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1

Systems of plant protection.  

PubMed

A framework for associating pest management with farming systems may be characterized by a cropping index (number of crop cycles per year); a plant species homogeneity rank, described as the degree of monoculture or polyculture and intensity of use of modern, high-yielding varieties versus land races or traditional varieties; intensity of use of synthetic agrochemicals; the availability of societal infrastructure to support agriculture, such as irrigation and roads; and availability of support services such as credit, public/private sector research and extension services. Traditional methods of plant protection in the tribal areas of the Philippines rely heavily on ritual-based cultural practices that recognize the crop calendar and its activities as part of a larger social agenda. Most groundnut growers in West Africa utilize minimal inputs with little infrastructural support but they have often adopted improved varieties. Extensive farming systems with modern inputs are exemplified by wheat in the mid-western USA, where pests are managed mainly through host plant resistance. In intensive farming systems--vegetables in South-East Asia, wheat in The Netherlands and orchards in the USA--crop intensification is greatest and pest problems arising from overuse of pesticides are most noticeable. Unsustainable farming systems evolve if realistic plant protection is not taken into consideration. PMID:8149817

Teng, P S; Savary, S; Revilla, I

1993-01-01

2

AMLIORATION DES PLANTES Production de plantes androgntiques de chou  

E-print Network

AM�LIORATION DES PLANTES Production de plantes androgénétiques de chou à choucroute (Brassica, .stabilité, vigueur, homogénéité, variabilité. SUMMARY Production oj'androgenetic plants by in vitro anther-Charles LESCURE Jeanne BURGOS LN.R.A.· Station de Génétigue et d'Amélioration dcs Plante.s, route de !/;7

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

3

Natural products in plant protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural products can be used to control pests and diseases in crops. These products include anorganic compounds, but also\\u000a a variety of plant extracts. In the beginning of this century active microbial extracts were discovered as well. Synthetic\\u000a crop protection chemicals were developed from about 1940 onwards and sustained progress in modern agriculture. The first generation\\u000a chemicals have aspecific modes

A. B. K. Jespers; M. A. De Waard

1993-01-01

4

Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants  

SciTech Connect

The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

1993-03-01

5

7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant Variety Protection Board...appeal or questions under section 44 of the Act, in which the...

2011-01-01

6

7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant Variety Protection Board...appeal or questions under section 44 of the Act, in which the...

2012-01-01

7

7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant Variety Protection Board...appeal or questions under section 44 of the Act, in which the...

2010-01-01

8

7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant Variety Protection Board...appeal or questions under section 44 of the Act, in which the...

2013-01-01

9

7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.  

...LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant Variety Protection Board...appeal or questions under section 44 of the Act, in which the...

2014-01-01

10

Pinellas Plant groundwater protection management program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Groundwater Protection Management Program (GPMP) Plan outlines the program in place at the Pinellas Plant to detect and monitor contaminated groundwater, which may have become contaminated by materials and waste.

Not Available

1995-10-01

11

Amlioration des plantes Influence de la recombinaison sur la variabilit  

E-print Network

Montfavet Cedex; 3 CNRA, station d'amélioration des plantes, route de Saint-Cyr, F 78000 Versailles, France'autre pour chaque type de descen- dance. Pour un type de descendance donné, les variances inter- et, 1986). Dans des descen- dances d'effectif raisonnable (200 - 300 plantes) issues de test-cross, seules

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

12

Transgenic plants protected from insect attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces proteins which are specifically toxic to a variety of insect species. Modified genes have been derived from bt2, a toxin gene cloned from one Bacillus strain. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes synthesize insecticidal proteins which protect them from feeding damage by larvae of the tobacco hornworm.

Mark Vaeck; Arlette Reynaerts; Herman Höfte; Stefan Jansens; Marc de Beuckeleer; Caroline Dean; Marc Zabeau; Marc Van Montagu; Jan Leemans

1987-01-01

13

Pinellas Plant groundwater protection management program plan  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Groundwater Protection Management Program (GPMP) are to establish that current operations and transition of the facility are not affecting groundwater in a way that creates unacceptable risks to human health and safety, or to the environment, and that the plant is working to address any such risks previously identified.

Not Available

1996-10-01

14

40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. A plant-incorporated protectant is exempt if...the pesticidal substance or leads to the production of the pesticidal substance is from a plant that is sexually compatible with the...

2012-07-01

15

40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. A plant-incorporated protectant is exempt if...the pesticidal substance or leads to the production of the pesticidal substance is from a plant that is sexually compatible with the...

2011-07-01

16

40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.  

...Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. A plant-incorporated protectant is exempt if...the pesticidal substance or leads to the production of the pesticidal substance is from a plant that is sexually compatible with the...

2014-07-01

17

40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. A plant-incorporated protectant is exempt if...the pesticidal substance or leads to the production of the pesticidal substance is from a plant that is sexually compatible with the...

2010-07-01

18

40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. A plant-incorporated protectant is exempt if...the pesticidal substance or leads to the production of the pesticidal substance is from a plant that is sexually compatible with the...

2013-07-01

19

FORMAT FOR A PRA RECORD (version 3 of the Decision support scheme for PRA for quarantine pests) European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation  

E-print Network

or plant products? Yes in parts of its range D. pini is known to cause heavy and sometimes total pests) European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation Organisation Européenne et Méditerranéenne pour la Protection des Plantes Guidelines on Pest Risk Analysis Lignes directrices pour l

20

48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plant protection. 252.217-7016 ...Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT...Provisions And Clauses 252.217-7016 Plant protection. As prescribed in...

2014-10-01

21

Amlioration des plantes Evolution des caractristiques de la graine  

E-print Network

'évolution de l'humidité du capitule et des graines de 25 variétés de tournesol (Helianthus annuus L.), de la of 25 sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) varieties were followed from flowering to maturity, the oil

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

Exposure fire protection for floating nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a nuclear power plant that will float on water, yet will remain in a stationary position, requires a reassessment\\u000a of the type of protection available for exposure protection.

Richard E. Caines

1975-01-01

23

Amlioration des plantes Polymorphisme de l'? amylase chez le pcher.  

E-print Network

Amélioration des plantes Polymorphisme de l'? amylase chez le pêcher. Ã?tude génétique R Monet-de-la-Maye, France (Reçu le 16 octobre 1990; accepté le 13 mars 1991) Résumé — L'a amylase a été étudiée chez'? amylase et celui responsable de la forme des fleurs; en revanche le locus de l'a amylase est indépendant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

24

How to Protect DES Against Exhaustive Key Search (An Analysis of DESX)  

E-print Network

that undoing their e#11;ect is not so easy. Does the \\DESX trick" really work to improve the strength of DESHow to Protect DES Against Exhaustive Key Search (An Analysis of DESX) #3; Joe Kilian y Phillip in this vein. It seems to be quite se- cure, but eÃ?ciency considerations make triple DES a rather painful way

Rogaway, Phillip

25

Advanced Neutron Source reactor control and plant protection systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the reactor control and plant protection systems' conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). The Plant Instrumentation, Control, and Data Systems and the Reactor Instrumentation and Control System of the ANS are planned as an integrated digital system with a hierarchical, distributed control structure of qualified redundant subsystems and a hybrid digital\\/analog protection system to achieve

J. L. Anderson; R. E. Battle; J. March-Leuba; M. I. Khayat

1992-01-01

26

U.S. Plant Variety Protection: Sound and Fury...?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article offers a critical reassessment of U.S. approaches to intellectual property protection for plant innovation. Three developments make this reassessment timely. First, the Supreme Court has finally confirmed that utility patent claims to plants and seeds satisfy the 35 U.S.C. Section 101 subject matter eligibility requirement. Plant innovation in the United States is now subject to utility patent protection,

Mark D. Janis; Jay P. Kesan

2002-01-01

27

40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.  

...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant...

2014-07-01

28

40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant...

2010-07-01

29

40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant...

2012-07-01

30

Protected-Area Boundaries as Filters of Plant Invasions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Human land uses surrounding protected areas provide propagules for colonization of these areas by non-native species, and corridors between protected-area networks and drainage systems of rivers provide pathways for long-distance dispersal of non-native species. Nevertheless, the influence of protected-area boundaries on colonization of protected areas by invasive non-native species is unknown. We drew on a spatially explicit data set of more than 27,000 non-native plant presence records for South Africa's Kruger National Park to examine the role of boundaries in preventing colonization of protected areas by non-native species. The number of records of non-native invasive plants declined rapidly beyond 1500 m inside the park; thus, we believe that the park boundary limited the spread of non-native plants. The number of non-native invasive plants inside the park was a function of the amount of water runoff, density of major roads, and the presence of natural vegetation outside the park. Of the types of human-induced disturbance, only the density of major roads outside the protected area significantly increased the number of non-native plant records. Our findings suggest that the probability of incursion of invasive plants into protected areas can be quantified reliably. PMID:21166715

Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; JaroŠÍK, Vojt?ch; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Rouget, Mathieu

2011-01-01

31

48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The Contractor shall also provide whatever additional safeguards are necessary to protect the plant and work in process from espionage, sabotage, and enemy action. (1) The Government shall reimburse the Contractor for that portion of the costs of...

2013-10-01

32

48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The Contractor shall also provide whatever additional safeguards are necessary to protect the plant and work in process from espionage, sabotage, and enemy action. (1) The Government shall reimburse the Contractor for that portion of the costs of...

2011-10-01

33

48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The Contractor shall also provide whatever additional safeguards are necessary to protect the plant and work in process from espionage, sabotage, and enemy action. (1) The Government shall reimburse the Contractor for that portion of the costs of...

2010-10-01

34

48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The Contractor shall also provide whatever additional safeguards are necessary to protect the plant and work in process from espionage, sabotage, and enemy action. (1) The Government shall reimburse the Contractor for that portion of the costs of...

2012-10-01

35

Development, registration and commercialization of microbial pesticides for plant protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant protection against pathogens, pests and weeds has been progressively reoriented from a therapeutic approach to a rational use of pesticide chemicals in which consumer health and environmental preservation prevail over any other productive or economic considerations. Microbial pesticides are being introduced in this new scenario of crop protection and currently several beneficial microorganisms are the active ingredients of a

Emilio Montesinos

2003-01-01

36

Amlioration des plantes Influence de diffrentes concentrations d'acide  

E-print Network

Amélioration des plantes Influence de différentes concentrations d'acide indole-3-acétique, d'acide naphtalène-acétique, d'acide 2,4-dichlorophénoxy-acétique et de kinétine sur la callogenèse et l 1989) Résumé — L'objet de l'étude était l'influence de l'acide indole-3-acétique (AIA), de l'acide

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

37

Public Lakes, Private Lakeshore: Modeling Protection of Native Aquatic Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey ( n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

2013-07-01

38

Wind Power Plant Grounding, Overvoltage Protection, and Insulation Coordination  

SciTech Connect

Proper insulation coordination is critical to achieving expected life from wind plant equipment. The collector systems of large wind plants require the application of surge arresters to protect the equipment insulation from transient overvoltages. The application of surge arresters is constrained by maximum operating and temporary overvoltage levels. This paper provides a tutorial description of the process of selecting and applying surge arresters to wind plant medium voltage collector systems, with emphasis on the peculiar properties of this application.

Camm, E H [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Behnke, M. R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bolado, O. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bollen, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bradt, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Brooks, C. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Dilling, W. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Edds, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Hejdak, W. J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Houseman, D. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Klein, S. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Li, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Maibach, P. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Nicolai, T. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Pasupulati, S. V. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Patino, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Samaan, N. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Saylors, S. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Siebert, T. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Smith, Travis M [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Walling, R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group

2009-01-01

39

Are you prepared Protecting your hydro plant from lightning strikes  

SciTech Connect

A properly designed lightning protection system requires a basic understanding of the physics of lightning and the means available to both divert and conduct lightning stroke energy around structures. Once the basics are understood, an engineer can using existing codes and standards to design an effective protection scheme for a given structure. A well-implemented scheme ensures that direct or close-proximity lightning strokes will not cause forced outages of hydroturbine-generator units. Lightning protection should be a part of the design of any new hydroelectric plant. If protection was not provided when the project was constructed, rehabilitation projects and activities offer opportunities to make corrections.

Clemen, D.M. (Harza Engineering Co., Chicago, IL (United States))

1993-12-01

40

Cold Protection Strategies for Landscape PlantsCold Protection Strategies for Landscape Plants When the thermometer hovers nearWhen the thermometer hovers near  

E-print Network

injury can occur to the entireCold injury can occur to the entire plant or to parts of the plant. Rootsplant or to parts of the plant. Roots and fruits are most vulnerable.and fruits are most vulnerable. #12Cold Protection Strategies for Landscape PlantsCold Protection Strategies for Landscape Plants #12

Jawitz, James W.

41

Screening agrochemicals as potential protectants of plants against ozone phytotoxicity.  

PubMed

We tested seven contemporary agrochemicals as potential plant protectants against ozone phytotoxicity. In nine experiments, Bel-W3 tobacco plants were experienced weekly exposures to a) 80 nmol mol(-1) of ozone-enriched or ozone-free air in controlled environment chambers, b) an urban air polluted area, and c) an agricultural-remote area. Ozone caused severe leaf injury, reduced chlorophylls' and total carotenoids' content, and negatively affected photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Penconazole, (35% ± 8) hexaconazole (28% ± 5) and kresoxim-methyl (28% ± 15) showed higher plants' protection (expressed as percentage; mean ± s.e.) against ozone, although the latter exhibited a high variability. Azoxystrobin (21% ± 15) showed lower protection efficacy and Benomyl (15% ± 9) even lower. Trifloxystrobin (7% ± 11) did not protect the plants at all. Acibenzolar-S-methyl + metalaxyl-M (Bion MX) (-6% ± 17) exhibited the higher variability and contrasting results: in some experiments it showed some protection while in others it intensified the ozone injury by causing phytotoxic symptoms on leaves, even in control plants. PMID:25432168

Saitanis, Costas J; Lekkas, Dimitrios V; Agathokleous, Evgenios; Flouri, Fotini

2015-02-01

42

Regulatory Guidance for Lightning Protection in Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Abstract - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects.

Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Ewing, Paul D [ORNL; Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Antonescu, Christina E [ORNL

2006-01-01

43

Regulatory guidance for lightning protection in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects. (authors)

Kisner, R. A.; Wilgen, J. B.; Ewing, P. D.; Korsah, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P. O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6007 (United States); Antonescu, C. E. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555 (United States)

2006-07-01

44

Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Hansen, T.

2006-11-15

45

APHIS Industry Alert Plant Protection and Quarantine September 2012  

E-print Network

APHIS Industry Alert Plant Protection and Quarantine September 2012 QuestionsandAnswers for contact with the ground, because it poses a risk for harboring imported fire ants. This hay can move inspected, found free of imported fire ant, and travels with a certificate or permit issued by the State

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

46

Effective protective surveillance for waterside-located chemical plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of citizens live and work in the dangerous proximity of chemical plants, at ports and along waterways, which are under-protected and whose security is under-regulated, according to findings of the Congressional Research Service (CRS). There is a new and intense focus on the security of the nation's critical infrastructure. Thanks to recent philosophy and policy shifts within our federal

John Love; Doug Van Dover

2006-01-01

47

40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions...of confidentiality for all or part of the information submitted to EPA in a submission for a plant-incorporated protectant. (See part 2, subpart B of this...

2011-07-01

48

40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions...of confidentiality for all or part of the information submitted to EPA in a submission for a plant-incorporated protectant. (See part 2, subpart B of this...

2013-07-01

49

78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE), Draft Report for...

2013-07-29

50

78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE).'' In response...

2013-09-11

51

45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants...Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as...

2012-10-01

52

45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants...Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as...

2011-10-01

53

45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants...Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as...

2013-10-01

54

45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.  

...Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants...Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as...

2014-10-01

55

45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants...Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as...

2010-10-01

56

Plant coal conveyor is protected all along its length  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Brandon Shores, the newest of Baltimore Gas & Electric`s 10 power plants, a 5,000-foot coal conveyor is protected against fire by a detection and suppression system that guards every inch of the belt system. The heat-detection cables consist of two current-carrying wires separated by heat-sensitive insulation. The cables are installed in the area between the idlers and the rollers,

1995-01-01

57

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

Washington TRU Solutions

2002-09-24

58

Plant coal conveyor is protected all along its length  

SciTech Connect

At Brandon Shores, the newest of Baltimore Gas & Electric`s 10 power plants, a 5,000-foot coal conveyor is protected against fire by a detection and suppression system that guards every inch of the belt system. The heat-detection cables consist of two current-carrying wires separated by heat-sensitive insulation. The cables are installed in the area between the idlers and the rollers, and are supported by messenger wire. The complete system includes control panels, power supplies, deluge valve controls, alarm initiating devices, conduit, wire, fittings and all accessories required for a complete operating system. Besides the inch-by-inch protection of the cabling, automatic ionization smoke detectors provide area protection. They are designed to initiate the fire alarm detection loop upon detecting products of combustion.

Hanson, T.

1995-03-01

59

Isoprene emission protects photosynthesis but reduces plant productivity during drought in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants.  

PubMed

Isoprene protects the photosynthetic apparatus of isoprene-emitting plants from oxidative stress. The role of isoprene in the response of plants to drought is less clear. Water was withheld from transgenic isoprene-emitting and non-emitting tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, to examine: the response of isoprene emission to plant water deficit; a possible relationship between concentrations of the drought-induced phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and isoprene; and whether isoprene affected foliar reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation levels. Isoprene emission did not affect whole-plant water use, foliar ABA concentration or leaf water potential under water deficit. Compared with well-watered controls, droughted non-emitting plants significantly increased ROS content (31-46%) and lipid peroxidation (30-47%), concomitant with decreased operating and maximum efficiencies of photosystem II photochemistry and lower leaf and whole-plant water use efficiency (WUE). Droughted isoprene-emitting plants showed no increase in ROS content or lipid peroxidation relative to well-watered controls, despite isoprene emission decreasing before leaf wilting. Although isoprene emission protected the photosynthetic apparatus and enhanced leaf and whole-plant WUE, non-emitting plants had 8-24% more biomass under drought, implying that isoprene emission incurred a yield penalty. PMID:24102245

Ryan, Annette C; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Possell, Malcolm; Vickers, Claudia E; Purnell, Anna; Mullineaux, Philip M; Davies, William J; Dodd, Ian C

2014-01-01

60

Worker protection during mercury electrolysis cell plant decommissioning.  

PubMed

This article brings information on how to protect worker health during the decommissioning of mercury-based electrolysis facilities. It relies on the Euro Chlor document "Health 2, Code of practice, Control of worker exposure to mercury in the chlor-alkali industry" that provides protection guidelines for both normal production and decommissioning activities, and on hands-on experience gained during chlor-alkali plant decommissioning operations.Decommissioning and dismantling of mercury-containing chlorine production plants presents challenges to industrial hygiene and health protection that are usually not present during normal operations. These involve meticulous training and enforcement of the appropriate use of personal protective equipment to prevent excessive mercury exposure.The best practice guidelines and recommendations available from Euro Chlor can help employers and occupational physicians to manage these challenges, as they provide state-of-the-art procedures. Our experience is that rigorous implementation of these procedures and worker training ensured acceptable hygiene at the workplace and prevented mercury-related adverse health effects. PMID:22728793

Besson, Jean-Claude; Augarde, Estelle; Nasterlack, Michael

2012-06-01

61

[Genetically modified plants and the problems of plant protection: progress and estimation of potential risks].  

PubMed

The review deals with advances and prospects in development of transgenic plants. At present virtually all commercial GM crops are those created for solving plant protection problems--they carry transgenes conferring resistance to herbicides, pests, viruses. Approaches employed for development of commercial GM crops with herbicide, pest and virus resistance, as well as strategies and prospects of development of commercial GM plants with resistance to fungal and bacterial diseases and nematodes, are considered. Ecological (including agronomical) and social risks associated with commercial growing of transgenic plants are briefly discussed. PMID:23074966

Kozub, N O; Pylypenko, L A; Sozinov, I O; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, O O

2012-01-01

62

Plant protection under conditions of radioactive contamination of agricultural lands  

SciTech Connect

Increasing influence of anthropogenic contaminants as well as substantiated risk of the action of ionizing radiation on agroecosystems suggest the necessity of studying both the state of separate components of cenosis and search for methods on retention of ecosystem stability as a whole. In this case it should be taken into account that by retention of resistance of living organisms to the action of stress agents not only genetically conditioned potential but induction of protective reactions at the expense of ecogene action is of deciding significance as well. Protection of agricultural plants on the territories subjected to radioactive contamination resulting from the ChNPP accident brings attention of research works to a series of problems, the main one being the minimization of pesticide use by the total ecologization of technological processes, in plant growing. But an ordinary discontinuance of conducting protective chemical measures leads to growth in the number of harmful organisms in crop sowings and as a consequence an increase of crop loss and decrease of its quality. It is possible to solve this problem by introduction of measures increasing the resistance of agricultural plants to the action of unfavorable factors of environment. Application of biologically active substances (BAS) of natural and synthetic nature for incrustation of seeds fits into these methods. For the territories with increased content of radionuclides and especially by their rehabilitation the methods of preventive treatments directed to retarding the development of harmful organisms in crop sowings and excluding subsequent technological operations on chemical protection of sowings takes on special significance as it is directly connected with the problem of radiation burden on workers of agroindustrial complex.

Filipas, A.S.; Oulianenko, L.N.; Pimenov, E.P.

1995-12-31

63

76 FR 36896 - Notice of Establishment of a New Plant Protection and Quarantine Stakeholder Registry  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...APHIS-2011-0059] Notice of Establishment of a New Plant Protection and Quarantine Stakeholder Registry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-06-23

64

UNPALATABLE PLANTS PROTECT NEIGHBORS FROM GRAZING AND INCREASE PLANT COMMUNITY DIVERSITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Institute of Botany of the Georgian Academy of Sciences, 1 Kojori Road, 380007, Tbilisi, Georgia Abstract. Tasty plants can be protected from herbivores by unpalatable neighbors. We used experimental exclosures, removal of unpalatable species, and transplants of palatable and unpalatable species in subalpine meadows of the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia to study the effects of two unpalatable species on

Ragan M. Callaway; David Kikodze; Marina Chiboshvili; Liana Khetsuriani

2005-01-01

65

Le desschement prcoce des tournesols. Dyna-mique de la colonisation des plantes par les  

E-print Network

maturation des graines. Mots clés additionnels : Helianthus annuus L., Fusarium spp., Cylindrocarpon spp words : Helianthus annuus L., Fusarium spp., Cylindrocarpon spp., Pythium spp., roots, stems, critical

Boyer, Edmond

66

Avant-propos : la slection du colza sans acide rucique Station d'Amlioration des Plantes, LN.R.A.,  

E-print Network

, par une large prospection, des plantes donnant une huile pratiquement sans acide érucique. Ce fut lAvant-propos : la sélection du colza sans acide érucique J. MORICE Station d'Amélioration des Plantes, LN.R.A., Domaine de la Motte au Vicomte, B. P. 29 35650 Le Rheu. La publication des résultats de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

Cross protection in transgenic tobacco plants expressing a mild strain of tobacco mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross protection of plant viruses is a phenomenon in which plants infected with one strain of a virus are protected from the effects of superinfection by other related strains. Recently, we have succeeded in the introduction and expression of a cDNA copy of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) genomic RNA in transgenic tobacco plants. Using this system, we introduced a

Jun Yamaya; Masaharu Yoshioka; Tetsuo meshi; Yoshimi Okada; Takeshi Ohno

1988-01-01

68

Amlioration des plantes Culture in vitro de la renoncule des fleuristes  

E-print Network

of plants regenerated by somatic embryogenesis from the anther superficial tissues. Plants without apparent different plants obtained through somatic embryogenesis and an acyanic test plant indicate a very good callus can be obtained by di- rect embryogenesis from the superficial tissues of anthers in R asiaticus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

Aging assessment of surge protective devices in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

An assessment was performed to determine the effects of aging on the performance and availability of surge protective devices (SPDs), used in electrical power and control systems in nuclear power plants. Although SPDs have not been classified as safety-related, they are risk-important because they can minimize the initiating event frequencies associated with loss of offsite power and reactor trips. Conversely, their failure due to age might cause some of those initiating events, e.g., through short circuit failure modes, or by allowing deterioration of the safety-related component(s) they are protecting from overvoltages, perhaps preventing a reactor trip, from an open circuit failure mode. From the data evaluated during 1980--1994, it was found that failures of surge arresters and suppressers by short circuits were neither a significant risk nor safety concern, and there were no failures of surge suppressers preventing a reactor trip. Simulations, using the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were performed to determine the adequacy of high voltage surge arresters.

Davis, J.F.; Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Carroll, D.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)] [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)

1996-01-01

70

Regulatory Review of the Digital Plant Protection System for Advanced Power Reactor 1400  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the evaluation result and the regulatory approach of digital plant protection system (DPPS) for Advanced Power Reactor (APR-1400). Firstly, we discuss the issue associated with the integration of bistable processor (BP) and local coincidence logic processor (LCLP) as one of design changes over digital plant protection system. Secondly, regulatory approach is presented on the safety classification and

DAI. I. Kim; S. H. Ji; H. S. Park; B. R. Kim; Y. D. Kang; S. H. Oh

2002-01-01

71

Analyses of Plant Protection Major Job-Oriented Teaching Reform Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is concerned about a teaching and learning reform of Plant protection Major. The student employment of this Major is a system engineering and Employment rate is one of the important indicators of its. This article analyses the problems that exist in the reform of the teaching of plant protection majors, and explores the way of intensifying the reform

Yang-fan Gao; Ming-wang Shi; Yue-tao Li

2010-01-01

72

En plus des fleurs, des groupes de 24 fraisiers placs dans 6 endroits diffrents  

E-print Network

PFLANZENSCHUTZMITTEL BEES AND PLANT PROTECTION ABEILLES ET PROTECTION DES PLANTES 10. Schäden an Bienenvölkern durch 1989. Die Aussagen stüt- zen sich auf die Auswertung aller gemelde- ten und labordiagnostisch abgeklärten Bie- nenschäden aus dem genannten Zeitraum. Es wird ein �berblick über die in diesem Zeitraum

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

73

Application of multi-function, micro-processor based protective relays in cement plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution in protective relays that started with simple discrete elements to replace electromechanical relays with static relays has resulted in the application of the modern multifunction, microprocessor based (?PB) protective relays. The ?PB relays consist of elaborate schemes that include equipment protection, control, metering and communication to the plant control system. Further evolvement is envisaged. This paper reviews the

T. J. Varty; N. L. Vera

2001-01-01

74

Relationship of fire protection research to plant safety. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

For several years, Sandia National Laboratories has been responsible for numerous tests of fire protection systems and concepts. Tests of fire retardant cables, cable coatings, cable tray covers, penetration seals, fire barriers, and spatial separation have been reported and summarized. Other tests involving the effectiveness of suppression systems and the vulnerability of electrical cabinets have been completed with reports in preparation. The following questions constitute the central theme of current fire research by Sandia and the NRC: under what conditions is spatial separation of redundant safety systems adequate; what are the temperature, smoke, humidity, or corrosive vapor damage thresholds of cable and safety equipment exposed to fire or suppression activities; what is the safety significance of fires involving control room cabinets or remote shutdown panels; and what is the relative importance of fire to nuclear power plant safety, as compared to other types of anticipated or postulated accidents. Evidence of why these questions seem important and a description of work being undertaken to address each question are reviewed in the following paragraphs.

Berry, D.L.

1983-01-01

75

IRD Sige, 44, boulevard de dunkerque -13572 Marseille cedex 02 Amborella, mmoire de l'volution des plantes fleurs  

E-print Network

IRD Siège, 44, boulevard de dunkerque - 13572 Marseille cedex 02 Amborella, mémoire de l'évolution des plantes à fleurs Communiqué de presse | Marseille | 19 décembre 2013 Dans le cadre d'un consortium ancienne des plantes à fleurs. Le séquençage complet de son génome apporte une quantité considérable d

76

Amlioration des plantes Comportement au champ de 32 cultivars  

E-print Network

/ bayoud / cultivar / résistance au champ Summary — Field behaviour of 32 date palm cultivars towards to control fusarium wilt (bayoud) in date palm. Twenty-five years ago, a trial was set up in naturally with plant age. Phoenix dactylifera = date palm / bayoud disease / cultivar / field resistance INTRODUCTION

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

77

10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

2010-01-01

78

10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

2013-01-01

79

10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

2011-01-01

80

10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

2012-01-01

81

10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.  

...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

2014-01-01

82

[Geographic distribution characteristics of the national key protected wild plants in China].  

PubMed

Rare and endangered wild plants, being an important component of biological diversity, have become one of the hot issues for conservation biology, and the study of their geographic distribution is of significance to the theories of biodiversity conservation and the mechanisms of their endangerment. In this study, the floristic elements and geographic distribution characteristics of national key protected wild plants in China were analyzed at national scale, based on the information from published literatures and the specimen records mainly from the Chinese Virtual Herbarium. The results indicated that there are 2177 species of protected plants, belonging to 130 families and 484 genera. The flora is characteristic of extremely diversified, old and endemic, and obviously rich in tropical and temperate elements. The geographic distribution of the protected plants is uneven, and concentrates in the southwestern regions and Taiwan of China. Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Tibet, Guizhou and Taiwan are the hotspots of protected plant diversity. The protected plants have a pretty wide vertical distribution range, but mainly distribute in lower and middle mountains with an elevation from 800 m to 1600 m. The spatial pattern of the protected plants is unimodal along elevation gradient. This study would provide sound basis for the identification of the priority areas of biodiversity conservation, and the establishment of conservation strategies. PMID:18975740

Zhang, Yin-bo; Ma, Ke-ping

2008-08-01

83

Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) 'plant-defense' response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and -susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1 colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

Redman, R.S.; Freeman, S.; Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

1999-01-01

84

Novel enabling technologies of gene isolation and plant transformation for improved crop protection  

SciTech Connect

Meeting the needs of agricultural producers requires the continued development of improved transgenic crop protection products. The completed project focused on developing novel enabling technologies of gene discovery and plant transformation to facilitate the generation of such products.

Torok, Tamas

2013-02-04

85

[Plant growth promoting microorganisms as alternative to chemical protection from pathogens (review)].  

PubMed

The review analyses data on physiological and biochemical influence of rhizospheric and endophytic microorganisms promoting plant growth (PGPR-plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) on induced resistance of plants and the possibility of its use in plant cultivation to protect crops from pathogens and phytophages. Resistance of plants provided by PGPR due to their endosymbiotic interrelationships is directly achieved because they produce peptide antibiotics and hydrolases ofchitin and glucan and also because plants form their own system of induced resistance, followed by changes in the balance of defensive proteins, phytohormones, and pro-/antioxidant status. PMID:21950110

Maksimov, I V; Abizgil'dina, R R; Pusenkova, L I

2011-01-01

86

Past and present effectiveness of protected areas for conservation of naturally and anthropogenically rare plant species.  

PubMed

The Global Strategy of Plant Conservation states that at least 60% of threatened plant species should be within protected areas. This goal has been met in some regions with long traditions of plant protection. We used gap analysis to explore how particular groups of species of conservation interest, representing different types of natural or anthropogenic rarity, have been covered by protected areas on a national scale in Estonia during the last 100 years. Species-accumulation curves indicated that plant species that are naturally rare (restricted global or local distribution, always small populations, or very rare habitat requirements) needed almost twice as many protected areas to reach the 60% target as plant species that are rare owing to lack of suitable management (species depending on grassland management, moderate forest disturbances, extensive traditional agriculture, or species potentially threatened by collecting). Temporal analysis of the establishment of protected areas suggested that grouping plant species according to the predominant cause of rarity accurately reflected the history of conservation decision making. Species found in very rare habitats have previously received special conservation attention; species dependent on traditional extensive agriculture have been largely ignored until recently. Legislative initiative and new nature-protection schemes (e.g., Natura 2000, network of protected areas in the European Union) have had a positive influence on all species groups. Consequently, the species groups needing similar action for their conservation are sensitive indicators of the effectiveness of protected-area networks. Different species groups, however, may not be uniformly conserved within protected areas, and all species groups should fulfill the target of 60% coverage within protected areas. PMID:19128324

Vellak, Ain; Tuvi, Eva-Liis; Reier, Ülle; Kalamees, Rein; Roosaluste, Elle; Zobel, Martin; Pärtel, Meelis

2009-06-01

87

Safety and Advantages of Bacillus thuringiensis-Protected Plants to Control Insect Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants modified to express insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (referred to as Bt-protected plants) provide a safe and highly effective method of insect control. Bt-protected corn, cotton, and potato were introduced into the United States in 1995\\/1996 and grown on a total of approximately 10 million acres in 1997, 20 million acres in 1998, and 29 million acres globally in

Fred S. Betz; Bruce G. Hammond; Roy L. Fuchs

2000-01-01

88

Research and Application of Modern Information Technology in the Forest Plant Protection Machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forest pests and diseases is very important to forest because it not only restricts the development of forest, but also causes\\u000a huge economic. Chemical pesticides control the pests and diseases effectively and pollute environment seriously. How to reduce\\u000a the amount of pesticide is the research hotspot in the field of plant protection. Forest plant protection machinery is the\\u000a most important

Lairong Chen; Qingchun Wang; Ronghua Ji

2010-01-01

89

76 FR 35349 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...C6] RIN 1018-AX80 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the Virginia Northern...Blackwater et al. v. Salazar et al., 1:09-cv-02122-EGS). The decision reinstates Federal protections that were...

2011-06-17

90

SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF PROTECTIVE COATINGS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report is presented to summarize experience gained in the application ; of protective coatings, not including conventional oil paints, during ; construction of the Savannah River Plant so that future similar sites may benefit. ; Reasons are given for protective coatings. the selection of the coatings, the ; techniques required for satisfactory preparation of surfaces,and the methods of ;

1955-01-01

91

Consideration for generator ground-fault protection in midsize cogeneration plants  

SciTech Connect

Generator ground-fault protection aspects are analyzed for midsize cogeneration plants. In these plants, the generators may be connected to a common generator bus. The overall bus-connected system should be considered when applying generator high-resistance grounding schemes. Calculations are reviewed for sizing generator neutral-ground resistance and evaluating third harmonic originated in the scheme. The relevant applications of third harmonics in applying 100% stator ground-fault protection schemes are examined. Practical considerations are presented for establishing selectivity of ground-fault protection schemes in the case of common generator bus.

Rifaat, R.M. [Delta Hudson Engineering Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)] [Delta Hudson Engineering Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1997-05-01

92

110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc-  

E-print Network

110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 Summary The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc- cus 2002 and was causing serious damage to papaya, Plumeria spp., Hibiscus spp. and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki, Pseudleptomastix mexicana and Acerophagous papayae totalling 46 200 individuals

Reddy, Gadi VP

93

40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special Review and certain public health situations. (2) Data are required for pesticides to be used in forests and natural grasslands. For herbicide used in forest site preparation; the acquatic plant growth tests will be required. Data are...

2013-07-01

94

40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Special Review and certain public health situations. (2) Data are required for pesticides to be used in forests and natural grasslands. For herbicide used in forest site preparation; the acquatic plant growth tests will be required. Data are...

2010-07-01

95

40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Special Review and certain public health situations. (2) Data are required for pesticides to be used in forests and natural grasslands. For herbicide used in forest site preparation; the acquatic plant growth tests will be required. Data are...

2011-07-01

96

40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Special Review and certain public health situations. (2) Data are required for pesticides to be used in forests and natural grasslands. For herbicide used in forest site preparation; the acquatic plant growth tests will be required. Data are...

2012-07-01

97

40 CFR 158.2250 - Nontarget plant protection.  

...PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Antimicrobial Pesticide Data Requirements § 158...a particular antimicrobial pesticide product. Notes that apply...i. There are no potential exposures to plants; ii. The...

2014-07-01

98

Nuclear plant-aging research on reactor protection systems  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the rsults of a review of the Reactor Trip System (RTS) and the Engineered Safety Feature Actuating System (ESFAS) operating experiences reported in Licensee Event Reports (LER)s, the Nuclear Power Experience data base, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, and plant maintenance records. Our purpose is to evaluate the potential significance of aging, including cycling, trips, and testing as contributors to degradation of the RTS and ESFAS. Tables are presented that show the percentage of events for RTS and ESFAS classified by cause, components, and subcomponents for each of the Nuclear Steam Supply System vendors. A representative Babcock and Wilcox plant was selected for detailed study. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research guidelines were followed in performing the detailed study that identified materials susceptible to aging, stressors, environmental factors, and failure modes for the RTS and ESFAS as generic instrumentation and control systems. Functional indicators of degradation are listed, testing requirements evaluated, and regulatory issues discussed.

Meyer, L.C.

1988-01-01

99

Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115

Škrovánková, So?a; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Mach?, Ludmila

2012-01-01

100

Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method.

Berry, D. L.

1980-05-01

101

Biotechnological Approaches in Plant Protection: Achievements, New Initiatives and Prospects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter reviews the latest developments in the application of biotechnology to solve crop looses due to fungal disease. These include marker-assisted breeding, map-based cloning of genes, and development of transgenic plants. New areas of investigation which hold much promise are gene silenci...

102

PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANT CROP MONITORING USING REMOTE SENSING  

EPA Science Inventory

The extent of past and anticipated plantings of transgenic corn in the United States requires a new approach to monitor this important crop for the development of pest resistance. Remote sensing by aerial and/or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pest...

103

Plant responses to stresses: Role of ascorbate peroxidase in the antioxidant protection  

PubMed Central

When plants are exposed to stressful environmental conditions, the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) increases and can cause significant damage to the cells. Antioxidant defenses, which can detoxify ROS, are present in plants. A major hydrogen peroxide detoxifying system in plant cells is the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, in which, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) enzymes play a key role catalyzing the conversion of H2O2 into H2O, using ascorbate as a specific electron donor. Different APX isoforms are present in distinct subcellular compartments, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisome, and cytosol. The expression of APX genes is regulated in response to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during plant development. The APX responses are directly involved in the protection of plant cells against adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, mutant plants APX genes showed alterations in growth, physiology and antioxidant metabolism revealing those enzymes involvement in the normal plant development. PMID:23412747

Caverzan, Andréia; Passaia, Gisele; Rosa, Silvia Barcellos; Ribeiro, Carolina Werner; Lazzarotto, Fernanda; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia

2012-01-01

104

Soil Bacteria Take Up D-Amino Acids, Protect Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, many groups reported D-amino acid uptake by plant roots, raising the question of whether soil D-amino acids represent a source of nitrogen or a source of toxicity. The discussion needs to be placed in the context of competition with rhizosphere bacteria. To provide this context, we followed the concentrations of D- and L-enantiomers of alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and leucine after they were added to soils in the laboratory. In all cases, the uptake of L-enantiomer began immediately and proceeded rapidly until exhausted. In contrast, the uptake of D-enantiomer required induction: an initial period of inactivity followed by rapid consumption comparable in rate to L-enantiomer. The induced nature of the D activity was confirmed by the addition of rifampicin, an mRNA synthesis inhibitor. Preventing the synthesis of new enzymes abolished soil flora's ability to consume D-amino acids, but not L-amino acids. These results suggest that inducible special racemase enzymes, which can convert D-amino acids back to their native L-forms, are widespread among soil microorganisms. This finding does not rule out the possibility that some plants may out-compete microorganisms and be able to access D-amino acids. It does suggest, however, that rhizosphere bacteria can shield plants from the toxic effect of D-amino acids.

Sun, H. J.; Zhang, G.

2011-12-01

105

Quantitative synthesis of context dependency in ant-plant protection mutualisms.  

PubMed

Context dependency, variation in the outcome of species interactions with biotic and abiotic conditions, is increasingly considered ubiquitous among mutualisms. Despite several qualitative reviews of many individual empirical studies, there has been little quantitative synthesis examining the generality of context dependency, or conditions that may promote it. We conducted a meta-analysis of ant-plant protection mutualisms to examine the generality of context-dependent effects of ants on herbivory and plant performance (growth, reproduction). Our results show that ant effects on plants are not generally context dependent, but instead are routinely positive and rarely neutral, as overall effect sizes of ants in reducing herbivory and increasing plant performance were positive and significantly greater than 0. The magnitude of these positive effects did vary, however. Variation in plant performance was not explained by the type of biotic or abiotic factor examined, including plant rewards (extrafloral nectar, food bodies, domatia), ant species richness, plant growth form, or latitude. With the exception of plant growth form, these factors did contribute to the effects of ants in reducing herbivory. Reductions in herbivory were greater for plants with than without domatia, and greatest for plants with both domatia and food bodies. Effect sizes of ants in reducing herbivory decreased, but remained positive, with latitude and ant species richness. Effect sizes in reducing herbivory were greater in tropical vs. temperate systems. Although ant-plant interactions have been pivotal in the study of context dependency of mutualisms, our results, along with other recent meta-analyses, indicate that context dependency may not be a general feature of mutualistic interactions. Rather, ant-plant protection mutualisms appear to be routinely positive for plants, and only occasionally neutral. PMID:19769117

Chamberlain, Scott A; Holland, J Nathaniel

2009-09-01

106

Genetic Structure, Diversity and Long Term Viability of a Medicinal Plant, Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham. (Icacinaceae), in Protected and Non-Protected Areas in the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot  

PubMed Central

Background and Question The harvesting of medicinal plants from wild sources is escalating in many parts of the world, compromising the long-term survival of natural populations of medicinally important plants and sustainability of sources of raw material to meet pharmaceutical industry needs. Although protected areas are considered to play a central role in conservation of plant genetic resources, the effectiveness of protected areas for maintaining medicinal plant populations subject to intense harvesting pressure remain largely unknown. We conducted genetic and demographic studies of Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham, one of the extensively harvested medicinal plant species in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India to assess the effectiveness of protected areas in long-term maintenance of economically important plant species. Methodology/Principal Findings The analysis of adults and seedlings of N. nimmoniana in four protected and four non-protected areas using 7 nuclear microsatellite loci revealed that populations that are distributed within protected areas are subject to lower levels of harvesting and maintain higher genetic diversity (He?=?0.816, Ho?=?0.607, A?=?18.857) than populations in adjoining non-protected areas (He?=?0.781, Ho?=?0.511, A?=?15.571). Furthermore, seedlings in protected areas had significantly higher observed heterozygosity (Ho?=?0.630) and private alleles as compared to seedlings in adjoining non-protected areas (Ho?=?0.426). Most populations revealed signatures of recent genetic bottleneck. The prediction of long-term maintenance of genetic diversity using BOTTLESIM indicated that current population sizes of the species are not sufficient to maintain 90% of present genetic diversity for next 100 years. Conclusions/Significance Overall, these results highlight the need for establishing more protected areas encompassing a large number of adult plants in the Western Ghats to conserve genetic diversity of economically and medicinally important plant species. PMID:25493426

Shivaprakash, K. Nagaraju; Ramesha, B. Thimmappa; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Dayanandan, Selvadurai; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani

2014-01-01

107

66 FR 37855 - Plant-Incorporated Protectants (Formerly Plant-Pesticides), Supplemental Proposal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ecology, ecology, plant breeding and biochemistry, EPA proposed in 1994 to exempt plant-incorporated...A. References The following books, articles, and reports were used in preparing...the introduction of certain regulated articles; and petition for nonregulated...

2001-07-19

108

Indirect Contributions of AM Fungi and Soil Aggregation to Plant Growth and Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ecological and biological engineering contribute indirectly to the fitness of the soil environment and promote plant growth\\u000a and protection. This engineering modifies soil physical, chemical, and biological attributes to enhance nutrient cycling,\\u000a increase soil organic matter, and improve soil quality. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, under most conditions, improve\\u000a plant growth directly by providing greater and more efficient access via fungal

Kristine A. Nichols

109

Significance of Sulfur Compounds in the Protection of Plants Against Pests and Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of targeted nutrition in the protection of plants against pests and diseases is called nutrient-induced resistance. Though the significance of individual nutrients for maintaining or promoting plant health prompted some interest in the 1960s and 1970s, research in the field of nutrient-induced resistance mechanisms has been scarce because of its complexity and limited practical significance due to the

Elke Bloem; Silvia Haneklaus; Ewald Schnug

2005-01-01

110

AFPP QUATRIME CONFRENCE INTERNATIONALE SUR LES MTHODES ALTERNATIVES EN PROTECTION DES CULTURES  

E-print Network

'arrosages de Bacillus thuringiensis lorsqu'un un certain seuil d'infestation de pyrales était atteint. L-clés : Ostrinia nubilalis, lutte biologique, parasitoïdes, Bacillus thuringiensis, Trichogramma ostriniae, maïs, biological control, parasitoids, Bacillus thuringiensis, Trichogramma ostriniae, sweet corn #12;INTRODUCTION

Lucas, Ã?ric

111

The Main Environmental Driving Forces of the Invasive Plant Species in the Romanian Protected Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasive flora of Romania currently includes more than 400 species (13.87% of the Romanian flora) and according to the third National Report of Biological Diversity Convention, six of them are tree species. Within the protected areas, some of the most representative invasive plant species (IPS) are: Amorpha fruticosa in Balta Mica a Brailei National Park, Ailanthus altissima in Muntii

Monica Dumitrascu; Ines Grigorescu; Mihaela Nastase; Carmen Dragota; Gheorghe Kucsicsa

2010-01-01

112

Molecular Characterization of Maize Inbreds with Expired U.S. Plant Variety Protection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize inbred lines with expired Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) certificates are publically available and potentially represent a new germplasm resource for many public and private breeding programs. However, accurate pedigree and genetic background information for ex-PVPA maize inbreds is nece...

113

All insects and plants depend on epicuticular lipids for water balance, protection from pathogens and environmental  

E-print Network

All insects and plants depend on epicuticular lipids for water balance, protection from pathogens, and their hydrophobic properties contribute significantly to water retention and water balance (Hadley, 1984; Gibbs of the butterfly Calpodes ethlius oenocytes are also found in the hemocoel (Jackson and Locke, 1989

114

Seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides stimulate defense responses and protection against pathogens in plants.  

PubMed

Plants interact with the environment by sensing "non-self" molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae) corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense responses in plants enhancing protection against pathogens. In addition, oligosaccharides obtained by depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides also induce protection against viral, fungal and bacterial infections in plants. In particular, most seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides trigger an initial oxidative burst at local level and the activation of salicylic (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and/or ethylene signaling pathways at systemic level. The activation of these signaling pathways leads to an increased expression of genes encoding: (i) Pathogenesis-Related (PR) proteins with antifungal and antibacterial activities; (ii) defense enzymes such as pheylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) which determine accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs) and oxylipins with antiviral, antifugal and antibacterial activities and iii) enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenes, terpenoids and/or alkaloids having antimicrobial activities. Thus, seaweed polysaccharides and their derived oligosaccharides induced the accumulation of proteins and compounds with antimicrobial activities that determine, at least in part, the enhanced protection against pathogens in plants. PMID:22363237

Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Gonzalez, Alberto; Moenne, Alejandra

2011-12-01

115

Seaweed Polysaccharides and Derived Oligosaccharides Stimulate Defense Responses and Protection Against Pathogens in Plants  

PubMed Central

Plants interact with the environment by sensing “non-self” molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae) corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense responses in plants enhancing protection against pathogens. In addition, oligosaccharides obtained by depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides also induce protection against viral, fungal and bacterial infections in plants. In particular, most seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides trigger an initial oxidative burst at local level and the activation of salicylic (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and/or ethylene signaling pathways at systemic level. The activation of these signaling pathways leads to an increased expression of genes encoding: (i) Pathogenesis-Related (PR) proteins with antifungal and antibacterial activities; (ii) defense enzymes such as pheylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) which determine accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs) and oxylipins with antiviral, antifugal and antibacterial activities and iii) enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenes, terpenoids and/or alkaloids having antimicrobial activities. Thus, seaweed polysaccharides and their derived oligosaccharides induced the accumulation of proteins and compounds with antimicrobial activities that determine, at least in part, the enhanced protection against pathogens in plants. PMID:22363237

Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Gonzalez, Alberto; Moenne, Alejandra

2011-01-01

116

Integration of control, protection and supervisory systems in hydro power plants - state of art and trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to present and analyze: the new distributed control, protection and supervisory systems that are starting to be applied on hydro power plants; to point out the main differences over centralized systems; and to comment trends in their development.

Erick Fernando Alves; M. L. Yano; M. Hofmann

2010-01-01

117

Rangeland Watershed Management for Texans: Know Your Plants to Protect Your Watershed  

E-print Network

on from year to year to give adequate cover for protecting or improving the water- shed. Dense growths of annual forbs can rob perennial plants of needed soil moisture. If perennials cannot com- pete, weeds will take over. An abundance of weeds often...

Rector, Barron S.

2000-10-30

118

INTRODUCTION Cocaine is a neurotoxin that protects the coca plant (Erythroxylem  

E-print Network

163 INTRODUCTION Cocaine is a neurotoxin that protects the coca plant (Erythroxylem spp.) from herbivory by critically disrupting insect motor control (Nathanson et al., 1993). In humans, cocaine is also reward' (Sullivan et al., 2008). Solutions to this paradox often propose that cocaine evolved to deter

Ha, Taekjip

119

FIELD ASSESSMENT OF INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT (IRM) FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED-PROTECTANTS (PIPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of target pest resistance to the products of transgene[s], e.g., plant-incorporated protectants is a serious risk both to the sustainability of these crops and to the wider utility of environmentally soft microbial pesticides. Therefore, the EPA requires growers...

120

Anti-corrosion protection for structural members and buildings at metallurgical plants  

SciTech Connect

This article describes anti-corrosion measures implemented by the contractor Ankor to protect the metal structures in existing shops at the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant. The method used to choose the coating system and technology is described along with the practical application of an effective method for protecting metal structures from corrosion. The anti-corrosion protection given natural draft cooling tower No. 1 at the coke and coal chemicals plant is used as an example. At a low cost in materials, the coating application system proposed by the contractor made it possible to guarantee a service life of 6-7 years for the metal structures, decrease the consumption of paint and lacquer by 18%, reduce the job cost by 20%, and complete the repair on schedule.

Strebkov, V.T. [Chelyabinsk Meteorology Plant, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

2005-06-01

121

The Effect of a Digital Learning Environment on Children's Conceptions about the Protection of Endemic Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents the results of a pilot learning intervention for improving children's ideas about plant protection. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase aimed at exploring children's ideas about plant protection. These ideas were taken into account for the design and development of a digital learning environment.…

Petrou, Stella; Korfiatis, Konstantinos

2013-01-01

122

Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants.  

PubMed

Indiscriminate use of pesticides and fertilizers causes environmental pollution, emergence of agricultural pests and pathogens, and loss of biodiversity. Nanotechnology, by virtue of nanomaterial related properties, has potential agro-biotechnological applications for alleviation of these problems. The literature pertaining to the role of nanotechnology in plant and soil systems demonstrates that nanomaterials may assist in a) the controlled release of agrochemicals for nutrition and protection against pests and pathogens, b) delivery of genetic material, c) sensitive detection of plant disease and pollutants and d) protection and formation of soil structure. For instance, porous silica (15nm) and biodegradable, polymeric chitosan (78nm) nanoparticles displayed slow release of encapsulated pesticide and fertilizer, respectively. Further, nanosized gold (5-25nm) delivered DNA to plant cells while iron oxide (30nm) based nanosensors detected pesticides at minute levels. These functions assist the development of precision farming by minimizing pollution and maximizing the value of farming practice. PMID:21729746

Ghormade, Vandana; Deshpande, Mukund V; Paknikar, Kishore M

2011-01-01

123

Plant expressed EtMIC2 is an effective immunogen in conferring protection against chicken coccidiosis.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis is an economically important disease affecting poultry industry and remains one of the major problems globally. Developing a cost effective sub-unit vaccine may help mitigate loss in the industry. Here, we report expressing one of the microneme proteins, EtMIC2 from Eimeria tenella in tobacco using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression. The ability of plant expressed recombinant EtMIC2 in eliciting both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were measured in the immunized birds. The protective efficacy in the vaccinated birds against a homologous challenge was also evaluated. Birds immunized with plant expressed EtMIC2 showed good sero-conversion, reduced oocyst output and increased weight gain when compared to control birds. Our data indicate that use of plant expressed recombinant EtMIC2 in birds was safe and had the potential in imparting partial protection in chickens against homologous challenge. PMID:21986219

Sathish, K; Sriraman, R; Subramanian, B Mohana; Rao, N Hanumantha; Balaji, K; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Srinivasan, V A

2011-11-15

124

Selenium accumulation protects plants from herbivory by Orthoptera via toxicity and deterrence.  

PubMed

To investigate whether selenium (Se) accumulation in plants provides a chemical defense against generalist insect herbivores, the feeding preference and performance of a mix of orthopteran species were investigated. The selenium hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata and accumulator Brassica juncea were used in herbivory studies in the laboratory, and S. pinnata was also used in a manipulative field experiment. In laboratory studies, both crickets and grasshoppers avoided plants pretreated with selenate, while those given no choice died after eating leaves with elevated Se (447 +/- 68 and 230 +/- 68 microg Se g(-1) DW, respectively). B. juncea has previously been shown to accumulate selenate, while S. pinnata hyperaccumulates methyl-selenocysteine. Thus, these findings demonstrate that both inorganic and organic forms of selenium protect plants from herbivory. Grasshoppers fed S. pinnata contained methylselenocysteine in their midgut and absorbed this form into surrounding tissues. In a manipulative field experiment, methylselenocysteine protected S. pinnata from invertebrate herbivory and increased its long-term survival rate over an entire growth season. * In native habitats of selenium hyperaccumulators, orthopterans represent a major group of insect herbivores. Protection offered by organic selenium accumulation against these herbivores may have promoted the evolution of selenium hyperaccumulation in plants. PMID:17635224

Freeman, John L; Lindblom, Stormy Dawn; Quinn, Colin F; Fakra, Sirine; Marcus, Matthew A; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

2007-01-01

125

Plant cytochromes P450: tools for pharmacology, plant protection and phytoremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochromes P450 catalyse extremely diverse and often complex regiospecific and\\/or stereospecific reactions in the biosynthesis or catabolism of plant bioactive molecules. Engineered P450 expression is needed for low-cost production of antineoplastic drugs such as taxol or indole alkaloids and offers the possibility to increase the content of nutraceuticals such as phytoestrogens and antioxidants in plants. Natural products may serve important

Marc Morant; Søren Bak; Birger Lindberg Møller; Danièle Werck-Reichhart

2003-01-01

126

Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Arjan - Parishan protected area in Fars Province of Iran.  

PubMed

Objective : Today, medicinal plants are widely used in remedies for several ailments and improvement of human health because of their pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to document important useful medicinal plants and their medicinal characteristics for treatment of human ailments in the Arjan (_) Parishan protected area in Fars province of Iran during 2010-2012. Materials and Methods : Data were obtained using direct interviews with 80 informants particularly those who were more familiar with the herbs and their medicinal properties. Collected plants were recognized and families, genera, and species determined using indispensable references. In this paper, scientific name, local name, parts used, and ways of application and ailments treated using traditional medicinal plant species have been provided. Results : We documented 85 plant species belonging to 39 families and 78 genera used for treating ailments. Among which, Asteraceae with 13 species was the most frequently used family and fruits and leaves were the favored parts for local users. Our results indicated that in this area, the highest compliance in the use of plants in treating ailments were related to the intestinal digestive system (40.8%). Conclusion : The present study is the first contribution to the ethnobotany of this region. Our results showed that some plants are used for medicinal purposes in this region, either for the same or for different purposes. Generally, the results of the present investigation can be used as a basis for selecting useful medicinal plants and also help to preserve precious information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. PMID:25386404

Dolatkhahi, Mehdi; Dolatkhahi, Ali; Nejad, Javad Bagher

2014-11-01

127

Strategies to protect crop plants against viruses: pathogen-derived resistance blossoms.  

PubMed Central

Since 1986, the ability to confer resistance against an otherwise devastating virus by introducing a single pathogen-derived or virus-targeted sequence into the DNA of a potential host plant has had a marked influence on much of the research effort, focus, and short-term objectives of plant virologists throughout the world. The vast literature on coat protein-mediated protection, for example, attests to our fascination for unraveling fundamental molecular mechanism(s), our (vain) search for a unifying hypothesis, our pragmatic interest in commercially exploitable opportunities for crop protection, and our ingenuity in manipulating transgene constructions to broaden their utility and reduce real or perceived environmental risk issues. Other single dominant, pathogen-derived plant resistance genes have recently been discovered from a wide variety of viruses and are operative in an ever-increasing range of plant species. Additional candidates seem limited only by the effort invested in experimentation and by our ingenuity and imagination. This review attempts to consider, in a critical way, the current state of the art, some exceptions, and some proposed rules. The final impression, from all the case evidence considered, is that normal virus replication requires a subtle blend of host- and virus-coded proteins, present in critical relative concentrations and at specific times and places. Any unregulated superimposition of interfering protein or nucleic acid species can, therefore, result in an apparently virus-resistant plant phenotype. PMID:8475051

Wilson, T M

1993-01-01

128

Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 protects fungal cell walls against hydrolysis by plant chitinases accumulating during infection.  

PubMed

Resistance against the leaf mold fungus Cladosporium fulvum is mediated by the tomato Cf proteins which belong to the class of receptor-like proteins and indirectly recognize extracellular avirulence proteins (Avrs) of the fungus. Apart from triggering disease resistance, Avrs are believed to play a role in pathogenicity or virulence of C. fulvum. Here, we report on the avirulence protein Avr4, which is a chitin-binding lectin containing an invertebrate chitin-binding domain (CBM14). This domain is found in many eukaryotes, but has not yet been described in fungal or plant genomes. We found that interaction of Avr4 with chitin is specific, because it does not interact with other cell wall polysaccharides. Avr4 binds to chitin oligomers with a minimal length of three N-acetyl glucosamine residues. In vitro, Avr4 protects chitin against hydrolysis by plant chitinases. Avr4 also binds to chitin in cell walls of the fungi Trichoderma viride and Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli and protects these fungi against normally deleterious concentrations of plant chitinases. In situ fluorescence studies showed that Avr4 also binds to cell walls of C. fulvum during infection of tomato, where it most likely protects the fungus against tomato chitinases, suggesting that Avr4 is a counter-defensive virulence factor. PMID:17153926

van den Burg, Harrold A; Harrison, Stuart J; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Vervoort, Jacques; de Wit, Pierre J G M

2006-12-01

129

Common vole (Microtus arvalis) ecology and management: implications for risk assessment of plant protection products.  

PubMed

Common voles (Microtus arvalis) are common small mammals in some European landscapes. They can be a major rodent pest in European agriculture and they are also a representative generic focal small herbivorous mammal species used in risk assessment for plant protection products. In this paper, common vole population dynamics, habitat and food preferences, pest potential and use of the common vole as a model small wild mammal species in the risk assessment process are reviewed. Common voles are a component of agroecosystems in many parts of Europe, inhabiting agricultural areas (secondary habitats) when the carrying capacity of primary grassland habitats is exceeded. Colonisation of secondary habitats occurs during multiannual outbreaks, when population sizes can exceed 1000 individuals ha(-1) . In such cases, in-crop common vole population control management has been practised to avoid significant crop damage. The species' status as a crop pest, high fecundity, resilience to disturbance and intermittent colonisation of crop habitats are important characteristics that should be reflected in risk assessment. Based on the information provided in the scientific literature, it seems justified to modify elements of the current risk assessment scheme for plant protection products, including the use of realistic food intake rates, reduced assessment factors or the use of alternativee focal rodent species in particular European regions. Some of these adjustments are already being applied in some EU member states. Therefore, it seems reasonable consistently to apply such pragmatic and realistic approaches in risk assessments for plant protection products across the EU. PMID:24293354

Jacob, Jens; Manson, Phil; Barfknecht, Ralf; Fredricks, Timothy

2014-06-01

130

Assessment of ethylene diurea-induced protection in plants against ozone phytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Urbanization, industrialization and unsustainable utilization of natural resources have made tropospheric ozone (03) one of the world's most significant air pollutants. Past studies reveal that 0 3 is a phytotoxic air pollutant that causes or enhances food insecurity across the globe. Plant sensitivity, tolerance and resistance to 0 3 involve a wide array of responses that range from growth to the physiological, biochemical and molecular. Although plants have an array of defense systems to combat oxidative stress from 0 3 exposure, they still suffer sizable yield reductions. In recent years, the ground-level 0 3 concentrations to which crop plants have been exposed have caused yield loses that are economically damaging. Several types of chemicals have been applied or used to mitigate the effects produced by 0 3 on plants. These include agrochemicals (fungicides, insecticides, plant growth regulators), natural antioxidants, and others. Such treatments have been effective to one degree to another, in ameliorating Or generated stress in plants. Ethylene diurea (EDU) has been the most effective protectant used and has also served as a monitoring agent for assessing plant yield losses from 0 3 exposure. In this review, we summarize the data on how EDU has been used, the treatment methods tested, and application doses found to be both protective and toxic in plants. We have also summarized data that address the nature and modes of action (biophysical and biochemical) of EDU. In general, the literature discloses that EDU is effective in reducing ozone damage to plants, and indicates that EDU should be more widely used on 0 3 sensitive plants as a tool for biomonitoring of 0 3 concentrations. Biomonitoring studies that utilize EDU are very useful for rural and remote areas and in developing countries where 0 3 monitoring is constrained from unavailability of electricity. The mechanism(s) by which EDU prevents 0 3 toxicity in plants is still not completely known. EDU possesses great utility for screening plant sensitivity under field conditions in areas that experience high 0 3 concentrations, because EDU prevents 0 3 toxicity only in 0 3 sensitive plants. Ozone-resistant plants do not respond positively to EDU applications. However, EDU application dose and frequency must be standardized before it can be effectively and widely used for screening 0 3 sensitivity in plants. EDU acts primarily by enhancing biochemical plant defense and delaying Or induced senescence, thereby reducing chlorophyll loss, and maintaining physiological efficiency and primary metabolites; these actions enhance growth, biomass and yield of plants. We believe that future studies are needed to better address the EDU dose response relationship for many plant species, and to screen for new cultivars that can resist 0 3 stress. Although some research on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of action of EDU have been performed, the new 'omics' tools have not been utilized to evaluate EDUs mechanism of action. Such data are needed, as is gene expression and proteome profiling studies on EDU-treated and -untreated plants. PMID:25367135

Singh, Aditya Abha; Singh, Shalini; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

2015-01-01

131

Do fungivores trigger the transfer of protective metabolites from host plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae?  

PubMed

A key objective in ecology is to understand how cooperative strategies evolve and are maintained in species networks. Here, we focus on the tri-trophic relationship between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, host plants, and fungivores to ask if host plants are able to protect their mutualistic mycorrhizal partners from being grazed. Specifically, we test whether secondary metabolites are transferred from hosts to fungal partners to increase their defense against fungivores. We grew Plantago lanceolata hosts with and without mycorrhizal inoculum, and in the presence or absence of fungivorous springtails. We then measured fungivore effects on host biomass and mycorrhizal abundance (using quantitative PCR) in roots and soil. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to measure host metabolites in roots, shoots, and hyphae, focusing on catalpol, aucubin, and verbascoside. Our most striking result was that the metabolite catalpol was consistently found in AM fungal hyphae in host plants exposed to fungivores. When fungivores were absent, catalpol was undetectable in hyphae. Our results highlight the potential for plant-mediated protection of the mycorrhizal hyphal network. PMID:24279273

Duhamel, Marie; Pel, Roel; Ooms, Astra; Bücking, Heike; Jansa, Jan; Ellers, Jacintha; van Straalen, Nico M; Wouda, Tjalf; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Kiers, E Toby

2013-09-01

132

The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange; tectonic setting and melange formation in the Quebec Appalachians  

SciTech Connect

The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange (RPOM) is the largest and best exposed of the three known ophiolitic melanges that contain blocks of Chain Lakes Massif (CLM). All three lie along the Baie Verte-Brompton line, which marks the suture between the continental rocks of the Humber zone and the oceanic rocks of the Dunnage zone. The ophiolitic melange is composed of: serpentinized ultramafic rocks, some of which are sheared and/or carbonatized; blocks of amphibolitized gabbro; basalt; volcanogenic breccia; and conglomerates. It also contains continental K-rich granitoid rocks and high-grade metamorphic (upper amphibolite facies) rocks. The RPOM is part of the Saint-Daniel Melange, an accretionary prism onto which the RPOM has been tectonically emplaced. The CLM was part of a terrane accreted to the Laurentian margin during the Taconian orogeny. Blocks of the CLM along the Baie Verte-Brompton line are interpreted as fragments of this terrane caught within the suture zone. It is proposed that the CLM could be the equivalent of Grenville-derived greywacke originally laid down during the phase of continental rifting that led to the formation of the Iapetus Ocean and was later tectonized and metamorphosed during the Taconian and Acadian orogenies. The RPOM would represent the relic of a serpentinite diapir that rose within a deep oceanic fault. The presence of continental rocks like the CLM suggest that a continental magmatic arc was put in contact with an oceanic crust along this fault.

Cousineau, P.A. (Universite du Quebec, Chicoutimi (Canada))

1991-01-01

133

Thermal tolerance affects mutualist attendance in an ant-plant protection mutualism.  

PubMed

Mutualism is an often complex interaction among multiple species, each of which may respond differently to abiotic conditions. The effects of temperature on the formation, dissolution, and success of these and other species interactions remain poorly understood. We studied the thermal ecology of the mutualism between the cactus Ferocactus wislizeni and its ant defenders (Forelius pruinosus, Crematogaster opuntiae, Solenopsis aurea, and Solenopsis xyloni) in the Sonoran Desert, USA. The ants are attracted to extrafloral nectar produced by the plants and, in exchange, protect the plants from herbivores; there is a hierarchy of mutualist effectiveness based on aggression toward herbivores. We determined the relationship between temperature and ant activity on plants, the thermal tolerance of each ant species, and ant activity in relation to the thermal environment of plants. Temperature played a role in determining which species interact as mutualists. Three of the four ant species abandoned the plants during the hottest part of the day (up to 40 °C), returning when surface temperature began to decrease in the afternoon. The least effective ant mutualist, F. pruinosus, had a significantly higher critical thermal maximum than the other three species, was active across the entire range of plant surface temperatures observed (13.8-57.0 °C), and visited plants that reached the highest temperatures. F. pruinosus occupied some plants full-time and invaded plants occupied by more dominant species when those species were thermally excluded. Combining data on thermal tolerance and mutualist effectiveness provides a potentially powerful tool for predicting the effects of temperature on mutualisms and mutualistic species. PMID:25012597

Fitzpatrick, Ginny; Lanan, Michele C; Bronstein, Judith L

2014-09-01

134

Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the plant protection schedule taken up for main crop and for intercrops, but was least in the insecticide sprayed to both the crops. Data on interaction of intercropping and plant protection schedules indicated that Bt cotton with chilli as intercrop and with zero plant protection showed the highest population of P-solubilizers, N2 fixers as well as urease and phosphatase activities at 135 days of crop growth. Similarly, population of total bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were highest in the treatment of Bt cotton + chilli + onion with zero protection but were on par with the treatment Bt cotton + chilli with zero protection at 135 days of crop growth. Dehydrogenase activity was found to be the highest in the treatment of Bt cotton + redgram with zero protection at 135 days of crop growth. Our studies showed harmful effects of insecticide sprays on soil microflora and enzyme activities.

Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

2012-04-01

135

Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T&E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T&E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to listed species. T&E plant species found on or near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are identified. Twenty-eight species identified on the ORR are listed by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation as either endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Four of these have been under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for possible listing (listed in the formerly-used C2 candidate category). Additional species listed by the state occur near and may be present on the ORR. A range of habitats support the rare taxa on the ORR: river bluffs, sinkholes, calcareous barrens, wetlands, utility corridors, and forests. The list of T&E plant species and their locations on the ORR should be considered provisional because the entire ORR has not been surveyed, and state and federal status of all species continues to be updated. The purpose of this document is to present information on the listed T&E plant species currently known to occur on the ORR as well as listed species potentially occurring on the ORR based on geographic range and habitat availability. For the purpose of this report, {open_quotes}T&E species{close_quotes} include all federal- and state-listed species, including candidates for listing, and species of special concern. Consideration of T&E plant habitats is an important component of resource management and land-use planning; protection of rare species in their natural habitat is the best method of ensuring their long-term survival.

Awl, D.J.; Pounds, L.R.; Rosensteel, B.A.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

1996-06-01

136

SYMPOSIUM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC PROGRAMS FOR MONITORING ECOLOGICAL IMPACT FROM PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Historically, monitoring programs in association with field releases of crops with plant incorporated protectants (PIPs) have been, explicitly or implicitly, called for as a part of risk assessment/management schemes or regulatory agenda. However...

137

The role of selenium in protecting plants against prairie dog herbivory: implications for the evolution of selenium hyperaccumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some plants can hyperaccumulate the element selenium (Se) up to 10,000 mg Se kg?1 dry weight. Hyperaccumulation has been hypothesized to defend against herbivory. In laboratory studies high Se levels protect\\u000a plants from invertebrate herbivores and pathogens. However, field studies and mammalian herbivore studies that link Se accumulation\\u000a to herbivory protection are lacking. In this study a combination of field surveys

Colin F. Quinn; John L. Freeman; Miriam L. Galeas; Erin M. Klamper; Elizabeth A. H. Pilon-Smits

2008-01-01

138

ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH DEPLOYMENT OF A TYPE OF PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANT (PIP), SPECIFICALLY THOSE BASED ON PLANT VIRAL COAT PROTEINS  

EPA Science Inventory

FIFRA Scientific Adivsory Panel Meeting, October 13-15,2004 held at the Holiday Inn-National Airport, Arlington, Virginia on: Issues Associated with Deployment of a Type of Plant-Incorporated Protectant (PIP), Specifically those based on Plant Viral Coat Proteins...

139

Dr. Paul Jepson, Director of the Integrated Plant Protection Center and a Professor in the Environmental & Molecular  

E-print Network

Protection Center (IPPC) and as State IPM (Integrated Pest Management) Coordinator for Oregon since 2002 organizations in integrated pest and production management (IPPM) systems, both nationally and especiallyDr. Paul Jepson, Director of the Integrated Plant Protection Center and a Professor

Tullos, Desiree

140

Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F(1) adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F(1) adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

Rahman, A; Talukder, F A

2006-01-01

141

Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F1 adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F1 adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

Rahman, A.; Talukder, F. A.

2006-01-01

142

Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area.

Koch, J.; Tadmor, J.

1988-06-01

143

Plant expressed coccidial antigens as potential vaccine candidates in protecting chicken against coccidiosis.  

PubMed

Coccidiosis is a disease caused by intracellular parasites belonging to the genus Eimeria. In the present study, we transiently expressed two coccidial antigens EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 as poly histidine-tagged fusion proteins in tobacco. We have evaluated the protective efficacy of plant expressed EtMIC1 as monovalent and as well as bi-valent formulation where EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 were used in combination. The protective efficacy of these formulations was evaluated using homologous challenge in chickens. We observed better serum antibody response, weight gain and reduced oocyst shedding in birds immunized with EtMIC1 and EtMIC2 as bivalent formulation compared to monovalent formulation. However, IFN-? response was not significant in birds immunized with EtMIC1 compared to the birds immunized with EtMIC2. Our results indicate the potential use of these antigens as vaccine candidates. PMID:22554463

Sathish, Kota; Sriraman, Rajan; Subramanian, B Mohana; Rao, N Hanumantha; Kasa, Balaji; Donikeni, Jagan; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Srinivasan, V A

2012-06-22

144

Flora, life forms and chorotypes of plants of Salok protected area (North Khorassan Province Iran).  

PubMed

Salok protected Area is located in the 37 degrees 15' to 37 degrees 08' of the North latitude and 57 degrees 16' to 57 degrees 06' of East longitude, in West North Esfarayen in North khorassan province. In this research 52 families, 174 genera and 213 species were identified. The largest plant family is Asteraceae (34 species), Poaceae (18 species), Brassicaceae (17 species) and Fabaceae (17 species), respectively. Chief life forms are Hemicryptopytes (49.29%), Therophytes 23.47% and cryptophytes (12.67%). The most of plants chorotype with 62.91% is influenced by Irano-Touranina elements. Among 213 identified species of this region and 15 species endemic of Iran contain 0.87% of total endemic species of Iran's flora. PMID:21913495

Nadaf, M; Mortazavi, M; Halimi, M Khalilabad

2011-01-01

145

Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid ?-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons  

PubMed Central

AIM: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid ? (A?) peptide. A? is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds’ aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on A? (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the Folin–Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against A?-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on A?-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in A?-induced HIPN. RESULTS: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from A? treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the A?-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. CONCLUSION: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against A?-mediated cell death. PMID:23833520

Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

2013-01-01

146

High levels of melatonin in the seeds of edible plants: possible function in germ tissue protection.  

PubMed

The seeds of plants represent the anlage of the next generation and are vital to their existence. Melatonin has been identified in the leaves and flowers of plants but not in seeds. In this study, we examined the seeds of 15 edible plants for the presence of melatonin which was extracted using cold ethanol. Melatonin was initially identified by radioimmunoassay and subsequently quantified and confirmed using high performance liquid chromatography. The physiological concentrations of melatonin in the 15 seeds studied ranged from 2 to 200 ng/g dry weight. The highest concentrations of melatonin were observed in white and black mustard seeds. This level of melatonin is much higher than the known physiological concentrations in the blood of many vertebrates. Since the seed, particularly its germ tissue, is highly vulnerable to oxidative stress and damage, we surmise that melatonin, a free radical scavenger, might be present as an important component of its antioxidant defense system. Thus, melatonin in seeds may be essential in protecting germ and reproductive tissues of plants from oxidative damage due to ultraviolet light, drought, extremes in temperature, and environmental chemical pollutants. PMID:11125839

Manchester, L C; Tan, D X; Reiter, R J; Park, W; Monis, K; Qi, W

2000-11-10

147

The role of selenium in protecting plants against prairie dog herbivory: implications for the evolution of selenium hyperaccumulation.  

PubMed

Some plants can hyperaccumulate the element selenium (Se) up to 10,000 mg Se kg(-1) dry weight. Hyperaccumulation has been hypothesized to defend against herbivory. In laboratory studies high Se levels protect plants from invertebrate herbivores and pathogens. However, field studies and mammalian herbivore studies that link Se accumulation to herbivory protection are lacking. In this study a combination of field surveys and manipulative field studies were carried out to determine whether plant Se accumulation in the field deters herbivory by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). The Se hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus (two-grooved milkvetch) occurs naturally on seleniferous soils in the Western USA, often on prairie dog colonies. Field surveys have shown that this Se hyperaccumulator is relatively abundant on some prairie dog colonies and suffers less herbivory than other forb species. This protection was likely owing to Se accumulation, as judged from subsequent manipulative field experiments. When given a choice between pairs of plants of the Se hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (prince's plume) that were pretreated with or without Se, prairie dogs preferred to feed on the plants with low Se; the same results were obtained for the non-hyperaccumulator Brassica juncea (Indian mustard). Plants containing as little as 38 mg Se kg(-1) DW were protected from herbivory. Taken together these results shed light on the functional significance of Se hyperaccumulation and the possible selection pressures driving its evolution. They also have implications for the use of plants in Se phytoremediation, or as Se-fortified crops. PMID:18278517

Quinn, Colin F; Freeman, John L; Galeas, Miriam L; Klamper, Erin M; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

2008-03-01

148

Portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant  

SciTech Connect

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisorpropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals; nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protective clothing for its intended use.

Berardinelli, S.P.; Rusczek, R.A.; Mickelsen, R.L.

1987-10-01

149

Phenol-Oxidizing Peroxidases Contribute to the Protection of Plants from Ultraviolet Radiation Stress1  

PubMed Central

We have studied the mechanism of UV protection in two duckweed species (Lemnaceae) by exploiting the UV sensitivity of photosystem II as an in situ sensor for radiation stress. A UV-tolerant Spirodela punctata G.F.W. Meyer ecotype had significantly higher indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels than a UV-sensitive ecotype. Parallel work on Lemna gibba mutants suggested that UV tolerance is linked to IAA degradation rather than to levels of free or conjugated IAA. This linkage is consistent with a role for class III phenolic peroxidases, which have been implicated both in the degradation of IAA and the cross-linking of various UV-absorbing phenolics. Biochemical analysis revealed increased activity of a specific peroxidase isozyme in both UV-tolerant duckweed lines. The hypothesis that peroxidases play a role in UV protection was tested in a direct manner using genetically modified tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris). It was found that increased activity of the anionic peroxidase correlated with increased tolerance to UV radiation as well as decreased levels of free auxin. We conclude that phenol-oxidizing peroxidases concurrently contribute to UV protection as well as the control of leaf and plant architecture. PMID:11457952

Jansen, Marcel A.K.; van den Noort, Ria E.; Tan, M.Y. Adillah; Prinsen, Els; Lagrimini, L. Mark; Thorneley, Roger N.F.

2001-01-01

150

Protective effects of a plant histaminase in myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion injury in vivo.  

PubMed

Grass pea seedling histaminase (a copper-diamine oxidase) was found to exert a significant cardioprotection against post-ischaemic reperfusion damage. Electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings from the rats subjected in vivo to ischaemia and reperfusion showed ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillations (VF) occurring in 9 out of 12 untreated rats whereas no ventricular arrhythmias were found under histaminase (80U/kg body weight) treatment (n=16 rats). Computer-assisted morphometry of the ischaemic reperfused hearts stained with nitroblue tetrazolium showed the extension of damaged myocardium (area at risk and infarct size) significantly reduced in rats treated with histaminase, in comparison with the non-treated rats, whereas no protection was found with the semicarbazide inactivated histaminase. Biochemical markers of ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial tissue damage: malonyldialdehyde (MDA), tissue calcium concentration, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and apoptosis indicator caspase-3 were significantly elevated in untreated post-ischaemic reperfused rats, but significantly reduced under histaminase protection. In conclusion, plant histaminase appears to protect hearts from ischaemia-reperfusion injury by more than one mechanism, essentially involving histamine oxidation, and possibly as reactive oxygen species scavenger, presenting good perspectives for a novel therapeutic approach in treatment of ischaemic heart pathology. PMID:12951068

Masini, Emanuela; Pierpaoli, Simone; Marzocca, Cosimo; Mannaioni, Pier Francesco; Pietrangeli, Paola; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru; Zelli, Massimo; Federico, Rodolfo; Mondovì, Bruno

2003-09-19

151

Correlation between Sun Protection Factor and Antioxidant Activity, Phenol and Flavonoid Contents of some Medicinal Plants.  

PubMed

Long exposure of UV radiation increases risk of skin diseases such as cancer and photoallergic reactions. UV-B (280-320 nm) radiation is mainly responsible for inducing the skin problems. Skin protection is a suitable method against ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Various synthetic agents have been used as photo protective but because of their potential toxicity in humans, they have limited usage. Natural substances have been recently considered as potential sunscreen resources due to their absorption in the UV region and their antioxidant activity. In the present study, the UV protective effects of 20 extracts from four common medicinal plants were evaluated. Their phenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities were determined and correlation between SPF and these contents were evaluated. SPFs were between 0.102 and 24.470. The highest value was reached with ultrasonic extract of Crataegus pentagyna (SPF = 24.47) followed by methanolic extract of Feijoa sellowiana (SPF = 1.30). Good correlation was found between SPF and phenolic contents (Correlation Coefficient = 0.55 and p = 0.01) but no correlations were found between SPF and flavonoid contents or antioxidant activity. These extracts can be used alone or as additives in other sun screen formulations to enhance their SPF. PMID:25276206

Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Enayatifard, Reza; Khalili, Masoumeh; Ghaffarloo, Mahdieh; Saeedi, Majid; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid

2014-01-01

152

Correlation between Sun Protection Factor and Antioxidant Activity, Phenol and Flavonoid Contents of some Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Long exposure of UV radiation increases risk of skin diseases such as cancer and photoallergic reactions. UV-B (280-320 nm) radiation is mainly responsible for inducing the skin problems. Skin protection is a suitable method against ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Various synthetic agents have been used as photo protective but because of their potential toxicity in humans, they have limited usage. Natural substances have been recently considered as potential sunscreen resources due to their absorption in the UV region and their antioxidant activity. In the present study, the UV protective effects of 20 extracts from four common medicinal plants were evaluated. Their phenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities were determined and correlation between SPF and these contents were evaluated. SPFs were between 0.102 and 24.470. The highest value was reached with ultrasonic extract of Crataegus pentagyna (SPF = 24.47) followed by methanolic extract of Feijoa sellowiana (SPF = 1.30). Good correlation was found between SPF and phenolic contents (Correlation Coefficient = 0.55 and p = 0.01) but no correlations were found between SPF and flavonoid contents or antioxidant activity. These extracts can be used alone or as additives in other sun screen formulations to enhance their SPF. PMID:25276206

Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Enayatifard, Reza; Khalili, Masoumeh; Ghaffarloo, Mahdieh; Saeedi, Majid; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid

2014-01-01

153

Priming by Rhizobacterium Protects Tomato Plants from Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogen Infections through Multiple Defense Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

A selected strain of rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida strain LSW17S (LSW17S), protects tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Seokwang) from bacterial speck by biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (DC3000) and bacterial wilt by necrotrophic Ralstonia solanacearum KACC 10703 (Rs10703). To investigate defense mechanisms induced by LSW17S in tomato plants, transcription patterns of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and H2O2 production were analyzed in plants treated with LSW17S and subsequent pathogen inoculation. LSW17S alone did not induce transcriptions of employed PR genes in leaves and roots. DC3000 challenge following LSW17S triggered rapid transcriptions of PR genes and H2O2 production in leaves and roots. Catalase infiltration with DC3000 attenuated defense-related responses and resistance against DC3000 infection. Despite depriving H2O2 production and PR1b transcription by the same treatment, resistance against Rs10703 infection was not deterred significantly. H2O2 is indispensable for defense signaling and/or mechanisms primed by LSW17S and inhibition of bacterial speck, however, it is not involved in resistance against bacterial wilt. PMID:21710203

Ahn, Il-Pyung; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kim, Min Gab; Park, Sang-Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul

2011-01-01

154

Nanomaterials in plant protection and fertilization: current state, foreseen applications, and research priorities.  

PubMed

Scientific publications and patents on nanomaterials (NM) used in plant protection or fertilizer products have exponentially increased since the millennium shift. While the United States and Germany have published the highest number of patents, Asian countries released most scientific articles. About 40% of all contributions deal with carbon-based NM, followed by titanium dioxide, silver, silica, and alumina. Nanomaterials come in many diverse forms (surprisingly often ?100 nm), from solid doped particles to (often nonpersistent) polymer and oil-water based structures. Nanomaterials serve equally as additives (mostly for controlled release) and active constituents. Product efficiencies possibly increased by NM should be balanced against enhanced environmental NM input fluxes. The dynamic development in research and its considerable public perception are in contrast with the currently still very small number of NM-containing products on the market. Nanorisk assessment and legislation are largely in their infancies. PMID:22963545

Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D

2012-10-01

155

Environmental assessment of plant protection strategies using scenarios for pig feed production.  

PubMed

Two scenarios for future pig meat production were constructed. The first was a "business as usual" scenario, where the pig feed was based on domestic grain and imported soy-meal, and no efforts were made to reduce pesticide use. The second scenario had a strong environmental focus, and both peas and rapeseed were grown at pig-farm level to produce grain and protein feed. Preventive measures, such as a more diverse crop rotation and mechanical weed control, were combined to reduce pesticide use. The two scenarios were environmentally assessed by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and a pesticide risk indicator model (PRI-Farm). The results showed environmentally sound possibilities to reduce pesticide dependency and risks by using altered plant protection strategies in pig-feed production. Organizing on-farm feed production so that protein feed crops are integrated with grain crops contributes to a more diverse crop rotation. PMID:16092277

Cederberg, Christel; Wivstad, Maria; Bergkvist, Peter; Mattsson, Berit; Ivarsson, Kjell

2005-06-01

156

Side effects of plant protection products and biological interactions on the European earwig Forficula auricularia L.  

PubMed

Plant protection products are designed to control pests but can have negative side effects on non-target arthropods thus disturbing the important population of natural enemies required for biological control. Although the European earwig, Forficula auricularia L, (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) is not considered to be a key beneficial in pome fruit, it is an important predator of several pests, e.g. woolly apple aphid and pear sucker. The impact of non-selective plant protection products at crucial moments in their (univoltine) life cycle can be of significant relevance compared to insects with numerous generations. Foliar applications in spring when nymphs are migrating into the trees can reduce the number of adults in summer and subsequently affect the population size next year. Multiple and/or combined spraying during summer on adults may have a cumulative effect resulting in less over wintering females which possibly exhibit poor reproductive performance. Previous residual contact bioassays already revealed the harmful side effect of several formulated products on adults. Insects showing sub lethal symptoms recovered partially or died eventually. As spinosad caused significant toxicological effects it was subsequently tested in 3 different dose rates on adults and N4-nymphs. We noticed not only a clear dose-response relationship but N4-nymphs proved to be more susceptible than adults; even a dilution of 1/9-th of the registered dose rate still caused a mortality of 45.5 % after 20 days. Understanding the earwig's population dynamics is essential for efficient practical biocontrol. It proves difficult to increase population levels to sufficient high numbers for optimal pest control. Local biological factors might be limiting. Therefore, we tested two hypotheses that pertain to population limitation: 1. Bird predation during summer, 2. Small mammal nest predation during winter. Enclosure experiments showed no negative bird effect on earwig densities unless large bird flocks inhabited the area. Small mammals did not actively predate the over wintering nests, although other predatory arthropods may be important. PMID:20222599

Peusens, G; Moerkens, R; Beliën, T; Gobin, B

2009-01-01

157

Upgrade of Control and Protection System of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect

The Ignalina nuclear power plant (NPP) Units 1 and 2 are Soviet-designed, RBMK (Reaktor Bolshoi Moschnosti Kipyashchiy), channelized, large power-type reactors. The original-design electrical capacity for each unit was 1500 MW. Unit 1 began operating in 1983, and Unit 2 was started up in 1987. In 1994, the government of Lithuania agreed to accept grant support for the Ignalina NPP Safety Improvement Program with funding supplied by the Nuclear Safety Account of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). As conditions for receiving this funding, the Ignalina NPP agreed to prepare a comprehensive safety analysis report that would undergo independent peer review after it was issued. The EBRD Safety Panel oversaw preparation and review of the report. In 1996, the safety analysis report for Unit 1 was completed and delivered to the EBRD. Part of the analyses covered anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). The analysis showed that some ATWS scenarios could lead to unacceptable consequences in <1 min. The EBRD Safety Panel recommended to the government of Lithuania that the Ignalina NPP develop and implement a program of compensatory measures for the control and protection system before the unit would be allowed to return to operation following its 1998 maintenance outage. A compensatory control and protection system that would mitigate the unacceptable consequences was designed, procured, manufactured, tested, and installed. The project was funded by U.S. Department of Energy.

Wright, Ronald E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Fletcher, Norman [U.S. Department of Energy (United States); Sidnev, Victor E. [Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (Lithuania); Bickel, John H. [Scientech, Inc. (United States); Vianello, Aldo [Invensys0Foxboro (C42-2C) (United States); Pearsall, Raymond D

2003-08-15

158

Upgrade of Control and Protection System of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect

The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Units 1 and 2 are Soviet-designed, RBMK (Reaktor Bolshoi Moschnosti Kipyashchiy), channelized, large power-type reactors. The original-design electrical capacity for each unit was 1500 Megawatts. Unit 1 began operating in 1983, and Unit 2 was started up in 1987. In 1994, the government of Lithuania agreed to accept grant support for the Ignalina NPP Safety Improvement Program with funding supplied by the Nuclear Safety Account of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). As conditions for receiving this funding, Ignalina NPP agreed to prepare a comprehensive Safety Analysis Report that would undergo independent peer review after it was issued. The EBRD Safety Panel oversaw preparation and review of the report. In 1996, the Safety Analysis Report for Unit 1 was completed and delivered to the EBRD. Part of the analyses covered anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). The analysis showed that some ATWS scenarios could lead to unacceptable consequences in less than a minute. The EBRD Safety Panel recommended to the Government of Lithuania that Ignalina NPP develop and implement a Program of Compensatory Measures for the Control and Protection System before the unit would be allowed to return to operation following its 1998 maintenance outage. A compensatory control and protection system that would mitigate the unacceptable consequences was designed, procured, manufactured, tested, and installed. The project was funded by U.S. Department of Energy.

Wright, Ronald E.; Fletcher, Norman; Pearsall, Raymond; Sidnev, Victor; Bickel, John; Vianello, Aldo

2003-08-01

159

Protected air-cooled condenser for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant  

SciTech Connect

The long term residual heat removal for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is accomplished through the use of three protected air-cooled condensers (PACC's) each rated at 15M/sub t/ following a normal or emergency shutdown of the reactor. Steam is condensed by forcing air over the finned and coiled condenser tubes located above the steam drums. The steam flow is by natural convection. It is drawn to the PACC tube bundle for the steam drum by the lower pressure region in the tube bundle created from the condensing action. The concept of the tube bundle employs a unique patented configuration which has been commercially available through CONSECO Inc. of Medfore, Wisconsin. The concept provides semi-parallel flow that minimizes subcooling and reduces steam/condensate flow instabilities that have been observed on other similar heat transfer equipment such as moisture separator reheaters (MSRS). The improved flow stability will reduce temperature cycling and associated mechanical fatigue. The PACC is being designed to operate during and following the design basis earthquake, depressurization from the design basis tornado and is housed in protective building enclosure which is also designed to withstand the above mentioned events.

Louison, R.; Boardman, C.E.

1981-05-29

160

Influence des caractristiques physiques du substrat sur les systmes racinaires de plantes ornementales  

E-print Network

filled with substrates of known physical characteristics (moss peat, sand, perlite, vermiculite) whereAgronomie Influence des caractéristiques physiques du substrat sur les systèmes racinaires de, parti- culièrement du pivot; la présence de substrat peut aussi être la cause de modifications dans l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

161

Antioxidative protection in the inducible CAM plant Sedum album L. following the imposition of severe water stress and recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidative protection during the C3-CAM shift induced by water stress was investigated in the temperate succulent Sedum album L. The C3-CAM shift was characterized in terms of CO2 exchange, titratable acidity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity. Well-watered plants displayed C3-like patterns of gas exchange and exhibited a mild day-night acid fluctuation indicating that those plants were performing CAM-cycling metabolism. Imposed

F. J. Castillo

1996-01-01

162

40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...aquatic residential uses. 8. Environmental chemistry methods used to generate...intended use pattern, and environmental fate characteristics...

2010-07-01

163

Hanford Waste Simulants Created to Support the Research and Development on the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

The development of nonradioactive waste simulants to support the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant bench and pilot-scale testing is crucial to the design of the facility. The report documents the simulants development to support the SRTC programs and the strategies used to produce the simulants.

Eibling, R.E.

2001-07-26

164

Oral Delivery of ACE2/Ang-(1-7) Bioencapsulated in Plant Cells Protects against Experimental Uveitis and Autoimmune Uveoretinitis.  

PubMed

Hyperactivity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) resulting in elevated Angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to all stages of inflammatory responses including ocular inflammation. The discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has established a protective axis of RAS involving ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas that counteracts the proinflammatory and hypertrophic effects of the deleterious ACE/AngII/AT1R axis. Here we investigated the hypothesis that enhancing the systemic and local activity of the protective axis of the RAS by oral delivery of ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) bioencapsulated in plant cells would confer protection against ocular inflammation. Both ACE2 and Ang-(1-7), fused with the non-toxic cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) were expressed in plant chloroplasts. Increased levels of ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) were observed in circulation and retina after oral administration of CTB-ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) expressing plant cells. Oral feeding of mice with bioencapsulated ACE2/Ang-(1-7) significantly reduced endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in mice. Treatment with bioencapsulated ACE2/Ang-(1-7) also dramatically decreased cellular infiltration, retinal vasculitis, damage and folding in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). Thus, enhancing the protective axis of RAS by oral delivery of ACE2/Ang-(1-7) bioencapsulated in plant cells provide an innovative, highly efficient and cost-effective therapeutic strategy for ocular inflammatory diseases. PMID:25228068

Shil, Pollob K; Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Zhu, Ping; Verma, Amrisha; Daniell, Henry; Li, Qiuhong

2014-12-01

165

40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...525 E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from the requirement of...

2012-07-01

166

40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...  

...false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...525 E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from the requirement of...

2014-07-01

167

40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...525 E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from the requirement of...

2013-07-01

168

40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...525 E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from the requirement of...

2010-07-01

169

40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...525 E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant...Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from the requirement of...

2011-07-01

170

Zeaxanthin Protects Plant Photosynthesis by Modulating Chlorophyll Triplet Yield in Specific Light-harvesting Antenna Subunits*  

PubMed Central

Plants are particularly prone to photo-oxidative damage caused by excess light. Photoprotection is essential for photosynthesis to proceed in oxygenic environments either by scavenging harmful reactive intermediates or preventing their accumulation to avoid photoinhibition. Carotenoids play a key role in protecting photosynthesis from the toxic effect of over-excitation; under excess light conditions, plants accumulate a specific carotenoid, zeaxanthin, that was shown to increase photoprotection. In this work we genetically dissected different components of zeaxanthin-dependent photoprotection. By using time-resolved differential spectroscopy in vivo, we identified a zeaxanthin-dependent optical signal characterized by a red shift in the carotenoid peak of the triplet-minus-singlet spectrum of leaves and pigment-binding proteins. By fractionating thylakoids into their component pigment binding complexes, the signal was found to originate from the monomeric Lhcb4–6 antenna components of Photosystem II and the Lhca1–4 subunits of Photosystem I. By analyzing mutants based on their sensitivity to excess light, the red-shifted triplet-minus-singlet signal was tightly correlated with photoprotection in the chloroplasts, suggesting the signal implies an increased efficiency of zeaxanthin in controlling chlorophyll triplet formation. Fluorescence-detected magnetic resonance analysis showed a decrease in the amplitude of signals assigned to chlorophyll triplets belonging to the monomeric antenna complexes of Photosystem II upon zeaxanthin binding; however, the amplitude of carotenoid triplet signal does not increase correspondingly. Results show that the high light-induced binding of zeaxanthin to specific proteins plays a major role in enhancing photoprotection by modulating the yield of potentially dangerous chlorophyll-excited states in vivo and preventing the production of singlet oxygen. PMID:23066020

Dall'Osto, Luca; Holt, Nancy E.; Kaligotla, Shanti; Fuciman, Marcel; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Carbonera, Donatella; Frank, Harry A.; Alric, Jean; Bassi, Roberto

2012-01-01

171

Leaf-cutting ant nests near roads increase fitness of exotic plant species in natural protected areas  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanisms that promote the invasion of natural protected areas by exotic plants is a central concern for ecology. We demonstrated that nests of the leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex lobicornis, near roadsides promote the abundance, growth and reproduction of two exotic plant species, Carduus nutans and Onopordum acanthium, in a national park in northern Patagonia, Argentina and determine the mechanisms that produce these effects. Refuse dumps (RDs) from ant nests have a higher nutrient content than nearby non-nest soils (NNSs); foliar nutrient content and their 15N isotopic signature strongly suggest that plants reach and use these nutrients. Both species of exotic plants in RDs were 50–600% more abundant; seedlings had 100–1000% more foliar area and root and leaf biomass; and adult plants produced 100–300% more seeds than nearby NNS plants. Plants can thus gain access to and benefit from the nutrient content of ant RD, supporting the hypotheses that enhanced resource availability promotes exotic plant performance that could increase the likelihood of biological invasions. The two exotics produce an estimated of 8?385?000 more seeds?ha?1 in areas with ant nests compared with areas without; this exceptional increase in seed production represents a potential threat to nearby non-invaded communities. We propose several management strategies to mitigate this threat. Removal efforts of exotics should be focused on ant RDs, where plants are denser and represent a higher source of propagules. PMID:18364316

Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Ghermandi, Luciana

2008-01-01

172

Leaf-cutting ant nests near roads increase fitness of exotic plant species in natural protected areas.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms that promote the invasion of natural protected areas by exotic plants is a central concern for ecology. We demonstrated that nests of the leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex lobicornis, near roadsides promote the abundance, growth and reproduction of two exotic plant species, Carduus nutans and Onopordum acanthium, in a national park in northern Patagonia, Argentina and determine the mechanisms that produce these effects. Refuse dumps (RDs) from ant nests have a higher nutrient content than nearby non-nest soils (NNSs); foliar nutrient content and their 15N isotopic signature strongly suggest that plants reach and use these nutrients. Both species of exotic plants in RDs were 50-600% more abundant; seedlings had 100-1000% more foliar area and root and leaf biomass; and adult plants produced 100-300% more seeds than nearby NNS plants. Plants can thus gain access to and benefit from the nutrient content of ant RD, supporting the hypotheses that enhanced resource availability promotes exotic plant performance that could increase the likelihood of biological invasions. The two exotics produce an estimated of 8385000 more seeds ha(-1) in areas with ant nests compared with areas without; this exceptional increase in seed production represents a potential threat to nearby non-invaded communities. We propose several management strategies to mitigate this threat. Removal efforts of exotics should be focused on ant RDs, where plants are denser and represent a higher source of propagules. PMID:18364316

Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Ghermandi, Luciana

2008-06-22

173

Influence of scale deposition on cathodic-protection performance in desalination plant conditions.  

PubMed

This paper describes an investigation into the interrelationships between the performance of an impressed current cathodic protection (CP) system and the deposition of scale compounds in a seawater pipe system. Some experiments were conducted on a laboratory set-up but the emphasis was on tests on a 0.25 m diameter steel pipe fed by seawater flowing to a thermal desalination plant. The experimental approach involved monitoring the CP current as a function of time at various set potentials and correlating this data with evidence from visual inspection of the pipe-wall surfaces and small probe specimens. The influences of control potential and seawater flow rate at temperatures of 25-35 degrees C were studied. Selected scale samples were subjected to examination by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The overall findings are discussed in terms of fundamental scale/CP-operation interactions and aspects relevant to practical operation of CP systems on seawater pipe installations. PMID:14982184

Hodgkiess, T; Najm-Mohammed, N A

2004-01-01

174

Decommissioning a phosphoric acid production plant: a radiological protection case study.  

PubMed

During a preliminary survey at the area of an abandoned fertilizer plant, increased levels of radioactivity were measured at places, buildings, constructions and materials. The extent of the contamination was determined and the affected areas were characterized as controlled areas. After the quantitative and qualitative determination of the contaminated materials, the decontamination was planned and performed step by step: the contaminated materials were categorized according to their physical characteristics (scrap metals, plastic pipes, scales and residues, building materials, etc) and according to their level of radioactivity. Depending on the material type, different decontamination and disposal options were proposed; the most appropriate technique was chosen taking into account apart from technical issues, the legal framework, radiation protection issues, the opinion of the local authorities involved as well as the owner's wish. After taking away the biggest amount of the contaminated materials, an iterative process consisting of surveys and decontamination actions was performed in order to remove the residual traces of contamination from the area. During the final survey, no residual surface contamination was detected; some sparsely distributed low level contaminated materials deeply immersed into the soil were found and removed. PMID:20813440

Stamatis, V; Seferlis, S; Kamenopoulou, V; Potiriadis, C; Koukouliou, V; Kehagia, K; Dagli, C; Georgiadis, S; Camarinopoulos, L

2010-12-01

175

Protection des ions organiques contre les dommages induits a l'ADN par les electrons de basse energie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Il a ete demontre que les electrons de basse energie (EBE) peuvent induire des cassures simple brin (CSB) a l'ADN, via la formation d'anions transitoires qui decroissent par attachement dissociatif, ou dans d'autres etats electroniques dissociatifs menant a la fragmentation. Afin d'effectuer une etude complete des effets des electrons de basse energie sur la matiere biologique, il est necessaire de comprendre leur mecanismes d'interaction non seulement avec l'ADN, mais avec les constituants de son environnement. Les histones sont une composante importante de l'environnement moleculaire de l'ADN. Leur charge positive leur permet de s'associer aux groupements phosphate anionique de l'ADN. Le role principal de ces proteines basiques consiste a organiser l'ADN et l'empaqueter afin de former la chromatine. Les cations sont une autre composante importante de la cellule; ils jouent un role dans la stabilisation de la conformation B de l'ADN in vitro par leurs interactions avec les petits et grands sillons de l'ADN, ainsi qu'avec le groupement phosphate charge negativement. Avec les histones, ils participent egalement a la compaction de l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Cette etude a pour but de comprendre comment la presence d'ions organiques (sous forme de Tris et d'EDTA) a proximite de l'ADN modifie le rendement de cassures simple brin induit par les electrons de basse energie. Le Tris et l'EDTA ont-ete choisis comme objet d'etude, puisqu'en solution, ils forment le tampon standard pour solubiliser l'ADN dans les experiences in vitro (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA). De plus, la molecule Tris possede un groupement amine alors que l'EDTA possede 4 groupements carboxyliques. Ensembles, ils peuvent se comporter comme un modele simple pour les acides amines. Le ratio molaire de 10 :1 de Tris par rapport a l'EDTA a pour but d'imiter le comportement des histones qui sont riches en arginine et lysine, acides amines possedant un groupement amine charge positivement additionnel. Des films d'ADN de differentes epaisseurs, possedant entre 0 et 32 ions organiques/ nucleotide, ont ete irradies avec des electrons de 10eV. Les dommages induits par les electrons, sous forme de cassures, ont ete detectes par electrophorese. Nous avons demontre que le rendement de cassure simple brin diminuait de facon dramatique en fonction du nombre d'ions organiques/ nucleotide. Aussi peu que 2 ions organiques/ nucleotide sont suffisant pour decroitre le rendement de SSB de 70%. Cet effet radioprotecteur est en partie explique par l'augmentation de l'epaisseur des films, mais surtout par la modification du champ electrique a proximite de l'ADN, due a l'ajout de molecules chargees positivement. La modification du champ electrique pres de l'ADN altere les parametres de resonance comme le temps de vie de l'anion transitoire et la limite de dissociation, qui influent directement sur la section efficace d'attachement dissociatif. L'effet protecteur peut egalement etre explique par la restauration des bases anioniques deshydrogenees induites par l'attachement dissociatif de l'electron sur une base (G(-H)-). Ce sont les molecules Tris qui, en transferant un atome d'hydrogene ou un proton, restaurent les bases deshydrogenees et inhibent par le fait meme la formation de cassures simple brin. Ces resultats indiquent que les histones peuvent egalement participer a la reparation de dommages precoces induits a l'ADN avant qu'elles ne menent a des dommages encore plus nocifs et difficiles a reparer, comme les cassures simples brins. Mots cles : Electrons de basse energie, dommage a l'ADN, ions organiques, attachement dissociatif de l'electron.

Dumont, Ariane

176

Comparison of the protective effectiveness of NPQ in Arabidopsis plants deficient in PsbS protein and zeaxanthin.  

PubMed

The efficiency of protective energy dissipation by non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in photosystem II (PSII) has been recently quantified by a new non-invasive photochemical quenching parameter, qPd. PSII yield (?PSII) was expressed in terms of NPQ, and the extent of damage to the reaction centres (RCIIs) was calculated via qPd as: ?PSII=qPd×(F v/F m)/{1+[1-(F v/F m)]×NPQ}. Here this approach was used to determine the amount of NPQ required to protect all PSII reaction centres (pNPQ) under a gradually increasing light intensity, in the zeaxanthin-deficient (npq1) Arabidopsis mutant, compared with PsbS protein-deficient (npq4) and wild-type plants. The relationship between maximum pNPQ and tolerated light intensity for all plant genotypes followed similar trends. These results suggest that under a gradually increasing light intensity, where pNPQ is allowed to develop, it is only the amplitude of pNPQ which is the determining factor for protection. However, the use of a sudden constant high light exposure routine revealed that the presence of PsbS, not zeaxanthin, offered better protection for PSII. This was attributed to a slower development of pNPQ in plants lacking PsbS in comparison with plants that lacked zeaxanthin. This research adds further support to the value of pNPQ and qPd as effective parameters for assessing NPQ effectiveness in different types of plants. PMID:25429003

Ware, Maxwell A; Belgio, Erica; Ruban, Alexander V

2014-11-26

177

Evaluation experimentale de l'efficacite des gants de protection contre les nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane dans des conditions de travail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manufactured titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) enter into the formulation of several commercial products including cosmetics, paints, varnishes or food. An increasing number of people will be exposed to nanoparticles (NP), in particular, scientists during their research and workers in companies. As such, they are an emerging source of hazard. Indeed, an increasing number of studies are warning against their likely harmful effects on health. The International Agency for Research against Cancer has classified nTiO2 as being possibly carcinogenic to humans. Furthermore some studies have shown that the skin is not an impervious membrane to the NP and that NP penetration is possible when the skin is injured by abrasion, after repeated flexions or even intact. Therefore, dermal protection will be necessary in order to thoroughly protect NP users. Based upon the precautionary principle, gloves should be used as protection against chemicals. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study on their resistance towards NP has been conducted. In this study, the performance of protective gloves was evaluated with respect to nTiO2 solutions and powders, under conditions simulating occupational use. Mechanical deformations, simulating those produced by hand flexing, were applied to nitrile and butyl rubber and latex samples that were in contact with nTiO2 in water, in propylene glycol or in powder form. nTiO 2 penetration through the protective gloves was determined after deformations of the materials. Following these results, the physicochemical and mechanical phenomena that facilitate the penetration of nTiO2 were identified and studied. It was shown that mechanical deformations caused both damage to the sample surface but also a change in the degree of crystallinity of the glove material. Strain energy was also measured. It decreased significantly in presence and absence of nTiO2, indicating a weakening of the polymer chains. A qualitative study showed that repetitive deformations also lead to a decrease in the size of the agglomerates that were contained in the nTiO2 powder. Glove materials that were in contact with colloidal solutions produced a swelling phenomenon. Finally, measurements of the elongation of glove samples immersed in colloidal solutions were used to determine diffusion coefficients across the materials. The transport of the nanoparticles was driven by that of the carrier liquid (water or propylene glycol). Given the carrier solutions and nanoparticles could be transported through the gloves, exposure to skin could occur.

Vinches, Ludwig

178

The influence of woody plants on the seepage of flood protection levees: Experiences from a test site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past flood events have once more drawn the attention to the stability and maintenance of flood protection levees. The attention has also been focused on the relationship between vegetation and the structural integrity of dikes. Current standards regard dense turf to be safest vegetation cover for dikes. Many guidelines ban woody vegetation from dikes and levees to provide structural integrity, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. The refusal of woody plants is mainly based on the argument that root penetration of woody plants facilitates water movement along their path. Within the frame of a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction (University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna), focusing on woody plants on levees, the effects of small to medium growing woody (shrubby) plants on the seepage are tested. Data are drawn from two natural-scaled research levees. The homogenous levees consist of a mineral silt-sand-gravel and have a fill height of 2.7 m and a slope inclination of 2:3. The tests investigate the impact of woody plants (living brush mattress - transversal) in comparison to compact turf (jute netting mulch seeding). Measured plant parameters, characterising the vegetation structures were shoot lengths, shoot diameters, and above ground biomass. Root growth is investigated in an extra plot area allowing excavation of the plants. Percolation is monitored using seepage monitoring pipes, soil moisture sensors and soil temperature probes, which were build into the embankment during construction. The proposed contribution discusses the effects of woody plants (shrubs) on seepage of flood protection levees. Methodology of research and results after three initial seepage tests are presented.

Lammeranner, W.; Meixner, H.; Florineth, F.

2009-04-01

179

Plant-Produced Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus L1 Protein Protects against Tumor Challenge: a Proof-of-Concept Study  

PubMed Central

The native cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) L1 capsid protein gene was expressed transgenically via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and transiently via a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) vector in Nicotiana spp. L1 protein was detected in concentrated plant extracts at concentrations up to 1.0 mg/kg in transgenic plants and up to 0.4 mg/kg in TMV-infected plants. The protein did not detectably assemble into viruslike particles; however, immunoelectron microscopy showed presumptive pentamer aggregates, and extracted protein reacted with conformation-specific and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Rabbits were injected with concentrated protein extract with Freund's incomplete adjuvant. All sera reacted with baculovirus-produced CRPV L1; however, they did not detectably neutralize infectivity in an in vitro assay. Vaccinated rabbits were, however, protected against wart development on subsequent challenge with live virus. This is the first evidence that a plant-derived papillomavirus vaccine is protective in an animal model and is a proof of concept for human papillomavirus vaccines produced in plants. PMID:16893983

Kohl, T.; Hitzeroth, I. I.; Stewart, D.; Varsani, A.; Govan, V. A.; Christensen, N. D.; Williamson, A.-L.; Rybicki, E. P.

2006-01-01

180

Evaluating companion planting and non-host masking odors for protecting roses from the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).  

PubMed

Effectiveness of companion planting, and use of nonhost masking odors were evaluated under field conditions for protecting roses against the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman. Three reputedly effective companion species, rue (Ruta graveolens L.), zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey), and garlic chives (Allium scheonparum L.) were interplanted with roses in replicated garden plots. Numbers of beetles on these roses were compared with rose-only control plots on 6 d during beetle flight. The masking odor hypothesis was tested by hanging mesh bags of aromatic herbs or other sources of reputedly repellent nonhost volatiles around potted roses in the field. Treatments included crushed red pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.), fennel seeds (Foeniculm vulgare Miller), crushed spearmint (Mentha picata L.), cedar shavings (Juniperus sp.), osage orange fruits (Maclura pomifera (Raif) Schneid.), and fleshy gingko seeds (Gingko biloba L.). No treatment significantly reduced numbers of beetles relative to the controls. Interplanting with geraniums significantly increased numbers of Japanese beetles on roses. Similarly, roses surrounded by sachets with fennel seeds, cedar shavings, crushed red pepper, or osage orange fruits had significantly more beetles than the control plants on two or more sample dates. Our results suggest that the use of companion or reputedly repellent plants or plant odors probably will be ineffective for protecting roses or other highly-susceptible ornamentals from P. japonica. Use of such tactics in an effort to discourage other garden pests might even increase Japanese beetle damage in those plantings. PMID:12650348

Held, D W; Gonsiska, P; Potter, D A

2003-02-01

181

Year-round behaviour of soil microarthropod communities under plant protection product application.  

PubMed

The use of plant protection products (PPPs) in agro-environments can lead to undesired exposure of non-target organisms in non-target compartments. A year-round field survey was conducted in a vineyard in Northern Italy, for monitoring the changes in the structure of soil microarthropod communities under the application of PPPs, focusing on springtails and mites, both inside and 4 and 10 m outside the vineyard. Exposure to PPPs was estimated as time-weighted average soil concentrations. The fluctuations in the abundances of the different organisms after the application of PPPs, especially insecticides, were recorded. A recovery in abundances was observed at the end of the productive season outside the field and at the beginning of the next spring within the vineyard. Using multivariate statistical tools, the behaviour of each taxon in relation to the stressors was assessed. Some organisms were affected by the stressors, while others were favoured because of low vulnerability to PPPs and the indirect effect of the absence of other taxa. The principal response curves (PRC) method was the most sensitive tool for assessing PPP effects on soil arthropod communities. Strong differences were evident in the structure of the communities inside and outside the vineyard, with the communities sampled 4 and 10 m outside the vineyard being fairly similar, the latter considered as control. The role of physical stressors on community composition is recognised. However, chemical stressors, and in particular PPP exposure seemed to have larger effects on structural and functional characteristics of soil arthropod communities than physical stressors. PMID:24671560

Vaj, Claudia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Vighi, Marco

2014-07-01

182

Presence of plant protection products in three agricultural areas of Regione Lazio.  

PubMed

Aim of the research was to verify the impact of plant protection products on three significant agricultural areas of Regione Lazio: Maccarese, Cisterna di Latina, Sabaudia-Terracina. This research studied the presence of some active ingredients, indicated by technicians as distributed, on soil, water, crop and air samples, the last one in greenhouse; the analysis, carried out by multi-residue methods, allowed to investigate also on a large amount of active ingredients not indicated by technicians. The determinations have been obtained, using internal standards, by GC-NPD, GC-ECD, HPLC-UV, HPLC-DAD, with different columns, conditions and wavelength of adsorption. Taking into account the results we could to assert that only a small part of the molecules searched were found in the samples and that they are typical for the crops and the environment treated. In greenhouse, more persistence was founded in wood greenhouse, treated from the outside, probably for the release of a.i. in time from wood and for a better distribution. The active ingredients more frequently founded must be controlled to avoid possible accumulation or leaching, especially for herbicides in the areas of Maccarese and Cisterna di Latina. Furthermore, the molecule on which more attention must be done when applied, are: linuron on carrots, penconazole on zucchini and cymoxanil, often used inappropriately, particularly on minor crops, like red-radish. Although the number of sampling was limited, it has been possible to outline the situation in the three zones considered, for directing choices, that could be more sensible at sanitary spin-off and at the environment. PMID:15151325

Conte, E; Rossi, E; Spera, G; Pompi, V; Carfi', F; Spadoni, A R; Rosati, M; Montereali, M R; Donnarumma, L; Perconti, W

2003-01-01

183

A foliar spray of micronutrient solutions induces local and systemic protection against powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginia) in cucumber plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single spray of solutions of 0.005M H3BO3, 0.0025M CuSO4, and 0.0025 MnCl2, on the upper surface of the first true leaf of cucumber plants 2 h before inoculation with a conidial suspension of Sphaerotheca fuliginea, induced systemic protection against powdery mildew in leaves 2 and 3 without causing any damage on the induced leaf (first leaf). A similar level

Moshe Reuveni; Vladimir Agapov

1997-01-01

184

Role of Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip) IV Transcription Factors in Plant Development and Plant Protection from Deleterious Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Homeobox genes comprise an important group of genes that are responsible for regulation of developmental processes. These genes determine cell differentiation and cell fate in all eukaryotic organisms, starting from the early stages of embryo development. Homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom. Members of the HD-Zip IV subfamily have a complex domain topology and can bind several cis-elements with overlapping sequences. Many of the reported HD-Zip IV genes were shown to be specifically or preferentially expressed in plant epidermal or sub-epidermal cells. HD-Zip IV TFs were found to be associated with differentiation and maintenance of outer cell layers, and regulation of lipid biosynthesis and transport. Insights about the role of these proteins in plant cuticle formation, and hence their possible involvement in plant protection from pathogens and abiotic stresses has just started to emerge. These roles make HD-Zip IV proteins an attractive tool for genetic engineering of crop plants. To this end, there is a need for in-depth studies to further clarify the function of each HD-Zip IV subfamily member in commercially important plant species. PMID:23584027

Chew, William; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

2013-01-01

185

Cost effectiveness in site selection to protect native plant communities from the weed, bitou bush, in New South Wales, Australia.  

PubMed

Government funding to protect native plant communities is usually limited. For cost effectiveness, priority sites for conservation must therefore be identified and funds allocated to protect these sites according to the quantity of communities conserved per dollar of cost. In 1999, invasion of coastal vegetation in New South Wales (NSW) by bitou bush was listed as a key threatening process under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995. In accordance with the Act, a Threat Abatement Plan (TAP) was prepared to reduce the impacts of the weed to threatened biodiversity at priority sites. In the present study, data collected for the TAP were analysed by linear programming to determine the feasibility of achieving cost effectiveness in identifying sites and allocating funds, and to explore the impact of associated economic issues on the quantity of native plant communities that are protected. In addition to the total funds and costs per site, the quantity was influenced by alternative funding policies and different site selection strategies. Allocations that recognise these issues can enhance protection outcomes, and promote the cost effectiveness of weed management. PMID:23933220

Sinden, Jack; Downey, Paul; Cacho, Oscar; Hester, Susan

2013-10-15

186

Protective efficacy of a single immunization with capripoxvirus-vectored recombinant peste des petits ruminants vaccines in presence of pre-existing immunity.  

PubMed

Sheeppox, goatpox and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) are highly contagious ruminant diseases widely distributed in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Capripoxvirus (CPV)-vectored recombinant PPR vaccines (rCPV-PPR vaccines), which have been developed and shown to protect against both Capripox (CP) and PPR, would be critical tools in the control of these important diseases. In most parts of the world, these disease distributions overlap each other leaving concerns about the potential impact that pre-existing immunity against either disease may have on the protective efficacy of these bivalent rCPV-PPR vaccines. Currently, this question has not been indisputably addressed. Therefore, we undertook this study, under experimental conditions designed for the context of mass vaccination campaigns of small ruminants, using the two CPV recombinants (Kenya sheep-1 (KS-1) strain-based constructs) developed previously in our laboratory. Pre-existing immunity was first induced by immunization either with an attenuated CPV vaccine strain (KS-1) or the attenuated PPRV vaccine strain (Nigeria 75/1) and animals were thereafter inoculated once subcutaneously with a mixture of CPV recombinants expressing either the hemagglutinin (H) or the fusion (F) protein gene of PPRV (10(3) TCID50/animal of each). Finally, these animals were challenged with a virulent CPV strain followed by a virulent PPRV strain 3 weeks later. Our study demonstrated full protection against CP for vaccinated animals with prior exposure to PPRV and a partial protection against PPR for vaccinated animals with prior exposure to CPV. The latter animals exhibited a mild clinical form of PPR and did not show any post-challenge anamnestic neutralizing antibody response against PPRV. The implications of these results are discussed herein and suggestions made for future research regarding the development of CPV-vectored vaccines. PMID:24837763

Caufour, Philippe; Rufael, Tesfaye; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Lancelot, Renaud; Kidane, Menbere; Awel, Dino; Sertse, Tefera; Kwiatek, Olivier; Libeau, Geneviève; Sahle, Mesfin; Diallo, Adama; Albina, Emmanuel

2014-06-24

187

Host plant manipulation of natural enemies: leaf domatia protect beneficial mites from insect predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acarodomatia are small tufts of hair or invaginations in the leaf surface and are frequently inhabited by several taxa of non-plant-feeding mites. For many years, ecologists have hypothesized that these structures represent a mutualistic association between mites and plants where the mites benefit the plant by reducing densities of phytophagous arthropods and epiphytic microorganisms, and domatia benefit the mite by

Andrew P. Norton; Greg English-Loeb; Edward Belden

2001-01-01

188

Overcurrent protection device miscoordination issues that result in plant outages and costly down time  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the phase and ground overcurrent protection of chemical facility electrical supply systems with emphasis on situations that can result in unnecessary shutdown of services. Ground overcurrent relay coordination with downstream fusing, the coordination of successive levels of protection with instantaneous devices, coordination of low voltage secondary devices with primary devices through delta-wye connected transformers, and coordinating successive

M. T. Bishop; S. R. Mendis; J. F. Witte; P. Myers

1996-01-01

189

Predators indirectly protect tundra plants by reducing herbivore Peter A. Hamback, Lauri Oksanen, Per Ekerholm, A sa Lindgren, Tarja Oksanen and Michael Schneider  

E-print Network

Predators indirectly protect tundra plants by reducing herbivore abundance Peter A. Hamba¨ck, Lauri., Ekerholm, P., Lindgren, A° ., Oksanen, T. and Schneider, M. 2004. Predators indirectly protect tundra cascades are rare in terrestrial habitats. To examine the potential of trophic cascades in a shrubby tundra

Oksanen, Lauri

190

Short-term damage-induced increases in tobacco alkaloids protect plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf damage significantly increases the alkaloid content in undamaged leaves on damaged field-grown wild tobacco plants. Although field-grown pot-bound plants fail to exhibit the same damage-induced increase in alkaloid content, the ability to respond to leaf damage is restored 6 days after removing plants from their pots. Freshly hatched Manduca sexta larvae reared individually in the laboratory on the high-alkaloid

Ian T. Baldwin

1988-01-01

191

Protective action of midgut catalase in lepidopteran larvae against oxidative plant defenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalase activity was detected in the midgut tissues and regurgitate of several lepidopteran pests of the tomato plant. Greatest activity in the midgut was detected in larvalHelicoverpa zea, followed bySpodoptera exigua, Manduca sexta, andHeliothis virescens. We present evidence that catalase, in addition to removing toxic hydrogen peroxide, may inhibit the oxidation of plant phenolics mediated by plant peroxidases. Small amounts

Gary W. Felton; Sean S. Duffey

1991-01-01

192

Integrated protection, control, and monitoring system for power plant electrical systems associated substation  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses future requirements of the electric power industry. Projections for the use of digital, integrates systems for generation systems are offered. The use of digital algorithms for protective functions is discussed.

Mankoff, L.L. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Rockefeller, G.D. (Electric Research and Management, St. Rose, LA (USA))

1989-01-01

193

Investigation of aerosol kinetics in the protective envelope when analyzing accidental emissions at nuclear plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The course of an unanticipated accident with serious damage to the core is characterized by the emission of a large quantity\\u000a of radioactive materials into the first loop and then into the space inside the protective shell. The majority of the fission\\u000a products enter the protective shell in the form of radioactive aerosols, whose leakage largely determines the consequences\\u000a of

I. M. Ivkov; M. A. Zatevakhin; V. V. Bezlepkin; S. E. Semashko; A. A. Ignatiev

2010-01-01

194

Application of IEC 62305 to a large power and desalination plant-lightning protection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning is a natural phenomena, in which when strikes any grounded objects\\/structural buildings causes heavy loss including loss of human life, damage to structures,buildings,fire explosion, etc. The heavy discharge of electric charge from clouds can be safely diverted to earth by providing properly designed lightning protection system. In this paper Electro- Mechanical concept has been applied to protect the power

P. Velmurugan; K. Dhayalasundaram; K. Ilangovan

2011-01-01

195

Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Trás-os-Montes, Portugal  

PubMed Central

Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered. Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs. PMID:22112242

2011-01-01

196

Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Trás-os-Montes, Portugal.  

PubMed

Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered.Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs. PMID:22112242

Carvalho, Ana Maria; Frazão-Moreira, Amélia

2011-01-01

197

The contribution of a planted roof to the thermal protection of buildings in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planted roofs contribute positively to the improvement of the thermal performance of a building. They block solar radiation, and reduce daily temperature variations and thermal ranges between winter and summer. In this paper, a calculation has been done, using a stationary method, in order to determine the thermal behaviour of the planted roof and the way it influences the thermal

Ekaterini Eumorfopoulou; Dimitris Aravantinos

1998-01-01

198

Induced plant defenses breached? Phytochemical induction protects an herbivore from disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although wound-induced responses in plants are widespread, neither the ecological nor the evolutionary significance of phytochemical induction is clear. Several studies have shown, for example, that induced responses can act against both plant pathogens and herbivores simultaneously. We present the first evidence that phytochemical induction can inhibit a pathogen of the herbivore responsible for the defoliation. In 1990, we generated

Mark D. Hunter; Jack C. Schultz

1993-01-01

199

United States Department of Energy`s reactor core protection evaluation methodology for fires at RBMK and VVER nuclear power plants. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document provides operators of Soviet-designed RBMK (graphite moderated light water boiling water reactor) and VVER (pressurized light water reactor) nuclear power plants with a systematic Methodology to qualitatively evaluate plant response to fires and to identify remedies to protect the reactor core from fire-initiated damage.

NONE

1997-06-01

200

Adaptive mechanisms of insect pests against plant protease inhibitors and future prospects related to crop protection: a review.  

PubMed

The overwhelming demand for food requires the application of technology on field. An important issue that limits the productivity of crops is related to insect attacks. Hence, several studies have evaluated the application of different compounds to reduce the field losses, especially insecticide compounds from plant sources. Among them, plant protease inhibitors (PIs) have been studied in both basic and applied researches, displaying positive results in control of some insects. However, certain species are able to bypass the insecticide effects exerted by PIs. In this review, we disclosed the adaptive mechanisms showed by lepidopteran and coleopteran insects, the most expressive insect orders related to crop predation. The structural aspects involved in adaptation mechanisms are presented as well as the newest alternatives for pest control. The application of biotechnological tools in crop protection will be mandatory in agriculture, and it will be up to researchers to find the best candidates for effective control in long-term. PMID:25329404

Macedo, Maria L R; de Oliveira, Caio F R; Costa, Poliene M; Castelhano, Elaine C; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

2015-01-01

201

Invasive alien plants in marine protected areas: the Spartina anglica affair in the European Wadden Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cord-grass Spartina anglica, a fertile hybrid of S. maritima and S. alterniflora, was planted in the European Wadden Sea extensively during the late 1920s and 1930s to promote sediment accretion. After\\u000a establishment, it colonised as a pioneer plant in the upper tidal zone, where it occurs frequently in coherent swards at the\\u000a seaward front of saltmarshes and in patches on

Stefan Nehring; Karl-Jürgen Hesse

2008-01-01

202

New Plant Growth Regulators Protect Photosynthesis and Enhance Growth Under Drought of Jack Pine Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   To determine whether natural plant growth regulators (PGRs) can enhance drought tolerance and the competitive ability of\\u000a transplanted seedlings, 1.5-year-old jack pine (Pinus banksana Lamb.) seedlings were treated with homobrassinolide, salicylic acid, and two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, triacontanol,\\u000a abscisic acid (ABA), and the synthetic antioxidant, Ambiol. PGRs were fed into the xylem for 7 days and plants were

L. R. Rajasekaran; T. J. Blake

1999-01-01

203

A plant-produced plague vaccine candidate confers protection to monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of vaccine antigens in plants has received considerable attention over the last decade. However, despite many antigens being expressed in plant systems, and promising efficacy data with rodent models, few vaccine candidates have advanced into studies in non-human primates or human clinical trials. Here, we report on the transient expression of the F1 and LcrV antigens of Yersinia pestis

Vadim Mett; Jarred Lyons; Konstantin Musiychuk; Jessica A. Chichester; Trevor Brasil; Ronald Couch; Robert Sherwood; Gene A. Palmer; Stephen J. Streatfield; Vidadi Yusibov

2007-01-01

204

Plant responses to abiotic stresses: heavy metal-induced oxidative stress and protection by mycorrhization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review is to assess the mode of action and role of antioxidants as protection from heavy metal stress in roots, mycorrhizal fungi and mycor- rhizae. Based on their chemical and physical proper- ties three different molecular mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity can be distinguished: (a) production of reactive oxygen species by autoxidation and Fenton reaction; this

Andres Schutzendubel; Andrea Polle

2002-01-01

205

Ants and extrafloral nectaries: no evidence for plant protection in Helichrysum spp. — ant interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterstics of Australian endemic Helichrysum bracteratum and H. viscosum suggest that foraging ants act as “guards” of developing flowerheads, protecting capitula from seed predators: (1) extrafloral nectar is secreted from leaves subtending the capitula and from bracts encircling the floral disc during pre- to post-flowering periods; (2) capitula are attended by ants; and, (3) encounters between ants and other capitula

Dennis J. O'Dowd; E. A. Catchpole

1983-01-01

206

75 FR 14496 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Protections for the Grizzly Bear...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reinstatement of Protections for the Grizzly Bear in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem in...ESA), as amended, for the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the Greater...surrounding area. This rule corrects the grizzly bear listing to reinstate the listing of...

2010-03-26

207

Recombinant adenovirus expressing the haemagglutinin of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) protects goats against challenge with pathogenic virus; a DIVA vaccine for PPR  

PubMed Central

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that can cause severe disease in sheep and goats, characterised by pyrexia, pneumo-enteritis, and gastritis. The socio-economic burden of the disease is increasing in underdeveloped countries, with poor livestock keepers being affected the most. Current vaccines consist of cell-culture attenuated strains of PPRV, which induce a similar antibody profile to that induced by natural infection. Generation of a vaccine that enables differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would benefit PPR control and eradication programmes, particularly in the later stages of an eradication campaign and for countries where the disease is not endemic. In order to create a vaccine that would enable infected animals to be distinguished from vaccinated ones (DIVA vaccine), we have evaluated the immunogenicity of recombinant fowlpox (FP) and replication-defective recombinant human adenovirus 5 (Ad), expressing PPRV F and H proteins, in goats. The Ad constructs induced higher levels of virus-specific and neutralising antibodies, and primed greater numbers of CD8+ T cells than the FP-vectored vaccines. Importantly, a single dose of Ad-H, with or without the addition of Ad expressing ovine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or ovine interleukin-2, not only induced strong antibody and cell-mediated immunity but also completely protected goats against challenge with virulent PPRV, 4 months after vaccination. Replication-defective Ad-H therefore offers the possibility of an effective DIVA vaccine. PMID:24568545

2014-01-01

208

Methylobacterium-induced endophyte community changes correspond with protection of plants against pathogen attack.  

PubMed

Plant inoculation with endophytic bacteria that normally live inside the plant without harming the host is a highly promising approach for biological disease control. The mechanism of resistance induction by beneficial bacteria is poorly understood, because pathways are only partly known and systemic responses are typically not seen. The innate endophytic community structures change in response to external factors such as inoculation, and bacterial endophytes can exhibit direct or indirect antagonism towards pathogens. Earlier we showed that resistance induction by an endophytic Methylobacterium sp. in potato towards Pectobacterium atrosepticum was dependent on the density of the inoculum, whereas the bacterium itself had no antagonistic activity. To elucidate the role of innate endophyte communities in plant responses, we studied community changes in both in vitro and greenhouse experiments using various combinations of plants, endophyte inoculants, and pathogens. Induction of resistance was studied in several potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars by Methylobacterium sp. IMBG290 against the pathogens P. atrosepticum, Phytophthora infestans and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by M. extorquens DSM13060 against Gremmeniella abietina. The capacities of the inoculated endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains to induce resistance were dependent on the plant cultivar, pathogen, and on the density of Methylobacterium spp. inoculum. Composition of the endophyte community changed in response to inoculation in shoot tissues and correlated with resistance or susceptibility to the disease. Our results demonstrate that endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains have varying effects on plant disease resistance, which can be modulated through the endophyte community of the host. PMID:23056459

Ardanov, Pavlo; Sessitsch, Angela; Häggman, Hely; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

2012-01-01

209

Methylobacterium-Induced Endophyte Community Changes Correspond with Protection of Plants against Pathogen Attack  

PubMed Central

Plant inoculation with endophytic bacteria that normally live inside the plant without harming the host is a highly promising approach for biological disease control. The mechanism of resistance induction by beneficial bacteria is poorly understood, because pathways are only partly known and systemic responses are typically not seen. The innate endophytic community structures change in response to external factors such as inoculation, and bacterial endophytes can exhibit direct or indirect antagonism towards pathogens. Earlier we showed that resistance induction by an endophytic Methylobacterium sp. in potato towards Pectobacterium atrosepticum was dependent on the density of the inoculum, whereas the bacterium itself had no antagonistic activity. To elucidate the role of innate endophyte communities in plant responses, we studied community changes in both in vitro and greenhouse experiments using various combinations of plants, endophyte inoculants, and pathogens. Induction of resistance was studied in several potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars by Methylobacterium sp. IMBG290 against the pathogens P. atrosepticum, Phytophthora infestans and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by M. extorquens DSM13060 against Gremmeniella abietina. The capacities of the inoculated endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains to induce resistance were dependent on the plant cultivar, pathogen, and on the density of Methylobacterium spp. inoculum. Composition of the endophyte community changed in response to inoculation in shoot tissues and correlated with resistance or susceptibility to the disease. Our results demonstrate that endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains have varying effects on plant disease resistance, which can be modulated through the endophyte community of the host. PMID:23056459

Ardanov, Pavlo; Sessitsch, Angela; Häggman, Hely; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

2012-01-01

210

Functional and taxonomic plant diversity for riverbank protection works: Bioengineering techniques close to natural banks and beyond hard engineering.  

PubMed

Erosion control is a major issue in the Prealps region since piedmont is subject to both intense flood hazards and anthropic pressure. Riverbank protections may have major impacts on local ecosystem functioning and ecological corridor continuity. This study aimed to estimate the effects of the types of riverbank protection technique (from pure riprap to pure bioengineering) on the taxonomic and ecological composition of plant communities in comparison with unmanaged riverbanks as the referential system. Thirty-eight embankments were sampled in the foothills of the French and Swiss Alps. Four distinct riverbank techniques were analyzed and natural young willow stands were chosen as the referential system. At each site, vegetation was sampled along three transects from the waterline to the top of the riverbank. Plant communities were characterized using biological group composition (growth forms and life history, life strategies and distribution in space and time) and functional diversity indices (MFAD, FDc and wFDc). We identified 177 distinct plant species on 38 sites. Higher species richness levels were observed on bioengineered banks (from an average of 12 species recorded on ripraps to 27 species recorded on bioengineered banks) strongly dominated by Salicaceae species, especially for fascine and cribwall banks. Functional analyses of plant communities highlighted significant differences among bank types (p-value: 0.001) for all selected biological groups. Competitive - ruderal strategy, rooting shoots, stems or leaves that lie down or break off, and unisexual - dioecious, as well as pioneer plants and low shrubs (<4 m tall) distinguished bioengineered bank types. Functional diversity indices confirmed these differences among bank types (MFAD: p-value: 0.002; FDc: p-value: 0.003; wFDc: p-value: 0.005). Riprap always showed the lowest levels on functional diversity indices, fascine and cribwall banks were at the medium level and finally mixed and natural banks the highest level. These results confirm the low ecological potential of purely hard engineering techniques and highlight the similarity of bioengineered techniques and unmanaged riverbanks. PMID:25532058

Cavaillé, Paul; Ducasse, Léon; Breton, Vincent; Dommanget, Fanny; Tabacchi, Eric; Evette, André

2015-03-15

211

NON-TARGET AND ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS CONTAINING PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The risk of unintended and unexpected adverse impacts on non-target organisms and ecosystems is a key issue in environmental risk assessment of PIP crop plants. While there has been considerable examination of the effects of insect resistant crops on certain non-target organisms...

212

A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to ?-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera. The recombinant mite enzyme had both ?-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase activity but enzyme kinetics showed that cyanide detoxification activity was strongly favored. Our results therefore suggest that an ancient horizontal transfer of a gene originally involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria was co-opted by herbivorous arthropods to detoxify plant produced cyanide. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02365.001 PMID:24843024

Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbi?, Miodrag; Feyereisen, René; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

2014-01-01

213

Proposed Methodology for Specifying Atrazine Levels of Concern for Protection of Plant Communities in Freshwater Ecosystems  

EPA Science Inventory

This document describes a proposed methodology for setting levels of concern (LOCs) for atrazine in natural freshwater systems to prevent unacceptably adverse effects on the aquatic plant communities in those systems. LOCs regarding effects on humans and possible effects on amph...

214

Protective Role of Plant Sterol and Stanol Esters in Liver Inflammation: Insights from Mice and Humans  

PubMed Central

The inflammatory component of non–alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can lead to irreversible liver damage. Therefore there is an urgent need to identify novel interventions to combat hepatic inflammation. In mice, omitting cholesterol from the diet reduced hepatic inflammation. Considering the effects of plant sterol/stanol esters on cholesterol metabolism, we hypothesized that plant sterol/stanol esters reduces hepatic inflammation. Indeed, adding plant sterol/stanol esters to a high-fat-diet reduced hepatic inflammation as indicated by immunohistochemical stainings and gene expression for inflammatory markers. Finally, adding sterol/stanol esters lowered hepatic concentrations of cholesterol precursors lathosterol and desmosterol in mice, which were highly elevated in the HFD group similarly as observed in severely obese patients with NASH. In vitro, in isolated LPS stimulated bone marrow derived macrophages desmosterol activated cholesterol efflux whereas sitostanol reduced inflammation. This highly interesting observation that plant sterol/stanol ester consumption leads to complete inhibition of HFD-induced liver inflammation opens new venues in the treatment and prevention of hepatic inflammation. PMID:25356831

Plat, Jogchum; Hendrikx, Tim; Bieghs, Veerle; Jeurissen, Mike L. J.; Walenbergh, Sofie M. A.; van Gorp, Patrick J.; De Smet, Els; Konings, Maurice; Vreugdenhil, Anita C. E.; Guichot, Yasmin Dias; Rensen, Sander S.; Buurman, Wim A.; Greve, Jan Willem M.; Lütjohann, Dieter; Mensink, Ronald P.; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit

2014-01-01

215

Cooperative prevention systems to protect rangelands from the spread of invasive plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Invasive plants continue to spread and impact rangelands in the western United States. Fortunately, many rangeland ecosystems still remain invasive weed-free.Cooperative prevention systems can safeguard these remaining areas. Local-level weed prevention areas (WPAs) prioritize prevention in the larg...

216

Association with mature plants protects seedlings from predation in an arid grassland shrub, Gutierrezia microcephala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survivorship of Gutierrezia microcephala (Compositae) seedlings was studied in an undisturbed arid grassland and in experimental plots where various components of the natural vegetation were removed following seed germination. The major causes of seedling mortality were herbivore damage from the specialist grasshopper, Hesperotettix viridis, and drought stress associated with competition from established plants. The relative intensity of these mortality factors

Matthew A. Parker

1982-01-01

217

Effects of ionising radiation exposure on plants, fish and mammals: relevant data for environmental radiation protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop a framework for the assessment of the environmental impact of radiation, it is necessary to establish the relationship between exposure (dose rate, accumulated dose) and the effects that may be induced in plants and animals. With this purpose in mind, the data available on effects induced by ionising radiation in various wildlife groups have been reviewed

A. Real; S. Sundell-Bergman; J. F. Knowles; D. S. Woodhead; I. Zinger

2004-01-01

218

Drowning out the protection racket: partner manipulation or drought can strengthen ant-plant mutualism.  

PubMed

Two recent reports discuss interactions between plants and ants that defend them from herbivores. Acacia trees provide their ant bodyguards with a diet that reduces their ability to benefit from alternate hosts. Provisioning of ants by Cordia trees during drought may buy insurance against extreme defoliation events, not just average-year benefits. PMID:24815041

Denison, R Ford

2014-07-01

219

Expression of snowdrop lectin in transgenic tobacco plants results in added protection against aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of sap-sucking insect pests to which GNA, (the mannose specific lectin from snowdrops (Galanthus nivalis) has been shown to be insecticidal in artificial diets has been extended to include the peach potato aphid (Myzus persicae). A gene construct for constitutive expression of GNA from the CaMV35S gene promoter has been introduced into tobacco plants. A transgenic tobacco line

V. A. Hilder; K. S. Powell; A. M. R. Gatehouse; J. A. Gatehouse; L. N. Gatehouse; Y. Shi; W. D. O. Hamilton; A. Merryweather; C. A. Newell; J. C. Timans; W. J. Peumans; E. van Damme; D. Boulter

1995-01-01

220

Alternative strawberry production using solarization, metham sodium and beneficial soil microbes as plant protection methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-impact chemical biocides are no longer used in crop production systems due to environmental concerns and sustainable\\u000a agricultural practices must involve the use of environmentally friendlier alternatives for controlling pests and diseases.\\u000a We compared the effect of two disinfestation treatments, solarization and metham sodium, combined with the arbuscular mycorrhizal\\u000a fungus Glomus intraradices, the saprophytic fungus Trichoderma aureoviride and the plant

A. Camprubí; V. Estaún; M. A. El Bakali; F. Garcia-Figueres; C. Calvet

2007-01-01

221

Protection of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. plants from salt stress by paclobutrazol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot culture experiment was conducted to estimate the stress ameliorating ability of paclobutrazol, a triazole fungicide in Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. plants. Treatments were given as 80mM NaCl, 80mM NaCl+15mgl?1 paclobutrazol and 15mgl?1 paclobutrazol alone. The samples were collected on 60 and 80 days after sowing (DAS). NaCl stress inhibited the root and stem length, total leaf area, fresh

P. Manivannan; C. Abdul Jaleel; A. Kishorekumar; B. Sankar; R. Somasundaram; R. Panneerselvam

2008-01-01

222

Protection of thylakoids against combined light and drought by a lumenal substance in the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Haberlea rhodopensis is a perennial, herbaceous, saxicolous, poikilohydric flowering plant that is able to survive desiccation to air-dried state under irradiance below 30 µmol m?2 s?1. However, desiccation at irradiance of 350 µmol m?2 s?1 induced irreversible changes in the photosynthetic apparatus, and mature leaves did not recover after rehydration. The aim here was to establish the causes and mechanisms of irreversible damage of the photosynthetic apparatus due to dehydration at high irradiance, and to elucidate the mechanisms determining recovery. Methods Changes in chloroplast structure, CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, fluorescence imaging and the polypeptide patterns during desiccation of Haberlea under medium (100 µmol m?2 s?1; ML) irradiance were compared with those under low (30 µmol m?2 s?1; LL) irradiance. Key Results Well-watered plants (control) at 100 µmol m?2 s?1 were not damaged. Plants desiccated at LL or ML had similar rates of water loss. Dehydration at ML decreased the quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry, and particularly the CO2 assimilation rate, more rapidly than at LL. Dehydration induced accumulation of stress proteins in leaves under both LL and ML. Photosynthetic activity and polypeptide composition were completely restored in LL plants after 1 week of rehydration, but changes persisted under ML conditions. Electron microscopy of structural changes in the chloroplast showed that the thylakoid lumen is filled with an electron-dense substance (dense luminal substance, DLS), while the thylakoid membranes are lightly stained. Upon dehydration and rehydration the DLS thinned and disappeared, the time course largely depending on the illumination: whereas DLS persisted during desiccation and started to disappear during late recovery under LL, it disappeared from the onset of dehydration and later was completely lost under ML. Conclusions Accumulation of DLS (possibly phenolics) in the thylakoid lumen is demonstrated and is proposed as a mechanism protecting the thylakoid membranes of H. rhodopensis during desiccation and recovery under LL. Disappearance of DLS during desiccation in ML could leave the thylakoid membranes without protection, allowing oxidative damage during dehydration and the initial rehydration, thus preventing recovery of photosynthesis. PMID:19914917

Georgieva, Katya; Sárvári, Éva; Keresztes, Áron

2010-01-01

223

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-containing rhizobacteria protect Ocimum sanctum plants during waterlogging stress via reduced ethylene generation.  

PubMed

Ocimum sanctum grown as rain-fed crop, is known to be poorly adapted to waterlogged conditions. Many a times the crop suffers extreme damages because of anoxia and excessive ethylene generation due to waterlogging conditions present under heavy rain. The usefulness of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-containing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria was investigated under waterlogging stress. The comparison of herb yield and stress induced biochemical changes of waterlogged and non-waterlogged plants with and without ACC deaminase-containing microbiological treatments were monitored in this study. Ten plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains containing ACC-deaminase were isolated and characterized. Four selected isolates Fd2 (Achromobacter xylosoxidans), Bac5 (Serratia ureilytica), Oci9 (Herbaspirillum seropedicae) and Oci13 (Ochrobactrum rhizosphaerae) had the potential to protect Ocimum plants from flood induced damage under waterlogged glass house conditions. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of these ACC deaminase-containing selected strains for reducing the yield losses caused by waterlogging conditions. Bacterial treatments protected plants from waterlogging induced detrimental changes like stress ethylene production, reduced chlorophyll concentration, higher lipid peroxidation, proline concentration and reduced foliar nutrient uptake. Fd2 (A. xylosoxidans) induced maximum waterlogging tolerance as treated waterlogged plants recorded maximum growth and herb yield (46.5% higher than uninoculated waterlogged plants) with minimum stress ethylene levels (53% lower ACC concentration as compared to waterlogged plants without bacterial inoculation) whereas under normal non-waterlogged conditions O. rhizosphaerae was most effective in plant growth promotion. PMID:22846334

Barnawal, Deepti; Bharti, Nidhi; Maji, Deepamala; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Kalra, Alok

2012-09-01

224

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

Miss Berneski

2011-12-10

225

Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8  

SciTech Connect

The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-05-01

226

The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Sustainability Program of Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

UEIP has been working on a comprehensive sustainability program that includes establishing a site sustainability working group, information gathering, planning, organizing, developing schedule and estimated costs, trhough joint UEIP-US DOE/NNSA National Laboratory sustainability contracts. Considerable efforts have been necessary in the sustainability planning, monitoring, and control of the scope of work using tools such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Project and SAP R/3. While information interchanges within the sustainability program provides adequate US assurances that US funds are well spent through its quarterly reporting methodology, proper information security and protection measures are taken throughout the process. Decommissioning of outdated equipment has also become part of determining sustainability requirements and processes. The site’s sustainability program has facilitated the development of a transition plan toward eventual full Russian funding of sustaining nuclear security upgrades.

Vakhonin, Alexander; Yuldashev, Rashid; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Eshter M.

2009-09-30

227

Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and ?-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha

2014-01-01

228

Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates-RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and ?-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha; Urooj, Asna

2014-01-01

229

Maize Purple Plant Pigment Protects Against Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Damage of Liver and Kidney in Rats  

PubMed Central

Anthocyanins are polyphenols and well known for their biological antioxidative benefits. Maize purple plant pigment (MPPP) extracted and separated from maize purple plant is rich in anthocyanins. In the present study, MPPP was used to alleviate the adverse effects generated by fluoride on liver and kidney in rats. The results showed that the ultrastructure of the liver and kidney in fluoride treated rats displayed shrinkage of nuclear and cell volume, swollen mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and vacuols formation in the liver and kidney cells. MPPP significantly attenuated these fluoride-induced pathological changes. The MDA levels in serum and liver tissue of fluoride alone treated group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05). The presence of 5 g/kg MPPP in the diet reduced the elevation of MDA levels in blood and liver, and increased the SOD and GSH-Px activities in kidney and GSH level in liver and kidney compared with the fluoride alone treated group (p < 0.05). In addition, MPPP alleviated the decrease of Bcl-2 protein expression and the increase of Bax protein expression induced by fluoride. This study demonstrated the protective role of MPPP against fluoride-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney of rats. PMID:24419046

Zhang, Zhuo; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Hiaohong; Wang, Fei; Song, Yingli; Liu, Shengnan; Xi, Shuhua

2014-01-01

230

Clich pris en 1905 prsentant des eucalyptus plants en haie autour de la prison de Tamatave, Madagascar.  

E-print Network

, Madagascar. Photo FTM (Foiben-Taosarintanin'i Madagasikara). Daniel Verhaegen1 Honoré Randrianjafy2 Pierre, Antananarivo Madagascar 3 Cirad Upr Bsef Biens et services des écosystèmes forestiers tropicaux 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 France 4 Cirad Urp Forêts et biodiversité BP 853, Antananarivo Madagascar Historique de l

Boyer, Edmond

231

Can Sacrificial Feeding Areas Protect Aquatic Plants from Herbivore Grazing? Using Behavioural Ecology to Inform Wildlife Management  

PubMed Central

Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor) to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i) food quantity, (ii) food quality, and (iii) the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems. PMID:25077615

Wood, Kevin A.; Stillman, Richard A.; Daunt, Francis; O’Hare, Matthew T.

2014-01-01

232

Magnetic field protects plants against high light by slowing down production of singlet oxygen.  

PubMed

Recombination of the primary radical pair of photosystem II (PSII) of photosynthesis may produce the triplet state of the primary donor of PSII. Triplet formation is potentially harmful because chlorophyll triplets can react with molecular oxygen to produce the reactive singlet oxygen (¹O?). The yield of ¹O? is expected to be directly proportional to the triplet yield and the triplet yield of charge recombination can be lowered with a magnetic field of 100-300 mT. In this study, we illuminated intact pumpkin leaves with strong light in the presence and absence of a magnetic field and found that the magnetic field protects against photoinhibition of PSII. The result suggests that radical pair recombination is responsible for significant part of ¹O? production in the chloroplast. The magnetic field effect vanished if leaves were illuminated in the presence of lincomycin, an inhibitor of chloroplast protein synthesis, or if isolated thylakoid membranes were exposed to light. These data, in turn, indicate that ¹O? produced by the recombination of the primary charge pair is not directly involved in photoinactivation of PSII but instead damages PSII by inhibiting the repair of photoinhibited PSII. We also found that an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lacking ?-tocopherol, a scavenger of ¹O?, is more sensitive to photoinhibition than the wild-type in the absence but not in the presence of lincomycin, confirming that the target of ¹O? is the repair mechanism. PMID:21288249

Hakala-Yatkin, Marja; Sarvikas, Päivi; Paturi, Petriina; Mäntysaari, Mika; Mattila, Heta; Tyystjärvi, Taina; Nedbal, Ladislav; Tyystjärvi, Esa

2011-05-01

233

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to find out more about plants. This site will help you determine what a plant needs to grow. Michigan's 4-H Children's Garden This site will send you through an adventure where you try to discover if you can grow plants on the moon. Adventures of the agronauts These 2 sites are teacher resource sites on plants. Light Plants and Dark Plants, Wet Plants and Dry Ones The New York Times Daily Lesson Plan: Growing Pains ...

Quinn, Miss

2005-05-02

234

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will identify the relationship of the structure of plants. Students will also understand the cycle of plants and their role in the food chain. Why are plants important? How do they affect the cycle of life? Think about these questions as you watch this video on plants: Video of plants Now go to this website: Biology of Plants and use your handout to record the information you learn about the parts of a plant. Next, take this ...

barlobe

2009-10-21

235

Risk exposures for human ornithosis in a poultry processing plant modified by use of personal protective equipment: an analytical outbreak study.  

PubMed

Ornithosis outbreaks in poultry processing plants are well-described, but evidence for preventive measures is currently lacking. This study describes a case-control study into an outbreak of ornithosis at a poultry processing plant in the East of England, identified following three employees being admitted to hospital. Workers at the affected plant were recruited via their employer, with exposures assessed using a self-completed questionnaire. Cases were ascertained using serological methods or direct antigen detection in sputum. 63/225 (28%) staff participated, with 10% of participants showing evidence of recent infection. Exposure to the killing/defeathering and automated evisceration areas, and contact with viscera or blood were the main risk factors for infection. Personal protective equipment (goggles and FFP3 masks) reduced the effect of exposure to risk areas and to self-contamination with potentially infectious material. Our study provides some evidence of effectiveness for respiratory protective equipment in poultry processing plants where there is a known and current risk of ornithosis. Further studies are required to confirm this tentative finding, but in the meantime respiratory protective equipment is recommended as a precautionary measure in plants where outbreaks of ornithosis occur. PMID:23176790

Williams, C J; Sillis, M; Fearne, V; Pezzoli, L; Beasley, G; Bracebridge, S; Reacher, M; Nair, P

2013-09-01

236

Plant Food Delphinidin-3-Glucoside Significantly Inhibits Platelet Activation and Thrombosis: Novel Protective Roles against Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Delphinidin-3-glucoside (Dp-3-g) is one of the predominant bioactive compounds of anthocyanins in many plant foods. Although several anthocyanin compounds have been reported to be protective against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the direct effect of anthocyanins on platelets, the key players in atherothrombosis, has not been studied. The roles of Dp-3-g in platelet function are completely unknown. The present study investigated the effects of Dp-3-g on platelet activation and several thrombosis models in vitro and in vivo. We found that Dp-3-g significantly inhibited human and murine platelet aggregation in both platelet-rich plasma and purified platelets. It also markedly reduced thrombus growth in human and murine blood in perfusion chambers at both low and high shear rates. Using intravital microscopy, we observed that Dp-3-g decreased platelet deposition, destabilized thrombi, and prolonged the time required for vessel occlusion. Dp-3-g also significantly inhibited thrombus growth in a carotid artery thrombosis model. To elucidate the mechanisms, we examined platelet activation markers via flow cytometry and found that Dp-3-g significantly inhibited the expression of P-selectin, CD63, CD40L, which reflect platelet ?- and ?-granule release, and cytosol protein secretion, respectively. We further demonstrated that Dp-3-g downregulated the expression of active integrin ?IIb?3 on platelets, and attenuated fibrinogen binding to platelets following agonist treatment, without interfering with the direct interaction between fibrinogen and integrin ?IIb?3. We found that Dp-3-g reduced phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which may contribute to the observed inhibitory effects on platelet activation. Thus, Dp-3-g significantly inhibits platelet activation and attenuates thrombus growth at both arterial and venous shear stresses, which likely contributes to its protective roles against thrombosis and CVDs. PMID:22624015

Yang, Yan; Shi, Zhenyin; Reheman, Adili; Jin, Joseph W.; Li, Conglei; Wang, Yiming; Andrews, Marc C.; Chen, Pingguo; Zhu, Guangheng; Ling, Wenhua; Ni, Heyu

2012-01-01

237

Integrated digital electrohydraulic control and protection system for the induction/extraction steam turbine of S. Quirico combined cycle power plant  

SciTech Connect

In the last five years combined cycle power plants have gained an increasing market mainly due to their high efficiency, the short construction period and the relatively low capital investment. In order to operate the plant in safe condition, with a high reliability and low costs both in commissioning and in operation, according to the authors` experience the steam turbine needs a control and protection system with following characteristics: based on digital reliable technology, easily programmable, equipped with a functionally modular software, very precise PID both in transient and in steady state conditions, and simple to operate due to the high degree of automation. A typical example of one of authors` company control and protection system for combined cycle steam turbine is the application for S.Quirico cogeneration power plant in Italy ordered by Edison (italian IPP). The first start-up has been carried out successfully on February 1996, full load has been reached at the beginning of March.

Bima, C.; Falavigna, L.; Prestigiacomo, F. [Ansaldo Energia (Italy)

1996-12-31

238

The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Process for Managing Equipment Intended for Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

Since 1996, the Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) located in the town of Novouralsk, Russia, (previously known as Sverdlovsk-44) and the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) have been cooperating under the Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. Because UEIP is involved in the processing of highly enriched uranium (HEU) into low enriched uranium (LEU), and there are highly enriched nuclear materials on its territory, the main goal of the MPC&A cooperation is to upgrade those systems that ensure secure storage, processing and transportation of nuclear materials at the plant. UEIP has completed key upgrades (equipment procurement and installation) aimed at improving MPC&A systems through significant investments made by both the U.S. DOE and UEIP. These joint cooperative efforts resulted in bringing MPC&A systems into compliance with current regulations, which led to nuclear material (NM) theft risk reduction and prevention from other unlawful actions with respect to them. Upon the U.S. MPC&A project team’s suggestion, UEIP has developed an equipment inventory control process to track all the property provided through the MPC&A Program. The UEIP process and system for managing equipment provides many benefits including: greater ease and efficiency in determining the quantities, location, maintenance and repair schedule for equipment; greater assurance that MPC&A equipment is in continued satisfactory operation; and improved control in the development of a site sustainability program. While emphasizing UEIP’s equipment inventory control processes, this paper will present process requirements and a methodology that may have practical and helpful applications at other sites.

Yuldashev, Rashid; Nosov, Andrei; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Dabbs, Richard D.; Ku, Esther M.

2008-10-01

239

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does a plant grow? Fill this out as you look through the websites Worksheet First watch the video Plant Life Cycle Video Then click around on this website and learn all about plants LIfe Cycle of Plants Next review and play with parts of a plant learning parts of the plant Next watch the video and learn What does it need to grow? Then learn how to Growing a plant Once you are finished come to my desk to plant your own flower! ...

Anne Barron

2011-04-21

240

Projected Range Contractions of European Protected Oceanic Montane Plant Communities: Focus on Climate Change Impacts Is Essential for Their Future Conservation  

PubMed Central

Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1) oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2) species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3) species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need significantly greater focus on potential climate change impacts, including models with higher-resolution species distribution and environmental data, to aid these communities' long-term survival. PMID:24752011

Skeffington, Micheline Sheehy

2014-01-01

241

Application of the threshold approach for acute fish toxicity testing to plant protection products: a proposed framework.  

PubMed

In order to minimise animal testing, this paper explores the feasibility of the "threshold approach" that has been recently developed by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Essentially the approach uses a limit test at a single threshold concentration determined by the results of Daphnia and algae tests. If no mortality is observed in the limit test the fish acute value can be expressed as greater than the threshold value. However, if mortality is observed a full concentration-response test is triggered. In order to assess the applicability of the approach to plant protection products (PPP), a database of 185 products (fish, Daphnia and algae endpoints) was constructed and the threshold approach retrospectively applied. However, this analysis did not take into account the use of the data in the regulatory process. To assess whether the "threshold approach" could be used for PPPs the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) held a workshop in December 2010. This meeting brought together representatives from a number of European regulators and researchers as well as industry to discuss the applicability of the approach. The outcome of this discussion is presented in the paper. PMID:24183622

Creton, Stuart; Clook, Mark; Wheeler, James R

2014-02-01

242

77 FR 26569 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...erode and the pumping plant facility will fail to...operation of the pumping-plant fish screens that were published by the National Marine Fisheries Service of National...removal and management of invasive plant species would occur...

2012-05-04

243

78 FR 16705 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...erode and the pumping plant facility will fail to...operation of the pumping-plant fish screens that were published by the National Marine Fisheries Service of National...removal and management of invasive plant species would occur...

2013-03-18

244

Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1998 by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 was performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), and the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV), and the Chestnut Ridge Regime which is located south of the Y-12 Plant.

NONE

1999-03-01

245

Effects of Interactions of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Beneficial Saprophytic Mycoflora on Plant Growth and Disease Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and beneficial saprophytic mycoflora like plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) are capable\\u000a of promoting plant growth and may suppress several plant diseases. The interaction of these microorganisms in the plant rhizosphere\\u000a may affect plant growth and microbial community composition. Mixtures of these microorganisms generally increase the genetic\\u000a diversity in the rhizosphere microorganisms that may persist longer

M. G. B. Saldajeno; W. A. Chandanie; M. Kubota; M. Hyakumachi

246

Role of submerged vegetation in the retention processes of three plant protection products in flow-through stream mesocosms.  

PubMed

Quantitative information on the processes leading to the retention of plant protection products (PPPs) in surface waters is not available, particularly for flow-through systems. The influence of aquatic vegetation on the hydraulic- and sorption-mediated mitigation processes of three PPPs (triflumuron, pencycuron, and penflufen; logKOW 3.3-4.9) in 45-m slow-flowing stream mesocosms was investigated. Peak reductions were 35-38% in an unvegetated stream mesocosm, 60-62% in a sparsely vegetated stream mesocosm (13% coverage with Elodea nuttallii), and in a similar range of 57-69% in a densely vegetated stream mesocosm (100% coverage). Between 89% and 93% of the measured total peak reductions in the sparsely vegetated stream can be explained by an increase of vegetation-induced dispersion (estimated with the one-dimensional solute transport model OTIS), while 7-11% of the peak reduction can be attributed to sorption processes. However, dispersion contributed only 59-71% of the peak reductions in the densely vegetated stream mesocosm, where 29% to 41% of the total peak reductions can be attributed to sorption processes. In the densely vegetated stream, 8-27% of the applied PPPs, depending on the logKOW values of the compounds, were temporarily retained by macrophytes. Increasing PPP recoveries in the aqueous phase were accompanied by a decrease of PPP concentrations in macrophytes indicating kinetic desorption over time. This is the first study to provide quantitative data on how the interaction of dispersion and sorption, driven by aquatic macrophytes, influences the mitigation of PPP concentrations in flowing vegetated stream systems. PMID:24875866

Stang, Christoph; Wieczorek, Matthias Valentin; Noss, Christian; Lorke, Andreas; Scherr, Frank; Goerlitz, Gerhard; Schulz, Ralf

2014-07-01

247

Chloroplast protection in plum pox virus-infected peach plants by L-2-oxo-4-thiazolidine-carboxylic acid treatments: effect in the proteome.  

PubMed

Sharka, a disease caused by plum pox virus (PPV), has a significant economic impact on fruit tree production. In this work, we analysed the effect of (2,1,3)-benzothiadiazole (BTH) and L-2-oxo-4-thiazolidine-carboxylic acid (OTC) on plant growth and virus content. OTC reduced sharka symptom, stimulated plant growth and alleviated PPV-induced oxidative stress, indicated by a lack of changes in some oxidative stress parameters. PPV infection reduced chloroplast electron transport efficiency. However, in the presence of BTH or OTC, no changes in the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were observed. PPV produced an alteration in chloroplast ultrastructure, giving rise to a decrease in starch contents that was less dramatic in OTC-treated plants. Furthermore, PPV reduced the abundance of proteins associated with photosynthesis, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and photorespiration. These changes did not take place in OTC-treated plants, and increases in the expression of proteins related with the aforementioned processes, including ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, were produced, which correlated with the lower decrease in starch contents observed in PPV-infected plants treated with OTC. The results suggested that OTC treatment provides protection to the photosynthetic machinery and/or the chloroplast metabolism in PPV-infected peaches. Thus, OTC could have practical implications in agriculture in improving the vigour of different plant species as well as in immunizing plants against pathogens. PMID:22913613

Clemente-Moreno, María José; Díaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Rubio, Manuel; Fernández-García, Nieves; Hernández, José A

2013-03-01

248

enNouvelle-Caldonie La dgradation des habitats  

E-print Network

recouvrement des fonds marins de particules fines provenant du décapage des mines, provoquant la mort de étude a pu identifier 200 plantes exotiques envahissantes parmi lesquelles 100 présentent une menace ailleurs pour être invasives. Surpâturage, consommation des jeunes pousses d'arbres, des graines, arrêt de

249

Immunization with Plant-Expressed Hemagglutinin Protects Chickens from Lethal Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Challenge Infection?  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a striking disease in susceptible poultry, which leads to severe economic losses. Inactivated vaccines are the most widely used vaccines in avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccination programs. However, these vaccines interfere with the serological detection of wild-type AIV infections in immunized populations. The use of vaccines that allow differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA strategy) would stop current stamping-out policies. Therefore, novel vaccination strategies are needed to allow improved protection of animals and humans against HPAI virus (HPAIV) infection. The presented study analyzed for the first time the immunogenic capacity of plant-expressed full-length hemagglutinin (rHA0) of HPAIV H5N1 in several vaccine formulations within the highly relevant host species chicken. We were able to express plant-expressed rHA0 at high levels and could show that, when administered with potent adjuvants, it is highly immunogenic and can fully protect chicken against lethal challenge infection. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and serological tests demonstrated only marginally increased virus replication in animals vaccinated with plant-derived rHA0 compared to animals immunized with an inactivated reference vaccine. In addition, the use of plant-expressed rHA0 also allowed an easy serological differentiation of vaccinated from AIV-infected animals based on antibodies against the influenza virus NP protein. PMID:20810729

Kalthoff, Donata; Giritch, Anatoli; Geisler, Katharina; Bettmann, Ulrike; Klimyuk, Victor; Hehnen, Hans-Robert; Gleba, Yuri; Beer, Martin

2010-01-01

250

76 FR 20368 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PCGID-PID) pumping plant and fish screen facility...Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility...dominated by nonnative and invasive noxious weeds. Currently...the PCGID- PID pumping plant and fish screening facility...published by the National Marine Fisheries Service...

2011-04-12

251

Roles of FtsH protease in choloroplast biogensis and protection of photosystems from high temperatures stress in higher plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

AtFtsH11 protease gene is essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate heat stress. Under high and normal light at 21ºC, ftsh11 mutants were indistinguishable from wild type plants in photosynthesis capability and in overall growth. However, mutant plants display a host of dramatic change...

252

Role of ethylene in the protection of tomato plants against soil-borne fungal pathogens conferred by an endophytic Fusarium solani strain.  

PubMed

An endophytic fungal isolate (Fs-K), identified as a Fusarium solani strain, was obtained from root tissues of tomato plants grown on a compost which suppressed soil and foliar pathogens. Strain Fs-K was able to colonize root tissues and subsequently protect plants against the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), and elicit induced systemic resistance against the tomato foliar pathogen Septoria lycopersici. Interestingly, attenuated expression of certain pathogenesis-related genes, i.e. PR5 and PR7, was detected in tomato roots inoculated with strain Fs-K compared with non-inoculated plants. The expression pattern of PR genes was either not affected or aberrant in leaves. A genetic approach, using mutant tomato plant lines, was used to determine the role of ethylene and jasmonic acid in the plant's response to infection by the soil-borne pathogen F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), in the presence or absence of isolate Fs-K. Mutant tomato lines Never ripe (Nr) and epinastic (epi1), both impaired in ethylene-mediated plant responses, inoculated with FORL are not protected by isolate Fs-K, indicating that the ethylene signalling pathway is required for the mode of action used by the endophyte to confer resistance. On the contrary, def1 mutants, affected in jasmonate biosynthesis, show reduced susceptibility to FORL, in the presence Fs-K, which suggests that jasmonic acid is not essential for the mediation of biocontrol activity of isolate Fs-K. PMID:18048373

Kavroulakis, Nektarios; Ntougias, Spyridon; Zervakis, Georgios I; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

2007-01-01

253

Novel Plant Virus-Based Vaccine Induces Protective Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Mediated Antiviral Immunity through Dendritic Cell Maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently used vaccines protect mainly through the production of neutralizing antibodies. However, anti- bodies confer little or no protection for a majority of chronic viral infections that require active involvement of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Virus-like particles (VLPs) have been shown to be efficient inducers of cell-mediated immune responses, but administration of an adjuvant is generally required. We recently reported

Patrick Lacasse; Jerome Denis; R. Lapointe; D. Leclerc; A. Lamarre

2008-01-01

254

Comparing ecotoxicological standards of plant protection products potentially toxic to groundwater life with their measured and modelled concentrations.  

PubMed

Trigger values (TVs) for groundwater ecosystems in the European Union (EU), as elsewhere, are not based on toxicity data for the biota of that ecosystem. At present, very few toxicity tests have been conducted with groundwater organisms so the true sensitivity of groundwater ecosystems is largely unknown. In a previous published study, we set groundwater TVs for all plant protection products (PPPs) allowed for use at the time of the study based on toxicity data for surface water organisms as surrogates for groundwater organisms and calculated TVs lower than the current EU standard of 0.1 ?g/L for 16 PPPs. This thus reveals that the effect assessment of these PPPs may not be fully adequate, but would still only indicate risk if the (expected) concentrations of these PPPs are greater than their calculated TVs. The present study was therefore initiated to evaluate whether predicted and measured concentrations of these PPPs are higher than the previously calculated TVs lower than 0.1 ?g/L. To this end, predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were calculated using the PELMO and SCI-GROW models that are currently used for this purpose in the EU and USA, respectively, and measured concentrations (MECs) were obtained from the open literature. In addition, the empirical PERPEST model was used to assess the severity and probability of effects that may be expected at these concentrations on taxonomic groups known to be well represented in groundwater ecosystems. In addition, only for dimethoate a PEC greater than 0.1 ?g/L was calculated. However, when considering concentrations actually measured in the field, 99.7% showed risk quotients (RQ, as MEC/TV) values higher than 1 and 36.7% even higher than 100. Future field monitoring studies are needed to validate and eventually calibrate the way PEC values are currently calculated with the different models and scenarios currently in use. Such studies would also aid in the question to what extent the high MEC values may be attributed to diffuse or point-source pollution. PMID:24530731

Pereira, Ana Santos; Cerejeira, Maria José; Daam, Michiel A

2014-04-01

255

Calcium channel blockers protect against aluminium-induced DNA damage and block adaptive response to genotoxic stress in plant cells.  

PubMed

Calcium is an important second messenger in signal transduction pathways. The role of Ca(2+) signalling in Al-induced DNA damage, cell death, and adaptive response to genotoxic stress caused by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) or methylmercuric chloride (MMCl) in the root cells of Allium cepa was investigated in the current study. Root cells in planta were treated with Al(3+) (800?M of AlCl(3)) for 3h without or with 2h pre-treatment with the Ca(2+) chelator (EGTA) or Ca(2+) channel blockers (lanthanum chloride, verapamil) or CaM/CDPK antagonist (W7). In addition, root cells in planta were conditioned by treatment with Al(3+) (5 or 10?M of AlCl(3)) for 2h followed by the genotoxic challenge with MMCl (1.25?M) or EMS (2.5 or 5mM) for 3h without or with the pre-treatment of the chosen Ca(2+) chelator/channel blockers/antagonist. Following the treatments, cell death and DNA damage were investigated in the root cells by comet assay. Furthermore, genotoxicity in the root meristems was determined after 18-30h of recovery. These results revealed that Al(3+) (800?M) significantly induced DNA damage and cell death in the root cells of A. cepa. On the other hand, conditioning of the root cells with Al(3+) at low concentrations (5 or 10?M) offered adaptive response leading to the protection against genotoxic stress induced by MMCl and EMS. Pre-treatment of root cells with the Ca(2+) chelator/channel blockers/antagonist not only alleviated Al(3+)-induced DNA damage and cell death induced but also blocked the Al(3+)-mediated adaptive response to genotoxic stress induced by MMCl and EMS. For the first time, the results of the present study highlighted the role of Ca(2+) signalling underlying the biphasic mode of action of Al(3+) that induced DNA damage and cell death at high doses and offered adaptation to genotoxic response in plants at low doses. PMID:23313746

Achary, V Mohan M; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Panda, Brahma B

2013-03-18

256

Vaccination with Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing the Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus F or H Proteins Overcomes Viral Immunosuppression and Induces Protective Immunity against PPRV Challenge in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants caused by the Morbillivirus peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Two recombinant replication-defective human adenoviruses serotype 5 (Ad5) expressing either the highly immunogenic fusion protein (F) or hemagglutinin protein (H) from PPRV were used to vaccinate sheep by intramuscular inoculation. Both recombinant adenovirus vaccines elicited PPRV-specific B- and T-cell responses. Thus, neutralizing antibodies were detected in sera from immunized sheep. In addition, we detected a significant antigen specific T-cell response in vaccinated sheep against two different PPRV strains, indicating that the vaccine induced heterologous T cell responses. Importantly, no clinical signs and undetectable virus shedding were observed after virulent PPRV challenge in vaccinated sheep. These vaccines also overcame the T cell immunosuppression induced by PPRV in control animals. The results indicate that these adenovirus constructs could be a promising alternative to current vaccine strategies for the development of PPRV DIVA vaccines. PMID:25013961

Rojas, José M.; Moreno, Héctor; Valcárcel, Félix; Peña, Lourdes; Sevilla, Noemí; Martín, Verónica

2014-01-01

257

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

Srowley

2006-04-28

258

Protective effects of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum on soil and Viburnum tinus plants irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions.  

PubMed

Currently, irrigation using recycled water is increasing, especially in semiarid environments, but a potential problem of using reclaimed wastewater is its elevated salt levels. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could be a suitable option to mitigate the negative effects produced by the salinity. In this work, the combined effect of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum and two types of water: Control, C, with EC <0.9 dS m(-1) and reclaimed water (wastewater previously treated in a sewage treatment plant) with EC 4 dS m(-1) during a first saline period (11 weeks) and with EC 6 dS m(-1) during a second saline period (25 weeks), was evaluated for laurustinus (Viburnum tinus) plants under field conditions. This plant is a popular shrub very used for gardening. Chemical properties of soil as well as physiological behavior, leaf nutrition, and esthetic value of plants were evaluated. Due to the high salinity from wastewater at 6 dS m(-1), laurustinus plants decreased their stem water potential values and, to a lesser extent, the stomatal conductance. Also, the visual quality of the plants was diminished. The inoculated AMF satisfactorily colonized the laurustinus roots and enhanced the structure of the soil by increasing the glomalin and carbon contents. Furthermore, G. iranicum var. tenuihypharum inoculation decreased Na and Cl content, stimulated flowering and improved the stem water potential of the plants irrigated with both types of reclaimed water. The AMF also had a positive effect as a consequence of stimulation of plant physiological parameters, such as the stem water potential and stomatal conductance. Effective AMF associations that avoid excessive salinity could provide wastewater reuse options, especially when the plants grow in soils. PMID:25492808

Gómez-Bellot, María José; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Nortes, Pedro Antonio; Vicente-Sánchez, Javier; Martín, Félix Fernández; Bañón, Sebastián; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

2014-12-10

259

Protection from ground faults in the stator winding of generators at power plants in the Siberian networks  

SciTech Connect

The experience of many years of experience in developing and utilization of ground fault protection in the stator winding of generators in the Siberian networks is generalized. The main method of protection is to apply a direct current or an alternating current with a frequency of 25 Hz to the primary circuits of the stator. A direct current is applied to turbo generators operating in a unit with a transformer without a resistive coupling to the external grid or to other generators. Applying a 25 Hz control current is appropriate for power generation systems with compensation of a capacitive short circuit current to ground. This method forms the basis for protection of generators operating on busbars, hydroelectric generators with a neutral grounded through an arc-suppression reactor, including in consolidated units with generators operating in parallel on a single low-voltage transformer winding.

Vainshtein, R. A., E-mail: vra@tpu.ru [Tomsk Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Lapin, V. I. [ODU Sibiri (Integrated Dispatcher Control for Siberia), branch of JSC 'SO EES' (Russian Federation); Naumov, A. M.; Doronin, A. V. [JSC NPP 'EKRA' (Russian Federation); Yudin, S. M. [Tomsk Polytechnical University (Russian Federation)

2010-05-15

260

Hydroxycinnamic acid degradation, a broadly conserved trait, protects Ralstonia solanacearum from chemical plant defenses and contributes to root colonization and virulence.  

PubMed

Plants produce hydroxycinnamic acid defense compounds (HCAs) to combat pathogens, such as the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. We showed that an HCA degradation pathway is genetically and functionally conserved across diverse R. solanacearum strains. Further, a ?fcs (feruloyl-CoA synthetase) mutant that cannot degrade HCAs was less virulent on tomato plants. To understand the role of HCA degradation in bacterial wilt disease, we tested the following hypotheses: HCA degradation helps the pathogen (1) grow, as a carbon source; (2) spread, by reducing physical barriers HCA-derived; and (3) survive plant antimicrobial compounds. Although HCA degradation enabled R. solanacearum growth on HCAs in vitro, HCA degradation was dispensable for growth in xylem sap and root exudate, suggesting that HCAs are not significant carbon sources in planta. Acetyl-bromide quantification of lignin demonstrated that R. solanacearum infections did not affect the gross quantity or distribution of stem lignin. However, the ?fcs mutant was significantly more susceptible to inhibition by two HCAs: caffeate and p-coumarate. Finally, plant colonization assays suggested that HCA degradation facilitates early stages of infection and root colonization. Together, these results indicated that ability to degrade HCAs contributes to bacterial wilt virulence by facilitating root entry and by protecting the pathogen from HCA toxicity. PMID:25423265

Lowe, Tiffany M; Ailloud, Florent; Allen, Caitilyn

2014-11-25

261

Plan de cours Facult des arts et des sciences  

E-print Network

types d'organisation des monères, protistes, mycètes, algues et plantes. #12;SYLLABUS G�N�RAL Date Cours et de systématique. 16 septembre 2 Origine et évolution des Eucaryotes. Straménopiles (Algues Brunes (lichens et mycorhizes) et Myxomycètes. 7 octobre 5 Algues de la Lignée Verte (Glaucophytes, Rhodophytes

Parrott, Lael

262

Will climate change drive alien invasive plants into areas of high protection value? An improved model-based regional assessment to prioritise the management of invasions.  

PubMed

Species distribution models (SDMs) studies suggest that, without control measures, the distribution of many alien invasive plant species (AIS) will increase under climate and land-use changes. Due to limited resources and large areas colonised by invaders, management and monitoring resources must be prioritised. Choices depend on the conservation value of the invaded areas and can be guided by SDM predictions. Here, we use a hierarchical SDM framework, complemented by connectivity analysis of AIS distributions, to evaluate current and future conflicts between AIS and high conservation value areas. We illustrate the framework with three Australian wattle (Acacia) species and patterns of conservation value in Northern Portugal. Results show that protected areas will likely suffer higher pressure from all three Acacia species under future climatic conditions. Due to this higher predicted conflict in protected areas, management might be prioritised for Acacia dealbata and Acacia melanoxylon. Connectivity of AIS suitable areas inside protected areas is currently lower than across the full study area, but this would change under future environmental conditions. Coupled SDM and connectivity analysis can support resource prioritisation for anticipation and monitoring of AIS impacts. However, further tests of this framework over a wide range of regions and organisms are still required before wide application. PMID:24161807

Vicente, J R; Fernandes, R F; Randin, C F; Broennimann, O; Gonçalves, J; Marcos, B; Pôças, I; Alves, P; Guisan, A; Honrado, J P

2013-12-15

263

An evaluation of fish early life stage tests for predicting reproductive and longer-term toxicity from plant protection product active substances.  

PubMed

The chronic toxicity of chemicals to fish is routinely assessed by using fish early life stage (ELS) test results. Fish full life cycle (FLC) tests are generally required only when toxicity, bioaccumulation, and persistence triggers are met or when there is a suspicion of potential endocrine-disrupting properties. This regulatory approach is based on a relationship between the results of fish ELS and FLC studies first established more than 35 yrs ago. Recently, this relationship has been challenged by some regulatory authorities, and it has been recommended that more substances should undergo FLC testing. In addition, a project proposal has been submitted to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to develop a fish partial life cycle (PLC) test including a reproductive assessment. Both FLC and PLC tests are animal- and resource-intensive and technically challenging and should therefore be undertaken only if there is clear evidence that they are necessary for coming to a regulatory decision. The present study reports on an analysis of a database of paired fish ELS and FLC endpoints for plant protection product active substances from European Union draft assessment reports and the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Pesticide Ecotoxicity Database. Analysis of this database shows a clear relationship between ELS and FLC responses, with similar median sensitivity across substances when no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) are compared. There was also no indication that classification of a substance as a mammalian reproductive toxicant leads to more sensitive effects in fish FLC tests than in ELS tests. Indeed, the response of the ELS tests was generally more sensitive than the most sensitive reproduction NOEC from a FLC test. This analysis indicates that current testing strategies and guidelines are fit for purpose and that there is no need for fish full or partial life cycle tests for most plant protection product active substances. PMID:24799351

Wheeler, James R; Maynard, Samuel K; Crane, Mark

2014-08-01

264

Expression of a Synthesized Gene Encoding Cationic Peptide Cecropin B in Transgenic Tomato Plants Protects against Bacterial Diseases?  

PubMed Central

The cationic lytic peptide cecropin B (CB), isolated from the giant silk moth (Hyalophora cecropia), has been shown to effectively eliminate Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, the effects of chemically synthesized CB on plant pathogens were investigated. The S50s (the peptide concentrations causing 50% survival of a pathogenic bacterium) of CB against two major pathogens of the tomato, Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, were 529.6 ?g/ml and 0.29 ?g/ml, respectively. The CB gene was then fused to the secretory signal peptide (sp) sequence from the barley ?-amylase gene, and the new construct, pBI121-spCB, was used for the transformation of tomato plants. Integration of the CB gene into the tomato genome was confirmed by PCR, and its expression was confirmed by Western blot analyses. In vivo studies of the transgenic tomato plant demonstrated significant resistance to bacterial wilt and bacterial spot. The levels of CB expressed in transgenic tomato plants (?0.05 ?g in 50 mg of leaves) were far lower than the S50 determined in vitro. CB transgenic tomatoes could therefore be a new mode of bioprotection against these two plant diseases with significant agricultural applications. PMID:19966019

Jan, Pey-Shynan; Huang, Hsu-Yuang; Chen, Hueih-Min

2010-01-01

265

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this logic activity, students must determine how to represent three quantities using a fixed amount of space (Venn diagram) and objects. The goal is to represent the siblingsâ ages, 5,6, and 7, using only ten plants. This resource includes teacher notes with extension suggestions and possible support options.

Team, Nrich

2012-01-01

266

The protection of invertebrates, fish, and vascular plants against inorganic mercury poisoning by sulfur and selenium derivatives.  

PubMed

Protection of organisms against mercury (Hg) poisoning is most commonly associated with the antagonistic effects of selenium (Se)-compounds against mercury alkyls in higher animals. This study shows that there is no consistent difference among Periodic Group VIA derivatives including S(IV), S(II) organic, Se (IV), Se (II) organic, possibly Se VI, as well and Te (IV) in their ability to protect against mercury poisoning. The organisms used in assays were: Coleus explants (leaf abscission); turnip (germination); pea (growth inhibition and Hg uptake); a planarian (regeneration); the brineshrimp (excystment, phototaxy); the mealworm larva Tenebrio (metamorphosis) and the fish "tilapia" (survival, Hg uptake). Thiamine was the most effective of the Group VIA derivatives against the widest spectrum of organisms and test systems. In planarian regeneration, it was active where S and Se compounds failed. The most unexpected observation was the hastening of insect metamorphosis by HgCl2 and the enhancement of that effect by thiamine. PMID:2014999

Siegel, B Z; Siegel, S M; Correa, T; Dagan, C; Galvez, G; LeeLoy, L; Padua, A; Yaeger, E

1991-02-01

267

Immunostimulatory complexes containing Eimeria tenella antigens and low toxicity plant saponins induce antibody response and provide protection from challenge in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are unique multimolecular structures formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids and triterpene saponins and are one of the most successful antigen delivery systems for microbial antigens. In the current study, both the route of administration and the antigen concentration of ISCOMs, containing Eimeria tenella antigens and saponins from native plants, were evaluated in their ability to stimulate humoral immunity and to protect chickens against a challenge infection with E. tenella. Broiler chickens were immunized with ISCOM preparations containing E. tenella antigens and the purified saponins Gg6, Ah6 and Gp7 isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aesculus hippocastanum and Gipsophila paniculata, respectively. The effects of the route of administration, dose of antigen and type of saponin used for construction of ISCOMs were evaluated for ability to stimulate serum IgG and IgM and to protect chickens against a homologous challenge. A single intranasal immunization was the most effective route for administering ISCOMs although the in ovo route was also quite effective. Dose titration experiments demonstrated efficacy after single immunization with various ISCOM doses but maximum effects were observed when ISCOMs contain 5-10mug antigen. Immunization of birds by any of the three routes with E. tenella antigens alone or antigens mixed with alum hydroxide adjuvant resulted in lower serum antibody and reduced protection to challenge relative to immunization with ISCOMs. Overall the results of this study confirm that significant immunostimulation and protection to challenge are achieved by immunization of chickens with ISCOMs containing purified saponins and native E. tenella antigens and suggest that ISCOMs may be successfully used to develop a safe and effective vaccine for prevention of avian coccidiosis. PMID:19879050

Berezin, V E; Bogoyavlenskyi, A P; Khudiakova, S S; Alexuk, P G; Omirtaeva, E S; Zaitceva, I A; Tustikbaeva, G B; Barfield, R C; Fetterer, R H

2010-01-20

268

La mousson ouest-africaine est un des trois grands systmes de mousson qui jouent un rle clef dans le climat de notre plante.  

E-print Network

'observatoires visant à renforcer la mutualisation de dispositifs existants. Il a vocation à répondre à des questionsMarineBiodiversityisaconsortiumof observatories whose aim is to pool existing mechanisms. Its purpose is to answer scientific questions

269

What data determine whether a plant taxon is distinct enough to merit legal protection? A case study of Sedum integrifolium (Crassulaceae).  

PubMed

Measures of molecular and morphological genetic variation are often used to set conservation priorities and design management strategies for plant taxa. Evaluated together they can give insights into a taxon's evolutionary status that neither data type alone can achieve. We investigated the distinctness and variability of Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi, a federally and state-listed taxon, from its conspecific relatives using 33 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers (253 plants) and 37 morphological characters from 1308 common-garden-grown plants. We included S. integrifolium ssp. leedyi (four populations), its conspecific relatives (11 populations), and S. rosea and S. rhodanthum populations in our study. The morphological and molecular data correspond in showing that S. integrifolium ssp. leedyi populations are highly distinct. However, the data sets differ in their estimates of the relatedness of some S. integrifolium ssp. leedyi populations and in the percentage variation detected due to differences among them (25 and 9-13% for the molecular and morphological data, respectively) suggesting little gene flow among populations and some differentiation, possibly from selective pressures. Given our data, we recommend that S. integrifolium ssp. leedyi merits protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and that its populations be managed as distinct units. PMID:11250817

Olfelt, J P; Furnier, G R; Luby, J J

2001-03-01

270

Studies of a South East Asian ant-plant association: protection of Macaranga trees by Crematogaster borneensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the humid tropics of SE Asia there are some 14 myrmecophytic species of the pioneer tree genus Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae). In Peninsular Malaysia a close association exists between the trees and the small, non-stinging myrmicine Crematogaster borneensis. These ants feed mainly on food bodies provided by the plants and have their colonies inside the hollow internodes. In a ten months

Brigitte Fiala; Ulrich Maschwitz; Tho Yow Pong; Andreas J. Helbig

1989-01-01

271

Protective Immune Response to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus with VP1 Expressed in Transgenic Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported recently that genes encoding antigens of bacterial and viral pathogens can be expressed in plants in a form in which they retain native immunogenic properties. The structural protein VP1 of foot-and- mouth disease virus (FMDV), which has frequently been shown to contain critical epitopes, has been expressed in different vectors and shown to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies

C. CARRILLO; A. WIGDOROVITZ; J. C. OLIVEROS; P. I. ZAMORANO; A. M. SADIR; N. GOMEZ; J. SALINAS; J. M. ESCRIBANO; M. V. BORCA

1998-01-01

272

Pre?historic eating patterns in Latin America and protective effects of plant?based diets on cardiovascular risk factors  

PubMed Central

In this review, we present the contributions to nutrition science from Latin American native peoples and scientists, appreciated from a historic point of view since pre?historic times to the modern age. Additionally, we present epidemiological and clinical studies on the area of plant?based diets and their relation with the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases conducted in recent decades, and we discuss challenges and perspectives regarding aspects of nutrition in the region. PMID:21120310

Acosta Navarro, Julio C; Cárdenas Prado, Silvia M; Cárdenas, Pedro Acosta; Santos, Raul D; Caramelli, Bruno

2010-01-01

273

Application of heat stress in situ demonstrates a protective role of irradiation on photosynthetic performance in alpine plants.  

PubMed

The impact of sublethal heat on photosynthetic performance, photosynthetic pigments and free radical scavenging activity was examined in three high mountain species, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Senecio incanus and Ranunculus glacialis using controlled in situ applications of heat stress, both in darkness and under natural solar irradiation. Heat treatments applied in the dark reversibly reduced photosynthetic performance and the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv /Fm ), which remained impeded for several days when plants were exposed to natural light conditions subsequently to the heat treatment. In contrast, plants exposed to heat stress under natural irradiation were able to tolerate and recover from heat stress more readily. The critical temperature threshold for chlorophyll fluorescence was higher under illumination (Tc (') ) than in the dark (Tc ). Heat stress caused a significant de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle pigments both in the light and in the dark conditions. Total free radical scavenging activity was highest when heat stress was applied in the dark. This study demonstrates that, in the European Alps, heat waves can temporarily have a negative impact on photosynthesis and, importantly, that results obtained from experiments performed in darkness and/or on detached plant material may not reliably predict the impact of heat stress under field conditions. PMID:25256247

Buchner, Othmar; Stoll, Magdalena; Karadar, Matthias; Kranner, Ilse; Neuner, Gilbert

2014-09-25

274

US-Russian collaboration for enhancing nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting at the Elektrostal uranium fuel-fabrication plant  

SciTech Connect

In September 1993, an implementing agreement was signed that authorized collaborative projects to enhance Russian national materials control and accounting, physical protection, and regulatory activities, with US assistance funded by the Nunn-Lugar Act. At the first US-Russian technical working group meeting in Moscow in February 1994, it was decided to identify a model facility where materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) and regulatory projects could be carried out using proven technologies and approaches. The low-enriched uranium (LEU or RBMK and VVER) fuel-fabrication process at Elektrostal was selected, and collaborative work began in June 1994. Based on many factors, including initial successes at Elektrostal, the Russians expanded the cooperation by proposing five additional sites for MPC and A development: the Elektrostal medium-enriched uranium (MEU or BN) fuel-fabrication process and additional facilities at Podolsk, Dmitrovgrad, Obninsk, and Mayak. Since that time, multilaboratory teams have been formed to develop and implement MPC and A upgrades at the additional sites, and much new work is underway. This paper summarizes the current status of MPC and A enhancement projects in the LEU fuel-fabrication process and discusses the status of work that addresses similar enhancements in the MEU (BN) fuel processes at Elektrostal, under the recently expanded US-Russian MPC and A cooperation.

Smith, H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Allentuck, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Barham, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bishop, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wentz, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Steele, B.; Bricker, K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cherry, R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Snegosky, T. [Dept. of Defense, Washington, DC (United States). Defense Nuclear Agency

1996-09-01

275

Regulatory issues for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant long-term compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR 191B and 268  

SciTech Connect

Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), specifically the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191), and the Land Disposal Restrictions (40 CFR 268) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This paper provides background information on the regulations, describes the SNL WIPP PA Departments approach to developing a defensible technical basis for consistent compliance evaluations, and summarizes the major observations and conclusions drawn from the 1991 and 1992 PAs.

Anderson, D.R.; Marietta, M.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Higgins, P.J. Jr. [USDOE Albuquerque Field Office, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Integration Office

1993-10-01

276

Selection for protection in an ant-plant mutualism: host sanctions, host modularity, and the principal-agent game.  

PubMed

Retaliation against cheaters can prevent the breakdown of cooperation. Here we ask whether the ant-plant Cordia nodosa is able to apply retaliatory sanctions against its ant symbiont Allomerus octoarticulatus, which patrols new shoots to prevent herbivory. We test the hypothesis that the modular design of C. nodosa physiologically ties the growth of housing (stem swellings known as domatia) to the successful development of the attached leaves. We experimentally simulated herbivory by cutting leaves from patrolled shoots and found that the domatia on such 'cheated' shoots suffered higher mortality and lower growth than did controls, evidence for a host sanction. On the other hand, patrolling is costly to the ant, and experiment shows that non-patrollers run a low risk of being sanctioned because most leaves (and the attached domatia) escape heavy herbivory even when patrollers are absent. This suggests that cheaters might enjoy a higher fitness than do mutualists, despite sanctions, but we find that patrolling provides a net fecundity benefit when the colony and plant exceed a minimum size, which requires sustained ant investment in patrolling. These results map directly onto the principal-agent (P-A) game from economics, which we suggest can be used as a framework for studying stability in mutualisms, where high sampling costs and cheating do not allow market effects to select for mutual benefits. PMID:16537131

Edwards, David P; Hassall, Mark; Sutherland, William J; Yu, Douglas W

2006-03-01

277

Dietary protection against free radicals: a case for multiple testing to establish structure-activity relationships for antioxidant potential of anthocyanic plant species.  

PubMed

DNA damage by reactive species is associated with susceptibility to chronic human degenerative disorders. Anthocyanins are naturally occurring antioxidants, that may prevent or reverse such damage. There is considerable interest in anthocyanic food plants as good dietary sources, with the potential for reducing susceptibility to chronic disease. While structure-activity relationships have provided guidelines on molecular structure in relation to free hydroxyl-radical scavenging, this may not cover the situation in food plants where the anthocyanins are part of a complex mixture, and may be part of complex structures, including anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs). Additionally, new analytical methods have revealed new structures in previously-studied materials. We have compared the antioxidant activities of extracts from six anthocyanin-rich edible plants (red cabbage, red lettuce, blueberries, pansies, purple sweetpotato skin, purple sweetpotato flesh and Maori potato flesh) using three chemical assays (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC), and the in vitro Comet assay. Extracts from the flowering plant, lisianthus, were used for comparison. The extracts showed differential effects in the chemical assays, suggesting that closely related structures have different affinities to scavenge different reactive species. Integration of anthocyanins to an AVI led to more sustained radical scavenging activity as compared with the free anthocyanin. All but the red lettuce extract could reduce endogenous DNA damage in HT-29 colon cancer cells. However, while extracts from purple sweetpotato skin and flesh, Maori potato and pansies, protected cells against subsequent challenge by hydrogen peroxide at 0 degrees C, red cabbage extracts were pro-oxidant, while other extracts had no effect. When the peroxide challenge was at 37 degrees C, all of the extracts appeared pro-oxidant. Maori potato extract, consistently the weakest antioxidant in all the chemical assays, was more effective in the Comet assays. These results highlight the dangers of generalising to potential health benefits, based solely on identification of high anthocyanic content in plants, results of a single antioxidant assay and traditional approaches to structure activity relationships. Subsequent studies might usefully consider complex mixtures and a battery of assays. PMID:19399239

Philpott, Martin; Lim, Chiara Cheng; Ferguson, Lynnette R

2009-03-01

278

Dietary Protection Against Free Radicals: A Case for Multiple Testing to Establish Structure-activity Relationships for Antioxidant Potential of Anthocyanic Plant Species  

PubMed Central

DNA damage by reactive species is associated with susceptibility to chronic human degenerative disorders. Anthocyanins are naturally occurring antioxidants, that may prevent or reverse such damage. There is considerable interest in anthocyanic food plants as good dietary sources, with the potential for reducing susceptibility to chronic disease. While structure-activity relationships have provided guidelines on molecular structure in relation to free hydroxyl-radical scavenging, this may not cover the situation in food plants where the anthocyanins are part of a complex mixture, and may be part of complex structures, including anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs). Additionally, new analytical methods have revealed new structures in previously-studied materials. We have compared the antioxidant activities of extracts from six anthocyanin-rich edible plants (red cabbage, red lettuce, blueberries, pansies, purple sweetpotato skin, purple sweetpotato flesh and Maori potato flesh) using three chemical assays (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC), and the in vitro Comet assay. Extracts from the flowering plant, lisianthus, were used for comparison. The extracts showed differential effects in the chemical assays, suggesting that closely related structures have different affinities to scavenge different reactive species. Integration of anthocyanins to an AVI led to more sustained radical scavenging activity as compared with the free anthocyanin. All but the red lettuce extract could reduce endogenous DNA damage in HT-29 colon cancer cells. However, while extracts from purple sweetpotato skin and flesh, Maori potato and pansies, protected cells against subsequent challenge by hydrogen peroxide at 0°C, red cabbage extracts were pro-oxidant, while other extracts had no effect. When the peroxide challenge was at 37°C, all of the extracts appeared pro-oxidant. Maori potato extract, consistently the weakest antioxidant in all the chemical assays, was more effective in the Comet assays. These results highlight the dangers of generalising to potential health benefits, based solely on identification of high anthocyanic content in plants, results of a single antioxidant assay and traditional approaches to structure activity relationships. Subsequent studies might usefully consider complex mixtures and a battery of assays. PMID:19399239

Philpott, Martin; Lim, Chiara Cheng; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

2009-01-01

279

The role of isoflavone metabolism in plant protection depends on the rhizobacterial MAMP that triggers systemic resistance against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Osumi.  

PubMed

Glycine max (L.) Merr. plays a crucial role in both the field of food and the pharmaceutical industry due to their input as plant protein and to the benefits of isoflavones (IF) for health. In addition, IF play a key role in nodulation and plant defense and therefore, an increase in IF would be desirable for better field performance. IF are secondary metabolites and therefore, inducible, so finding effective agents to increase IF contents is interesting. Among these agents, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been used to trigger systemic induction of plant's secondary metabolism through their microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) that fit in the plant's receptors to start a systemic response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of 4 PGPR that had a contrasted effect on IF metabolism, to protect plants against biotic stress and to establish the relation between IF profile and the systemic response triggered by the bacteria. Apparently, the response involves a lower sensitivity to ethylene and despite the decrease in effective photosynthesis, growth is only compromised in the case of M84, the most effective in protection. All strains protected soybean against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (M84 > N5.18 > Aur9>N21.4) and only M84 and N5.18 involved IF. N5.18 stimulated accumulation of IF before pathogen challenge. M84 caused a significant increase on IF only after pathogen challenge and N21.4 caused a significant increase on IF content irrespective of pathogen challenge. Aur9 did not affect IF. These results point out that all 4 strains have MAMPs that trigger defensive metabolism in soybean. Protection induced by N21.4 and Aur9 involves other metabolites different to IF and the role of IF in defence depends on the previous metabolic status of the plant and on the bacterial MAMP. PMID:24869797

Algar, Elena; Gutierrez-Mañero, F Javier; Garcia-Villaraco, Ana; García-Seco, Daniel; Lucas, J Antonio; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz

2014-09-01

280

Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre  

PubMed Central

RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

2008-01-01

281

Improvement of growth, fruit weight and early blight disease protection of tomato plants by rhizosphere bacteria is correlated with their beneficial traits and induced biosynthesis of antioxidant peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase.  

PubMed

Five plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) of different genera, newly isolated from healthy tomato rhizosphere, were characterized with phosphate solubilizing and root colonizing ability. Treatment with these isolates recorded a significant increase in seed germination and seedling vigor as well as tomato growth and fruit weight which might be partly attributed to the ability of the PGPRs to produce IAA and enhance nutrient uptake and chlorophyll content in treated plants. More importantly, a strong protection against early blight disease was observed in PGPR-pretreated tomato plants infected with Alternaria solani which is in accordance with the presence of siderophores, HCN, chitinase and glucanase in the isolated PGPRs. Additionally, a significantly enhanced accumulation of antioxidant peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzymes was observed in the PGPR-pretreated plants with or without pathogen infection in comparison with water or pathogen control. Notably, the highest increase in POX and PPO accumulations was recorded in tomato plants raised from seeds primed with TN_Vel-35 strain. A significant upregulation of POX and PPO in tomato plants subjected to similar treatment with TN_Vel-35 versus respective control was also noticed, further strengthening that the PGPR-induced POX and PPO biosyntheses also contribute to PGPR-mediated protection against early blight disease in tomato plants. PMID:25575992

Narendra Babu, Anupama; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Kestur Nagaraj, Amruthesh; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

2015-02-01

282

Basis for the development of a scenario for ground water risk assessment of plant protection products to banana crop in the frame work of regulation 1107/2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The risk assessment to ground water of pesticides and their main metabolites is a data requirement under regulation 1107/2009, concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) are calculated according to the recommendations of Forum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and Their Use (FOCUS). The FOCUS groundwater working group developed scenarios for the main crops in European Union. However there are several crops which grow under specific agro-environmental conditions not covered by these scenarios and it is frequent to use the defined scenarios as surrogates. This practice adds an uncertainty factor in the risk assessment. One example is represented by banana crop which in Europe is limited to sub-tropical environmental conditions and with specific agronomic practices. The Canary Islands concentrates the higher production of banana in the European Union characterized by volcanic soils. Banana is located at low altitudes where soils have been eroded or degraded, and it is a common practice to transport soil materials from the high-mid altitudes to the low lands for cultivation. These cultivation plots are locally named "sorribas". These volcanic soils, classified as Andosols according to the FAO classification, have special physico-chemical properties due to noncrystalline materials and layer silicates. The good stability of these soils and their high permeability to water make them relatively resistant to water erosion. Physical properties of volcanic clayey soils are strongly affected by allophone and Fe and Al oxyhidroxides. The rapid weathering of porous volcanic material results in accumulation of stable organo-mineral complexes and short-range-order mineral such as allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite. These components induce strong aggregation that partly favors properties such as: reduced swelling, increased aggregate stability of clay minerals, high soil water retention capacity, low bulk density and high infiltration rate. They are also characterized by a pH around 6, high concentration in organic matter and a great capacity to fix P, which make them very fertile soils. Most of Andosols have excellent internal drainage because of their high porosity. Regarding this fact, the main distributive source of the drainage under banana plant is the stem-flow. It is a spatially localized input of water in the soil at the foot of the banana plant and it has a significant influence in the ground water recharge. In this work, we present a literature review of agronomic aspects for banana crop and specific hydraulic properties for soils in the Canary Islands. These data are compared with the ones for the surrogate scenarios. Based on the results, recommendations for further work on the development of specific scenario for banana crop are given.

Alonso-Prados, Elena; Fernández-Getino, Ana Patricia; Alonso-Prados, Jose Luis

2014-05-01

283

association des naturalistes de la  

E-print Network

influencées par les invasions marines de l'Eocène moyen/supérieur. Les Argiles Plastiques de Provins chenal/argilessables dépôts marins dépôts continentaux Marnes à Pholadomia ludensis Le caractère majeur de ces dépôts est leur constituées de débris de plantes transportés ; (2) des matériaux plus fins liés aux bordures des chenaux et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Des Moines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

Gore, Deborah, Ed.

1988-01-01

285

The Catalase-Peroxidase KatG Is Required for Virulence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in a Host Plant by Providing Protection against Low Levels of H2O2?  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris katG encodes a catalase-peroxidase that has a role in protecting the bacterium against micromolar concentrations of H2O2. A knockout mutation in katG that causes loss of catalase-peroxidase activity correlates with increased susceptibility to H2O2 and a superoxide generator and is avirulent in a plant model system. katG expression is induced by oxidants in an OxyR-dependent manner. PMID:19783631

Jittawuttipoka, Thichakorn; Buranajitpakorn, Sarinya; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

2009-01-01

286

Article original Comparaison des effets de la contrainte hydrique  

E-print Network

) a été menée en pépinière à Tunis. Des plants de 6 et 18 mois, élevés en pots, ont été soumis à une'assimilation photosynthétique. La bio- masse des tiges, des racines, les rapports biomasse tige/racine et la surface foliaire in pots and underwent two cycles of drought by withholding water supply. Predawn and midday leaf water

Boyer, Edmond

287

DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-TIERED INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED CORN HYBRIDS EXPRESSING THE PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANT, BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

A significant increase in genetically modified corn planting driven by biofuel demand is expected for the 2007 growing season with future planted acreages approaching 80% of total corn plantings anticipated by 2009. As demand increases, incidence of farmer non-compliance with ma...

288

10 CFR 50.48 - Fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...National Fire Protection Association Standard NFPA 805 —(1) Approval of incorporation...National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 805, “Performance-Based Standard...Generating Plants, 2001 Edition” (NFPA 805), which is referenced in this...

2010-01-01

289

10 CFR 50.48 - Fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...National Fire Protection Association Standard NFPA 805 —(1) Approval of incorporation...National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 805, “Performance-Based Standard...Generating Plants, 2001 Edition” (NFPA 805), which is referenced in this...

2011-01-01

290

Protecting beans from ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical treatment to protect navy beans from ozone damage increased yields by an average of more than 20% in 3 years of tests. An experimental antioxidant chemical, EDU, made by the DuPont company was tested as soil applications and sprays on several varieties and under a variety of soil and planting conditions. The average yield increases were between 16

Pierce

1983-01-01

291

Justification in Radiation Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the concept of Justification has increasingly come to the fore of the minds of legislators, users of radioactive materials and radiation protection specialists alike. Perhaps the most well known manifestation of this was the lengthy debate, ending in judicial review, about the Justification for the operation of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp) at Sellafield and, more

David Owen

1999-01-01

292

Novel Roles of SoxR, a Transcriptional Regulator from Xanthomonas campestris, in Sensing Redox-Cycling Drugs and Regulating a Protective Gene That Have Overall Implications for Bacterial Stress Physiology and Virulence on a Host Plant  

PubMed Central

In Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, SoxR likely functions as a sensor of redox-cycling drugs and as a transcriptional regulator. Oxidized SoxR binds directly to its target site and activates the expression of xcc0300, a gene that has protective roles against the toxicity of redox-cycling compounds. In addition, SoxR acts as a noninducible repressor of its own expression. X. campestris pv. campestris requires SoxR both for protection against redox-cycling drugs and for full virulence on a host plant. The X. campestris model of the gene regulation and physiological roles of SoxR represents a novel variant of existing bacterial SoxR models. PMID:22056938

Mahavihakanont, Aekkapol; Charoenlap, Nisanart; Namchaiw, Poommaree; Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Chattrakarn, Sorayut

2012-01-01

293

Assessment of Microenvironmental Conditions Related to the Use of Synthetic Sheet Mulches for Protecting Newly Planted Trees in Semi-Arid Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microenvironmental conditions created by six weed control methods and the resulting survival and height growth of two species of windbreak trees were measured in three separate plantings in Nebraska. The treatments included three synthetic sheet mulches commonly used in tree plantings. Climagro, a black polyethylene mulch, and Sunbelt, a black woven polypropylene mulch, improved the growth of green ash (Fraxinus

Laurie J. Stepanek; James R. Brandle; Mark O. Harrell

2002-01-01

294

40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

2013-07-01

295

40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

2011-07-01

296

40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

2014-07-01

297

40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

2012-07-01

298

40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

2010-07-01

299

Conservation Reasoning and Proposed Actions for the Protection of Threatened Plant Species: Insights From a Sample of Rural and Urban Children of Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigating children's beliefs and values toward threatened biodiversity can contribute to their understanding about nature and to the prevention of sociopolitical issues that may emerge when nature policy is being implemented. This study investigates children's beliefs about threats to plants, the personal values associated with conservation, and actions children consider desirable regarding the conservation of three threatened plant species of

Demetra Paraskeva-Hadjichambi; Konstantinos Korfiatis; Andreas Ch. Hadjichambis; Margarita Arianoutsou

2012-01-01

300

Characterization of the Fungal Gibberellin Desaturase as a 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase and Its Utilization for Enhancing Plant Growth1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of gibberellic acid (GA3) by the fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is catalyzed by seven enzymes encoded in a gene cluster. While four of these enzymes are characterized as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, the nature of a fifth oxidase, GA4 desaturase (DES), is unknown. DES converts GA4 to GA7 by the formation of a carbon-1,2 double bond in the penultimate step of the pathway. Here, we show by expression of the des complementary DNA in Escherichia coli that DES has the characteristics of a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase. Although it has low amino acid sequence homology with known 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, putative iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-binding residues, typical of such enzymes, are apparent in its primary sequence. A survey of sequence databases revealed that homologs of DES are widespread in the ascomycetes, although in most cases the homologs must participate in non-gibberellin (GA) pathways. Expression of des from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in the plant species Solanum nigrum, Solanum dulcamara, and Nicotiana sylvestris resulted in substantial growth stimulation, with a 3-fold increase in height in S. dulcamara compared with controls. In S. nigrum, the height increase was accompanied by a 20-fold higher concentration of GA3 in the growing shoots than in controls, although GA1 content was reduced. Expression of des was also shown to partially restore growth in plants dwarfed by ectopic expression of a GA 2-oxidase (GA-deactivating) gene, consistent with GA3 being protected from 2-oxidation. Thus, des has the potential to enable substantial growth increases, with practical implications, for example, in biomass production. PMID:22911627

Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Ward, Dennis A.; Thomas, Stephen G.; Gong, Fan; Powers, Stephen J.; Carrera, Esther; Taylor, Benjamin; de Caceres Gonzalez, Francisco Nuñez; Tudzynski, Bettina; Phillips, Andrew L.; Davey, Michael R.; Hedden, Peter

2012-01-01

301

Fire Protection Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Avco has drawn upon its heat shield experience to develop a number of widely-accepted commercial fire protection materials. Originating from NASA's space shuttle thermal protection system, one such material is Chartek 59 fireproofing, an intumescent epoxy coating specifically designed for outdoor use by industrial facilities dealing with highly flammable products such as oil refineries and chemical plants. The coating is applied usually by spray gun to exterior structural steel conduits, pipes and valves, offshore platforms and liquefied petroleum gas tanks. Fireproofing provides two types of protection: ablation or dissipation of heat by burn-off and "intumescence" or swelling; the coating swells to about five times its original size, forming a protective blanket of char which retards transfer of heat to the metal structure preventing loss of structural strength and possible collapse which would compound the fire fighting problem.

1980-01-01

302

Plant Importation Importing "Plant Material" From Outside Canada  

E-print Network

Plant Importation Importing "Plant Material" From Outside Canada 1) Determine whether or not a permit is required for your plant or insect material by contacting the Canadian Food Inspection Agency download the "Application for Permit to Import Plants and Other Things Under the Plant Protection Act". 3

303

Grenoble, le 16 janvier 2014 La protine des fleurs rvle un pan de son histoire...  

E-print Network

chez des algues avant même que les plantes conquièrent la terre ferme, la protéine LEAFY joue aujourd l'apparition des fleurs. En témoigne la présence de la protéine LEAFY chez des algues et chez les nouvelles, celles de l'algue et de la plante à fleur. Cette forme intermédiaire a pu être 1 Conduite par le

Canet, Léonie

304

Author Proof Plants on red alert  

E-print Network

against herbi- vores, either as protective colouration promoting handi- cap signals indicating plant causing plants' colouration. Here, we propose a different hypothesis, termed the ``Defence Indication hypothesis''. This idea focuses on the multiple protective functions of anthocyanins and carotenoids

Schaefer, Martin

305

Deriving site-specific clean-up criteria to protect ecological receptors (plants and soil invertebrates) exposed to metal or metalloid soil contaminants via the direct contact exposure pathway  

PubMed Central

Soil contaminant concentration limits for the protection of terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates are commonly based on thresholds derived using data from laboratory ecotoxicity tests. A comprehensive assessment has been made for the derivation of ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States; however, these limits are conservative because of their focus on high bioavailability scenarios. Here, we explain and evaluate approaches to soil limit derivation taken by 4 jurisdictions, 2 of which allow for correction of data for factors affecting bioavailability among soils, and between spiked and field-contaminated soils (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH] Regulation, European Union [EU], and the National Environment Protection Council [NEPC], Australia). Scientifically advanced features from these methods have been integrated into a newly developed method for deriving soil clean-up values (SCVs) within the context of site-specific baseline ecological risk assessment. Resulting site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability may permit a greater residual concentration in soil when compared to generic screening limit concentrations (e.g., Eco-SSL), while still affording acceptable protection. Two choices for selecting the level of protection are compared (i.e., allowing higher effect levels per species, or allowing a higher percentile of species that are potentially unprotected). Implementation of this new method is presented for the jurisdiction of the United States, with a focus on metal and metalloid contaminants; however, the new method can be used in any jurisdiction. A case study for molybdate shows the large effect of bioavailability corrections and smaller effects of protection level choices when deriving SCVs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:346–357. PMID:24470189

Checkai, Ron; Van Genderen, Eric; Sousa, José Paulo; Stephenson, Gladys; Smolders, Erik

2014-01-01

306

Deriving site-specific clean-up criteria to protect ecological receptors (plants and soil invertebrates) exposed to metal or metalloid soil contaminants via the direct contact exposure pathway.  

PubMed

Soil contaminant concentration limits for the protection of terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates are commonly based on thresholds derived using data from laboratory ecotoxicity tests. A comprehensive assessment has been made for the derivation of ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States; however, these limits are conservative because of their focus on high bioavailability scenarios. Here, we explain and evaluate approaches to soil limit derivation taken by 4 jurisdictions, 2 of which allow for correction of data for factors affecting bioavailability among soils, and between spiked and field-contaminated soils (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH] Regulation, European Union [EU], and the National Environment Protection Council [NEPC], Australia). Scientifically advanced features from these methods have been integrated into a newly developed method for deriving soil clean-up values (SCVs) within the context of site-specific baseline ecological risk assessment. Resulting site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability may permit a greater residual concentration in soil when compared to generic screening limit concentrations (e.g., Eco-SSL), while still affording acceptable protection. Two choices for selecting the level of protection are compared (i.e., allowing higher effect levels per species, or allowing a higher percentile of species that are potentially unprotected). Implementation of this new method is presented for the jurisdiction of the United States, with a focus on metal and metalloid contaminants; however, the new method can be used in any jurisdiction. A case study for molybdate shows the large effect of bioavailability corrections and smaller effects of protection level choices when deriving SCVs. PMID:24470189

Checkai, Ron; Van Genderen, Eric; Sousa, José Paulo; Stephenson, Gladys; Smolders, Erik

2014-07-01

307

Structure des ADN complmentaires des lactoprotines : application la recherche des gnes et leur localisation chromosomique  

E-print Network

Structure des ADN complémentaires des lactoprotéines : application à la recherche des gènes et à entrepris. 1) Construction de banques ovine et bovine d ADN complémentaires !ADNcJ. Sélection et identification des clones recombinants contenant les ADN complé- mentaires des ARNm des 6 principales

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

308

PHARMA -Rglement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Rglement des examens -Pharma 2013  

E-print Network

PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma 2013 1 missions décrites dans ce règlement. #12;PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma 2013 2 UNIVERSITE LIBRE DE BRUXELLES DEPARTEMENT ENSEIGNEMENT SERVICE D

Cerf, Nicolas

309

The antagonistic strain Bacillus subtilis?UMAF6639 also confers protection to melon plants against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate- and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses.  

PubMed

Biological control of plant diseases has gained acceptance in recent years. Bacillus subtilis?UMAF6639 is an antagonistic strain specifically selected for the efficient control of the cucurbit powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera fusca, which is a major threat to cucurbits worldwide. The antagonistic activity relies on the production of the antifungal compounds iturin and fengycin. In a previous study, we found that UMAF6639 was able to induce systemic resistance (ISR) in melon and provide additional protection against powdery mildew. In the present work, we further investigated in detail this second mechanism of biocontrol by UMAF6639. First, we examined the signalling pathways elicited by UMAF6639 in melon plants, as well as the defence mechanisms activated in response to P.?fusca. Second, we analysed the role of the lipopeptides produced by UMAF6639 as potential determinants for ISR activation. Our results demonstrated that UMAF6639 confers protection against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate- and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses, which include the production of reactive oxygen species and cell wall reinforcement. We also showed that surfactin lipopeptide is a major determinant for stimulation of the immune response. These results reinforce the biotechnological potential of UMAF6639 as a biological control agent. PMID:23302493

García-Gutiérrez, Laura; Zeriouh, Houda; Romero, Diego; Cubero, Jaime; de Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro

2013-05-01

310

Linking fire protection choices with CAA compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clean Air Act of 1990 gives the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) strong powers to enforce those changing rules. The rapidly advancing compliance dates thrust power plant management decision-making into a compressed time frame. This paper reports that adjustments in fuels or emissions control systems in power plants can create unexpected fire hazards. Therefore, the fire protection community will need

R. C. Adcock; J. B. Biggins; R. E. Fringeli; L. R. Hathaway; S. S. Pagadala

1992-01-01

311

Operational experience and performance characteristics of a valve-regulated lead-acid battery energy-storage system for providing the customer with critical load protection and energy-management benefits at a lead-recycling plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Power Control Division of GNB Technologies, commissioned on May 13, 1996 a new facility which houses a 5-MW battery energy-storage system (BESS) at GNB's Lead Recycling Centre in Vernon, CA. When the plant loses utility power (which typically happens two or three times a year), the BESS will provide up to 5 MW of power at 4160 VAC in support of all the plant loads. Since the critical loads are not isolated, it is necessary to carry the entire plant load (maximum of 5 MVA) for a short period immediately following an incident until non-critical loads have been automatically shed. Plant loading typically peaks at 3.5 MVA with critical loads of about 2.1 MVA. The BESS also provides the manufacturing plant with customer-side-of-the-meter energy management options to reduce its energy demand during peak periods of the day. The BESS has provided a reduction in monthly electric bills through daily peak-shaving. By design, the battery can provide up to 2.5 MWh of energy and still retain 2.5 MWh of capacity in reserve to handle the possibility of a power outage in protecting the critical loads for up to 1 h. By storing energy from the utility during off-peak hours of the night in the batteries when the cost is low (US4.5¢ per kWh), GNB can then discharge this energy during high demand periods of the day (US14.50 per kW). For example, by reducing its peak demand by 300 kW, the lead-recycling centre can save over US4000 per month in its electric bills. The BESS at Vernon represents a first large-scale use of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in such a demanding application. This paper presents a summary of the operational experience and performance characteristics of the BESS over the past 2 years.

Hunt, G. W.

312

A gene for plant protection: expression of a bean polygalacturonase inhibitor in tobacco confers a strong resistance against Rhizoctonia solani and two oomycetes  

PubMed Central

We have tested whether a gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) protects tobacco against a fungal pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) and two oomycetes (Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae and Peronospora hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina). The trials were performed in greenhouse conditions for R. solani and P. parasitica and in the field for P. hyoscyami. Our results show that expression of PGIP is a powerful way of engineering a broad-spectrum disease resistance. PMID:23264779

Borras-Hidalgo, Orlando; Caprari, Claudio; Hernandez-Estevez, Ingrid; Lorenzo, Giulia De; Cervone, Felice

2012-01-01

313

A gene for plant protection: expression of a bean polygalacturonase inhibitor in tobacco confers a strong resistance against Rhizoctonia solani and two oomycetes.  

PubMed

We have tested whether a gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) protects tobacco against a fungal pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) and two oomycetes (Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae and Peronospora hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina). The trials were performed in greenhouse conditions for R. solani and P. parasitica and in the field for P. hyoscyami. Our results show that expression of PGIP is a powerful way of engineering a broad-spectrum disease resistance. PMID:23264779

Borras-Hidalgo, Orlando; Caprari, Claudio; Hernandez-Estevez, Ingrid; Lorenzo, Giulia De; Cervone, Felice

2012-01-01

314

Amlioration des plantes Une comparaison entre des bls hybrides  

E-print Network

du rendement Summary — A comparison between wheat hybrids produced using a chemical hybridizing of experimentation enabled a comparison to be made of 34 winter wheat hybrids with their parents. This material has), on a par with mid-parent for number of ears per m2, fertility of ear, and har- vest-index (fig 2, table III

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

315

"Cloche"(pronounced klsh) is French for a bell jar or dish that is set over delicate plants to protect them from cold weather. The definition has  

E-print Network

"Cloche"(pronounced klsh) is French for a bell jar or dish that is set over delicate plants screws 0.5 lb (approximate) 1.5-inch galvanized or stainless steel screws 12 0.75-inch galvanized pipe straps Hand saw Appropriate screw driver, (preferably a power drill) Table 1. Classification of cool

Tullos, Desiree

316

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) COMPLEX TERRAIN MODEL DEVELOPMENT: DESCRIPTION OF A COMPUTER DATA BASE FROM THE FULL SCALE PLUME STUDY, TRACY POWER PLANT, NEVADA  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of the EPA's Complex Terrain Model Development Program, the Full Scale Study was conducted at the Tracy Power Plant near Reno, Nevada. SO6 tracer gas and oil-fog particles were injected into the base of a 91.4 smokestack, and CF3Br tracer was released from one of three le...

317

What Data Determine Whether a Plant Taxon is Distinct Enough to Merit Legal Protection? A Case Study of Sedum integrifolium (Crassulaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of molecular and morphological genetic variation are often used to set conservation priorities and design management strategies for plant taxa. Evaluated together they can give insights into a taxon's evolutionary status that neither data type alone can achieve. We investigated the distinctness and variability of Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi, a federally and state-listed taxon, from its conspecific relatives using

Joel P. Olfelt; Glenn R. Furnier; James J. Luby

2001-01-01

318

Tornado protection by venting  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability to protect a modern nuclear power plant from the effects of a tornado by the use of a system of venting in all safety-related structures outside of the containment. The paper demonstrates this by presenting a method of analysis and of equipment selection that fully complies with the intent and the letter of applicable federal regulatory guides. A report of an actual tornado in the City of Kalamazoo, Michigan, suggests that the concept of sealing a plant during a tornado may not always be applicable.

Cavanagh, C.A.

1987-01-01

319

Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Appendix D. Impact assessment. [Demonstration plant at Newman, KY  

SciTech Connect

In appendix D, the air quality condition for various pollutants in the areas surrounding the proposed demonstration plant site is given with respect to attainment or non-attainment of US EPA regulations. The minimum pollutant emission rates for these regulated and for several other pollutants are given. Then the estimated emission rates from the proposed plant are given for a dozen pollutants which exceed these limits and therefore require an ambient air quality analysis. This involves taking into account the estimated emission of these pollutants from the proposed plant and from other sources in the surrounding area. Finally, background data from the surrounding area including meteorological data and sampling of regulated pollutants are given. (LTN)

none,

1980-11-21

320

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein 2 of Phaseolus vulgaris inhibits BcPG1, a polygalacturonase of Botrytis cinerea important for pathogenicity, and protects transgenic plants from infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome of the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea encodes at least six endopolygalacturonases; among them BcPG1 is constitutively expressed and is required for full virulence. To counteract fungal polygalacturonase, plants have evolved families of polygalacturonases-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) with specific recognition capabilities against PGs from different fungal species. However, it is not clear whether PGIPs can specifically recognize single PG isozymes

Cinzia Manfredini; Francesca Sicilia; Simone Ferrari; Daniela Pontiggia; Gianni Salvi; Claudio Caprari; Matteo Lorito; Giulia De Lorenzo

2005-01-01

321

Anti-Apoptotic Machinery Protects the Necrotrophic Fungus Botrytis cinerea from Host-Induced Apoptotic-Like Cell Death during Plant Infection  

PubMed Central

Necrotrophic fungi are unable to occupy living plant cells. How such pathogens survive first contact with living host tissue and initiate infection is therefore unclear. Here, we show that the necrotrophic grey mold fungus Botrytis cinerea undergoes massive apoptotic-like programmed cell death (PCD) following germination on the host plant. Manipulation of an anti-apoptotic gene BcBIR1 modified fungal response to PCD-inducing conditions. As a consequence, strains with reduced sensitivity to PCD were hyper virulent, while strains in which PCD was over-stimulated showed reduced pathogenicity. Similarly, reduced levels of PCD in the fungus were recorded following infection of Arabidopsis mutants that show enhanced susceptibility to B. cinerea. When considered together, these results suggest that Botrytis PCD machinery is targeted by plant defense molecules, and that the fungal anti-apoptotic machinery is essential for overcoming this host-induced PCD and hence, for establishment of infection. As such, fungal PCD machinery represents a novel target for fungicides and antifungal drugs. PMID:21876671

Shlezinger, Neta; Minz, Anna; Gur, Yonatan; Hatam, Ido; Dagdas, Yasin F.; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Sharon, Amir

2011-01-01

322

Hexanoic acid is a resistance inducer that protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by priming the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.  

PubMed

Hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) is effective against several pathogens in tomato plants. Our study of the mechanisms implicated in Hx-IR against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato?DC3000 suggests that hexanoic acid (Hx) treatment counteracts the negative effect of coronatine (COR) and jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) on the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. In Hx-treated plants, an increase in the expression of jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) and the SA marker genes PR1 and PR5 indicates a boost in this signalling pathway at the expense of a decrease in JA-Ile. Moreover, Hx treatment potentiates 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid accumulation, which suggests that this molecule might play a role per se in Hx-IR. These results support a positive relationship between the SA and JA pathways in Hx-primed plants. Furthermore, one of the mechanisms of virulence mediated by COR is stomatal re-opening on infection with P.?syringae. In this work, we observed that Hx seems to inhibit stomatal opening in?planta in the presence of COR, which suggests that, on infection in tomato, this treatment suppresses effector action to prevent bacterial entry into the mesophyll. PMID:23279078

Scalschi, Loredana; Vicedo, Begonya; Camañes, Gemma; Fernandez-Crespo, Emma; Lapeña, Leonor; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

2013-05-01

323

Primitive Land Plants 37 PRIMITIVE LAND PLANTS  

E-print Network

in these early times. Plants without conductive tissues occurred, whose descendents are the mosses and liver. The bryophytes are split into three classes: (1) the Musci, or mosses; (2) the liverworts; and (3) the hornworts and in the Wertheim Conservatory. Mosses These small plants grow in very damp and protected places in south Florida

Koptur, Suzanne

324

A without-prejudice list of generic names of fungi for protection under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.  

PubMed

As a first step towards the production of a List of Protected Generic Names for Fungi, a without-prejudice list is presented here as a basis for future discussion and the production of a List for formal adoption. We include 6995 generic names out of the 17072 validly published names proposed for fungi and invite comments from all interested mycologists by 31 March 2014. The selection of names for inclusion takes note of recent major publications on different groups of fungi, and further the decisions reached so far by international working groups concerned with particular families or genera. Changes will be sought in the Code to provide for this and lists at other ranks to be protected against any competing unlisted names, and to permit the inclusion of names of lichen-forming fungi. A revised draft will be made available for further discussion at the 10(th) International Mycological Congress in Bangkok in August 2014. A schedule is suggested for the steps needed to produce a list for adoption by the International Botanical Congress in August 2017. This initiative provides mycologists with an opportunity to place nomenclature at the generic level on a more secure and stable base. PMID:24563844

Kirk, Paul M; Stalpers, Joost A; Braun, Uwe; Crous, Pedro W; Hansen, Karen; Hawksworth, David L; Hyde, Kevin D; Lücking, Robert; Lumbsch, Thorsten H; Rossman, Amy Y; Seifert, Keith A; Stadler, Mark

2013-12-01

325

Modelling Plant Compensatory Effects in Plant-Insects dynamics  

E-print Network

Modelling Plant Compensatory Effects in Plant-Insects dynamics Audrey Lebon, Yves Dumont Umr AMAP or even to obtain a better biomass yield. Index Terms--Mathematical modelling, crop protection, plant-insect]. The relationships between insect populations and plants are complex and their dynamics difficult to pre- dict

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

326

Root Disease, Associated with Verticicladiella alacris, of Pines in South Africa M. J. WINGFIELD, Plant Pathologist, Plant Protection Research Institute, and P. S. KNOX-DA VIES, Professor of  

E-print Network

Root Disease, Associated with Verticicladiella alacris, of Pines in South Africa M. J. WINGFIELD. KNOX-DAVIES. 1980. Root disease, associated with Verricicladiel/a alacris, of pines in South Africa. Plant Disease 64:569-571. A disease of Pinus pinasrer and P. radiara associated with root infection

327

Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP  

SciTech Connect

In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

none,

1981-02-13

328

Expression des constantes de distorsion centrifuge des hexafluorures en fonction des frquences harmoniques.  

E-print Network

L-55 Expression des constantes de distorsion centrifuge des hexafluorures en fonction des de distorsion centrifuge des molécules XY6 en fonc- tion des fréquences harmoniques ; l for the centrifugal distortion constants as a function of harmonic frequencies ; application is made to SF6 and UF6. 4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

329

Copy Protection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the recent shut down of the peer-to-peer file sharing utility Audiogalaxy, copy protection of all kinds of data is a very hot topic. Distribution of music, movies, and software is running rampant, and many believe the solution lies in better copy protection.To learn the basics of copy protection, visit Link Data Security (1). This company specializes in secure products that reduce piracy, and this article explains the characteristics of good protection. The DVD Copy Control Association (2) manages the Content Scramble System (CSS), which prevents illegal duplication of DVD movies. Many documents about CSS and other projects are available on their Web site. One of the most high-profile fighters against piracy is the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) (3). The RIAA home page asserts the rules of music on the Internet and stresses the importance of obeying copyright restrictions. The other side of the argument is presented on this site (4). These activists state that recent changes to copyright laws have deprived citizens of basic rights, and they present their proposed Consumer Technology Bill of Rights, along with plenty of other information. Released on April 25, 2002, a report by the Senate examines the progress of content protection (5). The three original goals of content protection are outlined, and the status of various efforts to achieve them is discussed. Another report by the Broadcast Protection Discussion Group (6) summarizes its findings about "preventing unauthorized redistribution of unencrypted digital terrestrial broadcast television." A recent article in Wired News (7) looks at how a state-of-the-art copy protection technology was broken with a remarkably easy approach. The views of a Netscape co-founder offers a bleak forecast of copy protection in this article (8), but also implies that it might not be as big a problem as many people think.

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

330

The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.  

PubMed

The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field. PMID:20919590

Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

2010-08-01

331

DES Supernova Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES SN) will discover approximately 3500 Type Ia supernovae with well-sampled multi-color light curves in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1.2 over its five year duration. The large field of view and high z-band sensitivity of the Dark Energy Camera, combined with the precision photometry of DES and an improved handling of systematic uncertainties will allow DES SN to provide the strongest constraints on supernova cosmology to date. One of the main challenges for DES SN will be accurate classification of such a large number of faint transients. I will describe the unique spectroscopic follow-up strategy that we are employing, with emphasis on the 100 night, survey-status program at AAT which began in September. I will present preliminary supernova results obtained from the DES Science Verification period and the beginning of DES Year 1.

D'Andrea, Christopher; Dark Energy Survey, The

2014-01-01

332

Memory protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

333

Transferring cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain coat protein gene into Cucumis melo L. and evaluating transgenic plants for protection against infections  

SciTech Connect

A single regeneration procedure using cotyledon examples effectively regenerated five commercially grown muskmelon cultivars. This regeneration scheme was used to facilitate gene transfers using either Agrobacterium tumefaciens or microprojectile bombardment methods. In both cases, the transferred genes were from the T-DNA region of the binary vector plasmid pGA482GG/cp cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain (CMV-WL), which contains genes that encode neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS), and the CMV-WL coat protein (CP). Explants treated with pGA482GG/cpCMV-WL regenerated shoots on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 4.4 [mu]m 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), kanamycin (Km) at 150 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1] and carbenicillin (Cb) at 500 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1]. The authors' comparison of A. tumefaciens- and microprojectile-mediated gene transfer procedures shows that both methods effectively produce nearly the same percentage of transgenic plants. R[sub 0] plants were first tested for GUS or NPT II expression, then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other tests were used to verify the transfer of the NPT II, GUS, and CMV-WL CP genes.

Gonsalves, C.; Xue, B.; Yepes, M.; Fuchs, M.; Ling, K.; Namba, S. (Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

1994-03-01

334

Médecine des voyages  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

2014-01-01

335

EVALUATION DE LA DETECTION DES EMOTIONS, OPINONS OU SENTIMENTS Evaluation de la dtection des motions, des opinions ou des sentiments  

E-print Network

EVALUATION DE LA DETECTION DES EMOTIONS, OPINONS OU SENTIMENTS Evaluation de la détection des émotions, des opinions ou des sentiments : dictature de la majorité ou respect de la diversité d'opinion et analyse des sentiments sont généralement évalués par comparaison des réponses du système concerné

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

336

Lightning Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airplane's wingtip tank is being struck by simulated lightning in a test conducted by Lightning Technologies, Inc., a firm specializing in design features to protect aircraft from the hazard of electrical phenomena. Much of the technology employed in tests originated in NASA - sponsored studies focusing on effects of lightning on aircraft structures, electrical systems, and fuel tanks, and on means of protecting against hazardous effects.

1980-01-01

337

Amputation des quatre membres  

PubMed Central

Les auteurs présentent les cas d'amputation des quatre membres réalisée chez trois patients différents. Ce sont des amputations réalisées pour chaque patient au cours d'une seule hospitalisation et en un seul temps opératoire. Deux patients pour gangrène sèche infectée et un pour amputation traumatique des quatre membres. L'amputation d'urgence a été pratiquée en premier temps suivie de remodelage des moignons d'amputation en second temps. L’évolution de tous les patients a été bonne. PMID:25469177

Feruzi, Maruis Kitembo; Milindi, Cédrick Sangwa; Zabibu, Mireille Kakinga; Mulefu, Jules Panda; Katombe, Francois Tshilombo

2014-01-01

338

Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

Yanochko, Ronald M [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

2012-11-15

339

Crystal structures of apo-form and binary/ternary complexes of Podophyllum secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in formation of health-protecting and plant defense lignans.  

PubMed

(-)-Matairesinol is a central biosynthetic intermediate to numerous 8-8'-lignans, including the antiviral agent podophyllotoxin in Podophyllum species and its semi-synthetic anticancer derivatives teniposide, etoposide, and Etopophos. It is formed by action of an enantiospecific secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase, an NAD(H)-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of (-)-secoisolariciresinol. Matairesinol is also a plant-derived precursor of the cancer-preventative "mammalian" lignan or "phytoestrogen" enterolactone, formed in the gut following ingestion of high fiber dietary foodstuffs, for example. Additionally, secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase is involved in pathways to important plant defense molecules, such as plicatic acid in the western red cedar (Thuja plicata) heartwood. To understand the molecular and enantiospecific basis of Podophyllum secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase, crystal structures of the apo-form and binary/ternary complexes were determined at 1.6, 2.8, and 2.0 angstrom resolution, respectively. The enzyme is a homotetramer, consisting of an alpha/beta single domain monomer containing seven parallel beta-strands flanked by eight alpha-helices on both sides. Its overall monomeric structure is similar to that of NAD(H)-dependent short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases, with a conserved Asp47 forming a hydrogen bond with both hydroxyl groups of the adenine ribose of NAD(H), and thus specificity toward NAD(H) instead of NADP(H). The highly conserved catalytic triad (Ser153, Tyr167, and Lys171) is adjacent to both NAD(+) and substrate molecules, where Tyr167 functions as a general base. Following analysis of high resolution structures of the apo-form and two complex forms, the molecular basis for both the enantio-specificity and the reaction mechanism of secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase is discussed and compared with that of pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase. PMID:15653677

Youn, Buhyun; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G; Kang, Chulhee

2005-04-01

340

Initiation à la modélisation des valeurs extrêmes: les modèles GEV et POT  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Dans un contexte décisionnel, la modélisation des valeurs extrêmes est du plus grand intérêt puisqu’une protection qui fonctionne\\u000a pour des événements extrêmes pare aussi des événements de moindre ampleur. Ainsi, la détermination de la hauteur d’une digue\\u000a prend en compte les crues extrêmes du cours d’eau, y compris celles qui n’ont jamais été observées. À l’exclusion notable\\u000a des distributions discrètes

Jean-Jacques Boreux; Éric Parent; Jacques Bernier

341

7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38-3 Protected areas. (a) The Administrator may designate as a protected area in paragraph (d)...

2013-01-01

342

50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency... (a) The Director may establish a manatee protection area under the provisions...imminent danger of a taking of one or more manatees, and that such establishment is...

2012-10-01

343

50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency... (a) The Director may establish a manatee protection area under the provisions...imminent danger of a taking of one or more manatees, and that such establishment is...

2011-10-01

344

50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency... (a) The Director may establish a manatee protection area under the provisions...imminent danger of a taking of one or more manatees, and that such establishment is...

2010-10-01

345

50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency... (a) The Director may establish a manatee protection area under the provisions...imminent danger of a taking of one or more manatees, and that such establishment is...

2013-10-01

346

50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.  

...THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency... (a) The Director may establish a manatee protection area under the provisions...imminent danger of a taking of one or more manatees, and that such establishment is...

2014-10-01

347

Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de communication  

E-print Network

Faculté des arts et des sciences Département de communication Plans de cours cadre Cours des programmes de premier cycle en sciences de la communication Comité des études de premier cycle Adopté par l..................................................................................................................................3 COM 1150 Rédaction en communication 1

Parrott, Lael

348

Rpertoire des emplois en janvier 2011 des diplms de Master  

E-print Network

Répertoire des emplois en janvier 2011 des diplômés de Master Promotion 2008 Le répertoire des (CTU / UFR SLHS) - Education et promotion sanitaires et sociales, prévention des risques (CTU normes (UFR SLHS) - Sports et sociétés (UPFR sports) OFVE, 2011 - Page 2 #12;- Domaine Sciences, Santé

Jeanjean, Louis

349

Plan de cours Facult des arts et des sciences  

E-print Network

familiarisé avec les structures et les types d'organisation des Protistes, des Mycètes, des Algues et des eucaryotes Stramenopila (algues brunes, diatomées et oomycètes) 13 mai 3 Les protozoaires 14 mai 4 Les champignons, Les Lichens et Mycorhizes 20 mai 5 Myxomycota, Dyctiosteliomycota, Algues rouges et vertes 21 mai

Parrott, Lael

350

Politique de gestion des documents administratifs et des archives  

E-print Network

Politique de gestion des documents administratifs et des archives Préparation : Division de la gestion des documents administratifs et des archives Révision : Bureau du secrétaire général Entrée en vigueur : 15 février 2012 Approbation : (CA-2012-6) Cadre juridique : Loi sur les archives (L

351

Des cartographies de connaissances pour un pilotage des ressources humaines  

E-print Network

Des cartographies de connaissances pour un pilotage des ressources humaines et des processus RH'apport de la prospective : Mélanges en l'honneur de Luc Boyer (2010) xx-xxi" #12;Des cartographies de'organisation. Les cartographies de connaissances, parce qu'elles permettent l'identification et la représentation de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

352

Lightning Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kit-built airplanes are more affordable because they are assembled by the owner and do not require Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. The Glasair III, is an advanced technology homebuilt, constructed of a fiberglass and graphite fiber composite material, and equipped with digital instruments. Both technologies make the airplane more susceptible to lightning effects. When Glasair manufacturer, Stoddard-Hamilton, decided that lightning protection would enable more extensive instrument flight and make the plane more marketable, they proposed a joint development program to NASA Langley Research Center (LAR). Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Langley contractors designed and tested a lightning protection system, and the Glasair III-LP became the first kit-built composite aircraft to be lightning tested and protection-verified under FAA guidelines for general aviation aircraft.

1994-01-01

353

Lightning Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightning Technologies, Inc., Pittsfield, MA, - a spinoff company founded by president J. Anderson Plumer, a former NASA contractor employee who developed his expertise with General Electric Company's High Voltage Laboratory - was a key player in Langley Research Center's Storm Hazards Research Program. Lightning Technologies used its NASA acquired experience to develop protective measures for electronic systems and composite structures on aircraft, both of which are particularly susceptible to lightning damage. The company also provides protection design and verification testing services for complete aircraft systems or individual components. Most aircraft component manufacturers are among Lightning Technologies' clients.

1991-01-01

354

Structures protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials of which an aircraft is made and the methods used to hold these materials together forming the aircraft structure were studied as factors important in protecting a modern aircraft from hazardous natural environments. Since all-metal aircraft are being replaced by aircraft constructed partly of fiber reinforced plastics with desirable light weight and high strength properties but with poor electrical conductivity, the danger of lightning strikes has become more serious. Lightning effects on metal structures were reviewed and design protection was discussed. The expected lightning effects on nonmetallic materials such as fiberglass and advanced composites were also reviewed.

1977-01-01

355

Eléments de comparaison internationale des patrimoines des ménages  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] A partir des bribes d'information existant sur les patrimoines de divers pays européens et des USA, une comparaison de la structure des patrimoines des inégalités de répartition et de leur évolution est tentée. Actifs financiers et actifs réels figurent de façon variable dans les patrimoines des différents pays. La Grande-Bretagne, avec une forte part d'actifs financiers, notamment de valeurs

Dominique Strauss-Kahn

1979-01-01

356

77 FR 66650 - Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR...that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As...

2012-11-06

357

Improve protective clothing and reduce radwaste  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power plants have been reducing radioactive waste production through aggressive volume reduction and control at the point of generation. Waste reduction efforts may, however, have reached a plateau. Certain items, such as protective clothing, are a necessary part of plant operations and cannot be eliminated. There are more than 800,000 sets of protective clothing currently in use at U.S. nuclear plants. Since up to 25% of these garments are removed from service each year, spent protective wear accounts for {approximately}100,000 ft{sup 3} of prevolume reduced waste annually. Furthermore, up to 10% of dry active waste produced at commercial power reactor sites is comprised of exhausted protective clothing and related goods. This report describes the design of protective clothing which lasts longer and is lighter than traditional fabrics.

Johnstone, G.A. [Interstate Nuclear Service Corporation, Springfield, MA (United States); Fryer, J. [Indiana/Michigan Utilities, Bridgman, MI (United States); Smith, J.M. [Precision Fabrics Group, Inc., Greensboro, NC (United States)

1995-12-31

358

Protecting Privacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses privacy issues related to use of the Internet. Topics include data gathering functions that are built into applications of the World Wide Web; cookies that identify Web site visitors; personal identity information; libraries and privacy, including the need for privacy policies; protecting your privacy; and developing privacy literacy.…

Coyle, Karen

2001-01-01

359

Radioactivity Environmental Protection Course  

E-print Network

D1 D4 D5 D1 Radioactivity Environmental Protection Course Radioactivity Environmental Protection Course Radioactivity Social Recovery Course protect the environment from radioactivity protect human lives from radiation disasters protect the human society from radioactivity Development of Phoenix

Ishii, Hitoshi

360

Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

1989-11-01

361

78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...NRC-2012-0268] Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR...that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As...

2013-09-30

362

The species of Botanochara Dejean, 1836 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Argentina: an identification key, new host plant records and list of Cassidinae found in birds' nests and other protected places.  

PubMed

The genus Botanochara Dejean, 1836 comprises 43 species distributed in the Neotropical Region, among which 26 (57%) are known from Argentina. Botanochara praefica (Spaeth, 1940) is synonymized with B. macularia (Boheman, 1850). Botanochara missionea (Spaeth, 1915) and B. tessellata (Burmeister, 1870) are illustrated for the first time. Botanochara duodecimnotata (Boheman, 1850) and Botanochara segnis (Boheman, 1862) are new country records. Six species are shared with Bolivia, 21 with Brazil, 15 with Paraguay, one with Peru, and 7 with Uruguay. The known geographic distributions, synonymies, hybrids, chromosome numbers, and host plants in Argentina and adjacent countries are summarized. New localities and host plants, and some corrections of misidentified species from Argentina are given. Distribution maps of all species in Argentina with known localities superimposed with biogeographic provinces are provided. The southern limits of Botanochara in western, central and eastern Argentina are established and correlates with the known distributions of Ipomoea L. species (Convolvulaceae). A total of 12,815 specimens of Cassidinae were found inside birds' nests from Argentina, from which 11,538 (90.03%) belong to 8 species of Botanochara; 9,331 (80.87%) were found during Autumn (21th March to 20th June) and Winter (21th June to 20th September) (diapause), and 2,207 (19.13%) during Spring (21 th September to 20 th December) and Summer (21 th December to 20 th March) (aseasonal quiescence). Additional records of two other Cassidinae found in birds' nests and other protected places, Carlobruchia tricostata (Spaeth, 1907) and Stolas lacordairei (Boheman, 1850), are also provided.  PMID:25544373

Iorio, Osvaldo Di

2014-01-01

363

Archives participatives Au milieu des ralisations remarquables de mdiation numrique des bibliothques et des  

E-print Network

Archives participatives Au milieu des réalisations remarquables de médiation numérique des bibliothèques et des musées sur les médias sociaux, les services d'archives ont un positionnement relativement en revanche des projets ambitieux de crowdsourcing, d'« archives participatives » (voir encart

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

364

Backgrounder on Radiation Protection and the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is the federal agency responsible for protecting public health and safety with regard to the use of nuclear materials in commercial nuclear power plants that generate electricity. Its regulations are based on sound science to make determinations that adequate protection of the public and the environment is maintained. As part of its responsibility, NRC requires

2008-01-01

365

Influence of Protein Formulation and Carrier Solution on Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation: A Case Study of the Plant-Produced Recombinant Anthrax Protective Antigen pp-PA83.  

PubMed

Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (afFFF) was used to investigate the properties of a plant-produced anthrax toxin protective antigen, pp-PA83. The afFFF fractogram consisted of two main peaks with molar masses similar to the molecular mass of pp-PA83 monomer. afFFF carrier solutions strongly influenced the ratio and the intensity of the two main peaks. These differences indicate that conformation changes in the pp-PA83 molecule occurred during the afFFF analysis. Similar fractograms were obtained for different pp-PA83 formulations when the afFFF carrier solution and the protein formulation were the same (or very similar). The data show that in specific cases, afFFF could be used to study protein conformation and document the importance of studying the influence of the carrier solution on afFFF. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci. PMID:25417936

Palais, Caroline; Chichester, Jessica A; Manceva, Slobodanka; Yusibov, Vidadi; Arvinte, Tudor

2014-11-21

366

Deoxysappanone B, a homoisoflavone from the Chinese medicinal plant Caesalpinia sappan L., protects neurons from microglia-mediated inflammatory injuries via inhibition of I?B kinase (IKK)-NF-?B and p38/ERK MAPK pathways.  

PubMed

Caesalpinia sappan L. (Lignum Sappan) is a Chinese medicinal plant for treating ischemic cerebral apoplexy. Deoxysappanone B (DSB), a homoisoflavone compound isolated from C. sappan L. (Lignum Sappan), was studied for anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective properties using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglia neuroinflammation model and LPS-induced microglia-neuron co-culture system. Our findings showed that DSB effectively inhibited BV-2 microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory mediators? release including NO, PGE2, TNF-?, IL-6 and reactive oxygen species. Moreover, DSB markedly protected neurons against inflammatory microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in a microglia-neuron co-culture system. Mechanism study revealed that DSB blocked two major neuroinflammation-related signaling pathways including IKK-I?B-nuclear factor kappaB (NF-?B) and p38/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, further leading to the inhibition of neuroinflammatory mediators? production. The present study provides evidence that the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effect of DSB are due to the suppression of neuroinflammatory mediators? production as well as inflammation-induced neurotoxicity through regulation of multi-targets. Therefore, DSB may serve as a neuroprotective agent for the treatment of neuroinflammatory disorders and inflammation-related neuronal injury. PMID:25530267

Zeng, Ke-Wu; Yu, Qian; Song, Fang-Jiao; Liao, Li-Xi; Zhao, Ming-Bo; Dong, Xin; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

2015-02-01

367

The predominant polyphenol in the leaves of the resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolius, 3,4,5 tri-O-galloylquinic acid, protects membranes against desiccation and free radical-induced oxidation  

PubMed Central

The predominant (>90%) low-molecular-mass polyphenol was isolated from the leaves of the resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolius and identified to be 3,4,5 tri-O-galloylquinic acid using 1H and 13C one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The structure was confirmed by mass spectrometric analysis. This compound was present at high concentrations, 44% (by weight) in hydrated leaves and 74% (by weight) in dehydrated leaves. Electron microscopy of leaf material fixed with glutaraldehyde and caffeine demonstrated that the polyphenols were localized in large vacuoles in both hydrated and dehydrated leaves. 3,4,5 Tri-O-galloylquinic acid was shown to stabilize an artificial membrane system, liposomes, against desiccation if the polyphenol concentration was between 1 and 2 ?g/?g phospholipid. The phase transition of these liposomes observed at 46 °C was markedly diminished by the presence of 3,4,5 tri-O-galloylquinic acid, suggesting that the presence of the polyphenol maintained the membranes in the liquid crystalline phase at physiological temperatures. 3,4,5 Tri-O-galloylquinic acid was also shown to protect linoleic acid against free radical-induced oxidation. PMID:15355309

2004-01-01

368

The Carnivorous Plant FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Barry Meyers-Rice, carnivorous plant enthusiast and team member of The Nature Conservancy's Wildland Weeds Management & Research Program, this site offers answers to many questions about carnivorous plants. Although the majority of content targets the (deservedly) gee-whiz aspects of these plants that "attract, capture, kill, and digest animal life forms," several sections will be of interest to educators and researchers. Carnivorous Plant Taxonomy covers relationships among genera and families; Carnivorous Plant Genera provides text and color photos on genera from Aldrovanda (Waterwheel Plants) to Utricularia (Bladderworts); and Carnivorous Plants and Conservation offers information on the threats to these plants and efforts to protect them. A selection of related links rounds out the site.

Meyers-Rice, Barry.

369

un cristal, des rseaux  

E-print Network

décrypter les matériaux du patrimoine. Le jaune chrome/plomb des tournesols de Van Gogh Certaines parties du tableau de van Gogh, « Fleurs dans un vase bleu » peint en 1887, ont changé de couleur au cours du temps/Université d'Anvers - Musée Van Gogh un cristal, des réseaux à l'upmc Voir l'article en ligne Site du

Arleo, Angelo

370

PHARMA -Rglement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Rglement des examens -Pharma juin 2013 1 / 16  

E-print Network

PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma juin 2013 1 missions décrites dans ce règlement. #12;PHARMA - Règlement des examens et des jurys 2013-2014 Règlement des examens - Pharma juin 2013 2 / 16 2 UNIVERSITE LIBRE DE BRUXELLES DEPARTEMENT ENSEIGNEMENT SERVICE

Cerf, Nicolas

371

PROCDURE DE DCLARATION DES ACCIDENTS, DES INCIDENTS ET DES SITUATIONS DANGEREUSES EN MILIEU DE TRAVAIL Novembre 2013  

E-print Network

PROC�DURE DE D�CLARATION DES ACCIDENTS, DES INCIDENTS ET DES SITUATIONS DANGEREUSES EN MILIEU DE de déclaration des accidents, des incidents et des situations dangereuses en milieu de travail. Ce, tout accident ou incident doit faire l'objet d'une déclaration officielle auprès de l'employeur. Selon

Meunier, Michel

372

Protective Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ameron International Protective Coatings Group developed a special coating for NASA that would withstand the high temperatures generated by the Space Shuttle rocket engines. The coating remains intact for at least 10 minutes, and insulates the launch pad so that it does not exceed 150 degrees and buckle. The NASA formulation was from Ameron's Engineered Siloxane (PSX) chemistry, which employs an inorganic silicon-oxygen structure which the company states is stronger and more reliable than organic polymers. Some of Ameron's PSX product line is based on the NASA technology, used for everything from industrial equipment to bridges.

1996-01-01

373

77 FR 5012 - Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Health and Human Services and Department of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA regulates pesticides in particular plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs...Bacillus thuringiensis protein) produced in plants and the genetic material necessary for their production in plants (such as cry genes). EPA grants...

2012-02-01

374

Plant Science 200: Modern Crop Production Instructor  

E-print Network

selection, land preparation, planting, nutrient supply/pest control, harvesting & utilization; highlight, other plants, animals, other life forms, human action, etc.) Organic/Sustainable Agriculture, Energy, depth, spacing) Crop Protection-Weeds, Disease, Insects Irrigation-Moisture Management Harvesting Forage

Chen, Kuang-Yu

375

Danish Environmental Protection Agency  

E-print Network

Danish Environmental Protection Agency Waste in Denmark Ministry of Environment and Energy, Denmark Danish Environmental Protection Agency #12;Danish Environmental Protection Agency Waste in Denmark Ministry of Environment and Energy, Denmark Danish Environmental Protection Agency #12;Contents Waste

Columbia University

376

Power Plant Power Plant  

E-print Network

Basin Center for Geothermal Energy at University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) 2 Nevada Geodetic LaboratoryStillwater Power Plant Wabuska Power Plant Casa Diablo Power Plant Glass Mountain Geothermal Area Lassen Geothermal Area Coso Hot Springs Power Plants Lake City Geothermal Area Thermo Geothermal Area

Tingley, Joseph V.

377

Qualit des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER  

E-print Network

Qualité des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER Direction consommation durable et déchets organiques se construit, avec aujourd'hui le développement important de la méthanisation. Les composts actuellement produits, peuvent l'être avec des digestats ou non. Les quantités de compost produit ne cessent d

Boyer, Edmond

378

Protective Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

1980-01-01

379

La biogenèse des mélanosomes  

PubMed Central

Les mélanocytes situés à la base de l’épiderme produisent des mélanosomes qui sont transférés aux kératinocytes pour assurer la pigmentation de l’épiderme et sa photoprotection contre les rayons ultraviolets. Les mélanosomes, organites apparentés aux lysosomes, sont le lieu de synthèse et de stockage d’un pigment, la mélanine. Leur formation dépend de protéines mélanosomales qui transitent par les voies de biosynthèse et d’endocytose et exploitent les mécanismes moléculaires du trafic intracellulaire. Les acteurs moléculaires impliqués dans le transport des protéines mélanosomales et la biogenèse des mélanosomes sont la cible de mutations dans des maladies génétiques accompagnées d’hypopigmentation comme l’albinisme et les maladies lysosomales. Les études menées sur les mélanocytes issus de souris modèles de ces maladies permettent de comprendre certaines des étapes-clés de la mélanogenèse ainsi que les dysfonctionnements associés à ces pathologies. De plus, décrypter la mélanogenèse facilite également la compréhension d’autres processus physiologiques, comme l’illustrent les similitudes inattendues avec l’amyloïdogenèse dans les maladies neurodégénératives. PMID:21382323

Delevoye, Cédric; Giordano, Francesca; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

2012-01-01

380

Septembre 2012 Paludisme : des moustiques  

E-print Network

pulvérisations intra domiciliaires d'autres insecticides, les carbamates. Ces derniers agissent différemment au aux pyré- thrinoïdes et pulvérisé des carbamates à l'intérieur des habitations, les scientifiques ont

381

NOTE TECHNIQUE RECHERCHE DES SALMONELLA  

E-print Network

NOTE TECHNIQUE RECHERCHE DES SALMONELLA PAR IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE M. CATSARAS J. ANANI Laboratoire Salmonella, 366 prélèvements, dans 125 boucheries, pour lesquels nous avons comparé les techniques d, dus à des coliformes. Ses avantages et ses inconvénients pour la recherche des Salmonella sont

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Die pharmakologische Wirkung des Ephedrins wurde zu analysieren versucht durch Studium der Beeinflussung des Blutdrucks, der Herzaktion und der Gefäße, des Effekts am Atemzentrum und an den Bronchien, der Wirkung auf die Pupillenweite, auf den Darm und den Uterus, auf die Sekretion verschiedener Drüsen und den Blutzuckerspiegel.2.Es wurden folgende Wirkungen gefunden: Der Blutdruck wird erhöht durch kleine Dosen, erniedrigt

H. Kreitmair

1927-01-01

383

Behandlung der Pseudarthrosen des Beckens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudarthrosen des Beckenringes sind selten. Leitsymptom ist der chronische belastungsabhängige Schmerz des Beckenrings. Es muss überprüft werden, ob der Symptomenkomplex durch eine Pseudarthrose, durch eine posttraumatische Fehlstellung oder durch die Kombination von beiden verursacht ist. Diagnostisch wichtig sind die körperliche Untersuchung des ausgezogenen Patienten, Provokationstests, Röntgen (Beckenübersichts-, Inlet-, Outlet-, Ala- und Obturatoraufnahme) sowie die für die Analyse von Fehlstellungen, Instabilitäten

I. Marintschev; T. Mückley; F. Mendler; G. O. Hofmann

2005-01-01

384

Échantillonnage des gisements kimberlitiques à partir des microdiamants : Application à l'estimation des ressources récupérables.  

E-print Network

??La prédiction des ressources récupérables d'un gisement kimberlitique passe par l'estimation de la loi en taille des diamants commercialisables qu'il contient. Cette estimation repose traditionnellement… (more)

Ferreira, Johannes

2013-01-01

385

Review: Northern Ontario medicinal plants Haider M. Hassan1  

E-print Network

constituents, medicinal properties, and analysis of four promising plants (skullcaps, devil's club, St. John plantes ont e´ te´ se´ lectionne´ es a` la suite d'entretiens avec des sages autochtones et du deReview: Northern Ontario medicinal plants Haider M. Hassan1 , Zi-Hua Jiang2 , Tarannum A. Syed3

Qin, Wensheng

386

Facult des arts et des sciences cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information  

E-print Network

Faculté des arts et des sciences �cole de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information COMMUNIQU� POUR DIFFUSION IMM�DIATE Aïda Chebbi, nouvelle docteure en sciences de l'information Montréal, le 26 février 2013 - L'�cole de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information (EBSI) de l

Parrott, Lael

387

Facult des arts et des sciences cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information  

E-print Network

Faculté des arts et des sciences �cole de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information POURQ. Montréal, le 17 octobre 2014 -- L'�cole de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information (EBSI) de l aux missions de BAnQ. Madame Majela Guzmán Gómez réalise actuellement son doctorat en sciences de l'information

Parrott, Lael

388

Facult des arts et des sciences cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information  

E-print Network

Faculté des arts et des sciences �cole de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information POUR l'information à l'EBSI Montréal, le 18 février 2014 -- L'�cole de bibliothéconomie et des sciences première �cole d'été internationale de la Francophonie en sciences de l'information, du 2 au 11 juillet

Leclercq, Remi

389

Protective clothing, re-engineering  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, Commonwealth Edison spent 5.1 Million dollars for protective clothing materials and services for six power plants. Therefore, it was necessary for ComEd to evaluate their protective clothing programs while also considering the rapid escalation in disposal costs and the potential for on-site storage of waste. Today, I will be discussing the preliminary planning and the outcome of one year`s worth of investigating, reviewing, and calculating for an operation that will save Commonwealth Edison millions of dollars. A Process Engineering Reevaluation Team composed of corporate and power plant personnel was formed to evaluate all aspects of protective clothing materials and services. Throughout the year, the nine member team consulted clothing manufacturers, commercial laundry operators, and laundry equipment specialists. Faced with a wide range of garment design, types, sizes, materials, and disposal options, we were faced with a considerable challenge. In addition, we had to develop a product that all six sites would agree on. Three areas in particular that the team sought to improve were the material of the clothing, design of the garment, and the ability to share the protective clothing with all six of our nuclear sites.

Lorenz, S.M. [Radioactive Waste Management, Downers Grove, IL (United States)

1995-11-01

390

Demographic variation and conservation of the narrow endemic plant Ranunculus weyleri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ranunculus weyleri is a narrow endemic protected plant from Majorca Island. It is known from only five populations located in two mountain areas 48 km apart. Using demographic data collected from 2007 to 2010, we assessed the demographic status of two populations - font des Coloms (FC) and talaia Moreia (TM) - using Integral Projection Models (IPMs). We showed that none of the two populations were declining under a deterministic model. Population FC was stable (? = 1.026, CI95% = 0.965-1.093), while population TM showed sign of demographic expansion (? = 1.113, CI95% = 1.032-1.219). Plant survival, flowering probability and the mean number of seedlings per floral peduncle were lower in TM, whereas growth and the number of floral peduncles per reproductive plant were lower in FC. Elasticity analyses showed that management strategies increasing plant survival and growth would be the most efficient to increase ? for both populations. Herbivory pressure by goats has been shown to be high in TM, resulting in high predation rate on floral peduncles. Controlling goat pressure may thus represent a promising management option, provided that we can demonstrate a negative impact of herbivory by goats on survival and growth which are the most critical parts of the life cycle in this species. Meanwhile, initiating a long-term monitoring is of crucial importance to get more insights into the relationships between environmental variation, plant performance and population dynamics.

Cursach, Joana; Besnard, Aurélien; Rita, Juan; Fréville, Hélène

2013-11-01

391

Missouri Botanical Garden-Center for Plant Conservation: National Collection of Endangered Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden, this website presents the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC)-National Collection of Endangered Plants which "contains plant material for more than 600 of the country's most imperiled native plants." The Collection website links to informative profiles for many endangered plants. Plant profile pages include the following concise sections: Distribution and Occurrence; Protection; Conservation, Ecology, and Research; and References. Site visitors can search for plants "by scientific name, common name, plant family, state range, or CPC participating institution." Plants can also be found through alphabetical listings by scientific name. This site links to other sections of the CPC website including Publications, Plant Links, Conservation Directory, and more.

392

A paper about electromagnetic pulse and principles of EMP protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General information on electromagnetic pulses (EMP) and their effects, as well as EMP simulation, and methods of EMP protection is given. It is noted that older type alarm devices can be less sensitive than modern; problems in a power plant and with telephones are reported. Elements of a system which may deteriorate must be protected by shielding, isolation or transient protection methods. The concept Controlled Electromagnetic Topology is presented along with a topological definition of modes to ground the system to be protected.

Kocken, Kerstin

1987-04-01

393

Occupant Protection Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

2010-01-01

394

des ateliers artistiques  

E-print Network

trompe-l'oeil... Des peaux brûlées en mal d'amour et de repères dans un monde ordinaire, étouffant'est-ce pas la même chose dans une histoire d'amour ? du 10 au 21 juin exposition de l'Atelier photo paris 6

395

Pouvoirs et protection des femmes dans les glises pentectistes africaines  

E-print Network

-ROSETTE, Privilege Without Power : Women in African Cults and Churches. In : Women in Africa and the African Diaspora Boundaries, (Thematic Session 32 : Women's rights, religions and democracy leaded by M.-A., Roy and M.J. Rosado). Communication : « Women's rights and freedom in the African churches in Europe », from 18 to 22

Boyer, Edmond

396

Quelques propriétés des théories de Jonsson  

Microsoft Academic Search

On étudie les propriétés des théories de Jonsson et des conditions nécessaires afin que des théories soient de Jonsson ; on caractérise les théories de Jonsson cosémantiques c’est-à-dire ayant un modèle homogène universel commun ainsi que certaines théories complètes contenant des théories de Jonsson. On donne des exemples de certaines situations.

Yerulan Mustafin

2002-01-01

397

fevrier 2012 Journes Francophones des Langages Applicatifs JFLA12 Separation des couleurs dans un -calcul bichrome  

E-print Network

AlligatorEggs3 cherche `a expliquer le -calcul `a des enfants. Pour cela il utilise la couleur pour relier des alligators affam´es et des oeufs afin de constituer des familles. La couleur sert `a expliciter les liaisons des variables dans les termes, des oeufs naissent de nouveaux alligators ou familles lors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

398

Component protection based automatic control  

SciTech Connect

Control and safety systems as well as operation procedures are designed on the basis of critical process parameters limits. The expectation is that short and long term mechanical damage and process failures will be avoided by operating the plant within the specified constraints envelopes. In this paper, one of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design duty cycles events is discussed to corroborate that the time has come to explicitly make component protection part of the control system. Component stress assessment and aging data should be an integral part of the control system. Then transient trajectory planning and operating limits could be aimed at minimizing component specific and overall plant component damage cost functions. The impact of transients on critical components could then be managed according to plant lifetime design goals. The need for developing methodologies for online transient trajectory planning and assessment of operating limits in order to facilitate the explicit incorporation of damage assessment capabilities to the plant control and protection systems is discussed. 12 refs.

Otaduy, P J

1992-03-01

399

Physical protection philosophy and techniques in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

The circumstances for the protection of nuclear power plants are special in Sweden. A very important factor is that armed guards at the facilities are alien to the Swedish society. They do not use them. The Swedish concept of physical protection accepts that the aggressor will get into the facility. With this in mind, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has established the policy that administrative, technical, and organizational measures will be directed toward preventing an aggressor from damaging the reactor, even if he has occupied the facility. In addition, the best conditions possible shall be established for the operator and the police to reoccupy the plant. The author believes this policy is different from that of many other countries. Therefore, he focusses on the Swedish philosophy and techniques for the physical protection of nuclear power plants.

Dufva, B.

1988-01-01

400

Virus and Spam Protection Virus Protection  

E-print Network

Virus and Spam Protection Virus Protection On November 14, 2002, we installed software that detects and protects our I-Mail from viruses. This software works in the following way: If someone sends a piece, for some reason, actually wants the quarantined file we will make this (virus infected) file available

California at Santa Barbara, University of

401

Accelerate protection scheme in integrated protection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformer is one of the most important elements in power system, and current differential protection has been the main protection technique for transformer unit. This protection technique, however, suffers a low sensitivity or reliability due to the problems such as CT saturation and transformer magnetizing inrush. Based on digital substation system, studies have found that the fault generated electric quantities

Hao Zhang; Jinghan He; Tony Yip; Z Q Bo

2011-01-01

402

Pesticides: Protecting Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... to protect people during the occupational use of pesticides. The Current Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is the federal regulation designed to protect employees of farms, forests, nurseries, and greenhouses from occupational exposures to agricultural ...

403

COMMUNITY BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Community Based Environmental Protection intends to make environmental protection spring from the needs and values of the community of interest. Real community involvement in protecting the environment requires a process in which the environmental needs of communities and ecosyst...

404

Activity of plant phenolics functioning as sources of insect resistance in plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A variety of plant phenolic compounds are important in protecting plants from insects (as well as plant pathogens). Plants employing these molecules as resistance sources range from the tropical to the boreal and from the highly poisonous to the culinary delectable. Major classes of phenolic compo...

405

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Des Protein: an Immunodominant Target for the Humoral Response of Tuberculous Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phoA gene fusion methodology permitted the identification of a new Mycobacterium tuberculosis exported protein, Des. This protein has significant sequence similarities to plant acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases, which are enzymes involved in general fatty acid biosynthesis as well as in mycolic acid biosynthesis in mycobacteria. As shown by Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments, the Des protein is

MARY JACKSON; DENIS PORTNOI; DANIEL CATHELINE; LAURE DUMAIL; JEAN RAUZIER; PHILIPPE LEGRAND; BRIGITTE GICQUEL

1997-01-01

406

LES TANINS DES GRAINES DE SORGHO. IMPORTANCE DANS L'UTILISATION DIGESTIVE DE L'AZOTE  

E-print Network

caractéristiques de ces sorghos sont indiquées dans les tableaux 2 et 3. L'hybride « INRA 450 » a été obtenu à des hybrides (lignées F3) sélectionnés à la Station d'Amélioration des Plantes fourragères de Lusignan. Martin. 2) Pvépavation des extvaits. Les graines sont broyées au mixer (Sorvall) dans du méthanol à 50 p

Boyer, Edmond

407

Programmable controller-based protective systems  

SciTech Connect

Protective systems are designed utilizing discrete components, such as relays. With the relatively recent advent and extensive use of microprocessor technology, programmable controllers are being applied to these systems. Whatever the design or device used, it is a fundamental philosophy that the protective system should never be a potential hazard to the process being controlled. The end user, engineering contractor, and vendor are many times unaware of the potentially unsafe failure modes occurring in these applications. This paper presents some engineering considerations for applying programmable controllers to refinery and chemical plant protective systems.

Martel, J.T.

1985-01-01

408

Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans l'agenda politique du pays. Notre projet de recherche, par le truchement de l'approche des reseaux de politique publique, s'attarde a decrire et a expliquer le processus de la formulation d'une politique particuliere, soit la politique energetique a des fins de protection de l'environnement, elaboree en 1993. Il s'agit de mettre en evidence les facteurs affectant le choix des instruments de ces politiques publiques dans leur contexte national. Ainsi, la question generale de cette recherche est: Comment les phases evolutives de la formation d'un reseau de politique, en l'occurrence le Conseil canadien de l'energie (CCE), menent a des caracteristiques particulieres a ce reseau; et comment celles-ci determinent-elles les types des instruments de politique publique choisis, particulierement ceux de la recente orientation des politiques energetiques canadiennes a des fins environnementales elaborees en 1993? Afin d'atteindre l'objectif de notre recherche, deux facteurs primordiaux sont utilises, soit la circulation de l'information et l'exercice du controle sur les ressources des acteurs. L'analyse des caracteristiques du reseau en fonction des liens forts et des liens faibles autant que la presence ou l'absence des trous structuraux nous permettent de bien identifier les positions des differents acteurs, etatiques et non etatiques, sur le plan de l'information et du controle, qui a leur tour, nous semble-t-il, constituent des facteurs affectant les types des instruments des politiques publiques choisis: instruments substantifs, qui indiquent le degre de l'intervention du gouvernement, et instruments proceduraux, qui mettent plutot l'accent sur le degre de l'influence du gouvernement sur les acteurs non etatiques. L'etude soutient que l'approche des reseaux se distingue notamment par son potentiel a expliquer l'interrelation relative entre idees, interets et institutions, ce qui a son tour est susceptible de permettre une meilleure comprehension des processus de l'elaboration des politiques energetiques et environnementales canadiennes. Qui plus est, le fait de rec

Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

409

Geschichte des Widerstandes in Film und Fernsehen.  

E-print Network

??In der Diplomarbeit „Geschichte des Widerstandes in Film und Fernsehen“ wird die unterschiedliche Darstellungsweise des Stauffenberg-Attentats auf den „Führer“ Adolf Hitler vom 20. Juli 1944… (more)

Bauer, Marlies

2010-01-01

410

Underground for nuclear protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of countries, including the United States, have relied for some years on underground construction for protection against the effects of a nuclear attack. Depending upon the threat, such structures can offer protection against nuclear weapons - nearly complete protection against fallout radiation and a very high degree of protection against blast effects. Current planning in the United States

2009-01-01

411

TIC et commerce lectronique : laboratoires de la libralisation des changes et des volutions des rgles  

E-print Network

1 TIC et commerce électronique : laboratoires de la libéralisation des échanges et des évolutions/Département Sciences Economiques et Sociales Les échanges internationaux de produits TIC et le commerce électroniques à terme à l'abolition des droits de douane pour les produits de la filière TIC et les échanges

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

412

Mecanique et mecanisme de la dechirure des materiaux textiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette thèse vise à apporter une contribution à l’étude et à la modélisation de la déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits. Notons que la résistance à la déchirure est l’une des caractéristiques mesurées pour les équipements de protection contre les agresseurs mécaniques en milieu de travail. Jusqu'à présent, ce comportement en déchirure a été étudié en mesurant la force de déchirure et le travail de déchirure. De fait, aucun critère de rupture en déchirure n’existe actuellement. Par conséquent, en s’inspirant de la théorie du Griffith et de la mécanique de la rupture, une formulation d’un nouveau critère de rupture des structures textiles a été proposée. Cette approche offre la possibilité de déterminer d’une manière plus précise l’énergie nécessaire pour la création d’une nouvelle surface de rupture. Ce critère nous permet d’analyser l’effet des caractéristiques des tissus sur la variation de l’énergie de rupture. Cette étude montre que la résistance au glissement des fils dans la structure est le principal facteur qui contrôle la propagation de la fissure. En se basant sur la théorie de la mécanique de la rupture, un modèle de calcul de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a été aussi élaboré. Ce modèle de déchirure relie l’énergie aux paramètres caractérisant les phénomènes affectant la déchirure des tissus, notamment la force de glissement et la force à la rupture des fils. Cette modélisation a tenu compte de certaines caractéristiques des tissus tels que l’épaisseur du matériau, la densité des fils, etc. Par l’étude de la variation de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure en fonction du rapport établi entre la force à la rupture et la force de glissement d’un fil ( FYB/FS), l’effet des mécanismes de la propagation de la fissure dans les tissus sur leur comportement en déchirure a été aussi observé. Les résultats obtenus permettent de distinguer deux différentes catégories de déchirure. Pour les basses densités des fils, la fissure se propage dans le tissu par glissement des fils, alors que pour les hautes densités des fils, la déchirure est obtenue par la rupture des fils. Ainsi, il est important de noter que l’énergie de rupture par déchirure des tissus est maximale lorsque le rapport FYB/FS est proche de l’unité. En ce qui a trait à la déchirure des textiles enduits, la propagation de la fissure est obtenue par déchirure du support textile et de l’enduit de manière simultanée ainsi que par le délaminage du système textile-enduit. La définition d’un critère de rupture pour les textiles enduits nous a permis de constater que l’enduction d’un support textile par une couche d’élastomère engendre une diminution de son énergie de rupture. En outre, l’étude de la déchirure du support textile, de l’enduit et des textiles enduits a montré que l’énergie obtenue pour la couche de l’enduit est très faible si nous la comparons avec celles du support textile et du textile enduit. L’étude de l’effet du vieillissement sur l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a aussi fait l’objet de cette thèse. L’exposition des textiles enduits à différentes températures de vieillissement montre que le comportement en déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits est similaire pour les durées les plus faibles. Par contre, une accélération de la réduction de la résistance à la déchirure est observée pour les textiles enduits aux temps de vieillissement plus élevés. Ce phénomène peut éventuellement être attribué à une augmentation de l’adhésion du système textile-enduit suite au traitement de vieillissement. La diminution de la mobilité des fils ainsi engendrée cause alors une importante chute de la valeur de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure. Mots clés : Textiles, Textiles enduits, Énergie de rupture, Modélisation, Vieillissement thermique.

Triki, Ennouri

413

Localisation des salles UFR SLHS : Facult des Lettres  

E-print Network

Promotion Formation Recherche des Sports 31 rue de l'épitaphe, 25000 Besançon IUT: Institut Universitaire de'Observatoire 25000 Besançon UFR ST : Faculté des Sciences 16 route de Gray, 25000 Besançon UPFR Sports : Unité de

Jeanjean, Louis

414

UNIVERSIT DE NANTES FACULT DES SCIENCES ET DES TECHNIQUES  

E-print Network

épineux des DSSC. J'associe aussi à ces remerciements Yann Pellegrin et Errol Blart, qui ont été des personnes très sympathiques à rencontrer et qui ont rendus les réunions "DSSC" plus agréables, entre autre

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

415

Facult des arts et des sciences cole de bibliothconomie et des sciences de l'information  

E-print Network

Faculté des arts et des sciences �cole de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information -- L'�cole de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information (EBSI) de l'Université de Montréal est destinée aux étudiants de doctorat ou de maîtrise en sciences de l'information qui démontrent un intérêt

Parrott, Lael

416

Dterminisme de la rpartition de la pigmentation dans le pelage et la peau des Mammifres  

E-print Network

Déterminisme de la répartition de la pigmentation dans le pelage et la peau des Mammifères J, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas Résumé Chez les mammifères sauvages, la pigmentation du pelage par les mélanines pigmentation externe est la protection contre les prédateurs. Cette protection peut être d'ordre passif en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

417

PHYSICAL PLANT OPERATING POLICY AND PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL PLANT OPERATING POLICY AND PROCEDURE PP/OP 01.04: Network/Personal Computers DATE: April 7, 2011 PURPOSE This PP/OP will provide basic information and guidance to Physical Plant personnel so and maintain the confidentiality of our information, and protect the investment the Physical Plant has made

Gelfond, Michael

418

Comparison between the measured and calculated reactivity in measuring the effectiveness of the emergency protection at the stage of physical start-up of unit no. 3 at the Kalinin nuclear power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents comparisons between the effectiveness of the emergency protection under both stationary and nonstationary formulations calculated with the use of the RADUGA-7.5 package [1] and experimental data obtained in measuring the "weight" of the emergency protection in the process of physical start-up of the VVER-1000 reactor of unit no. 3 of the Kalinin NPP. On the basis of the results obtained, recommendations are given on comparing the measured and calculated reactivity and parameters determined by using its value.

Kavun, O. Yu.; Popykin, A. I.; Shevchenko, R. A.; Shevchenko, S. A.

2012-12-01

419

Cathodic protection design using the regression and correlation method  

SciTech Connect

A computerized statistical method which calculates the current demand requirement based on potential measurements for cathodic protection systems is introduced. The method uses the regression and correlation analysis of statistical measurements of current and potentials of the piping network. This approach involves four steps: field potential measurements, statistical determination of the current required to achieve full protection, installation of more cathodic protection capacity with distributed anodes around the plant and examination of the protection potentials. The procedure is described and recommendations for the improvement of the existing and new cathodic protection systems are given.

Niembro, A.M. [Petroquimica de Venezuela, S.A., Maracaibo (Venezuela); Ortiz, E.L.G. [INELECTRA, Caracas (Venezuela)

1997-09-01

420

Ageismus – Sprachliche Diskriminierung des Alters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daniel Sanders, einer der bedeutendsten Lexikografen des 19. Jahrhunderts, wertete für sein Wörterbuch Quellen seit der Lutherzeit aus und\\u000a vermerkt im Wörterbuchartikel zu alt eine „bald lobende, bald tadelnde“ Bedeutung des Adjektivs. Sein Zeit- und Berufsgenosse Jacob Grimm benennt in seiner Rede über das Alter die zeitgenössischen Synonyme zu alt und Alter: „aus einheimischen schriftstellern liesze sich eine lange reihe

Undine Kramer

421

A DES ASIC Suitable for Network Encryption at 10 Gbps and Beyond  

SciTech Connect

The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Data Encryption Standard (DES) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is the fastest known implementation of the DES algorithm as defined in the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Publication 46-2. DES is used for protecting data by cryptographic means. The SNL DES ASIC, over 10 times faster than other currently available DES chips, is a high-speed, filly pipelined implementation offering encryption, decryption, unique key input, or algorithm bypassing on each clock cycle. Operating beyond 105 MHz on 64 bit words, this device is capable of data throughputs greater than 6.7 Billion bits per second (tester limited). Simulations predict proper operation up to 9.28 Billion bits per second. In low frequency, low data rate applications, the ASIC consumes less that one milliwatt of power. The device has features for passing control signals synchronized to throughput data. Three SNL DES ASICS may be easily cascaded to provide the much greater security of triple-key, triple-DES.

Gass, Karl; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Robertson, Perry J.; Wilcox, D. Craig; Witzke, Edward L.

1999-04-30

422

Peste des Petits Ruminants Infection among Cattle and Wildlife in Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

We investigated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) infection in cattle and wildlife in northern Tanzania. No wildlife from protected ecosystems were seropositive. However, cattle from villages where an outbreak had occurred among small ruminants showed high PPR seropositivity, indicating that spillover infection affects cattle. Thus, cattle could be of value for PPR serosurveillance. PMID:24274684

Lembo, Tiziana; Oura, Christopher; Parida, Satya; Hoare, Richard; Frost, Lorraine; Fyumagwa, Robert; Kivaria, Fredrick; Chubwa, Chobi; Kock, Richard; Batten, Carrie

2013-01-01

423

Development of a framework based on an ecosystem services approach for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

General protection goals for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of plant protection products are stated in European legislation but specific protection goals (SPGs) are often not precisely defined. These are however crucial for designing appropriate risk assessment schemes. The process followed by the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as

Karin M. Nienstedt; Theo C. M. Brock; Joke van Wensem; M. H. M. M. Montforts; Andy Hart; Alf Aagaard; Anne Alix; J. J. T. I. Boesten; Stephanie K. Bopp; Colin Brown; Ettore Capri; Valery Forbes; Herbert Köpp; Matthias Liess; Robert Luttik; Lorraine Maltby; José P. Sousa; Franz Streissl; Anthony R. Hardy

2012-01-01

424

Des Moines Water Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access information about educational programs and materials for teachers and students, including tours, traveling exhibits and presentations by the staff of the Des Moines Water Works. "Water Trunks", which contain water-related literature, books, science experiments, videos, games, CD-ROMs, hands-on activities, picture cards, career information, and a teacher resource book, are available to order. There are also links to other water websites, a teachers' newsletter and pollution prevention tips for classroom use and for the general public.

2001-01-01

425

Gntique formelle des pigmentations humaines variations continues  

E-print Network

Génétique formelle des pigmentations humaines à variations continues : beaucoup d'hypothèses, peu et de mesures sont actuellement disponibles concer- nant la biochimie des pigments humains, leur génétique physiologique, les répartitions mondiales des pigmentations de la peau et des cheveux. La

Boyer, Edmond

426

Les revenus primaires des ménages en 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Tous les 5 ans environ, l'INSEE procède à une enquête sur les revenus des ménages en utilisant les déclarations fiscales de la Direction générale des impôts. Les premiers résultats de 1975 sont à présent disponibles. Malgré la diversité des critères d'inégalité (revenu par ménage, par tête ou par unité de consommation), une réduction progressive des écarts se fait jour,

André Villeneuve

1978-01-01

427

Patrimoine des ménages : déterminants et disparités  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Patrimoine des ménages : déterminants et disparités . En 1992, le patrimoine brut des ménages est, en moyenne, de 900 000 francs. Mais la dispersion et la concentration sont fortes : le pécule des 10 % de ménages les moins fortunés ne dépasse pas 24 600 francs, alors que l'avoir des 10 % les plus riches excède 1 830

Daniel Verger; Stéfan Lollivier

1996-01-01

428

CARTOGRAPHIE DES ACCIDENTS GOLOGIQUES PAR IMAGERIE  

E-print Network

119 CARTOGRAPHIE DES ACCIDENTS G�OLOGIQUES PAR IMAGERIE SATELLITAIRE LANDSAT-7 ETM+ ET ANALYSE DES cartographier les réseaux de fractures dans les roches cristallines et métamorphiques à l'aide des images les images brutes, permettant une meilleure cartographie des accidents géologiques. La carte

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

429

Micropropagation The European plant tissue culture industry -1990  

E-print Network

Micropropagation The European plant tissue culture industry - 1990 F Ã? Ríordáin Kinsealy Research / micropropagation / plant tissue culture Résumé — L'industrie européenne de la culture des tissus végétaux. Le'annuaire. enquête / annuaire / micropropagation / culture de cellules végétales INTRODUCTION Information

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

DTERMINATION QUANTITATIVE DES DENSITS LEVES DES DISLOCATIONS DANS DES MONOCRISTAUX DE GERMANIUM  

E-print Network

GERMANIUM PAR DIFFUSION D'ATOMES MARQU�S Par MAREK BRAFMAN, OLGA KRUSZEWSKA, WALDEMAR WRONSKI et KAROL'exemple des monocristaux de germanium et comparaison des résultats obtenus avec les mêmes déterminations measurement of the density of the autoradio- grams. The method is illustrated by example of germanium

Boyer, Edmond

431

Beaver herbivory on aquatic plants.  

PubMed

Herbivores have strong impacts on marine and terrestrial plant communities, but their impact is less well studied in benthic freshwater systems. For example, North American beavers (Castor canadensis) eat both woody and non-woody plants and focus almost exclusively on the latter in summer months, yet their impacts on non-woody plants are generally attributed to ecosystem engineering rather than herbivory. Here, we excluded beavers from areas of two beaver wetlands for over 2 years and demonstrated that beaver herbivory reduced aquatic plant biomass by 60%, plant litter by 75%, and dramatically shifted plant species composition. The perennial forb lizard's tail (Saururus cernuus) comprised less than 5% of plant biomass in areas open to beaver grazing but greater than 50% of plant biomass in beaver exclusions. This shift was likely due to direct herbivory, as beavers preferentially consumed lizard's tail over other plants in a field feeding assay. Beaver herbivory also reduced the abundance of the invasive aquatic plant Myriophyllum aquaticum by nearly 90%, consistent with recent evidence that native generalist herbivores provide biotic resistance against exotic plant invasions. Beaver herbivory also had indirect effects on plant interactions in this community. The palatable plant lizard's tail was 3 times more frequent and 10 times more abundant inside woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus) tussocks than in spatially paired locations lacking tussocks. When the protective foliage of the woolgrass was removed without exclusion cages, beavers consumed nearly half of the lizard's tail leaves within 2 weeks. In contrast, leaf abundance increased by 73-93% in the treatments retaining woolgrass or protected by a cage. Thus, woolgrass tussocks were as effective as cages at excluding beaver foraging and provided lizard's tail plants an associational refuge from beaver herbivory. These results suggest that beaver herbivory has strong direct and indirect impacts on populations and communities of herbaceous aquatic plants and extends the consequences of beaver activities beyond ecosystem engineering. PMID:17180372

Parker, John D; Caudill, Christopher C; Hay, Mark E

2007-04-01

432

BOTANICAL BRIEFING: The Function and Metabolism of Ascorbic Acid in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbate is a major metabolite in plants. It is an antioxidant and, in association with other components of the antioxidant system, protects plants against oxidative damage resulting from aerobic metabolism, photosynthesis and a range of pollutants. Recent approaches, using mutants and transgenic plants, are providing evidence for a key role for the ascorbate–glutathione cycle in protecting plants against oxidative stress.

NICHOLAS SMIRNOFF

1996-01-01

433

Fire Protection of Water-Wheel Type Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, much attention has been given to fire protection of turbo generators, resulting in a trend towards closed ventilating systems and the use of inert gas to smother combustion. Water-wheel type generators are not so well adapted to this method of protection. In water-power plants, water is the most readily available means for fire extinguishment, but its indiscriminate

J. Allen Johnson; E. J. Burnham

1926-01-01

434

50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.103 Establishment...C. 553 and 43 CFR part 14, establish manatee protection areas whenever there is substantial...necessary to prevent the taking of one or more manatees. Any regulation establishing a...

2013-10-01

435

50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.103 Establishment...C. 553 and 43 CFR part 14, establish manatee protection areas whenever there is substantial...necessary to prevent the taking of one or more manatees. Any regulation establishing a...

2012-10-01

436

50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.103 Establishment...C. 553 and 43 CFR part 14, establish manatee protection areas whenever there is substantial...necessary to prevent the taking of one or more manatees. Any regulation establishing a...

2011-10-01

437

50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.  

...THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.103 Establishment...C. 553 and 43 CFR part 14, establish manatee protection areas whenever there is substantial...necessary to prevent the taking of one or more manatees. Any regulation establishing a...

2014-10-01

438

50 CFR 17.103 - Establishment of protection areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.103 Establishment...C. 553 and 43 CFR part 14, establish manatee protection areas whenever there is substantial...necessary to prevent the taking of one or more manatees. Any regulation establishing a...

2010-10-01

439

Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances  

ScienceCinema

Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l?on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

None

2011-10-06

440

A propos des divergences en théorie des champs quantifiés [83  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comme nous le montrons ailleurs1), la causalité impose à la matrice S qui décrit l'évolution d'un système une structure bien déterminée : lorsqu'on développe celle-ci suivant les opérateurs de translation dans l'espace des quanta, les coefficients S^{(i)} left[ {tau ''; u''../tau '; u' \\cdot \\cdot } right] sont des intégrales multiples où n'apparaissent, à cOté des champs liés à un seul point de l'espace temps, que les functions*): D^c (x/y) = D^s (x/y) + _2^i D^1 (x/y) x ne y

441

Pacs des villes et pas des champs ? Emmanuel Jaurand  

E-print Network

). Après le pic de 2000, le total annuel de signatures de pacs entre personnes du même sexe a oscillé entre désormais être affinée en fonction du sexe des pacsés. La répartition des pacs entre personnes du même sexe'organiser juridiquement une vie de couple quel que soit le sexe des partenaires, le pacs a d'abord été une innovation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

442

Synthetic plant defense elicitors  

PubMed Central

To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection. PMID:25674095

Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

2015-01-01

443

MSFC Respiratory Protection Services  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the Marshall Space Flight Center Respiratory Protection program is provided in this poster display. Respiratory protection personnel, building, facilities, equipment, customers, maintenance and operational activities, and Dynatech fit testing details are described and illustrated.

CoVan, James P.

1999-01-01

444

Source Water Protection  

MedlinePLUS

... You are here: Water Water Infrastructure Ground Water & Drinking Water Source Water Source Water Protection Source Water Protection The drinking water we receive from our local drinking water utilities ...

445

Protecting Children's Online Privacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)

Kresses, Mamie

2001-01-01

446

Livestock Risk Protection  

E-print Network

Livestock risk protection (LRP) insurance policies protect producers from adverse price changes in the livestock market. This publication explains how LRP works, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these polices, and gives examples...

Thompson, Bill; Bennett, Blake; Jones, Diana

2008-10-21

447

Protect Yourself: Respirators  

MedlinePLUS

... dust masks) can be used for dust, mists, welding fumes, etc. They do not provide protection from ... protection against most vapors, acid gases, dust or welding fumes. Cartridges/filters must match contaminant(s) and be ...

448

Wilted plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although this muskmelon plant has wilted from a bacterial infection, plants can wilt for other reasons and look just like this one. Plants can be over-watered and under-watered. Plants have a range of tolerance in which they can grow. Plants also have an optimum amount of water they can receive and take up. They grow best in their optimum condition.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-07-31

449

40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.  

...PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...ingredients from sexually compatible plant. An inert ingredient...ingredient or leads to the production of the inert ingredient is derived from a plant sexually compatible with...

2014-07-01

450

40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...ingredients from sexually compatible plant. An inert ingredient...ingredient or leads to the production of the inert ingredient is derived from a plant sexually compatible with...

2011-07-01

451

75 FR 24690 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Plant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NAICS code 611310). Title: Plant-Incorporated Protectants...substances that are produced by plants (PIPs) and which are codified...produced and used in a living plant and the genetic material necessary for the production of such a...

2010-05-05

452

40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...ingredients from sexually compatible plant. An inert ingredient...ingredient or leads to the production of the inert ingredient is derived from a plant sexually compatible with...

2013-07-01

453

40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...ingredients from sexually compatible plant. An inert ingredient...ingredient or leads to the production of the inert ingredient is derived from a plant sexually compatible with...

2010-07-01

454

40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...ingredients from sexually compatible plant. An inert ingredient...ingredient or leads to the production of the inert ingredient is derived from a plant sexually compatible with...

2012-07-01

455

PQR: The EPPO Plant Quarantine Data Retrieval System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Version 3.9 of PQR, the European & Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO)'s Plant Quarantine Data Retrieval System, has been released. The PQR database contains "information on geographical distribution, host plants, scientific and common names of quarantine pests listed by EPPO and the European Union. Data on pests of quarantine interest to other Regional Plant Protection Organizations (RPPOs)" are also included. PQR version 3.9 (.zip format) can be downloaded freely at the EPPO site.

2000-01-01

456

Die Rolle des Publikums fokussiert auf die Optionen der Mitgestaltung im öffentlich-rechtlichen Fernsehangebot des ORF in Österreich.  

E-print Network

??Untersuchungsgegenstand: Im Zentrum steht die Option und Ausführung des „Mitspracherechts“ des Publikums an fernsehpublizistischen Inhalten des öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunks ORF in Österreich, sowie das Angebot der… (more)

Scherzinger, Ronja-Svenja

2012-01-01

457

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING FPE College of Engineering California Polytechnic State University San problems and develop fire safety design solutions in a variety of professional settings. Fire Protection Engineering Science · Apply concepts associated with the thermal sciences, to the analysis of fire protection

Sze, Lawrence

458

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERING FPE College of Engineering California Polytechnic State University San and develop fire safety design solutions in a variety of professional settings. Fire Protection Engineering Science · Apply concepts associated with the thermal sciences, to the analysis of fire protection

Sze, Lawrence

459

Corium protection assembly  

DOEpatents

A corium protection assembly includes a perforated base grid disposed below a pressure vessel containing a nuclear reactor core and spaced vertically above a containment vessel floor to define a sump therebetween. A plurality of layers of protective blocks are disposed on the grid for protecting the containment vessel floor from the corium.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA); Barbanti, Giancarlo (Sirtori, IT)

1994-01-01

460

Strategies and mechanisms of plant virus resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus-induced diseases are responsible for major crop losses worldwide. A better understanding of plant defense mechanisms\\u000a would lead to the development of novel strategies for effective plant protection. Early protein-based approaches relied mostly\\u000a on the expression of transgenic coat protein (CP) to block the progression of the virus infectious process. Other strategies\\u000a exploit the plant’s innate defense mechanisms to combat

Shih-Shun Lin; Rossana Henriques; Hui-Wen Wu; Qi-Wen Niu; Shyi-Dong Yeh; Nam-Hai Chua

2007-01-01

461

Considering Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examples from research that incorporate plants to illustrate biological principles are presented. Topics include dried pea shape, homeotic genes, gene transcription in plants that are touched or wounded, production of grasslands, seaweed defenses, migrating plants, camouflage, and family rivalry. (KR)

Flannery, Maura C.

1991-01-01

462

Plan de cours Facult des arts et des sciences  

E-print Network

des êtres vivants ; · structures et types d'organisation des monères, protistes, mycètes, algues et. Straménopiles (Algues Brunes, Diatomées et Oomycètes). 22 septembre 3 Protozoaires. 29 septembre 4 Mycètes, Associations fongiques (lichens et mycorhizes) et Myxomycètes. 6 octobre 5 Algues de la Lignée Verte

Parrott, Lael

463

UNIVERSIT DE NANTES FACULT DES SCIENCES ET DES TECHNIQUES  

E-print Network

'ophiolite d'Oman et au programme d'étude des nouvelles AOC des Muscadet de la région nantaise ______ TH�SE DE............................................................. 51 2.2 Contexte géologique de l'ophiolite d'Oman ..................................................................................................................................... 54 2.2.2 Formation de l'ophiolite et unités lithologiques affleurant dans les montagnes d'Oman

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

464

Protecting your geomembrane from protective layers  

SciTech Connect

The construction of a new landfill requires that painstaking measures are taken to ensure that a leak-free liner is installed. Engineers commonly impose stringent formal quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) plans, require 100% third-party inspection, and fret over destructive tests of seam samples. But all this effort may be for naught if the liner is damaged as it is covered with gravel or protective soil. An irony of the industry is that the placement of a layer of protective soil or gravel often damages the liner it was intended to protect. Such damage can easily remain undetected. There are, however, measures that can be taken to prevent damage or detect damage before the landfill is put into service. The layer of soil or gravel commonly used to protect landfill liners can also wind up damaging them. Electronic leak location can help detect unseen leaks caused by this damage.

Darilek, P.; Darilek, G. [Leak Location Services, Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States); Menzel, R.; Johnson, A. [Dow Environmental, Inc., Freeport, TX (United States)

1995-07-01

465

Invite Birds to Your Home. Conservation Plantings for the Midwest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptons of familiar birds of the Midwest and suggestions for attracting them to urban settings are offered in this publication. Plants which serve as food and protection for birds are identified. These plants are described by: the number of bird species that use the plant; the plant's ornamental value; its time in bloom and in fruit; its…

1981

466

Fire Protection Program Manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

Sharry, J A

2012-05-18

467

Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hyperaccumulation, the rare capacity of certain plant species to accumulate toxic trace elements to levels several orders of magnitude higher than other species growing on the same site, is thought to be an elemental defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Previous research has shown that selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation protects plants from a variety of herbivores and pathogens. Selenium hyperaccumulating

Colin F Quinn; John L Freeman; Ray JB Reynolds; Jennifer J Cappa; Sirine C Fakra; Matthew A Marcus; Stormy D Lindblom; Erin K Quinn; Lindsay E Bennett; Elizabeth AH Pilon-Smits

2010-01-01

468

Musee des Horreurs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is this Musee des Horreurs? Visitors will find out soon enough: it is a remarkable collection of 52 hand-colored lithograph caricatures of individuals involved in the Dreyfus Affair in France. These lithographs were originally produced from 1899 to 1900 by an artist who used the pseudonym V. Lenepveu and they document the anti-Semitic upsurge brought about by this well-known event. Those represented in the caricatures include prominent members of the Jewish community, Dreyfus supporters, and Republican statesmen placed on grotesque animal bodies. Visitors with an interest in the subject may wish to use the images in a class on graphic design, illustration, European history, or cultural affairs.

469

Die fermentative Spaltung des Acetylcholins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wird eine neue Methode zum Nachweis des Fermentes, das Acetylcholin in Cholin und Essigsäure hydrolysiert, die Cholinesterase, beschrieben. Das Verfahren ist nach derWarburgschen Methode aufgebaut.

R. Ammon

1934-01-01

470

Plant Species Diversity and Pasture Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmers face many challenges in pasture management, such as evolving agri-environmental schemes to protect natural resources, and need new management techniques to remain sustainable. Ecological research indicates that increased plant biodiversity benefits ecosystem functions such as primary product...

471

Biocontrol of Plant Pathogens and Plant Growth Promotion by Bacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Numerous Bacillus strains have been investigated for their capacities to protect plants from pathogens and stimulate plant growth. Studying\\u000a the diversity of these bacteria provides clues to the distinctiveness of beneficial strains and raises questions regarding\\u000a the scale and evolutionary forces that led to the development of biocontrol activities. Soils harbor vast spore banks of Bacillus, subsets of which germinate,

Brian B. McSpadden Gardener

472

Thorie des ensembles 1. Motivation  

E-print Network

, comme Georg Cantor (1845-1918), Giuseppe Peano (1858-1932), Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) et autres. Nous de la démonstration (2). Figure I.1. Georg Cantor, Giuseppe Peano et Bertrand Russell La plupart des chasser du paradis que Cantor nous a bâti» (1). Plus tard, en parlant au Congrès des Mathématiciens à

Dolecki, Szymon

473

Plant defensins.  

PubMed

Plant defensins are small, basic peptides that have a characteristic three-dimensional folding pattern that is stabilized by eight disulfide-linked cysteines. They are termed plant defensins because they are structurally related to defensins found in other types of organism, including humans. To date, sequences of more than 80 different plant defensin genes from different plant species are available. In Arabidopsis thaliana, at least 13 putative plant defensin genes (PDF) are present, encoding 11 different plant defensins. Two additional genes appear to encode plant defensin fusions. Plant defensins inhibit the growth of a broad range of fungi but seem nontoxic to either mammalian or plant cells. Antifungal activity of defensins appears to require specific binding to membrane targets. This review focuses on the classification of plant defensins in general and in Arabidopsis specifically, and on the mode of action of plant defensins against fungal pathogens. PMID:12447532

Thomma, Bart P H J; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

2002-12-01

474

About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)  

MedlinePLUS

... FDA's Role in Regulating PPE About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) On this page: What is personal protective ... with other users? Q. What is personal protective equipment? A. Personal protective equipment is any type of ...

475

Vascular protection by dietary polyphenols.  

PubMed

Consumption of polyphenol-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables, and beverages derived from plants, such as cocoa, red wine and tea, may represent a beneficial diet in terms of cardiovascular protection. Indeed, epidemiological studies demonstrate a significant inverse correlation between polyphenol consumption and cardiovascular risk. Among the numerous plausible mechanisms by which polyphenols may confer cardiovascular protection, improvement of the endothelial function and inhibition of angiogenesis and cell migration and proliferation in blood vessels have been the focus of recent studies. These studies have indicated that, in addition to and independently from their antioxidant effects, plant polyphenols (1) enhance the production of vasodilating factors [nitric oxide (NO), endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and prostacyclin] and inhibit the synthesis of vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 in endothelial cells; and (2) inhibit the expression of two major pro-angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in smooth muscle cells. The mechanisms of these effects involve: (1) in endothelial cells, increased Ca(2+) level and redox-sensitive activation of the phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt pathway (leading to rapid and sustained activation of nitric oxide synthase and formation of EDHF) and enhanced expression of nitric oxide synthase; and (2) in smooth muscle cells, both redox-sensitive inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway activation (leading to inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VEGF gene expression) and redox-insensitive mechanisms (leading to inhibition of thrombin-induced MMP-2 formation). The current evidence suggests that all these mechanisms are triggered by polyphenols with specific structures, although the structural requirements may be different from one effect to the other, and that they all contribute to the vasoprotective, anti-angiogenic, anti-atherogenic, vasorelaxant and anti-hypertensive effects of acute or chronic administration of plant polyphenols found in vivo in animals and in patients. PMID:15464042

Stoclet, Jean-Claude; Chataigneau, Thierry; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Oak, Min-Ho; El Bedoui, Jasser; Chataigneau, Marta; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

2004-10-01

476

Plant tropism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gravitropism is a plant's response to the effects of gravity. Phototropism is a plant's response to a source of light. Plants can exhibit negative and positive responses to these stimuli depending on if the plant moves away or toward the stimulus.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-07-15

477

Plant Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor mapping activity, learners explore where plants grow and map plant-distribution patterns. Learners also investigate environmental factors such as wind, light, moisture, and animal activity that affect plant distribution in nature, and examine "important" plants in their activity site that give clues to what brought them there.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

478

Using Sprinklers to Protect Blueberries from Spring Freezes Mark Longstroth, MSUE Extension Educator  

E-print Network

Using Sprinklers to Protect Blueberries from Spring Freezes Mark Longstroth, MSUE Extension Many blueberry growers use sprinkler systems to protect blueberry flowers from spring freezes the plant down colder than the air temperature as the ice evaporates. Protection with sprinklers The freeze

Isaacs, Rufus

479

Multiwall thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiwall insulating sandwich panels are provided for thermal protection of hypervelocity vehicles and other enclosures. In one embodiment, the multiwall panels are formed of alternate layers of dimpled and flat metal (titanium alloy) foil sheets and beaded scarfed edge seals to provide enclosure thermal protection up to 1000 F. An additional embodiment employs an intermediate fibrous insulation for the sandwich panel to provide thermal protection up to 2000 F. A third embodiment employs a silicide coated columbium waffle as the outer panel skin and fibrous layered intermediate protection for thermal environment protection up to 2500 F. The use of multiple panels on an enclosure facilitate repair and refurbishment of the thermal protection system due to the simple support provided by the tab and clip attachment for the panels.

Jackson, L. R. (inventor)

1982-01-01

480

Melatonin in plant organs.  

PubMed

The indoleamine melatonin, a well-known animal chemical, has been identified in extracts from several plant species. The function of melatonin in plants is unknown. Two major functions of melatonin in animals are dark signaling and antioxidant protection. Fruit ripening was used as a model physiological process that involves changes in the oxidative status of an organ. Tomato fruits at various stages of ripeness were sampled. Morning glory (Pharbitis nil Choisy, cv. Violet) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv. T5 and Castlemart) organs were collected throughout a light/dark cycle to determine whether melatonin levels increased during the night. No consistent evidence was found that melatonin increased significantly in organs of these plants during the night, as it does in many animals. The melatonin content of the fruits generally increased during ripening up to the mature ripe stage and thereafter as the fruit became over ripe. PMID:11485009

Van Tassel, D L; Roberts, N; Lewy, A; O'Neill, S D

2001-08-01

481

US EPA Radiation Protection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is from the US Environmental Protection Agency on Radiation Protection. It gives an overview of the basics including: Exposure to Gamma Radiation, Health Effects, and Protecting People from Gamma Radiation A gamma ray is a packet of electromagnetic energy--a photon. Gamma photons are the most energetic photons in the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma rays (gamma photons) are emitted from the nucleus of some unstable (radioactive) atoms.

2010-04-05

482

Space shuttle lightning protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology for lightning protection of even the most advanced spacecraft is available and can be applied through cost-effective hardware designs and design-verification techniques. In this paper, the evolution of the Space Shuttle Lightning Protection Program is discussed, including the general types of protection, testing, and anlayses being performed to assess the lightning-transient-damage susceptibility of solid-state electronics.

Suiter, D. L.; Gadbois, R. D.; Blount, R. L.

1979-01-01

483

Protection - Principles and practice.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The protection mechanisms of computer systems control the access to objects, especially information objects. The principles of protection system design are formalized as a model (theory) of protection. Each process has a unique identification number which is attached by the system to each access attempted by the process. Details of system implementation are discussed, taking into account the storing of the access matrix, aspects of efficiency, and the selection of subjects and objects. Two systems which have protection features incorporating all the elements of the model are described.

Graham, G. S.; Denning, P. J.

1972-01-01

484

Your Planetary Protection Officer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a brief article about John Rummel, NASA's Planetary Protection Officer. It explains the purpose of planetary protection (to prevent contamination of Earth by alien life forms and of space by Earth's life forms), gives some historical background about NASA's planetary protection policies, and gives examples of recent protocols for sterilization of spacecraft. There are links to the Planetary Protection Office website, the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Bodies, and updated policy guidelines.

Koerner, Brendan I.; Slate

485

NASA Fire Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides information on fire protection operations and administration at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The presentation also lists innova