The results show that transient expression can be used to produce immunologically relevant complex heteromultimeric structures in plants in a matter of days. The results have implications beyond the realm of veterinary vaccines and could be applied to the production of VLPs for human use or the coexpression of multiple enzymes for the manipulation of metabolic pathways. PMID:23647743

  10. A review of the nest protection hypothesis: does inclusion of fresh green plant material in birds' nests reduce parasite infestation?

    PubMed

    Scott-Baumann, James F; Morgan, Eric R

    2015-07-01

    The use of aromatic plants and their essential oils for ectoparasite treatment is a field of growing interest. Several species of birds regularly introduce aromatic herbs into their nests putatively to reduce parasites. The behaviour is most often seen in cavity nesting birds and after nest building has finished. The plants are included in a non-structural manner and are often strongly aromatic. Various different hypotheses have been proposed regarding the function of this behaviour; from the plants altering some non-living factor in the nest (crypsis, water loss and insulation hypotheses) to them being involved in mate selection (mate hypothesis) or even having a beneficial effect, direct or indirect, on chicks (drug or nest protection hypothesis, NPH). Many studies have been carried out over the years observing and experimentally testing these hypotheses. This review focuses on studies involving the most popular of these hypotheses, the NPH: that plants decrease nest parasites or pathogens, thereby conveying positive effects to the chicks, allowing the behaviour to evolve. Studies providing observational evidence towards this hypothesis and those experimentally testing it are discussed. PMID:25804728

  11. Molecular Tools for Plant Protection, True-to-Name Verification and Parentage Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA-based tools are available to improve ornamental plant cultivars through accelerated breeding and other practical applications. Highlights include examples where DNA fingerprints identified mislabeled cultivars, verified the renaming of cultivars and demonstrated some similar-looking cultivars ar...

  12. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: SIDESTREAMS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance problems at publicly-owned treatment works are often attributed to the recycling of sidestreams generated in the wastewater treatment and sludge handling systems. Although the volumes of these sidestreams are generally small compared to plant influent flows, sidestrea...

  13. UV-B damage and protection at the molecular level in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Åke Strid; WahSoon Chow; Jan M. Anderson

    1994-01-01

    Influx of solar UV-B radiation (280–320 nm) will probably increase in the future due to depletion of stratospheric ozone. In plants, there are several targets for the deleterious UV-B radiation, especially the chloroplast. This review summarizes the early effects and responses of low doses of UV-B at the molecular level. The DNA molecules of the plant cells are damaged by

  14. Improving explosion protection methods for industrial processes : the collaborative project DELFINE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Improving explosion protection methods for industrial processes : the collaborative project DELFINE (Evolution des méthodes de protection des procédés industriels contre les effets des explosions : le projet in industrial enclosures, which may alter drastically the explosion violence. The DELFINE installation presently

  15. Aqueous extract of some indigenous medicinal plants inhibits glycation at multiple stages and protects erythrocytes from oxidative damage-an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tupe, Rashmi S; Sankhe, Neena M; Shaikh, Shamim A; Phatak, Devyani V; Parikh, Juhi U; Khaire, Amrita A; Kemse, Nisha G

    2015-04-01

    Azadirachta indica, Emblica officinalis, Syzygium cumini and Terminalia bellirica are common in Indian system of traditional medicine for the prevention of diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively and comparatively investigate the antiglycation potential of these plant extracts at multiple stages and their possible protective effect against glycated albumin mediated toxicity to erythrocytes. Antiglycation activities of these plant extracts was measured by co-incubation of plant extract with bovine serum albumin-fructose glycation model. The multistage glycation markers- fructosamines (early stage), protein carbonyls (intermediate stage) and AGEs (late stage) are investigated along with measurement of thiols and ? aggregation of albumin using amyloid-specific dyes-Congo red and Th T. Protection of erythrocytes from glycated albumin induced toxicity by these plant extracts was assessed by measuring erythrocytes hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and intracellular antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics, reducing power and antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were also measured. In vitro glycation assays showed that plant extracts exerted site specific inhibitory effects at multiple stages, with T. bellirica showing maximum attenuation. In erythrocytes, along with the retardation of glycated albumin induced hemolysis and lipid-peroxidation, T. bellirica considerably maintained cellular antioxidant potential. Significant positive correlations were observed between erythrocyte protection parameters with total phenolics. These plant extracts especially T. bellirica prevents glycation induced albumin modifications and subsequent toxicity to erythrocytes which might offer additional protection against diabetic vascular complications. PMID:25829572

  16. Plant polyphenols effectively protect HaCaT cells from ultraviolet C-triggered necrosis and suppress inflammatory chemokine expression.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Saveria; Potapovich, Alla; Kostyuk, Vladimir; Mariani, Valentina; Lulli, Daniela; De Luca, Chiara; Korkina, Liudmila

    2009-08-01

    Oxidative stress is a common response of epidermal cells to a variety of noxious stimuli such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation from solar light and proinflammatory cytokines from skin-infiltrating leukocytes. Here, we report that two types of plant-derived antioxidants, the phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside as well as the flavonoids rutin and quercetin possess protective effects against UVC-induced cell damage and proinflammatory activation. The molecules under investigation were effective against the loss of cell integrity associated with necrosis in doses consistent with their antioxidant activity, whereas they did not significantly oppose UVC-induced proliferation arrest and apoptosis. By contrast, only verbascoside effectively inhibited cytokine-induced release of proinflammatory mediators in a dose-dependent fashion. Verbascoside and its homologue teupolioside dramatically impaired NF-kappaB and AP-1 DNA binding activity. These results suggest that plant polyphenols with antioxidant properties have distinct mechanisms in the suppression of oxidative stress induced in keratinocytes by different stimuli. Verbascoside and teupolioside are hence of potential interest in the protection of the skin from both environmental and inflammatory insults. PMID:19723070

  17. 75 FR 14496 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Protections for the Grizzly Bear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...Reinstatement of Protections for the Grizzly Bear in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem in...ESA), as amended, for the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the Greater...surrounding area. This rule corrects the grizzly bear listing to reinstate the listing of...

  18. Geoheritage, Geodiversity and natural landscape enhanced and protected through anthropogenic activity: a case study using the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne Fault, Afar and Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Hagos, Miruts; Guilbaud, Marie-Noelle

    2015-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage (WH) committee called in 2014 for all thematic geological and volcanological studies to be revised in light of a widening gap between current dogma and the progressive geoheritage science views. We discuss question of natural sites and anthropogenic activity. The Chaîne des Puys and Limagne fault UNESCO WH project is the basis of this presentation, but we also the Afar Region of Ethiopia and UNAM campus, Mexico City. It is now difficult to find any totally 'natural' (devoid of human influence) landscape. This very definition of natural ignores that humankind is a geological force, and humans are part of the natural process. The UNESCO WH guidelines recognise this in paragraph 90: 'it is recognized that no area is totally pristine and that all natural areas are in a dynamic state, and to some extent involve contact with people'. A geological landscape, may be large enough to accommodate human occupation without significantly changing landforms: this is the case of the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne fault. Human activity works in some ways to protect geological landscape: regulating vegetation and erosion. The aesthetic nature of humans may work to enhance the landscape's visibility by organisation of land use, and ceremonial use based on the sense of place. Humans also exercise economic activity such as quarrying and mining, which if uncontrolled can seriously modify a landscape. However, isolated works may not have an impact, or may even enhance the value of the site by uncovering geological features that would not naturally be seen. In the Chaîne des Puys only 0,3% of the land surface has been worked by artisanal methods and certain sites, like the Lemptégy volcano have been extracted with the view of enhancing the landscape's scientific value without detracting from the aesthetic. The site preserves its natural, scientific and aesthetic qualities, because of the human presence. The local population have always been and continue to be the guardians of the exceptional universal value of the site. The Afar is an example of anthropogenic influence on a natural site, where traditional salt extraction has no impact on a natural site constantly renewed by the environmental activity renews the landscape. Introducing modern usage however requires greater levels of protection, and closer monitoring. UNAM campus is urban, but small pockets of superbly preserved lava from the Xitle volcano provide an opportunity to observe an important natural hazard in the heart of the city. This example shows how resistant natural features are at a small scale. In conclusion, it is clear that anthropogenic influences on landscape are omnipresent and the definition of natural landscape as devoid of any human presence has little meaning. Human activity needs to be acknowledged to be an essential part of geodiversity. The current revisions called for by UNESCO ask the geoscience community to take a greater part in this process, and our community should use this opportunity to make a stronger impact in the world heritage process.

  19. Recombinant adenovirus expressing the haemagglutinin of Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) protects goats against challenge with pathogenic virus; a DIVA vaccine for PPR.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Rebecca; Baron, Jana; Batten, Carrie; Baron, Michael; Taylor, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that can cause severe disease in sheep and goats, characterised by pyrexia, pneumo-enteritis, and gastritis. The socio-economic burden of the disease is increasing in underdeveloped countries, with poor livestock keepers being affected the most. Current vaccines consist of cell-culture attenuated strains of PPRV, which induce a similar antibody profile to that induced by natural infection. Generation of a vaccine that enables differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would benefit PPR control and eradication programmes, particularly in the later stages of an eradication campaign and for countries where the disease is not endemic. In order to create a vaccine that would enable infected animals to be distinguished from vaccinated ones (DIVA vaccine), we have evaluated the immunogenicity of recombinant fowlpox (FP) and replication-defective recombinant human adenovirus 5 (Ad), expressing PPRV F and H proteins, in goats. The Ad constructs induced higher levels of virus-specific and neutralising antibodies, and primed greater numbers of CD8+ T cells than the FP-vectored vaccines. Importantly, a single dose of Ad-H, with or without the addition of Ad expressing ovine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or ovine interleukin-2, not only induced strong antibody and cell-mediated immunity but also completely protected goats against challenge with virulent PPRV, 4 months after vaccination. Replication-defective Ad-H therefore offers the possibility of an effective DIVA vaccine. PMID:24568545

  20. Recombinant adenovirus expressing the haemagglutinin of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) protects goats against challenge with pathogenic virus; a DIVA vaccine for PPR

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that can cause severe disease in sheep and goats, characterised by pyrexia, pneumo-enteritis, and gastritis. The socio-economic burden of the disease is increasing in underdeveloped countries, with poor livestock keepers being affected the most. Current vaccines consist of cell-culture attenuated strains of PPRV, which induce a similar antibody profile to that induced by natural infection. Generation of a vaccine that enables differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would benefit PPR control and eradication programmes, particularly in the later stages of an eradication campaign and for countries where the disease is not endemic. In order to create a vaccine that would enable infected animals to be distinguished from vaccinated ones (DIVA vaccine), we have evaluated the immunogenicity of recombinant fowlpox (FP) and replication-defective recombinant human adenovirus 5 (Ad), expressing PPRV F and H proteins, in goats. The Ad constructs induced higher levels of virus-specific and neutralising antibodies, and primed greater numbers of CD8+ T cells than the FP-vectored vaccines. Importantly, a single dose of Ad-H, with or without the addition of Ad expressing ovine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or ovine interleukin-2, not only induced strong antibody and cell-mediated immunity but also completely protected goats against challenge with virulent PPRV, 4 months after vaccination. Replication-defective Ad-H therefore offers the possibility of an effective DIVA vaccine. PMID:24568545

  1. Plant-synthesized E. coli CFA/I fimbrial protein protects Caco-2 cells from bacterial attachment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Yu, Jie; Henderson, David; Langridge, William H R

    2004-11-25

    A DNA fragment encoding the cholera toxin A2 subunit (CTA2) linked to the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colony forming fimbrial antigen CFA/I was inserted into a plant expression vector containing the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) fused to the rotavirus enterotoxin 22 amino acid epitope NSP422. Anti-CFA/I antibodies recognized a single band of approximately 72-kDa in transformed potato tuber tissue consistent with CFA/I-CTA2 and CTB-NSP4 fusion protein assembly into a cholera holotoxin-like structure. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (GM1 ELISA) indicated that the CFA/I-CTA2 fusion protein bound specific GM1 ganglioside membrane receptors and made up approximately 0.002% of the total soluble tuber protein. Oral immunization of BALB/c mice with transformed tuber tissues generated anti-CFA/I serum and intestinal IgG and IgA secretory antibodies. Attachment of ETEC H10407 to enterocyte-like Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells incubated with antiserum from immunized mice was reduced by 15% in comparison with Caco-2 cells incubated with serum from unimmunized mice. Immunogold staining of bacterial preparations revealed deposition of gold particles on E. coli H10407 fimbria incubated with immune serum but not on fimbria treated with sera from unimmunized mice demonstrating the specificity of antibodies in the immune serum for binding to CFA/I protein containing fimbria. The protection against toxic E. coli binding to Caco-2 cells generated by antisera from mice immunized with plant-synthesized CFA/I antigen demonstrates the feasibility of plant-based multi-component vaccine protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli, rotavirus and cholera, three enteric diseases that together exert the highest levels of child morbidity and mortality in economically emerging countries. PMID:15531041

  2. Methylobacterium-induced endophyte community changes correspond with protection of plants against pathogen attack.

    PubMed

    Ardanov, Pavlo; Sessitsch, Angela; Häggman, Hely; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Plant inoculation with endophytic bacteria that normally live inside the plant without harming the host is a highly promising approach for biological disease control. The mechanism of resistance induction by beneficial bacteria is poorly understood, because pathways are only partly known and systemic responses are typically not seen. The innate endophytic community structures change in response to external factors such as inoculation, and bacterial endophytes can exhibit direct or indirect antagonism towards pathogens. Earlier we showed that resistance induction by an endophytic Methylobacterium sp. in potato towards Pectobacterium atrosepticum was dependent on the density of the inoculum, whereas the bacterium itself had no antagonistic activity. To elucidate the role of innate endophyte communities in plant responses, we studied community changes in both in vitro and greenhouse experiments using various combinations of plants, endophyte inoculants, and pathogens. Induction of resistance was studied in several potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars by Methylobacterium sp. IMBG290 against the pathogens P. atrosepticum, Phytophthora infestans and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by M. extorquens DSM13060 against Gremmeniella abietina. The capacities of the inoculated endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains to induce resistance were dependent on the plant cultivar, pathogen, and on the density of Methylobacterium spp. inoculum. Composition of the endophyte community changed in response to inoculation in shoot tissues and correlated with resistance or susceptibility to the disease. Our results demonstrate that endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains have varying effects on plant disease resistance, which can be modulated through the endophyte community of the host. PMID:23056459

  3. New environmental protection standards for China`s electric power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Chen; J. C. Wu

    1995-01-01

    During the last decade many environmental protection laws, regulations, and standards were issued by the central and local governmental authorities in China with one simple purpose in mind--one ounce of prevention in time is worth one pound of clean-up. China`s rapid economic growth demands a correspondingly fast expansion in its power capacity to meet the challenge. Since the chief energy

  4. An effective seed protection method for planting Zostera marina (eelgrass) seeds: Implications for their large-scale restoration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei-Dong; Fang, Chao; Liu, Jie; Xu, Qiang; Li, Wen-Tao; Liu, Yan-Shan

    2015-06-15

    We describe an innovative method of planting Zostera marina (eelgrass) seeds in which hessian bags filled with high-silted sediments are used as a seed protecting device. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of the method through a field seed-sowing experiment over a three year period. The suitable seed planting density required by the seeds of Z. marina in this method was also investigated. In the spring following seed distribution, seedling establishment rate of Z. marina subjected to different seed densities of 200-500seedsbag(-1) ranged from 16% to 26%. New eelgrass patches from seed were fully developed and well maintained after 2-3years following distribution. The seed planting density of 400seedsbag(-1) may be the most suitable for the establishment of new eelgrass patches. Our results demonstrate that seed-based restoration can be an effective restoration tool and the technique presented should be considered for future large-scale Z. marina restoration projects. PMID:25912265

  5. Protection of equipment from corrosion. [USSR petroluem refinery and petrochemical plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Umutbaev; V. K. Efimova; V. V. Fryazinov; E. A. Sapozhnikova; V. G. Savkova

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the equipment corrosion in process units in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants which is one of the main obstacles to extension of the operating runs between maintenance shutdowns and reductions in the volume and cost of maintenance operations. Of the modern process units in refineries, the most susceptibile to severe corrosion are the primary crude

  6. Effects of ionising radiation exposure on plants, fish and mammals: relevant data for environmental radiation protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Real; S. Sundell-Bergman; J. F. Knowles; D. S. Woodhead; I. Zinger

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop a framework for the assessment of the environmental impact of radiation, it is necessary to establish the relationship between exposure (dose rate, accumulated dose) and the effects that may be induced in plants and animals. With this purpose in mind, the data available on effects induced by ionising radiation in various wildlife groups have been reviewed

  7. NON-TARGET AND ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS CONTAINING PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The risk of unintended and unexpected adverse impacts on non-target organisms and ecosystems is a key issue in environmental risk assessment of PIP crop plants. While there has been considerable examination of the effects of insect resistant crops on certain non-target organisms...

  8. Nuclear power plant fire protection: fire detection (subsystems study Task 2)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    This report examines the adequacy of fire detection in the context of nuclear power plant safety. Topics considered are: (1) establishing area detection requirements, (2) selecting specific detector types, (3) locating and spacing detectors, and (4) performing installation tests and maintenance. Based on a thorough review of fire detection codes and standards and fire detection literature, the report concludes that

  9. Decommissioning a phosphoric acid production plant: a radiological protection case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Stamatis; S. Seferlis; V. Kamenopoulou; C. Potiriadis; V. Koukouliou; K. Kehagia; C. Dagli; S. Georgiadis; L. Camarinopoulos

    2010-01-01

    During a preliminary survey at the area of an abandoned fertilizer plant, increased levels of radioactivity were measured at places, buildings, constructions and materials. The extent of the contamination was determined and the affected areas were characterized as controlled areas. After the quantitative and qualitative determination of the contaminated materials, the decontamination was planned and performed step by step: the

  10. Rangeland Watershed Management for Texans: Know Your Plants to Protect Your Watershed

    E-print Network

    Rector, Barron S.

    2000-10-30

    . Clematis drummondii, for example, is called ?Drummond clematis,? ?Texas virgins-bower,? ?old man?s beard,? ?love in the mist,? ?goat beard,? ?bar- bas de chivato,? and other common names in different parts of Texas. Some native plants have dozens of com...

  11. Potential of entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea to protect potted ornamental plants against Bemisia tabaci during shipping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosoroesa has been evaluated under abiotic conditions similar to those typical for shipping of ornamental plants. When applied to a synchronized population of B. tabaci L4 nymphs on poinsettias, I. fumosorosea induced mortality even in regime of low t...

  12. Protection from phenytoin-induced cognitive deficit by Bacopa monniera, a reputed Indian nootropic plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Divya Vohora; S. N Pal; K. K Pillai

    2000-01-01

    Many epileptic patients suffer from cognitive impairments; both the underlying pathology and antiepileptic drug therapy can cause such deficits. Phenytoin, one of the widely used anticonvulsants, is known to adversely affect cognitive function. A reputed Indian nootropic plant Bacopa monniera (BM) was evaluated alone and in combination with phenytoin for its effect on (a) passive-avoidance (PA) task; (b) maximal electroshock

  13. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Berneski

    2011-12-10

    Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

  14. Acute phytotoxicity of seven metals alone and in mixture: Are Italian soil threshold concentrations suitable for plant protection?

    PubMed

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Ciaccia, Gianluca; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    Metals can pollute soils in both urban and rural areas with severe impacts on the health of humans, plants and animals living there. Information on metal toxicity is therefore important for ecotoxicology. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of different metals frequently found as pollutants in soils: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds were used as models for other plants used in human nutrition such as cereals, rice, fruits and vegetables. The 72-h germination rate and root elongations were selected as short-term ecotoxicological endpoints in seeds exposed to single metals and mixtures. Metals were spiked onto OECD standard soils in concentrations comparable to current Italian contamination threshold concentrations for residential and commercial soils. Arsenic, chromium, mercury and nickel were the most toxic metals in our experimental conditions, particularly to cress seeds (5.172, 152 and 255.4mg/kg as 72h IC50 for arsenic, mercury and nickel respectively). Italian limits were acceptable for plant protection only for exposure to each metal alone but not for the mixtures containing all the metals concentrations expected by their respective legislative threshold. The effects of the mixture were class-specific: trends were comparable in dicots but different in monocots. The response induced by the mixture at high concentrations differed from that theoretically obtainable by summing the effects of the individual metals. This might be due to partial antagonism of the metals in soil or to the formation of complexes between the metals, which reduce the bioavailability of the pollutants for plants. PMID:25841179

  15. Protection of plants from ambient ozone by applications of ethylenediurea (EDU): a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhaozhong; Wang, Shuguang; Szantoi, Zoltan; Chen, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoke

    2010-10-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of ethylenediurea (EDU) on ozone (O3) injury, growth, physiology and productivity of plants grown in ambient air conditions. Results indicated that EDU significantly reduced O3-caused visible injury by 76%, and increased photosynthetic rate by 8%, above-ground biomass by 7% and crop yield by 15% in comparison with non-EDU treated plants, suggesting that ozone reduces growth and yield under current ambient conditions. EDU significantly ameliorated the biomass and yield of crops and grasses, but had no significant effect on tree growth with an exception of stem diameter. EDU applied as a soil drench at a concentration of 200-400 mg/L has the highest positive effect on crops grown in the field. Long-term research on full-grown tree species is needed. In conclusion, EDU is a powerful tool for assessing effects of ambient [O3] on vegetation. PMID:20709436

  16. Effects of Exogenous Nitric Oxide Protects Tomato Plants under Copper Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiumin Cui; Yikai Zhang; Xiuling Chen; Hong Jin; Xiaobin Wu

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) serves as a bioactive molecule involved in antioxidant and anti-stress agent in tolerance responses to abiotic stress. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, on both the ROS metabolism and functions of plasma membrane and tonoplast in tomato plants treated with 50 muM CuCl2. Cu stress induced significant accumulation of H2O2,

  17. Proline induces heat tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants by protecting vital enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Neeru; Gupta, Kriti; Bhandhari, Kalpna; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thakur, Prince; Nayyar, Harsh

    2011-07-01

    Chickpea is a heat sensitive crop hence its potential yield is considerably reduced under high temperatures exceeding 35 °C. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of proline in countering the damage caused by heat stress to growth and to enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism in chickpea. The chickpea seeds were raised without (control) and with proline (10 ?M) at temperatures of 30/25 °C, 35/30 °C, 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C as day/ night (12 h/12 h) in a growth chamber. The shoot and root length at 40/35 °C decreased by 46 and 37 %, respectively over control while at 45/40 °C, a decrease of 63 and 47 %, respectively over control was observed. In the plants growing in the presence of 10 ?M proline at 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C, the shoot length showed improvement of 32 and 53 %, respectively over untreated plants, while the root growth was improved by 22 and 26 %, respectively. The stress injury (as membrane damage) increased with elevation of temperatures while cellular respiration, chlorophyll content and relative leaf water content reduced as the temperature increased to 45/40 °C. The endogenous proline was elevated to 46 ?mol g(-1) dw at 40/35 °C but declined to 19 ?mol g(-1) dw in plants growing at 45/40 °C that was associated with considerable inhibition of growth at this temperature. The oxidative damage measured as malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide content increased manifolds in heat stressed plants coupled with inhibition in the activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase) and levels of non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, glutathione, proline) antioxidants. The enzymes associated with carbon fixation (RUBISCO), sucrose synthesis (sucrose phosphate synthase) and sucrose hydrolysis (invertase) were strongly inhibited at 45/40 °C. The plants growing in the presence of proline accumulated proline up to 63 ?mol g(-1) dw and showed less injury to membranes, had improved content of chlorophyll and water, especially at 45/40 °C. Additionally, the oxidative injury was significantly reduced coupled with elevated levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. A significant improvement was also noticed in the activities of enzymes of carbon metabolism in proline-treated plants. We report here that proline imparts partial heat tolerance to chickpea's growth by reducing the cellular injury and protection of some vital enzymes related to carbon and oxidative metabolism and exogenous application of proline appears to have a countering effect against elevated high temperatures on chickpea. PMID:23573011

  18. Technical evaluation report on the monitoring of electric power to the reactor-protection system for the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Selan, J.C.

    1982-04-26

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the monitoring of electric power to the reactor protection system (RPS) at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2. The evaluation is to determine if the proposed design modification will protect the RPS from abnormal voltage and frequency conditions which could be supplied from the power supplies and will meet certain requirements set forth by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed design modifications with time delays verified by GE, will protect the RPS from sustained abnormal voltage and frequency conditions from the supplying sources.

  19. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  20. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  1. Compositional analysis and in vitro protective activity against oxidative stress of essential oils from egyptian plants used in traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Tarek F; González-Burgos, Elena; Carretero, M Emilia; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar

    2014-09-01

    The Sinai desert in Egypt contains great variability in plants extensively used for traditional medicines such as Achillea fragrantissima, Chiliadenus montanus, Mentha longifolia and Haplophyllum tuberculatum. The essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts have been analyzed. Subsequently, their potential protective activity against oxidative stress has been evaluated, employing H2O2 as oxidant inductor and astrocytes as the cell model. The chemical composition of the essential oils was analyzed by GC/MS. Most of the compounds identified in A. fragrantissima and M. longifolia samples were oxygenated monoterpene derivatives, whereas for H. tuberculatum they were monoterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds, and for C. montanus oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes predominated. The in vitro evaluation of antioxidant properties, using ORAC assay, revealed that M. longifolia essential oil possessed the highest scavenging activity against peroxyl radicals, following by H. tuberculatum, A. fragrantissima and C. montanus. Under oxidative stress conditions, M. longifolia and H. tuberculatum essential oils were the only ones that protected human astrocytoma U373-MG cells against H2O2 damage. Both essential oils prevented cell death and inhibited ROS production caused by H2O2. M. longifolia essential oil was the most active, suggesting an interesting prevention role in those CNS disorders associated with oxidative stress. PMID:25918816

  2. Insect repellent activity of medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles minimus (Theobald) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say based on protection time and biting rate.

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated insect bite protection and length of the protection with 30 repellents which were divided into 3 categories: plant oil, essential oil and essential oil with ethyl alcohol, tested against three mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles minimus and Culex quinquefasciatus, under laboratory conditions. The plant oil group was comprised of Phlai (Zingiber cassumunar) and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Both substances were effective as repellents and feeding deterrents against An. minimus (205 minutes protection time and a biting rate of 0.9%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (165 minutes protection time and 0.9% biting rate) and Ae. aegypti (90 minutes protection time and 0.8% biting rate). Essential oil from citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) exhibited protection against biting from all 3 mosquito species: for An. minimus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, the results were 130 minutes and 0.9%, 140 minutes and 0.8%, and 115 minutes and 0.8%, respectively. The period of protection time against Ae. aegypti for all repellent candidates tested was lower than the Thai Industrial Standards Institute (TISI) determined time of greater than 2 hours. PMID:21073057

  3. Protective potentials of a plant extract (Lycopodium clavatum) on mice chronically fed hepato-carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Surajit; Banerjee, Antara; Paul, Saili; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2009-07-01

    Chronic feeding of carcinogens p-dimethylamino azobenzene (initiator) and phenobarbital (promoter) for 90 and 120 days elevated activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, levels of blood glucose and cortisol and decreased the activities of glutathione reductase, succinate dehydrogenase, and blood cholesterol and hemoglobin contents, and levels of serum estradiol and testosterone in mice. Levels of these biomarkers in both liver and spleen tissues were positively altered along with a significant reduction of tumor incidence in liver of carcinogen intoxicated mice treated with spore extract of Lycopodium clavatum. The results validate the use of this plant extract in complementary and alternative medicines against hepato-toxicity. PMID:19761046

  4. The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Sustainability Program of Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Vakhonin, Alexander; Yuldashev, Rashid; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Eshter M.

    2009-09-30

    UEIP has been working on a comprehensive sustainability program that includes establishing a site sustainability working group, information gathering, planning, organizing, developing schedule and estimated costs, trhough joint UEIP-US DOE/NNSA National Laboratory sustainability contracts. Considerable efforts have been necessary in the sustainability planning, monitoring, and control of the scope of work using tools such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Project and SAP R/3. While information interchanges within the sustainability program provides adequate US assurances that US funds are well spent through its quarterly reporting methodology, proper information security and protection measures are taken throughout the process. Decommissioning of outdated equipment has also become part of determining sustainability requirements and processes. The site’s sustainability program has facilitated the development of a transition plan toward eventual full Russian funding of sustaining nuclear security upgrades.

  5. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and ?-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

  6. Maize Purple Plant Pigment Protects Against Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Damage of Liver and Kidney in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Hiaohong; Wang, Fei; Song, Yingli; Liu, Shengnan; Xi, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanins are polyphenols and well known for their biological antioxidative benefits. Maize purple plant pigment (MPPP) extracted and separated from maize purple plant is rich in anthocyanins. In the present study, MPPP was used to alleviate the adverse effects generated by fluoride on liver and kidney in rats. The results showed that the ultrastructure of the liver and kidney in fluoride treated rats displayed shrinkage of nuclear and cell volume, swollen mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and vacuols formation in the liver and kidney cells. MPPP significantly attenuated these fluoride-induced pathological changes. The MDA levels in serum and liver tissue of fluoride alone treated group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05). The presence of 5 g/kg MPPP in the diet reduced the elevation of MDA levels in blood and liver, and increased the SOD and GSH-Px activities in kidney and GSH level in liver and kidney compared with the fluoride alone treated group (p < 0.05). In addition, MPPP alleviated the decrease of Bcl-2 protein expression and the increase of Bax protein expression induced by fluoride. This study demonstrated the protective role of MPPP against fluoride-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney of rats. PMID:24419046

  7. Unsaturation of very-long-chain ceramides protects plant from hypoxia-induced damages by modulating ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-Juan; Chen, Qin-Fang; Chen, Mo-Xian; Yu, Lu-Jun; Huang, Li; Chen, Liang; Wang, Feng-Zhu; Xia, Fan-Nv; Zhu, Tian-Ren; Wu, Jian-Xin; Yin, Jian; Liao, Bin; Shi, Jianxin; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Aharoni, Asaph; Yao, Nan; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2015-03-01

    Lipid remodeling is crucial for hypoxic tolerance in animals, whilst little is known about the hypoxia-induced lipid dynamics in plants. Here we performed a mass spectrometry-based analysis to survey the lipid profiles of Arabidopsis rosettes under various hypoxic conditions. We observed that hypoxia caused a significant increase in total amounts of phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid and oxidized lipids, but a decrease in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Particularly, significant gains in the polyunsaturated species of PC, PE and phosphatidylinositol, and losses in their saturated and mono-unsaturated species were evident during hypoxia. Moreover, hypoxia led to a remarkable elevation of ceramides and hydroxyceramides. Disruption of ceramide synthases LOH1, LOH2 and LOH3 enhanced plant sensitivity to dark submergence, but displayed more resistance to submergence under light than wild type. Consistently, levels of unsaturated very-long-chain (VLC) ceramide species (22:1, 24:1 and 26:1) predominantly declined in the loh1, loh2 and loh3 mutants under dark submergence. In contrast, significant reduction of VLC ceramides in the loh1-1 loh3-1 knockdown double mutant and lacking of VLC unsaturated ceramides in the ads2 mutants impaired plant tolerance to both dark and light submergences. Evidence that C24:1-ceramide interacted with recombinant CTR1 protein and inhibited its kinase activity in vitro, enhanced ER-to-nucleus translocation of EIN2-GFP and stabilization of EIN3-GFP in vivo, suggests a role of ceramides in modulating CTR1-mediated ethylene signaling. The dark submergence-sensitive phenotypes of loh mutants were rescued by a ctr1-1 mutation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that unsaturation of VLC ceramides is a protective strategy for hypoxic tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:25822663

  8. Can Sacrificial Feeding Areas Protect Aquatic Plants from Herbivore Grazing? Using Behavioural Ecology to Inform Wildlife Management

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kevin A.; Stillman, Richard A.; Daunt, Francis; O’Hare, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor) to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i) food quantity, (ii) food quality, and (iii) the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems. PMID:25077615

  9. Unsaturation of Very-Long-Chain Ceramides Protects Plant from Hypoxia-Induced Damages by Modulating Ethylene Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lu-Jun; Huang, Li; Chen, Liang; Wang, Feng-Zhu; Xia, Fan-Nv; Zhu, Tian-Ren; Wu, Jian-Xin; Yin, Jian; Liao, Bin; Shi, Jianxin; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Aharoni, Asaph; Yao, Nan; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Lipid remodeling is crucial for hypoxic tolerance in animals, whilst little is known about the hypoxia-induced lipid dynamics in plants. Here we performed a mass spectrometry-based analysis to survey the lipid profiles of Arabidopsis rosettes under various hypoxic conditions. We observed that hypoxia caused a significant increase in total amounts of phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid and oxidized lipids, but a decrease in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Particularly, significant gains in the polyunsaturated species of PC, PE and phosphatidylinositol, and losses in their saturated and mono-unsaturated species were evident during hypoxia. Moreover, hypoxia led to a remarkable elevation of ceramides and hydroxyceramides. Disruption of ceramide synthases LOH1, LOH2 and LOH3 enhanced plant sensitivity to dark submergence, but displayed more resistance to submergence under light than wild type. Consistently, levels of unsaturated very-long-chain (VLC) ceramide species (22:1, 24:1 and 26:1) predominantly declined in the loh1, loh2 and loh3 mutants under dark submergence. In contrast, significant reduction of VLC ceramides in the loh1-1 loh3-1 knockdown double mutant and lacking of VLC unsaturated ceramides in the ads2 mutants impaired plant tolerance to both dark and light submergences. Evidence that C24:1-ceramide interacted with recombinant CTR1 protein and inhibited its kinase activity in vitro, enhanced ER-to-nucleus translocation of EIN2-GFP and stabilization of EIN3-GFP in vivo, suggests a role of ceramides in modulating CTR1-mediated ethylene signaling. The dark submergence-sensitive phenotypes of loh mutants were rescued by a ctr1-1 mutation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that unsaturation of VLC ceramides is a protective strategy for hypoxic tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:25822663

  10. Leaching of plant protection products and their transformation products : proposals for improving the assessment of leaching to groundwater in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. T. I. Boesten; Linden van der A. M. A; W. H. J. Beltman; J. W. Pol

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of leaching of plant protection products to groundwater is an important aspect of the environmental risk assessment of these substances. Analysis of available Dutch groundwater monitoring data for these substances triggered a critical review of the current Dutch leaching assessment. As a result, proposals were developed for improving this assessment. These include: (i) a procedure for correcting systematic errors

  11. Selection of areas for protecting rare plants with integration of land use conflicts: A case study for the west coast of Newfoundland, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Nantel; André Bouchard; Luc Brouillet; Stuart Hay

    1998-01-01

    On the west coast of Newfoundland (Canada) about 40% of the provincially rare plant species are not protected within the system of three national parks and two ecological reserves existing in the region. This study examines how heuristic algorithms can be used for selecting areas filling this gap while minimizing potential land use conflicts. One algorithm selected 78 areas of

  12. Influence of Soil Organic Carbon on Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Plant Protection Products to Poecilus cupreus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) Larvae (4 pp)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Heise; Udo Heimbach; Stefan Schrader

    2005-01-01

    Background, Aims and Scope. Variability of results from terrestrial ecotoxicological tests with arthropods demonstrate the importance of understanding the impact of soil composition has on the bioavailability of pollutants. Beside other soil parameters, the organic C content is known to be relevant to bioavailability. The aim of the present paper was to detect lethal and sublethal effects of plant protection

  13. Protection of palak (Beta vulgaris L. var Allgreen) plants from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): roles of biochemical and physiological variations in alleviating the adverse impacts.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Supriya; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2009-06-01

    Ameliorative effects of ethylenediurea (N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolinidyl) ethyl]-N' phenylurea, abbreviated as EDU) against ozone stress were studied on selected growth, biochemical, physiological and yield characteristics of palak (Beta vulgaris L. var Allgreen) plants grown in field at a suburban site of Varanasi, India. Mean eight hourly ozone concentration varied from 52 to 73 ppb which was found to produce adverse impacts on plant functioning and growth characteristics. The palak plants were treated with 300 ppm EDU at 10 days after germination at 10 days interval up to the plant maturity. Lipid peroxidation in EDU treated plants declined significantly as compared to non-EDU treated ones. Significant increment in F(v)/F(m) ratio in EDU treated plants as compared to non-EDU treated ones was recorded. EDU treated plants showed significant increment in ascorbic acid contents and reduction in peroxidase activity as compared to non-EDU treated ones. As a result of the protection provided by EDU against ozone induced stress on biochemical and physiological characteristics of palak, the morphological parameters also responded positively. Significant increments were recorded in shoot length, number of leaves plant(-1), leaf area and root and shoot biomass of EDU treated plants as compared to non-EDU treated ones. Contents of Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe were higher in EDU treated plants as compared to non-EDU treated ones. The present investigation proves the usefulness of EDU in partially ameliorating ozone injury in ambient conditions. PMID:19286241

  14. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anne Barron

    2011-04-14

    What is the cycle plants go through? First use Write out the Plant Cycle Watch the Plant Powerpoint write down what you learned. Next watch the movie Plant Cycle Movie What did you think was interesting? Next, search around on the website and write down facts about plants. LIfe Cycle of Plants Next, play around with the part of the plants http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/lifecycles.htmlFinally learn all about growing a plant. Growing a plant After you are finished come see me ...

  15. Leaf volatile compounds and the distribution of ant patrollingin an ant-plant protection mutualism: Preliminary results on Leonardoxa (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) and Petalomyrmex(Formicidae: Formicinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouat, Carine; McKey, Doyle; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Pascal, Laurence; Hossaert-McKey, Martine

    2000-12-01

    While observations suggest that plant chemicals could be important in maintaining the specificity and permitting the functioning of ant-plant symbioses, they have been little studied. We report here the strongest evidence yet for chemical signalling between ants and plants in a specific ant-plant protection symbiosis. In the mutualism between Leonardoxa africana subsp. africana and Petalomyrmex phylax, ants continuously patrol young leaves, which are vulnerable to attacks by phytophagous insects. We provide experimental evidence for chemical mediation of ant attraction to young leaves in this system. By a comparative analysis of the related non-myrmecophytic tree L. africana subsp. gracilicaulis, we identify likely candidates for attractant molecules, and suggest they may function not only as signals but also as resources. We also propose hypotheses on the evolutionary origin of these plant volatiles, and of the responses to them by mutualistic ants.

  16. Plant Food Delphinidin-3-Glucoside Significantly Inhibits Platelet Activation and Thrombosis: Novel Protective Roles against Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Shi, Zhenyin; Reheman, Adili; Jin, Joseph W.; Li, Conglei; Wang, Yiming; Andrews, Marc C.; Chen, Pingguo; Zhu, Guangheng; Ling, Wenhua; Ni, Heyu

    2012-01-01

    Delphinidin-3-glucoside (Dp-3-g) is one of the predominant bioactive compounds of anthocyanins in many plant foods. Although several anthocyanin compounds have been reported to be protective against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the direct effect of anthocyanins on platelets, the key players in atherothrombosis, has not been studied. The roles of Dp-3-g in platelet function are completely unknown. The present study investigated the effects of Dp-3-g on platelet activation and several thrombosis models in vitro and in vivo. We found that Dp-3-g significantly inhibited human and murine platelet aggregation in both platelet-rich plasma and purified platelets. It also markedly reduced thrombus growth in human and murine blood in perfusion chambers at both low and high shear rates. Using intravital microscopy, we observed that Dp-3-g decreased platelet deposition, destabilized thrombi, and prolonged the time required for vessel occlusion. Dp-3-g also significantly inhibited thrombus growth in a carotid artery thrombosis model. To elucidate the mechanisms, we examined platelet activation markers via flow cytometry and found that Dp-3-g significantly inhibited the expression of P-selectin, CD63, CD40L, which reflect platelet ?- and ?-granule release, and cytosol protein secretion, respectively. We further demonstrated that Dp-3-g downregulated the expression of active integrin ?IIb?3 on platelets, and attenuated fibrinogen binding to platelets following agonist treatment, without interfering with the direct interaction between fibrinogen and integrin ?IIb?3. We found that Dp-3-g reduced phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which may contribute to the observed inhibitory effects on platelet activation. Thus, Dp-3-g significantly inhibits platelet activation and attenuates thrombus growth at both arterial and venous shear stresses, which likely contributes to its protective roles against thrombosis and CVDs. PMID:22624015

  17. The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Process for Managing Equipment Intended for Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Yuldashev, Rashid; Nosov, Andrei; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Dabbs, Richard D.; Ku, Esther M.

    2008-10-01

    Since 1996, the Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) located in the town of Novouralsk, Russia, (previously known as Sverdlovsk-44) and the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) have been cooperating under the Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. Because UEIP is involved in the processing of highly enriched uranium (HEU) into low enriched uranium (LEU), and there are highly enriched nuclear materials on its territory, the main goal of the MPC&A cooperation is to upgrade those systems that ensure secure storage, processing and transportation of nuclear materials at the plant. UEIP has completed key upgrades (equipment procurement and installation) aimed at improving MPC&A systems through significant investments made by both the U.S. DOE and UEIP. These joint cooperative efforts resulted in bringing MPC&A systems into compliance with current regulations, which led to nuclear material (NM) theft risk reduction and prevention from other unlawful actions with respect to them. Upon the U.S. MPC&A project team’s suggestion, UEIP has developed an equipment inventory control process to track all the property provided through the MPC&A Program. The UEIP process and system for managing equipment provides many benefits including: greater ease and efficiency in determining the quantities, location, maintenance and repair schedule for equipment; greater assurance that MPC&A equipment is in continued satisfactory operation; and improved control in the development of a site sustainability program. While emphasizing UEIP’s equipment inventory control processes, this paper will present process requirements and a methodology that may have practical and helpful applications at other sites.

  18. Plant cell death caused by fungal, bacterial, and viral elicitors: protective effect of mitochondria-targeted quinones.

    PubMed

    Kiselevsky, D B; Frolova, O Yu; Solovyev, A G; Dorokhov, Yu L; Morozov, S Yu; Samuilov, V D

    2014-12-01

    Chitosan (partially deacetylated chitin), a component of fungal cell walls, caused epidermal cell (EC) death in the leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and tobacco Nicotiana tabacum or Nicotiana benthamiana detected by destruction of cell nuclei. The mitochondria-targeted quinone SkQ1 prevented the destruction of EC nuclei induced by chitosan. Chitosan increased and SkQ1 suppressed the activity of protein kinases in N. benthamiana and P. sativum and eliminated the effect of chitosan. Chitosan induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the guard cells (GC) of pea plants. Treatment with chitosan or H2O2 did not cause destruction of GC nuclei; however, it resulted in disruption of the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane detected by propidium iodide fluorescence. Treatment with bacterial lipopolysaccharide but not peptidoglycan caused destruction of pea EC nuclei, which was prevented by SkQ1. Leaves of tobacco plants containing the N gene responsible for resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were infiltrated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells. These cells contained a genetic construct with the gene of the helicase domain of TMV replicase (p50); its protein product p50 is a target for the N-gene product. As a result, the hypersensitive response (HR) was initiated. The HR manifested itself in the death of leaves and was suppressed by SkQ3. Treatment of tobacco epidermal peels with the A. tumefaciens cells for the p50 gene expression stimulated the destruction of EC nuclei, which was inhibited by SkQ1 or SkQ3. The p50-lacking A. tumefaciens cells did not induce the destruction of EC nuclei. The protective effect of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants SkQ1 and SkQ3 demonstrates the involvement of mitochondria and their ROS in programmed cell death caused by pathogen elicitors. PMID:25716725

  19. Plant-Based Vaccine: Mice Immunized with Chloroplast-Derived Anthrax Protective Antigen Survive Anthrax Lethal Toxin Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Koya, Vijay; Moayeri, Mahtab; Leppla, Stephen H.; Daniell, Henry

    2005-01-01

    The currently available human vaccine for anthrax, derived from the culture supernatant of Bacillus anthracis, contains the protective antigen (PA) and traces of the lethal and edema factors, which may contribute to adverse side effects associated with this vaccine. Therefore, an effective expression system that can provide a clean, safe, and efficacious vaccine is required. In an effort to produce anthrax vaccine in large quantities and free of extraneous bacterial contaminants, PA was expressed in transgenic tobacco chloroplasts by inserting the pagA gene into the chloroplast genome. Chloroplast integration of the pagA gene was confirmed by PCR and Southern analysis. Mature leaves grown under continuous illumination contained PA as up to 14.2% of the total soluble protein. Cytotoxicity measurements in macrophage lysis assays showed that chloroplast-derived PA was equal in potency to PA produced in B. anthracis. Subcutaneous immunization of mice with partially purified chloroplast-derived or B. anthracis-derived PA with adjuvant yielded immunoglobulin G titers up to 1:320,000, and both groups of mice survived (100%) challenge with lethal doses of toxin. An average yield of about 150 mg of PA per plant should produce 360 million doses of a purified vaccine free of bacterial toxins edema factor and lethal factor from 1 acre of land. Such high expression levels without using fermenters and the immunoprotection offered by the chloroplast-derived PA should facilitate development of a cleaner and safer anthrax vaccine at a lower production cost. These results demonstrate the immunogenic and immunoprotective properties of plant-derived anthrax vaccine antigen. PMID:16299323

  20. Projected Range Contractions of European Protected Oceanic Montane Plant Communities: Focus on Climate Change Impacts Is Essential for Their Future Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Skeffington, Micheline Sheehy

    2014-01-01

    Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1) oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2) species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3) species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need significantly greater focus on potential climate change impacts, including models with higher-resolution species distribution and environmental data, to aid these communities' long-term survival. PMID:24752011

  1. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of candidate universal influenza A nanovaccines produced in plants by Tobacco mosaic virus-based vectors.

    PubMed

    Petukhova, Natalia V; Gasanova, Tatiana V; Stepanova, Liudmila A; Rusova, Oxana A; Potapchuk, Marina V; Korotkov, Alexandr V; Skurat, Eugene V; Tsybalova, Liudmila M; Kiselev, Oleg I; Ivanov, Peter A; Atabekov, Joseph G

    2013-01-01

    A new approach for super-expression of the influenza virus epitope M2e in plants has been developed on the basis of a recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, strain U1) genome designed for Agrobacterium-mediated delivery into the plant cell nucleus. The TMV coat protein (CP) served as a carrier and three versions of the M2e sequence were inserted into the surface loop between amino acid residues 155 and 156. Cysteine residues in the heterologous peptide were thought likely to impede efficient assembly of chimeric particles. Therefore, viral vectors TMV-M2e-ala and TMV-M2e-ser were constructed in which cysteine codons 17 and 19 of the M2e epitope were substituted by codons for serine or alanine. Agroinfiltration experiments proved that the chimeric viruses were capable of systemically infecting Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Antisera raised against TMV-M2e-ala virions appear to contain far more antibodies specific to influenza virus M2e than those specific to TMV carrier particle (ratio 5:1). Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the 2-epitopes were uniformly distributed and tightly packed on the surface of the chimeric TMV virions. Apparently, the majority of the TMV CP-specific epitopes in the chimeric TMV-M2e particles are hidden from the immune system by the M2e epitopes exposed on the particle surface. The profile of IgG subclasses after immunization of mice with TMV-M2e-ser and TMV-M2e-ala was evaluated. Immunization with TMV-M2e-ala induced a significant difference between the levels of IgG1 and IgG2a (IgG1/IgG2a=3.2). Mice immunized with the chimeric viruses were resistant to five lethal doses (LD50) of the homologous influenza virus strain, A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and TMV-M2e-ala also gave partial protection (5LD50, 70% of survival rate) against a heterologous strain influenza A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) (4 amino acid changes in M2e). These results indicate that a new generation candidate universal nanovaccine against influenza based on a recombinant TMV construct has been obtained. PMID:23394564

  2. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1998 by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 was performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), and the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV), and the Chestnut Ridge Regime which is located south of the Y-12 Plant.

  3. Some lessons on radiological protection learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Kai, M

    2012-03-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant released a large quantity of radioactive iodine and caesium into the environment. In terms of radiological protection, the evacuation and food restrictions that were adopted in a timely manner by the authorities effectively reduced the dose received by people living in the affected area. Since late March, the transition from an emergency to an existing exposure situation has been in progress. In selecting the reference exposure levels in some areas under an existing exposure situation, the authorities tried to follow the situation-based approach recommended by the ICRP. However, a mixture of emergency and post-emergency approaches confused the people living in the contaminated areas because the reactor conditions continued to be not completely stable. In deriving the criteria in an existing exposure situation, the regulatory authority selected 20 mSv y(-1). The mothers in the affected area believed that a dose of 20 mSv y(-1) was unacceptably high for children since 1 mSv y(-1) is the dose limit for the public under normal conditions. Internet information accelerated concern about the internal exposure to children and the related health effects. From some experiences after the accident the following lessons could be learned. The selection of reference doses in existing exposure situations after an accident must be openly communicated with the public using a risk-informed approach. The detriment-adjusted nominal risk coefficient was misused for calculating the hypothetical number of cancer deaths by some non-radiation experts. It would not be possible to resolve this problem unless the ICRP addressed an alternative risk assessment to convey the meaning and associated uncertainty of the risk to an exposed population. A situation-based approach in addition to a risk-informed approach needs to be disseminated properly in order to select the level of protection that would be the best possible under the prevailing circumstances. A dialogue between radiation and other risk experts such as those dealing with chemical exposures is now needed. PMID:22394670

  4. Effects of Interactions of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Beneficial Saprophytic Mycoflora on Plant Growth and Disease Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. B. Saldajeno; W. A. Chandanie; M. Kubota; M. Hyakumachi

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and beneficial saprophytic mycoflora like plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) are capable\\u000a of promoting plant growth and may suppress several plant diseases. The interaction of these microorganisms in the plant rhizosphere\\u000a may affect plant growth and microbial community composition. Mixtures of these microorganisms generally increase the genetic\\u000a diversity in the rhizosphere microorganisms that may persist longer

  5. Odor Load Investigation for a Pharmaceutical Plant by Open Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR)\\/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Dispersion Model (AERMOD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Shing Chang; Shiao-Shing Chen; Jung-Hua Chang; Chih-Hui Tang; Tzi-Chin Chang

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a case study was conducted to correlate the odor index and possible pollutants from a pharmaceutical plant based on the odor threshold and Open Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) technique to model the results using American Meteorological Society\\/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Dispersion Model (AERMOD). Although nine different pollutants were obtained from OP-FTIR, the contribution to the detected

  6. Immunization with Plant-Expressed Hemagglutinin Protects Chickens from Lethal Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Challenge Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Kalthoff, Donata; Giritch, Anatoli; Geisler, Katharina; Bettmann, Ulrike; Klimyuk, Victor; Hehnen, Hans-Robert; Gleba, Yuri; Beer, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a striking disease in susceptible poultry, which leads to severe economic losses. Inactivated vaccines are the most widely used vaccines in avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccination programs. However, these vaccines interfere with the serological detection of wild-type AIV infections in immunized populations. The use of vaccines that allow differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA strategy) would stop current stamping-out policies. Therefore, novel vaccination strategies are needed to allow improved protection of animals and humans against HPAI virus (HPAIV) infection. The presented study analyzed for the first time the immunogenic capacity of plant-expressed full-length hemagglutinin (rHA0) of HPAIV H5N1 in several vaccine formulations within the highly relevant host species chicken. We were able to express plant-expressed rHA0 at high levels and could show that, when administered with potent adjuvants, it is highly immunogenic and can fully protect chicken against lethal challenge infection. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and serological tests demonstrated only marginally increased virus replication in animals vaccinated with plant-derived rHA0 compared to animals immunized with an inactivated reference vaccine. In addition, the use of plant-expressed rHA0 also allowed an easy serological differentiation of vaccinated from AIV-infected animals based on antibodies against the influenza virus NP protein. PMID:20810729

  7. Roles of FtsH protease in choloroplast biogensis and protection of photosystems from high temperatures stress in higher plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AtFtsH11 protease gene is essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate heat stress. Under high and normal light at 21ºC, ftsh11 mutants were indistinguishable from wild type plants in photosynthesis capability and in overall growth. However, mutant plants display a host of dramatic change...

  8. The relevance of "non-relevant metabolites" from plant protection products (PPPs) for drinking water: the German view.

    PubMed

    Dieter, Hermann H

    2010-03-01

    "Non-relevant metabolites" are those degradation products of plant protection products (PPPs), which are devoid of the targeted toxicities of the PPP and devoid of genotoxicity. Most often, "non-relevant metabolites" have a high affinity to the aquatic environment, are very mobile within this environment, and, usually, are also persistent. Therefore, from the point of drinking water hygiene, they must be characterized as "relevant for drinking water" like many other hydrophilic/polar environmental contaminants of different origins. "Non-relevant metabolites" may therefore penetrate to water sources used for abstraction of drinking water and may thus ultimately be present in drinking water. The presence of "non-relevant metabolites" and similar trace compounds in the water cycle may endanger drinking water quality on a long-term scale. During oxidative drinking water treatment, "non-relevant metabolites" may also serve as the starting material for toxicologically relevant transformation products similar to processes observed by drinking water disinfection with chlorine. This hypothesis was recently confirmed by the detection of the formation of N-nitroso-dimethylamine from ozone and dimethylsulfamide, a "non-relevant metabolite" of the fungicide tolylfluanide. In order to keep drinking water preferably free of "non-relevant metabolites", the German drinking water advisory board of the Federal Ministry of Health supports limiting their penetration into raw and drinking water to the functionally (agriculturally) unavoidable extent. On this background, the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA) recently has recommended two health related indication values (HRIV) to assess "non-relevant metabolites" from the view of drinking water hygiene. Considering the sometimes incomplete toxicological data base for some "non-relevant metabolites", HRIV also have the role of health related precautionary values. Depending on the completeness and quality of the toxicological evaluation of a "non-relevant metabolite", its HRIV is either set as 1.0 microg/l (HRIV(a)) or as 3.0 microg/l (HRIV(b)) for lifelong exposure. In case a HRIV would be exceeded, UBA recommends to keep on a precautionary action value (PAV) of 10 microg/l for each "non-relevant metabolite". The HRIV(b) is similar to the maximal value derived by application of the TTC-concept for Cramer Class III (4.5 microg/l). The HRIV(a) and the PAV are similar to values in the EU-guidance document for assessing "non-relevant metabolites" in ground water, with the important difference that the drinking water PAV is not intended to be tolerated for permanent exposure. Drinking water containing "non-relevant metabolites" below the respective HRIVs can also be considered as being sufficiently protective against toxicologically relevant oxidative transformation products which may be formed from "non-relevant metabolites" during drinking water treatment with ozone. However, even drinking water where one or several "non-relevant metabolites" are detected above substance-specific HRIVs is suited for human consumption without health risks. Only in special cases (relatively high "non-relevant metabolite" - concentrations), it could be indicated to examine the finished water for transformation products after treatment with ozone if there are no further treatment steps to eliminate or degrade polar compounds. UBA's "non-relevant metabolite-Recommendation" from April 2008 was positively picked up in 2009 by four important stakeholders in the domain of drinking water management as part of a voluntary cooperation agreement. The aim of such cooperation is to limit the transport of "non-relevant metabolites" into the drinking water to the functionally (and agriculturally) unavoidable extent and insofar to meet special precautionary demands. PMID:19706317

  9. Are different facets of plant diversity well protected against climate and land cover changes? A test study in the French Alps

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Guéguen, Maya; Georges, Damien; Bonet, Richard; Chalmandrier, Loïc; Garraud, Luc; Renaud, Julien; Roquet, Cristina; Van Es, Jérémie; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Lavergne, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Climate and land cover changes are important drivers of the plant species distributions and diversity patterns in mountainous regions. Although the need for a multifaceted view of diversity based on taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic dimensions is now commonly recognized, there are no complete risk assessments concerning their expected changes. In this paper, we used a range of species distribution models in an ensemble-forecasting framework together with regional climate and land cover projections by 2080 to analyze the potential threat for more than 2,500 plant species at high resolution (2.5 km × 2.5 km) in the French Alps. We also decomposed taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity facets into ? and ? components and analyzed their expected changes by 2080. Overall, plant species threats from climate and land cover changes in the French Alps were expected to vary depending on the species’ preferred altitudinal vegetation zone, rarity, and conservation status. Indeed, rare species and species of conservation concern were the ones projected to experience less severe change, and also the ones being the most efficiently preserved by the current network of protected areas. Conversely, the three facets of plant diversity were also projected to experience drastic spatial re-shuffling by 2080. In general, the mean ?-diversity of the three facets was projected to increase to the detriment of regional ?-diversity, although the latter was projected to remain high at the montane-alpine transition zones. Our results show that, due to a high-altitude distribution, the current protection network is efficient for rare species, and species predicted to migrate upward. Although our modeling framework may not capture all possible mechanisms of species range shifts, our work illustrates that a comprehensive risk assessment on an entire floristic region combined with functional and phylogenetic information can help delimitate future scenarios of biodiversity and better design its protection. PMID:25722539

  10. Protecting sized rolled products from corrosion on route from the manufacturer to the customer (practices at the Serov Metallurgical Plant)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Yu. Prein; E. P. Bikshanova

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the solution of problems encountered in protecting sized rolled products from atmospheric corrosion,\\u000a the undesirable effects of climatic factors, contamination, and mechanical damage as they are shipped to customers by truck\\u000a and rail and stored at intermediate points before being put into service. It discusses practical methods of protecting rolled\\u000a products from corrosion and avoiding their rejection

  11. The oxidative burst protects plants against pathogen attack: Mechanism and role as an emergency signal for plant bio-defence — a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Doke; Y. Miura; L. M. Sanchez; H. J. Park; T. Noritake; H. Yoshioka; K. Kawakita

    1996-01-01

    Various aspects, mechanisms and functions of the oxidative burst with generation of O2? superoxide anions in plant cells, which is stimulated by active defence-inducing agents such as fungal infection or elicitor treatment, were reviewed mainly on the basis of experimental evidence obtained in a system of Solanaceae plants and Phytophthora spp. The oxidative burst may be due to an O2?-generating

  12. Original article Effect of desiccation during cold storage on planting

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    desséchantes (sac de jute, 2°C, 85 % HR). Un traitement supplémentai- re était constitué par des plants aucune des trois espèces, mais a réduit la survie des pins. La conservation en sac de jute a conduit à un

  13. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SRowley

    2006-04-28

    Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

  14. Vaccination with recombinant adenoviruses expressing the peste des petits ruminants virus F or H proteins overcomes viral immunosuppression and induces protective immunity against PPRV challenge in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rojas, José M; Moreno, Héctor; Valcárcel, Félix; Peña, Lourdes; Sevilla, Noemí; Martín, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants caused by the Morbillivirus peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Two recombinant replication-defective human adenoviruses serotype 5 (Ad5) expressing either the highly immunogenic fusion protein (F) or hemagglutinin protein (H) from PPRV were used to vaccinate sheep by intramuscular inoculation. Both recombinant adenovirus vaccines elicited PPRV-specific B- and T-cell responses. Thus, neutralizing antibodies were detected in sera from immunized sheep. In addition, we detected a significant antigen specific T-cell response in vaccinated sheep against two different PPRV strains, indicating that the vaccine induced heterologous T cell responses. Importantly, no clinical signs and undetectable virus shedding were observed after virulent PPRV challenge in vaccinated sheep. These vaccines also overcame the T cell immunosuppression induced by PPRV in control animals. The results indicate that these adenovirus constructs could be a promising alternative to current vaccine strategies for the development of PPRV DIVA vaccines. PMID:25013961

  15. DE PROTECTION DE LA JEUNESSE: par Jacinthe MERCIERf

    E-print Network

    Spino, Claude

    DE PROTECTION DE LA JEUNESSE: par Jacinthe MERCIERf La procédure applicable en matière de Protection de la jeunesse soulève parfois des interrogations. Elle est régie par des dispositions qui se. Procedural matters relating to youth protection raise a number of diflculties due to the various legislative

  16. Protective effects of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum on soil and Viburnum tinus plants irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bellot, María José; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Nortes, Pedro Antonio; Vicente-Sánchez, Javier; Martín, Félix Fernández; Bañón, Sebastián; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2015-07-01

    Currently, irrigation using recycled water is increasing, especially in semiarid environments, but a potential problem of using reclaimed wastewater is its elevated salt levels. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could be a suitable option to mitigate the negative effects produced by the salinity. In this work, the combined effect of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum and two types of water: Control, C, with EC <0.9 dS m(-1) and reclaimed water (wastewater previously treated in a sewage treatment plant) with EC 4 dS m(-1) during a first saline period (11 weeks) and with EC 6 dS m(-1) during a second saline period (25 weeks), was evaluated for laurustinus (Viburnum tinus) plants under field conditions. This plant is a popular shrub very used for gardening. Chemical properties of soil as well as physiological behavior, leaf nutrition, and esthetic value of plants were evaluated. Due to the high salinity from wastewater at 6 dS m(-1), laurustinus plants decreased their stem water potential values and, to a lesser extent, the stomatal conductance. Also, the visual quality of the plants was diminished. The inoculated AMF satisfactorily colonized the laurustinus roots and enhanced the structure of the soil by increasing the glomalin and carbon contents. Furthermore, G. iranicum var. tenuihypharum inoculation decreased Na and Cl content, stimulated flowering and improved the stem water potential of the plants irrigated with both types of reclaimed water. The AMF also had a positive effect as a consequence of stimulation of plant physiological parameters, such as the stem water potential and stomatal conductance. Effective AMF associations that avoid excessive salinity could provide wastewater reuse options, especially when the plants grow in soils. PMID:25492808

  17. Hydroxycinnamic acid degradation, a broadly conserved trait, protects Ralstonia solanacearum from chemical plant defenses and contributes to root colonization and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Tiffany M.; Ailloud, Florent; Allen, Caitilyn

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce hydroxycinnamic acid defense compounds (HCAs) to combat pathogens, such as the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. We showed that an HCA degradation pathway is genetically and functionally conserved across diverse R. solanacearum strains. Further, a ?fcs (feruloyl-CoA synthetase) mutant that cannot degrade HCAs was less virulent on tomato plants. To understand the role of HCA degradation in bacterial wilt disease, we tested the following hypotheses: HCA degradation helps the pathogen (1) grow, as a carbon source; (2) spread, by reducing physical barriers HCA-derived; and (3) survive plant antimicrobial compounds. Although HCA degradation enabled R. solanacearum growth on HCAs in vitro, HCA degradation was dispensable for growth in xylem sap and root exudate, suggesting that HCAs are not significant carbon sources in planta. Acetyl-bromide quantification of lignin demonstrated that R. solanacearum infections did not affect the gross quantity or distribution of stem lignin. However, the ?fcs mutant was significantly more susceptible to inhibition by two HCAs: caffeate and p-coumarate. Finally, plant colonization assays suggested that HCA degradation facilitates early stages of infection and root colonization. Together, these results indicated that ability to degrade HCAs contributes to bacterial wilt virulence by facilitating root entry and by protecting the pathogen from HCA toxicity. PMID:25423265

  18. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Degradation, a Broadly Conserved Trait, Protects Ralstonia solanacearum from Chemical Plant Defenses and Contributes to Root Colonization and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Tiffany M; Ailloud, Florent; Allen, Caitilyn

    2015-03-01

    Plants produce hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) defense compounds to combat pathogens, such as the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. We showed that an HCA degradation pathway is genetically and functionally conserved across diverse R. solanacearum strains. Further, a feruloyl-CoA synthetase (?fcs) mutant that cannot degrade HCA was less virulent on tomato plants. To understand the role of HCA degradation in bacterial wilt disease, we tested the following hypotheses: HCA degradation helps the pathogen i) grow, as a carbon source; ii) spread, by reducing HCA-derived physical barriers; and iii) survive plant antimicrobial compounds. Although HCA degradation enabled R. solanacearum growth on HCA in vitro, HCA degradation was dispensable for growth in xylem sap and root exudate, suggesting that HCA are not significant carbon sources in planta. Acetyl-bromide quantification of lignin demonstrated that R. solanacearum infections did not affect the gross quantity or distribution of stem lignin. However, the ?fcs mutant was significantly more susceptible to inhibition by two HCA, namely, caffeate and p-coumarate. Finally, plant colonization assays suggested that HCA degradation facilitates early stages of infection and root colonization. Together, these results indicated that ability to degrade HCA contributes to bacterial wilt virulence by facilitating root entry and by protecting the pathogen from HCA toxicity. PMID:25423265

  19. Onondaga County Department of Water Environment Protection: Process Optimization Saves Energy at Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-12-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Onondaga County, New York, is saving nearly 3 million kWh and 270 million Btu annually at a wastewater treatment plant after replacing inefficient motors and upgrading pumps.

  20. Insecticidal activity of the aqueous extracts of four under-utilized tropical plants as protectant of cowpea seeds from Callosobruchus maculatus infestation.

    PubMed

    Obembe, O M; Kayode, J

    2013-02-15

    The test plants species, namely Crotaria retusa, Hyptis suaveolens, Ricinus communis and Tithonia diversifolia were extracted with water. The extracts were evaluated on Callosobruchus maculatus for mortality, oviposition and adult emergence effects. The long-term protectant ability and viability were also investigated. The results showed that the aqueous extracts from T. diversifolia were most effective on C. maculatus, followed by extract from Ricinus communis. The least potent extracts were those extracted from Crotalaria retusa and Hyptis suaveolens. Also, the extracts considerably reduced oviposition by C. maculatus. Extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis drastically reduced infestation and subsequence damage of the treated cowpea seeds for a period of three months. Most of the treated seeds germinated after 90 days storage period. The results from this study revealed that aqueous extracts from all the four plants species were effective in controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for protection of stored cowpea seeds against bruchids. PMID:24171265

  1. Genotype composition of populations of grapefruit-cross-protecting citrus tristeza virus strain GFMS12 in different host plants and aphid-transmitted sub-isolates.

    PubMed

    Scott, Katherine Anne; Hlela, Quinsile; Zablocki, Olivier; Read, David; van Vuuren, Stephanus; Pietersen, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes severe losses in grapefruit production in South Africa and requires mild-strain cross-protection to maintain production. Unfortunately, cross-protection breakdown of the pre-immunizing CTV grapefruit mild source GFMS12 is prevalent in grapefruit in South Africa. The CTV genotype composition of the GFMS12 population inoculated onto different hosts was determined by sequencing part of ORF1a and the p23 gene of multiple clones from each plant. Analysis of the GFMS12 population in Mexican lime and Marsh and Star Ruby grapefruit varieties revealed that at least four genotypes occur in the GFMS12 population and that genotype compositions differed amongst the populations in different host plants. Single-aphid-transmitted sub-isolates derived from the GFMS12 mother population on Mexican lime appeared to contain three populations of a mixture of VT-like and recombinant B165/VT-like genotypes; a mixture of recombinant RB/VT- and B165/VT-like genotypes; and a single recombinant B165/VT-like genotype. This study underlines the importance of determining the genotype composition of a potential CTV pre-immunizing source on a range of inoculated host species before utilization. PMID:22932923

  2. Plant-Based Vaccine: Mice Immunized with Chloroplast-Derived Anthrax Protective Antigen Survive Anthrax Lethal Toxin Challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Koya; Mahtab Moayeri; Stephen H. Leppla; Henry Daniell

    2005-01-01

    The currently available human vaccine for anthrax, derived from the culture supernatant of Bacillus anthracis, contains the protective antigen (PA) and traces of the lethal and edema factors, which may contribute to adverse side effects associated with this vaccine. Therefore, an effective expression system that can provide a clean, safe, and efficacious vaccine is required. In an effort to produce

  3. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NRICH team

    2012-01-01

    In this logic activity, students must determine how to represent three quantities using a fixed amount of space (Venn diagram) and objects. The goal is to represent the siblings’ ages, 5,6, and 7, using only ten plants. This resource includes teacher notes with extension suggestions and possible support options.

  4. Assessment of antioxidative, chelating, and DNA-protective effects of selected essential oil components (eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, borneol, eucalyptol) of plants and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil.

    PubMed

    Horvathova, Eva; Navarova, Jana; Galova, Eliska; Sevcovicova, Andrea; Chodakova, Lenka; Snahnicanova, Zuzana; Melusova, Martina; Kozics, Katarina; Slamenova, Darina

    2014-07-16

    Selected components of plant essential oils and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil (RO) were investigated for their antioxidant, iron-chelating, and DNA-protective effects. Antioxidant activities were assessed using four different techniques. DNA-protective effects on human hepatoma HepG2 cells and plasmid DNA were evaluated with the help of the comet assay and the DNA topology test, respectively. It was observed that whereas eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol showed high antioxidative effectiveness in all assays used, RO manifested only antiradical effect and borneol and eucalyptol did not express antioxidant activity at all. DNA-protective ability against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA lesions was manifested by two antioxidants (carvacrol and thymol) and two compounds that do not show antioxidant effects (RO and borneol). Borneol was able to preserve not only DNA of HepG2 cells but also plasmid DNA against Fe(2+)-induced damage. This paper evaluates the results in the light of experiences of other scientists. PMID:24955655

  5. Immunostimulatory complexes containing Eimeria tenella antigens and low toxicity plant saponins induce antibody response and provide protection from challenge in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Berezin, V E; Bogoyavlenskyi, A P; Khudiakova, S S; Alexuk, P G; Omirtaeva, E S; Zaitceva, I A; Tustikbaeva, G B; Barfield, R C; Fetterer, R H

    2010-01-20

    Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are unique multimolecular structures formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids and triterpene saponins and are one of the most successful antigen delivery systems for microbial antigens. In the current study, both the route of administration and the antigen concentration of ISCOMs, containing Eimeria tenella antigens and saponins from native plants, were evaluated in their ability to stimulate humoral immunity and to protect chickens against a challenge infection with E. tenella. Broiler chickens were immunized with ISCOM preparations containing E. tenella antigens and the purified saponins Gg6, Ah6 and Gp7 isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aesculus hippocastanum and Gipsophila paniculata, respectively. The effects of the route of administration, dose of antigen and type of saponin used for construction of ISCOMs were evaluated for ability to stimulate serum IgG and IgM and to protect chickens against a homologous challenge. A single intranasal immunization was the most effective route for administering ISCOMs although the in ovo route was also quite effective. Dose titration experiments demonstrated efficacy after single immunization with various ISCOM doses but maximum effects were observed when ISCOMs contain 5-10mug antigen. Immunization of birds by any of the three routes with E. tenella antigens alone or antigens mixed with alum hydroxide adjuvant resulted in lower serum antibody and reduced protection to challenge relative to immunization with ISCOMs. Overall the results of this study confirm that significant immunostimulation and protection to challenge are achieved by immunization of chickens with ISCOMs containing purified saponins and native E. tenella antigens and suggest that ISCOMs may be successfully used to develop a safe and effective vaccine for prevention of avian coccidiosis. PMID:19879050

  6. Protection 1 Protection1

    E-print Network

    Lampson, Butler W.

    Protection 1 Protection1 Butler W. Lampson Xerox Corporation Palo Alto, California Abstract Abstract models are given which reflect the properties of most existing mechanisms for enforcing protection are explicated in terms of the model and implementations. Introduction `Protection'is a general term for all

  7. Protection 1 Protection 1

    E-print Network

    Lampson, Butler W.

    Protection 1 Protection 1 Butler W. Lampson Xerox Corporation Palo Alto, California Abstract Abstract models are given which reflect the properties of most existing mechanisms for enforcing protection are explicated in terms of the model and implementations. Introduction `Protection'is a general term for all

  8. What data determine whether a plant taxon is distinct enough to merit legal protection? A case study of Sedum integrifolium (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Olfelt, J P; Furnier, G R; Luby, J J

    2001-03-01

    Measures of molecular and morphological genetic variation are often used to set conservation priorities and design management strategies for plant taxa. Evaluated together they can give insights into a taxon's evolutionary status that neither data type alone can achieve. We investigated the distinctness and variability of Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi, a federally and state-listed taxon, from its conspecific relatives using 33 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers (253 plants) and 37 morphological characters from 1308 common-garden-grown plants. We included S. integrifolium ssp. leedyi (four populations), its conspecific relatives (11 populations), and S. rosea and S. rhodanthum populations in our study. The morphological and molecular data correspond in showing that S. integrifolium ssp. leedyi populations are highly distinct. However, the data sets differ in their estimates of the relatedness of some S. integrifolium ssp. leedyi populations and in the percentage variation detected due to differences among them (25 and 9-13% for the molecular and morphological data, respectively) suggesting little gene flow among populations and some differentiation, possibly from selective pressures. Given our data, we recommend that S. integrifolium ssp. leedyi merits protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and that its populations be managed as distinct units. PMID:11250817

  9. EXAMINING THE POTENTIAL UTILITY OF POLYGALACTURONASE-POLYGALALACTURONASE INHIBITING PROTEIN INTERACTIONS FOR PROTECTING CROP PLANTS AGAINST LYGUS BUG

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus bug (Lygus hesperus) feeding causes significant economic losses to many important cultivated plants, including alfalfa and cotton. Strong (1970) suggested that crop damage caused by L. hesperus was principally due to the activity of the insect’s polygalacturonase (PG) secreted during feeding. ...

  10. PLANT PROTECTIVE RESPONSE TO ENHANCED UV-B RADIATION UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS: LEAF OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants of Vicia faba were grown in the field during early to midsummer while receiving two levels of supplemental UV-B radiation. Light-saturated photosynthesis and stomatal diffusive conductance of intact leaves did not show any indications of UV-radiation damage. Supplemental U...

  11. Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Boeke; I. R. Baumgart; J. J. A. van Loon; A. van Huis; M. Dicke; D. K. Kossou

    2004-01-01

    In a search for botanical products to control the main insect pest of stored cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, 33 traditionally used African plants were tested in the laboratory for their toxic and repellent effects against this beetle. Toxicity was evaluated measuring life history parameters in a no-choice situation. Powders of Nicotiana tabacum, Tephrosia vogelii and Securidaca longepedunculata significantly reduced the number

  12. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la Terre et des plantes / Earth and Planetary Sciences 333 (2001) 651657 2001 Acadmie des sciences / ditions scientifiques et mdicales Elsevier SAS. Tous droits rservs

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    2001-01-01

    / Pedology) Les phénols de la lignine et le 13C, traceurs de l'origine des matières organiques du sol Claudy septembre 2001 Présenté par Georges Pédro Abstract ­ Labelling the origin of soil organic matter by lignin) and phenolic signature in A and L horizons of soil. Hydrolysis of phenol lignin in forests and cultivated soils

  13. Cours de botanique : niveau 3 ANATOMIE ET COLOGIE DES VGTAUX

    E-print Network

    Cours de botanique : niveau 3 ANATOMIE ET ÉCOLOGIE DES VÉGÉTAUX SERVICE DES FORMATIONS PAYANTES la morphologie, l'anatomie, l'écologie végétale et l'évolution des plantes et leur adaptation, par la.2 Morpho-anatomie et applications 3 nov. 2014 1.2 a Palynologie J. Dejax 17 nov 2014 1.2b les tissus de la

  14. Liver Fibrosis and Mechanisms of the Protective Action of Medicinal Plants Targeting Inflammation and the Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Cuevas, Jorge E.; González-Garza, María Teresa; Maldonado-Bernal, Carmen; Cruz-Vega, Delia Elva

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a central feature of liver fibrosis as suggested by its role in the activation of hepatic stellate cells leading to extracellular matrix deposition. During liver injury, inflammatory cells are recruited in the injurious site through chemokines attraction. Thus, inflammation could be a target to reduce liver fibrosis. The pandemic trend of obesity, combined with the high incidence of alcohol intake and viral hepatitis infections, highlights the urgent need to find accessible antifibrotic therapies. Medicinal plants are achieving popularity as antifibrotic agents, supported by their safety, cost-effectiveness, and versatility. The aim of this review is to describe the role of inflammation and the immune response in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and detail the mechanisms of inhibition of both events by medicinal plants in order to reduce liver fibrosis. PMID:25954568

  15. Liver Fibrosis and Protection Mechanisms Action of Medicinal Plants Targeting Apoptosis of Hepatocytes and Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Cuevas, Jorge E.; González-Garza, Maria Teresa; Rodríguez-Montalvo, Carlos; Cruz-Vega, Delia Elva

    2014-01-01

    Following chronic liver injury, hepatocytes undergo apoptosis leading to activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Consequently, activated HSC proliferate and produce excessive extracellular matrix, responsible for the scar formation. The pandemic trend of obesity, combined with the high incidence of alcohol intake and viral hepatitis infections, highlights the urgent need to find accessible antifibrotic therapies. Treatment strategies should take into account the versatility of its pathogenesis and act on all the cell lines involved to reduce liver fibrosis. Medicinal plants are achieving popularity as antifibrotic agents, supported by their safety, cost-effectiveness, and versatility. This review will describe the role of hepatocytes and HSC in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and detail the mechanisms of modulation of apoptosis of both cell lines by twelve known hepatoprotective plants in order to reduce liver fibrosis. PMID:25505905

  16. Nitric oxide accumulation is required to protect against iron-mediated oxidative stress in frataxin-deficient Arabidopsis plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Martin; María José Rodríguez Colman; Diego F. Gómez-Casati; Lorenzo Lamattina; Eduardo Julián Zabaleta

    2009-01-01

    Frataxin is a mitochondrial protein that is conserved throughout evolution. In yeast and mammals, frataxin is essential for cellular iron (Fe) homeostasis and survival during oxidative stress. In plants, frataxin deficiency causes increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and high sensitivity to oxidative stress. In this work we show that a knock-down T-DNA frataxin-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (atfh-1) contains

  17. Influence des conditions de conservation des bulbes d'chalote (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum) sur leur

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence des conditions de conservation des bulbes d'échalote (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum) sur leur levée Joseph COHAT LN.R.A., Station d'Amélioration de la Pomme de terre & des Plantes à bulbes, F 29207 Landerneau RÉSUMÉ Les bulbes d'échalote de Jersey (type demi-longue) sont dormants au moment de la

  18. Regulatory issues for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant long-term compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR 191B and 268

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Marietta, M.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Higgins, P.J. Jr. [USDOE Albuquerque Field Office, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Integration Office

    1993-10-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), specifically the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191), and the Land Disposal Restrictions (40 CFR 268) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This paper provides background information on the regulations, describes the SNL WIPP PA Departments approach to developing a defensible technical basis for consistent compliance evaluations, and summarizes the major observations and conclusions drawn from the 1991 and 1992 PAs.

  19. Selection for protection in an ant–plant mutualism: host sanctions, host modularity, and the principal–agent game

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, David P; Hassall, Mark; Sutherland, William J; Yu, Douglas W

    2005-01-01

    Retaliation against cheaters can prevent the breakdown of cooperation. Here we ask whether the ant–plant Cordia nodosa is able to apply retaliatory sanctions against its ant symbiont Allomerus octoarticulatus, which patrols new shoots to prevent herbivory. We test the hypothesis that the modular design of C. nodosa physiologically ties the growth of housing (stem swellings known as domatia) to the successful development of the attached leaves. We experimentally simulated herbivory by cutting leaves from patrolled shoots and found that the domatia on such ‘cheated’ shoots suffered higher mortality and lower growth than did controls, evidence for a host sanction. On the other hand, patrolling is costly to the ant, and experiment shows that non-patrollers run a low risk of being sanctioned because most leaves (and the attached domatia) escape heavy herbivory even when patrollers are absent. This suggests that cheaters might enjoy a higher fitness than do mutualists, despite sanctions, but we find that patrolling provides a net fecundity benefit when the colony and plant exceed a minimum size, which requires sustained ant investment in patrolling. These results map directly onto the principal–agent (P–A) game from economics, which we suggest can be used as a framework for studying stability in mutualisms, where high sampling costs and cheating do not allow market effects to select for mutual benefits. PMID:16537131

  20. Indole acetic acid is responsible for protection against oxidative stress caused by drought in soybean plants: the role of heme oxygenase induction.

    PubMed

    Lecube, Manuel López; Noriega, Guillermo O; Santa Cruz, Diego M; Tomaro, María L; Batlle, Alcira; Balestrasse, Karina B

    2014-11-01

    Objectives This study was focused on the role of indole acetic acid (IAA) in the defense against oxidative stress damage caused by drought in soybean plants and to elucidate whether heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in this mechanism. IAA is an auxin that participates in many plant processes including oxidative stress defense, but to the best of our knowledge no information is yet available about its possible action in drought stress. Methods To this end, soybean plants were treated with 8% polyethylene glycol (PEG) or 100 µM IAA. To evaluate the behavior of IAA, plants were pretreated with this compound previous to PEG addition. Lipid peroxidation levels (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)), glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AS) contents, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activities were determined to evaluate oxidative damage. Results Drought treatment (8% PEG) caused a significant increase in TBARS levels as well as a marked decrease in the non-enzymatic (GSH and AS) and enzymatic (CAT, SOD, and POD) antioxidant defense systems. Pre-treatment with IAA prevented the alterations of stress parameters caused by drought, while treatment with IAA alone did not produce changes in TBARS levels, or GSH and AS contents. Moreover, the activities of the classical enzymes involved in the enzymatic defense system (SOD, CAT, and POD) remained similar to control values. Furthermore, this hormone could enhance HO-1 activity (75% with respect to controls), and this increase was positively correlated with protein content as well as gene expression. The direct participation of HO-1 as an antioxidant enzyme was established by performing experiments in the presence of Zn-protoporphyrin IX, a well-known irreversible inhibitor of this enzyme. It was also demonstrated that HO-1 is modulated by NO, as shown by experiments performed in the presence of an NO donor (sodium nitroprusside), an NO scavenger (2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide), or an NO synthesis inhibitor (N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, NAME). Discussion It is concluded that IAA is responsible, at least in part, for the protection against oxidative stress caused by drought in soybean plants through the modulation of NO levels which, in turn, enhances HO-1 synthesis and activity. PMID:25156196

  1. A DES ASIC Suitable for Network Encryption at 10 Gbps and Beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Craig Wilcox; Lyndon G. Pierson; Perry J. Robertson; Edward L. Witzke; Karl Gass

    1999-01-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Data Encryption Standard (DES) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is the\\u000a fastest known implementation of the DES algorithm as defined in the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Publication\\u000a 46-2. DES is used for protecting data by cryptographic means. The SNL DES ASIC, over 10 times faster than other currently\\u000a available DES chips, is a high-speed,

  2. Protective Coatings for Turbomachinery

    E-print Network

    McCune, B.; Hilty, L.

    for power plant efficiency and reliability, the need to prevent corrosion and erosion is growing. Operators, overhaulers, and manufacturers have been using protective coatings for over twenty-five years to prevent erosion and corrosion. The evolution...

  3. Protective Coatings for Turbomachinery 

    E-print Network

    McCune, B.; Hilty, L.

    1991-01-01

    for power plant efficiency and reliability, the need to prevent corrosion and erosion is growing. Operators, overhaulers, and manufacturers have been using protective coatings for over twenty-five years to prevent erosion and corrosion. The evolution...

  4. A ?-Glutamyl Cyclotransferase Protects Arabidopsis Plants from Heavy Metal Toxicity by Recycling Glutamate to Maintain Glutathione Homeostasis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Bibin; Chhikara, Sudesh; Coomey, Joshua; Jung, Ha-il; Vatamaniuk, Olena; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2013-01-01

    Plants detoxify toxic metals through a GSH-dependent pathway. GSH homeostasis is maintained by the ?-glutamyl cycle, which involves GSH synthesis and degradation and the recycling of component amino acids. The enzyme ?-glutamyl cyclotransferase (GGCT) is involved in Glu recycling, but the gene(s) encoding GGCT has not been identified in plants. Here, we report that an Arabidopsis thaliana protein with a cation transport regulator-like domain, hereafter referred to as GGCT2;1, functions as ?-glutamyl cyclotransferase. Heterologous expression of GGCT2;1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced phenotypes that were consistent with decreased GSH content attributable to either GSH degradation or the diversion of ?-glutamyl peptides to produce 5-oxoproline (5-OP). 5-OP levels were further increased by the addition of arsenite and GSH to the medium, indicating that GGCT2;1 participates in the cellular response to arsenic (As) via GSH degradation. Recombinant GGCT2;1 converted both GSH and ?-glutamyl Ala to 5-OP in vitro. GGCT2;1 transcripts were upregulated in As-treated Arabidopsis, and ggct2;1 knockout mutants were more tolerant to As and cadmium than the wild type. Overexpression of GGCT2;1 in Arabidopsis resulted in the accumulation of 5-OP. Under As toxicity, the overexpression lines showed minimal changes in de novo Glu synthesis, while the ggct2;1 mutant increased nitrogen assimilation by severalfold, resulting in a very low As/N ratio in tissue. Thus, our results suggest that GGCT2;1 ensures sufficient GSH turnover during abiotic stress by recycling Glu. PMID:24214398

  5. Very high resolution Earth observation features for monitoring plant and animal community structure across multiple spatial scales in protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairota, Paola; Cafarelli, Barbara; Labadessa, Rocco; Lovergine, Francesco; Tarantino, Cristina; Lucas, Richard M.; Nagendra, Harini; Didham, Raphael K.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the status and future trends in biodiversity can be prohibitively expensive using ground-based surveys. Consequently, significant effort is being invested in the use of satellite remote sensing to represent aspects of the proximate mechanisms (e.g., resource availability) that can be related to biodiversity surrogates (BS) such as species community descriptors. We explored the potential of very high resolution (VHR) satellite Earth observation (EO) features as proxies for habitat structural attributes that influence spatial variation in habitat quality and biodiversity change. In a semi-natural grassland mosaic of conservation concern in southern Italy, we employed a hierarchical nested sampling strategy to collect field and VHR-EO data across three spatial extent levels (landscape, patch and plot). Species incidence and abundance data were collected at the plot level for plant, insect and bird functional groups. Spectral and textural VHR-EO image features were derived from a Worldview-2 image. Three window sizes (grains) were tested for analysis and computation of textural features, guided by the perception limits of different organisms. The modelled relationships between VHR-EO features and BS responses differed across scales, suggesting that landscape, patch and plot levels are respectively most appropriate when dealing with birds, plants and insects. This research demonstrates the potential of VHR-EO for biodiversity mapping and habitat modelling, and highlights the importance of identifying the appropriate scale of analysis for specific taxonomic groups of interest. Further, textural features are important in the modelling of functional group-specific indices which represent BS in high conservation value habitat types, and provide a more direct link to species interaction networks and ecosystem functioning, than provided by traditional taxonomic diversity indices.

  6. The role of isoflavone metabolism in plant protection depends on the rhizobacterial MAMP that triggers systemic resistance against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Osumi.

    PubMed

    Algar, Elena; Gutierrez-Mañero, F Javier; Garcia-Villaraco, Ana; García-Seco, Daniel; Lucas, J Antonio; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz

    2014-09-01

    Glycine max (L.) Merr. plays a crucial role in both the field of food and the pharmaceutical industry due to their input as plant protein and to the benefits of isoflavones (IF) for health. In addition, IF play a key role in nodulation and plant defense and therefore, an increase in IF would be desirable for better field performance. IF are secondary metabolites and therefore, inducible, so finding effective agents to increase IF contents is interesting. Among these agents, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been used to trigger systemic induction of plant's secondary metabolism through their microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) that fit in the plant's receptors to start a systemic response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of 4 PGPR that had a contrasted effect on IF metabolism, to protect plants against biotic stress and to establish the relation between IF profile and the systemic response triggered by the bacteria. Apparently, the response involves a lower sensitivity to ethylene and despite the decrease in effective photosynthesis, growth is only compromised in the case of M84, the most effective in protection. All strains protected soybean against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (M84 > N5.18 > Aur9>N21.4) and only M84 and N5.18 involved IF. N5.18 stimulated accumulation of IF before pathogen challenge. M84 caused a significant increase on IF only after pathogen challenge and N21.4 caused a significant increase on IF content irrespective of pathogen challenge. Aur9 did not affect IF. These results point out that all 4 strains have MAMPs that trigger defensive metabolism in soybean. Protection induced by N21.4 and Aur9 involves other metabolites different to IF and the role of IF in defence depends on the previous metabolic status of the plant and on the bacterial MAMP. PMID:24869797

  7. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Plant protection products and their Resi- dues on a request from the Commission on the risks associated with an in- crease of the MRL for dieldrin on courgettes1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jos Boesten; Claudia Bolognesi; Alan Boobis; Ettore Capri; David Coggon; Anthony Hardy; Andy Hart; Matthias Liess; Robert Lut; Otto Meyer; Stella Michaelidou-Canna; Mark Montforts; Angelo Moretto; Markus Müller; Bernadette Ossendorp; Walter Steurbaut; Maria Tasheva

    SUMMARY Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks associated with an increase of the MRL for dieldrin on courgettes. Dieldrin was developed in the 1940s and was widely used as an insecticide up to the early 1970s. However, its

  8. Plant breeding (review) Transformation of Poaceae and gene expression

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant breeding (review) Transformation of Poaceae and gene expression in transgenic plants J used for transformation and for achieving controlled gene expression in transgenic plants and discusses. transformation / monocot / gene expression / transgenic plant Summary — Transformation des Poaceae et

  9. Improvement of growth, fruit weight and early blight disease protection of tomato plants by rhizosphere bacteria is correlated with their beneficial traits and induced biosynthesis of antioxidant peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Narendra Babu, Anupama; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Kestur Nagaraj, Amruthesh; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-02-01

    Five plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) of different genera, newly isolated from healthy tomato rhizosphere, were characterized with phosphate solubilizing and root colonizing ability. Treatment with these isolates recorded a significant increase in seed germination and seedling vigor as well as tomato growth and fruit weight which might be partly attributed to the ability of the PGPRs to produce IAA and enhance nutrient uptake and chlorophyll content in treated plants. More importantly, a strong protection against early blight disease was observed in PGPR-pretreated tomato plants infected with Alternaria solani which is in accordance with the presence of siderophores, HCN, chitinase and glucanase in the isolated PGPRs. Additionally, a significantly enhanced accumulation of antioxidant peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzymes was observed in the PGPR-pretreated plants with or without pathogen infection in comparison with water or pathogen control. Notably, the highest increase in POX and PPO accumulations was recorded in tomato plants raised from seeds primed with TN_Vel-35 strain. A significant upregulation of POX and PPO in tomato plants subjected to similar treatment with TN_Vel-35 versus respective control was also noticed, further strengthening that the PGPR-induced POX and PPO biosyntheses also contribute to PGPR-mediated protection against early blight disease in tomato plants. PMID:25575992

  10. Sciences au Sud -Le journal de l'IRD -n 39 -mars/avril/mai 2007 des hommes dans

    E-print Network

    implique nécessairement ces der- niers. La protection des rapports sexuels peut rarement se faire sans l'accord, voire la participation, du partenaire masculin. La prévention de la transmission du virus de la mère à l parlent entre eux du VIH/sida et des risques sexuels. En Afrique, où la protection des rap- ports sexuels

  11. La multiplication vgtative in vitro des vgtaux ligneux cultivs : cas des arbres fruitiers et discussion gnrale

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in vitro, de les cultiver en verger, sur leurs propres racines et d'obtenir des ren- dements très des plantes cultivées (MOREL, 1963; MARTIN, 1977, 1980, 1981 ; CARRÉ et al., 1979), fille de la culture de méristè- mes (MOREL & MARTIN 1952, 1955 ; MARTINet al., 1967), a pris une extension

  12. Pseudomonas protegens sp. nov., widespread plant-protecting bacteria producing the biocontrol compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin.

    PubMed

    Ramette, Alban; Frapolli, Michele; Fischer-Le Saux, Marion; Gruffaz, C; Meyer, Jean-Marie; Défago, Geneviève; Sutra, Laurent; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2011-05-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas strains producing the antimicrobial secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) play a prominent role in the biocontrol of plant diseases. A subset of Phl-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas strains, which can additionally synthesize the antimicrobial compound pyoluteorin (Plt), appears to cluster separately from other fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and shares at most 98.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with any other Pseudomonas species. In this study, a polyphasic approach based on molecular and phenotypic methods was used to clarify the taxonomy of representative Phl(+) Plt(+) strains isolated from tobacco, cotton or wheat on different continents. Phl(+) Plt(+) strains clustered separately from their nearest phylogenetic neighbors (i.e. species from the 'P. syringae', 'P. fluorescens' and 'P. chlororaphis' species complexes) based on rpoB, rpoD or gyrB phylogenies. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments clarified that Phl(+) Plt(+) strains formed a tight genomospecies that was distinct from P. syringae, P. fluorescens, or P. chlororaphis type strains. Within Phl(+) strains, the Phl(+) Plt(+) strains were differentiated from other biocontrol fluorescent Pseudomonas strains that produced Phl but not Plt, based on phenotypic and molecular data. Discriminative phenotypic characters were also identified by numerical taxonomic analysis and siderotyping. Altogether, this polyphasic approach supported the conclusion that Phl(+) Plt(+) fluorescent Pseudomonas strains belonged to a novel species for which the name Pseudomonas protegens is proposed, with CHA0(T) (=CFBP 6595(T), =DSM 19095(T)) as the type strain. PMID:21392918

  13. agronomie: plant genetics and breeding Mechanisms involved in biocontrol

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of Pythium ultimum in vitro; transposon mutagenesis and subse- quent in vivo assays have demonstrated protection vis-à-vis des maladies induites par le Pythium ultimum. Après mutagenèse par transposon et des

  14. Sociologie des prenoms... des chiens Baptiste Coulmont

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sociologie des pr´enoms... des chiens Baptiste Coulmont 23 septembre 2011 Introduction L'´etude de donn´ees concernant plus de 10 millions de chiens (ann´ee de naissance, pr´enom, d´epartement de naissance, race), nous donne les infor- mations suivantes : 1. Les pr´enoms des chiens suivent des modes sp

  15. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  16. Influence du poids et de la densit de plantation des bulbes d'chalote sur les caractristiques de

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Influence du poids et de la densité de plantation des bulbes d'échalote sur les caractéristiques de la récolte et la prolificité des bulbes-fils Joseph COHAT Corentin TROMEUR LN.R.A., Station damélioration de la Pomme de terre et des Plantes à bulbes, F 29207 Landerneau RÉSUMÉ Des bulbes d'échalote de

  17. Des objectifs pour l'agriculture européenne : le point de vue allemand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Tangermann

    1984-01-01

    [fre] La politique agricole allemande a une longue tradition de soutien des prix à des niveaux élevés. La forte protection consentie à l'agriculture est largement acceptée par la plupart des composantes de la société. Récemment, les revenus agricoles se sont détériorés sensiblement en RFA. Malgré cela, les dépenses agricoles nationales ont diminué car le gouvernement voulait réduire le déficit du

  18. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The East Fork Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  19. GROUPE DE TRAVAIL DES INSTITUTS DE RECHERCHE APICOLE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    communication sont indiqués. Friedgard SCHAPER H. HEDDERGOTT (MUNSTER) : LE DÉVELOPPEMENT DE L'APICULTURE A L'INSTITUT POUR LA PROTECTION DES CULTURES, LE CONTRÔLE DES SEMENCES ET L'APICULTURE DE LA CHAMBRE D. 5, 303 (1974); id. 6, 393-394 (1975); dans le rapport du XXV. Congrès International d'Apiculture de

  20. La Convention sur le commerce international des espces de faune et de flore sauvages menaces d'extinction (CITES) est un accord international sign par 178 pays dont le

    E-print Network

    La Convention sur le commerce international des espèces de faune et de flore sauvages menacées d international des spécimens d'animaux et de plantes sauvages ne menace pas la survie des espèces auxquelles ils

  1. A proposed mode for triple-DES encryption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Coppersmith; Donald Byron Johnson; Stephen M. Matyas

    1996-01-01

    We propose a new mode of multiple encryption-triple-DES external feedback cipher block chaining with output feedback masking. The aim is to provide increased protection against certain attacks (dictionary attacks and matching ciphertext attacks) which exploit the short message-block size of DES. The new mode obtains this protection through the introduction of secret masking values that are exclusive-ORed with the intermediate

  2. Protection matrielle des (bases de) donnes

    E-print Network

    .g., epidemiological study e.g., medical care Doctor Nurse Data management in embedded smart devices 5 5 My telco : du contact au contactless (bluetooth, 802.11 ...) Data management in embedded smart devices 2 sans contact, smart badges, smart sensors FLASH RAM CPU Crypto Gigabytes of (unsecure) storage Secure

  3. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-TIERED INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED CORN HYBRIDS EXPRESSING THE PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANT, BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant increase in genetically modified corn planting driven by biofuel demand is expected for the 2007 growing season with future planted acreages approaching 80% of total corn plantings anticipated by 2009. As demand increases, incidence of farmer non-compliance with ma...

  5. LA REVUE DE L'EPI N 77 DES IMAGES, DES TROUS ET DES BOSSES DES IMAGES, DES TROUS ET DES BOSSES...

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    images (fixes, car pour les images animées c'est encore une autre histoire, au format ".PCX", 320x200 en 256 couleurs). Qu'allons nous en faire ? Les idées ne manquent pas, car une fois numérisée l'image131 LA REVUE DE L'EPI N° 77 DES IMAGES, DES TROUS ET DES BOSSES DES IMAGES, DES TROUS ET DES BOSSES

  6. 10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by the Corporation, a...

  7. 10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by the Corporation, a...

  8. 10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by the Corporation, a...

  9. 10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by the Corporation, a...

  10. 10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by the Corporation, a...

  11. Pathologie vgtale (synthse) Le striga, mauvaise herbe parasite des crales

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pathologie végétale (synthèse) Le striga, mauvaise herbe parasite des céréales africaines ; accepté le 6 novembre 1995) Résumé — La mauvaise herbe parasite Striga hermonthica cause de graves conducteurs de sève des 2 plantes. Cela permet au parasite de prélever chez son hôte l'eau, les élé- ments

  12. Food ProtectionTrends,Vol. 25, No. 12, Pages 981990 2005, International Association for Food Protection

    E-print Network

    Food ProtectionTrends,Vol. 25, No. 12, Pages 981­990 Copyright© 2005, International Association for Food Protection 6200 Aurora Ave., Suite 200W, Des Moines, IA 50322-2864 Factors Impacting Food Workers' and Managers' Safe Food Preparation Practices: A Qualitative Study LAURA R. GREEN1* and CAROL SELMAN2 1 Health

  13. Cross-Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gal-On; Y. M. Shiboleth

    Cross-protection is a natural phenomenon whereby tolerance or resistance of a plant to one virus strain is induced by systemic\\u000a infection with a second. Eighty years have passed since the phenomenon was first demonstrated by McKinney (1929), who observed\\u000a that in tobacco plants systemically infected with a “light green strain” of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV: Genus Tobamovirus), the appearance of

  14. Le bassin du Congo possde une fort tropicale humi-de des plus prcieuses et des plus menaces hors du

    E-print Network

    Hardin, Rebecca D.

    CONTEXTE Le bassin du Congo possède une forêt tropicale humi- de des plus précieuses et des plus menacées hors du bassin amazonien. On y trouve plus de 10 000 espè- ces de plantes (dont 3000 sont endémiques), plus de 1000 espèces d'oiseaux et 400 espèces de mammifè- res. Remarquablement intacts comparés

  15. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Emergency establishment of protection areas. 17.106 Section 17.106...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency establishment of protection areas. (a) The Director may...

  16. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... true Emergency establishment of protection areas. 17.106 Section 17.106...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency establishment of protection areas. (a) The Director may...

  17. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... true Emergency establishment of protection areas. 17.106 Section 17.106...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency establishment of protection areas. (a) The Director may...

  18. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Emergency establishment of protection areas. 17.106 Section 17.106...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency establishment of protection areas. (a) The Director may...

  19. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... true Emergency establishment of protection areas. 17.106 Section 17.106...WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency establishment of protection areas. (a) The Director may...

  20. Removal of Feedback Inhibition of D1Pyrroline5- Carboxylate Synthetase Results in Increased Proline Accumulation and Protection of Plants from Osmotic Stress1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zonglie Hong; Karuna Lakkineni; Zhongming Zhang; Desh Pal; S. Verma

    The D1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS; EC not as- signed) is the rate-limiting enzyme in proline (Pro) biosynthesis in plants and is subject to feedback inhibition by Pro. It has been suggested that the feedback regulation of P5CS is lost in plants under stress conditions. We compared Pro levels in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing a wild-type form of Vigna aconitifolia

  1. Effects of planting stock quality and browse protection-type on height growth of northern red oak and eastern white pine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S Ward; Martin P. N Gent; George R Stephens

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of seedling quality and type of browse protection on height growth of northern red oak and eastern white pine was examined in plots established on abandoned agricultural land and on recent clearcuts with moderate-to-high deer densities (18–21 deer\\/km2). One-year-old seedlings were sorted by size, transplanted, and protected with plastic mesh or fabric sleeves, or tree shelters. Seedling heights

  2. Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de communication

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    Faculté des arts et des sciences Département de communication Plans de cours cadre Cours des programmes de premier cycle en sciences de la communication Comité des études de premier cycle Adopté par l..................................................................................................................................3 COM 1150 Rédaction en communication 1

  3. The conserved role of FtsH11 protease in protection of photosynthetic system from high temperature stress in higher plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As sessile organisms, plants employ multiple mechanisms to cope with seasonal and daily temperature fluctuations associated with their habitats. AtFtsH11 protease gene was identified via map-based cloning as essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate high temperatures. There are 12 predi...

  4. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

  5. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

  6. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

  7. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

  8. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

  9. 76 FR 28819 - NUREG/CR-XXXX, Development of Quantitative Software Reliability Models for Digital Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ...Digital Protection Systems of Nuclear Power Plants Draft Report for Comment...Digital Protection Systems of Nuclear Power Plants, Draft Report for Comment...systems in the licensing actions of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The...

  10. Deriving site-specific clean-up criteria to protect ecological receptors (plants and soil invertebrates) exposed to metal or metalloid soil contaminants via the direct contact exposure pathway.

    PubMed

    Checkai, Ron; Van Genderen, Eric; Sousa, José Paulo; Stephenson, Gladys; Smolders, Erik

    2014-07-01

    Soil contaminant concentration limits for the protection of terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates are commonly based on thresholds derived using data from laboratory ecotoxicity tests. A comprehensive assessment has been made for the derivation of ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States; however, these limits are conservative because of their focus on high bioavailability scenarios. Here, we explain and evaluate approaches to soil limit derivation taken by 4 jurisdictions, 2 of which allow for correction of data for factors affecting bioavailability among soils, and between spiked and field-contaminated soils (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH] Regulation, European Union [EU], and the National Environment Protection Council [NEPC], Australia). Scientifically advanced features from these methods have been integrated into a newly developed method for deriving soil clean-up values (SCVs) within the context of site-specific baseline ecological risk assessment. Resulting site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability may permit a greater residual concentration in soil when compared to generic screening limit concentrations (e.g., Eco-SSL), while still affording acceptable protection. Two choices for selecting the level of protection are compared (i.e., allowing higher effect levels per species, or allowing a higher percentile of species that are potentially unprotected). Implementation of this new method is presented for the jurisdiction of the United States, with a focus on metal and metalloid contaminants; however, the new method can be used in any jurisdiction. A case study for molybdate shows the large effect of bioavailability corrections and smaller effects of protection level choices when deriving SCVs. PMID:24470189

  11. Fire Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Avco has drawn upon its heat shield experience to develop a number of widely-accepted commercial fire protection materials. Originating from NASA's space shuttle thermal protection system, one such material is Chartek 59 fireproofing, an intumescent epoxy coating specifically designed for outdoor use by industrial facilities dealing with highly flammable products such as oil refineries and chemical plants. The coating is applied usually by spray gun to exterior structural steel conduits, pipes and valves, offshore platforms and liquefied petroleum gas tanks. Fireproofing provides two types of protection: ablation or dissipation of heat by burn-off and "intumescence" or swelling; the coating swells to about five times its original size, forming a protective blanket of char which retards transfer of heat to the metal structure preventing loss of structural strength and possible collapse which would compound the fire fighting problem.

  12. Archives participatives Au milieu des ralisations remarquables de mdiation numrique des bibliothques et des

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Archives participatives Au milieu des réalisations remarquables de médiation numérique des bibliothèques et des musées sur les médias sociaux, les services d'archives ont un positionnement relativement en revanche des projets ambitieux de crowdsourcing, d'« archives participatives » (voir encart

  13. An Implementation of DES and AES, Secure against Some Attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehdi-laurent Akkar; Christophe Giraud

    2001-01-01

    \\u000a Since Power Analysis on smart cards was introduced by Paul Kocher [7], many countermeasures have been proposed to protect implementations of cryptographic algorithms. In this paper we propose\\u000a a new protection principle: the transformed masking method. We apply this method to protect two of the most popular block\\u000a ciphers: DES and the AES Rijndael. To this end we introduce some

  14. Therapeutic use of plants by local communities in and around Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary: implications for protected area management in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury; Masao Koike

    2010-01-01

    Traditional systems of medicine have become a topic of global importance recently. Increased commercialization of economically\\u000a important medicinal plants has resulted in overharvesting, threatening their survival. The present study was carried out to\\u000a document the indigenous uses of medicinal plants by the local communities in and around Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary, Bangladesh.\\u000a Data collection was predominantly qualitative recording the species use,

  15. Structure des ADN complmentaires des lactoprotines : application la recherche des gnes et leur localisation chromosomique

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Structure des ADN complémentaires des lactoprotéines : application à la recherche des gènes et à entrepris. 1) Construction de banques ovine et bovine d ADN complémentaires !ADNcJ. Sélection et identification des clones recombinants contenant les ADN complé- mentaires des ARNm des 6 principales

  16. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura between DES-exposed and unexposed women ( 10 ). Studies examining the risk of depression among DES daughters ... statistically significant. Researchers will continue to follow these women to study the risk of infertility. Recent studies have found ...

  17. Operational experience and performance characteristics of a valve-regulated lead-acid battery energy-storage system for providing the customer with critical load protection and energy-management benefits at a lead-recycling plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, G. W.

    The Power Control Division of GNB Technologies, commissioned on May 13, 1996 a new facility which houses a 5-MW battery energy-storage system (BESS) at GNB's Lead Recycling Centre in Vernon, CA. When the plant loses utility power (which typically happens two or three times a year), the BESS will provide up to 5 MW of power at 4160 VAC in support of all the plant loads. Since the critical loads are not isolated, it is necessary to carry the entire plant load (maximum of 5 MVA) for a short period immediately following an incident until non-critical loads have been automatically shed. Plant loading typically peaks at 3.5 MVA with critical loads of about 2.1 MVA. The BESS also provides the manufacturing plant with customer-side-of-the-meter energy management options to reduce its energy demand during peak periods of the day. The BESS has provided a reduction in monthly electric bills through daily peak-shaving. By design, the battery can provide up to 2.5 MWh of energy and still retain 2.5 MWh of capacity in reserve to handle the possibility of a power outage in protecting the critical loads for up to 1 h. By storing energy from the utility during off-peak hours of the night in the batteries when the cost is low (US4.5¢ per kWh), GNB can then discharge this energy during high demand periods of the day (US14.50 per kW). For example, by reducing its peak demand by 300 kW, the lead-recycling centre can save over US4000 per month in its electric bills. The BESS at Vernon represents a first large-scale use of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in such a demanding application. This paper presents a summary of the operational experience and performance characteristics of the BESS over the past 2 years.

  18. Linguistique Des mots et Des hommes

    E-print Network

    Loewith, Robbie

    'applique en cas de conclusion d'un nouveau contrat ou de renouvellement de contrat pour un abonnement Orange éclairage nouveau. Des rubriques variées vous attendent, sur l'activité des chercheurs dans et hors les murs témoigne de cette catastrophe 6 Histoire de l'art A partir d'une vingtaine de toiles dont certains éléments

  19. Influence d'un trempage des bulbes dans une solution d'acide 2-chloro thylphosphonique (thphon) sur la

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence d'un trempage des bulbes dans une solution d'acide 2-chloro éthylphosphonique (éthéphon la Pomme de terre et des Plantes à bulbes, F 29207 Landerneau RÉSUMÉ Le trempage des bulbes d augmentation du pourcentage de floraison. Ceci résulte d'une diminution du nombre de bulbes qui Ethéphon

  20. A gene for plant protection: expression of a bean polygalacturonase inhibitor in tobacco confers a strong resistance against Rhizoctonia solani and two oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Borras-Hidalgo, Orlando; Caprari, Claudio; Hernandez-Estevez, Ingrid; Lorenzo, Giulia De; Cervone, Felice

    2012-01-01

    We have tested whether a gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) protects tobacco against a fungal pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) and two oomycetes (Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae and Peronospora hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina). The trials were performed in greenhouse conditions for R. solani and P. parasitica and in the field for P. hyoscyami. Our results show that expression of PGIP is a powerful way of engineering a broad-spectrum disease resistance. PMID:23264779

  1. A gene for plant protection: expression of a bean polygalacturonase inhibitor in tobacco confers a strong resistance against Rhizoctonia solani and two oomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Borras-Hidalgo, Orlando; Caprari, Claudio; Hernandez-Estevez, Ingrid; Lorenzo, Giulia De; Cervone, Felice

    2012-01-01

    We have tested whether a gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) protects tobacco against a fungal pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) and two oomycetes (Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae and Peronospora hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina). The trials were performed in greenhouse conditions for R. solani and P. parasitica and in the field for P. hyoscyami. Our results show that expression of PGIP is a powerful way of engineering a broad-spectrum disease resistance. PMID:23264779

  2. Amlioration des plantes tude des caractres d'enracinement

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    déficit hydrique chez l'orge (Hordeum vulgare L) A Khaldoun J Chery P Monneveux Chaire de Phytotechnie et'enracinement de 5 variétés d'orge (Hordeum vulgare L) ont été comparés. Les génotypes, originaires de la zone / système racinaire / Hordeum vulgare L / potentiel hydrique / variété Summary — Effects of drought

  3. Le compte satellite de la protection sociale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Launay

    1980-01-01

    [fre] Depuis 1957 les recettes et les dépenses de protection sociale en France sont enregistrées dans le « Budget social de la Nation », devenu en 1975 « Effort social de la Nation »; il s'agit de l'un des comptes satellites s'articulant autour du cadre central de la comptabilité nationale. Parallèlement, le « Budget social européen », document publié sous

  4. What Data Determine Whether a Plant Taxon is Distinct Enough to Merit Legal Protection? A Case Study of Sedum integrifolium (Crassulaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel P. Olfelt; Glenn R. Furnier; James J. Luby

    2001-01-01

    Measures of molecular and morphological genetic variation are often used to set conservation priorities and design management strategies for plant taxa. Evaluated together they can give insights into a taxon's evolutionary status that neither data type alone can achieve. We investigated the distinctness and variability of Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi, a federally and state-listed taxon, from its conspecific relatives using

  5. Insider protection

    SciTech Connect

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-07-01

    The government community is broadly addressing the insider threat. The first section of this paper defines protection approaches and the latter sections present various applicable technology developments. The bulk of the paper discusses technology developments applied to (1) personnel and material tracking and inventory, (2) classified document protection, and (3) protecting security systems. The personnel and material tracking system uses a PC based-host to (1) collect information from proximity tags and material movement sensors, (2) apply rules to this input to assure that the ongoing activity meets the site selectable rules and, (3) forward the results to either an automated inventory system or an alarm system. The document protection system uses a PC network to efficiently and securely control classified material which is stored on write-once-read-mostly optical media. The protection of sensor to multiplexer communications in a security system is emphasized in the discussion of protecting security systems.

  6. Tornado protection by venting

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability to protect a modern nuclear power plant from the effects of a tornado by the use of a system of venting in all safety-related structures outside of the containment. The paper demonstrates this by presenting a method of analysis and of equipment selection that fully complies with the intent and the letter of applicable federal regulatory guides. A report of an actual tornado in the City of Kalamazoo, Michigan, suggests that the concept of sealing a plant during a tornado may not always be applicable.

  7. SURVEILLANCE ET CONTROLE DES ACTIVITES DES NAVIRES EN MER

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 SURVEILLANCE ET CONTROLE DES ACTIVITES DES NAVIRES EN MER ScanMaris Michel MOREL (DCNS), Aldo administrations en mer. Toutefois, ils ne recueillent des informations que pour des zones maritimes ou des permanente, un recueil massif de données permettant de mieux gérer les situations en mer et les interventions

  8. Les cafiers sauvages La plante en dtail

    E-print Network

    Les caféiers sauvages Peau Pulpe Membrane Grain La plante en détail Les caféiers sont des arbustes ans et peuvent vivre une cinquantaine d'années. Il est possible d'observer des caféiers sauvages dans deux graines, les grains de café. Depuis 1960, l'IRD étudie les caféiers sauvages pour la préservation

  9. Vole-feeding damage and forest plantation protection: Large-scale application of diversionary food to reduce damage to newly planted trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Sullivan; Druscilla S. Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Forest and agricultural crops periodically experience feeding damage from herbivorous rodents such as voles of the genera Microtus and Clethrionomys. This problem has a long history, which needs a management solution that is both economically and ecologically viable. This study tested the hypothesis that large-scale (6–16ha) application of diversionary food would reduce vole-feeding damage to newly planted trees. Four overwinter

  10. The waste sulfuric acid lake of the TiO 2-plant at Armyansk, Crimea, Ukraine. Part I. Self-Sealing as an environmental protection mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. F. M. van Gaans; P VANGAANS

    1997-01-01

    The TiO2-plant at Armyansk, in operation since 1969, discharges its waste sulfuric acid and other effluents into an ‘acid collector’ of 42 km2 surface area. Under the semi-arid climatic conditions, such a surface represents the equilibrium between effluent production and evaporation. In the course of its operation, the pH of the lake has slowly decreased to a value of 0.85.

  11. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein 2 of Phaseolus vulgaris inhibits BcPG1, a polygalacturonase of Botrytis cinerea important for pathogenicity, and protects transgenic plants from infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cinzia Manfredini; Francesca Sicilia; Simone Ferrari; Daniela Pontiggia; Gianni Salvi; Claudio Caprari; Matteo Lorito; Giulia De Lorenzo

    2005-01-01

    The genome of the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea encodes at least six endopolygalacturonases; among them BcPG1 is constitutively expressed and is required for full virulence. To counteract fungal polygalacturonase, plants have evolved families of polygalacturonases-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) with specific recognition capabilities against PGs from different fungal species. However, it is not clear whether PGIPs can specifically recognize single PG isozymes

  12. An economic assessment of the contribution of biological control to the management of invasive alien plants and to the protection of ecosystem services in South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willem J. de Lange; Brian W. van Wilgen

    2010-01-01

    This study is a first attempt at a holistic economic evaluation of South African endeavours to manage invasive alien plants\\u000a using biological control. Our focus was on the delivery of ecosystem services from habitats that are invaded by groups of\\u000a weeds, rather than by each individual weed species. We established the net present value of the weed biological control efforts,

  13. Triangle des vitesses Failles transformantes

    E-print Network

    Grigné, Cécile

    Triangle des vitesses ab Failles transformantes A B A B TD - UE Terre Profonde #12;Triangle des vitesses ab A B Dorsales A B TD - UE Terre Profonde #12;Triangle des vitesses ab B A B A Subduction TD - UE Terre Profonde #12;Triangle des vitesses B A A B C C TD - UE Terre Profonde #12;Triangle des vitesses B

  14. Anti-Apoptotic Machinery Protects the Necrotrophic Fungus Botrytis cinerea from Host-Induced Apoptotic-Like Cell Death during Plant Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shlezinger, Neta; Minz, Anna; Gur, Yonatan; Hatam, Ido; Dagdas, Yasin F.; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Sharon, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Necrotrophic fungi are unable to occupy living plant cells. How such pathogens survive first contact with living host tissue and initiate infection is therefore unclear. Here, we show that the necrotrophic grey mold fungus Botrytis cinerea undergoes massive apoptotic-like programmed cell death (PCD) following germination on the host plant. Manipulation of an anti-apoptotic gene BcBIR1 modified fungal response to PCD-inducing conditions. As a consequence, strains with reduced sensitivity to PCD were hyper virulent, while strains in which PCD was over-stimulated showed reduced pathogenicity. Similarly, reduced levels of PCD in the fungus were recorded following infection of Arabidopsis mutants that show enhanced susceptibility to B. cinerea. When considered together, these results suggest that Botrytis PCD machinery is targeted by plant defense molecules, and that the fungal anti-apoptotic machinery is essential for overcoming this host-induced PCD and hence, for establishment of infection. As such, fungal PCD machinery represents a novel target for fungicides and antifungal drugs. PMID:21876671

  15. MCANISMES DE FORMATION ET STRUCTURES DES REVTEMENTS PROTECTEURS A BASE D'ALUMINIURES

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    mise au point. Une telle protection peut être réalisée en formant à la surface de la pièce en niobium à NIOBIUM ET SES ALLIAGES G. SLAMA, A. VIGNES Ecole Nationale Supérieure de la Métallurgie et de l'Industrie des Mines de Nancy Résumé. 2014 Des revêtements protecteurs du niobium et de ses alliages ont été

  16. LA NATURE CONTRE LE TERRITOIRE : LES CONTRADICTIONS DE LA POLITIQUE DES AIRES PROTEGEES EN URUGUAY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    URUGUAY Dorothée Capo. Université de Paris 1, Panthéon-Sorbonne. Pierre Gautreau Université des sciences'environnement est une réalité récente en Uruguay (Achkar et Domínguez, 2000). La création du ministère de l protection des « milieux naturels ». La première originalité tient à la situation écologique de l'Uruguay

  17. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I Demonstruation Plant, Newman, Kentucky. Appendix B. Best available control technology (BACT) proposals. [Demonstration plant at Newman, KY

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-21

    The best available control technology (BACT) proposals for the following areas of the SRC-I demonstration plant are described: coal preparation and handling, SRC process and deashing, coke and liquid fuels (control of particles and hydrocarbon vapors), cryogenic systems and fuel gas purification (including sulfur recovery system and venting of gaseous wastes). (LTN)

  18. A without-prejudice list of generic names of fungi for protection under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Paul M; Stalpers, Joost A; Braun, Uwe; Crous, Pedro W; Hansen, Karen; Hawksworth, David L; Hyde, Kevin D; Lücking, Robert; Lumbsch, Thorsten H; Rossman, Amy Y; Seifert, Keith A; Stadler, Mark

    2013-12-01

    As a first step towards the production of a List of Protected Generic Names for Fungi, a without-prejudice list is presented here as a basis for future discussion and the production of a List for formal adoption. We include 6995 generic names out of the 17072 validly published names proposed for fungi and invite comments from all interested mycologists by 31 March 2014. The selection of names for inclusion takes note of recent major publications on different groups of fungi, and further the decisions reached so far by international working groups concerned with particular families or genera. Changes will be sought in the Code to provide for this and lists at other ranks to be protected against any competing unlisted names, and to permit the inclusion of names of lichen-forming fungi. A revised draft will be made available for further discussion at the 10(th) International Mycological Congress in Bangkok in August 2014. A schedule is suggested for the steps needed to produce a list for adoption by the International Botanical Congress in August 2017. This initiative provides mycologists with an opportunity to place nomenclature at the generic level on a more secure and stable base. PMID:24563844

  19. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Jr., John F.

    1981-02-13

    In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

  20. Influence of protein formulation and carrier solution on asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation: a case study of the plant-produced recombinant anthrax protective antigen pp-PA83.

    PubMed

    Palais, Caroline; Chichester, Jessica A; Manceva, Slobodanka; Yusibov, Vidadi; Arvinte, Tudor

    2015-02-01

    Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (afFFF) was used to investigate the properties of a plant-produced anthrax toxin protective antigen, pp-PA83. The afFFF fractogram consisted of two main peaks with molar masses similar to the molecular mass of pp-PA83 monomer. afFFF carrier solutions strongly influenced the ratio and the intensity of the two main peaks. These differences indicate that conformation changes in the pp-PA83 molecule occurred during the afFFF analysis. Similar fractograms were obtained for different pp-PA83 formulations when the afFFF carrier solution and the protein formulation were the same (or very similar). The data show that in specific cases, afFFF could be used to study protein conformation and document the importance of studying the influence of the carrier solution on afFFF. PMID:25417936

  1. CULTURE DES VIVRIERS. COMBINAISON DES SAVOIRS LOCAUX ET MODERNES. ANTHROPOLOGIE COMME CONSTRUCTION DES PONTS CULTURELS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    DES PONTS CULTURELS BAÏNILAGO L. ISDA 2010, Montpellier 28-30 Juin 2010 CULTURE DES VIVRIERS. COMBINAISON DES SAVOIRS LOCAUX ET MODERNES:ANTHROPOLOGIE COMME CONSTRUCTION DES PONTS CULTURELS LOUIS'anthropologie, construction des ponts culturels ABSTRACT : This paper tries to criticize the radical opposition established

  2. Expression des constantes de distorsion centrifuge des hexafluorures en fonction des frquences harmoniques.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L-55 Expression des constantes de distorsion centrifuge des hexafluorures en fonction des de distorsion centrifuge des molécules XY6 en fonc- tion des fréquences harmoniques ; l for the centrifugal distortion constants as a function of harmonic frequencies ; application is made to SF6 and UF6. 4

  3. Copy Protection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leske, Cavin.

    2002-01-01

    With the recent shut down of the peer-to-peer file sharing utility Audiogalaxy, copy protection of all kinds of data is a very hot topic. Distribution of music, movies, and software is running rampant, and many believe the solution lies in better copy protection.To learn the basics of copy protection, visit Link Data Security (1). This company specializes in secure products that reduce piracy, and this article explains the characteristics of good protection. The DVD Copy Control Association (2) manages the Content Scramble System (CSS), which prevents illegal duplication of DVD movies. Many documents about CSS and other projects are available on their Web site. One of the most high-profile fighters against piracy is the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) (3). The RIAA home page asserts the rules of music on the Internet and stresses the importance of obeying copyright restrictions. The other side of the argument is presented on this site (4). These activists state that recent changes to copyright laws have deprived citizens of basic rights, and they present their proposed Consumer Technology Bill of Rights, along with plenty of other information. Released on April 25, 2002, a report by the Senate examines the progress of content protection (5). The three original goals of content protection are outlined, and the status of various efforts to achieve them is discussed. Another report by the Broadcast Protection Discussion Group (6) summarizes its findings about "preventing unauthorized redistribution of unencrypted digital terrestrial broadcast television." A recent article in Wired News (7) looks at how a state-of-the-art copy protection technology was broken with a remarkably easy approach. The views of a Netscape co-founder offers a bleak forecast of copy protection in this article (8), but also implies that it might not be as big a problem as many people think.

  4. Transferring cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain coat protein gene into Cucumis melo L. and evaluating transgenic plants for protection against infections

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, C.; Xue, B.; Yepes, M.; Fuchs, M.; Ling, K.; Namba, S. (Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1994-03-01

    A single regeneration procedure using cotyledon examples effectively regenerated five commercially grown muskmelon cultivars. This regeneration scheme was used to facilitate gene transfers using either Agrobacterium tumefaciens or microprojectile bombardment methods. In both cases, the transferred genes were from the T-DNA region of the binary vector plasmid pGA482GG/cp cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain (CMV-WL), which contains genes that encode neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS), and the CMV-WL coat protein (CP). Explants treated with pGA482GG/cpCMV-WL regenerated shoots on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 4.4 [mu]m 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), kanamycin (Km) at 150 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1] and carbenicillin (Cb) at 500 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1]. The authors' comparison of A. tumefaciens- and microprojectile-mediated gene transfer procedures shows that both methods effectively produce nearly the same percentage of transgenic plants. R[sub 0] plants were first tested for GUS or NPT II expression, then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other tests were used to verify the transfer of the NPT II, GUS, and CMV-WL CP genes.

  5. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  6. Amputation des quatre membres

    PubMed Central

    Feruzi, Maruis Kitembo; Milindi, Cédrick Sangwa; Zabibu, Mireille Kakinga; Mulefu, Jules Panda; Katombe, Francois Tshilombo

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs présentent les cas d'amputation des quatre membres réalisée chez trois patients différents. Ce sont des amputations réalisées pour chaque patient au cours d'une seule hospitalisation et en un seul temps opératoire. Deux patients pour gangrène sèche infectée et un pour amputation traumatique des quatre membres. L'amputation d'urgence a été pratiquée en premier temps suivie de remodelage des moignons d'amputation en second temps. L’évolution de tous les patients a été bonne. PMID:25469177

  7. Klinische Wertbestimmung des Convallatoxins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Weicker

    1932-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Untersuchungen über die pharmakologische und klinische Auswertung des Convallatoxins, eines von Karrer aus der Convallaria majalis dargestellten kristallisierten Glykosids der Firma Hoffmann-La Roche erergeben:

  8. Eye Protection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eye protection equipment? Most farm supply and hardware retailers carry sunglasses, safety glasses, goggles and welding masks ... radiation can lead to the development of cataracts. Growths on parts of the eye and skin cancers ...

  9. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  10. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An airplane's wingtip tank is being struck by simulated lightning in a test conducted by Lightning Technologies, Inc., a firm specializing in design features to protect aircraft from the hazard of electrical phenomena. Much of the technology employed in tests originated in NASA - sponsored studies focusing on effects of lightning on aircraft structures, electrical systems, and fuel tanks, and on means of protecting against hazardous effects.

  11. La forme des plantes et autres structures

    E-print Network

    Giraud, Olivier

    ://jpm-chabert.club.fr/sv00p01.htm http://maven.smith.edu/~phyllo/About/index.html Morphogenèse : http://www.msc.univ-paris-diderot.fr/~vincent/ http://www.dossierpourlascience.fr/ewb_pages/s/sommaire_pls.php?num=44 (dossier payant) Poker et

  12. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    SciTech Connect

    Yanochko, Ronald M [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  13. Anticipating the spatio-temporal response of plant diversity and vegetation structure to climate and land use change in a protected area

    PubMed Central

    Boulangeat, Isabelle; Georges, Damien; Dentant, Cédric; Bonet, Richard; Van Es, Jérémie; Abdulhak, Sylvain; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation is a key driver of ecosystem functioning (e.g. productivity and stability) and of the maintenance of biodiversity (e.g. creating habitats for other species groups). While vegetation sensitivity to climate change has been widely investgated, its spatio-temporally response to the dual efects of land management and climate change has been ignored at landscape scale. Here we use a dynamic vegetation model called FATE-HD, which describes the dominant vegetation dynamics and associated functional diversity, in order to anticipate vegetation response to climate and land-use changes in both short and long-term perspectives. Using three contrasted management scenarios for the Ecrins National Park (French Alps) developed in collaboration with the park managers, and one regional climate change scenario, we tracked the dynamics of vegetation structure (forest expansion) and functional diversity over 100 years of climate change and a further 400 additional years of stabilization. As expected, we observed a slow upward shift in forest cover distribution, which appears to be severely impacted by pasture management (i.e. maintenance or abandonment). The tme lag before observing changes in vegetation cover was the result of demographic and seed dispersal processes. However, plant diversity response to environmental changes was rapid. Afer land abandonment, local diversity increased and spatial turnover was reduced, whereas local diversity decreased following land use intensification. Interestingly, in the long term, as both climate and management scenarios interacted, the regional diversity declined. Our innovative spatio-temporally explicit framework demonstrates that the vegetation may have contrasting responses to changes in the short and the long term. Moreover, climate and land-abandonment interact extensively leading to a decrease in both regional diversity and turnover in the long term. Based on our simulations we therefore suggest a continuing moderate intensity pasturing to maintain high levels of plant diversity in this system. PMID:25722538

  14. Crystal structures of apo-form and binary/ternary complexes of Podophyllum secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in formation of health-protecting and plant defense lignans.

    PubMed

    Youn, Buhyun; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G; Kang, Chulhee

    2005-04-01

    (-)-Matairesinol is a central biosynthetic intermediate to numerous 8-8'-lignans, including the antiviral agent podophyllotoxin in Podophyllum species and its semi-synthetic anticancer derivatives teniposide, etoposide, and Etopophos. It is formed by action of an enantiospecific secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase, an NAD(H)-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of (-)-secoisolariciresinol. Matairesinol is also a plant-derived precursor of the cancer-preventative "mammalian" lignan or "phytoestrogen" enterolactone, formed in the gut following ingestion of high fiber dietary foodstuffs, for example. Additionally, secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase is involved in pathways to important plant defense molecules, such as plicatic acid in the western red cedar (Thuja plicata) heartwood. To understand the molecular and enantiospecific basis of Podophyllum secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase, crystal structures of the apo-form and binary/ternary complexes were determined at 1.6, 2.8, and 2.0 angstrom resolution, respectively. The enzyme is a homotetramer, consisting of an alpha/beta single domain monomer containing seven parallel beta-strands flanked by eight alpha-helices on both sides. Its overall monomeric structure is similar to that of NAD(H)-dependent short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases, with a conserved Asp47 forming a hydrogen bond with both hydroxyl groups of the adenine ribose of NAD(H), and thus specificity toward NAD(H) instead of NADP(H). The highly conserved catalytic triad (Ser153, Tyr167, and Lys171) is adjacent to both NAD(+) and substrate molecules, where Tyr167 functions as a general base. Following analysis of high resolution structures of the apo-form and two complex forms, the molecular basis for both the enantio-specificity and the reaction mechanism of secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase is discussed and compared with that of pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase. PMID:15653677

  15. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Protection Agency. 76.53 Section 76.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application...

  16. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Protection Agency. 76.53 Section 76.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application...

  17. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Protection Agency. 76.53 Section 76.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application...

  18. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Protection Agency. 76.53 Section 76.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application...

  19. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Protection Agency. 76.53 Section 76.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application...

  20. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-3 Protected areas. (a) The Administrator may designate as a protected area in paragraph (d)...

  1. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-3 Protected areas. (a) The Administrator may designate as a protected area in paragraph (d)...

  2. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-3 Protected areas. (a) The Administrator may designate as a protected area in paragraph (d)...

  3. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-3 Protected areas. (a) The Administrator may designate as a protected area in paragraph (d)...

  4. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-3 Protected areas. (a) The Administrator may designate as a protected area in paragraph (d)...

  5. Biological monitoring of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides by assay of urinary alkylphosphates: influence of protective measures during manual operations with treated plants.

    PubMed

    Aprea, C; Sciarra, G; Sartorelli, P; Desideri, E; Amati, R; Sartorelli, E

    1994-01-01

    Biological monitoring was carried out by assaying urinary dimethylated alkylphosphates [dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), dimethylthio-phosphate (DMTP), and dimethylphosphate (DMP)] in 11 workers exposed to chlorpyrifos-methyl and azinphosmethyl during operations in a previously sprayed peach orchard. The subjects were divided into groups on the basis of the protective clothing worn. The results were compared with those of a reference group of 99 subjects not occupationally exposed to organophosphorus insecticides. The hand-wash liquid of the workers was also analyzed to evaluate skin contamination. Significantly higher levels of urinary excretion of alkylphosphates were found in all groups than in unexposed controls (Student's t test). A good correlation was found between quantities of the active ingredients on the hands and urinary excretion of total dimethylated alkylphosphates (r = 0.788) and of DMTP (r = 0.749) and DMP (r = 0.790) alone. The correlation between azinphos-methyl on the hands and urinary excretion of DMDTP was poor (r = 0.069). Under the working conditions investigated, the main route of absorption seems to be via the skin. Respiratory absorption, however, also appears significant in view of the difference in urinary excretion of dimethylated alkylphosphates found between subjects with and without face masks. PMID:7896418

  6. Oxidative stress in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Inzé; Marc Van Montagu

    1995-01-01

    During the past few years, considerable progress has been made in understanding how plants protect themselves against oxidative stress. Genes encoding plant antioxidant enzymes have been cloned and characterized. Overproduction of superoxide dismutases and glutathione reductase has been shown to confer increased tolerance to oxidative stress. Several lines of evidence have revealed an important role for hydrogen peroxide in stress-induced

  7. Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers, Des Moines, Iowa

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers, Des Moines, Iowa 18 October 2006 Abstract: The recommended plan opportunities along the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers in the areas of Birdland Park, Central Place and downtown Additional Information: Mississippi Valley Division Rock Island District Des Moines and Raccoon River Damage

  8. Politique de gestion des documents administratifs et des archives

    E-print Network

    Politique de gestion des documents administratifs et des archives Préparation : Division de la gestion des documents administratifs et des archives Révision : Bureau du secrétaire général Entrée en vigueur : 15 février 2012 Approbation : (CA-2012-6) Cadre juridique : Loi sur les archives (L

  9. Des pionniers autoconstructeurs aux cooprateurs : histoire des Castors en Aquitaine

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Des pionniers autoconstructeurs aux coopérateurs : histoire des Castors en Aquitaine Julie ­ Histoire des Castors en Aquitaine - 2010 2 Préambule Ce travail est un manuscrit en cours de travail. Il Castors en Aquitaine, des pionniers autoconstructeurs aux coopérateurs (1948-1970) initialement traité

  10. MITTEILUNGSBLATT DES REKTORS

    E-print Network

    Gertz, Michael

    Landeshochschulgebühren- gesetzes (LHGebG) vom 1. Januar 2005 (GBl. S. 1, 56 ff.), zuletzt geändert durch Artikel 6 des Dritten Hochschulrechtsänderungsgesetz vom 1. April 2014 (GBl. S. 99, 167) in Verbindung mit § 19 Abs. 1 Nr. 10 Landeshochschulgesetz vom 1. Januar 2005 (GBl. S. 1), zuletzt geändert durch Artikel 1 des

  11. Echte Lipome des Meniscus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Stedtfeld

    1955-01-01

    Es werden 2 Fälle beschrieben, bei denen ein echtes Lipom des Meniscus gefunden wurde. Nach kurzer Wiedergabe der Krankengeschichten und Operationsberichte werden Lokalisation, Form und histologischer Aufbau der Geschwülste in 5 Abbildungen gezeigt. In der abschließenden Epikrise wird auf die diagnostischen Schwierigkeiten hingewiesen und die Entfernung des ganzen Meniscus angeraten.

  12. Name des Akademischen Lehrkrankenhauses

    E-print Network

    Gollisch, Tim

    -5 99947 Bad Langensalza Name der / des PJ Beauftragten Kontaktaufnahme Frau Prof. Dr. Borg-von Zepelin Unterkunft In Absprache mit der Klinik Ansprechpartner: Frau Eva Ackermann Tel.: 03601- 41 1132 e Kontaktaufnahme Frau Dr. Christiane Först Sekretariat: Frau Rochner Tel.: 0441 / 9615-240 Treffpunkt am 1.Tag des

  13. Exclusive rewards in mutualisms: ant proteases and plant protease inhibitors create a lock-key system to protect Acacia food bodies from exploitation.

    PubMed

    Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Wielsch, Natalie; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; Svatos, Ales; Farías-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Heil, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Myrmecophytic Acacia species produce food bodies (FBs) to nourish ants of the Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group, with which they live in an obligate mutualism. We investigated how the FBs are protected from exploiting nonmutualists. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the FB proteomes and consecutive protein sequencing indicated the presence of several Kunitz-type protease inhibitors (PIs). PIs extracted from Acacia FBs were biologically active, as they effectively reduced the trypsin-like and elastase-like proteolytic activity in the guts of seed-feeding beetles (Prostephanus truncatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus), which were used as nonadapted herbivores representing potential exploiters. By contrast, the legitimate mutualistic consumers maintained high proteolytic activity dominated by chymotrypsin 1, which was insensitive to the FB PIs. Larvae of an exploiter ant (Pseudomyrmex gracilis) taken from Acacia hosts exhibited lower overall proteolytic activity than the mutualists. The proteases of this exploiter exhibited mainly elastase-like and to a lower degree chymotrypsin 1-like activity. We conclude that the mutualist ants possess specifically those proteases that are least sensitive to the PIs in their specific food source, whereas the congeneric exploiter ant appears partly, but not completely, adapted to consume Acacia FBs. By contrast, any consumption of the FBs by nonadapted exploiters would effectively inhibit their digestive capacities. We suggest that the term 'exclusive rewards' can be used to describe situations similar to the one that has evolved in myrmecophytic Acacia species, which reward mutualists with FBs but safeguard the reward from exploitation by generalists by making the FBs difficult for the nonadapted consumer to use. PMID:23683294

  14. Comparison of plant products and pyrethroid-treated bed nets for protection against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Guinea Bissau, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Pålsson, K; Jaenson, T G

    1999-03-01

    In Guinea Bissau, West Africa, the shrub Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae) and smoke of the bark of the tree Daniellia oliveri Rolfe (Caesalpiniaceae) traditionally are used to reduce numbers of mosquitoes indoors at night. We recorded the numbers of mosquitoes in the bedrooms of 30 households in a rural village, Mandinka-Rá in central Guinea Bissau. Each household was provided with bed nets and allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatments as follows: (1) lambda-cyhalothrin-treated bed nets (10 mg/m2), (2) permethrin-treated bed nets (500 mg/m2), (3) burning of H. suaveolens, (4) burning of the bark of D. oliveri, (5) fresh H. suaveolens, and (6) control group using untreated bed nets and no plant products. In treatment groups 1-4, the mean number of mosquitoes was significantly less than the mean of the control. These results indicated that the use of burning H. suaveolens or D. oliveri indoors at night repelled endophagic mosquitoes and may contribute significantly to reducing the prevalence of diseases caused by pathogens transmitted by house-frequenting, nocturnally blood-feeding arthropods. PMID:10083750

  15. Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant U. S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - 13460

    SciTech Connect

    Yanochko, Ronald M. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix [1]. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility [2]. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling. This study [2] concluded that SBS direct disposal is a viable option to the WTP baseline. The results show: - Off-site transportation and disposal of the SBS condensate is achievable and cost effective. - Reduction of approximately 4,325 vitrified WTP Low Activity Waste canisters could be realized. - Positive WTP operational impacts; minimal WTP construction impacts are realized. - Reduction of mass flow from the LAW Facility to the Pretreatment Facility by 66%. - Improved Double Shell Tank (DST) space management is a benefit. (authors)

  16. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Kit-built airplanes are more affordable because they are assembled by the owner and do not require Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. The Glasair III, is an advanced technology homebuilt, constructed of a fiberglass and graphite fiber composite material, and equipped with digital instruments. Both technologies make the airplane more susceptible to lightning effects. When Glasair manufacturer, Stoddard-Hamilton, decided that lightning protection would enable more extensive instrument flight and make the plane more marketable, they proposed a joint development program to NASA Langley Research Center (LAR). Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Langley contractors designed and tested a lightning protection system, and the Glasair III-LP became the first kit-built composite aircraft to be lightning tested and protection-verified under FAA guidelines for general aviation aircraft.

  17. 77 FR 66650 - Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR...that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As...

  18. Eléments de comparaison internationale des patrimoines des ménages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Strauss-Kahn

    1979-01-01

    [fre] A partir des bribes d'information existant sur les patrimoines de divers pays européens et des USA, une comparaison de la structure des patrimoines des inégalités de répartition et de leur évolution est tentée. Actifs financiers et actifs réels figurent de façon variable dans les patrimoines des différents pays. La Grande-Bretagne, avec une forte part d'actifs financiers, notamment de valeurs

  19. Improve protective clothing and reduce radwaste

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, G.A. [Interstate Nuclear Service Corporation, Springfield, MA (United States); Fryer, J. [Indiana/Michigan Utilities, Bridgman, MI (United States); Smith, J.M. [Precision Fabrics Group, Inc., Greensboro, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Nuclear power plants have been reducing radioactive waste production through aggressive volume reduction and control at the point of generation. Waste reduction efforts may, however, have reached a plateau. Certain items, such as protective clothing, are a necessary part of plant operations and cannot be eliminated. There are more than 800,000 sets of protective clothing currently in use at U.S. nuclear plants. Since up to 25% of these garments are removed from service each year, spent protective wear accounts for {approximately}100,000 ft{sup 3} of prevolume reduced waste annually. Furthermore, up to 10% of dry active waste produced at commercial power reactor sites is comprised of exhausted protective clothing and related goods. This report describes the design of protective clothing which lasts longer and is lighter than traditional fabrics.

  20. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lightning Technologies, Inc., Pittsfield, MA, - a spinoff company founded by president J. Anderson Plumer, a former NASA contractor employee who developed his expertise with General Electric Company's High Voltage Laboratory - was a key player in Langley Research Center's Storm Hazards Research Program. Lightning Technologies used its NASA acquired experience to develop protective measures for electronic systems and composite structures on aircraft, both of which are particularly susceptible to lightning damage. The company also provides protection design and verification testing services for complete aircraft systems or individual components. Most aircraft component manufacturers are among Lightning Technologies' clients.

  1. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. 76 FR 4258 - Occupational Radiation Protection; Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...CFR Part 835 Federal buildings and facilities, Nuclear energy, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Nuclear safety, Occupational safety and health, Radiation protection, and Reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

  3. 76 FR 20489 - Occupational Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...CFR Part 835 Federal buildings and facilities, Nuclear energy, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Nuclear safety, Occupational safety and health, Radiation protection, and Reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

  4. 78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...NRC-2012-0268] Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR...that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As...

  5. Exploitation d'un mlange de plantes mel-lifres par les abeilles sauvages et melli-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Exploitation d'un mélange de plantes mel- lifères par les abeilles sauvages et melli- fères sur des'abeilles sauvages soli- taires des genres Hylaeus, Colletes, Halic- tus, Lasioglossum, Sphecodes, Andrena, Daypoda espèces de fleurs sauvages de la flore d'accompagne- ment et de la végétation des bordures, mais ont

  6. Plants 1: Plant Parents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2001-10-20

    This is the first of two lessons about reproduction in plants. This lesson covers how most plants normally reproduce - sexually. The second Science NetLinks lesson in this series, Plant Propagation, teaches how plants can be forced to reproduce asexually. In this lesson, students will learn the parts of the flower and the process of sexual reproduction in plants.

  7. The Carnivorous Plant FAQ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Meyers-Rice, Barry.

    Provided by Barry Meyers-Rice, carnivorous plant enthusiast and team member of The Nature Conservancy's Wildland Weeds Management & Research Program, this site offers answers to many questions about carnivorous plants. Although the majority of content targets the (deservedly) gee-whiz aspects of these plants that "attract, capture, kill, and digest animal life forms," several sections will be of interest to educators and researchers. Carnivorous Plant Taxonomy covers relationships among genera and families; Carnivorous Plant Genera provides text and color photos on genera from Aldrovanda (Waterwheel Plants) to Utricularia (Bladderworts); and Carnivorous Plants and Conservation offers information on the threats to these plants and efforts to protect them. A selection of related links rounds out the site.

  8. Protecting Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses privacy issues related to use of the Internet. Topics include data gathering functions that are built into applications of the World Wide Web; cookies that identify Web site visitors; personal identity information; libraries and privacy, including the need for privacy policies; protecting your privacy; and developing privacy literacy.…

  9. Protective Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Beta Glass material, originating from the Apollo program is supplied to Fyrepel by Owens-Corning and incorporated into Fyrepel's Fyretex and Beta-Mex aluminized fabrics. Fabrics are used in fire entry suits, several other types of protective suits for wear in hot industrial environments and such accessory items as heat-reflecting curtains for industrial applications.

  10. INFLAMMATION DES NUAGES DE POUSSIERES PAR DES ETINCELLES ET DES SURFACES CHAUFFEES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2001-74 INFLAMMATION DES NUAGES DE POUSSIERES PAR DES ETINCELLES ET DES SURFACES CHAUFFEES C. PROUST - M. BOUDALAA INERIS-BP 2- F60550 Veraeuil-en-Halatte Résumé. Les trois types de sources d'inflammation utilisé. Pour des délais d'inflammation relativement longs (1 à 2 mn), le paramètre caractéristique de l'inflammation

  11. Cyanogenic compounds as protecting agents for organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adolf Nahrstedt

    1985-01-01

    Biochemical and physiological arguments and several plant-predator relationships described in the literature are presented in which cyanogenesis plays a role as a protecting process. HCN arising from the cleavage of cyanogenics is regarded to be the most important agent, but also the cyanogenic itself, carbonyls and ß-cyanoalanine, which are products of degradation processes of cyanogenics, may possess protecting properties. Some

  12. Facult des arts et des sciences Sciences sociales et psychologie | Cartographie de la recherche 2012 TABLE DES MATIRES

    E-print Network

    Leclercq, Remi

    #12;Faculté des arts et des sciences ­ Sciences sociales et psychologie | Cartographie de la ..................................................................................................................................................................... 2 La Faculté des arts et des sciences (FAS), c'est....................................................................................... 3 Sciences sociales et psychologie

  13. Conserving our wild plant heritage

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.F.

    1980-11-01

    Conservationists who have neglected the protection of wild plants in the past are becoming more active in pressing for a broad range of programs. One tenth of the world's vascular plants are endangered, threatened, or rare. Plant habitats are being destroyed by logging, draining of wetlands, and clearing for agriculture. The international trade in wild plants and the growing number of plant collectors are also endangering wild plants. Federal legislation is needed to regulate foreign and interstate plant trade, while international regulations must be strengthened. (10 photos, 21 references)

  14. La Convention sur le commerce international des espces de faune et de flore sauvages menaces d'extinction (CITES) est un accord international sign par 176 pays destin

    E-print Network

    La Convention sur le commerce international des espèces de faune et de flore sauvages menacées d'animaux et de plantes ne menace pas leur survie à l'état sauvage. Les animaux ou les plantes inscrits à la

  15. Le magazine Prsentation des

    E-print Network

    Le magazine Présentation des guides Abonnez-vous La lettre professionnelle Recevez la newsletter FINANCEMENT EUROPE ET MONDE FORMATION Innovation Online - L´actualité de l'économie de la croissance http://www.innovationonline.fr/articles-magazine

  16. Skin Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rose Marie Faber; Erin L. Colvin

    \\u000a The skin has been established as one of the largest organs of the human body as the skin provides a multitude of protective\\u000a functions. Because the skin is easily accessible, assessing the integumentary system can provide a wealth of information.\\u000a Illness and internal organ dysfunction are apparent by assessing the appearance of the skin. Critically ill children with\\u000a cardiac disease

  17. Zur Pharmakologie des Cytisins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Zachowski

    1938-01-01

    Zusammenfassung 1.Das goldregenalkaloid Cytisin bewirkt wie Nikotin Erregung der vegetativen Schaltganglien mit nachfolgender Lähmung. Die erregende Wirkung des Cytisins betrifft fast nur die sympathischen Schaltganglien.2.Vom Nikotin unterscheidet es sich wesentlich durch die bedeutend stärkere Erregung der sympathischen Schaltganglien und durch die stark abgeschwächte lähmende Wirkung.3.Die im Vergleich zu Nikotin vielfach stärkere adrenalinartige pressorische Wirkung des Cytisins beruht in erster Linie

  18. DESULFURIZATION OF STEEL MILL SINTER PLANT GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of using limestone scrubbing technology to control sinter plant emissions. Data from Soviet and Japanese sinter plants employing limestone scrubbing technology were used to develop a realistic des...

  19. PROPRITS MCANIQUES DES VERRES J. ZARZYCKI

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    789 PROPRIÉTÉS MÉCANIQUES DES VERRES J. ZARZYCKI Université de Montpellier 2, Laboratoire des Verres du C. N. R. S., France Résumé. 2014 La résistance mécanique des verres usuels s'écarte très des propriétés mécaniques des verres. Après un brefrappel de la théorie des microfissures (Inglis

  20. Etude de l'effet du vieillissement sur les proprietes d'un tissu en melange KevlarRTM-PBI utilise dans le revetement exterieur des habits de protection contre le feu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, Carlos

    The aim of this work is to study and model the effect of three aging factors, temperature, humidity and light radiation, on the properties of a fabric made of a blend of KevlarRTM and PBI fibers frequently used to manufacture fire-protective garments. Accelarated-aging treatments carried out at carefully chosen conditions for the three factors resulted in a sizeable loss of mechanical performance. The breaking force of both the fabric and the yarns extracted from it decreases to less than 50% after one month of continuous exposure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests performed on thermally-aged samples indicated an increase of the crystallinity of the fabric, whereas the disappearance of Raman spectral lines suggested instead a reduction of the crystallinity following thermal aging. To explain these seemingly contradictory results, a hypothesis was introduced, stating that two different processes occurred simultaneously during thermal aging. The first one, an increase of size of the crystallites in the direction of the fibers' axis, accounted for the increase in crystallinity observed in XRD tests. The second one, an increase in the gap separating lamellar crystallites that causes a non-measurable reduction of the crystallinity of the sample, was highlighted by the Raman analyses. The results of the dielectric spectroscopy analyses carried out on thermally-aged samples confirmed the XRD results showing a significant change in the Kevlar's morphology during thermal aging. Despite the important decrease of the breaking force that ensued thermal aging, no evidence of a chemical structure modification of KevlarRTM was found. On the other hand, differential thermal analyses conducted on thermally aged fabric samples indicated a reduction of the glass transition temperature of the other component of the blend, namely the PBI, a fact that suggests a decrease of molecular weight after thermal aging. Infrared spectroscopy analyses performed on samples exposed to high humidity levels showed the development of a new absorbing band in the spectrum of aged KevlarRTM yarns. This band was ascribed to the formation of carboxylic acid groups. Based on these results, the humidity aging mechanism was inferred. This mechanism corresponds to the hydrolysis of the amide bond of KevlarRTM catalyzed by an acid. The progress of the hydrolysis reaction was modeled mathematically using the evolution of the concentration of carboxylic acid groups. The mechanism of light radiation aging was also determined from infrared spectroscopy analyses as the absorbing band attributed to the carboxylic acid groups was once again observed. In the case of light radiation, the degradation mechanism corresponds to a photo-oxidation reaction initiated by the photolysis of the amide bond of KevlarRTM. The accumulation of Photo-Fries products on the surface of yarns is believed to slow down of the oxidation reaction, as indicated by the overlapping of breaking force vs. aging time curves for the light-radiation aged samples. Expressions based on the Arrhenius law were used to characterize both the thermal and hydrolytic aging, whereas an expression taking into account the irradiance as well as the temperature was used to model the light radiation aging. The global damage produced by the joint action of the three aging factors was modeled after Palmgren-Miner's linear cumulative damage theory.

  1. 78 FR 22257 - Updates to Protective Action Guides Manual: Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and Planning Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ...Agency recognizes a short-term emergency drinking water guide may be useful for public health protection in light of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, which impacted some Japanese drinking water supplies. Input on the appropriateness of,...

  2. agronomie: plant genetics and breeding -short communication Prsence au Maroc de la race 2 de Plasmopara

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    agronomie: plant genetics and breeding - short communication Présence au Maroc de la race 2 de des sciences, université IBN-Toufail, Kenitra, Maroc; 3 Station d'amélioration des plantes, Great. Actuellement, une dizaine de races et 16 gènes PI ont été décrits (Gulya et al, 1991 a, b, 1995). Au Maroc

  3. Optimisation du dimensionnement des alimentations des machines rluctance variable

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    qui minimisent le dimensionnement du convertisseur tant en courant qu'en tension. Après un rappel des dimensionnement des convertisseurs prenant en compte les valeurs efficaces ou maximales des courant et tension adjoindre un convertisseur d'alimentation à fréquences élevées (jusqu'à quelques kHz). En général, il est à

  4. Qualit des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Qualité des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER Direction consommation durable et déchets organiques se construit, avec aujourd'hui le développement important de la méthanisation. Les composts actuellement produits, peuvent l'être avec des digestats ou non. Les quantités de compost produit ne cessent d

  5. Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de psychologie

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    ) L'étudiant choisit les cours du profil Enfants/adolescents (Axe 1), ou du profil Adultes (Axe 2). Cours Axe 1 : Évaluation enfants - adolescents Crédits Inscription Annulation Trimestre Année PSY7236;Faculté des arts et des sciences Département de psychologie Secrétariat des études supérieures Cours Axe 2

  6. SURVEILLANCE ET CONTROLE DES ACTIVITES DES NAVIRES EN MER

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 SURVEILLANCE ET CONTROLE DES ACTIVITES DES NAVIRES EN MER ScanMaris Michel MOREL (DCNS), Aldo) «Quiconque est maître sur la mer a un grand pouvoir sur la terre» Cardinal de Richelieu Il est donc Surveillance et de Sauvetage), sémaphores, moyens nautiques et aériens des administrations en mer. Toutefois

  7. Septembre 2012 Paludisme : des moustiques

    E-print Network

    pulvérisations intra domiciliaires d'autres insecticides, les carbamates. Ces derniers agissent différemment au aux pyré- thrinoïdes et pulvérisé des carbamates à l'intérieur des habitations, les scientifiques ont

  8. The DES Story: Lessons Learned

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Robert Hoover discusses the DES followup study, which follows diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposed and unexposed mothers, daughters and sons, and granddaughters for adverse health effects resulting from this exposure.

  9. Fire protection system HMI in power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainal, Yuda Bakti

    2015-05-01

    The central power station, a place where there are machines that generate power, equipped with substation where the voltage is produced by the generator and increased to a certain voltage with a step up voltage transformer. Effect on transformer oil is very important, transformer may malfunction if the oil that serves as a coolant and insulator gradually decreased its ability, over time their use. Power transformer on usability is vital, so it needs to be maintained so that the temperature rise must be overcome by applying a temperature control that can inform and control the control valve to open the hydrant tap transformer cooling. HMI implemented to facilitate the operators cope with excess heat in the transformer using thermocouple censor. Test results show that the control transformer and monitored using PLC and HMI. Transformer can maintain the condition of a maximum of 80 degrees Celsius heat.

  10. Protection of plants from ionizing radiation, USSR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P. Breslavets; Z. F. Mileshko

    1960-01-01

    This report is a translation of an article in the Russian language periodical Priroda (Nature), number 5, published in May 1960. The radioactivity of the air and the water is increasing with each passing year. According to data provided by Japanese meteorological stations, the radioactivity of rain water in 1958 increased to twice that of l957. This forces one to

  11. Déviance et contrôle des comportements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lionel Honoré

    2006-01-01

    (VF)Quel rôle joue le contrôle des comportements et que devient la place de la déviance lorsque les règles s’écartent et que l’autonomie, l’initiative, le progrès constant, deviennent des principes du fonctionnement de l’entreprise et de l’organisation du travail ? Pour tenter d’apporter des éléments de réponses à cette question, nous l’étudions sous l’angle des théories de la déviance. L’objectif est,

  12. La biogenèse des mélanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Delevoye, Cédric; Giordano, Francesca; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2012-01-01

    Les mélanocytes situés à la base de l’épiderme produisent des mélanosomes qui sont transférés aux kératinocytes pour assurer la pigmentation de l’épiderme et sa photoprotection contre les rayons ultraviolets. Les mélanosomes, organites apparentés aux lysosomes, sont le lieu de synthèse et de stockage d’un pigment, la mélanine. Leur formation dépend de protéines mélanosomales qui transitent par les voies de biosynthèse et d’endocytose et exploitent les mécanismes moléculaires du trafic intracellulaire. Les acteurs moléculaires impliqués dans le transport des protéines mélanosomales et la biogenèse des mélanosomes sont la cible de mutations dans des maladies génétiques accompagnées d’hypopigmentation comme l’albinisme et les maladies lysosomales. Les études menées sur les mélanocytes issus de souris modèles de ces maladies permettent de comprendre certaines des étapes-clés de la mélanogenèse ainsi que les dysfonctionnements associés à ces pathologies. De plus, décrypter la mélanogenèse facilite également la compréhension d’autres processus physiologiques, comme l’illustrent les similitudes inattendues avec l’amyloïdogenèse dans les maladies neurodégénératives. PMID:21382323

  13. Guide confrencier Mention : Dveloppement et protection du patrimoine

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    Guide conférencier Mention : Développement et protection du patrimoine culturel Nature de la nationaux polyvalents aptes à favoriser la valorisation touristique du patrimoine - au sens le plus large'art (architecture, peinture, sculpture), compréhension de la formation géologique et humaine des paysages

  14. NOTE TECHNIQUE RECHERCHE DES SALMONELLA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NOTE TECHNIQUE RECHERCHE DES SALMONELLA PAR IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE M. CATSARAS J. ANANI Laboratoire Salmonella, 366 prélèvements, dans 125 boucheries, pour lesquels nous avons comparé les techniques d, dus à des coliformes. Ses avantages et ses inconvénients pour la recherche des Salmonella sont

  15. How S-DES Works

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Febiana Hanani; Indri Rahmayuni

    Data Encryption Standard (DES) is one of the most widely used symmetric key cryptography algorithm. Therefore, the susceptibility of DES to different kind of attacks has been a concern since the algorithm was first made public. The problem has escalated to the point that Electronic Frontier Foundation has now built a DES cracking machine, at a cost of less than

  16. Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kreitmair

    1927-01-01

    Zusammenfassung 1.Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins wurde zu analysieren versucht durch Studium der Beeinflussung des Blutdrucks, der Herzaktion und der Gefäße, des Effekts am Atemzentrum und an den Bronchien, der Wirkung auf die Pupillenweite, auf den Darm und den Uterus, auf die Sekretion verschiedener Drüsen und den Blutzuckerspiegel.2.Es wurden folgende Wirkungen gefunden: Der Blutdruck wird erhöht durch kleine Dosen, erniedrigt

  17. Plant Wide Energy Management and Reporting Systems Provide Sustainable Results

    E-print Network

    Robinson, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Plant Wide Energy Management and Reporting Systems Provide Sustainable Results James E. Robinson, P.E., P.Eng. CEM, CEP Principal Project Engineer DES Canada, Corporation St. Albert, Alberta Canada ABSTRACT Powerhouse operators can...

  18. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  19. Missouri Botanical Garden-Center for Plant Conservation: National Collection of Endangered Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden, this website presents the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC)-National Collection of Endangered Plants which "contains plant material for more than 600 of the country's most imperiled native plants." The Collection website links to informative profiles for many endangered plants. Plant profile pages include the following concise sections: Distribution and Occurrence; Protection; Conservation, Ecology, and Research; and References. Site visitors can search for plants "by scientific name, common name, plant family, state range, or CPC participating institution." Plants can also be found through alphabetical listings by scientific name. This site links to other sections of the CPC website including Publications, Plant Links, Conservation Directory, and more.

  20. Catecholamines in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Kuklin; B. V. Conger

    1995-01-01

    Catecholamines (CAs) are neurotransmitters in mammals. They have been found in 44 plant families, but no essential metabolic\\u000a function has been established for them. They are precursors of benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids, which are the active principal\\u000a ingredients of many medicinal plant extracts. CAs have been implicated to have a possible protective role against insect predators,\\u000a injuries, and nitrogen detoxification. They have

  1. TIC et commerce lectronique : laboratoires de la libralisation des changes et des volutions des rgles

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 TIC et commerce électronique : laboratoires de la libéralisation des échanges et des évolutions/Département Sciences Economiques et Sociales Les échanges internationaux de produits TIC et le commerce électroniques à terme à l'abolition des droits de douane pour les produits de la filière TIC et les échanges

  2. Protective clothing, re-engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, S.M. [Radioactive Waste Management, Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In 1993, Commonwealth Edison spent 5.1 Million dollars for protective clothing materials and services for six power plants. Therefore, it was necessary for ComEd to evaluate their protective clothing programs while also considering the rapid escalation in disposal costs and the potential for on-site storage of waste. Today, I will be discussing the preliminary planning and the outcome of one year`s worth of investigating, reviewing, and calculating for an operation that will save Commonwealth Edison millions of dollars. A Process Engineering Reevaluation Team composed of corporate and power plant personnel was formed to evaluate all aspects of protective clothing materials and services. Throughout the year, the nine member team consulted clothing manufacturers, commercial laundry operators, and laundry equipment specialists. Faced with a wide range of garment design, types, sizes, materials, and disposal options, we were faced with a considerable challenge. In addition, we had to develop a product that all six sites would agree on. Three areas in particular that the team sought to improve were the material of the clothing, design of the garment, and the ability to share the protective clothing with all six of our nuclear sites.

  3. des butineuses disponibles, ce groupe de visiteurs est le seul pouvoir utiliser de

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Entfernen oder Addieren des Neo- phyten. Wir haben Stachys palustris, als sympatrisch blühende, einheimische and the native Stachys palustris? Pollination is an important but complex resource for reproductive success the invasive plant. We observed Stachys palustris as the sympatrically flowering native plant for changes

  4. Gestion processuelle des rsultats : Une tude pr-et post-IFRS des dpenses de R&D des

    E-print Network

    1 « Gestion processuelle des résultats » : Une étude pré- et post-IFRS des dépenses de R&D des'adoption des normes IFRS n'a pas neutralisé la capitalisation discrétionnaire des dépenses de R&D, mais que, à. Then the paper focuses on how accounting standards used (PCG/IFRS) alter earnings management based on R

  5. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    Plasma outflows from a central gravitating object are a widespread phenomenon in astrophysics. They include the solar and stellar winds, jets from Young Stellar Objects, jets from compact stellar objects and extra-galactic jets associated with Active Galactic Nuclei and quasars. Beyond this huge zoology, a common theoretical ground exists. The aim of this review is to present qualitatively the various theories of winds (Part 1) and how different astrophysical domains interplay. A more or less complete catalog of the ideas proposed for explaining the acceleration and the morphologies of winds and jets is intended. All this part avoids getting into any mathematical formalism. Some macroscopic properties of such outflows may be described by solving the time-independent and axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equations. This formalism, underlying most of the theories, is presented in Part 2. It helps to introduce quantitatively the free integrals that such systems possess. Those integrals play an important role in the basic physics of acceleration and collimation, in particular the mass loss rate, the angular momentum loss rate and the energy of the magnetic rotator. Most of the difficulty in modelling flows lies in the necessity to cross critical points, characteristic of non linear equations. The physical nature and the location of such critical points is debated because they are the clue towards the resolution. We thus introduce the notions of topology and critical points (Parts 3 and 4) from the simplest hydrodynamic and spherically symmetric case to the most sophisticated, MHD and axisymmetric cases. Particular attention is given to self-similar models which allows to give some general and simple ideas on the problem due to their semi-analytical treatment. With the use of these notions, a more quantitative comparison of the various models is given (Parts 3 and 4), especially on the shape of the flows. It is thus shown that magnetic collimation of winds into jets is a well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la résolution. Nous introduisons donc la notion de topologie des points critiques (Parties 3 et 4

  6. BULLITIONS NUIT DES SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    Gutkin, Boris

    partenariat avec TV5MONDE, Le Monde.fr, France culture Plus et l'Institut français, l'ENS a aussi souhaité de l'événement et des débats animés par Mohamed Kaci (TV5MONDE). Plusieurs thèmes seront abordés : la partager cette nuit avec le plus grand nombre, grâce à un plateau web-tv diffusé en direct dans le monde

  7. COMPORTEMENT SCURITAIRE DES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Robert Latour 1 Résumé Abstract Des données fournies par 109 utilisateurs de systèmes informatiques ont.., CA et Robert Latour L. SC. Com., C.S.E. stat., professeurs agrégés (avec la collaboration de Jacques-5633 Courrier électronique : andre.peres@hec.ca et robert.latour@hec.ca halshs-00587496,version1-20Apr2011

  8. Bilan des turbulences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Françoise Milewski; Hervé Péléraux; Olivier Passet; Christine Rifflart; Jean-Marc Daniel

    1994-01-01

    [eng] Turbulences' check-up Département des diagnostics Western economies began their recovery one year ago, but it is still difficult to foresee jobs and capacities creations on the near term. National situations exhibit quite varied imprints of indebtedness and disindebtedness waves brought about by the deregulations and monetary policies. Continental Europe, Germany excepted, has achieved the curbing of corporate failures, but

  9. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  10. Plant-Animal Symbiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernest H. L. Schwarz

    1895-01-01

    IN Prof. Stewart's collection at the Royal College of Surgeons there is a preparation of a mimosa which protects itself from browsing animals by providing in its great thorns a domicile for a species of vicious, stinging ants. I believe this example of plant-animal symbiosis comes from one of the West Indian Islands, while on the mainland of America the

  11. ECOLE DOCTORALE Savoirs scientifiques : pistmologie, histoire des

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 ECOLE DOCTORALE Savoirs scientifiques : épistémologie, histoire des sciences, didactique des-DIDEROT, PARIS 7 & DOCTEUR DE L'UNIVERSITE VIRTUELLE DE TUNIS Spécialité : Didactique des mathématiques Présentée'enseignement sur les possibilités d'apprentissage des étudiants Cas des notions ensemblistes fonctionnelles dans la

  12. EVALUATION DES INTERFACES UTILISATEUR : TAXONOMIE ET RECOMMANDATIONS

    E-print Network

    Nigay, Laurence

    'Assurance Qualité se pratique à façon, en fonction des ressources et des objectifs. A chaque cas, sa méthode. Nous Méthodes candidates Résultats souhaités Figure 1 : Choix d'une méthode d'évaluation en fonction des coûts (appel à des experts pratiquant par exemple la technique structurée des ``cognitive walkthrough'' [LEWIS

  13. Polyamines in plants: An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravindar Kaur-Sawhney; Antonio F. Tiburcio; Teresa Altabella; Arthur W. Galston; Laboratori de Fisiologia Vegetal; Facultad de Farmacia

    This article presents an overview of the role of polyamines (PAs) in plant growth and developmental processes. The PAs, putrescine, spermidine and spermine are low molecular weight cations present in all living organisms. PAs and their biosynthetic enzymes have been implicated in a wide range of metabolic processes in plants, ranging from cell division and organogenesis to protection against stress.

  14. fevrier 2012 Journes Francophones des Langages Applicatifs JFLA12 Separation des couleurs dans un -calcul bichrome

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AlligatorEggs3 cherche `a expliquer le -calcul `a des enfants. Pour cela il utilise la couleur pour relier des alligators affam´es et des oeufs afin de constituer des familles. La couleur sert `a expliciter les liaisons des variables dans les termes, des oeufs naissent de nouveaux alligators ou familles lors

  15. PROTECTION DES ROBOTS MOBILES POR TILISATION EN ATMOSPHERE EXPLOSIVE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Thc utilization of clectrical apparatus in hazardous arcas requires thc using of tricd technics explosive atmosphcre in thc vicüüty ofignition capablc parts, the suppression of dangerous sparks they arc integrated at thc beginning of the projcct. High powcr accumulators shall be protccted

  16. Expression of biologically active Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Peste des petits ruminants virus in transgenic pigeonpea [ Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Prasad; V. V Satyavathi; Sanjaya; K. M Valli; Abha Khandelwal; M. S Shaila; G Lakshmi Sita

    2004-01-01

    Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene of Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) has been expressed in pigeonpea for the development of an edible vaccine for Peste des Petits ruminant (PPR). PPRV, causes PPR disease in sheep and goats with high mortality rate. The two surface glycoproteins of PPRV Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein (F) confer protective immunity. We report the successful generation of

  17. Component protection based automatic control

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P J

    1992-03-01

    Control and safety systems as well as operation procedures are designed on the basis of critical process parameters limits. The expectation is that short and long term mechanical damage and process failures will be avoided by operating the plant within the specified constraints envelopes. In this paper, one of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design duty cycles events is discussed to corroborate that the time has come to explicitly make component protection part of the control system. Component stress assessment and aging data should be an integral part of the control system. Then transient trajectory planning and operating limits could be aimed at minimizing component specific and overall plant component damage cost functions. The impact of transients on critical components could then be managed according to plant lifetime design goals. The need for developing methodologies for online transient trajectory planning and assessment of operating limits in order to facilitate the explicit incorporation of damage assessment capabilities to the plant control and protection systems is discussed. 12 refs.

  18. Physical protection philosophy and techniques in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Dufva, B.

    1988-01-01

    The circumstances for the protection of nuclear power plants are special in Sweden. A very important factor is that armed guards at the facilities are alien to the Swedish society. They do not use them. The Swedish concept of physical protection accepts that the aggressor will get into the facility. With this in mind, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has established the policy that administrative, technical, and organizational measures will be directed toward preventing an aggressor from damaging the reactor, even if he has occupied the facility. In addition, the best conditions possible shall be established for the operator and the police to reoccupy the plant. The author believes this policy is different from that of many other countries. Therefore, he focusses on the Swedish philosophy and techniques for the physical protection of nuclear power plants.

  19. Plants 2: Plant Propagation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2001-10-20

    This is the second (and final) Science NetLinks lesson in a series on plants. In this lesson, students will do a project in which they choose a plant and try to propagate it. The project will take about 6 to 8 weeks to complete. During this time, students will research propagation, attempt to propagate a plant, keep a journal, and write a summary when the project is finished.

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Des Protein: an Immunodominant Target for the Humoral Response of Tuberculous Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARY JACKSON; DENIS PORTNOI; DANIEL CATHELINE; LAURE DUMAIL; JEAN RAUZIER; PHILIPPE LEGRAND; BRIGITTE GICQUEL

    1997-01-01

    The phoA gene fusion methodology permitted the identification of a new Mycobacterium tuberculosis exported protein, Des. This protein has significant sequence similarities to plant acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases, which are enzymes involved in general fatty acid biosynthesis as well as in mycolic acid biosynthesis in mycobacteria. As shown by Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments, the Des protein is

  1. CARACTRES CYTOLOGIQUES DES CELLULES GONADOTROPES, THYROTROPES, CORTICOTROPES,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , LTH, ACTH) et les distinguant du groupe des cellules à contenu glycoprotidique (FSH, LH, TSH). b) Bleu distribution très hétérogène des cellules TSH, à l'abondance des cellules ACTH, ces trois dernières catégories

  2. Les mtiers des langues trangres

    E-print Network

    Jeanjean, Louis

    individuel, en groupe, en face à face ou à distance, par téléphone ou en ligne. Il doit être en mesure de s'adapter à des publics sans cesse renouvelé, il faut alors faire preuve de capacités de communication et d'adaptation enseigner les termes de la vie quotidienne à des migrants ou un français plus technique s'il s'adresse à des

  3. V-Durabilit des cramiques et des verres Ce chapitre se propose de traiter de la tenue long terme des cramiques et des verres.

    E-print Network

    V- Durabilité des céramiques et des verres Ce chapitre se propose de traiter de la tenue à long terme des céramiques et des verres. A partir d'exemples présentés dans une première partie, une démarche dans une démarche de conception fiabiliste de composants contenant des verres ou/et des céramiques. V.1

  4. 75 FR 41177 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ...Agency, Stratospheric Protection Division (6205J...www.epa.gov/ozone/mbr. The application...any number of pre-plant users with similar soil...agriculture or environmental protection agency) to receive...

  5. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.B. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (United States); Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  6. Chemotherapie des metastasierten Nierenzellkarzinoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Joachim Beck; C. Huber

    1998-01-01

    Die Lebenserwartung des Patienten mit metastasiertem Nierenzellkarzinom (NZK) ist kurz, so liegt die 5-Jahresüberlebenszeit\\u000a im Stadium IV mit Fernmetastasen unter 10% [5]. Dennoch existiert eine kleine Gruppe von Patienten, die durch günstigeren\\u000a Spontanverlauf und lange Überlebenszeiten charakterisiert ist. Desweiteren kommt es beim NZK zu immer wieder beschriebenen\\u000a Spontanremissionen [12], die jedoch in den wenigen einschlägigen Studien mehrheitlich unter 1% liegen.  

  7. Seltene Tumoren des Integuments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Hofmann; A. Stein; H. Helmbach; A. Philipp; D. Schadendorf

    1999-01-01

    An der Haut manifestieren sich die hufigsten Malignome des Menschen, die epidermalen Plattenepithel- und Basalzellkarzinome,\\u000a sowie auch maligne Melanome mit steigender Inzidenz. Darber hinausgehend sind eine betrchtliche Zahl weiterer, verschiedenartigster,\\u000a jedoch vergleichsweise seltener Tumore am Integument zu beobachten. Das vor allem histologisch bunte Bild resultiert aus Gewebsanteilen\\u000a meso- und ektodermalen Ursprungs, welche in ausgesprochener Differenzierungsvielfalt die Haut und Unterhaut konstituieren.

  8. Strukturanalyse des Hämoglobin Köln

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Carrell; H. Lehmann; W. Pribilla

    1967-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Obwohl das Hb Köln zuerst in Deutschland bei einer Familie aus Köln gefunden wurde, gelang die Aufklärung der molekularen Strukturanomalie erstmalig bei einer aus Glasgow stammenden Familie, die einige deutsche Vorfahren hat. Es konnte mit verschiedenen Methoden gezeigt werden, daß Hb Köln folgende Struktur hat: a2ß2 98 Val?Met. Die in dieser Arbeit dargestellten Untersuchungen zeigen, daß die Strukturanomalie des

  9. [Wound repair in plant tissues (Review)].

    PubMed

    Vasiukova, N I; Chalenko, G I; Gerasimova, N G; Ozeretskovskaia, O L

    2011-01-01

    Signaling systems responsible for repair processes in plants and manifestation of defensive effects in plant tissues were analyzed. Special attention was given to jasmonic acid, a mobile systemic repair signal, as well as to jasmonate biosynthesis and signal transport to the areas where protective responses of plants are induced. The main defense responses of potato tubers induced by wounding were considered. PMID:21790022

  10. Lycaenids parasitizing symbiotic plant-ant partnerships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Maschwitz; Martin Schroth; Heinz Hänel; Tho Yow Pong

    1984-01-01

    Many species of the paleotropic plant genus Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) live in symbiosis with the ant genus Cremastogaster (Myrmicinae), especially with C. borneensis. The ants protect their plants from many herbivorous enemies. The plants provide food-bodies and nesting space in the internodes. In addition the ants care for honeydew producing scale insects in these spaces. The caterpillars of several species of

  11. Mecanique et mecanisme de la dechirure des materiaux textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triki, Ennouri

    Cette thèse vise à apporter une contribution à l’étude et à la modélisation de la déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits. Notons que la résistance à la déchirure est l’une des caractéristiques mesurées pour les équipements de protection contre les agresseurs mécaniques en milieu de travail. Jusqu'à présent, ce comportement en déchirure a été étudié en mesurant la force de déchirure et le travail de déchirure. De fait, aucun critère de rupture en déchirure n’existe actuellement. Par conséquent, en s’inspirant de la théorie du Griffith et de la mécanique de la rupture, une formulation d’un nouveau critère de rupture des structures textiles a été proposée. Cette approche offre la possibilité de déterminer d’une manière plus précise l’énergie nécessaire pour la création d’une nouvelle surface de rupture. Ce critère nous permet d’analyser l’effet des caractéristiques des tissus sur la variation de l’énergie de rupture. Cette étude montre que la résistance au glissement des fils dans la structure est le principal facteur qui contrôle la propagation de la fissure. En se basant sur la théorie de la mécanique de la rupture, un modèle de calcul de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a été aussi élaboré. Ce modèle de déchirure relie l’énergie aux paramètres caractérisant les phénomènes affectant la déchirure des tissus, notamment la force de glissement et la force à la rupture des fils. Cette modélisation a tenu compte de certaines caractéristiques des tissus tels que l’épaisseur du matériau, la densité des fils, etc. Par l’étude de la variation de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure en fonction du rapport établi entre la force à la rupture et la force de glissement d’un fil ( FYB/FS), l’effet des mécanismes de la propagation de la fissure dans les tissus sur leur comportement en déchirure a été aussi observé. Les résultats obtenus permettent de distinguer deux différentes catégories de déchirure. Pour les basses densités des fils, la fissure se propage dans le tissu par glissement des fils, alors que pour les hautes densités des fils, la déchirure est obtenue par la rupture des fils. Ainsi, il est important de noter que l’énergie de rupture par déchirure des tissus est maximale lorsque le rapport FYB/FS est proche de l’unité. En ce qui a trait à la déchirure des textiles enduits, la propagation de la fissure est obtenue par déchirure du support textile et de l’enduit de manière simultanée ainsi que par le délaminage du système textile-enduit. La définition d’un critère de rupture pour les textiles enduits nous a permis de constater que l’enduction d’un support textile par une couche d’élastomère engendre une diminution de son énergie de rupture. En outre, l’étude de la déchirure du support textile, de l’enduit et des textiles enduits a montré que l’énergie obtenue pour la couche de l’enduit est très faible si nous la comparons avec celles du support textile et du textile enduit. L’étude de l’effet du vieillissement sur l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a aussi fait l’objet de cette thèse. L’exposition des textiles enduits à différentes températures de vieillissement montre que le comportement en déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits est similaire pour les durées les plus faibles. Par contre, une accélération de la réduction de la résistance à la déchirure est observée pour les textiles enduits aux temps de vieillissement plus élevés. Ce phénomène peut éventuellement être attribué à une augmentation de l’adhésion du système textile-enduit suite au traitement de vieillissement. La diminution de la mobilité des fils ainsi engendrée cause alors une importante chute de la valeur de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure. Mots clés : Textiles, Textiles enduits, Énergie de rupture, Modélisation, Vieillissement thermique.

  12. Le temps des unes et le temps des autres

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Le temps des unes et le temps des autres ans une journée tout le monde dispose de vingt-quatre heures. De quelle manière le temps est-il compté, quantifié et analysé selon les institutions ? Les temps. Dans les couples, hommes et femmes se ressemblent dans leur usage du temps sauf dans deux

  13. Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de sciences biologiques

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    i Faculté des arts et des sciences Département de sciences biologiques Plan de cours Politique sur étudiants de déposer leur copie d'examen et de libérer la salle. Ex : examen d'une durée de 1h45 ou de 2h45 2014 2h45 B-442 Les examens comportent deux parties: une série de 30 questions objectives et 2

  14. Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de sciences biologiques

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    i Faculté des arts et des sciences Département de sciences biologiques Plan de cours Politique sur étudiants de déposer leur copie d'examen et de libérer la salle. Ex : examen d'une durée de 1h45 ou de 2h45 examens comportent deux parties: une série de 30 questions objectives et 2-3 questions de synthèse ou d

  15. Rles indirects des microtubules dans la morphogense nuclaire des spermatides

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Rôles indirects des microtubules dans la morphogenèse nucléaire des spermatides J.-L. COURTENS. Summary. The indirect roles of microtubules in the nuclear morphogenesis of spermatids. The depolymerization of the microtubules of the spermatid manchette was effective for 4 to 5 h in rat, starting 30 min

  16. Plan de cours Facult des arts et des sciences

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    'analyse phylogénétique. Les 3 domaines du vivant: Archées, Eubactéries et Eucaryotes. Origine évolutive des Eucaryotes leurs niches écologiques. Éléments de contenu : Chapitre 6 - Origine évolutive des Végétaux. Végétaux et al. 2005 et de Campbell et al. 2012) #12;CALENDRIER Date Local Pavillon Contenu Mer. 8 mai 1409 A

  17. Exploration des Ondelettes en Prtraitement des Documents Anciens Anis Kricha

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Exploration des Ondelettes en Prétraitement des Documents Anciens Anis Kricha 1 ­ Amina Ghardallou de numérisation posent un axe de recherche très récent particulièrement pour les documents anciens présente une étape incontournable pour la restauration et le nettoyage d'un document. Elle permet d

  18. FACULTE DES ARTS ET DES SCIENCES DEPARTEMENT DE PHYSIQUE

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    FACULT´E DES ARTS ET DES SCIENCES D´EPARTEMENT DE PHYSIQUE AUTOMNE 2013 PLAN DE COURS Sigle du cours: PHY 1234 Titre du cours: Introduction `a la physique num´erique Nombre de cr´edits: 3 Professeur est offert principalement aux ´etudiant(e)s inscrit(e)s au premier cycle en physique et au programme

  19. Underground for nuclear protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    A number of countries, including the United States, have relied for some years on underground construction for protection against the effects of a nuclear attack. Depending upon the threat, such structures can offer protection against nuclear weapons - nearly complete protection against fallout radiation and a very high degree of protection against blast effects. Current planning in the United States

  20. Radiation protection standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauriston S. Taylor; Harold O. Wyckoff

    1972-01-01

    The report traces the development of the understanding of radiation hazard, and the philosophy for protection against it. Special attention is given to the work of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), form which two organizations most of the basic radiation protection philosphy and criteria in the world today