Science.gov

Sample records for protection des plantes

  1. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  2. Chitosan in Plant Protection

    PubMed Central

    El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Adam, Lorne R.; El Hadrami, Ismail; Daayf, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR) proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:20479963

  3. 75 FR 77612 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection... Agriculture intends to reestablish the Plant Variety Protection Board. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul....regulations.gov or by e-mail: Paul.Zankowski@ams.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Plant...

  4. Protection Goals for Aquatic Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Someone once said plants are the ugly stepchildren of the toxicological world. This was not out of lack of respect for plants, but rather reflected the common assumption that aquatic plants were less sensitive than aquatic fauna to chemicals. We now know this is not a valid gener...

  5. 77 FR 75607 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Soliciting Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Soliciting Nominations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Plant Variety Protection Office (PVPO) is seeking candidates for the Plant Variety Protection Board. We are asking for the submission of nomination...

  6. Y-12 Plant Stratospheric Ozone Protection plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant staff is required by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) (formerly Martin Marietta Energy Systems) standard ESS-EP-129 to develop and implement a Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program which will minimize emissions of ozone-depleting substances to the environment and maximize the use of ozone-safe alternatives in order to comply with Title VI of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments and the implementing regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This plan describes the requirements, initiatives, and accomplishments of the Y-12 Plant Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program.

  7. Fire protection survey Pinellas Plant Largo, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, P.H.; Sharland, J.R.

    1989-04-01

    Fire protection personnel provide effective fire protection advice for all major aspects of fire protection, namely: (1) major construction projects, (2) test and maintenance of fire protection equipment, and (3) training of Plant Fire Brigade members. Interest in fire protection is excellent, as noted by completion of all applicable recommendations contained in the 1979 Fire Protection Survey. There are no fire areas where the loss potential would exceed $50,000,000 with protection out of service. There are two areas where a fire loss could exceed $1,000,000 with protection in service. Poor housekeeping in the Engineering VAX Cluster computer room in Building 100 could result in a large loss even with protection in service. Sprinkler protection for the off-site warehouse is presently not adequate for the fire loading. In addition, a fire involving one-of-a-kind product testers located in Buildings 100, 200, 400 and 800 could result in substantial delays to production due to the 1 to 1 1/2 year period needed to replace these testers. Internal protection is recommended for these units. There are eight other findings that would be made during a Highly Protected Risk survey.

  8. 48 CFR 31.205-29 - Plant protection costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plant protection costs. 31....205-29 Plant protection costs. Costs of items such as (a) wages, uniforms, and equipment of personnel engaged in plant protection, (b) depreciation on plant protection capital assets, and (c)...

  9. 48 CFR 31.205-29 - Plant protection costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant protection costs. 31....205-29 Plant protection costs. Costs of items such as (a) wages, uniforms, and equipment of personnel engaged in plant protection, (b) depreciation on plant protection capital assets, and (c)...

  10. 48 CFR 31.205-29 - Plant protection costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plant protection costs. 31....205-29 Plant protection costs. Costs of items such as (a) wages, uniforms, and equipment of personnel engaged in plant protection, (b) depreciation on plant protection capital assets, and (c)...

  11. 48 CFR 31.205-29 - Plant protection costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plant protection costs. 31....205-29 Plant protection costs. Costs of items such as (a) wages, uniforms, and equipment of personnel engaged in plant protection, (b) depreciation on plant protection capital assets, and (c)...

  12. Transgenic plants protected from insect attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaeck, Mark; Reynaerts, Arlette; Höfte, Herman; Jansens, Stefan; de Beuckeleer, Marc; Dean, Caroline; Zabeau, Marc; Montagu, Marc Van; Leemans, Jan

    1987-07-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces proteins which are specifically toxic to a variety of insect species. Modified genes have been derived from bt2, a toxin gene cloned from one Bacillus strain. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes synthesize insecticidal proteins which protect them from feeding damage by larvae of the tobacco hornworm.

  13. 48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant protection. 252.217... Clauses 252.217-7016 Plant protection. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: Plant Protection (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall provide, for the plant and work in process,...

  14. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (7 CFR part 25), and such additional operating procedures as... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant...

  15. 48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plant protection. 252.217... Clauses 252.217-7016 Plant protection. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: Plant Protection (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall provide, for the plant and work in process,...

  16. 48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plant protection. 252.217... Clauses 252.217-7016 Plant protection. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: Plant Protection (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall provide, for the plant and work in process,...

  17. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (7 CFR part 25), and such additional operating procedures as... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant...

  18. 48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plant protection. 252.217... Clauses 252.217-7016 Plant protection. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: Plant Protection (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall provide, for the plant and work in process,...

  19. 48 CFR 252.217-7016 - Plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plant protection. 252.217... Clauses 252.217-7016 Plant protection. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: Plant Protection (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall provide, for the plant and work in process,...

  20. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (7 CFR part 25), and such additional operating procedures as... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration § 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant...

  1. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant Variety Protection Board. 97.3 Section 97.3... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Administration 97.3 Plant Variety Protection Board. (a) The Plant Variety... Regulations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (7 CFR part 25), and such additional operating procedures...

  2. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  3. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  4. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  5. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  6. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS...

  7. Une approche numérique des périmètres de protection des captages des eaux souterraines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Bouâbid El; Loukili, Youssef; Esselaoui, Driss

    1999-05-01

    We established isochrones, considered as an intermediate protection perimeters, from travel time, using advanced hydrogeological and numerical models of catchment sites. This consists of the resolution of flow and transport equations using a finite volume elements scheme. Our simulations have shown that the real dimensions of the intermediate protection perimeter depend on the parameters of dispersion. Finally, the application of this method to the Ahmed At-Taleb site in northwest Morocco illustrates the urgent need for an adequate protection of catchments from very dangerous pollutant agents.

  8. 78 FR 37200 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Teleconference Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural... their opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES: July 31, 2013... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Jennifer Banks, Plant Variety Protection Office, Science and...

  9. Unique metabolites protect earthworms against plant polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Liebeke, Manuel; Strittmatter, Nicole; Fearn, Sarah; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Fuchser, Jens; Wallis, David; Palchykov, Vitalii; Robertson, Jeremy; Lahive, Elma; Spurgeon, David J; McPhail, David; Takts, Zoltn; Bundy, Jacob G

    2015-01-01

    All higher plants produce polyphenols, for defence against above-ground herbivory. These polyphenols also influence the soil micro- and macro-fauna that break down plant leaf litter. Polyphenols therefore indirectly affect the fluxes of soil nutrients and, ultimately, carbon turnover and ecosystem functioning in soils. It is unknown how earthworms, the major component of animal biomass in many soils, cope with high-polyphenol diets. Here, we show that earthworms possess a class of unique surface-active metabolites in their gut, which we term 'drilodefensins'. These compounds counteract the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on earthworm gut enzymes, and high-polyphenol diets increase drilodefensin concentrations in both laboratory and field populations. This shows that drilodefensins protect earthworms from the harmful effects of ingested polyphenols. We have identified the key mechanism for adaptation to a dietary challenge in an animal group that has a major role in organic matter recycling in soils worldwide. PMID:26241769

  10. Unique metabolites protect earthworms against plant polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Liebeke, Manuel; Strittmatter, Nicole; Fearn, Sarah; Morgan, A. John; Kille, Peter; Fuchser, Jens; Wallis, David; Palchykov, Vitalii; Robertson, Jeremy; Lahive, Elma; Spurgeon, David J.; McPhail, David; Takáts, Zoltán; Bundy, Jacob G.

    2015-01-01

    All higher plants produce polyphenols, for defence against above-ground herbivory. These polyphenols also influence the soil micro- and macro-fauna that break down plant leaf litter. Polyphenols therefore indirectly affect the fluxes of soil nutrients and, ultimately, carbon turnover and ecosystem functioning in soils. It is unknown how earthworms, the major component of animal biomass in many soils, cope with high-polyphenol diets. Here, we show that earthworms possess a class of unique surface-active metabolites in their gut, which we term ‘drilodefensins'. These compounds counteract the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on earthworm gut enzymes, and high-polyphenol diets increase drilodefensin concentrations in both laboratory and field populations. This shows that drilodefensins protect earthworms from the harmful effects of ingested polyphenols. We have identified the key mechanism for adaptation to a dietary challenge in an animal group that has a major role in organic matter recycling in soils worldwide. PMID:26241769

  11. 77 FR 20610 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting AGENCY... public of their opportunity to attend an open meeting of the Plant Variety Protection Board. DATES: April...-2223, Beltsville, MD 20705. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jennifer Banks, Plant Variety...

  12. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protected plant permits. 355.11 Section 355.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Permission to Engage in Business § 355.11 Protected...

  13. 78 FR 63448 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Open Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is intended to notify the... Protection Office, Science and Technology Programs, Agricultural Marketing Service, United States...

  14. 7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization...

  15. 7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization...

  16. 7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization...

  17. 7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization...

  18. 7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization...

  19. Immune responses to hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of peste des petits ruminants virus expressed in transgenic peanut plants in sheep.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Abha; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Rajasekhar, Malleshappa; Sita, G Lakshmi; Shaila, Melkote S

    2011-04-15

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious disease of small ruminants caused by a morbillivirus, Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). The disease is prevalent in equatorial Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. A live attenuated vaccine is in use in some of the countries and has been shown to provide protection for at least three years against PPR. However, the live attenuated vaccine is not robust in terms of thermotolerance. As a step towards development of a heat stable subunit vaccine, we have expressed a hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of PPRV in peanut plants (Arachis hypogea) in a biologically active form, possessing neuraminidase activity. Importantly, HN protein expressed in peanut plants retained its immunodominant epitopes in their natural conformation. The immunogenicity of the plant derived HN protein was analyzed in sheep upon oral immunization. Virus neutralizing antibody responses were elicited upon oral immunization of sheep in the absence of any mucosal adjuvant. In addition, anti-PPRV-HN specific cell-mediated immune responses were also detected in mucosally immunized sheep. PMID:21211855

  20. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TGAI TGAI 122-1 Aquatic plant growth (2) R R R TGAI TGAI 122-2 Tier II: Seed germination/seedling emergence (3) CR CR CR TGAI TGAI 123-1 Vegetative vigor (3) CR CR CR TGAI TGAI 123-1 Aquatic plant growth (4... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plant protection data...

  1. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TGAI TGAI 122-1 Aquatic plant growth (2) R R R TGAI TGAI 122-2 Tier II: Seed germination/seedling emergence (3) CR CR CR TGAI TGAI 123-1 Vegetative vigor (3) CR CR CR TGAI TGAI 123-1 Aquatic plant growth (4... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant protection data...

  2. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TGAI TGAI 122-1 Aquatic plant growth (2) R R R TGAI TGAI 122-2 Tier II: Seed germination/seedling emergence (3) CR CR CR TGAI TGAI 123-1 Vegetative vigor (3) CR CR CR TGAI TGAI 123-1 Aquatic plant growth (4... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plant protection data...

  3. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TGAI TGAI 122-1 Aquatic plant growth (2) R R R TGAI TGAI 122-2 Tier II: Seed germination/seedling emergence (3) CR CR CR TGAI TGAI 123-1 Vegetative vigor (3) CR CR CR TGAI TGAI 123-1 Aquatic plant growth (4... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plant protection data...

  4. When do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi protect plant roots from pathogens?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are mainly thought to facilitate phosphorus uptake in plants, but they can also perform several other functions that are equally beneficial. Our recent study sheds light on the factors determining one such function, enhanced plant protection from root pathogens. Root infection by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum was determined by both plant susceptibility and the ability of an AM fungal partner to suppress the pathogen. The non-susceptible plant species (Allium cepa) had limited F. oxysporum infection even without AM fungi. In contrast, the susceptible plant species (Setaria glauca) was heavily infected and only AM fungi in the family Glomeraceae limited pathogen abundance. Plant susceptibility to pathogens was likely determined by contrasting root architectures between plants, with the simple rooted plant (A. cepa) presenting fewer sites for infection. AM fungal colonization, however, was not limited in the same way in part because plants with fewer, simple roots are more mycorrhizal dependent. Protection only by Glomus species also indicates that whatever the mechanism(s) of this function, it responds to AM fungal families differently. While poor at pathogen protection, AM fungal species in the family Gigasporaceae most benefited the growth of the simple rooted plant species. Our research indicates that plant trait differences, such as root architecture can determine how important each mycorrhizal function is to plant growth but the ability to provide these functions differs among AM fungi. PMID:20400855

  5. Fires: what plant locations should we really protect

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A fire protection analysis technique was developed from earlier work involving the protection of nuclear power plants against acts of sabotage. Characteristics unique to fire phenomena were used to modify the sabotage analysis methodology. These characteristics include the effects of fuel loads, ventilation rates, heat loss areas, barrier ratings, and plant locations. The new fire analysis technique was applied to an example nuclear power plant having 85 different plant areas. It was found that some safety and nonsafety areas were both highly vulnerable to fire spread and important to overall safety, while other areas were found to be of marginal importance to fire safety.

  6. Domaines de stabilit thermodynamiques des humus, de la microflore et des plantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardy, Yves; Schaul, Raphale; Duplay, Jolle

    1997-06-01

    A method to determine Gibbs free energies of soil organic compounds: fulvic acids, humic acids, humin, microflora and plants, is presented. The thermodynamic stability fields are a function of capillary water activity ([H 2O]), chemical composition of soil solution, as well as of carbon dioxide, f(CO 2), and oxygen, f(O 2), fugacities in the soil atmosphere. The results obtained agree perfectly with what is generally known about organic matter in soils. The bases of a thermodynamic treatment of the soil-plant-water systems is thus established, where inert and living organic matter clearly are closely associated.

  7. Public lakes, private lakeshore: modeling protection of native aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Susan A; Fulton, David C

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey (n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property. PMID:23609308

  8. Public Lakes, Private Lakeshore: Modeling Protection of Native Aquatic Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey ( n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  9. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Permission... CFR 17.12 or 23.23 unless such person has obtained a protected plant permit for engaging in such... also be obtained from local offices at any of the ports designated in 50 CFR part 24. Telephone...

  10. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Permission... CFR 17.12 or 23.23 unless such person has obtained a protected plant permit for engaging in such... also be obtained from local offices at any of the ports designated in 50 CFR part 24. Telephone...

  11. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Permission... CFR 17.12 or 23.23 unless such person has obtained a protected plant permit for engaging in such... also be obtained from local offices at any of the ports designated in 50 CFR part 24. Telephone...

  12. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Permission... CFR 17.12 or 23.23 unless such person has obtained a protected plant permit for engaging in such... also be obtained from local offices at any of the ports designated in 50 CFR part 24. Telephone...

  13. Water protection in coke-plant design

    SciTech Connect

    G.I. Alekseev

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  14. Wind Power Plant Grounding, Overvoltage Protection, and Insulation Coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Camm, E H; Behnke, M. R.; Bolado, O.; Bollen, M.; Bradt, M.; Brooks, C.; Dilling, W.; Edds, M.; Hejdak, W. J.; Houseman, D.; Klein, S.; Li, Fangxing; Li, J.; Maibach, P.; Nicolai, T.; Pasupulati, S. V.; Patino, J.; Samaan, N.; Saylors, S.; Siebert, T.; Smith, Travis M; Starke, Michael R; Walling, R.

    2009-01-01

    Proper insulation coordination is critical to achieving expected life from wind plant equipment. The collector systems of large wind plants require the application of surge arresters to protect the equipment insulation from transient overvoltages. The application of surge arresters is constrained by maximum operating and temporary overvoltage levels. This paper provides a tutorial description of the process of selecting and applying surge arresters to wind plant medium voltage collector systems, with emphasis on the peculiar properties of this application.

  15. Are you prepared Protecting your hydro plant from lightning strikes

    SciTech Connect

    Clemen, D.M. )

    1993-12-01

    A properly designed lightning protection system requires a basic understanding of the physics of lightning and the means available to both divert and conduct lightning stroke energy around structures. Once the basics are understood, an engineer can using existing codes and standards to design an effective protection scheme for a given structure. A well-implemented scheme ensures that direct or close-proximity lightning strokes will not cause forced outages of hydroturbine-generator units. Lightning protection should be a part of the design of any new hydroelectric plant. If protection was not provided when the project was constructed, rehabilitation projects and activities offer opportunities to make corrections.

  16. Ribozyme genes protecting transgenic melon plants against potyviruses.

    PubMed

    Huttner, E; Tucker, W; Vermeulen, A; Ignart, F; Sawyer, B; Birch, R

    2001-04-01

    Potyviruses are the most important viral pathogens of crops worldwide. Under a contract with Gene Shears Pty Limited, we are using ribozyme genes to protect melon plants against two potyviruses: WMV2 and ZYMV. Different polyribozyme genes were designed, built and introduced into melons plants. Transgenic melon plants containing a resistance gene were obtained and their progeny was challenged by the appropriate virus. Most of the genes tested conferred some degree of resistance to the viruses in glasshouse trials. Melon plants from one family containing one gene directed against WMV2 were also field-trialed on small plots under natural infection pressure and were found immune to WMV2. Field trial is in progress for plants containing genes against ZYMV. Some of the ribozyme genes used in the plants were also assayed in a transient expression system in tobacco cells. This enabled us to study the sequence discrimination capacity of the ribozyme in the case of one ribozyme target site. We found that a mutated target GUG (non cleavable) was less susceptible to inhibition by the ribozyme gene than the corresponding wild type target GUA (cleavable). Work is now in progress to incorporate multiple resistance genes in melon plants, in constructs designed in compliance with the evolving European regulations concerning transgenic plants. The use of ribozyme genes to protect plants against viruses provides an alternative to the technologies currently used for protecting crops against viruses, based on the concept of Pathogen Derived Resistance (see for example 14). In the light of concerns expressed by some plant virologists (13) about the use of viral genes in transgenic plants, it may be that ribozyme genes will find many uses in this area of agricultural biotechnology. PMID:11471972

  17. Regulatory guidance for lightning protection in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R. A.; Wilgen, J. B.; Ewing, P. D.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C. E.

    2006-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects. (authors)

  18. Regulatory Guidance for Lightning Protection in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Wilgen, John B; Ewing, Paul D; Korsah, Kofi; Antonescu, Christina E

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects.

  19. Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    2006-11-15

    Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

  1. Diversity protects plant communities against generalist molluscan herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Yvonne; Sandau, Nadine; Bruggisser, Odile T; Kehrli, Patrik; Aebi, Alexandre; Rohr, Rudolf P; Naisbit, Russell E; Bersier, Louis-Félix

    2012-01-01

    Wildflower strips are used to increase natural enemies of crop pests and to conserve insect diversity on farmland. Mollusks, especially slugs, can affect the vegetation development in these strips considerably. Although recent theoretical work suggests that more diverse plant communities will exhibit greater resistance against herbivore pressure, empirical studies are scarce. We conducted a semi-natural experiment in wildflower strips, manipulating trophic structure (reduction in herbivorous mollusks and reduction in major predators) and plant diversity (2, 6, 12, 20 and 24 sown species). This design allowed us to assess the effect of plant diversity, biomass and composition on mollusks, and vice versa, the effect of mollusc abundance on vegetation. Seven species of mollusks were found in the strips, with the slugs Arion lusitanicus, Deroceras reticulatum and Deroceras panormitanum being most frequent. We found a negative relationship between plant diversity and mollusk abundance, which was due predominantly to a decrease in the agricultural pest species A. lusitanicus. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that plant diversity can reduce the impact of herbivores. However, plant identity also had an effect on mollusks, and accounted for a much larger fraction of the variation in mollusk communities than biodiversity effects. While overall plant diversity decreased during the 3 years of the study, in the final year the highest plant diversity was found in the plots where mollusk populations were experimentally reduced. We conclude that selective feeding by generalist herbivores leads to changes in plant community composition and hence reduced plant diversity. Our results highlight the importance of plant biodiversity as protection against generalist herbivores, which if abundant can in the long term negatively impact plant diversity, driving the system along a “low plant diversity – high mollusk abundance” trajectory. PMID:23145332

  2. Risk assessment of riparian plant invasions into protected areas.

    PubMed

    Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; Rouget, Mathieu; Richardson, David M

    2007-04-01

    Protected areas are becoming increasingly isolated. River corridors represent crucial links to the surrounding landscape but are also major conduits for invasion of alien species. We developed a framework to assess the risk that alien plants in watersheds adjacent to a protected area will invade the protected area along rivers. The framework combines species- and landscape-level approaches and has five key components: (1) definition of the geographical area of interest, (2) delineation of the domain into ecologically meaningful zones, (3) identification of the appropriate landscape units, (4) categorization of alien species and mapping of their distribution and abundance, and (5) definition of management options. The framework guides the determination of species distribution and abundance through successive, easily followed steps, providing the means for the assessment of areas of concern. We applied the framework to Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa. We recorded 231 invasive alien plant species (of which 79 were major invaders) in the domain. The KNP is facing increasing pressure from alien species in the upper regions of the drainage areas of neighboring watersheds. On the basis of the climatic modeling, we showed that most major riparian invaders have the ability to spread across the KNP should they be transported down the rivers. With this information, KNP managers can identify areas for proactive intervention, monitoring, and resource allocation. Even for a very large protected area such as the KNP, sustainable management of biodiversity will depend heavily on the response of land managers upstream managing alien plants. We suggest that this framework is applicable to plants and other passively dispersed species that invade protected areas situated at the end of a drainage basin. PMID:17391191

  3. The Mars Plant Growth Experiment and Implications for Planetary Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Heather

    Plants are the ultimate and necessary solution for O2 production at a human base on Mars. Currently it is unknown if seeds can germinate on the Martian surface. The Mars Plant growth experiment (MPX) is a proposal for the first step in the development of a plant- based O2 production system by demonstrating plant germination and growth on the Martian surface. There is currently no planetary protection policy in place that covers plants on the Martian surface. We describe a planetary protection plan in compliance with NASA and COSPAR policy for a closed plant growth chamber on a Mars rover. We divide the plant growth chamber into two categories for planetary protection, the Outside: the outside of the chamber exposed to the Martian environment, and the Inside: the inside of the chamber which is sealed off from Mars atmosphere and contains the plant seeds and ancillary components for seed growth. We will treat outside surfaces of the chamber as other outside surfaces on the rover, wiped with a mixture of isopropyl alcohol and water as per Category IVb planetary protection requirements. All internal components of the MPX except the seeds and camera (including the water system, the plant growth stage and interior surface walls) will be sterilized by autoclave and subjected to sterilizing dry heat at a temperature of 125°C at an absolute humidity corresponding to a relative humidity of less than 25 percent referenced to the standard conditions of 0°C and 760 torr pressure. The seeds and internal compartments of the MPX in contact with the growth media will be assembled and tested to be free of viable microbes. MPX, once assembled, cannot survive Dry Heat Microbial Reduction. The camera with the radiation and CO2 sensors will be sealed in their own container and vented through HEPA filters. The seeds will be vernalized (microbe free) as per current Space Station methods described by Paul et al. 2001. Documentation of the lack of viable microbes on representative seeds from the same seed lot as used in the flight unit and lack of viable microbes in the interior of the MPX will be confirmed by the assay methods outlined in NASA HDBK 6022. In this method surfaces are swabbed and the cells collected on the swabs are extracted and then cultured following a standard protocol. All operations involving the manipulation of sterile items and sample processing shall be performed in laminar flow environments meeting Class 100 air cleanliness requirements of Federal Standard 209B. The entire MPX will be assembled in a sterile environment within a month of launch if possible, but could withstand an earlier assembly if required.

  4. [Storage of plant protection products in farms: minimum safety requirements].

    PubMed

    Dutto, Moreno; Alfonzo, Santo; Rubbiani, Maristella

    2012-01-01

    Failure to comply with requirements for proper storage and use of pesticides in farms can be extremely hazardous and the risk of accidents involving farm workers, other persons and even animals is high. There are still wide differences in the interpretation of the concept of "securing or making safe", by workers in this sector. One of the critical points detected, particularly in the fruit sector, is the establishment of an adequate storage site for plant protection products. The definition of "safe storage of pesticides" is still unclear despite the recent enactment of Legislative Decree 81/2008 regulating health and work safety in Italy. In addition, there are no national guidelines setting clear minimum criteria for storage of plant protection products in farms. The authors, on the basis of their professional experience and through analysis of recent legislation, establish certain minimum safety standards for storage of pesticides in farms. PMID:23369994

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The DOE has mandated in DOE Order 5400.1 that its operations will be conducted in an environmentally safe manner. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with DOE Order 5400.1 and will conduct its operations in a manner that ensures the safety of the environment and the public. This document outlines how the WIPP will protect and preserve groundwater within and surrounding the WIPP facility. Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. The WIPP groundwater surveillance program is designed to determine statistically if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will be determined and appropriate corrective action initiated.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-09-24

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

  7. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vigor R R R TEP 1, 2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant... plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) CR CR CR TEP or TGAI 1, 4, 6, 7 Nontarget Area... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nontarget plant protection...

  8. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vigor R R R TEP 1, 2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant... plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) CR CR CR TEP or TGAI 1, 4, 6, 7 Nontarget Area... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nontarget plant protection...

  9. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vigor R R R TEP 1, 2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant... plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) CR CR CR TEP or TGAI 1, 4, 6, 7 Nontarget Area... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nontarget plant protection...

  10. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vigor R R R TEP 1, 2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant... plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) CR CR CR TEP or TGAI 1, 4, 6, 7 Nontarget Area... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nontarget plant protection...

  11. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vigor R R R TEP 1, 2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant... plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) CR CR CR TEP or TGAI 1, 4, 6, 7 Nontarget Area... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nontarget plant protection...

  12. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    PubMed

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success. PMID:16832974

  13. Recent digital control and protection retrofits in power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, R.D.; Hammer, M.; Smith, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Digital computers are now being retrofitted to all types of power plants, replacing analog equipment and solving problems such as equipment obsolescence and low reliability. Three diverse examples of retrofits are presented in this paper, representing trends in man/machine interface design at an oil-fired plant, protection system in pressurized heavy-water reactors, and control systems in light water reactors (LWRs). The examples have been chosen to illustrate diverse reasons for the retrofits and the benefits derived. The cases presented report retrofits at Northern States Power's Monticello boiling water reactor, New Brunswick Electric Power Commission's (NBEPC's) Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station, and finally NBEPC's oil-fired plant at Courtney Bay.

  14. Inherited biotic protection in a neotropical pioneer plant.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Leroy, Cline; Delabie, Jacques H C; Rossi, Vivien; Crghino, Rgis

    2011-01-01

    Chelonanthus alatus is a bat-pollinated, pioneer Gentianaceae that clusters in patches where still-standing, dried-out stems are interspersed among live individuals. Flowers bear circum-floral nectaries (CFNs) that are attractive to ants, and seed dispersal is both barochorous and anemochorous. Although, in this study, live individuals never sheltered ant colonies, dried-out hollow stems--that can remain standing for 2 years--did. Workers from species nesting in dried-out stems as well as from ground-nesting species exploited the CFNs of live C. alatus individuals in the same patches during the daytime, but were absent at night (when bat pollination occurs) on 60.5% of the plants. By visiting the CFNs, the ants indirectly protect the flowers--but not the plant foliage--from herbivorous insects. We show that this protection is provided mostly by species nesting in dried-out stems, predominantly Pseudomyrmex gracilis. That dried-out stems remain standing for years and are regularly replaced results in an opportunistic, but stable association where colonies are sheltered by one generation of dead C. alatus while the live individuals nearby, belonging to the next generation, provide them with nectar; in turn, the ants protect their flowers from herbivores. We suggest that the investment in wood by C. alatus individuals permitting still-standing, dried-out stems to shelter ant colonies constitutes an extended phenotype because foraging workers protect the flowers of live individuals in the same patch. Also, through this process these dried-out stems indirectly favor the reproduction (and so the fitness) of the next generation including both their own offspring and that of their siblings, all adding up to a potential case of inclusive fitness in plants. PMID:21483861

  15. Inherited Biotic Protection in a Neotropical Pioneer Plant

    PubMed Central

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Leroy, Céline; Delabie, Jacques H. C.; Rossi, Vivien; Céréghino, Régis

    2011-01-01

    Chelonanthus alatus is a bat-pollinated, pioneer Gentianaceae that clusters in patches where still-standing, dried-out stems are interspersed among live individuals. Flowers bear circum-floral nectaries (CFNs) that are attractive to ants, and seed dispersal is both barochorous and anemochorous. Although, in this study, live individuals never sheltered ant colonies, dried-out hollow stems - that can remain standing for 2 years - did. Workers from species nesting in dried-out stems as well as from ground-nesting species exploited the CFNs of live C. alatus individuals in the same patches during the daytime, but were absent at night (when bat pollination occurs) on 60.5% of the plants. By visiting the CFNs, the ants indirectly protect the flowers - but not the plant foliage - from herbivorous insects. We show that this protection is provided mostly by species nesting in dried-out stems, predominantly Pseudomyrmex gracilis. That dried-out stems remain standing for years and are regularly replaced results in an opportunistic, but stable association where colonies are sheltered by one generation of dead C. alatus while the live individuals nearby, belonging to the next generation, provide them with nectar; in turn, the ants protect their flowers from herbivores. We suggest that the investment in wood by C. alatus individuals permitting still-standing, dried-out stems to shelter ant colonies constitutes an extended phenotype because foraging workers protect the flowers of live individuals in the same patch. Also, through this process these dried-out stems indirectly favor the reproduction (and so the fitness) of the next generation including both their own offspring and that of their siblings, all adding up to a potential case of inclusive fitness in plants. PMID:21483861

  16. Modeling of plant protection and control systems for SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1980-06-01

    Plant protection and feedback control systems for dynamic simulation of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors are developed. The models include manual and automatic shutdown systems with provision for selective suppression of PPS signals. The control system models include (1) supervisory control, (2) the reactor power control and rod drive mechanism, (3) primary and intermediate flow-speed control and pump drive system, and (4) steam generator flow-speed control and valve/pump actuator dynamics. These models have been incorporated into the SSC code using a flexible programming approach, in order to accommodate some design dependent variations. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Carbohydrates in plant immunity and plant protection: roles and potential application as foliar sprays

    PubMed Central

    Trouvelot, Sophie; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Poinssot, Benoît; Gauthier, Adrien; Paris, Franck; Guillier, Christelle; Combier, Maud; Trdá, Lucie; Daire, Xavier; Adrian, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest is devoted to carbohydrates for their roles in plant immunity. Some of them are elicitors of plant defenses whereas other ones act as signaling molecules in a manner similar to phytohormones. This review first describes the main classes of carbohydrates associated to plant immunity, their role and mode of action. More precisely, the state of the art about perception of “PAMP, MAMP, and DAMP (Pathogen-, Microbe-, Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns) type” oligosaccharides is presented and examples of induced defense events are provided. A particular attention is paid to the structure/activity relationships of these compounds. The role of sugars as signaling molecules, especially in plant microbe interactions, is also presented. Secondly, the potentialities and limits of foliar sprays of carbohydrates to stimulate plant immunity for crop protection against diseases are discussed, with focus on the roles of the leaf cuticle and phyllosphere microflora. PMID:25408694

  18. Optimization of plant protection products treatments against Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    La Torre, A; Gianferro, M; Spera, G

    2008-01-01

    Plant protection in conventional farming, and even more so in organic farming, requires careful and prudent action agro-environmental monitoring and epidemic risk assessment. Often, however, the plant protection products are distributed in a non-targeted way, even when reduced incidence of pests do not require any treatment. In order to optimize the treatments against downy mildew, multi-annual field trials, both in conventional and organic vineyards, have been carried out. In all farms were considered 3 thesis: 1 untreated control thesis (Test), in order to follow the coarse of infection, 1 standard farm reference thesis (St), where the treatments were carried out according to the usual farm procedures and 1 experimental thesis (X). Guideline EPPO/OEPP PP 1/31 (3) have been carried out. We monitored different environmental parameters capable to influence Plasmopora viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and De Toni development. In fact by a network of RTUs (Remote Terminal Units) distributed all over the vineyards transmitting every 15 minutes via radio or via GPRS to a centralized Data Base 12 environmental parameters: time, data, precipitation, soil temperature, solar radiation, wind direction, wind speed, atmospheric relative humidity, atmospheric temperature, leaf wetness, soil humidity to cm 20 and soil humidity to cm 40. In different phenological growth stages we carried out careful disease assessments on leaves and bunches to evaluate the onset and development of P. viticola. We have studied the downy mildew infections through monitoring the environmental parameters, knowledge of P. viticola biological cycle, the evaluation of cultivar sensibility, the agricultural production method and the area characteristics, to try to optimize the anti- downy mildew treatments. The achieved results have underlined the possibility to obtain a satisfactory protection against P. viticola by correct placing of treatments. In experimental thesis (X) the number of treatments was generally lower than the number made on the thesis standard (ST), with efficacy comparable if not better. This result is most evident in conventional farms where surveillance is less accurate because is can also use plant protection products with a curative action. The trial showed the possibility of obtaining real cost containment management and a lower environmental impact associated with reduced fungicidal treatments. PMID:19226753

  19. N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria protect plants against plant and human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hernndez-Reyes, Casandra; Schenk, Sebastian T; Neumann, Christina; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of beneficial microorganisms for plant protection has a long history. Many rhizobia bacteria are able to influence the immune system of host plants by inducing resistance towards pathogenic microorganisms. In this report, we present a translational approach in which we demonstrate the resistance-inducing effect of Ensifer meliloti (Sinorhizobium meliloti) on crop plants that have a significant impact on the worldwide economy and on human nutrition. Ensifer meliloti is usually associated with root nodulation in legumes and nitrogen fixation. Here, we suggest that the ability of S. meliloti to induce resistance depends on the production of the quorum-sensing molecule, oxo-C14-HSL. The capacity to enhanced resistance provides a possibility to the use these beneficial bacteria in agriculture. Using the Arabidopsis-Salmonella model, we also demonstrate that the application of N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria could be a successful strategy to prevent plant-originated infections with human pathogens. PMID:25234390

  20. N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria protect plants against plant and human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hernndez-Reyes, Casandra; Schenk, Sebastian T; Neumann, Christina; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

    2014-11-01

    The implementation of beneficial microorganisms for plant protection has a long history. Many rhizobia bacteria are able to influence the immune system of host plants by inducing resistance towards pathogenic microorganisms. In this report, we present a translational approach in which we demonstrate the resistance-inducing effect of Ensifer meliloti (Sinorhizobium meliloti) on crop plants that have a significant impact on the worldwide economy and on human nutrition. Ensifer meliloti is usually associated with root nodulation in legumes and nitrogen fixation. Here, we suggest that the ability of S.?meliloti to induce resistance depends on the production of the quorum-sensing molecule, oxo-C14-HSL. The capacity to enhanced resistance provides a possibility to the use these beneficial bacteria in agriculture. Using the Arabidopsis-Salmonella model, we also demonstrate that the application of N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria could be a successful strategy to prevent plant-originated infections with human pathogens. PMID:25234390

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  2. Aging assessment of surge protective devices in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.F.; Subudhi, M.; Carroll, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    An assessment was performed to determine the effects of aging on the performance and availability of surge protective devices (SPDs), used in electrical power and control systems in nuclear power plants. Although SPDs have not been classified as safety-related, they are risk-important because they can minimize the initiating event frequencies associated with loss of offsite power and reactor trips. Conversely, their failure due to age might cause some of those initiating events, e.g., through short circuit failure modes, or by allowing deterioration of the safety-related component(s) they are protecting from overvoltages, perhaps preventing a reactor trip, from an open circuit failure mode. From the data evaluated during 1980--1994, it was found that failures of surge arresters and suppressers by short circuits were neither a significant risk nor safety concern, and there were no failures of surge suppressers preventing a reactor trip. Simulations, using the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were performed to determine the adequacy of high voltage surge arresters.

  3. Effective protective surveillance for waterside-located chemical plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, John; Van Dover, Doug

    2006-05-01

    Millions of citizens live and work in the dangerous proximity of chemical plants, at ports and along waterways, which are under-protected and whose security is under-regulated, according to findings of the Congressional Research Service (CRS). There is a new and intense focus on the security of the nation's critical infrastructure. Thanks to recent philosophy and policy shifts within our federal government, the alarming situations in which we find ourselves will be mitigated somewhat a) by setting priorities based on proper threat analysis that considers event likelihoods and consequential impacts, and b) by employing effective systems design and engineering that will make it possible to address the highest priority threats with affordable solutions. It is the latter concern that we address, especially as it is relates to design and engineering of solutions for maintaining vigilance night and day. We begin by reviewing the nature of the facilities we wish to protect, our assumptions, and an accepted framework for analysis. Next we outline a hypothetical design case involving a representative facility and a plausible design basis threat. We then derive requirements for surveillance and examine the interrelationships among key design variables. Finally, we describe a solution involving multiple sensor types coupled with intelligent video. The end result is a significant increase in interdiction probability with a minimum of required assets.

  4. The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange; tectonic setting and melange formation in the Quebec Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, P.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange (RPOM) is the largest and best exposed of the three known ophiolitic melanges that contain blocks of Chain Lakes Massif (CLM). All three lie along the Baie Verte-Brompton line, which marks the suture between the continental rocks of the Humber zone and the oceanic rocks of the Dunnage zone. The ophiolitic melange is composed of: serpentinized ultramafic rocks, some of which are sheared and/or carbonatized; blocks of amphibolitized gabbro; basalt; volcanogenic breccia; and conglomerates. It also contains continental K-rich granitoid rocks and high-grade metamorphic (upper amphibolite facies) rocks. The RPOM is part of the Saint-Daniel Melange, an accretionary prism onto which the RPOM has been tectonically emplaced. The CLM was part of a terrane accreted to the Laurentian margin during the Taconian orogeny. Blocks of the CLM along the Baie Verte-Brompton line are interpreted as fragments of this terrane caught within the suture zone. It is proposed that the CLM could be the equivalent of Grenville-derived greywacke originally laid down during the phase of continental rifting that led to the formation of the Iapetus Ocean and was later tectonized and metamorphosed during the Taconian and Acadian orogenies. The RPOM would represent the relic of a serpentinite diapir that rose within a deep oceanic fault. The presence of continental rocks like the CLM suggest that a continental magmatic arc was put in contact with an oceanic crust along this fault.

  5. Plant foods and plant-based diets: protective against childhood obesity?

    PubMed

    Newby, P K

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the epidemiologic literature examining the role of plant foods and plant-based diets in the prevention of childhood obesity. Available data suggest a protective effect of ready-to-eat cereal on risk of obesity, although prospective studies are still needed. Studies on fruit and vegetables; grains other than cereal; high-protein foods, including beans, legumes, and soy; fiber; and plant-based dietary patterns are inconsistent or generally null. The evidence base is limited, and most studies are fraught with methodologic limitations, including cross-sectional design, inadequate adjustment for potential confounders, and lack of consideration of reporting errors, stage of growth, and genetic influences. Well-designed prospective studies are needed. The lack of evidence showing an association between plant-based diets and childhood obesity does not mean that such diets should not be encouraged. Plant foods are highlighted in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and children do not meet the current recommendations for most plant foods. Although the advice to consume a plant-based, low-energy-dense diet is sound, ethical questions arise concerning the relatively high price of these diets in the United States and the way in which such diets are perceived in other parts of the world. Reducing the burden of childhood obesity, eliminating health disparities, and preventing the further spread of the disease around the globe will require not only policy interventions to ensure that plant foods are affordable and accessible to children of all income levels but also awareness of sociocultural norms that affect consumption. PMID:19321559

  6. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for public comment.../CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire...

  7. Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant Response to Common Mode Failure of the Digital Plant Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheol Shin; Park, Chan Eok; Choi, Chul Jin; Seo, Jong Tae

    2002-07-15

    The Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) has adopted the digital plant protection system (PPS) to enhance the reliability and safety of the plant. Although the digital PPS can be designed with high reliability, it is considered to be vulnerable to common mode failure (CMF) in the system software, resulting in a total loss of the built-in hardware redundancy. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation has been performed to demonstrate the intrinsic capability of the KSNP design in coping with the design-basis events concurrent with CMF in the digital PPS. Instead of the conservative bounding analysis methodology, a best-estimate analysis methodology has been developed and utilized since the design-basis events accompanied by CMF in the digital PPS are categorized as beyond-design-basis events. An additional reactor trip function on high containment pressure in the diverse protection system (DPS), which is totally diverse from the PPS and is not affected by the CMF in the digital PPS, has been proposed to meet the acceptance criteria of the evaluation results. A variety of diverse means such as the DPS, process control systems, and operator actions including design modification have been verified to be effective in mitigating the design-basis events with CMF in the digital PPS.

  8. 40 CFR 158.2250 - Nontarget plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concern for aquatic plants. 3. Not required when: i. There are no potential exposures to plants; ii. The... Aquatic plant growth (aquatic vascular plant) Tier II—dose response R R R R CR TGAI, TEP TGAI, TEP 4, 10 850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal) Tier II (dose response) R R R R R TGAI, TEP TGAI, TEP 4, 5,...

  9. 40 CFR 158.2250 - Nontarget plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concern for aquatic plants. 3. Not required when: i. There are no potential exposures to plants; ii. The... Aquatic plant growth (aquatic vascular plant) Tier II—dose response R R R R CR TGAI, TEP TGAI, TEP 4, 10 850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal) Tier II (dose response) R R R R R TGAI, TEP TGAI, TEP 4, 5,...

  10. Relationship of fire protection research to plant safety. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    For several years, Sandia National Laboratories has been responsible for numerous tests of fire protection systems and concepts. Tests of fire retardant cables, cable coatings, cable tray covers, penetration seals, fire barriers, and spatial separation have been reported and summarized. Other tests involving the effectiveness of suppression systems and the vulnerability of electrical cabinets have been completed with reports in preparation. The following questions constitute the central theme of current fire research by Sandia and the NRC: under what conditions is spatial separation of redundant safety systems adequate; what are the temperature, smoke, humidity, or corrosive vapor damage thresholds of cable and safety equipment exposed to fire or suppression activities; what is the safety significance of fires involving control room cabinets or remote shutdown panels; and what is the relative importance of fire to nuclear power plant safety, as compared to other types of anticipated or postulated accidents. Evidence of why these questions seem important and a description of work being undertaken to address each question are reviewed in the following paragraphs.

  11. In vitro maintenance and cryopreservation of Plant Variety Protection vouchers germplasm of Solanum tuberosum cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS, National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation maintains the voucher germplasm of Plant Variety Protection (PVP) potato (S. tuberosum) cultivars registered with the U.S. Plant Variety Protection Office. The potato cultivars are deposited at the Center as tissue culture and are main...

  12. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Specially Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and...

  13. Overexpression of Superoxide Dismutase Protects Plants from Oxidative Stress (Induction of Ascorbate Peroxidase in Superoxide Dismutase-Overexpressing Plants).

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A. S.; Webb, R. P.; Holaday, A. S.; Allen, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    Photosynthesis of leaf discs from transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) that express a chimeric gene that encodes chloroplast-localized Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD+) was protected from oxidative stress caused by exposure to high light intensity and low temperature. Under the same conditions, leaf discs of plants that did not express the pea SOD isoform (SOD-) had substantially lower photosynthetic rates. Young plants of both genotypes were more sensitive to oxidative stress than mature plants, but SOD+ plants retained higher photosynthetic rates than SOD- plants at all developmental stages tested. Not surprisingly, SOD+ plants had approximately 3-fold higher SOD specific activity than SOD- plants. However, SOD+ plants also exhibited a 3- to 4-fold increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) specific activity and had a corresponding increase in levels of APX mRNA. Dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase specific activities were the same in both SOD+ and SOD- plants. These results indicate that transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress pea Cu/Zn SOD II can compensate for the increased levels of SOD with increased expression of the H2O2-scavenging enzyme APX. Therefore, the enhancement of the active oxygen-scavenging system that leads to increased oxidative stress protection in SOD+ plants could result not only from increased SOD levels but from the combined increases in SOD and APX activity. PMID:12232001

  14. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    SciTech Connect

    Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA . Dept. of Botany); Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G. ); Freeman, S. . Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1999-02-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) plant-defense response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and-susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  15. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redman, R.S.; Freeman, S.; Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) 'plant-defense' response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and -susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1 colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  16. Biochemical Analysis of Plant Protection Afforded by a Nonpathogenic Endophytic Mutant of Colletotrichum magna1

    PubMed Central

    Redman, Regina S.; Freeman, Stanley; Clifton, David R.; Morrel, Jed; Brown, Gayle; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    1999-01-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) plant-defense response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and -susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection. PMID:9952476

  17. [Plant growth promoting microorganisms as alternative to chemical protection from pathogens (review)].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, I V; Abizgil'dina, R R; Pusenkova, L I

    2011-01-01

    The review analyses data on physiological and biochemical influence of rhizospheric and endophytic microorganisms promoting plant growth (PGPR-plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) on induced resistance of plants and the possibility of its use in plant cultivation to protect crops from pathogens and phytophages. Resistance of plants provided by PGPR due to their endosymbiotic interrelationships is directly achieved because they produce peptide antibiotics and hydrolases ofchitin and glucan and also because plants form their own system of induced resistance, followed by changes in the balance of defensive proteins, phytohormones, and pro-/antioxidant status. PMID:21950110

  18. Novel enabling technologies of gene isolation and plant transformation for improved crop protection

    SciTech Connect

    Torok, Tamas

    2013-02-04

    Meeting the needs of agricultural producers requires the continued development of improved transgenic crop protection products. The completed project focused on developing novel enabling technologies of gene discovery and plant transformation to facilitate the generation of such products.

  19. Nuclear plant-aging research on reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the rsults of a review of the Reactor Trip System (RTS) and the Engineered Safety Feature Actuating System (ESFAS) operating experiences reported in Licensee Event Reports (LER)s, the Nuclear Power Experience data base, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, and plant maintenance records. Our purpose is to evaluate the potential significance of aging, including cycling, trips, and testing as contributors to degradation of the RTS and ESFAS. Tables are presented that show the percentage of events for RTS and ESFAS classified by cause, components, and subcomponents for each of the Nuclear Steam Supply System vendors. A representative Babcock and Wilcox plant was selected for detailed study. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research guidelines were followed in performing the detailed study that identified materials susceptible to aging, stressors, environmental factors, and failure modes for the RTS and ESFAS as generic instrumentation and control systems. Functional indicators of degradation are listed, testing requirements evaluated, and regulatory issues discussed.

  20. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    krovnkov, So?a; Miurcov, Ladislava; Mach?, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115

  1. De-Novo Design of Antimicrobial Peptides for Plant Protection

    PubMed Central

    Zeitler, Benjamin; Herrera Diaz, Areli; Dangel, Alexandra; Thellmann, Martha; Meyer, Helge; Sattler, Michael; Lindermayr, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the de-novo design of peptides that inhibit a broad range of plant pathogens. Four structurally different groups of peptides were developed that differ in size and position of their charged and hydrophobic clusters and were assayed for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth and fungal spore germination. Several peptides are highly active at concentrations between 0,1 and 1 µg/ml against plant pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Importantly, no hemolytic activity could be detected for these peptides at concentrations up to 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the peptides are also active after spraying on the plant surface demonstrating a possible way of application. In sum, our designed peptides represent new antimicrobial agents and with the increasing demand for antimicrobial compounds for production of “healthy” food, these peptides might serve as templates for novel antibacterial and antifungal agents. PMID:23951222

  2. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS...

  3. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS...

  4. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS...

  5. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS...

  6. Biotechnological Approaches in Plant Protection: Achievements, New Initiatives and Prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the latest developments in the application of biotechnology to solve crop looses due to fungal disease. These include marker-assisted breeding, map-based cloning of genes, and development of transgenic plants. New areas of investigation which hold much promise are gene silenci...

  7. PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANT CROP MONITORING USING REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extent of past and anticipated plantings of transgenic corn in the United States requires a new approach to monitor this important crop for the development of pest resistance. Remote sensing by aerial and/or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pest...

  8. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES IN PLANT PROTECTION: ACHIEVEMENTS, NEW INITIATIVES AND PROSPECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the latest developments in the application of biotechnology to solve crop looses due to fungal disease. These include marker-assisted breeding, map-based cloning of genes, and development of transgenic plants. New areas of investigation which hold much promise are gene silenci...

  9. Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    R. Flint Hughes; Jean-Yves Meyer, jean-yves.meyer@recherche.gov.pf; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in Hawaii began in the 1970s, arguably at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout Hawaii and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in Hawaii are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.

  10. Soil Bacteria Take Up D-Amino Acids, Protect Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H. J.; Zhang, G.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, many groups reported D-amino acid uptake by plant roots, raising the question of whether soil D-amino acids represent a source of nitrogen or a source of toxicity. The discussion needs to be placed in the context of competition with rhizosphere bacteria. To provide this context, we followed the concentrations of D- and L-enantiomers of alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and leucine after they were added to soils in the laboratory. In all cases, the uptake of L-enantiomer began immediately and proceeded rapidly until exhausted. In contrast, the uptake of D-enantiomer required induction: an initial period of inactivity followed by rapid consumption comparable in rate to L-enantiomer. The induced nature of the D activity was confirmed by the addition of rifampicin, an mRNA synthesis inhibitor. Preventing the synthesis of new enzymes abolished soil flora's ability to consume D-amino acids, but not L-amino acids. These results suggest that inducible special racemase enzymes, which can convert D-amino acids back to their native L-forms, are widespread among soil microorganisms. This finding does not rule out the possibility that some plants may out-compete microorganisms and be able to access D-amino acids. It does suggest, however, that rhizosphere bacteria can shield plants from the toxic effect of D-amino acids.

  11. Desirable plant root traits for protecting unstable slopes against landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, A.; Atger, C.; Bengough, G.; Fourcaud, T.; Sidle, R. C.

    2009-04-01

    A trait is defined as a distinct, quantitative property of organisms, usually measured at the individual level and used comparatively across species. Plant quantitative traits are extremely important for understanding the local ecology of any site. Plant height, architecture, root depth, wood density, leaf size and leaf nitrogen concentration control ecosystem processes and define habitat for other taxa. An engineer conjecturing as to how plant traits may directly influence physical processes occurring on sloping land just needs to consider how e.g. canopy architecture and litter properties influence the partitioning of rainfall among interception loss, infiltration and runoff. Plant traits not only influence abiotic processes occurring at a site, but also the habitat for animals and invertebrates. Depending on the goal of the landslide engineer, the immediate and long-term effects of plant traits in an environment must be considered if a site is to remain viable and ecologically successful. When vegetation is considered in models of slope stability, usually the only root parameters taken into consideration are tensile strength and root area ratio. Root system spatial structure is not considered, although the length, orientation and diameter of roots are recognized as being of importance. Thick roots act like soil nails on slopes, reinforcing soil in the same way that concrete is reinforced with steel rods. The spatial position of these thick roots also has an indirect effect on soil fixation in that the location of thin and fine roots will depend on the arrangement of thick roots. Thin and fine roots act in tension during failure on slopes and if they cross the slip surface, are largely responsible for reinforcing soil on slopes. Therefore, the most important trait to consider initially is rooting depth. To stabilize a slope against a shallow landslide, roots must cross the shear surface. The number and thickness of roots in this zone will therefore largely determine slope stability. Rooting depth is species dependent when soil conditions are not limiting and the number of horizontal lateral roots borne on the vertical roots usually changes with depth. Therefore, the number and orientation of roots that the shear surface intersects will change significantly with rooting depth for the same plant, even for magnitudes of only several cm. Similarly, depending on the geometry of the root system, the angle at which a root crosses the shear surface can also have an influence on its resistance to pullout and breakage. The angle at which a root emerges from the parent root is dependent on root type, depth and species (when soil conditions are not limiting). Due to the physiology of roots, a root branch can be initiated at any point along a parent root, but not necessarily emerge fully from the parent root. These traits, along with others including size, relative growth rate, regeneration strategies, wood structure and strength will be discussed with regard to their influence on slope stability. How each of these traits is influenced by soil conditions and plantation techniques is also of extreme importance to the landslide engineer. The presence of obstacles in the soil, as well as compaction, affects root length and branching pattern. Roots of many species of woody plants on shallow soils also tend to grow along fractures deep into the underlying bedrock which allows roots to locate supplies of nutrient and water rich pockets. Rooting depths of herbaceous species in water-limited environments are highly correlated with infiltration depth, but waterlogged soils can asphyxiate tree roots, resulting in shallow root systems. The need to understand and integrate each of these traits for a species is not easy. Therefore, we suggest a hierarchy whereby traits are considered in order of importance, along with how external factors influence their expression over time.

  12. Biodegradation and plant protection from the herbicide 2,4-D by plant-microbial associations in cotton production systems.

    PubMed

    Feng, L; Kennedy, I R

    1997-06-20

    A significant "biosafening" protection of plants from the effect of 2,4-D in plant-microbial associations has been demonstrated in this study. The 2,4-D-degrading plasmid, pJP4 was transferred into Rhizobium sp. CB1024, which nodulates Dolichos lablab, and Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 carrying a nifA-lacZ gene marker, which can colonize cotton roots. Both transconjugants degraded 2,4-D in pure culture via cometabolism up to 50 microg mL(-1). When the transconjugants were inoculated onto Dolichos lablab and cotton, respectively, such plants were resistant to this herbicide when the nutrient solution was treated with 2,4-D up to 10 microg mL(-1) for Dolichos lablab and 0.5 microg mL(-1) for cotton. Plants inoculated with wild-type strains were dead (Dolichos lablab) or dying (cotton). Because cotton is more sensitive to herbicides, only incomplete protection of plants was achieved with the transconjugant. Improving the effect of colonization of Azospirillum on cotton roots may be critical for a complete degradation and plant protection. The transconjugant of Rhizobium sp. CB1024 was still able to nodulate Dolichos lablab, N(2)-fixing activity was only slightly affected. Other pesticide-degrading capacities may also be inserted into those plant-associated bacterial strains for the degradation of these chemicals by plant-microbial associations. Whether such systems will be successful when applied in the field with competition from other bacteria is being examined. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 53: 513-519, 1997. PMID:18636407

  13. Plant responses to stresses: Role of ascorbate peroxidase in the antioxidant protection

    PubMed Central

    Caverzan, Andria; Passaia, Gisele; Rosa, Silvia Barcellos; Ribeiro, Carolina Werner; Lazzarotto, Fernanda; Margis-Pinheiro, Mrcia

    2012-01-01

    When plants are exposed to stressful environmental conditions, the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) increases and can cause significant damage to the cells. Antioxidant defenses, which can detoxify ROS, are present in plants. A major hydrogen peroxide detoxifying system in plant cells is the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, in which, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) enzymes play a key role catalyzing the conversion of H2O2 into H2O, using ascorbate as a specific electron donor. Different APX isoforms are present in distinct subcellular compartments, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisome, and cytosol. The expression of APX genes is regulated in response to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during plant development. The APX responses are directly involved in the protection of plant cells against adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, mutant plants APX genes showed alterations in growth, physiology and antioxidant metabolism revealing those enzymes involvement in the normal plant development. PMID:23412747

  14. DC wiring system grounding and ground fault protection issues for central station photovoltaic power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simburger, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    The DC wiring system for a photovoltaic power plant presents a number of unique challenges to be overcome by the plant designers. There are a number of different configurations that the grounding of the DC wiring system can take, and the choice will affect the number and type of protective devices required to ensure safety of personnel and protection of equipment. The major grounding and fault protection considerations that must be taken into account when selecting the basic overall circuit configuration are summarized. The inherent advantages and disadvantages of each type of circuit grounding (resistance or solid) along with the personnel safety and equipment protection issues for each of these grounding methods are presented.

  15. Generation of protective immune response against anthrax by oral immunization with protective antigen plant-based vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gorantala, Jyotsna; Grover, Sonam; Rahi, Amit; Chaudhary, Prerna; Rajwanshi, Ravi; Sarin, Neera Bhalla; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2014-04-20

    In concern with frequent recurrence of anthrax in endemic areas and inadvertent use of its spores as biological weapon, the development of an effective anthrax vaccine suitable for both human and veterinary needs is highly desirable. A simple oral delivery through expression in plant system could offer promising alternative to the current methods that rely on injectable vaccines extracted from bacterial sources. In the present study, we have expressed protective antigen (PA) gene in Indian mustard by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and in tobacco by plastid transformation. Putative transgenic lines were verified for the presence of transgene and its expression by molecular analysis. PA expressed in transgenic lines was biologically active as evidenced by macrophage lysis assay. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral immunization with plant PA in murine model indicated high serum PA specific IgG and IgA antibody titers. PA specific mucosal immune response was noted in orally immunized groups. Further, antibodies indicated lethal toxin neutralizing potential in-vitro and conferred protection against in-vivo toxin challenge. Oral immunization experiments demonstrated generation of immunoprotective response in mice. Thus, our study examines the feasibility of oral PA vaccine expressed in an edible plant system against anthrax. PMID:24548460

  16. Protection des ions organiques contre les dommages induits a l'ADN par les electrons de basse energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Ariane

    Il a ete demontre que les electrons de basse energie (EBE) peuvent induire des cassures simple brin (CSB) a l'ADN, via la formation d'anions transitoires qui decroissent par attachement dissociatif, ou dans d'autres etats electroniques dissociatifs menant a la fragmentation. Afin d'effectuer une etude complete des effets des electrons de basse energie sur la matiere biologique, il est necessaire de comprendre leur mecanismes d'interaction non seulement avec l'ADN, mais avec les constituants de son environnement. Les histones sont une composante importante de l'environnement moleculaire de l'ADN. Leur charge positive leur permet de s'associer aux groupements phosphate anionique de l'ADN. Le role principal de ces proteines basiques consiste a organiser l'ADN et l'empaqueter afin de former la chromatine. Les cations sont une autre composante importante de la cellule; ils jouent un role dans la stabilisation de la conformation B de l'ADN in vitro par leurs interactions avec les petits et grands sillons de l'ADN, ainsi qu'avec le groupement phosphate charge negativement. Avec les histones, ils participent egalement a la compaction de l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Cette etude a pour but de comprendre comment la presence d'ions organiques (sous forme de Tris et d'EDTA) a proximite de l'ADN modifie le rendement de cassures simple brin induit par les electrons de basse energie. Le Tris et l'EDTA ont-ete choisis comme objet d'etude, puisqu'en solution, ils forment le tampon standard pour solubiliser l'ADN dans les experiences in vitro (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA). De plus, la molecule Tris possede un groupement amine alors que l'EDTA possede 4 groupements carboxyliques. Ensembles, ils peuvent se comporter comme un modele simple pour les acides amines. Le ratio molaire de 10 :1 de Tris par rapport a l'EDTA a pour but d'imiter le comportement des histones qui sont riches en arginine et lysine, acides amines possedant un groupement amine charge positivement additionnel. Des films d'ADN de differentes epaisseurs, possedant entre 0 et 32 ions organiques/ nucleotide, ont ete irradies avec des electrons de 10eV. Les dommages induits par les electrons, sous forme de cassures, ont ete detectes par electrophorese. Nous avons demontre que le rendement de cassure simple brin diminuait de facon dramatique en fonction du nombre d'ions organiques/ nucleotide. Aussi peu que 2 ions organiques/ nucleotide sont suffisant pour decroitre le rendement de SSB de 70%. Cet effet radioprotecteur est en partie explique par l'augmentation de l'epaisseur des films, mais surtout par la modification du champ electrique a proximite de l'ADN, due a l'ajout de molecules chargees positivement. La modification du champ electrique pres de l'ADN altere les parametres de resonance comme le temps de vie de l'anion transitoire et la limite de dissociation, qui influent directement sur la section efficace d'attachement dissociatif. L'effet protecteur peut egalement etre explique par la restauration des bases anioniques deshydrogenees induites par l'attachement dissociatif de l'electron sur une base (G(-H)-). Ce sont les molecules Tris qui, en transferant un atome d'hydrogene ou un proton, restaurent les bases deshydrogenees et inhibent par le fait meme la formation de cassures simple brin. Ces resultats indiquent que les histones peuvent egalement participer a la reparation de dommages precoces induits a l'ADN avant qu'elles ne menent a des dommages encore plus nocifs et difficiles a reparer, comme les cassures simples brins. Mots cles : Electrons de basse energie, dommage a l'ADN, ions organiques, attachement dissociatif de l'electron.

  17. Material protection, control and accounting cooperation at the Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP), Novouralsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S., LLNL

    1998-07-15

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is one of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy`s nuclear material production sites participating in the US Department of Energy`s Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is Russia`s largest uranium enrichment facility and blends tons of high-enriched uranium into low enriched uranium each year as part of the US high-enriched uranium purchase. The Electrochemical Integrated Plant and six participating national laboratories are cooperating to implement a series of enhancements to the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability systems at the site This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A program at Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant and the work completed as of the date of the presentation.

  18. Thyme to touch: infants possess strategies that protect them from dangers posed by plants.

    PubMed

    Wertz, Annie E; Wynn, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Plants have been central to human life as sources of food and raw materials for artifact construction over evolutionary time. But plants also have chemical and physical defenses (such as harmful toxins and thorns) that provide protection from herbivores. The presence of these defenses has shaped the behavioral strategies of non-human animals. Here we report evidence that human infants possess strategies that would serve to protect them from dangers posed by plants. Across two experiments, infants as young as eight months exhibit greater reluctance to manually explore plants compared to other entities. These results expand the growing literature showing that infants are sensitive to certain ancestrally recurrent dangers, and provide a basis for further exploration. PMID:24161794

  19. Genetic Structure, Diversity and Long Term Viability of a Medicinal Plant, Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham. (Icacinaceae), in Protected and Non-Protected Areas in the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Shivaprakash, K. Nagaraju; Ramesha, B. Thimmappa; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Dayanandan, Selvadurai; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Question The harvesting of medicinal plants from wild sources is escalating in many parts of the world, compromising the long-term survival of natural populations of medicinally important plants and sustainability of sources of raw material to meet pharmaceutical industry needs. Although protected areas are considered to play a central role in conservation of plant genetic resources, the effectiveness of protected areas for maintaining medicinal plant populations subject to intense harvesting pressure remain largely unknown. We conducted genetic and demographic studies of Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham, one of the extensively harvested medicinal plant species in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India to assess the effectiveness of protected areas in long-term maintenance of economically important plant species. Methodology/Principal Findings The analysis of adults and seedlings of N. nimmoniana in four protected and four non-protected areas using 7 nuclear microsatellite loci revealed that populations that are distributed within protected areas are subject to lower levels of harvesting and maintain higher genetic diversity (He?=?0.816, Ho?=?0.607, A?=?18.857) than populations in adjoining non-protected areas (He?=?0.781, Ho?=?0.511, A?=?15.571). Furthermore, seedlings in protected areas had significantly higher observed heterozygosity (Ho?=?0.630) and private alleles as compared to seedlings in adjoining non-protected areas (Ho?=?0.426). Most populations revealed signatures of recent genetic bottleneck. The prediction of long-term maintenance of genetic diversity using BOTTLESIM indicated that current population sizes of the species are not sufficient to maintain 90% of present genetic diversity for next 100 years. Conclusions/Significance Overall, these results highlight the need for establishing more protected areas encompassing a large number of adult plants in the Western Ghats to conserve genetic diversity of economically and medicinally important plant species. PMID:25493426

  20. Evaluation experimentale de l'efficacite des gants de protection contre les nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane dans des conditions de travail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinches, Ludwig

    Manufactured titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) enter into the formulation of several commercial products including cosmetics, paints, varnishes or food. An increasing number of people will be exposed to nanoparticles (NP), in particular, scientists during their research and workers in companies. As such, they are an emerging source of hazard. Indeed, an increasing number of studies are warning against their likely harmful effects on health. The International Agency for Research against Cancer has classified nTiO2 as being possibly carcinogenic to humans. Furthermore some studies have shown that the skin is not an impervious membrane to the NP and that NP penetration is possible when the skin is injured by abrasion, after repeated flexions or even intact. Therefore, dermal protection will be necessary in order to thoroughly protect NP users. Based upon the precautionary principle, gloves should be used as protection against chemicals. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study on their resistance towards NP has been conducted. In this study, the performance of protective gloves was evaluated with respect to nTiO2 solutions and powders, under conditions simulating occupational use. Mechanical deformations, simulating those produced by hand flexing, were applied to nitrile and butyl rubber and latex samples that were in contact with nTiO2 in water, in propylene glycol or in powder form. nTiO 2 penetration through the protective gloves was determined after deformations of the materials. Following these results, the physicochemical and mechanical phenomena that facilitate the penetration of nTiO2 were identified and studied. It was shown that mechanical deformations caused both damage to the sample surface but also a change in the degree of crystallinity of the glove material. Strain energy was also measured. It decreased significantly in presence and absence of nTiO2, indicating a weakening of the polymer chains. A qualitative study showed that repetitive deformations also lead to a decrease in the size of the agglomerates that were contained in the nTiO2 powder. Glove materials that were in contact with colloidal solutions produced a swelling phenomenon. Finally, measurements of the elongation of glove samples immersed in colloidal solutions were used to determine diffusion coefficients across the materials. The transport of the nanoparticles was driven by that of the carrier liquid (water or propylene glycol). Given the carrier solutions and nanoparticles could be transported through the gloves, exposure to skin could occur.

  1. Hexanoic acid protects tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea by priming defence responses and reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Finiti, Ivan; de la O Leyva, Mara; Vicedo, Begonya; Gmez-Pastor, Roco; Lpez-Cruz, Jaime; Garca-Agustn, Pilar; Real, Maria Dolores; Gonzlez-Bosch, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Treatment with the resistance priming inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) protects tomato plants from Botrytis cinerea by activating defence responses. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR), we compared the expression profiles of three different conditions: Botrytis-infected plants (Inf), Hx-treated plants (Hx) and Hx-treated + infected plants (Hx+Inf). The microarray analysis at 24?h post-inoculation showed that Hx and Hx+Inf plants exhibited the differential expression and priming of many Botrytis-induced genes. Interestingly, we found that the activation by Hx of other genes was not altered by the fungus at this time point. These genes may be considered to be specific targets of the Hx priming effect and may help to elucidate its mechanisms of action. It is noteworthy that, in Hx and Hx+Inf plants, there was up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor genes, DNA-binding factors, enzymes involved in plant hormone signalling and synthesis, and, remarkably, the genes involved in oxidative stress. Given the relevance of the oxidative burst occurring in plant-pathogen interactions, the effect of Hx on this process was studied in depth. We showed by specific staining that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in Hx+Inf plants was reduced and more restricted around infection sites. In addition, these plants showed higher ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and ascorbate, and normal levels of antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that Hx protects tomato plants from B.?cinerea by regulating and priming Botrytis-specific and non-specific genes, preventing the harmful effects of oxidative stress produced by infection. PMID:24320938

  2. An ants-eye view of an ant-plant protection mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Lanan, M. C.; Bronstein, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Ant protection of extrafloral nectar-secreting plants (EFN plants) is a common form of mutualism found in most habitats around the world. However, very few studies have considered these mutualisms from the ant, rather than the plant, perspective. In particular, a whole-colony perspective that takes into account the spatial structure and nest arrangement of the ant colonies that visit these plants has been lacking, obscuring when and how colony-level foraging decisions might affect tending rates on individual plants. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that recruitment of Crematogaster opuntiae (Buren) ant workers to the extrafloral nectar-secreting cactus Ferocactus wislizeni (Englem) is not independent between plants up to 5m apart. Colony territories of C. opuntiae are large, covering areas of up to 5000m2, and workers visit between five and thirty-four extrafloral nectar-secreting barrel cacti within the territories. These ants are highly polydomous, with up to twenty nest entrances dispersed throughout the territory and interconnected by trail networks. Our study demonstrates that worker recruitment is not independent within large polydomous ant colonies, highlighting the importance of considering colonies rather than individual workers as the relevant study unit within ant/plant protection mutualisms PMID:23515612

  3. Broad-Spectrum Protection against Tombusviruses Elicited by Defective Interfering RNAs in Transgenic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Teresa; Borja, Maris; Scholthof, Herman B.; Feldstein, Paul A.; Morris, T. Jack; Jackson, Andrew O.

    1999-01-01

    We have designed a DNA cassette to transcribe defective interfering (DI) RNAs of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and have investigated their potential to protect transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants from tombusvirus infections. To produce RNAs with authentic 5? and 3? termini identical to those of the native B10 DI RNA, the DI RNA sequences were flanked by ribozymes (RzDI). When RzDI RNAs transcribed in vitro were mixed with parental TBSV transcripts and inoculated into protoplasts or plants, they became amplified, reduced the accumulation of the parental RNA, and mediated attenuation of the lethal syndrome characteristic of TBSV infections. Analysis of F1 and F2 RzDI transformants indicated that uninfected plants expressed the DI RNAs in low abundance, but these RNAs were amplified to very high levels during TBSV infection. By two weeks postinoculation with TBSV, all untransformed N. benthamiana plants and transformed negative controls died. Although infection of transgenic RzDI plants initially induced moderate to severe symptoms, these plants subsequently recovered, flowered, and set seed. Plants from the same transgenic lines also exhibited broad-spectrum protection against related tombusviruses but remained susceptible to a distantly related tombus-like virus and to unrelated viruses. PMID:10233970

  4. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... (78 FR 45573) a request for public comment on NUREG/CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG/CR, reopening of comment...

  5. Seaweed Polysaccharides and Derived Oligosaccharides Stimulate Defense Responses and Protection Against Pathogens in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Gonzalez, Alberto; Moenne, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Plants interact with the environment by sensing non-self molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae) corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense responses in plants enhancing protection against pathogens. In addition, oligosaccharides obtained by depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides also induce protection against viral, fungal and bacterial infections in plants. In particular, most seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides trigger an initial oxidative burst at local level and the activation of salicylic (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and/or ethylene signaling pathways at systemic level. The activation of these signaling pathways leads to an increased expression of genes encoding: (i) Pathogenesis-Related (PR) proteins with antifungal and antibacterial activities; (ii) defense enzymes such as pheylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) which determine accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs) and oxylipins with antiviral, antifugal and antibacterial activities and iii) enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenes, terpenoids and/or alkaloids having antimicrobial activities. Thus, seaweed polysaccharides and their derived oligosaccharides induced the accumulation of proteins and compounds with antimicrobial activities that determine, at least in part, the enhanced protection against pathogens in plants. PMID:22363237

  6. PLANT FRUCTANS: A NOVEL CLASS OF POLYMERIC PROTECTANTS FOR MEMBRANES DURING DRYING.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fructan (polyfructose)-family of oligo- and polysaccharides is a group of compounds that have for a long time been implicated as protective agents in the drought and freezing tolerance of many plant species. We have shown before that low concentrations (up to 10 mg/mL) of inulins (linear fructos...

  7. Seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides stimulate defense responses and protection against pathogens in plants.

    PubMed

    Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Gonzalez, Alberto; Moenne, Alejandra

    2011-12-01

    Plants interact with the environment by sensing "non-self" molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae) corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense responses in plants enhancing protection against pathogens. In addition, oligosaccharides obtained by depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides also induce protection against viral, fungal and bacterial infections in plants. In particular, most seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides trigger an initial oxidative burst at local level and the activation of salicylic (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and/or ethylene signaling pathways at systemic level. The activation of these signaling pathways leads to an increased expression of genes encoding: (i) Pathogenesis-Related (PR) proteins with antifungal and antibacterial activities; (ii) defense enzymes such as pheylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) which determine accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs) and oxylipins with antiviral, antifugal and antibacterial activities and iii) enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenes, terpenoids and/or alkaloids having antimicrobial activities. Thus, seaweed polysaccharides and their derived oligosaccharides induced the accumulation of proteins and compounds with antimicrobial activities that determine, at least in part, the enhanced protection against pathogens in plants. PMID:22363237

  8. FIELD ASSESSMENT OF INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT (IRM) FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED-PROTECTANTS (PIPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of target pest resistance to the products of transgene[s], e.g., plant-incorporated protectants is a serious risk both to the sustainability of these crops and to the wider utility of environmentally soft microbial pesticides. Therefore, the EPA requires growers...

  9. Molecular Characterization of Maize Inbreds with Expired U.S. Plant Variety Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize inbred lines with expired Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) certificates are publically available and potentially represent a new germplasm resource for many public and private breeding programs. However, accurate pedigree and genetic background information for ex-PVPA maize inbreds is nece...

  10. Protective perfumes: the role of vegetative volatiles in plant defense against herbivores.

    PubMed

    Unsicker, Sybille B; Kunert, Grit; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    Herbivore damage to leaves and other vegetative tissues often stimulates the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting that these substances have a role in plant defense. In fact, ample evidence has accumulated in the last few years indicating that volatiles from vegetative plant parts can directly repel herbivores, such as ovipositing butterflies and host-seeking aphids. Volatiles have also been demonstrated to protect plants by attracting herbivore enemies, such as parasitic wasps, predatory arthropods and possibly even insectivorous birds. Even below ground herbivory results in the release of volatiles that attract herbivore enemies. However, plant volatiles are also known to attract enemies of plants. Hence, to determine the true value of these substances in defense, more research is needed especially in natural communities with non-agricultural species. PMID:19467919

  11. Anti-corrosion protection for structural members and buildings at metallurgical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Strebkov, V.T.

    2005-06-01

    This article describes anti-corrosion measures implemented by the contractor Ankor to protect the metal structures in existing shops at the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant. The method used to choose the coating system and technology is described along with the practical application of an effective method for protecting metal structures from corrosion. The anti-corrosion protection given natural draft cooling tower No. 1 at the coke and coal chemicals plant is used as an example. At a low cost in materials, the coating application system proposed by the contractor made it possible to guarantee a service life of 6-7 years for the metal structures, decrease the consumption of paint and lacquer by 18%, reduce the job cost by 20%, and complete the repair on schedule.

  12. Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants.

    PubMed

    Ghormade, Vandana; Deshpande, Mukund V; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2011-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides and fertilizers causes environmental pollution, emergence of agricultural pests and pathogens, and loss of biodiversity. Nanotechnology, by virtue of nanomaterial related properties, has potential agro-biotechnological applications for alleviation of these problems. The literature pertaining to the role of nanotechnology in plant and soil systems demonstrates that nanomaterials may assist in a) the controlled release of agrochemicals for nutrition and protection against pests and pathogens, b) delivery of genetic material, c) sensitive detection of plant disease and pollutants and d) protection and formation of soil structure. For instance, porous silica (15nm) and biodegradable, polymeric chitosan (78nm) nanoparticles displayed slow release of encapsulated pesticide and fertilizer, respectively. Further, nanosized gold (5-25nm) delivered DNA to plant cells while iron oxide (30nm) based nanosensors detected pesticides at minute levels. These functions assist the development of precision farming by minimizing pollution and maximizing the value of farming practice. PMID:21729746

  13. Bio-based resistance inducers for sustainable plant protection against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Burketova, Lenka; Trda, Lucie; Ott, Peter G; Valentova, Olga

    2015-11-01

    An increasing demand for environmentally acceptable alternative for traditional pesticides provides an impetus to conceive new bio-based strategies in crop protection. Employing induced resistance is one such strategy, consisting of boosting the natural plant immunity. Upon infections, plants defend themselves by activating their immune mechanisms. These are initiated after the recognition of an invading pathogen via the microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) or other microbe-derived molecules. Triggered responses inhibit pathogen spread from the infected site. Systemic signal transport even enables to prepare, i.e. prime, distal uninfected tissues for more rapid and enhanced response upon the consequent pathogen attack. Similar defense mechanisms can be triggered by purified MAMPs, pathogen-derived molecules, signal molecules involved in plant resistance to pathogens, such as salicylic and jasmonic acid, or a wide range of other chemical compounds. Induced resistance can be also conferred by plant-associated microorganisms, including beneficial bacteria or fungi. Treatment with resistance inducers or beneficial microorganisms provides long-lasting resistance for plants to a wide range of pathogens. This study surveys current knowledge on resistance and its mechanisms provided by microbe-, algae- and plant-derived elicitors in different crops. The main scope deals with bacterial substances and fungus-derived molecules chitin and chitosan and algae elicitors, including naturally sulphated polysaccharides such as ulvans, fucans or carageenans. Recent advances in the utilization of this strategy in practical crop protection are also discussed. PMID:25617476

  14. Safety and advantages of Bacillus thuringiensis-protected plants to control insect pests.

    PubMed

    Betz, F S; Hammond, B G; Fuchs, R L

    2000-10-01

    Plants modified to express insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (referred to as Bt-protected plants) provide a safe and highly effective method of insect control. Bt-protected corn, cotton, and potato were introduced into the United States in 1995/1996 and grown on a total of approximately 10 million acres in 1997, 20 million acres in 1998, and 29 million acres globally in 1999. The extremely rapid adoption of these Bt-protected crops demonstrates the outstanding grower satisfaction of the performance and value of these products. These crops provide highly effective control of major insect pests such as the European corn borer, southwestern corn borer, tobacco budworm, cotton bollworm, pink bollworm, and Colorado potato beetle and reduce reliance on conventional chemical pesticides. They have provided notably higher yields in cotton and corn. The estimated total net savings to the grower using Bt-protected cotton in the United States was approximately $92 million in 1998. Other benefits of these crops include reduced levels of the fungal toxin fumonisin in corn and the opportunity for supplemental pest control by beneficial insects due to the reduced use of broad-spectrum insecticides. Insect resistance management plans are being implemented to ensure the prolonged effectiveness of these products. Extensive testing of Bt-protected crops has been conducted which establishes the safety of these products to humans, animals, and the environment. Acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicology studies conducted over the past 40 years establish the safety of the microbial Bt products, including their expressed insecticidal (Cry) proteins, which are fully approved for marketing. Mammalian toxicology and digestive fate studies, which have been conducted with the proteins produced in the currently approved Bt-protected plant products, have confirmed that these Cry proteins are nontoxic to humans and pose no significant concern for allergenicity. Food and feed derived from Bt-protected crops which have been fully approved by regulatory agencies have been shown to be substantially equivalent to the food and feed derived from conventional crops. Nontarget organisms exposed to high levels of Cry protein are virtually unaffected, except for certain insects that are closely related to the target pests. Because the Cry protein is contained within the plant (in microgram quantities), the potential for exposure to farm workers and nontarget organisms is extremely low. The Cry proteins produced in Bt-protected crops have been shown to rapidly degrade when crop residue is incorporated into the soil. Thus the environmental impact of these crops is negligible. The human and environmental safety of Bt-protected crops is further supported by the long history of safe use for Bt microbial pesticides around the world. PMID:11067772

  15. The Effect of a Digital Learning Environment on Children's Conceptions about the Protection of Endemic Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrou, Stella; Korfiatis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of a pilot learning intervention for improving children's ideas about plant protection. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase aimed at exploring children's ideas about plant protection. These ideas were taken into account for the design and development of a digital learning environment.…

  16. The Effect of a Digital Learning Environment on Children's Conceptions about the Protection of Endemic Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrou, Stella; Korfiatis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of a pilot learning intervention for improving children's ideas about plant protection. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase aimed at exploring children's ideas about plant protection. These ideas were taken into account for the design and development of a digital learning environment.

  17. Protection of Nuclear Plants Against Vehicular Bombs Via Full Spectrum Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Campagna, M. S.; Sawruk, W.

    2003-02-25

    A more urgent need now exists since 9/11 to protect vital assets at nuclear plants from physical security threats. Any approach to successful defense must result in the best possible risk profile , while also performing this defense against credible threats within the context of limited personnel and materiel resources. Engineered solutions need to be well thought out, and take advantage of each plant's available organic strengths and opportunities. A robust, well trained/equipped highly motivated protective force will help reduce concerns where there are weaknesses making the plant vulnerable to threats. A thorough risk assessment takes into account the proper combination of both deterministic and probabilistic application of resources as a most advantageous approach; this is postulated to be development of integrated protection methods and plans, which blend solid engineering design with the highest caliber of protection forces. By setting a clear and ambitious objective to shield the nuclear assets with this type of dynamic full spectrum defense in depth, the risk of harm-breach or likelihood of any opponent's threat being realized should be reduced to the lowest practicable levels.

  18. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Arjan Parishan protected area in Fars Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhahi, Mehdi; Dolatkhahi, Ali; Nejad, Javad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Today, medicinal plants are widely used in remedies for several ailments and improvement of human health because of their pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to document important useful medicinal plants and their medicinal characteristics for treatment of human ailments in the Arjan _ Parishan protected area in Fars province of Iran during 2010-2012. Materials and Methods : Data were obtained using direct interviews with 80 informants particularly those who were more familiar with the herbs and their medicinal properties. Collected plants were recognized and families, genera, and species determined using indispensable references. In this paper, scientific name, local name, parts used, and ways of application and ailments treated using traditional medicinal plant species have been provided. Results : We documented 85 plant species belonging to 39 families and 78 genera used for treating ailments. Among which, Asteraceae with 13 species was the most frequently used family and fruits and leaves were the favored parts for local users. Our results indicated that in this area, the highest compliance in the use of plants in treating ailments were related to the intestinal digestive system (40.8%). Conclusion : The present study is the first contribution to the ethnobotany of this region. Our results showed that some plants are used for medicinal purposes in this region, either for the same or for different purposes. Generally, the results of the present investigation can be used as a basis for selecting useful medicinal plants and also help to preserve precious information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. PMID:25386404

  19. Determination of the minimum fully protective dose of adenovirus-based DIVA vaccine against peste des petits ruminants virus challenge in East African goats.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Barbara; Taylor, Geraldine; Rajko-Nenow, Paulina; Hodgson, Sophia; Okoth, Edward; Herbert, Rebecca; Toye, Philip; Baron, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important disease of sheep and goats, primarily in developing countries. It is becoming the object of intensive international control efforts. Current vaccines do not allow vaccinated and infected animals to be distinguished (no DIVA capability). We have previously shown that recombinant, replication-defective, adenovirus expressing the PPRV H glycoprotein (AdH) gives full protection against wild type PPRV challenge. We have now tested lower doses of the vaccine, as well as AdH in combination with a similar construct expressing the PPRV F glycoprotein (AdF). We show here that, in a local breed of goat in a country where PPR disease is common (Kenya), as little as 10(7) pfu of AdH gives significant protection against PPRV challenge, while a vaccine consisting of 10(8) pfu of each of AdH and AdF gives apparently sterile protection. These findings underline the utility of these constructs as DIVA vaccines for use in PPR control. PMID:26796101

  20. Investigation flora and life form of plants in protected region Sarigol (North Khorasan Province, Iran).

    PubMed

    Nadaf, M; Mortazavi, S M

    2011-01-01

    Apart Flora, life form and chorotype of plants in protected region Sarigol was investigated in this study. It's located at the 57 degrees 47' to 57 degrees 76' Eastern latitude and 37 degrees 55' to 37 degrees 80' Northern longitude. A part plant of this area was collected in this region by classical method of regional floristic studies. The results of field investigation were identification of 78 plant species belong to 66 genera and 25 families. Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae and Asteraceae were the most dominant families analysis of life form has shown proportion hemicryptophytes 39.74, followed by therophytes 21.79%, chamaephytes 19.23%, cryptophytes 11.53% and phanerophytes 7.69%. phytogeographical data has indicated that the most plants belong to the Irano-Turanian floral elements 75.64%. PMID:21913503

  1. Fire protection review revisit No. 2, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, P.H.; Keller, D.R.; Treece, S.D.

    1990-02-01

    A fire protection survey was conducted for the Department of Energy at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky, from October 30--November 4, November 6--10, and December 4--8, 1989. The purpose of the survey was to review the facility fire protection program and to make recommendations. Surveys of other facilities resulted in a classification system for buildings which provide an indication of the importance of the building to the fulfillment of the mission of the facility. Recommendations in this report reflect to some degree the relative importance of the facility and the time to restore it to useful condition in the event a loss were to occur.

  2. Fire protection review revisit No. 2, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzer, D.R.; Mattern, L.J.; Voss, R.E.

    1990-06-01

    This report summarizes findings of a fire protection review conducted during January 22--26 and March 5--9, 1990, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio. The visit included a tour of the facility, water and fire pump tests, a review of records of testing and inspection of fire protection equipment, and an unannounced fire drill to assess fire department preparedness. All recommendations are contained in Sections 2 and 3. Recommendations involving loss potentials of $1 million or more are repeated in Appendix B.

  3. Protection of Operators and Environment - the Safety Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, J.; Kuttruf, H.; Lumpp, W.; Pfeifer, W.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.

    2002-02-26

    The Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) plant is a milestone in decommissioning and complete dismantling of the former Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant WAK, which is in an advanced stage of disassembly. The VEK is scheduled to vitrify approx. 70 m3 of the highly radioactive liquid waste (HLW) resulting from reprocessing. Site preparation, civil work and component manufacturing began in 1999. The building will be finalized by mid of 2002, hot vitrification operation is currently scheduled for 2004/2005. Provisions against damages arising from construction and operation of the VEK had to be made in accordance with the state of the art as laid down in the German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Regulations. For this purpose, the appropriate analysis of accidents and their external and internal impacts were investigated. During the detailed design phase, a failure effects analysis was carried out, in which single events were studied with respect to the objectives of protection and ensuring activity containment, limiting radioactive discharges to the environment and protecting of the staff. Parallel to the planning phase of the VEK plant a cold prototype test facility (PVA) covering the main process steps was constructed and operated at the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) of FZK. This pilot operation served to demonstrate the process technique and its operation with a simulated waste solution, and to test the main items of equipment, but was conducted also to use the experimental data and experience to back the safety concept of the radioactive VEK plant. This paper describes the basis of the safety concept of the VEK plant and results of the failure effect analysis. The experimental simulation of the failure scenarios, their effect on the process behavior, and the controllability of these events as well as the effect of the results on the safety concept of VEK are discussed. Additionally, an overview of the actual status of civil work and manufacturing of the technical equipment is given.

  4. Habitat models to assist plant protection efforts in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Manen, F.T.; Young, J.A.; Thatcher, C.A.; Cass, W.B.; Ulrey, C.

    2005-01-01

    During 2002, the National Park Service initiated a demonstration project to develop science-based law enforcement strategies for the protection of at-risk natural resources, including American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.), and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. [syn. Actaea racemosa L.]). Harvest pressure on these species is increasing because of the growing herbal remedy market. We developed habitat models for Shenandoah National Park and the northern portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway to determine the distribution of favorable habitats of these three plant species and to demonstrate the use of that information to support plant protection activities. We compiled locations for the three plant species to delineate favorable habitats with a geographic information system (GIS). We mapped potential habitat quality for each species by calculating a multivariate statistic, Mahalanobis distance, based on GIS layers that characterized the topography, land cover, and geology of the plant locations (10-m resolution). We tested model performance with an independent dataset of plant locations, which indicated a significant relationship between Mahalanobis distance values and species occurrence. We also generated null models by examining the distribution of the Mahalanobis distance values had plants been distributed randomly. For all species, the habitat models performed markedly better than their respective null models. We used our models to direct field searches to the most favorable habitats, resulting in a sizeable number of new plant locations (82 ginseng, 73 bloodroot, and 139 black cohosh locations). The odds of finding new plant locations based on the habitat models were 4.5 (black cohosh) to 12.3 (American ginseng) times greater than random searches; thus, the habitat models can be used to improve the efficiency of plant protection efforts, (e.g., marking of plants, law enforcement activities). The field searches also indicated that the level of occupancy of the most favorable habitats ranged from 49.4% for ginseng to 84.8% for black cohosh. Given the potential threats to these species from illegal harvesting, that information may serve as an important benchmark for future habitat and population assessments.

  5. Strategies to protect crop plants against viruses: pathogen-derived resistance blossoms.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, T M

    1993-01-01

    Since 1986, the ability to confer resistance against an otherwise devastating virus by introducing a single pathogen-derived or virus-targeted sequence into the DNA of a potential host plant has had a marked influence on much of the research effort, focus, and short-term objectives of plant virologists throughout the world. The vast literature on coat protein-mediated protection, for example, attests to our fascination for unraveling fundamental molecular mechanism(s), our (vain) search for a unifying hypothesis, our pragmatic interest in commercially exploitable opportunities for crop protection, and our ingenuity in manipulating transgene constructions to broaden their utility and reduce real or perceived environmental risk issues. Other single dominant, pathogen-derived plant resistance genes have recently been discovered from a wide variety of viruses and are operative in an ever-increasing range of plant species. Additional candidates seem limited only by the effort invested in experimentation and by our ingenuity and imagination. This review attempts to consider, in a critical way, the current state of the art, some exceptions, and some proposed rules. The final impression, from all the case evidence considered, is that normal virus replication requires a subtle blend of host- and virus-coded proteins, present in critical relative concentrations and at specific times and places. Any unregulated superimposition of interfering protein or nucleic acid species can, therefore, result in an apparently virus-resistant plant phenotype. PMID:8475051

  6. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the electrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14

    The Electrochemical Plant (ECP) is the one of the Russian Federation`s four uranium enrichment plants and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. ECP is located approximately 200 km east of Krasnoyarsk in the closed city of Zelenogorsk (formerly Krasnoyarsk- 45). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with ECP in September of 1996. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with ECP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at ECP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  7. Impacts of recreation and tourism on plant biodiversity and vegetation in protected areas in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Catherine Marina; Hill, Wendy

    2007-12-01

    This paper reviews recent research into the impact of recreation and tourism in protected areas on plant biodiversity and vegetation communities in Australia. Despite the international significance of the Australian flora and increasing visitation to protected areas there has been limited research on recreational and tourism impacts in Australia. As overseas, there are obvious direct impacts of recreation and tourism such as clearing of vegetation for infrastructure or damage from trampling, horse riding, mountain biking and off road vehicles. As well, there are less obvious but potentially more severe indirect impacts. This includes self-propagating impacts associated with the spread of some weeds from trails and roads. It also includes the severe impact on native vegetation, including many rare and threatened plants, from spread of the root rot fungus Phytopthora cinnamomi. This review highlights the need for more recreational ecology research in Australia. PMID:17234325

  8. Coil protection for a utility scale superconducting magnetic energy storage plant

    SciTech Connect

    Loyd, R.J.; Schoenung, S.M.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Rogers, J.D.; Purcell, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is proposed for electric utility load leveling. Attractive costs, high diurnal energy efficiency (greater than or equal to 92%), and rapid response are advantages relative to other energy storage technologies. Recent industry-led efforts have produced a conceptual design for a 5000 MWh/1000 MW energy storage plant which is technically feasible at commercially attractive estimated costs. The SMES plant design includes a protection system which prevents damage to the magnetic coil if events require a rapid discharge of stored energy. This paper describes the design and operation of the coil protection system, which is primarily passive and uses the thermal capacity of the coil itself to absorb the stored electromagnetic energy.

  9. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the Urals electrochemical integrated plant

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) is the Russian Federation`s largest uranium enrichment plant and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. UEIP is located approximately 70 km north of Yekaterinburg in the closed city of Novouralsk (formerly Sverdlovsk- 44). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with UEIP in June of 1996, however because of some contractual issues the work did not start until September of 1997. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with UEIP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at UEIP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  10. Assessment of ethylene diurea-induced protection in plants against ozone phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya Abha; Singh, Shalini; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization, industrialization and unsustainable utilization of natural resources have made tropospheric ozone (03) one of the world's most significant air pollutants. Past studies reveal that 0 3 is a phytotoxic air pollutant that causes or enhances food insecurity across the globe. Plant sensitivity, tolerance and resistance to 0 3 involve a wide array of responses that range from growth to the physiological, biochemical and molecular. Although plants have an array of defense systems to combat oxidative stress from 0 3 exposure, they still suffer sizable yield reductions. In recent years, the ground-level 0 3 concentrations to which crop plants have been exposed have caused yield loses that are economically damaging. Several types of chemicals have been applied or used to mitigate the effects produced by 0 3 on plants. These include agrochemicals (fungicides, insecticides, plant growth regulators), natural antioxidants, and others. Such treatments have been effective to one degree to another, in ameliorating Or generated stress in plants. Ethylene diurea (EDU) has been the most effective protectant used and has also served as a monitoring agent for assessing plant yield losses from 0 3 exposure. In this review, we summarize the data on how EDU has been used, the treatment methods tested, and application doses found to be both protective and toxic in plants. We have also summarized data that address the nature and modes of action (biophysical and biochemical) of EDU. In general, the literature discloses that EDU is effective in reducing ozone damage to plants, and indicates that EDU should be more widely used on 0 3 sensitive plants as a tool for biomonitoring of 0 3 concentrations. Biomonitoring studies that utilize EDU are very useful for rural and remote areas and in developing countries where 0 3 monitoring is constrained from unavailability of electricity. The mechanism(s) by which EDU prevents 0 3 toxicity in plants is still not completely known. EDU possesses great utility for screening plant sensitivity under field conditions in areas that experience high 0 3 concentrations, because EDU prevents 0 3 toxicity only in 0 3 sensitive plants. Ozone-resistant plants do not respond positively to EDU applications. However, EDU application dose and frequency must be standardized before it can be effectively and widely used for screening 0 3 sensitivity in plants. EDU acts primarily by enhancing biochemical plant defense and delaying Or induced senescence, thereby reducing chlorophyll loss, and maintaining physiological efficiency and primary metabolites; these actions enhance growth, biomass and yield of plants. We believe that future studies are needed to better address the EDU dose response relationship for many plant species, and to screen for new cultivars that can resist 0 3 stress. Although some research on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of action of EDU have been performed, the new 'omics' tools have not been utilized to evaluate EDUs mechanism of action. Such data are needed, as is gene expression and proteome profiling studies on EDU-treated and -untreated plants. PMID:25367135

  11. 77 FR 47591 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Plant Protection and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Plant Health Programs (PHP) unit, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Animal and Plant Health Inspection... for continual improvement of its performance. In 2009, PHP did not renew its certification in the ISO 9001:2000 standard due to internal agency changes; however, PHP determined that it wanted to...

  12. Predicting the presence and cover of management relevant invasive plant species on protected areas.

    PubMed

    Iacona, Gwenllian; Price, Franklin D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-01-15

    Invasive species are a management concern on protected areas worldwide. Conservation managers need to predict infestations of invasive plants they aim to treat if they want to plan for long term management. Many studies predict the presence of invasive species, but predictions of cover are more relevant for management. Here we examined how predictors of invasive plant presence and cover differ across species that vary in their management priority. To do so, we used data on management effort and cover of invasive plant species on central Florida protected areas. Using a zero-inflated multiple regression framework, we showed that protected area features can predict the presence and cover of the focal species but the same features rarely explain both. There were several predictors of either presence or cover that were important across multiple species. Protected areas with three days of frost per year or fewer were more likely to have occurrences of four of the six focal species. When invasive plants were present, their proportional cover was greater on small preserves for all species, and varied with surrounding household density for three species. None of the predictive features were clearly related to whether species were prioritized for management or not. Our results suggest that predictors of cover and presence can differ both within and across species but do not covary with management priority. We conclude that conservation managers need to select predictors of invasion with care as species identity can determine the relationship between predictors of presence and the more management relevant predictors of cover. PMID:26599567

  13. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Sairazi, Nur Shafika; Sirajudeen, K. N. S.; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Mummedy, Swamy; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2015-01-01

    Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS). In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA). KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration. PMID:26793262

  14. A novel strategy of natural plant ferritin to protect DNA from oxidative damage during iron oxidation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiayun; Lv, Chenyan; Zhang, Xiuqing; Masuda, Taro; Li, Meiliang; Zhao, Guanghua

    2012-07-15

    Plant ferritin is a naturally occurring heteropolymer in plastids, where Fe(2+) is oxidatively deposited into the protein. However, the effect of this process on the coexistence of DNA and plant ferritin in the plastids is unknown. To investigate this effect, we built a system in which various plant ferritins and DNA coexist, followed by treatment with ferrous ions under aerobic conditions. Interestingly, naturally occurring soybean seed ferritin (SSF), a heteropolymer with an H-1/H-2 ratio of 1 to 1 in the apo form, completely protected DNA from oxidative damage during iron oxidative deposition into protein, and a similar result was obtained with its recombinant form, but not with its homopolymeric counterparts, apo rH-1 and apo rH-2. We demonstrate that the difference in DNA protection between heteropolymeric and homopolymeric plant ferritins stems from their different strategies to control iron chemistry during the above oxidative process. For example, the detoxification reaction occurs only in the presence of apo heteropolymeric SSF (hSSF), thereby preventing the production of hydroxyl radicals. In contrast, hydroxyl radicals are apparently generated via the Fenton reaction when apo rH-1 or rH-2 is used instead of apo hSSF. Thus, a combination of H-1 and H-2 subunits in hSSF seems to impart a unique DNA-protective function to the protein, which was previously unrecognized. This new finding advances our understanding of the structure and function of ferritin and of the widespread occurrence of heteropolymeric plant ferritin in nature. PMID:22580341

  15. Thermal tolerance affects mutualist attendance in an ant-plant protection mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Ginny; Lanan, Michele C.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Mutualism is an often-complex interaction among multiple species, each of which may respond differently to abiotic conditions. The effects of temperature on the formation, dissolution, and success of these and other species interactions remain poorly understood. We studied the thermal ecology of the mutualism between the cactus Ferocactus wislizeni and its ant defenders (Forelius pruinosus, Crematogaster opuntiae, Solenopsis aurea, and Solenopsis xyloni) in the Sonoran Desert, USA. The ants are attracted to extrafloral nectar produced by the plants and in exchange protect the plants from herbivores; there is a hierarchy of mutualist effectiveness based on aggression toward herbivores. We determined the relationship between temperature and ant activity on plants, the thermal tolerance of each ant species, and ant activity in relation to the thermal environment of plants. Temperature played a role in determining which species interact as mutualists. Three of the four ant species abandoned the plants during the hottest part of the day (up to 40C), returning when surface temperature began to decrease in the afternoon. The least effective ant mutualist, F. pruinosus, had a significantly higher critical thermal maximum than the other three species, was active across the entire range of plant surface temperatures observed (13.8-57.0C), and visited plants that reached the highest temperatures. F. pruinosus occupied some plants full-time and invaded plants occupied by more dominant species when those species were thermally excluded. Combining data on thermal tolerance and mutualist effectiveness provides a potentially powerful tool for predicting the effects of temperature on mutualisms and mutualistic species. PMID:25012597

  16. Feeding transgenic plants that express a tolerogenic fusion protein effectively protects against arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Charlotta; Schön, Karin; Kalbina, Irina; Strid, Åke; Andersson, Sören; Bokarewa, Maria I; Lycke, Nils Y

    2016-04-01

    Although much explored, oral tolerance for treatment of autoimmune diseases still awaits the establishment of novel and effective vectors. We investigated whether the tolerogenic CTA1(R7K)-COL-DD fusion protein can be expressed in edible plants, to induce oral tolerance and protect against arthritis. The fusion protein was recombinantly expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana plants, which were fed to H-2(q) -restricted DBA/1 mice to assess the preventive effect on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The treatment resulted in fewer mice exhibiting disease and arthritis scores were significantly reduced. Immune suppression was evident in treated mice, and serum biomarkers for inflammation as well as anticollagen IgG responses were reduced. In spleen and draining lymph nodes, CD4(+) T-cell responses were reduced. Concomitant with a reduced effector T-cell activity with lower IFNγ, IL-13 and IL-17A production, we observed an increase in IL-10 production to recall antigen stimulation in vitro, suggesting reduced Th1, Th2 and Th17 activity subsequent to up-regulated IL-10 and regulatory T-cell (Treg) functions. This study shows that edible plants expressing a tolerogen were effective at stimulating CD4 T-cell tolerance and in protecting against CIA disease. Our study conveys optimism as to the potential of using edible plants for oral treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26403330

  17. Insecticidal activity of plant lectins and potential application in crop protection.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Oliveira, Caio F R; Oliveira, Carolina T

    2015-01-01

    Lectins constitute a complex group of proteins found in different organisms. These proteins constitute an important field for research, as their structural diversity and affinity for several carbohydrates makes them suitable for numerous biological applications. This review addresses the classification and insecticidal activities of plant lectins, providing an overview of the applicability of these proteins in crop protection. The likely target sites in insect tissues, the mode of action of these proteins, as well as the use of lectins as biotechnological tools for pest control are also described. The use of initial bioassays employing artificial diets has led to the most recent advances in this field, such as plant breeding and the construction of fusion proteins, using lectins for targeting the delivery of toxins and to potentiate expected insecticide effects. Based on the data presented, we emphasize the contribution that plant lectins may make as tools for the development of integrated insect pest control strategies. PMID:25633332

  18. Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Awl, D.J.; Pounds, L.R.; Rosensteel, B.A.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1996-06-01

    Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T&E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T&E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to listed species. T&E plant species found on or near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are identified. Twenty-eight species identified on the ORR are listed by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation as either endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Four of these have been under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for possible listing (listed in the formerly-used C2 candidate category). Additional species listed by the state occur near and may be present on the ORR. A range of habitats support the rare taxa on the ORR: river bluffs, sinkholes, calcareous barrens, wetlands, utility corridors, and forests. The list of T&E plant species and their locations on the ORR should be considered provisional because the entire ORR has not been surveyed, and state and federal status of all species continues to be updated. The purpose of this document is to present information on the listed T&E plant species currently known to occur on the ORR as well as listed species potentially occurring on the ORR based on geographic range and habitat availability. For the purpose of this report, {open_quotes}T&E species{close_quotes} include all federal- and state-listed species, including candidates for listing, and species of special concern. Consideration of T&E plant habitats is an important component of resource management and land-use planning; protection of rare species in their natural habitat is the best method of ensuring their long-term survival.

  19. For ant-protected plants, the best defense is a hungry offense.

    PubMed

    Ness, J H; Morris, W F; Bronstein, Judith L

    2009-10-01

    Animal foraging has been characterized as an attempt to maximize the intake of carbon and nitrogen at appropriate ratios. Plant species in over 90 families produce carbohydrate-rich extrafloral nectar (EFN), a resource attractive to ants and other omnivorous insects. This attraction can benefit the plant if those arthropods subsequently attack herbivores. This protective response has been attributed to the increased visitation and "ownership" of plants that provide a predictable source of fuel. Here, we propose and test an alternative (but non-mutually exclusive) hypothesis, that access to C-rich carbohydrates increases the ants' desire for N-rich protein and hence the likelihood that they will attack herbivorous insects on the host plant. This "deficit hypothesis" would be rejected if (1) EFN were itself a sufficiently balanced food source in terms of C and N, (2) ant dietary preferences were similar in the presence vs. absence of EFN, (3) protein-hungry ants were not more predaceous, or (4) ants provided access to protein were more aggressive toward potential prey items than were ants provided access to carbohydrates. We test these predictions in a protective mutualism between a guild of desert ants and the barrel cactus Ferocactus wislizeni. C:N ratios of EFN exceeded that of ants or potential prey items by an order of magnitude (i.e., EFN is an N-poor food for ants). Baiting studies demonstrated that plant-tending ant species recruited more workers to N-rich protein baits than to C-rich sugar baits; this difference was more pronounced when the ants had access to F. wislizeni EFN. From these data, we infer that protein is a valuable resource and that its relative value increases when carbohydrates are readily available. Moreover, ant colonies provided access to supplemental carbohydrates responded more aggressively to surrogate herbivores than did control colonies (to which no additional resources were provided) or colonies provided protein. These results support the predictions of the "deficit" hypothesis, wherein plant protection is elicited by plant-mediated dietary imbalances. PMID:19886490

  20. Paraheliotropism can protect water-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants against photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Pastenes, Claudio; Porter, Victor; Baginsky, Cecilia; Horton, Peter; Gonzlez, Javiera

    2004-12-01

    In order to estimate the importance of leaf movements on photosynthesis in well-watered and water-stressed field grown bean cultivars (Arroz Tuscola (AT), Orfeo INIA (OI), Bayos Titan (BT), and Hallados Dorado (HD)), CO2 assimilation, leaf temperature, and capacity for the maximum quantum yield recovery, measured as Fv/Fm, were assessed. Leaf water potential was lower in water-stressed compared to control plants throughout the day. Water status determined a decrease in the CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance as light intensity and temperature increased up to maximal intensities at midday. Both parameters were lower in stressed compared to control plants. Even though high light intensity and water-stress induced stomatal closure is regarded as a photoinhibitory condition, the recovery of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) after 30min of darkness was nearly constant in both water regimes. In fact, higher values were observed in OI and AT when under stress. Photochemical and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching resulted in minor changes during the day and were similar between watered and stressed plants. It is concluded that paraheliotropism, present in the four bean cultivars, efficiently protects stressed plants from photoinhibition in the field and helps maintain leaf temperatures far below the ambient temperatures, however, it may also be responsible for low CO2 assimilation rates in watered plants. PMID:15658802

  1. Sulfite Reductase Protects Plants against Sulfite Toxicity1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Brychkova, Galina; Fluhr, Robert; Sagi, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Plant sulfite reductase (SiR; Enzyme Commission 1.8.7.1) catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide in the reductive sulfate assimilation pathway. Comparison of SiR expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Rheinlands Ruhm) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants revealed that SiR is expressed in a different tissue-dependent manner that likely reflects dissimilarity in sulfur metabolism between the plant species. Using Arabidopsis and tomato SiR mutants with modified SiR expression, we show here that resistance to ectopically applied sulfur dioxide/sulfite is a function of SiR expression levels and that plants with reduced SiR expression exhibit higher sensitivity than the wild type, as manifested in pronounced leaf necrosis and chlorophyll bleaching. The sulfite-sensitive mutants accumulate applied sulfite and show a decline in glutathione levels. In contrast, mutants that overexpress SiR are more tolerant to sulfite toxicity, exhibiting little or no damage. Resistance to high sulfite application is manifested by fast sulfite disappearance and an increase in glutathione levels. The notion that SiR plays a role in the protection of plants against sulfite is supported by the rapid up-regulation of SiR transcript and activity within 30 min of sulfite injection into Arabidopsis and tomato leaves. Peroxisomal sulfite oxidase transcripts and activity levels are likewise promoted by sulfite application as compared with water injection controls. These results indicate that, in addition to participating in the sulfate assimilation reductive pathway, SiR also plays a role in protecting leaves against the toxicity of sulfite accumulation. PMID:23221833

  2. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  3. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  4. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  5. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  6. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  7. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the plant protection schedule taken up for main crop and for intercrops, but was least in the insecticide sprayed to both the crops. Data on interaction of intercropping and plant protection schedules indicated that Bt cotton with chilli as intercrop and with zero plant protection showed the highest population of P-solubilizers, N2 fixers as well as urease and phosphatase activities at 135 days of crop growth. Similarly, population of total bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were highest in the treatment of Bt cotton + chilli + onion with zero protection but were on par with the treatment Bt cotton + chilli with zero protection at 135 days of crop growth. Dehydrogenase activity was found to be the highest in the treatment of Bt cotton + redgram with zero protection at 135 days of crop growth. Our studies showed harmful effects of insecticide sprays on soil microflora and enzyme activities.

  8. Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grain against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, A.; Talukder, F. A.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacies of different plant/weed derivatives that affect the development of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculates F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) fed on black gram, Vigna mungo, seeds. Plant extracts, powder, ash and oil from nishinda (Vitex negundo L.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), bankalmi (Ipomoea sepiaria K.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and bablah (Acacia arabica L.) were evaluated for their oviposition inhibition, surface protectant, residual toxicity and direct toxicity effects on C. maculates. The results showed that plant oils were effective in checking insect infestation. The least number of F1 adults emerged from black gram seeds treated with neem oil. The nishinda oil extract was the most toxic of three extracts tested (nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi). Bablah ash was the most effective compared to the powdered leaves of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi. The powdered leaves and extracts of nishinda, eucalyptus and bankalmi, at a 3% mixture, provided good protection for black gram seeds by reducing insect oviposition, F1 adult emergence, and grain infestation rates. The oil treatment did not show adverse effects on germination capability of seeds, even after three months of treatment. PMID:19537990

  9. ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH DEPLOYMENT OF A TYPE OF PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANT (PIP), SPECIFICALLY THOSE BASED ON PLANT VIRAL COAT PROTEINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    FIFRA Scientific Adivsory Panel Meeting, October 13-15,2004 held at the Holiday Inn-National Airport, Arlington, Virginia on: Issues Associated with Deployment of a Type of Plant-Incorporated Protectant (PIP), Specifically those based on Plant Viral Coat Proteins

  10. The violaxanthin cycle protects plants from photooxidative damage by more than one mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Havaux, Michel; Niyogi, Krishna K.

    1999-01-01

    When light energy absorbed by plants becomes excessive relative to the capacity of photosynthesis, the xanthophyll violaxanthin is reversibly deepoxidized to zeaxanthin (violaxanthin cycle). The protective function of this phenomenon was investigated in a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, npq1, that has no functional violaxanthin deepoxidase. Two major consequences of the npq1 mutation are the absence of zeaxanthin formation in strong light and the partial inhibition of the quenching of singlet excited chlorophylls in the photosystem II light-harvesting complexes. Prolonged exposure of whole plants to bright light resulted in a limited photoinhibition of photosystem II in both npq1 and wild-type leaves, although CO2 fixation and the linear electron transport in npq1 plants were reduced substantially. Lipid peroxidation was more pronounced in npq1 compared with the wild type, as measured by chlorophyll thermoluminescence, ethane production, and the total hydroperoxy fatty acids content. Lipid peroxidation was amplified markedly under chilling stress, and photooxidative damage ultimately resulted in leaf bleaching and tissue necrosis in npq1. The npq4 mutant, which possesses a normal violaxanthin cycle but has a limited capacity of quenching singlet excited chlorophylls, was rather tolerant to lipid peroxidation. The double mutant, npq4 npq1, which differs from npq4 only by the absence of the violaxanthin cycle, exhibited an increased susceptibility to photooxidative damage, similar to that of npq1. Our results demonstrate that the violaxanthin cycle specifically protects thylakoid membrane lipids against photooxidation. Part of this protection involves a mechanism other than quenching of singlet excited chlorophylls. PMID:10411949

  11. Companion Protease Inhibitors for the In Situ Protection of Recombinant Proteins in Plants.

    PubMed

    Robert, Stphanie; Jutras, Philippe V; Khalf, Moustafa; D'Aoust, Marc-Andr; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Sainsbury, Frank; Michaud, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    We previously described a procedure for the use of plant protease inhibitors as "companion" accessory proteins to prevent unwanted proteolysis of clinically useful recombinant proteins in leaf crude protein extracts (Benchabane et al. Methods Mol Biol 483:265-273, 2009). Here we describe the use of these inhibitors for the protection of recombinant proteins in planta, before their extraction from leaf tissues. A procedure is first described involving inhibitors co-expressed along-and co-migrating-with the protein of interest in host plant cells. An alternative, single transgene scheme is then described involving translational fusions of the recombinant protein and companion inhibitor. These approaches may allow for a significant improvement of protein steady-state levels in leaves, comparable to yield improvements observed with protease-deficient strains of less complex protein expression hosts such as E. coli or yeasts. PMID:26614285

  12. Glutathione and ascorbic acid protect Arabidopsis plants against detrimental effects of iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ramrez, Leonor; Bartoli, Carlos Guillermo; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2013-08-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient required for a wide variety of cellular functions in plant growth and development. Chlorosis is the first visible symptom in iron-deficient plants. Glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASC) are multifunctional metabolites playing important roles in redox balancing. In this work, it was shown that GSH and ASC treatment prevented chlorosis and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species induced by iron deficiency in Arabidopsis leaves. In iron deficiency, GSH and ASC increased the activity of the heme protein ascorbate peroxidase at a similar level to that found in iron-sufficient seedlings. GSH was also able to preserve the levels of the iron-sulfur protein ferredoxin 2. GSH content decreased 25% in iron-deficient Arabidopsis seedlings, whereas the ASC levels were not affected. Taken together, these results showed that GSH and ASC supplementation protects Arabidopsis seedlings from iron deficiency, preserving cell redox homeostasis and improving internal iron availability. PMID:23788722

  13. Flora, life forms and chorotypes of plants of Salok protected area (North Khorassan Province Iran).

    PubMed

    Nadaf, M; Mortazavi, M; Halimi, M Khalilabad

    2011-01-01

    Salok protected Area is located in the 37 degrees 15' to 37 degrees 08' of the North latitude and 57 degrees 16' to 57 degrees 06' of East longitude, in West North Esfarayen in North khorassan province. In this research 52 families, 174 genera and 213 species were identified. The largest plant family is Asteraceae (34 species), Poaceae (18 species), Brassicaceae (17 species) and Fabaceae (17 species), respectively. Chief life forms are Hemicryptopytes (49.29%), Therophytes 23.47% and cryptophytes (12.67%). The most of plants chorotype with 62.91% is influenced by Irano-Touranina elements. Among 213 identified species of this region and 15 species endemic of Iran contain 0.87% of total endemic species of Iran's flora. PMID:21913495

  14. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amount of financial protection required for plutonium... of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants. (a) Each holder of a license issued pursuant to part 70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at...

  15. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of financial protection required for plutonium... of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants. (a) Each holder of a license issued pursuant to part 70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at...

  16. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amount of financial protection required for plutonium... of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants. (a) Each holder of a license issued pursuant to part 70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at...

  17. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amount of financial protection required for plutonium... of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants. (a) Each holder of a license issued pursuant to part 70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at...

  18. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amount of financial protection required for plutonium... of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants. (a) Each holder of a license issued pursuant to part 70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at...

  19. A companion protease inhibitor for the protection of cytosol-targeted recombinant proteins in plants.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Charles; Benchabane, Meriem; Anguenot, Raphal; Brunelle, France; Khalf, Moustafa; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    We reported earlier the potential of tomato cathepsin D inhibitor (SlCDI) as an in-built stabilizing agent for the protection of recombinant proteins in transgenic plant leaf crude extracts (Plant Biotechnol J.4, 359-368). Here we document the potential of SlCDI for the in situ protection of proteins in potato leaves. Total protein assays with control and SlCDI-expressing potato lines indicated a positive impact of slcdi transgene expression on leaf protein content, with a mean relative increase of 35%-40% depending on the light regime. Out of approximately 700 proteins detected on 2-D gels, only 20 exhibited a significantly altered level on a protein-specific basis, whereas most proteins were up-regulated on a leaf fresh weight basis, albeit at variable rates. Quantitative reverse trancriptase-PCR assays for rubisco activase showed similar transcript levels in leaves of test and control lines despite protein levels increased by two- to threefold in SlCDI-expressing lines. These observations, along with the unrelated biological functions assigned to MS-identified proteins up-regulated in leaves and protease assays showing slightly increased proteasome activity in protein extracts of SlCDI-expressing lines, suggest a general, proteasome-independent protein stabilizing effect of SlCDI in planta. Transient expression assays with human alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin also showed a stabilizing effect for SlCDI on heterologous proteins, leading to net levels of the human protein increased by approximately 2.5-fold in SlCDI-expressing plants. These data illustrate, overall, the potential of SlCDI as an in vivo protein-stabilizing agent in transgenic plant systems, useful to improve protein levels and recombinant protein accumulation. PMID:20051033

  20. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid ?-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid ? (A?) peptide. A? is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on A? (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the FolinCiocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against A?-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on A?-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in A?-induced HIPN. RESULTS: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from A? treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the A?-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. CONCLUSION: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against A?-mediated cell death. PMID:23833520

  1. Genetic engineering of glycinebetaine synthesis in tomato protects seeds, plants, and flowers from chilling damage.

    PubMed

    Park, Eung-Jun; Jekni?, Zoran; Sakamoto, Atsushi; DeNoma, Jeanine; Yuwansiri, Raweewan; Murata, Norio; Chen, Tony H H

    2004-11-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants, which normally do not accumulate glycinebetaine (GB), are susceptible to chilling stress. Exposure to temperatures below 10 degrees C causes various injuries and greatly decreases fruit set in most cultivars. We have transformed tomato (cv. Moneymaker) with a chloroplast-targeted codA gene of Arthrobacter globiformis, which encodes choline oxidase to catalyze the conversion of choline to GB. These transgenic plants express codA and synthesize choline oxidase, while accumulating GB in their leaves and reproductive organs up to 0.3 and 1.2 micromol g(-1) fresh weight (FW), respectively. Their chloroplasts contain up to 86% of total leaf GB. Over various developmental phases, from seed germination to fruit production, these GB-accumulating plants are more tolerant of chilling stress than their wild-type counterparts. During reproduction, they yield, on average, 10-30% more fruit following chilling stress. Endogenous GB contents as low as 0.1 micromol g(-1) FW are apparently sufficient to confer high levels of tolerance in tomato plants, as achieved via transformation with the codA gene. Exogenous application of either GB or H2O2 improves both chilling and oxidative tolerance concomitant with enhanced catalase activity. These moderately increased levels of H2O2 in codA transgenic plants, as a byproduct of choline oxidase-catalyzed GB synthesis, might activate the H2O2-inducible protective mechanism, resulting in improved chilling and oxidative tolerances in GB-accumulating codA transgenic plants. Thus, introducing the biosynthetic pathway of GB into tomato through metabolic engineering is an effective strategy for improving chilling tolerance. PMID:15500464

  2. Recombinant adenovirus expressing the haemagglutinin of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) protects goats against challenge with pathogenic virus; a DIVA vaccine for PPR

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that can cause severe disease in sheep and goats, characterised by pyrexia, pneumo-enteritis, and gastritis. The socio-economic burden of the disease is increasing in underdeveloped countries, with poor livestock keepers being affected the most. Current vaccines consist of cell-culture attenuated strains of PPRV, which induce a similar antibody profile to that induced by natural infection. Generation of a vaccine that enables differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would benefit PPR control and eradication programmes, particularly in the later stages of an eradication campaign and for countries where the disease is not endemic. In order to create a vaccine that would enable infected animals to be distinguished from vaccinated ones (DIVA vaccine), we have evaluated the immunogenicity of recombinant fowlpox (FP) and replication-defective recombinant human adenovirus 5 (Ad), expressing PPRV F and H proteins, in goats. The Ad constructs induced higher levels of virus-specific and neutralising antibodies, and primed greater numbers of CD8+ T cells than the FP-vectored vaccines. Importantly, a single dose of Ad-H, with or without the addition of Ad expressing ovine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or ovine interleukin-2, not only induced strong antibody and cell-mediated immunity but also completely protected goats against challenge with virulent PPRV, 4 months after vaccination. Replication-defective Ad-H therefore offers the possibility of an effective DIVA vaccine. PMID:24568545

  3. Recombinant adenovirus expressing the haemagglutinin of Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) protects goats against challenge with pathogenic virus; a DIVA vaccine for PPR.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Rebecca; Baron, Jana; Batten, Carrie; Baron, Michael; Taylor, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that can cause severe disease in sheep and goats, characterised by pyrexia, pneumo-enteritis, and gastritis. The socio-economic burden of the disease is increasing in underdeveloped countries, with poor livestock keepers being affected the most. Current vaccines consist of cell-culture attenuated strains of PPRV, which induce a similar antibody profile to that induced by natural infection. Generation of a vaccine that enables differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would benefit PPR control and eradication programmes, particularly in the later stages of an eradication campaign and for countries where the disease is not endemic. In order to create a vaccine that would enable infected animals to be distinguished from vaccinated ones (DIVA vaccine), we have evaluated the immunogenicity of recombinant fowlpox (FP) and replication-defective recombinant human adenovirus 5 (Ad), expressing PPRV F and H proteins, in goats. The Ad constructs induced higher levels of virus-specific and neutralising antibodies, and primed greater numbers of CD8+ T cells than the FP-vectored vaccines. Importantly, a single dose of Ad-H, with or without the addition of Ad expressing ovine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or ovine interleukin-2, not only induced strong antibody and cell-mediated immunity but also completely protected goats against challenge with virulent PPRV, 4 months after vaccination. Replication-defective Ad-H therefore offers the possibility of an effective DIVA vaccine. PMID:24568545

  4. Creating an agricultural world order: regional plant protection problems and international phytopathology, 1878-1939.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in 1878 with the International Phylloxera Convention of Berne, international conventions have sought to relieve national agricultural industries from two specific burdens. First, by defining phytosanitary practices to be enforced by national plant protection services, these conventions attempted to prevent the introduction of plant diseases and pests into national territories from which they were previously absent. Second, by standardizing these practices - especially through the design of a unique certificate of inspection - the conventions attempted to eliminate barriers such as quarantines affection international agricultural trade. The succession of phytopathological conventions seemed to epitomize the coalescence of an international community against agricultural pests. What actually coalesced was bio-geopolitics wherein plant pathologists and economic entomologists from North America and the British Empire questioned the so-called internationality of the environmental and economic specificities of continental European agriculture, embodied in "international" conventions. Although an international phenomenon, the dissemination of agricultural pests provided opportunities for cooperation on a strictly regional albeit transnational basis that pitted bio-geopolitical spaces against each other. This article retraces the formation of these spaces by analyzing the deliberations of committees and congresses that gathered to define an international agricultural order based on the means to prevent the spread of plant diseases and pests. PMID:20329355

  5. Application of Digital Technology for the Plant Protection System in Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 5 and 6

    SciTech Connect

    Deucksoo, Lee; Insik, Kim

    2006-07-01

    Since the completion of construction of Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4 (UCN 3 and 4), the first units of the OPR (Optimized Power Reactor) series, various advanced design features have been incorporated to the following OPRs. The Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 5 and 6(UCN 5 and 6) which started commercial operation in Korea from 2004 and 2005 respectively, are designed to provide improvements in safety, reliability and costs by applying both advanced proven technology and experiences gained from the construction and operation of the previous OPRs. Among those improvements, the digital plant protection system (DPPS) and the digital engineered safety feature actuation system (DESFAS) are the key elements to the UCN 5 and 6 designs. The DPPS and DESFAS utilizing the digital computer technology offer a solution to the obsolescence problem of analog system. These features also provide the potential for additional benefits such as ease of maintenance, increased performance, reduction of internal and external cross channel wiring, improvement of the surveillance testability and flexibility of control logic programming change. During the initial design stage, the Korean regulatory body had evaluated these design concepts intensively and concluded it to be acceptable for the safety point of view. Also, in-depth review on the detailed design and the special evaluation/audit for the software design process has been performed to secure the quality of the software. As a result, every issue raised during licensing review has been clarified and the operating licenses for the UCN 5 and 6 were issued in October, 2003 and October, 2004 respectively, by the government. In this paper, design characteristics of the UCN 5 and 6 are introduced, and advanced design features and implementation process are presented focused on the DPPS/DESFAS with some benefit analysis results. (authors)

  6. "Built-In" Plant Protection: Screening Azalea Cultivars for Resistance to the Azalea Lace Bug, Stephanitis pyrioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Azalea Lace bug (ALB) are a major pest of azaleas in the southeast. Adults and nymphs cause visible damage on the upper leaf surface. Host plant resistance to ALB provides “built-in” plant protection and allows for reduced dependency on pesticide applications for both growers and consumers. We have...

  7. Fire protection of safe shutdown capability at commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, K.

    1993-07-01

    The comprehensive industrial safety standards and codes that exist today have evolved from lessons learned through past experience, research results, and improvements in technological capabilities. The current requirements for fire safety features of commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US are a notable example of this practice. Although fire protection has always been an important design requirement, from the aftermath of a serious fire that occurred in 1975 at the Browns Ferry plant, it was learned that the life safety and property protection concerns of the major fire insurance underwriters may not sufficiently encompass nuclear safety issues, particularly with regard to the potential for fire damage to result in the common mode failure of redundant trains of systems, and components important to the safe shutdown of the reactor. Following its investigations into the Browns Ferry fire, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated guidance documents, which ultimately developed into mandatory regulations, necessary to assure the implementation of a fire protection program that would address nuclear safety concerns. The new criteria that evolved, contain prescriptive design features, as well as personnel and administrative requirements the Commission determined to be necessary to provide a defense-in-depth level of protection against the hazards of fire and its associated effects on safety related equipment. These criteria are primarily contained in Appendix R of Title 10 to the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50). Since 1983, various members of the Department of Nuclear Energy (DNE) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have provided technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of its evaluations of fire protection features implemented at commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US. This paper presents a discussion of the insights gained by the author during his active participation in this area.

  8. Portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Berardinelli, S.P.; Rusczek, R.A.; Mickelsen, R.L.

    1987-10-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisorpropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals; nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protective clothing for its intended use.

  9. Protective effect of secondary plant metabolites from Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. against carbofuran induced damages.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sanjukta; Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Dipesh; Ghosh, Santinath; Dhar, Pubali

    2013-12-01

    Plausible interactions between food contaminants and natural constituents in vivo and protective effect of polyphenols present in I. aquatica against carbofuran toxicity in Charles Foster rats were evaluated. Determinations based on antioxidant enzyme activities showed significant alterations in glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in tissues (liver and brain) and plasma of pesticide treated group while polyphenolic extracts from I. aquatica (IAE) attenuated their activities when given alongwith carbofuran. IAE decreased enhanced lipid peroxidation levels in plasma and erythrocyte membrane and cholesterol levels in brain and plasma. IAE also minimized histopathological degenerative changes produced by carbofuran. While single cell gel electrophoresis showed that secondary metabolites in leafy vegetables produced a combinatorial effect with pesticide at cellular level, DNA fragmentation level in bone marrow cells showed a decline in the IAE treated rats. Food safety adversely affected by various chemical contaminants can be retained by plant polyphenols and secondary plant constituents that can be found together in bolus. Therefore, the present study gives an insight into the protective role of naturally found polyphenols against pesticide toxicity. PMID:24579377

  10. Correlation between Sun Protection Factor and Antioxidant Activity, Phenol and Flavonoid Contents of some Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Enayatifard, Reza; Khalili, Masoumeh; Ghaffarloo, Mahdieh; Saeedi, Majid; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Long exposure of UV radiation increases risk of skin diseases such as cancer and photoallergic reactions. UV-B (280-320 nm) radiation is mainly responsible for inducing the skin problems. Skin protection is a suitable method against ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Various synthetic agents have been used as photo protective but because of their potential toxicity in humans, they have limited usage. Natural substances have been recently considered as potential sunscreen resources due to their absorption in the UV region and their antioxidant activity. In the present study, the UV protective effects of 20 extracts from four common medicinal plants were evaluated. Their phenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities were determined and correlation between SPF and these contents were evaluated. SPFs were between 0.102 and 24.470. The highest value was reached with ultrasonic extract of Crataegus pentagyna (SPF = 24.47) followed by methanolic extract of Feijoa sellowiana (SPF = 1.30). Good correlation was found between SPF and phenolic contents (Correlation Coefficient = 0.55 and p = 0.01) but no correlations were found between SPF and flavonoid contents or antioxidant activity. These extracts can be used alone or as additives in other sun screen formulations to enhance their SPF. PMID:25276206

  11. Phenol-Oxidizing Peroxidases Contribute to the Protection of Plants from Ultraviolet Radiation Stress1

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Marcel A.K.; van den Noort, Ria E.; Tan, M.Y. Adillah; Prinsen, Els; Lagrimini, L. Mark; Thorneley, Roger N.F.

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the mechanism of UV protection in two duckweed species (Lemnaceae) by exploiting the UV sensitivity of photosystem II as an in situ sensor for radiation stress. A UV-tolerant Spirodela punctata G.F.W. Meyer ecotype had significantly higher indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels than a UV-sensitive ecotype. Parallel work on Lemna gibba mutants suggested that UV tolerance is linked to IAA degradation rather than to levels of free or conjugated IAA. This linkage is consistent with a role for class III phenolic peroxidases, which have been implicated both in the degradation of IAA and the cross-linking of various UV-absorbing phenolics. Biochemical analysis revealed increased activity of a specific peroxidase isozyme in both UV-tolerant duckweed lines. The hypothesis that peroxidases play a role in UV protection was tested in a direct manner using genetically modified tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris). It was found that increased activity of the anionic peroxidase correlated with increased tolerance to UV radiation as well as decreased levels of free auxin. We conclude that phenol-oxidizing peroxidases concurrently contribute to UV protection as well as the control of leaf and plant architecture. PMID:11457952

  12. Protective Immune Response to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus with VP1 Expressed in Transgenic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, C.; Wigdorovitz, A.; Oliveros, J. C.; Zamorano, P. I.; Sadir, A. M.; Gómez, N.; Salinas, J.; Escribano, J. M.; Borca, M. V.

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported recently that genes encoding antigens of bacterial and viral pathogens can be expressed in plants in a form in which they retain native immunogenic properties. The structural protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which has frequently been shown to contain critical epitopes, has been expressed in different vectors and shown to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies and protection in experimental and natural hosts. Here we report the production of transformed plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing VP1. Mice immunized with leaf plant extracts elicited specific antibody responses to synthetic peptides representing amino acid residues 135 to 160 of VP1, to VP1 itself, and to intact FMDV particles. Additionally, all of the immunized mice were protected against challenge with virulent FMDV. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing protection against a viral disease by immunization with an antigen expressed in a transgenic plant. PMID:9445079

  13. Phytochemicals of Brassicaceae in plant protection and human health--influences of climate, environment and agronomic practice.

    PubMed

    Bjrkman, Maria; Klingen, Ingeborg; Birch, Andrew N E; Bones, Atle M; Bruce, Toby J A; Johansen, Tor J; Meadow, Richard; Mlmann, Jrgen; Seljsen, Randi; Smart, Lesley E; Stewart, Derek

    2011-05-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the role of glucosinolates and other phytochemical compounds present in the Brassicaceae in relation to plant protection and human health. Current knowledge of the factors that influence phytochemical content and profile in the Brassicaceae is also summarized and multi-factorial approaches are briefly discussed. Variation in agronomic conditions (plant species, cultivar, developmental stage, plant organ, plant competition, fertilization, pH), season, climatic factors, water availability, light (intensity, quality, duration) and CO(2) are known to significantly affect content and profile of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals such as the glucosinolates and leaf surface waxes play an important role in interactions with pests and pathogens. Factors that affect production of phytochemicals are important when designing plant protection strategies that exploit these compounds to minimize crop damage caused by plant pests and pathogens. Brassicaceous plants are consumed increasingly for possible health benefits, for example, glucosinolate-derived effects on degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, factors influencing phytochemical content and profile in the production of brassicaceous plants are worth considering both for plant and human health. Even though it is known that factors that influence phytochemical content and profile may interact, studies of plant compounds were, until recently, restricted by methods allowing only a reductionistic approach. It is now possible to design multi-factorial experiments that simulate their combined effects. This will provide important information to ecologists, plant breeders and agronomists. PMID:21315385

  14. Predation and aggressiveness in host plant protection: a generalization using ants from the genus Azteca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Grangier, Julien; Leroy, Cline; Orivel, Jerme

    2009-01-01

    In studying the ant genus Azteca, a Neotropical group of arboreal species, we aimed to determine the extent to which the ants use predation and/or aggressiveness to protect their host plants from defoliating insects. We compared a territorially dominant, carton-nester, Azteca chartifex, and three plant-ant species. Azteca alfari and Azteca ovaticeps are associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) and their colonies shelter in its hollow branches; whereas Azteca bequaerti is associated with Tococa guianensis (Melastomataceae) and its colonies shelter in leaf pouches situated at the base of the laminas. Whereas A. bequaerti workers react to the vibrations transmitted by the lamina when an alien insect lands on a leaf making it unnecessary for them to patrol their plant, the workers of the three other species rather discover prey by contact. The workers of all four species use a predatory behaviour involving spread-eagling alien insects after recruiting nestmates at short range, and, in some cases, at long range. Because A. alfari and A. ovaticeps discard part of the insects they kill, we deduced that the workers predatory behaviour and territorial aggressiveness combine in the biotic defence of their host tree.

  15. Plant responses to abiotic stresses: heavy metal-induced oxidative stress and protection by mycorrhization.

    PubMed

    Schtzendbel, Andres; Polle, Andrea

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this review is to assess the mode of action and role of antioxidants as protection from heavy metal stress in roots, mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizae. Based on their chemical and physical properties three different molecular mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity can be distinguished: (a) production of reactive oxygen species by autoxidation and Fenton reaction; this reaction is typical for transition metals such as iron or copper, (b) blocking of essential functional groups in biomolecules, this reaction has mainly been reported for non-redox-reactive heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury, (c) displacement of essential metal ions from biomolecules; the latter reaction occurs with different kinds of heavy metals. Transition metals cause oxidative injury in plant tissue, but a literature survey did not provide evidence that this stress could be alleviated by increased levels of antioxidative systems. The reason may be that transition metals initiate hydroxyl radical production, which can not be controlled by antioxidants. Exposure of plants to non-redox reactive metals also resulted in oxidative stress as indicated by lipid peroxidation, H(2)O(2) accumulation, and an oxidative burst. Cadmium and some other metals caused a transient depletion of GSH and an inhibition of antioxidative enzymes, especially of glutathione reductase. Assessment of antioxidative capacities by metabolic modelling suggested that the reported diminution of antioxidants was sufficient to cause H(2)O(2) accumulation. The depletion of GSH is apparently a critical step in cadmium sensitivity since plants with improved capacities for GSH synthesis displayed higher Cd tolerance. Available data suggest that cadmium, when not detoxified rapidly enough, may trigger, via the disturbance of the redox control of the cell, a sequence of reactions leading to growth inhibition, stimulation of secondary metabolism, lignification, and finally cell death. This view is in contrast to the idea that cadmium results in unspecific necrosis. Plants in certain mycorrhizal associations are less sensitive to cadmium stress than non-mycorrhizal plants. Data about antioxidative systems in mycorrhizal fungi in pure culture and in symbiosis are scarce. The present results indicate that mycorrhization stimulated the phenolic defence system in the Paxillus-Pinus mycorrhizal symbiosis. Cadmium-induced changes in mycorrhizal roots were absent or smaller than those in non-mycorrhizal roots. These observations suggest that although changes in rhizospheric conditions were perceived by the root part of the symbiosis, the typical Cd-induced stress responses of phenolics were buffered. It is not known whether mycorrhization protected roots from Cd-induced injury by preventing access of cadmium to sensitive extra- or intracellular sites, or by excreted or intrinsic metal-chelators, or by other defence systems. It is possible that mycorrhizal fungi provide protection via GSH since higher concentrations of this thiol were found in pure cultures of the fungi than in bare roots. The development of stress-tolerant plant-mycorrhizal associations may be a promising new strategy for phytoremediation and soil amelioration measures. PMID:11997381

  16. Plant responses to abiotic stresses: heavy metal-induced oxidative stress and protection by mycorrhization.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Schtzendbel A; Polle A

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this review is to assess the mode of action and role of antioxidants as protection from heavy metal stress in roots, mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizae. Based on their chemical and physical properties three different molecular mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity can be distinguished: (a) production of reactive oxygen species by autoxidation and Fenton reaction; this reaction is typical for transition metals such as iron or copper, (b) blocking of essential functional groups in biomolecules, this reaction has mainly been reported for non-redox-reactive heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury, (c) displacement of essential metal ions from biomolecules; the latter reaction occurs with different kinds of heavy metals. Transition metals cause oxidative injury in plant tissue, but a literature survey did not provide evidence that this stress could be alleviated by increased levels of antioxidative systems. The reason may be that transition metals initiate hydroxyl radical production, which can not be controlled by antioxidants. Exposure of plants to non-redox reactive metals also resulted in oxidative stress as indicated by lipid peroxidation, H(2)O(2) accumulation, and an oxidative burst. Cadmium and some other metals caused a transient depletion of GSH and an inhibition of antioxidative enzymes, especially of glutathione reductase. Assessment of antioxidative capacities by metabolic modelling suggested that the reported diminution of antioxidants was sufficient to cause H(2)O(2) accumulation. The depletion of GSH is apparently a critical step in cadmium sensitivity since plants with improved capacities for GSH synthesis displayed higher Cd tolerance. Available data suggest that cadmium, when not detoxified rapidly enough, may trigger, via the disturbance of the redox control of the cell, a sequence of reactions leading to growth inhibition, stimulation of secondary metabolism, lignification, and finally cell death. This view is in contrast to the idea that cadmium results in unspecific necrosis. Plants in certain mycorrhizal associations are less sensitive to cadmium stress than non-mycorrhizal plants. Data about antioxidative systems in mycorrhizal fungi in pure culture and in symbiosis are scarce. The present results indicate that mycorrhization stimulated the phenolic defence system in the Paxillus-Pinus mycorrhizal symbiosis. Cadmium-induced changes in mycorrhizal roots were absent or smaller than those in non-mycorrhizal roots. These observations suggest that although changes in rhizospheric conditions were perceived by the root part of the symbiosis, the typical Cd-induced stress responses of phenolics were buffered. It is not known whether mycorrhization protected roots from Cd-induced injury by preventing access of cadmium to sensitive extra- or intracellular sites, or by excreted or intrinsic metal-chelators, or by other defence systems. It is possible that mycorrhizal fungi provide protection via GSH since higher concentrations of this thiol were found in pure cultures of the fungi than in bare roots. The development of stress-tolerant plant-mycorrhizal associations may be a promising new strategy for phytoremediation and soil amelioration measures.

  17. Recommended practice for fire protection for electric generating plants and high voltage direct current converter stations. 2005 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    The standard outlines fire safety recommendations for gas, oil, coal, and alternative fuel electric generating plants including high voltage direct current converter stations and combustion turbine units greater than 7500 hp used for electric generation. Provisions apply to both new and existing plants. The document provides fire prevention and fire protection recommendations for the: safety of construction and operating personnel; physical integrity of plant components; and continuity of plant operations. The 2005 edition includes revisions and new art that clarify existing provisions. 5 annexes.

  18. Nanomaterials in plant protection and fertilization: current state, foreseen applications, and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-10-01

    Scientific publications and patents on nanomaterials (NM) used in plant protection or fertilizer products have exponentially increased since the millennium shift. While the United States and Germany have published the highest number of patents, Asian countries released most scientific articles. About 40% of all contributions deal with carbon-based NM, followed by titanium dioxide, silver, silica, and alumina. Nanomaterials come in many diverse forms (surprisingly often ≫100 nm), from solid doped particles to (often nonpersistent) polymer and oil-water based structures. Nanomaterials serve equally as additives (mostly for controlled release) and active constituents. Product efficiencies possibly increased by NM should be balanced against enhanced environmental NM input fluxes. The dynamic development in research and its considerable public perception are in contrast with the currently still very small number of NM-containing products on the market. Nanorisk assessment and legislation are largely in their infancies. PMID:22963545

  19. Design features and protection of valve actuator motors in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, R.H. ); Richards, A.E. ); Kueck, J.D. ); Rebbapragada, R.V.

    1990-09-01

    This paper presents a status report on the effort underway by the working group IEEE-NPEC-SC4.7, and discusses the performance requirements, selection, design, and protection of valve actuator motors (VAMs) commonly used as components in direct gear driven valve actuator assemblies in nuclear power plants. VAMs are short time rated, high torque-to-inertia ratio motors. The actuator manufacturer selects the performance parameters for the VAM based on the maximum thrust required by the valve for tight shutoff. Since valve actuators require a high starting torque, the rating system begins with the assignment of nominal starting torque. The requirement for minimum frame size dictates a minimal (running) torque and a minimum run time.

  20. Hydrolysates of citrus plants stimulate melanogenesis protecting against UV-induced dermal damage.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Jen-Wen; Hsiao, Pei-Ling; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Wen, Kuo-Ching

    2011-04-01

    The sun-tanning process occurs as a spontaneous response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. UV will induce tanning and DNA damage, processes that can lead to photoaging and skin disorders such as hyperpigmentation and cancer. The pigment melanin protects skin from UV damage; therefore, an efficient melanin-promoting suntan lotion could be highly beneficial. In this study, a process was developed to increase the content of naringenin in citrus extracts and to determine whether a higher naringenin content of citrus would induce melanogenesis. Melanin content and tyrosinase expression in mouse B16 melanoma cells were assayed after treatment with citrus plant extracts and their hydrolysates. The results indicate that hydrolysis increased the naringenin content in citrus extracts and that citrus preparations stimulated cellular melanogenesis and tyrosinase expression. It is suggested that this method is applicable to the industrial production of melanin-promoting suntan lotions with antiphotocarcinogenic properties derived from citrus rind and citrus products. PMID:20857432

  1. Cesium Ion Exchange Program at the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    CHARLES, NASH

    2004-12-02

    The River Protection Project - Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant will use cesium ion exchange to remove 137Cs from Low Activity Waste down to 0.3 Ci/m3 in the Immobilized LAW, ILAW product. The project baseline for cesium ion exchange is the elutable SuperLig, R, 644, SL-644, resin registered trademark of IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT or the Department of Energy approved equivalent. SL-644 is solely available through IBC Advanced Technologies. To provide an alternative to this sole-source resin supply, the RPP-WTP initiated a three-stage process for selection and qualification of an alternative ion exchange resin for cesium removal in the RPPWTP. It was recommended that resorcinol formaldehyde RF be pursued as a potential alternative to SL-644.

  2. Application of photoremovable protecting group for controlled release of plant growth regulators by sunlight.

    PubMed

    Atta, Sanghamitra; Ikbal, Mohammed; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pradeep Singh, N D

    2012-06-01

    We report a novel technique for controlled release of plant growth regulators (PGRs) by sunlight using photoremovable protecting group (PRPG) as a delivery device. In the present work, carboxyl-containing PGRs of the auxin group [indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthoxyacetic acid (NOAA)] were chemically caged using PRPGs of coumarin derivatives. Photophysical studies showed that caged PGRs exhibited good fluorescence properties. Irradiation of caged PGRs by sunlight in both aqueous ethanol and soil media resulted in controlled release of PGRs. The results of the bioactivity experiments indicated that caged PGRs showed better enhancement in the root and shoot length growth of Cicer arietinum compared to PGRs after 10days of sunlight exposure. Our results indicated that use of PRPG as a delivery device for controlled release of PGRs by sunlight in soil holds great interest for field application since it can overcome the rapid loss of PGRs in environmental conditions. PMID:22513094

  3. Side effects of plant protection products and biological interactions on the European earwig Forficula auricularia L.

    PubMed

    Peusens, G; Moerkens, R; Belin, T; Gobin, B

    2009-01-01

    Plant protection products are designed to control pests but can have negative side effects on non-target arthropods thus disturbing the important population of natural enemies required for biological control. Although the European earwig, Forficula auricularia L, (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) is not considered to be a key beneficial in pome fruit, it is an important predator of several pests, e.g. woolly apple aphid and pear sucker. The impact of non-selective plant protection products at crucial moments in their (univoltine) life cycle can be of significant relevance compared to insects with numerous generations. Foliar applications in spring when nymphs are migrating into the trees can reduce the number of adults in summer and subsequently affect the population size next year. Multiple and/or combined spraying during summer on adults may have a cumulative effect resulting in less over wintering females which possibly exhibit poor reproductive performance. Previous residual contact bioassays already revealed the harmful side effect of several formulated products on adults. Insects showing sub lethal symptoms recovered partially or died eventually. As spinosad caused significant toxicological effects it was subsequently tested in 3 different dose rates on adults and N4-nymphs. We noticed not only a clear dose-response relationship but N4-nymphs proved to be more susceptible than adults; even a dilution of 1/9-th of the registered dose rate still caused a mortality of 45.5 % after 20 days. Understanding the earwig's population dynamics is essential for efficient practical biocontrol. It proves difficult to increase population levels to sufficient high numbers for optimal pest control. Local biological factors might be limiting. Therefore, we tested two hypotheses that pertain to population limitation: 1. Bird predation during summer, 2. Small mammal nest predation during winter. Enclosure experiments showed no negative bird effect on earwig densities unless large bird flocks inhabited the area. Small mammals did not actively predate the over wintering nests, although other predatory arthropods may be important. PMID:20222599

  4. Benefits of protective fencing to plant and rodent communities of the western Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Matthew L.

    1995-01-01

    Human disturbance in the western Mojave Desert takes many forms. The most pervasive are livestock grazing and off-highway vehicle use. Over the past few decades several areas within this region have been fenced to preclude human disturbance. These areas provide opportunities to study the impact of human activities in a desert ecosystem. This paper documents the response of plant and small mammal populations to fencing constructed between 1978 and 1979 at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural Area, Kern County, California. Aboveground live annual plant biomass was generally greater inside than outside the fenced plots during April 1990, 1991, and 1992. The alien grass Schismus barbatus was a notable exception, producing more biomass in the unprotected area. Forb biomass was greater than that of alien annual grasses inside the fence during all three years of the study. Outside the fence, forb biomass was significantly higher than that of alien grasses only during spring 1992. Percent cover of perennial shrubs was higher inside the fence than outside, while no significant trend was detected in density. There was als more seed biomass inside the fence; this may have contributed to the greater diversity and density of Merriam's kangaroo rats ( Dipodomys merriami), long-tailed pocket mice ( Chaetodipus formosus), and southern grasshopper mice ( Onychomys torridus) in the protected area. These results show that protection from human disturbance has many benefits, including greater overall community biomass and diversity. The significance and generality of these results can be further tested by studying other exclosures of varying age and configurations in different desert regions of the southwestern United States.

  5. PVC flexible liners as corrosion protection for brine treatment tanks in chlor-alkali plants

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-de-Obanos, M.; Marin, S.

    1999-11-01

    Three flexible PVC sheets were evaluated to determine their suitability as liners to protect existing steel tanks handling treated brine at 55 C in a membrane technology Chlor-Alkali plants. The evaluation included: characterization of liners and plasticizers (by Soxhlet technique, Infrared Spectroscopy (IRS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC)); quantification of brine pollutants by Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES) and weight-loss/volume ratios; observation of the superficial damage produced by extended immersion in acid hot brine by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); and the estimation of remaining properties in high temperature oxidative atmospheres (per ASTM D 3045). As a result of this evaluation, remaining property curves as a function of time and temperature are presented for high temperature atmospheric exposure. These curves are related to actual service and to changes in liner hardness. Economics of using flexible PVC liners are compared to flakeglass filled thermosetting coatings. The conclusions are that, even though flexible PVC linings are disposable, they protect steel against hot acid brine corrosion, and they are economically attractive compared to flakeglass filled coatings. In addition PVC linings may be more reliable because remaining PVC properties can be measured using nondestructive hardness measurements. PVC linings are not recommended above 65 C in corrosive service because life is notably reduced.

  6. Cotton Root Protection from Plant-Parasitic Nematodes by Abamectin-Treated Seed

    PubMed Central

    Faske, T. R.; Starr, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    Abamectin is nematicidal to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis, but the duration and length of cotton taproot protection from nematode infection by abamectin-treated seed is unknown. Based on the position of initial root-gall formation along the developing taproot from 21 to 35 d after planting, infection by M. incognita was reduced by abamectin seed treatment. Penetration of developing taproots by both nematode species was suppressed at taproot length of 5 cm by abamectin-treated seed, but root penetration increased rapidly with taproot development. Based on an assay of nematode mobility to measure abamectin toxicity, the mortality of M. incognita associated with a 2-d-old emerging cotton radicle was lower than mortality associated with the seed coat, indicating that more abamectin was on the seed coat than on the radicle. Thus, the limited protection of early stage root development suggested that only a small portion of abamectin applied to the seed was transferred to the developing root system. PMID:19259471

  7. Unsaturated lipid matrices protect plant sterols from degradation during heating treatment.

    PubMed

    Barriuso, Blanca; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2016-04-01

    The interest in plant sterols enriched foods has recently enhanced due to their healthy properties. The influence of the unsaturation degree of different fatty acids methyl esters (FAME: stearate, oleate, linoletate and linolenate) on a mixture of three plant sterols (PS: campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol) was evaluated at 180 °C for up to 180 min. Sterols degraded slower in the presence of unsaturated FAME. Both PS and FAME degradation fit a first order kinetic model (R(2)>0.9). Maximum oxysterols concentrations were achieved at 20 min in neat PS and 120 min in lipid mixtures and this maximum amount decreased with increasing their unsaturation degree. In conclusion, the presence of FAME delayed PS degradation and postponed oxysterols formation. This protective effect was further promoted by increasing the unsaturation degree of FAME. This evidence could help industries to optimize the formulation of sterol-enriched products, so that they could maintain their healthy properties during cooking or processing. PMID:26593514

  8. Y-12 Plant groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1999 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by the Y-12 Plant Environmen~ Safety, and Health Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Progratn (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring . during CY 1999 will be petiormed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater and surface water monitoring petiormed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant GWPP during CY 1999

  9. Protection of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) toward fungal pathogens by strains of plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Jesper; Reva, Oleg; Meijer, Johan

    2007-07-01

    In this report, four Bacillus strains were tested for effects on plant fitness and disease protection of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The strains belonged to newly discovered plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and a recently proposed species, Bacillus endophyticus. The fungal pathogens tested represented different infection strategies and included Alternaria brassicae, Botrytis cinerea, Leptosphaeria maculans, and Verticillium longisporum. The B. amyloliquefaciens strains showed no or a weak plant growth promoting activity, whereas the B. endophyticus strain had negative effects on the plant as revealed by phenological analysis. On the other hand, two of the B. amyloliquefaciens strains conferred protection of oilseed rape toward all pathogens tested. In vitro experiments studying the effects of Bacillus exudates on fungal growth showed clear growth inhibition in several but not all cases. The protective effects of Bacillus can therefore, at least in part, be explained by production of antibiotic substances, but other mechanisms must also be involved probably as a result of intricate plant-bacteria interaction. The protective effects observed for certain Bacillus strains make them highly interesting for further studies as biocontrol agents in Brassica cultivation. PMID:17186140

  10. Étude ethnobotanique des plantes utilisées dans le traitement du diabète dans la médecine traditionnelle de la région Maritime du Togo

    PubMed Central

    Holaly, Gbekley Efui; Simplice, Karou Damintoti; Charlemagne, Gnoula; Kodjovi, Agbodeka; Kokou, Anani; Tchadjobo, Tchacondo; Amegnona, Agbonon; Komlan, Batawila; Jacques, Simpore

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Les plantes constituent une grande source de principes actifs qui peuvent être utilisés pour traiter de nombreuses maladies, dont le diabète. L'objectif de cette étude était de recenser les plantes utilisées en médecine traditionnelle pour traiter le diabète dans la région Maritime du Togo. Méthodes De janvier 2013 à juin 2014, une enquête ethnobotanique a été réalisée auprès de 164 guérisseurs traditionnels dans la région Maritime par des interviews directes à l'aide d'un questionnaire semi structuré. Résultats Les données recueillies ont permis d'identifier 112 espèces végétales appartenant à 51 familles. Les familles les plus représentées ont été les Caesalpiniaceae / Fabaceae avec 9 espèces, suivie des Euphorbiaceae et des Compositae avec 8 espèces chacune. Les espèces les plus citées ont été Allium sativum, Alium cepa, Guilandina bonduc, Moringa oleifera et de Picralima nitida qui ont eu une valeur usuelle de 0,05. En termes de recettes, 132 recettes sont préparées à partir des 112 espèces de plantes. Les recettes à plantes uniques ont été au nombre de 78, tandis que 54 recettes sont obtenues par des associations de plantes. Les parties de plantes les plus utilisées ont été les feuilles suivies par les racines. La principale méthode de préparation reste la décoction. Conclusion La région maritime du Togo dispose d'une biodiversité floristique importante en matière de plantes antidiabétiques. Ces résultats constituent une bonne base de données pour le criblage biologique dans la recherche de molécules antidiabétiques à base des plantes. PMID:26309469

  11. The Application of Regulating Plant Growth into Protective Engineering of The Western Mansions Area in The Old Summer Palace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, W.; Song, Y.

    2015-08-01

    The Western Mansions (Xīyáng Lóu) in the Old Summer Palace (Yuánmíngyuán ) are extremely valuable set of heritage. When it was first conceived and constructed, it was an important part of the successful exchange between Chinese and the Western cultures. It marked the entry of European architecture and the art of gardening into Chinese royal gardens. Therefore, the Western Mansions occupies a vital position in the garden history of China and even the world. Since the 1980s, the Administrative Office of the Old Summer Place (Yuánmíngyuán) had cleared and reorganized the Western Mansions relics. But currently, both the protection and display of the Western Mansions are far from satisfactory. With regards to the outlook of the cultural relics, there is cracking and collapses, relics are damaged by tourists, there is rainwater erosion, plant aggression, pollutants, weathering, crumbling and other threats. This is caused by the improper protective measures and the yearslong erosion through natural causes. Therefore, in order to protect the important heritage and show people the situation of the plant growth. As the basis of the copper planting, the historical conditions of planting can be speculated at the time of the western building, which become an important basis for the recovery of history. This paper also further researches on the informationg of plant form in history,to avoid destabilising the heritage.Some destruction from plant growth can be controled.

  12. A plant-produced protective antigen vaccine confers protection in rabbits against a lethal aerosolized challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores.

    PubMed

    Chichester, Jessica A; Manceva, Slobodanka D; Rhee, Amy; Coffin, Megan V; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Mett, Vadim; Shamloul, Moneim; Norikane, Joey; Streatfield, Stephen J; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2013-03-01

    The potential use of Bacillus anthracis as a bioterrorism weapon threatens the security of populations globally, requiring the immediate availability of safe, efficient and easily delivered anthrax vaccine for mass vaccination. Extensive research efforts have been directed toward the development of recombinant subunit vaccines based on protective antigen (PA), the principal virulence factor of B. anthracis. Among the emerging technologies for the production of these vaccine antigens is our launch vector-based plant transient expression system. Using this system, we have successfully engineered, expressed, purified and characterized full-length PA (pp-PA83) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using agroinfiltration. This plant-produced antigen elicited high toxin neutralizing antibody titers in mice and rabbits after two vaccine administrations with Alhydrogel. In addition, immunization with this vaccine candidate protected 100% of rabbits from a lethal aerosolized B. anthracis challenge. The vaccine effects were dose-dependent and required the presence of Alhydrogel adjuvant. In addition, the vaccine antigen formulated with Alhydrogel was stable and retained immunogenicity after two-week storage at 4C, the conditions intended for clinical use. These results support the testing of this vaccine candidate in human volunteers and the utility of our plant expression system for the production of a recombinant anthrax vaccine. PMID:23324615

  13. Hanford Waste Simulants Created to Support the Research and Development on the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.E.

    2001-07-26

    The development of nonradioactive waste simulants to support the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant bench and pilot-scale testing is crucial to the design of the facility. The report documents the simulants development to support the SRTC programs and the strategies used to produce the simulants.

  14. SYMPOSIUM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC PROGRAMS FOR MONITORING ECOLOGICAL IMPACT FROM PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE

    Historically, monitoring programs in association with field releases of crops with plant incorporated protectants (PIPs) have been, explicitly or implicitly, called for as a part of risk assessment/management schemes or regulatory agenda. However...

  15. Leaf-cutting ant nests near roads increase fitness of exotic plant species in natural protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Ghermandi, Luciana

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that promote the invasion of natural protected areas by exotic plants is a central concern for ecology. We demonstrated that nests of the leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex lobicornis, near roadsides promote the abundance, growth and reproduction of two exotic plant species, Carduus nutans and Onopordum acanthium, in a national park in northern Patagonia, Argentina and determine the mechanisms that produce these effects. Refuse dumps (RDs) from ant nests have a higher nutrient content than nearby non-nest soils (NNSs); foliar nutrient content and their 15N isotopic signature strongly suggest that plants reach and use these nutrients. Both species of exotic plants in RDs were 50–600% more abundant; seedlings had 100–1000% more foliar area and root and leaf biomass; and adult plants produced 100–300% more seeds than nearby NNS plants. Plants can thus gain access to and benefit from the nutrient content of ant RD, supporting the hypotheses that enhanced resource availability promotes exotic plant performance that could increase the likelihood of biological invasions. The two exotics produce an estimated of 8 385 000 more seeds ha−1 in areas with ant nests compared with areas without; this exceptional increase in seed production represents a potential threat to nearby non-invaded communities. We propose several management strategies to mitigate this threat. Removal efforts of exotics should be focused on ant RDs, where plants are denser and represent a higher source of propagules. PMID:18364316

  16. Soil-plant-animal transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines: a case study from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S M; Pereira, M E; Duarte, A C; Römkens, P F A M

    2012-02-01

    Food chain models are essential tools to assess risks of soil contamination in view of product quality including fodder crops and animal products. Here we link soil to plant transfer (SPT) models for potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, U and Zn with models describing accumulation in animal organs. Current EU standards for food products and acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) for humans were used as critical limits. The combined model is used to assess the impact of soil contamination on animal health, product quality and human health using data from 100 arable fields. Results indicate that 42 existing arable fields near industrial and mining sites are unsuitable for animal grazing in view of food safety due to elevated intake of Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb by cows and sheep. At 10 sites daily intake levels of As by cows exceeded threshold concentrations regarding the quality of animal products. The food chain model also was used inversely to derive soil threshold concentrations in view of EU fodder standards. Calculated threshold levels in soil for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn appear to be in line with those proposed or used in other EU countries. As such the approach applied here can form a conceptual basis for a more harmonized risk assessment strategy regarding the protection of animal and human health. PMID:22208740

  17. Proposal on a sustainable strategy to avoid point source pollution of water with plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Mestdagh, Inge; Bonicelli, Bernard; Laplana, Ramon; Roettele, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Based on the results and lessons learned from the TOPPS project (Training the Operators to prevent Pollution from Point Sources), a proposal on a sustainable strategy to avoid point source pollution from Plant Protection Products (PPPs) was made. Within this TOPPS project (2005-2008), stakeholders were interviewed and research and analysis were done in 6 pilot catchment areas (BE, FR, DE, DK, IT, PL). Next, there was a repeated survey on operators' perception and opinion to measure changes resulting from TOPPS activities and good and bad practices were defined based on the Best Management Practices (risk analysis). Aim of the proposal is to suggest a strategy considering the differences between countries which can be implemented on Member State level in order to avoid PPP pollution of water through point sources. The methodology used for the up-scaLing proposal consists of the analysis of the current situation, a gap analysis, a consistency analysis and organisational structures for implementation. The up-scaling proposal focuses on the behaviour of the operators, on the equipment and infrastructure available with the operators. The proposal defines implementation structures to support correct behaviour through the development and updating of Best Management Practices (BMPs) and through the transfer and the implementation of these BMPs. Next, the proposal also defines requirements for the improvement of equipment and infrastructure based on the defined key factors related to point source pollution. It also contains cost estimates for technical and infrastructure upgrades to comply with BMPs. PMID:20218516

  18. Plant Modernization with Digital Reactor Protection System Safety System Upgrades at US Nuclear Power Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Heckle, Wm. Lloyd; Bolian, Tricia W.

    2006-07-01

    As the current fleet of nuclear power plants in the US reaches 25+ years of operation, obsolescence is driving many utilities to implement upgrades to both their safety and non-safety-related Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Systems. Digital technology is the predominant replacement technology for these upgrades. Within the last 15 years, digital control systems have been deployed in non-safety- related control applications at many utilities. In addition, a few utilities have replaced small safety-related systems utilizing digital technology. These systems have shown digital technology to be robust, reliable and simpler to maintain. Based upon this success, acceptance of digital technology has gained momentum with both utilities and regulatory agencies. Today, in an effort to extend the operating lives of their nuclear stations and resolve obsolescence of critical components, utilities are now pursuing digital technology for replacement of their primary safety systems. AREVA is leading this effort in the United States with the first significant digital upgrade of a major safety system. AREVA has previously completed upgrades to safety-related control systems emergency diesel engine controls and governor control systems for a hydro station which serves as the emergency power source for a nuclear station. Currently, AREVA is implementing the replacement of both the Reactor Protection System (RPS) and the Engineered Safety Features Actuation System (ESFAS) on all three units at a US PWR site. (authors)

  19. Influence of scale deposition on cathodic-protection performance in desalination plant conditions.

    PubMed

    Hodgkiess, T; Najm-Mohammed, N A

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the interrelationships between the performance of an impressed current cathodic protection (CP) system and the deposition of scale compounds in a seawater pipe system. Some experiments were conducted on a laboratory set-up but the emphasis was on tests on a 0.25 m diameter steel pipe fed by seawater flowing to a thermal desalination plant. The experimental approach involved monitoring the CP current as a function of time at various set potentials and correlating this data with evidence from visual inspection of the pipe-wall surfaces and small probe specimens. The influences of control potential and seawater flow rate at temperatures of 25-35 degrees C were studied. Selected scale samples were subjected to examination by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The overall findings are discussed in terms of fundamental scale/CP-operation interactions and aspects relevant to practical operation of CP systems on seawater pipe installations. PMID:14982184

  20. Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) development survivorship and damage on cotton plants expressing insecticidal plant-incorporated protectants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), plants expressing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner are planted on significant acreage across the Southern region of the United States. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), can be a significant cotton pest in ...

  1. Chitin synthase-deficient mutant of Fusarium oxysporum elicits tomato plant defence response and protects against wild-type infection.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; Martn-Urdroz, Magdalena; Roncero, Mara Isabel Gonzlez; Gonzlez-Reyes, Jos Antonio; Roldn, Mara Del Carmen Ruiz

    2010-07-01

    A mutant of the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, deficient in class V chitin synthase, has been shown previously to be nonvirulent. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of its avirulence could be the elicitation of the induced plant defence response, leading to the restriction of fungal infection. Co-inoculation of tomato plants with the wild-type strain and the DeltachsV mutant resulted in a significant reduction in symptom development, supporting a protective mechanism exerted by the mutant. The ability of the mutant to penetrate and colonize plant tissues was determined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, as well as fluorescence microscopy using green fluorescent protein- or cherry fluorescent protein-labelled fungal strains. The extent of wild-type strain colonization in co-inoculated plants decreased steadily throughout the infection process, as shown by the quantification of fungal biomass using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The hypothesis that defence responses are activated by the DeltachsV mutant was confirmed by the analysis of plant pathogenesis-related genes using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Tomato plants inoculated with the DeltachsV mutant showed a three fold increase in endochitinase activity in comparison with wild-type inoculated plants. Taken together, these results suggest that the perturbation of fungal cell wall biosynthesis results in elicitation of the plant defence response during the infection process. PMID:20618706

  2. U.S. EPA regulation of plant-incorporated protectants: assessment of impacts of gene flow from pest-resistant plants.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Chris A; Martinez, Jeannette C

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency licenses pesticide-expressing plants under the authority of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Transgenes and their pesticidal products represent pesticides under FIFRA and are referred to as plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs). When sexually compatible wild relatives (SCWR) are sympatric with PIP crops, there is a need to assess the potential for adverse effects to man and the environment resulting from transgene introgression in accord with FIFRA requirements. Genetic compatibility, introgression, weediness of SCWR PIP hybrids, seed dispersal, and dormancy, among other parameters, as well as effects on other species (herbivores and beneficial insects), all need to be considered as part of the risk assessment for experimental use under Section 5 or registration under Section 3 of FIFRA. EPA is currently developing data requirements and guidance toward addressing potential gene flow impacts from PIPs. PMID:21080671

  3. Grape Marc Extract-Induced Defense Reactions and Protection against Phytophthora parasitica Are Impaired in NahG Tobacco Plants.

    PubMed

    Benouaret, Razik; Goupil, Pascale

    2015-08-01

    Grape marc extract (GME) acts as an elicitor of plant defense responses. This study analyzed GME-induced plant defense reactions in NahG transgenic tobacco. Leaf infiltration of NahG leaves revealed HR-like reactions with reduced lesions and weak deployment of autofluorescent compounds in the surrounding infiltrated tissues. The β-1,3-glucanase PR2-, endochitinase PR3-, and osmotin PR5-target transcript levels were strongly lowered in NahG leaves, and the mutant failed to accumulate the antimicrobial PR1 transcripts. GME-induced protection against Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae (Ppn) was evaluated on tobacco leaves. The antimicrobial properties of GME against Ppn were evidenced using a range of in vitro tests. GME-sprayed wild-type leaves showed reduced infection areas, whereas GME failed to induce a protective effect against Ppn in NahG leaves. The results suggest that GME-induced plant defense reactions in tobacco plants was mediated by salicylic acid (SA) and that GME-induced protection against Ppn could be the combined result of antimicrobial and defense actions. PMID:26105078

  4. FREEDOM TO OPERATE: Intellectual Property Protection in Plant Biology and Its Implications for the Conduct of Research.

    PubMed

    Kimpel, J A

    1999-09-01

    ? Abstract? Research endeavors are being affected by issues involving intellectual property (patents, copyrights, and trademarks). The acquisition of rights in intellectual property by universities can result in the transfer of new innovations to the private sector, with the university recouping a share of the profits for support of further scientific research. Intellectual property rights available for new plant cultivars include plant patents, plant variety protection certificates, plant breeder's rights, and utility patents. Under the patent laws, there is no explicit exemption for research use, so researchers are increasingly being required to execute materials transfer agreements to obtain permission to use patented materials, such as techniques, genes, seeds, and cell lines, in laboratory research and in breeding programs. Research scientists must educate themselves on these issues so that they can make informed decisions regarding their research practices and the licensing of their discoveries. PMID:11701816

  5. The influence of woody plants on the seepage of flood protection levees: Experiences from a test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, W.; Meixner, H.; Florineth, F.

    2009-04-01

    The past flood events have once more drawn the attention to the stability and maintenance of flood protection levees. The attention has also been focused on the relationship between vegetation and the structural integrity of dikes. Current standards regard dense turf to be safest vegetation cover for dikes. Many guidelines ban woody vegetation from dikes and levees to provide structural integrity, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. The refusal of woody plants is mainly based on the argument that root penetration of woody plants facilitates water movement along their path. Within the frame of a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction (University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna), focusing on woody plants on levees, the effects of small to medium growing woody (shrubby) plants on the seepage are tested. Data are drawn from two natural-scaled research levees. The homogenous levees consist of a mineral silt-sand-gravel and have a fill height of 2.7 m and a slope inclination of 2:3. The tests investigate the impact of woody plants (living brush mattress - transversal) in comparison to compact turf (jute netting mulch seeding). Measured plant parameters, characterising the vegetation structures were shoot lengths, shoot diameters, and above ground biomass. Root growth is investigated in an extra plot area allowing excavation of the plants. Percolation is monitored using seepage monitoring pipes, soil moisture sensors and soil temperature probes, which were build into the embankment during construction. The proposed contribution discusses the effects of woody plants (shrubs) on seepage of flood protection levees. Methodology of research and results after three initial seepage tests are presented.

  6. Plant Virus Particles Carrying Tumour Antigen Activate TLR7 and Induce High Levels of Protective Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Jobsri, Jantipa; Allen, Alex; Rajagopal, Deepa; Shipton, Michael; Kanyuka, Kostya; Lomonossoff, George P.; Ottensmeier, Christian; Diebold, Sandra S.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Savelyeva, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Induction of potent antibody is the goal of many vaccines targeted against infections or cancer. Modern vaccine designs that use virus-like particles (VLP) have shown efficacy for prophylactic vaccination against virus-associated cancer in the clinic. Here we used plant viral particles (PVP), which are structurally analogous to VLP, coupled to a weak idiotypic (Id) tumour antigen, as a conjugate vaccine to induce antibody against a murine B-cell malignancy. The Id-PVP vaccine incorporates a natural adjuvant, the viral ssRNA, which acts via TLR7. It induced potent protective anti-Id antibody responses in an in vivo mouse model, superior to the “gold standard” Id vaccine, with prevalence of the IgG2a isotype. Combination with alum further increased antibody levels and maintained the IgG2a bias. Engagement of TLR7 in vivo was followed by secretion of IFN-α by plasmacytoid dendritic cells and by activation of splenic CD11chi conventional dendritic cells. The latter was apparent from up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and from secretion of a wide range of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including the Th1-governing cytokine IL-12, in keeping with the IgG2a antibody isotype distribution. PVP conjugates are a novel cancer vaccine design, offering an attractive molecular form, similar to VLP, and providing T-cell help. In contrast to VLP, they also incorporate a safe “in-built” ssRNA adjuvant. PMID:25692288

  7. The Material Protection, Control and Accounting Sustainability Program Implementation at the Electrochemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sirotenko, Vladimir; Antonov, Eduard; Sirotenko, Alexei; Kukartsev, Alexander; Krivenko, Vladimir; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Esther M.

    2008-06-10

    Joint efforts by the Electrochemical Plant (ECP) in Zelenogorsk, Russia, and the United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (US DOE/NNSA) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program to upgrade ECP security systems began in 1996. The commissioning of major MPC&A systems at ECP occurred in December 2004. Since that time, the US Project Team (USPT) and ECP personnel have focused jointly on the development and implementation of an enterprise-wide MPC&A Sustainability Program (SP) that address the seven essential MPC&A Program sustainability elements. This paper describes current operational experience at the ECP with the full implementation of the site SP utilizing an earned-value methodology. In support of this site program, ECP has established a Document Control Program (DCP) for sustainability-related documents; developed a robust master Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) that outlines all ECP MPC&A sustainability activities; and chartered an Enterprise-Wide Sustainability Working Group (ESWG) The earned value methodology uses ECP-completed (and USPT-verified) analyses to assess project performance on a quarterly basis. The MPC&A SP, presently operational through a contract between ECP and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), incorporates the seven essential MPC&A Program sustainability elements and governs all sustainability activities associated with MPC&A systems at ECP. The site SP is designed to ensure over the near term the upgraded MPC&A systems continuous operation at ECP as funding transitions from US-assisted to fully Russian supported and sustained.

  8. Year-round behaviour of soil microarthropod communities under plant protection product application.

    PubMed

    Vaj, Claudia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Vighi, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The use of plant protection products (PPPs) in agro-environments can lead to undesired exposure of non-target organisms in non-target compartments. A year-round field survey was conducted in a vineyard in Northern Italy, for monitoring the changes in the structure of soil microarthropod communities under the application of PPPs, focusing on springtails and mites, both inside and 4 and 10 m outside the vineyard. Exposure to PPPs was estimated as time-weighted average soil concentrations. The fluctuations in the abundances of the different organisms after the application of PPPs, especially insecticides, were recorded. A recovery in abundances was observed at the end of the productive season outside the field and at the beginning of the next spring within the vineyard. Using multivariate statistical tools, the behaviour of each taxon in relation to the stressors was assessed. Some organisms were affected by the stressors, while others were favoured because of low vulnerability to PPPs and the indirect effect of the absence of other taxa. The principal response curves (PRC) method was the most sensitive tool for assessing PPP effects on soil arthropod communities. Strong differences were evident in the structure of the communities inside and outside the vineyard, with the communities sampled 4 and 10 m outside the vineyard being fairly similar, the latter considered as control. The role of physical stressors on community composition is recognised. However, chemical stressors, and in particular PPP exposure seemed to have larger effects on structural and functional characteristics of soil arthropod communities than physical stressors. PMID:24671560

  9. Evaluating companion planting and non-host masking odors for protecting roses from the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Held, D W; Gonsiska, P; Potter, D A

    2003-02-01

    Effectiveness of companion planting, and use of nonhost masking odors were evaluated under field conditions for protecting roses against the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman. Three reputedly effective companion species, rue (Ruta graveolens L.), zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey), and garlic chives (Allium scheonparum L.) were interplanted with roses in replicated garden plots. Numbers of beetles on these roses were compared with rose-only control plots on 6 d during beetle flight. The masking odor hypothesis was tested by hanging mesh bags of aromatic herbs or other sources of reputedly repellent nonhost volatiles around potted roses in the field. Treatments included crushed red pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.), fennel seeds (Foeniculm vulgare Miller), crushed spearmint (Mentha picata L.), cedar shavings (Juniperus sp.), osage orange fruits (Maclura pomifera (Raif) Schneid.), and fleshy gingko seeds (Gingko biloba L.). No treatment significantly reduced numbers of beetles relative to the controls. Interplanting with geraniums significantly increased numbers of Japanese beetles on roses. Similarly, roses surrounded by sachets with fennel seeds, cedar shavings, crushed red pepper, or osage orange fruits had significantly more beetles than the control plants on two or more sample dates. Our results suggest that the use of companion or reputedly repellent plants or plant odors probably will be ineffective for protecting roses or other highly-susceptible ornamentals from P. japonica. Use of such tactics in an effort to discourage other garden pests might even increase Japanese beetle damage in those plantings. PMID:12650348

  10. Role of Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip) IV Transcription Factors in Plant Development and Plant Protection from Deleterious Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chew, William; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2013-01-01

    Homeobox genes comprise an important group of genes that are responsible for regulation of developmental processes. These genes determine cell differentiation and cell fate in all eukaryotic organisms, starting from the early stages of embryo development. Homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom. Members of the HD-Zip IV subfamily have a complex domain topology and can bind several cis-elements with overlapping sequences. Many of the reported HD-Zip IV genes were shown to be specifically or preferentially expressed in plant epidermal or sub-epidermal cells. HD-Zip IV TFs were found to be associated with differentiation and maintenance of outer cell layers, and regulation of lipid biosynthesis and transport. Insights about the role of these proteins in plant cuticle formation, and hence their possible involvement in plant protection from pathogens and abiotic stresses has just started to emerge. These roles make HD-Zip IV proteins an attractive tool for genetic engineering of crop plants. To this end, there is a need for in-depth studies to further clarify the function of each HD-Zip IV subfamily member in commercially important plant species. PMID:23584027

  11. Spray deposits of crop protection products on plants--the potential exposure of non-target arthropods.

    PubMed

    Koch, H; Weisser, P

    2001-07-01

    Spray deposits of plant protection products on cultivated plants present a potential hazard to non-target arthropods. This hazard is considered in the risk assessment procedure when such products are registered. The results of deposit measurements in the laboratory and field, including mean spray deposits on plant surfaces, their variability and their relation to the delivered dose are presented. Initial deposits expressed as ng/cm2 plant surface were measured on individual leaves of various plant species using a fluorescent tracer. The results show that the mean deposit is plant-specific but with a high degree of variability. Mean deposits on field-grown cereals were 3, 9 (growth stage BBCH 10) and 4, 7-14 ng/cm2 (growth stage BBCH 29-63) at a delivered dose rate of 20 g sodium flourescein (SF) per ha. This is equivalent to 200 ng tracer per cm2 ground area. On apple leaves, mean deposits varied between 18 and 50 ng/cm2 at a rate of 20 g tracer/10,000 m2 fruitwall. Coefficients of variation of leaf deposits ranged between 30% and 90%. In addition to the leaf-to-leaf variability, there was a notable variation of the deposit on individual leaves themselves as shown for wheat. Data from field measurements were supported principally by data from tray-grown plants on a laboratory spray track which gives information on targets positioned in a more or less two-dimensional system. PMID:11444314

  12. The Utility of DNA Fingerprinting for Plant Patent Protection: An example for Lagerstroemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Patent and Trademark Office defines a plant as a “living plant organism which expresses a set of characteristics determined by its single genetic makeup, or genotype…” Here we demonstrate the utility of molecular markers to characterize the genome of a crapemyrtle plant that was re...

  13. Cooperative efforts of the materials protection control and accounting program at the electrochemical plant (Krasnoyarsk-45) in Russia-011

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.

    1998-07-22

    The USDOE Material Protection Control and Accountability Program (MPC&A) has established a Project Team with the goal of providing the Russian Electrochemical Plant (ECP) with equipment and training to enable ECP to evaluate, develop, and implement a comprehensive plan and systems for physical protection, material controls, and accountancy upgrades. The MPC&A project will provide for improvements such as risk assessments, access control upgrades, computerized MC&A, communications systems upgrades, building perimeter surveillance and intrusion detection upgrades, vault upgrades, metal and nuclear material detection upgrades, along with mass measurement and non- destructive analysis (NDA) instrumentation. This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A project at the Electrochemical Plant.

  14. Using ecological and biogeographical features to achieve a typology of the plant species used in riverbank protection bioengineering in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evette, A.; Balique, C.; Lavaine, C.

    2009-04-01

    A common goal for nature managers is to provide new riverbank protection guidelines in terms of environmental requirements for many species simultaneously. In this study, we propose to achieve a double typology of the plant species used in riverbank protection bioengineering in Europe using ecological and biogeographical features. The statistical analyses highlight the predominant role played by the light exposure in the structure of their classification but other ecological features such as soil productivity and tolerance to flooding were also found to be significantly selective. Independent biogeographical and ecological typologies allow the managers to be in adequation with the regional altitudinal and climatic context and to select species adapted to the very local environmental conditions of the considered riverbank. This study could take on a great interest since its methodology and its results are nearly applicable to slopes protection in general but also an interest in the context of the current climatic change.

  15. Modeling diffuse sources of surface water contamination with plant protection products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendland, Sandra; Bock, Michael; Böhner, Jürgen; Lembrich, David

    2015-04-01

    Entries of chemical pollutants in surface waters are a serious environmental problem. Among water pollutants plant protection products (ppp) from farming practice are of major concern not only for water suppliers and environmental agencies, but also for farmers and industrial manufacturers. Lost chemicals no longer fulfill their original purpose on the field, but lead to severe damage of the environment and surface waters. Besides point-source inputs of chemical pollutants, the diffuse-source inputs from agricultural procedures play an important and not yet sufficiently studied role concerning water quality. The two most important factors for diffuse inputs are erosion and runoff. The latter usually occurs before erosion begins, and is thus often not visible in hindsight. Only if it has come to erosion, it is obvious to expect runoff in foresight at this area, too. In addition to numerous erosion models, there are also few applications to model runoff processes available. However, these conventional models utilize approximations of catchment parameters based on long-term average values or theoretically calculated concentration peaks which can only provide indications to relative amounts. Our study aims to develop and validate a simplified spatially-explicit dynamic model with high spatiotemporal resolution that enables to measure current and forecast runoff potential not only at catchment scale but field-differentiated. This method allows very precise estimations of runoff risks and supports risk reduction measures to be targeted before fields are treated. By focusing on water pathways occurring on arable land, targeted risk reduction measures like buffer strips at certain points and adapted ppp use can be taken early and pollution of rivers and other surface waters through transported pesticides, fertilizers and their products could be nearly avoided or largely minimized. Using a SAGA-based physical-parametric modeling approach, major factors influencing runoff (relief, soil properties, weather conditions and crop coverage) are represented. Water balance parameters are modeled in daily steps, taking into account relief determined discharge pathways, runoff velocity and number of field boundaries passed until receiving streams are reached. Model development is based on a comprehensive monitoring campaign at 3 smaller catchments in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), equipped with two gauges each, upstream and downstream, an optical Trios probe and four Isco-Samplers. The temporal high resolution monitoring of discharge, ppp, orthophosphate and nitrate-nitrogen enables an evaluation of runoff simulations in relation with rain events. First model results suggest that the simulation of surface runoff pathways enables a spatial-explicit identification of fields contributing to pollutant inputs. We assume that targeted actions on few fields will help solving the problem of diffuse inputs of ppp in our surface water to a considerable extent.

  16. Xplicit, a novel approach in probabilistic spatiotemporally explicit exposure and risk assessment for plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Schad, Thorsten; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-10-01

    The quantification of risk (the likelihood and extent of adverse effects) is a prerequisite in regulatory decision making for plant protection products and is the goal of the Xplicit project. In its present development stage, realism is increased in the exposure assessment (EA), first by using real-world data on, e.g., landscape factors affecting exposure, and second, by taking the variability of key factors into account. Spatial and temporal variability is explicitly addressed. Scale dependencies are taken into account, which allows for risk quantification at different scales, for example, at landscape scale, an overall picture of the potential exposure of nontarget organisms can be derived (e.g., for all off-crop habitats in a given landscape); at local scale, exposure might be relevant to assess recovery and recolonization potential; intermediate scales might best refer to population level and hence might be relevant for risk management decisions (e.g., individual off-crop habitats). The Xplicit approach is designed to comply with a central paradigm of probabilistic approaches, namely, that each individual case that is derived from the variability functions employed should represent a potential real-world case. This is mainly achieved by operating in a spatiotemporally explicit fashion. Landscape factors affecting the local exposure of habitats of nontarget species (i.e., receptors) are derived from geodatabases. Variability in time is resolved by operating at discrete time steps, with the probability of events (e.g., application) or conditions (e.g., wind conditions) defined in probability density functions (PDFs). The propagation of variability of parameters into variability of exposure and risk is done using a Monte Carlo approach. Among the outcomes are expectancy values on the realistic worst-case exposure (predicted environmental concentration [PEC]), the probability p that the PEC exceeds the ecologically acceptable concentration (EAC) for a given fraction of habitats, and risk curves. The outcome can be calculated at any ecologically meaningful organization level of receptors. An example application of Xplicit is shown for a hypothetical risk assessment for nontarget arthropods (NTAs), demonstrating how the risk quantification can be improved compared with the standard deterministic approach. PMID:21538833

  17. The use of ECAS in plant protection: a green and efficient antimicrobial approach that primes selected defense genes.

    PubMed

    Zarattini, Marco; De Bastiani, Morena; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Ferro, Sergio; De Battisti, Achille

    2015-11-01

    The use of highly polluting chemicals for plant and crop protection is one of the components of the negative environmental impact of agricultural activities. In the present paper, an environmentally friendly alternative to pesticide application has been studied, based on the so-called electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS). Experiments have been carried out, by applying ECAS having different contents of active ingredients, on tobacco plants at a laboratory scale and on apple trees at fruit garden scale. The results, accumulated during a couple of years, have shown that properly selected dilute solutions of chlorides, once activated by an electrochemical treatment, exhibit a very effective protecting action of plants, irrespective of their nature. Extension of the research has shown that the observed effect is the result of two distinct factors: the expected anti-microbial action of the electrochemically synthesized oxidants, and an unexpected priming of immune plant defenses, which is clearly due to the treatment with ECAS. Interestingly, the repetition of ECAS application triggers an even stronger activation of defense genes. No oxidative damages, due to the use of the activated solutions, could be detected. PMID:26350548

  18. An update on polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), a leucine-rich repeat protein that protects crop plants against pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kalunke, Raviraj M.; Tundo, Silvio; Benedetti, Manuel; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall proteins that inhibit the pectin-depolymerizing activity of polygalacturonases secreted by microbial pathogens and insects. These ubiquitous inhibitors have a leucine-rich repeat structure that is strongly conserved in monocot and dicot plants. Previous reviews have summarized the importance of PGIP in plant defense and the structural basis of PG-PGIP interaction; here we update the current knowledge about PGIPs with the recent findings on the composition and evolution of pgip gene families, with a special emphasis on legume and cereal crops. We also update the information about the inhibition properties of single pgip gene products against microbial PGs and the results, including field tests, showing the capacity of PGIP to protect crop plants against fungal, oomycetes and bacterial pathogens. PMID:25852708

  19. Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Development, Survivorship, and Damage on Cotton Plants Expressing Insecticidal Plant-Incorporated Protectants.

    PubMed

    Hardke, Jarrod T; Jackson, Ryan E; Leonard, B Rogers; Temple, Joshua H

    2015-06-01

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), plants expressing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner are planted on significant acreage across the southern region of the United States. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), can be a significant cotton pest in some years, but this species has not been a primary target of Bt cotton technologies. The objective of this study was to quantify fall armyworm larval survivorship and fruiting form injury on transgenic cotton lines expressing Cry1Ac (Bollgard), Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab (Bollgard II), and Cry1Ac+Cry1F (WideStrike) Bt proteins. Larval survivorship and fruiting form damage of fall armyworm on Bollgard, Bollgard II, WideStrike, and non-Bt (control) cotton lines were evaluated in no-choice field studies. Fall armyworm (third instars) were placed on flower buds (squares), white flowers, and bolls, enclosed within a nylon mesh exclusion cage, and evaluated at selected intervals after infestation. Exposure of fall armyworm larvae to Bollgard cotton lines generally resulted in no significant effects on survivorship compared with larvae exposed to the non-Bt cotton line. Survivorship and plant injury by fall armyworm on Bollgard II cotton lines was variable compared with that on non-Bt cotton lines, and significant differences between treatments were inconsistent. Fall armyworm had significantly lower survivorship and caused less plant injury on WideStrike cotton lines than on non-Bt cotton lines across all plant structures. Development and survivorship of fall armyworm larvae on these cotton lines also were evaluated in no-choice laboratory assays by offering the previously described fruiting forms to third instars. Bollgard II and WideStrike cotton lines significantly reduced fall armyworm development and survivorship compared with those larvae offered non-Bt tissue. These results suggest that differences exist among selected Bt cotton technologies in their performance against fall armyworm. PMID:26470233

  20. How caterpillar-damaged plants protect themselves by attracting parasitic wasps.

    PubMed Central

    Turlings, T C; Loughrin, J H; McCall, P J; Rse, U S; Lewis, W J; Tumlinson, J H

    1995-01-01

    Parasitic and predatory arthropods often prevent plants from being severely damaged by killing herbivores as they feed on the plants. Recent studies show that a variety of plants, when injured by herbivores, emit chemical signals that guide natural enemies to the herbivores. It is unlikely that herbivore-damaged plants initiate the production of chemicals solely to attract parasitoids and predators. The signaling role probably evolved secondarily from plant responses that produce toxins and deterrents against herbivores and antibiotics against pathogens. To effectively function as signals for natural enemies, the emitted volatiles should be clearly distinguishable from background odors, specific for prey or host species that feed on the plant, and emitted at times when the natural enemies forage. Our studies on the phenomena of herbivore-induced emissions of volatiles in corn and cotton plants and studies conducted by others indicate that (i) the clarity of the volatile signals is high, as they are unique for herbivore damage, produced in relatively large amounts, and easily distinguishable from background odors; (ii) specificity is limited when different herbivores feed on the same plant species but high as far as odors emitted by different plant species and genotypes are concerned; (iii) the signals are timed so that they are mainly released during the daytime, when natural enemies tend to forage, and they wane slowly after herbivory stops. PMID:7753779

  1. ADVANCES IN THE APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING TO PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANT CROP MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current forecasts call for significant increases to the plantings of transgenic corn in the United States for the 2007 growing season and beyond. Transgenic acreage approaching 80% of the total corn plantings could be realized by 2009. These conditions call for a new approach to ...

  2. Phenylphenalenones protect banana plants from infection by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and are deactivated by metabolic conversion.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, William; Chandran, Jima N; Menezes, Riya C; Otálvaro, Felipe; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Phenylphenalenones, polycyclic aromatic natural products from some monocotyledonous plants, are known as phytoalexins in banana (Musa spp.). In this study, (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics along with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to explore the chemical responses of the susceptible 'Williams' and the resistant 'Khai Thong Ruang' Musa varieties to the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the agent of the black leaf Sigatoka disease. Principal component analysis discriminated strongly between infected and non-infected plant tissue, mainly because of specialized metabolism induced in response to the fungus. Phenylphenalenones are among the major induced compounds, and the resistance level of the plants was correlated with the progress of the disease. However, a virulent strain of M. fijiensis was able to overcome plant resistance by converting phenylphenalenones to sulfate conjugates. Here, we report the first metabolic detoxification of fungitoxic phenylphenalenones to evade the chemical defence of Musa plants. PMID:26290378

  3. Design concepts for the reactor protection and control process instrumentation digital upgrade project at the Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant units 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Carruth, R.C.; Sotos, W.G.

    1996-06-01

    As the nation`s nuclear power plants age, the need to consider upgrading of their electronic protection and control systems becomes more urgent. Hardware obsolescence and mechanical wear out resulting from frequent calibration and surveillance play a major role in defining their useful life. At Cook Nuclear Plant, a decision was made to replace a major portion of the plant`s protection and control systems with newer technology. This paper describes the engineering processes involved in this successful upgrade and explains the basis for many decisions made while performing the digital upgrade.

  4. Probabilistic evaluation of fire protection features found in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Azarm, M.A.; Boccio, J.L.; Ruger, C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a method which can be used to evaluate, on a relative basis, the NRC Fire Protection (FP) guidelines as found in Section 9.5.1 (Fire Protection) of the Standard Review Plan (SRP). The approach, a hybrid of existing physical models for fire propagation determinations and probabilistic models for fire-mitigation system reliability, can potentially be used as an adjunct to the present fire safety review process.

  5. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Auclair, K. D.

    2002-02-25

    This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order to produce first glass in 2007. The Waste Treatment Plant is a large complex project that is driven by both technology and contractual requirements. It is also part of a larger overall mission, as a component of the River Protection Project, which is driven by programmatic requirements and regulatory, legal, and fiscal constraints. These issues are further complicated by the fact that both of the major contractors involved have a different contract type with DOE, and neither has a contract with the other. This combination of technical and programmatic drivers, constraints, and requirements will continue to provide challenges and opportunities for improvement and optimization. The Bechtel National, Inc. team is under contract to engineer, procure, construct, commission and test the Waste Treatment Plant on or ahead of schedule, at or under cost, and with a throughput capacity equal to or better than specified. The Department of Energy is tasked with the long term mission of waste retrieval, treatment, and disposal. While each mission is a compliment and inextricably linked to one another, they are also at opposite ends of the spectrum, in terms of expectations of one another. These mission requirements, that are seemingly in opposition to one another, pose the single largest challenge and opportunity for optimization: one of balance. While it is recognized that design maturation and optimization are the normal responsibility of any engineering firm responsible for any given project, the aspects of integrating requirements and the management of issues across contract boundaries is a more difficult matter. This aspect, one of a seamless systems approach to the treatment of tank wastes at the Hanford site, is the focus of the Optimization Studies. This ''big O''Optimization of Life-Cycle operations is what is meant when the term ''optimization'' is used on the River Protection Project and initiatives cited in this paper. From the early contractor centric methods and processes used to move toward an integrated solution, through extensive partnering approaches, to the current quality initiatives with multi-organizational participation, significant progress is being made towards achieving the goal of truly integrated life-cycle optimization for the Department of Energy's River Protection Project and Waste Treatment Plant.

  6. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian

  7. Vaccination with Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing the Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus F or H Proteins Overcomes Viral Immunosuppression and Induces Protective Immunity against PPRV Challenge in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Jos M.; Moreno, Hctor; Valcrcel, Flix; Pea, Lourdes; Sevilla, Noem; Martn, Vernica

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants caused by the Morbillivirus peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Two recombinant replication-defective human adenoviruses serotype 5 (Ad5) expressing either the highly immunogenic fusion protein (F) or hemagglutinin protein (H) from PPRV were used to vaccinate sheep by intramuscular inoculation. Both recombinant adenovirus vaccines elicited PPRV-specific B- and T-cell responses. Thus, neutralizing antibodies were detected in sera from immunized sheep. In addition, we detected a significant antigen specific T-cell response in vaccinated sheep against two different PPRV strains, indicating that the vaccine induced heterologous T cell responses. Importantly, no clinical signs and undetectable virus shedding were observed after virulent PPRV challenge in vaccinated sheep. These vaccines also overcame the T cell immunosuppression induced by PPRV in control animals. The results indicate that these adenovirus constructs could be a promising alternative to current vaccine strategies for the development of PPRV DIVA vaccines. PMID:25013961

  8. Indirect Contributions of AM Fungi and Soil Aggregation to Plant Growth and Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil ecological and biological engineering are processes by which soil organisms modify their physiochemical environment resulting indirectly to enhancements in plant growth. The formation and stabilization of soil aggregates is an example biologically-mediated engineering. For soil organisms, wate...

  9. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: SIDESTREAMS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance problems at publicly-owned treatment works are often attributed to the recycling of sidestreams generated in the wastewater treatment and sludge handling systems. Although the volumes of these sidestreams are generally small compared to plant influent flows, sidestrea...

  10. Molecular Tools for Plant Protection, True-to-Name Verification and Parentage Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA-based tools are available to improve ornamental plant cultivars through accelerated breeding and other practical applications. Highlights include examples where DNA fingerprints identified mislabeled cultivars, verified the renaming of cultivars and demonstrated some similar-looking cultivars ar...

  11. Le contrle des infections au cabinet du pdiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RSUM La transmission des infections au cabinet du pdiatre est de plus en plus proccupante. Le prsent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrler les infections. Pour prvenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de mme que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygine des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et dune blouse dhpital pour des interventions prcises; nettoyage, dsinfection et strilisation convenables des surfaces et du matriel, y compris les jouets, et techniques dasepsie en cas dinterventions effractives) et des prcautions additionnelles en cas dinfections prcises. Le personnel doit avoir reu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectes doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  12. Simultaneous expression of choline oxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase in potato plant chloroplasts provides synergistically enhanced protection against various abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Raza; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Myoung-Duck; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Cho, Kwangsoo; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2010-04-01

    Plants synthesize compatible solutes such as glycinebetaine (GB) in response to abiotic stresses. To evaluate the synergistic and protective effect of GB, transgenic potato plants expressing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) targeting to chloroplasts (referred to as SSA plants) were retransformed with a bacterial choline oxidase (codA) gene to synthesize GB in chloroplast in naturally occurring non-accumulator potato plants (including SSA) under the control of the stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SSAC plants). GB accumulation resulted in enhanced protection of these SSAC plants and lower levels of H(2)O(2) compared with SSA and non-transgenic (NT) plants after methyl viologen (MV)-mediated oxidative stress. Additionally, SSAC plants demonstrated synergistically enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses at the whole-plant level. GB accumulation in SSAC plants helped to maintain higher activities of SOD, APX and catalase following oxidative, salt and drought stress treatments than is observed in SSA and NT plants. Conclusively, GB accumulation in SSAC plants along with overexpression of antioxidant genes rendered the plants tolerant to multiple environmental stresses in a synergistic fashion. PMID:20059737

  13. Non-native plant invasions in managed and protected ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests of the Colorado Front Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fornwalt, P.J.; Kaufmann, M.R.; Huckaby, L.S.; Stoker, J.M.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined patterns of non-native plant diversity in protected and managed ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests of the Colorado Front Range. Cheesman Lake, a protected landscape, and Turkey Creek, a managed landscape, appear to have had similar natural disturbance histories prior to European settlement and fire protection during the last century. However, Turkey Creek has experienced logging, grazing, prescribed burning, and recreation since the late 1800s, while Cheesman Lake has not. Using the modified-Whittaker plot design to sample understory species richness and cover, we collected data for 30 0.1 ha plots in each landscape. Topographic position greatly influenced results, while management history did not. At both Cheesman Lake and Turkey Creek, low/riparian plots had highest native and non-native species richness and cover; upland plots (especially east/west-facing, south-facing and flat, high plots) had the lowest. However, there were no significant differences between Cheesman Lake and Turkey Creek for native species richness, native species cover, non-native species richness, or non-native species cover for any topographic category. In general, non-native species richness and cover were highly positively correlated with native species richness and/or cover (among other variables). In total, 16 non-native species were recorded at Cheesman Lake and Turkey Creek; none of the 16 non-native species were more common at one site than another. These findings suggest that: (1) areas that are high in native species diversity also contain more non-native species; (2) both protected and managed areas can be invaded by non-native plant species, and at similar intensities; and (3) logging, grazing, and other similar disturbances may have less of an impact on non-native species establishment and growth than topographic position (i.e., in lowland and riparian zones versus upland zones).

  14. Adaptive mechanisms of insect pests against plant protease inhibitors and future prospects related to crop protection: a review.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria L R; de Oliveira, Caio F R; Costa, Poliene M; Castelhano, Elaine C; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2015-01-01

    The overwhelming demand for food requires the application of technology on field. An important issue that limits the productivity of crops is related to insect attacks. Hence, several studies have evaluated the application of different compounds to reduce the field losses, especially insecticide compounds from plant sources. Among them, plant protease inhibitors (PIs) have been studied in both basic and applied researches, displaying positive results in control of some insects. However, certain species are able to bypass the insecticide effects exerted by PIs. In this review, we disclosed the adaptive mechanisms showed by lepidopteran and coleopteran insects, the most expressive insect orders related to crop predation. The structural aspects involved in adaptation mechanisms are presented as well as the newest alternatives for pest control. The application of biotechnological tools in crop protection will be mandatory in agriculture, and it will be up to researchers to find the best candidates for effective control in long-term. PMID:25329404

  15. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a... E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from...

  16. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a... E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from...

  17. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a... E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from...

  18. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a... E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from...

  19. 40 CFR 174.525 - E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a... E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme as a plant-incorporated protectant inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of E. coli B-D-glucuronidase enzyme are exempt from...

  20. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2000 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by tie Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2000 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant GWPP during CY 2000 will comply with: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (SWDF); and DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Some of the data collected for these monitoring drivers also will be used to meet monitoring requirements of the Integrated Water Quality Program, which is managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. Data from five wells that are monitored for SWDF purposes in the Chestnut Ridge Regime will be used to comply with requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act post closure permit regarding corrective action monitoring. Modifications to the CY 2000 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in regulatory or programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  1. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program: Groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis plan for Calendar Year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1998 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant. These monitoring activities are managed by the Y-12 Plant Environmental Compliance Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located within Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed during CY 1998 to comply with: (1) requirements specified in Resource Conservation and Recover Act (RCRA) post-closure permits regarding RCRA corrective action monitoring and RCRA detection monitoring; (2) Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste management facilities; and (3) DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway monitoring. Data from some of the sampling locations in each regime will be used to meet the requirements of more than one of the monitoring drivers listed above. Modifications to the CY 1998 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. For example, changes in regulatory requirements may alter the parameters specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  2. A review of the nest protection hypothesis: does inclusion of fresh green plant material in birds' nests reduce parasite infestation?

    PubMed

    Scott-Baumann, James F; Morgan, Eric R

    2015-07-01

    The use of aromatic plants and their essential oils for ectoparasite treatment is a field of growing interest. Several species of birds regularly introduce aromatic herbs into their nests putatively to reduce parasites. The behaviour is most often seen in cavity nesting birds and after nest building has finished. The plants are included in a non-structural manner and are often strongly aromatic. Various different hypotheses have been proposed regarding the function of this behaviour; from the plants altering some non-living factor in the nest (crypsis, water loss and insulation hypotheses) to them being involved in mate selection (mate hypothesis) or even having a beneficial effect, direct or indirect, on chicks (drug or nest protection hypothesis, NPH). Many studies have been carried out over the years observing and experimentally testing these hypotheses. This review focuses on studies involving the most popular of these hypotheses, the NPH: that plants decrease nest parasites or pathogens, thereby conveying positive effects to the chicks, allowing the behaviour to evolve. Studies providing observational evidence towards this hypothesis and those experimentally testing it are discussed. PMID:25804728

  3. 76 FR 36896 - Notice of Establishment of a New Plant Protection and Quarantine Stakeholder Registry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... email subscription service and advises current subscribers on how to continue receiving emails on topics... Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) stakeholder registry is an email subscription service that allows individuals... Stakeholder Registry in order to continue receiving emails on PPQ-related topics. Subscribers will be able...

  4. 76 FR 47490 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Preble's to remove protections for the mouse in Wyoming (73 FR 39790). In that rule, we determined that... promulgated pursuant to Section 4(d) of the Act and published in the Federal Register in 2001 (66 FR 28125, May 22, 2001), amended in 2002 (67 FR 61531, October 1, 2002), and extended indefinitely in 2004...

  5. 76 FR 35349 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... flying squirrel, more commonly known as the West Virginia northern flying squirrel (WVNFS) (73 FR 50226... delisting. Accordingly, WVNFS is listed as endangered throughout its range (50 FR 26999 27002, July 1, 1985...; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the Virginia Northern Flying Squirrel in Compliance With a Court...

  6. Antimicrobial peptides incorporating non-natural amino acids as agents for plant protection.

    PubMed

    Ng-Choi, Iteng; Soler, Marta; Gell, Imma; Badosa, Esther; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Bardaji, Eduard; Montesinos, Emilio; Planas, Marta; Feliu, Lidia

    2014-04-01

    The control of plant pathogens is mainly based on copper compounds and antibiotics. However, the use of these compounds has some limitations. They have a high environmental impact and the use of antibiotics is not allowed in several countries. Moreover, resistance has been developed to these pathogens. The identification of new agents able to fight plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi will represent an alternative to currently used antibiotics or pesticides. Antimicrobial peptides are widely recognized as promising candidates, however naturally occurring sequences present drawbacks that limit their development. These include susceptibility to protease degradation and low bioavailability. To overcome these problems, research has focused on the introduction of unnatural amino acids into lead peptide sequences. In particular, we have improved the biological profile of antimicrobial peptides active against plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi by incorporating triazolyl, biaryl and D-amino acids into their sequence. These modifications and their influence on the biological activity are summarized. PMID:24164267

  7. United States Department of Energy`s reactor core protection evaluation methodology for fires at RBMK and VVER nuclear power plants. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This document provides operators of Soviet-designed RBMK (graphite moderated light water boiling water reactor) and VVER (pressurized light water reactor) nuclear power plants with a systematic Methodology to qualitatively evaluate plant response to fires and to identify remedies to protect the reactor core from fire-initiated damage.

  8. Genetic structure of the rattan Calamus thwaitesii in core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in central Western Ghats, India: do protected areas serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants?

    PubMed

    Ramesha, B T; Ravikanth, G; Nageswara Rao, M; Ganeshaiah, K N; Uma Shaanker, R

    2007-04-01

    Given the increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, the various protected areas--national parks, sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves--serve as the last footholds for conserving biological diversity. However, because protected areas are often targeted for the conservation of selected species, particularly charismatic animals, concerns have been raised about their effectiveness in conserving nontarget taxa and their genetic resources. In this paper, we evaluate whether protected areas can serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants that are threatened due to extraction pressures. We examine the population structure and genetic diversity of an economically important rattan, Calamus thwaitesii, in the core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in the central Western Ghats, southern India. Our results indicate that in all the three protected areas, the core and buffer regions maintain a better population structure, as well as higher genetic diversity, than the peripheral regions of the protected area. Thus, despite the escalating pressures of extraction, the protected areas are effective in conserving the genetic resources of rattan. These results underscore the importance of protected areas in conservation of nontarget species and emphasize the need to further strengthen the protected-area network to offer refugia for economically important plant species. PMID:17656844

  9. Moderate Livestock Grazing Protects Sagebrush Plant Communities From Post-fire Cheatgrass Invasion.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock grazing and fire are common disturbances on sagebrush rangelands. However, little is known about the influence of pre-fire grazing on post-fire plant community recovery. We evaluated the impacts of long-term grazing compared to not grazing prior to fire on sagebrush rangeland. We found ...

  10. A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbić, Miodrag; Feyereisen, René; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to β-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera. The recombinant mite enzyme had both β-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase activity but enzyme kinetics showed that cyanide detoxification activity was strongly favored. Our results therefore suggest that an ancient horizontal transfer of a gene originally involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria was co-opted by herbivorous arthropods to detoxify plant produced cyanide.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02365.001. PMID:24843024

  11. NON-TARGET AND ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS CONTAINING PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The risk of unintended and unexpected adverse impacts on non-target organisms and ecosystems is a key issue in environmental risk assessment of PIP crop plants. While there has been considerable examination of the effects of insect resistant crops on certain non-target organisms...

  12. A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbić, Miodrag; Feyereisen, René; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to β-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera. The recombinant mite enzyme had both β-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase activity but enzyme kinetics showed that cyanide detoxification activity was strongly favored. Our results therefore suggest that an ancient horizontal transfer of a gene originally involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria was co-opted by herbivorous arthropods to detoxify plant produced cyanide. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02365.001 PMID:24843024

  13. Cooperative prevention systems to protect rangelands from the spread of invasive plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plants continue to spread and impact rangelands in the western United States. Fortunately, many rangeland ecosystems still remain invasive weed-free.Cooperative prevention systems can safeguard these remaining areas. Local-level weed prevention areas (WPAs) prioritize prevention in the larg...

  14. Protective Role of Plant Sterol and Stanol Esters in Liver Inflammation: Insights from Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Plat, Jogchum; Hendrikx, Tim; Bieghs, Veerle; Jeurissen, Mike L. J.; Walenbergh, Sofie M. A.; van Gorp, Patrick J.; De Smet, Els; Konings, Maurice; Vreugdenhil, Anita C. E.; Guichot, Yasmin Dias; Rensen, Sander S.; Buurman, Wim A.; Greve, Jan Willem M.; Ltjohann, Dieter; Mensink, Ronald P.; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory component of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can lead to irreversible liver damage. Therefore there is an urgent need to identify novel interventions to combat hepatic inflammation. In mice, omitting cholesterol from the diet reduced hepatic inflammation. Considering the effects of plant sterol/stanol esters on cholesterol metabolism, we hypothesized that plant sterol/stanol esters reduces hepatic inflammation. Indeed, adding plant sterol/stanol esters to a high-fat-diet reduced hepatic inflammation as indicated by immunohistochemical stainings and gene expression for inflammatory markers. Finally, adding sterol/stanol esters lowered hepatic concentrations of cholesterol precursors lathosterol and desmosterol in mice, which were highly elevated in the HFD group similarly as observed in severely obese patients with NASH. In vitro, in isolated LPS stimulated bone marrow derived macrophages desmosterol activated cholesterol efflux whereas sitostanol reduced inflammation. This highly interesting observation that plant sterol/stanol ester consumption leads to complete inhibition of HFD-induced liver inflammation opens new venues in the treatment and prevention of hepatic inflammation. PMID:25356831

  15. Defined plant extracts can protect human cells against combined xenobiotic effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollutants representative of common environmental contaminants induce intracellular toxicity in human cells, which is generally amplified in combinations. We wanted to test the common pathways of intoxication and detoxification in human embryonic and liver cell lines. We used various pollutants such as Roundup residues, Bisphenol-A and Atrazine, and five precise medicinal plant extracts called Circ1, Dig1, Dig2, Sp1, and Uro1 in order to understand whether specific molecular actions took place or not. Methods Kidney and liver are major detoxification organs. We have studied embryonic kidney and hepatic human cell lines E293 and HepG2. The intoxication was induced on the one hand by a formulation of one of the most common herbicides worldwide, Roundup 450 GT+ (glyphosate and specific adjuvants), and on the other hand by a mixture of Bisphenol-A and Atrazine, all found in surface waters, feed and food. The prevention and curative effects of plant extracts were also measured on mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity, on the entry of radiolabelled glyphosate (in Roundup) in cells, and on cytochromes P450 1A2 and 3A4 as well as glutathione-S-transferase. Results Clear toxicities of pollutants were observed on both cell lines at very low sub-agricultural dilutions. The prevention of such phenomena took place within 48 h with the plant extracts tested, with success rates ranging between 25-34% for the E293 intoxicated by Roundup, and surprisingly up to 71% for the HepG2. By contrast, after intoxication, no plant extract was capable of restoring E293 viability within 48 h, however, two medicinal plant combinations did restore the Bisphenol-A/Atrazine intoxicated HepG2 up to 24-28%. The analysis of underlying mechanisms revealed that plant extracts were not capable of preventing radiolabelled glyphosate from entering cells; however Dig2 did restore the CYP1A2 activity disrupted by Roundup, and had only a mild preventive effect on the CYP3A4, and no effect on the glutathione S-transferase. Conclusions Environmental pollutants have intracellular effects that can be prevented, or cured in part, by precise medicinal plant extracts in two human cell lines. This appears to be mediated at least in part by the cytochromes P450 modulation. PMID:21251308

  16. Plant polyphenols effectively protect HaCaT cells from ultraviolet C-triggered necrosis and suppress inflammatory chemokine expression.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Saveria; Potapovich, Alla; Kostyuk, Vladimir; Mariani, Valentina; Lulli, Daniela; De Luca, Chiara; Korkina, Liudmila

    2009-08-01

    Oxidative stress is a common response of epidermal cells to a variety of noxious stimuli such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation from solar light and proinflammatory cytokines from skin-infiltrating leukocytes. Here, we report that two types of plant-derived antioxidants, the phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside as well as the flavonoids rutin and quercetin possess protective effects against UVC-induced cell damage and proinflammatory activation. The molecules under investigation were effective against the loss of cell integrity associated with necrosis in doses consistent with their antioxidant activity, whereas they did not significantly oppose UVC-induced proliferation arrest and apoptosis. By contrast, only verbascoside effectively inhibited cytokine-induced release of proinflammatory mediators in a dose-dependent fashion. Verbascoside and its homologue teupolioside dramatically impaired NF-kappaB and AP-1 DNA binding activity. These results suggest that plant polyphenols with antioxidant properties have distinct mechanisms in the suppression of oxidative stress induced in keratinocytes by different stimuli. Verbascoside and teupolioside are hence of potential interest in the protection of the skin from both environmental and inflammatory insults. PMID:19723070

  17. NH4 + protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by activation of systemic acquired acclimation.

    PubMed

    Fernndez-Crespo, Emma; Scalschi, Loredana; Llorens, Eugenio; Garca-Agustn, Pilar; Camaes, Gemma

    2015-11-01

    NH4 (+) nutrition provokes mild toxicity by enhancing H2O2 accumulation, which acts as a signal activating systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). Until now, induced resistance mechanisms in response to an abiotic stimulus and related to SAA were only reported for exposure to a subsequent abiotic stress. Herein, the first evidence is provided that this acclimation to an abiotic stimulus induces resistance to later pathogen infection, since NH4 (+) nutrition (N-NH4 (+))-induced resistance (NH4 (+)-IR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) in tomato plants was demonstrated. N-NH4 (+) plants displayed basal H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and putrescine (Put) accumulation. H2O2 accumulation acted as a signal to induce ABA-dependent signalling pathways required to prevent NH4 (+) toxicity. This acclimatory event provoked an increase in resistance against later pathogen infection. N-NH4 (+) plants displayed basal stomatal closure produced by H2O2 derived from enhanced CuAO and rboh1 activity that may reduce the entry of bacteria into the mesophyll, diminishing the disease symptoms as well as strongly inducing the oxidative burst upon Pst infection, favouring NH4 (+)-IR. Experiments with inhibitors of Put accumulation and the ABA-deficient mutant flacca demonstrated that Put and ABA downstream signalling pathways are required to complete NH4 (+)-IR. The metabolic profile revealed that infected N-NH4 (+) plants showed greater ferulic acid accumulation compared with control plants. Although classical salicylic acid (SA)-dependent responses against biotrophic pathogens were not found, the important role of Put in the resistance of tomato against Pst was demonstrated. Moreover, this work revealed the cross-talk between abiotic stress acclimation (NH4 (+) nutrition) and resistance to subsequent Pst infection. PMID:26246613

  18. NH4 + protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by activation of systemic acquired acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Scalschi, Loredana; Llorens, Eugenio; García-Agustín, Pilar; Camañes, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    NH4 + nutrition provokes mild toxicity by enhancing H2O2 accumulation, which acts as a signal activating systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). Until now, induced resistance mechanisms in response to an abiotic stimulus and related to SAA were only reported for exposure to a subsequent abiotic stress. Herein, the first evidence is provided that this acclimation to an abiotic stimulus induces resistance to later pathogen infection, since NH4 + nutrition (N-NH4 +)-induced resistance (NH4 +-IR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) in tomato plants was demonstrated. N-NH4 + plants displayed basal H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and putrescine (Put) accumulation. H2O2 accumulation acted as a signal to induce ABA-dependent signalling pathways required to prevent NH4 + toxicity. This acclimatory event provoked an increase in resistance against later pathogen infection. N-NH4 + plants displayed basal stomatal closure produced by H2O2 derived from enhanced CuAO and rboh1 activity that may reduce the entry of bacteria into the mesophyll, diminishing the disease symptoms as well as strongly inducing the oxidative burst upon Pst infection, favouring NH4 +-IR. Experiments with inhibitors of Put accumulation and the ABA-deficient mutant flacca demonstrated that Put and ABA downstream signalling pathways are required to complete NH4 +-IR. The metabolic profile revealed that infected N-NH4 + plants showed greater ferulic acid accumulation compared with control plants. Although classical salicylic acid (SA)-dependent responses against biotrophic pathogens were not found, the important role of Put in the resistance of tomato against Pst was demonstrated. Moreover, this work revealed the cross-talk between abiotic stress acclimation (NH4 + nutrition) and resistance to subsequent Pst infection. PMID:26246613

  19. A plant-produced H1N1 trimeric hemagglutinin protects mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Yoko; Jones, R Mark; Mett, Vadim; Chichester, Jessica A; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Sun, Xiangjie; Tumpey, Terrence M; Green, Brian J; Shamloul, Moneim; Norikane, Joey; Bi, Hong; Hartman, Caitlin E; Bottone, Cory; Stewart, Michelle; Streatfield, Stephen J; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2013-03-01

    The increased worldwide awareness of seasonal and pandemic influenza, including pandemic H1N1 virus, has stimulated interest in the development of economic platforms for rapid, large-scale production of safe and effective subunit vaccines. In recent years, plants have demonstrated their utility as such a platform and have been used to produce vaccine antigens against various infectious diseases. Previously, we have produced in our transient plant expression system a recombinant monomeric hemagglutinin (HA) protein (HAC1) derived from A/California/04/09 (H1N1) strain of influenza virus and demonstrated its immunogenicity and safety in animal models and human volunteers. In the current study, to mimic the authentic HA structure presented on the virus surface and to improve stability and immunogenicity of the HA antigen, we generated trimeric HA by introducing a trimerization motif from a heterologous protein into the HA sequence. Here, we describe the engineering, production in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, and characterization of the highly purified recombinant trimeric HA protein (tHA-BC) from A/California/04/09 (H1N1) strain of influenza virus. The results demonstrate the induction of serum hemagglutination inhibition antibodies by tHA-BC and its protective efficacy in mice against a lethal viral challenge. In addition, the immunogenic and protective doses of tHA-BC were much lower compared with monomeric HAC1. Further investigation into the optimum vaccine dose and/or regimen as well as the stability of trimerized HA is necessary to determine whether trimeric HA is a more potent vaccine antigen than monomeric HA. PMID:23296194

  20. Aqueous extract of some indigenous medicinal plants inhibits glycation at multiple stages and protects erythrocytes from oxidative damage-an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tupe, Rashmi S; Sankhe, Neena M; Shaikh, Shamim A; Phatak, Devyani V; Parikh, Juhi U; Khaire, Amrita A; Kemse, Nisha G

    2015-04-01

    Azadirachta indica, Emblica officinalis, Syzygium cumini and Terminalia bellirica are common in Indian system of traditional medicine for the prevention of diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively and comparatively investigate the antiglycation potential of these plant extracts at multiple stages and their possible protective effect against glycated albumin mediated toxicity to erythrocytes. Antiglycation activities of these plant extracts was measured by co-incubation of plant extract with bovine serum albumin-fructose glycation model. The multistage glycation markers- fructosamines (early stage), protein carbonyls (intermediate stage) and AGEs (late stage) are investigated along with measurement of thiols and β aggregation of albumin using amyloid-specific dyes-Congo red and Th T. Protection of erythrocytes from glycated albumin induced toxicity by these plant extracts was assessed by measuring erythrocytes hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and intracellular antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics, reducing power and antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were also measured. In vitro glycation assays showed that plant extracts exerted site specific inhibitory effects at multiple stages, with T. bellirica showing maximum attenuation. In erythrocytes, along with the retardation of glycated albumin induced hemolysis and lipid-peroxidation, T. bellirica considerably maintained cellular antioxidant potential. Significant positive correlations were observed between erythrocyte protection parameters with total phenolics. These plant extracts especially T. bellirica prevents glycation induced albumin modifications and subsequent toxicity to erythrocytes which might offer additional protection against diabetic vascular complications. PMID:25829572

  1. Functional and taxonomic plant diversity for riverbank protection works: bioengineering techniques close to natural banks and beyond hard engineering.

    PubMed

    Cavaillé, Paul; Ducasse, Léon; Breton, Vincent; Dommanget, Fanny; Tabacchi, Eric; Evette, André

    2015-03-15

    Erosion control is a major issue in the Prealps region since piedmont is subject to both intense flood hazards and anthropic pressure. Riverbank protections may have major impacts on local ecosystem functioning and ecological corridor continuity. This study aimed to estimate the effects of the types of riverbank protection technique (from pure riprap to pure bioengineering) on the taxonomic and ecological composition of plant communities in comparison with unmanaged riverbanks as the referential system. Thirty-eight embankments were sampled in the foothills of the French and Swiss Alps. Four distinct riverbank techniques were analyzed and natural young willow stands were chosen as the referential system. At each site, vegetation was sampled along three transects from the waterline to the top of the riverbank. Plant communities were characterized using biological group composition (growth forms and life history, life strategies and distribution in space and time) and functional diversity indices (MFAD, FDc and wFDc). We identified 177 distinct plant species on 38 sites. Higher species richness levels were observed on bioengineered banks (from an average of 12 species recorded on ripraps to 27 species recorded on bioengineered banks) strongly dominated by Salicaceae species, especially for fascine and cribwall banks. Functional analyses of plant communities highlighted significant differences among bank types (p-value: 0.001) for all selected biological groups. Competitive - ruderal strategy, rooting shoots, stems or leaves that lie down or break off, and unisexual - dioecious, as well as pioneer plants and low shrubs (<4 m tall) distinguished bioengineered bank types. Functional diversity indices confirmed these differences among bank types (MFAD: p-value: 0.002; FDc: p-value: 0.003; wFDc: p-value: 0.005). Riprap always showed the lowest levels on functional diversity indices, fascine and cribwall banks were at the medium level and finally mixed and natural banks the highest level. These results confirm the low ecological potential of purely hard engineering techniques and highlight the similarity of bioengineered techniques and unmanaged riverbanks. PMID:25532058

  2. Acute phytotoxicity of seven metals alone and in mixture: Are Italian soil threshold concentrations suitable for plant protection?

    PubMed

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Ciaccia, Gianluca; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    Metals can pollute soils in both urban and rural areas with severe impacts on the health of humans, plants and animals living there. Information on metal toxicity is therefore important for ecotoxicology. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of different metals frequently found as pollutants in soils: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds were used as models for other plants used in human nutrition such as cereals, rice, fruits and vegetables. The 72-h germination rate and root elongations were selected as short-term ecotoxicological endpoints in seeds exposed to single metals and mixtures. Metals were spiked onto OECD standard soils in concentrations comparable to current Italian contamination threshold concentrations for residential and commercial soils. Arsenic, chromium, mercury and nickel were the most toxic metals in our experimental conditions, particularly to cress seeds (5.172, 152 and 255.4 mg/kg as 72 h IC50 for arsenic, mercury and nickel respectively). Italian limits were acceptable for plant protection only for exposure to each metal alone but not for the mixtures containing all the metals concentrations expected by their respective legislative threshold. The effects of the mixture were class-specific: trends were comparable in dicots but different in monocots. The response induced by the mixture at high concentrations differed from that theoretically obtainable by summing the effects of the individual metals. This might be due to partial antagonism of the metals in soil or to the formation of complexes between the metals, which reduce the bioavailability of the pollutants for plants. PMID:25841179

  3. Potential Role of Pathogen Signaling in Multitrophic Plant-Microbe Interactions Involved in Disease Protection

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Brion; Keel, Christoph; Défago, Geneviève

    2004-01-01

    Multitrophic interactions mediate the ability of fungal pathogens to cause plant disease and the ability of bacterial antagonists to suppress disease. Antibiotic production by antagonists, which contributes to disease suppression, is known to be modulated by abiotic and host plant environmental conditions. Here, we demonstrate that a pathogen metabolite functions as a negative signal for bacterial antibiotic biosynthesis, which can determine the relative importance of biological control mechanisms available to antagonists and which may also influence fungus-bacterium ecological interactions. We found that production of the polyketide antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) was the primary biocontrol mechanism of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Q2-87 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici on the tomato as determined with mutational analysis. In contrast, DAPG was not important for the less-disease-suppressive strain CHA0. This was explained by differential sensitivity of the bacteria to fusaric acid, a pathogen phyto- and mycotoxin that specifically blocked DAPG biosynthesis in strain CHA0 but not in strain Q2-87. In CHA0, hydrogen cyanide, a biocide not repressed by fusaric acid, played a more important role in disease suppression. PMID:15006813

  4. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substratesRBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and ?-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

  5. Curcuma and Scutellaria plant extracts protect chickens against inflammation and Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    PubMed

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Gerzova, Lenka; Cejkova, Darina; Gardan-Salmon, Delphine; Panhéleux, Marina; Robert, Fabrice; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    After a ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in farm animals in the European Union in 2006, an interest in alternative products with antibacterial or anti-inflammatory properties has increased. In this study, we therefore tested the effects of extracts from Curcuma longa and Scutellaria baicalensis used as feed additives against cecal inflammation induced by heat stress or Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection in chickens. Curcuma extract alone was not enough to decrease gut inflammation induced by heat stress. However, a mixture of Curcuma and Scutellaria extracts used as feed additives decreased gut inflammation induced by heat or S. Enteritidis, decreased S. Enteritidis counts in the cecum but was of no negative effect on BW or humoral immune response. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA we found out that supplementation of feed with the 2 plant extracts had no effect on microbiota diversity. However, if the plant extract supplementation was provided to the chickens infected with S. Enteritidis, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus, both bacterial genera with known positive effects on gut health were positively selected. The supplementation of chicken feed with extracts from Curcuma and Scutelleria thus may be used in poultry production to effectively decrease gut inflammation and increase chicken performance. PMID:26188032

  6. Forward Genetic In Planta Screen for Identification of Plant-Protective Traits of Sphingomonas sp. Strain Fr1 against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Christine; Innerebner, Gerd; Zingg, Judith; Guder, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain Fr1 has recently been shown to protect Arabidopsis thaliana against the bacterial leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Here, we describe a forward genetic in planta screen to identify genes in Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 necessary for this effect. About 5,000 Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 mini-Tn5 mutants were assayed for a defect in plant protection against a luxCDABE-tagged P. syringae DC3000 derivative in a space-saving 24-well plate system. The bioluminescence of the pathogen was used as the indicator of pathogen proliferation and allowed for the identification of Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 mutants that had lost the ability to restrict pathogen growth before disease symptoms were visible. Potential candidates were validated using the same miniaturized experimental system. Of these mutants, 10 were confirmed as plant protection defective yet colonization competent. The mutants were subsequently evaluated in a previously described standard microbox system, and plants showed enhanced disease phenotypes after pathogen infection relative to those inoculated with the parental strain as a control. However, the disease severities were lower than those observed for control plants that were grown axenically prior to pathogen challenge, which suggests that several traits may contribute to plant protection. Transposon insertion sites of validated mutants with defects in plant protection were determined and mapped to 7 distinct genomic regions. In conclusion, the established screening protocol allowed us to identify mutations that affect plant protection, and it opens the possibility to uncover traits important for in planta microbe-microbe interactions. PMID:22660707

  7. The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Sustainability Program of Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Vakhonin, Alexander; Yuldashev, Rashid; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Eshter M.

    2009-09-30

    UEIP has been working on a comprehensive sustainability program that includes establishing a site sustainability working group, information gathering, planning, organizing, developing schedule and estimated costs, trhough joint UEIP-US DOE/NNSA National Laboratory sustainability contracts. Considerable efforts have been necessary in the sustainability planning, monitoring, and control of the scope of work using tools such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Project and SAP R/3. While information interchanges within the sustainability program provides adequate US assurances that US funds are well spent through its quarterly reporting methodology, proper information security and protection measures are taken throughout the process. Decommissioning of outdated equipment has also become part of determining sustainability requirements and processes. The sites sustainability program has facilitated the development of a transition plan toward eventual full Russian funding of sustaining nuclear security upgrades.

  8. New risk indicator approach for Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents for a sustainable use of plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Sacchettini, Gabriele; Calliera, Maura; Marchis, Alexandru; Glass, Richard; Ellis, Clare Butler; Machera, Kyriaki; Gerritsen-Ebben, Rianda; Spanoghe, Pieter; Capri, Ettore

    2015-11-01

    In 2009, the European Union adopted the Directive on Sustainable Use of pesticides (SUD, Directive 2009/128/EC) establishing a framework for achieving a sustainable use of Plant Protection Products (PPPs) through reducing the risks and impacts of PPP use on human health and the environment, promoting integrated pest management and stimulating effective non-chemical alternatives. The core idea of the SUD is that it is necessary to monitor the use of PPPs through the implementation of an appropriate set of risk indicators to monitor progress and trends in risk reduction within the Member States. To contribute to this direction, following a comprehensive analysis of the risk (including procedures of risk assessment and risk management) and involving stakeholders in the decision process, specific toolboxes of practical indirect risk indicators of exposure of Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents were developed and are now available to be used by Member States (MSs) based on their specific context. PMID:26143544

  9. State oversight review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant radiation protection and measurement programs

    SciTech Connect

    Channell, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG), an interdisciplinary organization attached to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, has been providing an independent scientific oversight of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant WIPP project since 1978. Evaluations cover all aspects of the project that have potential radiological health and safety considerations. During the early years, most of the review emphasis was on site suitability and involved heavy emphasis on the disciplines of geology and hydrogeology. During the middle years, the amount of emphasis on facility design, waste characterization, waste transportation package development, and quality assurance increased. Now, as final preparations are being made for the receipt of radioactive wastes, EEG is heavily involved in evaluating on-site health physics programs and radiation-measurement systems. Also, EEG is conducting an independent environmental radiation-monitoring program.

  10. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-containing rhizobacteria protect Ocimum sanctum plants during waterlogging stress via reduced ethylene generation.

    PubMed

    Barnawal, Deepti; Bharti, Nidhi; Maji, Deepamala; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Kalra, Alok

    2012-09-01

    Ocimum sanctum grown as rain-fed crop, is known to be poorly adapted to waterlogged conditions. Many a times the crop suffers extreme damages because of anoxia and excessive ethylene generation due to waterlogging conditions present under heavy rain. The usefulness of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-containing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria was investigated under waterlogging stress. The comparison of herb yield and stress induced biochemical changes of waterlogged and non-waterlogged plants with and without ACC deaminase-containing microbiological treatments were monitored in this study. Ten plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains containing ACC-deaminase were isolated and characterized. Four selected isolates Fd2 (Achromobacter xylosoxidans), Bac5 (Serratia ureilytica), Oci9 (Herbaspirillum seropedicae) and Oci13 (Ochrobactrum rhizosphaerae) had the potential to protect Ocimum plants from flood induced damage under waterlogged glass house conditions. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of these ACC deaminase-containing selected strains for reducing the yield losses caused by waterlogging conditions. Bacterial treatments protected plants from waterlogging induced detrimental changes like stress ethylene production, reduced chlorophyll concentration, higher lipid peroxidation, proline concentration and reduced foliar nutrient uptake. Fd2 (A. xylosoxidans) induced maximum waterlogging tolerance as treated waterlogged plants recorded maximum growth and herb yield (46.5% higher than uninoculated waterlogged plants) with minimum stress ethylene levels (53% lower ACC concentration as compared to waterlogged plants without bacterial inoculation) whereas under normal non-waterlogged conditions O. rhizosphaerae was most effective in plant growth promotion. PMID:22846334

  11. Geoheritage, Geodiversity and natural landscape enhanced and protected through anthropogenic activity: a case study using the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne Fault, Afar and Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Hagos, Miruts; Guilbaud, Marie-Noelle

    2015-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage (WH) committee called in 2014 for all thematic geological and volcanological studies to be revised in light of a widening gap between current dogma and the progressive geoheritage science views. We discuss question of natural sites and anthropogenic activity. The Chaîne des Puys and Limagne fault UNESCO WH project is the basis of this presentation, but we also the Afar Region of Ethiopia and UNAM campus, Mexico City. It is now difficult to find any totally 'natural' (devoid of human influence) landscape. This very definition of natural ignores that humankind is a geological force, and humans are part of the natural process. The UNESCO WH guidelines recognise this in paragraph 90: 'it is recognized that no area is totally pristine and that all natural areas are in a dynamic state, and to some extent involve contact with people'. A geological landscape, may be large enough to accommodate human occupation without significantly changing landforms: this is the case of the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne fault. Human activity works in some ways to protect geological landscape: regulating vegetation and erosion. The aesthetic nature of humans may work to enhance the landscape's visibility by organisation of land use, and ceremonial use based on the sense of place. Humans also exercise economic activity such as quarrying and mining, which if uncontrolled can seriously modify a landscape. However, isolated works may not have an impact, or may even enhance the value of the site by uncovering geological features that would not naturally be seen. In the Chaîne des Puys only 0,3% of the land surface has been worked by artisanal methods and certain sites, like the Lemptégy volcano have been extracted with the view of enhancing the landscape's scientific value without detracting from the aesthetic. The site preserves its natural, scientific and aesthetic qualities, because of the human presence. The local population have always been and continue to be the guardians of the exceptional universal value of the site. The Afar is an example of anthropogenic influence on a natural site, where traditional salt extraction has no impact on a natural site constantly renewed by the environmental activity renews the landscape. Introducing modern usage however requires greater levels of protection, and closer monitoring. UNAM campus is urban, but small pockets of superbly preserved lava from the Xitle volcano provide an opportunity to observe an important natural hazard in the heart of the city. This example shows how resistant natural features are at a small scale. In conclusion, it is clear that anthropogenic influences on landscape are omnipresent and the definition of natural landscape as devoid of any human presence has little meaning. Human activity needs to be acknowledged to be an essential part of geodiversity. The current revisions called for by UNESCO ask the geoscience community to take a greater part in this process, and our community should use this opportunity to make a stronger impact in the world heritage process.

  12. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  13. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  14. How TK-TD and population models for aquatic macrophytes could support the risk assessment for plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Hommen, Udo; Schmitt, Walter; Heine, Simon; Brock, Theo Cm; Duquesne, Sabine; Manson, Phil; Meregalli, Giovanna; Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo; van Vliet, Peter; Arts, Gertie

    2016-01-01

    This case study of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) workshop MODELINK demonstrates the potential use of mechanistic effects models for macrophytes to extrapolate from effects of a plant protection product observed in laboratory tests to effects resulting from dynamic exposure on macrophyte populations in edge-of-field water bodies. A standard European Union (EU) risk assessment for an example herbicide based on macrophyte laboratory tests indicated risks for several exposure scenarios. Three of these scenarios are further analyzed using effect models for 2 aquatic macrophytes, the free-floating standard test species Lemna sp., and the sediment-rooted submerged additional standard test species Myriophyllum spicatum. Both models include a toxicokinetic (TK) part, describing uptake and elimination of the toxicant, a toxicodynamic (TD) part, describing the internal concentration-response function for growth inhibition, and a description of biomass growth as a function of environmental factors to allow simulating seasonal dynamics. The TK-TD models are calibrated and tested using laboratory tests, whereas the growth models were assumed to be fit for purpose based on comparisons of predictions with typical growth patterns observed in the field. For the risk assessment, biomass dynamics are predicted for the control situation and for several exposure levels. Based on specific protection goals for macrophytes, preliminary example decision criteria are suggested for evaluating the model outputs. The models refined the risk indicated by lower tier testing for 2 exposure scenarios, while confirming the risk associated for the third. Uncertainties related to the experimental and the modeling approaches and their application in the risk assessment are discussed. Based on this case study and the assumption that the models prove suitable for risk assessment once fully evaluated, we recommend that 1) ecological scenarios be developed that are also linked to the exposure scenarios, and 2) quantitative protection goals be set to facilitate the interpretation of model results for risk assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:82-95. ©2015 SETAC. PMID:26420056

  15. Magnetic field protects plants against high light by slowing down production of singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Hakala-Yatkin, Marja; Sarvikas, Pivi; Paturi, Petriina; Mntysaari, Mika; Mattila, Heta; Tyystjrvi, Taina; Nedbal, Ladislav; Tyystjrvi, Esa

    2011-05-01

    Recombination of the primary radical pair of photosystem II (PSII) of photosynthesis may produce the triplet state of the primary donor of PSII. Triplet formation is potentially harmful because chlorophyll triplets can react with molecular oxygen to produce the reactive singlet oxygen (O?). The yield of O? is expected to be directly proportional to the triplet yield and the triplet yield of charge recombination can be lowered with a magnetic field of 100-300 mT. In this study, we illuminated intact pumpkin leaves with strong light in the presence and absence of a magnetic field and found that the magnetic field protects against photoinhibition of PSII. The result suggests that radical pair recombination is responsible for significant part of O? production in the chloroplast. The magnetic field effect vanished if leaves were illuminated in the presence of lincomycin, an inhibitor of chloroplast protein synthesis, or if isolated thylakoid membranes were exposed to light. These data, in turn, indicate that O? produced by the recombination of the primary charge pair is not directly involved in photoinactivation of PSII but instead damages PSII by inhibiting the repair of photoinhibited PSII. We also found that an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lacking ?-tocopherol, a scavenger of O?, is more sensitive to photoinhibition than the wild-type in the absence but not in the presence of lincomycin, confirming that the target of O? is the repair mechanism. PMID:21288249

  16. Plant derived omega-3-fatty acids protect mitochondrial function in the brain.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Gunter P; Franke, Cornelia; Nldner, Michael; Rau, Oliver; Wurglics, Mario; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Mller, Walter E

    2010-03-01

    Perilla frutescens seed oil (PFSO) represents a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially of omega-3 linolenic acid and is commonly used as herbal food supplement with beneficial effects on the vascular system. The present study investigated the effects of PFSO on the central nervous system (CNS) and provides new insight into potential mechanisms for protective properties of unsaturated fatty acids within the CNS. PFSO was administered chronically to guinea pigs and neuroprotective properties were assessed ex vivo in dissociated brain cells. Dissociated brain cells isolated from PFSO treated guinea pigs were less vulnerable against nitrosative stress as indicated by decreased levels of reactive oxygen species, by stabilized mitochondrial membrane potential and enhanced levels of adenosine-triphosphate. In the brain, levels of oleic, linoleic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids were significantly enhanced. However, fatty acid composition and membrane dynamics of isolated synaptosomal plasma membranes were not affected. Our findings provide new insights into the potential mechanisms for the neuroprotective actions of unsaturated fatty acids and identified PFSO as promising nutraceutical and possible alternative to fish oil supplements to provide healthful activities in the brain. PMID:20079842

  17. Signaling via the Trichoderma atroviride mitogen-activated protein kinase Tmk 1 differentially affects mycoparasitism and plant protection.

    PubMed

    Reithner, Barbara; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Stoppacher, Norbert; Pucher, Marion; Brunner, Kurt; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2007-11-01

    Trichoderma atroviride is a mycoparasite of a number of plant pathogenic fungi thereby employing morphological changes and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and antibiotics. The function of the tmk 1 gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) during fungal growth, mycoparasitic interaction, and biocontrol was examined in T. atroviride. Deltatmk 1 mutants exhibited altered radial growth and conidiation, and displayed de-regulated infection structure formation in the absence of a host-derived signal. In confrontation assays, tmk 1 deletion caused reduced mycoparasitic activity although attachment to Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea hyphae was comparable to the parental strain. Under chitinase-inducing conditions, nag 1 and ech 42 transcript levels and extracellular chitinase activities were elevated in a Deltatmk 1 mutant, whereas upon direct confrontation with R. solani or B. cinerea a host-specific regulation of ech 42 transcription was found and nag 1 gene transcription was no more inducible over an elevated basal level. Deltatmk 1 mutants exhibited higher antifungal activity caused by low molecular weight substances, which was reflected by an over-production of 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone and peptaibol antibiotics. In biocontrol assays, a Deltatmk 1 mutant displayed a higher ability to protect bean plants against R. solani. PMID:17509915

  18. Coexpression of potato type I and II proteinase inhibitors gives cotton plants protection against insect damage in the field.

    PubMed

    Dunse, K M; Stevens, J A; Lay, F T; Gaspar, Y M; Heath, R L; Anderson, M A

    2010-08-24

    Potato type I and II serine protease inhibitors are produced by solanaceous plants as a defense mechanism against insects and microbes. Nicotiana alata proteinase inhibitor (NaPI) is a multidomain potato type II inhibitor (pin II) that is produced at high levels in the female reproductive tissues of the ornamental tobacco, Nicotiana alata. The individual inhibitory domains of NaPI target the major classes of digestive enzymes, trypsin and chymotrypsin, in the gut of lepidopteran larval pests. Although consumption of NaPI dramatically reduced the growth and development of a major insect pest, Helicoverpa punctigera, we discovered that surviving larvae had high levels of chymotrypsin activity resistant to inhibition by NaPI. We found a potato type I inhibitor, Solanum tuberosum potato type I inhibitor (StPin1A), was a strong inhibitor of the NaPI-resistant chymotrypsin activity. The combined inhibitory effect of NaPI and StPin1A on H. armigera larval growth in the laboratory was reflected in the increased yield of cotton bolls in field trials of transgenic plants expressing both inhibitors. Better crop protection thus is achieved using combinations of inhibitors in which one class of proteinase inhibitor is used to match the genetic capacity of an insect to adapt to a second class of proteinase inhibitor. PMID:20696895

  19. Cesium Ion Exchange Program at the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    CHARLES, NASH

    2005-02-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will use cesium ion exchange to remove Cs-137 from Low Activity Waste (LAW) down to a maximum activity of 0.3 Ci/m3 in the Immobilized LAW (ILAW) product. The WTP Project baseline for cesium ion exchange is the elutable SuperLig(R) 644 (SL-644) resin (registered trademark of IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT) or a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) approved equivalent. SL-644 is solely available through IBC Advanced Technologies. The WTP Project is conducting a three-stage process for selecting and qualifying an alternative ion exchange resin. Resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) is being pursued as a potential alternative to SL-644, to provide a backup resin supply. Resin cost relative to SL-644 is a primary driver. Phase I of the testing plan examined the viability of RF resin and recommended that a spherical form of RF resin be examined further. Phases II and III, now underway, include batch testing to determine the isotherm of this resin, kinetics to address the impacts of bead diameter and high sodium feed levels on processing Hanford waste with the resin, and multicycle column testing to determine how temperature and chemical cycling affects waste processing. Phases II and III also examine resin performance against simulated WTP feeds, radiolytic and thermal stability, and scale-up to pilot scale performance. We will discuss early results obtained from Phase II testing here.

  20. Can Sacrificial Feeding Areas Protect Aquatic Plants from Herbivore Grazing? Using Behavioural Ecology to Inform Wildlife Management

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kevin A.; Stillman, Richard A.; Daunt, Francis; OHare, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor) to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i) food quantity, (ii) food quality, and (iii) the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems. PMID:25077615

  1. Unsaturation of Very-Long-Chain Ceramides Protects Plant from Hypoxia-Induced Damages by Modulating Ethylene Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lu-Jun; Huang, Li; Chen, Liang; Wang, Feng-Zhu; Xia, Fan-Nv; Zhu, Tian-Ren; Wu, Jian-Xin; Yin, Jian; Liao, Bin; Shi, Jianxin; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Aharoni, Asaph; Yao, Nan; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Lipid remodeling is crucial for hypoxic tolerance in animals, whilst little is known about the hypoxia-induced lipid dynamics in plants. Here we performed a mass spectrometry-based analysis to survey the lipid profiles of Arabidopsis rosettes under various hypoxic conditions. We observed that hypoxia caused a significant increase in total amounts of phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid and oxidized lipids, but a decrease in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Particularly, significant gains in the polyunsaturated species of PC, PE and phosphatidylinositol, and losses in their saturated and mono-unsaturated species were evident during hypoxia. Moreover, hypoxia led to a remarkable elevation of ceramides and hydroxyceramides. Disruption of ceramide synthases LOH1, LOH2 and LOH3 enhanced plant sensitivity to dark submergence, but displayed more resistance to submergence under light than wild type. Consistently, levels of unsaturated very-long-chain (VLC) ceramide species (22:1, 24:1 and 26:1) predominantly declined in the loh1, loh2 and loh3 mutants under dark submergence. In contrast, significant reduction of VLC ceramides in the loh1-1 loh3-1 knockdown double mutant and lacking of VLC unsaturated ceramides in the ads2 mutants impaired plant tolerance to both dark and light submergences. Evidence that C24:1-ceramide interacted with recombinant CTR1 protein and inhibited its kinase activity in vitro, enhanced ER-to-nucleus translocation of EIN2-GFP and stabilization of EIN3-GFP in vivo, suggests a role of ceramides in modulating CTR1-mediated ethylene signaling. The dark submergence-sensitive phenotypes of loh mutants were rescued by a ctr1-1 mutation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that unsaturation of VLC ceramides is a protective strategy for hypoxic tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:25822663

  2. Unsaturation of very-long-chain ceramides protects plant from hypoxia-induced damages by modulating ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-Juan; Chen, Qin-Fang; Chen, Mo-Xian; Yu, Lu-Jun; Huang, Li; Chen, Liang; Wang, Feng-Zhu; Xia, Fan-Nv; Zhu, Tian-Ren; Wu, Jian-Xin; Yin, Jian; Liao, Bin; Shi, Jianxin; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Aharoni, Asaph; Yao, Nan; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2015-03-01

    Lipid remodeling is crucial for hypoxic tolerance in animals, whilst little is known about the hypoxia-induced lipid dynamics in plants. Here we performed a mass spectrometry-based analysis to survey the lipid profiles of Arabidopsis rosettes under various hypoxic conditions. We observed that hypoxia caused a significant increase in total amounts of phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid and oxidized lipids, but a decrease in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Particularly, significant gains in the polyunsaturated species of PC, PE and phosphatidylinositol, and losses in their saturated and mono-unsaturated species were evident during hypoxia. Moreover, hypoxia led to a remarkable elevation of ceramides and hydroxyceramides. Disruption of ceramide synthases LOH1, LOH2 and LOH3 enhanced plant sensitivity to dark submergence, but displayed more resistance to submergence under light than wild type. Consistently, levels of unsaturated very-long-chain (VLC) ceramide species (22:1, 24:1 and 26:1) predominantly declined in the loh1, loh2 and loh3 mutants under dark submergence. In contrast, significant reduction of VLC ceramides in the loh1-1 loh3-1 knockdown double mutant and lacking of VLC unsaturated ceramides in the ads2 mutants impaired plant tolerance to both dark and light submergences. Evidence that C24:1-ceramide interacted with recombinant CTR1 protein and inhibited its kinase activity in vitro, enhanced ER-to-nucleus translocation of EIN2-GFP and stabilization of EIN3-GFP in vivo, suggests a role of ceramides in modulating CTR1-mediated ethylene signaling. The dark submergence-sensitive phenotypes of loh mutants were rescued by a ctr1-1 mutation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that unsaturation of VLC ceramides is a protective strategy for hypoxic tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:25822663

  3. High resource-capture and -use efficiency, and effective antioxidant protection contribute to the invasiveness of Alnus formosana plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiliang; Luo, Yiming; Yang, Rongjie; He, Chengxiang; Cheng, Qingsu; Tao, Jianjun; Ren, Bo; Wang, Maohua; Ma, Mingdong

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the traits contributing to the invasiveness of Alnus formosana and the mechanisms underlying its invasiveness, we compared A. formosana with its native congener (Alnus cremastogyne) under three light treatments (13%, 56%, and 100%). The consistently higher plant height, total leaf area, light-saturated photosynthetic rate (A(max)), light saturation point (LSP), light compensation point (LCP), respiration efficiency (RE), and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) but lower root mass fraction (RMF) and specific leaf area (SLA) of the invader than of its native congener contributed to the higher RGR and total biomass of A. formosana across light regimes. The total biomass and RGR of the invader increased markedly with increased RMF, A(max), LSP, LCP, RE, stomatal conductance (G(s)) and total leaf area. Furthermore, compared with the native species, the higher plasticity index in plant height, RMF, leaf mass fraction (LMF), SMF, SLA, A(max) and dark respiration rate (R(d)) within the range of total light contributed to the higher performance of the invader. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in the invader compared to the native, contributing to its invasion success under high/low light via photoprotection. With a decrease in light level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased significantly, whereas total carotenoid (Car) and total chlorophyll (Chl) decreased; ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities remained unchanged. These responses may help the invader to spread and invade a wide range of habitats and form dense monocultures, displacing native plant species. The results suggest that both resource capture-related traits (morphological and photosynthetic) and adaptation-related traits (antioxidant protection) contribute to the competitive advantage of the invader. PMID:26433486

  4. In the right place at the right time: habitat representation in protected areas of South American Nothofagus-dominated plants after a dispersal constrained climate change scenario.

    PubMed

    Alarcn, Diego; Cavieres, Lohengrin A

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of climate change in temperate rainforest plants in southern South America in terms of habitat size, representation in protected areas, considering also if the expected impacts are similar for dominant trees and understory plant species, we used niche modeling constrained by species migration on 118 plant species, considering two groups of dominant trees and two groups of understory ferns. Representation in protected areas included Chilean national protected areas, private protected areas, and priority areas planned for future reserves, with two thresholds for minimum representation at the country level: 10% and 17%. With a 10% representation threshold, national protected areas currently represent only 50% of the assessed species. Private reserves are important since they increase up to 66% the species representation level. Besides, 97% of the evaluated species may achieve the minimum representation target only if the proposed priority areas were included. With the climate change scenario representation levels slightly increase to 53%, 69%, and 99%, respectively, to the categories previously mentioned. Thus, the current location of all the representation categories is useful for overcoming climate change by 2050. Climate change impacts on habitat size and representation of dominant trees in protected areas are not applicable to understory plants, highlighting the importance of assessing these effects with a larger number of species. Although climate change will modify the habitat size of plant species in South American temperate rainforests, it will have no significant impact in terms of the number of species adequately represented in Chile, where the implementation of the proposed reserves is vital to accomplish the present and future minimum representation. Our results also show the importance of using migration dispersal constraints to develop more realistic future habitat maps from climate change predictions. PMID:25786226

  5. In the Right Place at the Right Time: Habitat Representation in Protected Areas of South American Nothofagus-Dominated Plants after a Dispersal Constrained Climate Change Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Diego; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of climate change in temperate rainforest plants in southern South America in terms of habitat size, representation in protected areas, considering also if the expected impacts are similar for dominant trees and understory plant species, we used niche modeling constrained by species migration on 118 plant species, considering two groups of dominant trees and two groups of understory ferns. Representation in protected areas included Chilean national protected areas, private protected areas, and priority areas planned for future reserves, with two thresholds for minimum representation at the country level: 10% and 17%. With a 10% representation threshold, national protected areas currently represent only 50% of the assessed species. Private reserves are important since they increase up to 66% the species representation level. Besides, 97% of the evaluated species may achieve the minimum representation target only if the proposed priority areas were included. With the climate change scenario representation levels slightly increase to 53%, 69%, and 99%, respectively, to the categories previously mentioned. Thus, the current location of all the representation categories is useful for overcoming climate change by 2050. Climate change impacts on habitat size and representation of dominant trees in protected areas are not applicable to understory plants, highlighting the importance of assessing these effects with a larger number of species. Although climate change will modify the habitat size of plant species in South American temperate rainforests, it will have no significant impact in terms of the number of species adequately represented in Chile, where the implementation of the proposed reserves is vital to accomplish the present and future minimum representation. Our results also show the importance of using migration dispersal constraints to develop more realistic future habitat maps from climate change predictions. PMID:25786226

  6. Fungal cell wall polymer based nanoparticles in protection of tomato plants from wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici.

    PubMed

    Sathiyabama, M; Charles, R Einstein

    2015-11-20

    Cell wall polymer (chitosan) was isolated from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. They were cross linked with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) to synthesize nanoparticles (CWP-NP). The nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, DLS, SEM, XRD and NMR analyses. The isolated CWP-NP exhibit antifungal activity under in vitro condition. The foliar application of the CWP-NP to tomato plants challenged with F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici showed delay in wilt disease symptom expression and reduce the wilt disease severity. Treated plants also showed enhanced yield. These results suggested the role of the CWP-NP in protecting tomato plants from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici infection. PMID:26344296

  7. Plant Food Delphinidin-3-Glucoside Significantly Inhibits Platelet Activation and Thrombosis: Novel Protective Roles against Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Shi, Zhenyin; Reheman, Adili; Jin, Joseph W.; Li, Conglei; Wang, Yiming; Andrews, Marc C.; Chen, Pingguo; Zhu, Guangheng; Ling, Wenhua; Ni, Heyu

    2012-01-01

    Delphinidin-3-glucoside (Dp-3-g) is one of the predominant bioactive compounds of anthocyanins in many plant foods. Although several anthocyanin compounds have been reported to be protective against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the direct effect of anthocyanins on platelets, the key players in atherothrombosis, has not been studied. The roles of Dp-3-g in platelet function are completely unknown. The present study investigated the effects of Dp-3-g on platelet activation and several thrombosis models in vitro and in vivo. We found that Dp-3-g significantly inhibited human and murine platelet aggregation in both platelet-rich plasma and purified platelets. It also markedly reduced thrombus growth in human and murine blood in perfusion chambers at both low and high shear rates. Using intravital microscopy, we observed that Dp-3-g decreased platelet deposition, destabilized thrombi, and prolonged the time required for vessel occlusion. Dp-3-g also significantly inhibited thrombus growth in a carotid artery thrombosis model. To elucidate the mechanisms, we examined platelet activation markers via flow cytometry and found that Dp-3-g significantly inhibited the expression of P-selectin, CD63, CD40L, which reflect platelet α- and δ-granule release, and cytosol protein secretion, respectively. We further demonstrated that Dp-3-g downregulated the expression of active integrin αIIbβ3 on platelets, and attenuated fibrinogen binding to platelets following agonist treatment, without interfering with the direct interaction between fibrinogen and integrin αIIbβ3. We found that Dp-3-g reduced phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which may contribute to the observed inhibitory effects on platelet activation. Thus, Dp-3-g significantly inhibits platelet activation and attenuates thrombus growth at both arterial and venous shear stresses, which likely contributes to its protective roles against thrombosis and CVDs. PMID:22624015

  8. EPRI Guide to Managing Nuclear Utility Protective Clothing Programs. PCEVAL User`s Manual, A computer code for evaluating the economics of nuclear plant protective clothing programs: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.J.; Kelly, D.M.

    1993-10-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) commissioned a radioactive waste related project (RP2414-34) in 1989 to produce a guide for developing and managing nuclear plant protective clothing programs. Every nuclear facility must coordinate some type of protective clothing program for its radiation workers to ensure proper and safe protection for the wearer and to maintain control over the spread of contamination. Yet, every nuclear facility has developed its own unique program for managing such clothing. Accordingly, a need existed for a reference guide to assist with standardizing protective clothing programs and in controlling the potentially escalating economics of such programs. The initial Guide to Managing Nuclear Utility Protective Clothing Programs, NP-7309, was published in May 1991. Since that time, a number of utilities have reviewed and/or used the report to enhance their protective clothing programs. Some of these utilities requested that a computer program be developed to assist utilities in evaluating the economics of protective clothing programs consistent with the guidance in NP-7309. The PCEVAL computer code responds to that industry need. This report, the PCEVAL User`s Manual, provides detailed instruction on use of the software.

  9. Proline induces heat tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants by protecting vital enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Neeru; Gupta, Kriti; Bhandhari, Kalpna; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thakur, Prince; Nayyar, Harsh

    2011-07-01

    Chickpea is a heat sensitive crop hence its potential yield is considerably reduced under high temperatures exceeding 35 °C. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of proline in countering the damage caused by heat stress to growth and to enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism in chickpea. The chickpea seeds were raised without (control) and with proline (10 μM) at temperatures of 30/25 °C, 35/30 °C, 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C as day/ night (12 h/12 h) in a growth chamber. The shoot and root length at 40/35 °C decreased by 46 and 37 %, respectively over control while at 45/40 °C, a decrease of 63 and 47 %, respectively over control was observed. In the plants growing in the presence of 10 μM proline at 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C, the shoot length showed improvement of 32 and 53 %, respectively over untreated plants, while the root growth was improved by 22 and 26 %, respectively. The stress injury (as membrane damage) increased with elevation of temperatures while cellular respiration, chlorophyll content and relative leaf water content reduced as the temperature increased to 45/40 °C. The endogenous proline was elevated to 46 μmol g(-1) dw at 40/35 °C but declined to 19 μmol g(-1) dw in plants growing at 45/40 °C that was associated with considerable inhibition of growth at this temperature. The oxidative damage measured as malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide content increased manifolds in heat stressed plants coupled with inhibition in the activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase) and levels of non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, glutathione, proline) antioxidants. The enzymes associated with carbon fixation (RUBISCO), sucrose synthesis (sucrose phosphate synthase) and sucrose hydrolysis (invertase) were strongly inhibited at 45/40 °C. The plants growing in the presence of proline accumulated proline up to 63 μmol g(-1) dw and showed less injury to membranes, had improved content of chlorophyll and water, especially at 45/40 °C. Additionally, the oxidative injury was significantly reduced coupled with elevated levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. A significant improvement was also noticed in the activities of enzymes of carbon metabolism in proline-treated plants. We report here that proline imparts partial heat tolerance to chickpea's growth by reducing the cellular injury and protection of some vital enzymes related to carbon and oxidative metabolism and exogenous application of proline appears to have a countering effect against elevated high temperatures on chickpea. PMID:23573011

  10. The protective ability of the Mediterranean plant extracts against the oxidative DNA damage. The role of the radical oxygen species and the polyphenol content.

    PubMed

    Kapiszewska, M; Sołtys, E; Visioli, F; Cierniak, A; Zajac, G

    2005-03-01

    The polyphenol plant extracts content seems to be responsible for the scavenging activity of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in protection against DNA damage induced by the oxidative stress. This assumption was verified analyzing the effect of six Mediterranean plant extracts (Crepis vesicaria L, Origanum heracleoticum, Scandix australis L, Amaranthus sp., Scolymus hispanicus L, Thymus piperella L) on the oxidative DNA damage induced in lymphocytes by H(2)O(2) in relation to the polyphenolic content and the lymphocyte scavenging ability of ROS. The comet assay was used to evaluate oxidative DNA damage and the polyphenol content was analyzed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The fluorescence resulting from oxidation of ROS-sensitive dye, dihydrorofluorescein (DHF), was utilized as indicator of the ROS level. Pretreatment with all plant extracts produced the dose-dependent increase in the DNA protection up to the 0.2 microg/ml polyphenol content and the decrease above that dose. Only the Thymus piperella, similarly to quercetin, showed a strong positive correlation between the DNA protection and the polyphenol content, but negative correlation with ROS formation. In conclusion, the DNA protective ability of plant extracts seems to be related to the low polyphenol concentration and only to certain extent depends on the polyphenol ROS scavenging activity. PMID:15800394

  11. Protection of Humans by Plant Glucosinolates: Efficiency of Conversion of Glucosinolates to Isothiocyanates by the Gastrointestinal Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W.; Wehage, Scott L; Holtzclaw, W. David; Kensler, Thomas W.; Egner, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Theresa A.; Talalay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Plant-based diets rich in crucifers are effective in preventing cancer and other chronic diseases. Crucifers contain very high concentrations of glucosinolates (GS; β-thioglucoside-N- hydroxysulfates). Although not themselves protective, GS are converted by coexisting myrosinases to bitter isothiocyanates (ITC) which defend plants against predators. Coincidentally, ITC also induce mammalian genes that regulate defenses against oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA-damaging electrophiles. Consequently, the efficiency of conversion of GS to ITC may be critical in controlling the health-promoting benefits of crucifers. If myrosinase is heat-inactivated by cooking, the gastrointestinal microflora converts GS to ITC, a process abolished by enteric antibiotics and bowel cleansing. When single oral doses of GS were administered as broccoli sprout extracts (BSE) to two dissimilar populations (rural Han Chinese and racially mixed Baltimoreans) patterns of excretions of urinary dithiocarbamates (DTC) were very similar. Individual conversions in both populations varied enormously, from about 1% to more than 40% of dose. In contrast, administration of ITC (largely sulforaphane)-containing BSE, resulted in uniformly high (70-90%) conversions to urinary DTC. Despite the remarkably large range of conversion efficiencies between individuals, repeated determinations within individuals were much more consistent. The rates of urinary excretion (slow or fast) were unrelated to the ultimate magnitudes (low or high) of these conversions. Although no demographic factors affecting conversion efficiency have been identified, there are clearly diurnal variations: conversion of GS to DTC was greater during the day, but conversion of ITC to DTC was more efficient at night. PMID:22318753

  12. The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Process for Managing Equipment Intended for Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Yuldashev, Rashid; Nosov, Andrei; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Dabbs, Richard D.; Ku, Esther M.

    2008-10-01

    Since 1996, the Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) located in the town of Novouralsk, Russia, (previously known as Sverdlovsk-44) and the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) have been cooperating under the Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. Because UEIP is involved in the processing of highly enriched uranium (HEU) into low enriched uranium (LEU), and there are highly enriched nuclear materials on its territory, the main goal of the MPC&A cooperation is to upgrade those systems that ensure secure storage, processing and transportation of nuclear materials at the plant. UEIP has completed key upgrades (equipment procurement and installation) aimed at improving MPC&A systems through significant investments made by both the U.S. DOE and UEIP. These joint cooperative efforts resulted in bringing MPC&A systems into compliance with current regulations, which led to nuclear material (NM) theft risk reduction and prevention from other unlawful actions with respect to them. Upon the U.S. MPC&A project teams suggestion, UEIP has developed an equipment inventory control process to track all the property provided through the MPC&A Program. The UEIP process and system for managing equipment provides many benefits including: greater ease and efficiency in determining the quantities, location, maintenance and repair schedule for equipment; greater assurance that MPC&A equipment is in continued satisfactory operation; and improved control in the development of a site sustainability program. While emphasizing UEIPs equipment inventory control processes, this paper will present process requirements and a methodology that may have practical and helpful applications at other sites.

  13. The analysis and specification of large high-pressure, high-temperature valves for combustion turbine protection in second-generation PFB power plants: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a specification for the high-pressure/high-temperature valves for turbine overspeed protection in a commercial-scale second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant. In the event of a loss of external (generator) load, the gas turbine rapidly accelerates from its normal operating speed. Protection from excessive overspeed can be maintained by actuation of fuel isolation and air bypass valves. A design specification for these valves was developed by analyses of the turbine/compressor interaction during a loss of load and analyses of pressure and flow transients during operation of the overspeed protection valves. The basis for these analyses was the Phase 1 plant conceptual design prepared in 1987.

  14. Rheologie des Polymeres Charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepez, Olivier

    Une etude des proprietes rheologiques en ecoulement oscillatoire et en ecoulement transitoire a ete realisee sur des suspensions de particules spheriques dans des solutions de polymere d'une part et dans des polymeres a l'etat fondu d'autre part. Une attention particuliere a ete portee sur l'influence des parametres suivants sur les proprietes en ecoulement de ces fluides complexes: nature du fluide suspendant, fraction volumique en particule, temperature. Apres analyse des resultats, de nouveaux modeles empiriques ont ete proposes afin de predire l'allure des courbes d'ecoulement de ces suspensions en cisaillement oscillatoire. Enfin, certaines analogies entre les proprietes visqueuses et viscoelastiques des suspensions dans les deux milieux mentionnes precedemment ont ete discutees.

  15. Joint effects of three plant protection products to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus and the collembolan Folsomia candida.

    PubMed

    Santos, Miguel J G; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2010-08-01

    The effects of simultaneous application of plant protection products are of concern since the uses of different products pose an additional risk to non-target soil organisms. The effects of binary combinations of dimethoate, glyphosate and spirodiclofen, an insecticide an herbicide and an acaricide, on the avoidance behaviour of the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus and the reproductive effort of Folsomia candida were assessed using the two reference models of concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA). Results of single exposure to the three pesticides indicated a clear dose related avoidance response of the isopods in the highest concentrations tested of the three as well as a strong decrease in collembolan adult survival and concomitant number of juveniles produced. In the combined experiments, antagonism was found in 7 out of the 12 combinations, four combinations followed the reference models, and only in one combination synergism was detected (lower doses of glyphosate and spirodiclofen applied to P. pruinosus). In conclusion, it seems that mixing and applying these products, at the recommended field application rate, does not lead to enhanced toxicity, hence limited risk is associated with the joint application of these pesticides. PMID:20579688

  16. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rgipa, R.

    A partir d'une thorie sur la dtermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de rvolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a t dfinie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculs en gnral pour une tension circonfrencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donne, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposes. Les ballons de la nouvelle gnration sont globalement cylindriques et leurs ples sont runis par un cble axial, charg de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (ple infrieur), directement au ple suprieur. De plus, la zone latrale cylindrique est soumise un faible champ de tensions circonfrencielles. Ainsi, deux paramtres permettent de faire voluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du cble de liaison entre ples (ou la longueur de ce cble) - la tension circonfrencielle moyenne dsire (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et raliser: - soit des ballons de forme adapte, comme les ballons fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfires infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimiss pour une bonne rpartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matriaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphriques. Il s'ensuit une conomie sensible des cots de fabrication, une fiabilit accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement oprationnel bien suprieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols trs haute altitude en matriaux trs lgers.

  17. Projected range contractions of European protected oceanic montane plant communities: focus on climate change impacts is essential for their future conservation.

    PubMed

    Hodd, Rory L; Bourke, David; Skeffington, Micheline Sheehy

    2014-01-01

    Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1) oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2) species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3) species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need significantly greater focus on potential climate change impacts, including models with higher-resolution species distribution and environmental data, to aid these communities' long-term survival. PMID:24752011

  18. Photosynthetic changes and protective mechanisms against oxidative damage subjected to isolated and combined drought and heat stresses in Jatropha curcas plants.

    PubMed

    Silva, Evandro Nascimento; Ferreira-Silva, Sérgio Luiz; Fontenele, Adilton de Vasconcelos; Ribeiro, Rafael Vasconcelos; Viégas, Ricardo Almeida; Silveira, Joaquim Albensio Gomes

    2010-09-15

    Photosynthetic changes and protective mechanisms against oxidative damage were evaluated in Jatropha curcas leaves subjected to drought and heat stresses, both individually and combined, in order to elucidate the synergistic and antagonistic mechanisms involved with these abiotic factors. Both the drought and heat stresses caused significant damage to the leaf membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation, and the combination of these stresses greatly enhanced these physiological disturbances. The leaf CO(2) assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (P(N)/C(I)) were significantly decreased in all plants subjected to stressful conditions in comparison to unstressed plants (reference). In contrast, a reduction in photochemical activity was observed only in plants exposed to drought and drought+heat conditions. Catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were stimulated only under heat stress, whereas APX activity was increased in all treated plants in comparison to the references. Moreover, the leaf H(2)O(2) content was increased similarly under all studied stresses. However, the balance of reduced and oxidized ascorbate did not show significant differences between reference and stressed plants. Although J. curcas plants acclimated to the studied stresses, they did not present an efficient mechanism for protection against drought-induced oxidative stress, especially when at high temperatures. However, heat-treated plants triggered an efficient enzymatic antioxidant system of reactive oxygen species scavenging and an effective protection against photochemical damages. The combination of drought and heat most significantly impaired the photosynthetic assimilation of CO(2) and the photochemical activity. These results indicate that drought greatly disturbs photosystem II activity and oxidative metabolism and that these negative effects are strongly stimulated by heat stress. The data also evidence that the combination of heat and drought triggers an intricate response involving antagonistic and synergistic interactions. PMID:20417989

  19. Regulation of non-relevant metabolites of plant protection products in drinking and groundwater in the EU: Current status and way forward.

    PubMed

    Laabs, V; Leake, C; Botham, P; Melching-Kollmuß, S

    2015-10-01

    Non-relevant metabolites are defined in the EU regulation for plant protection product authorization and a detailed definition of non-relevant metabolites is given in an EU Commission DG Sanco (now DG SANTE - Health and Food Safety) guidance document. However, in water legislation at EU and member state level non-relevant metabolites of pesticides are either not specifically regulated or diverse threshold values are applied. Based on their inherent properties, non-relevant metabolites should be regulated based on substance-specific and toxicity-based limit values in drinking and groundwater like other anthropogenic chemicals. Yet, if a general limit value for non-relevant metabolites in drinking and groundwater is favored, an application of a Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) concept for Cramer class III compounds leads to a threshold value of 4.5 μg L(-1). This general value is exemplarily shown to be protective for non-relevant metabolites, based on individual drinking water limit values derived for a set of 56 non-relevant metabolites. A consistent definition of non-relevant metabolites of plant protection products, as well as their uniform regulation in drinking and groundwater in the EU, is important to achieve legal clarity for all stakeholders and to establish planning security for development of plant protection products for the European market. PMID:26192637

  20. A critical review on fungi mediated plant responses with special emphasis to Piriformospora indica on improved production and protection of crops.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Trivedi, Dipesh Kumar; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-09-01

    The beneficial fungi are potentially useful in agriculture sector to avail several services to crop plants such as water status, nutrient enrichment, stress tolerance, protection, weed control and bio-control. Natural agro-ecosystem relies on fungi because of it takes part in soil organic matter decomposition, nutrient acquisition, organic matter recycling, nutrient recycling, antagonism against plant pests, and crop management. The crucial role of fungi in normalizing the toxic effects of phenols, HCN and ROS by β-CAS, ACC demainase and antioxidant enzymes in plants is well documented. Fungi also play a part in various physiological processes such as water uptake, stomatal movement, mineral uptake, photosynthesis and biosynthesis of lignan, auxins and ethylene to improve growth and enhance plant fitness to cope heat, cold, salinity, drought and heavy metal stress. Here, we highlighted the ethylene- and cyclophilin A (CypA)-mediated response of Piriformospora indica for sustainable crop production under adverse environmental conditions. PMID:23831950

  1. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1998 by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 was performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), and the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV), and the Chestnut Ridge Regime which is located south of the Y-12 Plant.

  2. The Cerato-Platanin protein Epl-1 from Trichoderma harzianum is involved in mycoparasitism, plant resistance induction and self cell wall protection

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Costa, Mariana do Nascimento; de Paula, Renato Graciano; Ricci de Azevedo, Rafael; da Silva, Francilene Lopes; Noronha, Eliane F.; José Ulhoa, Cirano; Neves Monteiro, Valdirene; Elena Cardoza, Rosa; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Nascimento Silva, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum species are well known as biocontrol agents against important fungal phytopathogens. Mycoparasitism is one of the strategies used by this fungus in the biocontrol process. In this work, we analyzed the effect of Epl-1 protein, previously described as plant resistance elicitor, in expression modulation of T. harzianum genes involved in mycoparasitism process against phytopathogenic fungi; self cell wall protection and recognition; host hyphae coiling and triggering expression of defense-related genes in beans plants. The results indicated that the absence of Epl-1 protein affects the expression of all mycoparasitism genes analyzed in direct confrontation assays against phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum as well as T. harzianum itself; the host mycoparasitic coiling process and expression modulation of plant defense genes showing different pattern compared with wild type strain. These data indicated the involvement T. harzianum Epl-1 in self and host interaction and also recognition of T. harzianum as a symbiotic fungus by the bean plants. PMID:26647876

  3. The Cerato-Platanin protein Epl-1 from Trichoderma harzianum is involved in mycoparasitism, plant resistance induction and self cell wall protection.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Costa, Mariana do Nascimento; de Paula, Renato Graciano; Ricci de Azevedo, Rafael; da Silva, Francilene Lopes; Noronha, Eliane F; Jos Ulhoa, Cirano; Neves Monteiro, Valdirene; Elena Cardoza, Rosa; Gutirrez, Santiago; Nascimento Silva, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum species are well known as biocontrol agents against important fungal phytopathogens. Mycoparasitism is one of the strategies used by this fungus in the biocontrol process. In this work, we analyzed the effect of Epl-1 protein, previously described as plant resistance elicitor, in expression modulation of T. harzianum genes involved in mycoparasitism process against phytopathogenic fungi; self cell wall protection and recognition; host hyphae coiling and triggering expression of defense-related genes in beans plants. The results indicated that the absence of Epl-1 protein affects the expression of all mycoparasitism genes analyzed in direct confrontation assays against phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum as well as T. harzianum itself; the host mycoparasitic coiling process and expression modulation of plant defense genes showing different pattern compared with wild type strain. These data indicated the involvement T. harzianum Epl-1 in self and host interaction and also recognition of T. harzianum as a symbiotic fungus by the bean plants. PMID:26647876

  4. Screening of Panamanian Plants for Cosmetic Properties, and HPLC-Based Identification of Constituents with Antioxidant and UV-B Protecting Activities

    PubMed Central

    Guldbrandsen, Niels; De Mieri, Maria; Gupta, Mahabir; Liakou, Eleni; Pratsinis, Harris; Kletsas, Dimitris; Chaita, Eliza; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    A library of 600 taxonomically diverse Panamanian plant extracts was screened for DPPH scavenging and UV-B protective activities, and the methanolic extracts of Mosquitoxylum jamaicense, Combretum cacoucia, and Casearia commersionia were submitted to HPLC-based activity profiling. The compounds located in the active time windows were isolated and identified as gallic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Gallic acid methyl ester (3) and digallic acid derivatives (2, 6) showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity (<10 μg/mL), while protocatechuic acid (7) and isoquercitrin (10) exhibited the highest UV-B protective properties. PMID:26839809

  5. Role of submerged vegetation in the retention processes of three plant protection products in flow-through stream mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Stang, Christoph; Wieczorek, Matthias Valentin; Noss, Christian; Lorke, Andreas; Scherr, Frank; Goerlitz, Gerhard; Schulz, Ralf

    2014-07-01

    Quantitative information on the processes leading to the retention of plant protection products (PPPs) in surface waters is not available, particularly for flow-through systems. The influence of aquatic vegetation on the hydraulic- and sorption-mediated mitigation processes of three PPPs (triflumuron, pencycuron, and penflufen; logKOW 3.3-4.9) in 45-m slow-flowing stream mesocosms was investigated. Peak reductions were 35-38% in an unvegetated stream mesocosm, 60-62% in a sparsely vegetated stream mesocosm (13% coverage with Elodea nuttallii), and in a similar range of 57-69% in a densely vegetated stream mesocosm (100% coverage). Between 89% and 93% of the measured total peak reductions in the sparsely vegetated stream can be explained by an increase of vegetation-induced dispersion (estimated with the one-dimensional solute transport model OTIS), while 7-11% of the peak reduction can be attributed to sorption processes. However, dispersion contributed only 59-71% of the peak reductions in the densely vegetated stream mesocosm, where 29% to 41% of the total peak reductions can be attributed to sorption processes. In the densely vegetated stream, 8-27% of the applied PPPs, depending on the logKOW values of the compounds, were temporarily retained by macrophytes. Increasing PPP recoveries in the aqueous phase were accompanied by a decrease of PPP concentrations in macrophytes indicating kinetic desorption over time. This is the first study to provide quantitative data on how the interaction of dispersion and sorption, driven by aquatic macrophytes, influences the mitigation of PPP concentrations in flowing vegetated stream systems. PMID:24875866

  6. The Effect of Leonurus sibiricus Plant Extracts on Stimulating Repair and Protective Activity against Oxidative DNA Damage in CHO Cells and Content of Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Sitarek, Przemysław; Skała, Ewa; Wysokińska, Halina; Wielanek, Marzena; Szemraj, Janusz; Toma, Monika; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Leonurus sibiricus L. has been used as a traditional and medicinal herb for many years in Asia and Europe. This species is known to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity and has demonstrated a reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. All tested extracts of L. sibiricus showed protective and DNA repair stimulating effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to H2O2. Preincubation of the CHO cells with 0.5 mg/mL of plant extracts showed increased expression level of antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx). LC-MS/MS and HPLC analyses revealed the presence of nine phenolic compounds in L. sibiricus plant extracts: catechin, verbascoside, two flavonoids (quercetin and rutin), and five phenolic acids (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid). The roots and aerial parts of in vitro L. sibiricus plant extracts, which had the strongest antioxidant properties, may be responsible for stimulating CHO cells to repair oxidatively induced DNA damage, as well as protecting DNA via enhanced activation of the antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx) regulating intracellular antioxidant capacity. The content of phenolic compounds in in vitro raised plants was greater than the levels found in plants propagated from seeds. PMID:26788249

  7. The Effect of Leonurus sibiricus Plant Extracts on Stimulating Repair and Protective Activity against Oxidative DNA Damage in CHO Cells and Content of Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Sitarek, Przemysław; Skała, Ewa; Wysokińska, Halina; Wielanek, Marzena; Szemraj, Janusz; Toma, Monika; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Leonurus sibiricus L. has been used as a traditional and medicinal herb for many years in Asia and Europe. This species is known to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity and has demonstrated a reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. All tested extracts of L. sibiricus showed protective and DNA repair stimulating effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to H2O2. Preincubation of the CHO cells with 0.5 mg/mL of plant extracts showed increased expression level of antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx). LC-MS/MS and HPLC analyses revealed the presence of nine phenolic compounds in L. sibiricus plant extracts: catechin, verbascoside, two flavonoids (quercetin and rutin), and five phenolic acids (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid). The roots and aerial parts of in vitro L. sibiricus plant extracts, which had the strongest antioxidant properties, may be responsible for stimulating CHO cells to repair oxidatively induced DNA damage, as well as protecting DNA via enhanced activation of the antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx) regulating intracellular antioxidant capacity. The content of phenolic compounds in in vitro raised plants was greater than the levels found in plants propagated from seeds. PMID:26788249

  8. Effets perturbateurs endocriniens des pesticides organochlores.

    PubMed

    Charlier, C; Plomteux, G

    2002-01-01

    Xenoestrogens such organochlorine pesticides are known to induce changes in reproductive development, function or behaviour in wildlife. Because these compounds are able to modify the estrogens metabolism, or to compete with estradiol for binding to the estrogen receptor, it may be possible that these products affect the risk of developing impaired fertility, precocious puberty or some kinds of cancer in man. Le plus ancien rcit de lutte contre la pollution remonte une lgende indienne racontant que la divinit Sing-bonga tait incommode par les manations des fours dans lesquels les Asuras fondaient leurs mtaux (1). Evidemment depuis, la problmatique n-a cess de s-accrotre et la contamination de la Terre par de nombreux polluants est devenue aujourd-hui un problme majeur de notre Socit. La protection de notre environnement est une question capitale qui doit tre respecte malgr la pression conomique actuelle et qui ne cessera de crotre au cours des prochaines annes mme si l-identification objective et indiscutable de ce qui est essentiel - donc devant tre prioritairement garanti sur la plante - est difficile cerner (2). Un oiseau en mauvais tat ne pond pas de bons oeufs disait un proverbe grec. Mais ce n-est qu- partir de la seconde moiti du XXme sicle que les toxicologues ont commenc identifier les effets qu-avaient entrans l-chelle mondiale les pollutions mises aux XIXme sicle sur la faune sauvage et sur le cheptel (3). L-histoire contemporaine des pesticides industriels commence vers 1874 (synthse des organochlors) et se poursuit tout au long de ces 2 sicles en passant par la synthse des organophosphors (1950), des carbamates (1970) et des pyrthrodes (1975) (4). Le dichlorodiphnyltrichlorothane (DDT) a t synthtis pour la premire fois par un tudiant en cours de prparation de sa thse de doctorat : Othmer Zeidler. La production, reprise par les entreprises F.Mayo puis par la Geigy Co. a d-abord intress l-arme, puis l-agriculture. Ds la fin de la 2(me) guerre mondiale, des mises en garde furent lances propos des effets nocifs du produit (4). Un dclin des populations de grives, d-aigles chauves, d-orfaies et de mammifres consommateurs de poissons fut constat partir des annes 50 et dnonc par Rachel Carson dans son clbre appel du Silent Spring de 1962. Bien qu-il soit interdit en Occident depuis les annes 70, ce produit a t tellement utilis et prsente une rmanence si longue qu-une contamination ubiquitaire existe aujourd-hui encore. De plus, ce produit continue tre produit aux USA pour tre utilis des fins de dmoustification dans les pays en voie de dveloppement. Il en va de mme de l-Hexachlorobenzne (HCB), un autre organochlor dont l-usage est interdit sous nos latitudes, mais reste frquent dans d-autres pays. Ces deux exemples indiquent que le problme de la contamination continue nous concerner, mme pour des produits dont l-usage est aujourd-hui strictement rglement ou interdit. Des effets sur la faune semblent encore actuellement devoir tre attribus ces produits. La diminution de la population des phoques dans la mer de Wadden pourrait tre due la forte contamination en composants organochlors des poissons dont ces phoques se nourrissent (5). Expos au DDT et son mtabolite dichlorodiphenyldichlorothylne (DDE), le Seratherodon mossambicus prsente une rduction de la scrtion de cortisol par une action toxique cytospcifique sur l-axe hypothalamo-hypophysaire (6). Des travaux rcents ont montr que le DDT et le DDE se lient chez les oiseaux et les mammifres au moyen de liaisons covalentes aux cellules de la zona fasciculata - homologue du tissu interrnal du poisson - induisant des microhmorragies. Cette dfaillance cortisolique peut s-accompagner d-une perturbation du mtabolisme glucidique et notamment d-un taux lev de glycogne hpatique (7). Les pesticides organochlors (DDT, DDE) entranent galement des perturbations d-ordre mtabolique chez certaines espces d-oiseaux, notamment le faucon plerin en Grande Bretagne et les oiseaux piscivores des grands lacs nord amricains o l-on a constat au cours des annes 1960 que leur reproduction tait menace et qu-une des manifestations les plus videntes des perturbations observes tait le taux lev de malformations (8). Des mortalits leves de poissons ou de coquillages ont t rapportes dans des levages situs proximit des zones d-pandage de pesticides organophosphors et de carbamates. En 1991, la dispersion arienne de fenitrothion dans le but de provoquer la dmoustication en Languedoc a t l-origine de la perte de plusieurs tonnes de crevettes japonaises. L-utilisation de trichlorfon et de dichlorvos comme antiparasitaires dans des fermes d-levages de saumons a provoqu des pisodes de mortalit importante (9). PMID:24862516

  9. Roles of FtsH protease in choloroplast biogensis and protection of photosystems from high temperatures stress in higher plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AtFtsH11 protease gene is essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate heat stress. Under high and normal light at 21ºC, ftsh11 mutants were indistinguishable from wild type plants in photosynthesis capability and in overall growth. However, mutant plants display a host of dramatic change...

  10. The relevance of "non-relevant metabolites" from plant protection products (PPPs) for drinking water: the German view.

    PubMed

    Dieter, Hermann H

    2010-03-01

    "Non-relevant metabolites" are those degradation products of plant protection products (PPPs), which are devoid of the targeted toxicities of the PPP and devoid of genotoxicity. Most often, "non-relevant metabolites" have a high affinity to the aquatic environment, are very mobile within this environment, and, usually, are also persistent. Therefore, from the point of drinking water hygiene, they must be characterized as "relevant for drinking water" like many other hydrophilic/polar environmental contaminants of different origins. "Non-relevant metabolites" may therefore penetrate to water sources used for abstraction of drinking water and may thus ultimately be present in drinking water. The presence of "non-relevant metabolites" and similar trace compounds in the water cycle may endanger drinking water quality on a long-term scale. During oxidative drinking water treatment, "non-relevant metabolites" may also serve as the starting material for toxicologically relevant transformation products similar to processes observed by drinking water disinfection with chlorine. This hypothesis was recently confirmed by the detection of the formation of N-nitroso-dimethylamine from ozone and dimethylsulfamide, a "non-relevant metabolite" of the fungicide tolylfluanide. In order to keep drinking water preferably free of "non-relevant metabolites", the German drinking water advisory board of the Federal Ministry of Health supports limiting their penetration into raw and drinking water to the functionally (agriculturally) unavoidable extent. On this background, the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA) recently has recommended two health related indication values (HRIV) to assess "non-relevant metabolites" from the view of drinking water hygiene. Considering the sometimes incomplete toxicological data base for some "non-relevant metabolites", HRIV also have the role of health related precautionary values. Depending on the completeness and quality of the toxicological evaluation of a "non-relevant metabolite", its HRIV is either set as 1.0 microg/l (HRIV(a)) or as 3.0 microg/l (HRIV(b)) for lifelong exposure. In case a HRIV would be exceeded, UBA recommends to keep on a precautionary action value (PAV) of 10 microg/l for each "non-relevant metabolite". The HRIV(b) is similar to the maximal value derived by application of the TTC-concept for Cramer Class III (4.5 microg/l). The HRIV(a) and the PAV are similar to values in the EU-guidance document for assessing "non-relevant metabolites" in ground water, with the important difference that the drinking water PAV is not intended to be tolerated for permanent exposure. Drinking water containing "non-relevant metabolites" below the respective HRIVs can also be considered as being sufficiently protective against toxicologically relevant oxidative transformation products which may be formed from "non-relevant metabolites" during drinking water treatment with ozone. However, even drinking water where one or several "non-relevant metabolites" are detected above substance-specific HRIVs is suited for human consumption without health risks. Only in special cases (relatively high "non-relevant metabolite" - concentrations), it could be indicated to examine the finished water for transformation products after treatment with ozone if there are no further treatment steps to eliminate or degrade polar compounds. UBA's "non-relevant metabolite-Recommendation" from April 2008 was positively picked up in 2009 by four important stakeholders in the domain of drinking water management as part of a voluntary cooperation agreement. The aim of such cooperation is to limit the transport of "non-relevant metabolites" into the drinking water to the functionally (and agriculturally) unavoidable extent and insofar to meet special precautionary demands. PMID:19706317

  11. Comparing ecotoxicological standards of plant protection products potentially toxic to groundwater life with their measured and modelled concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Santos; Cerejeira, Maria Jos; Daam, Michiel A

    2014-04-01

    Trigger values (TVs) for groundwater ecosystems in the European Union (EU), as elsewhere, are not based on toxicity data for the biota of that ecosystem. At present, very few toxicity tests have been conducted with groundwater organisms so the true sensitivity of groundwater ecosystems is largely unknown. In a previous published study, we set groundwater TVs for all plant protection products (PPPs) allowed for use at the time of the study based on toxicity data for surface water organisms as surrogates for groundwater organisms and calculated TVs lower than the current EU standard of 0.1 ?g/L for 16 PPPs. This thus reveals that the effect assessment of these PPPs may not be fully adequate, but would still only indicate risk if the (expected) concentrations of these PPPs are greater than their calculated TVs. The present study was therefore initiated to evaluate whether predicted and measured concentrations of these PPPs are higher than the previously calculated TVs lower than 0.1 ?g/L. To this end, predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were calculated using the PELMO and SCI-GROW models that are currently used for this purpose in the EU and USA, respectively, and measured concentrations (MECs) were obtained from the open literature. In addition, the empirical PERPEST model was used to assess the severity and probability of effects that may be expected at these concentrations on taxonomic groups known to be well represented in groundwater ecosystems. In addition, only for dimethoate a PEC greater than 0.1 ?g/L was calculated. However, when considering concentrations actually measured in the field, 99.7% showed risk quotients (RQ, as MEC/TV) values higher than 1 and 36.7% even higher than 100. Future field monitoring studies are needed to validate and eventually calibrate the way PEC values are currently calculated with the different models and scenarios currently in use. Such studies would also aid in the question to what extent the high MEC values may be attributed to diffuse or point-source pollution. PMID:24530731

  12. Amputation des quatre membres

    PubMed Central

    Feruzi, Maruis Kitembo; Milindi, Cdrick Sangwa; Zabibu, Mireille Kakinga; Mulefu, Jules Panda; Katombe, Francois Tshilombo

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs prsentent les cas d'amputation des quatre membres ralise chez trois patients diffrents. Ce sont des amputations ralises pour chaque patient au cours d'une seule hospitalisation et en un seul temps opratoire. Deux patients pour gangrne sche infecte et un pour amputation traumatique des quatre membres. L'amputation d'urgence a t pratique en premier temps suivie de remodelage des moignons d'amputation en second temps. Lvolution de tous les patients a t bonne. PMID:25469177

  13. Role of ethylene in the protection of tomato plants against soil-borne fungal pathogens conferred by an endophytic Fusarium solani strain.

    PubMed

    Kavroulakis, Nektarios; Ntougias, Spyridon; Zervakis, Georgios I; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

    2007-01-01

    An endophytic fungal isolate (Fs-K), identified as a Fusarium solani strain, was obtained from root tissues of tomato plants grown on a compost which suppressed soil and foliar pathogens. Strain Fs-K was able to colonize root tissues and subsequently protect plants against the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), and elicit induced systemic resistance against the tomato foliar pathogen Septoria lycopersici. Interestingly, attenuated expression of certain pathogenesis-related genes, i.e. PR5 and PR7, was detected in tomato roots inoculated with strain Fs-K compared with non-inoculated plants. The expression pattern of PR genes was either not affected or aberrant in leaves. A genetic approach, using mutant tomato plant lines, was used to determine the role of ethylene and jasmonic acid in the plant's response to infection by the soil-borne pathogen F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), in the presence or absence of isolate Fs-K. Mutant tomato lines Never ripe (Nr) and epinastic (epi1), both impaired in ethylene-mediated plant responses, inoculated with FORL are not protected by isolate Fs-K, indicating that the ethylene signalling pathway is required for the mode of action used by the endophyte to confer resistance. On the contrary, def1 mutants, affected in jasmonate biosynthesis, show reduced susceptibility to FORL, in the presence Fs-K, which suggests that jasmonic acid is not essential for the mediation of biocontrol activity of isolate Fs-K. PMID:18048373

  14. Are different facets of plant diversity well protected against climate and land cover changes? A test study in the French Alps

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Guéguen, Maya; Georges, Damien; Bonet, Richard; Chalmandrier, Loïc; Garraud, Luc; Renaud, Julien; Roquet, Cristina; Van Es, Jérémie; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Lavergne, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Climate and land cover changes are important drivers of the plant species distributions and diversity patterns in mountainous regions. Although the need for a multifaceted view of diversity based on taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic dimensions is now commonly recognized, there are no complete risk assessments concerning their expected changes. In this paper, we used a range of species distribution models in an ensemble-forecasting framework together with regional climate and land cover projections by 2080 to analyze the potential threat for more than 2,500 plant species at high resolution (2.5 km × 2.5 km) in the French Alps. We also decomposed taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity facets into α and β components and analyzed their expected changes by 2080. Overall, plant species threats from climate and land cover changes in the French Alps were expected to vary depending on the species’ preferred altitudinal vegetation zone, rarity, and conservation status. Indeed, rare species and species of conservation concern were the ones projected to experience less severe change, and also the ones being the most efficiently preserved by the current network of protected areas. Conversely, the three facets of plant diversity were also projected to experience drastic spatial re-shuffling by 2080. In general, the mean α-diversity of the three facets was projected to increase to the detriment of regional β-diversity, although the latter was projected to remain high at the montane-alpine transition zones. Our results show that, due to a high-altitude distribution, the current protection network is efficient for rare species, and species predicted to migrate upward. Although our modeling framework may not capture all possible mechanisms of species range shifts, our work illustrates that a comprehensive risk assessment on an entire floristic region combined with functional and phylogenetic information can help delimitate future scenarios of biodiversity and better design its protection. PMID:25722539

  15. Protective effects of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum on soil and Viburnum tinus plants irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bellot, María José; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Nortes, Pedro Antonio; Vicente-Sánchez, Javier; Martín, Félix Fernández; Bañón, Sebastián; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2015-07-01

    Currently, irrigation using recycled water is increasing, especially in semiarid environments, but a potential problem of using reclaimed wastewater is its elevated salt levels. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could be a suitable option to mitigate the negative effects produced by the salinity. In this work, the combined effect of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum and two types of water: Control, C, with EC <0.9 dS m(-1) and reclaimed water (wastewater previously treated in a sewage treatment plant) with EC 4 dS m(-1) during a first saline period (11 weeks) and with EC 6 dS m(-1) during a second saline period (25 weeks), was evaluated for laurustinus (Viburnum tinus) plants under field conditions. This plant is a popular shrub very used for gardening. Chemical properties of soil as well as physiological behavior, leaf nutrition, and esthetic value of plants were evaluated. Due to the high salinity from wastewater at 6 dS m(-1), laurustinus plants decreased their stem water potential values and, to a lesser extent, the stomatal conductance. Also, the visual quality of the plants was diminished. The inoculated AMF satisfactorily colonized the laurustinus roots and enhanced the structure of the soil by increasing the glomalin and carbon contents. Furthermore, G. iranicum var. tenuihypharum inoculation decreased Na and Cl content, stimulated flowering and improved the stem water potential of the plants irrigated with both types of reclaimed water. The AMF also had a positive effect as a consequence of stimulation of plant physiological parameters, such as the stem water potential and stomatal conductance. Effective AMF associations that avoid excessive salinity could provide wastewater reuse options, especially when the plants grow in soils. PMID:25492808

  16. Onondaga County Department of Water Environment Protection: Process Optimization Saves Energy at Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Onondaga County, New York, is saving nearly 3 million kWh and 270 million Btu annually at a wastewater treatment plant after replacing inefficient motors and upgrading pumps.

  17. Onondaga County Department of Water Environment Protection: Process Optimization Saves Energy at Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-12-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Onondaga County, New York, is saving nearly 3 million kWh and 270 million Btu annually at a wastewater treatment plant after replacing inefficient motors and upgrading pumps.

  18. 76 FR 20368 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... that is south of the revetment has eroded approximately 600 feet. The erosion on refuge property is...-screening efficiency of the new PCGID-PID pumping plant is now endangered by the bank erosion on the...

  19. Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Trás-os-Montes, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered. Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs. PMID:22112242

  20. Protection from ground faults in the stator winding of generators at power plants in the Siberian networks

    SciTech Connect

    Vainshtein, R. A.; Lapin, V. I.; Naumov, A. M.; Doronin, A. V.; Yudin, S. M.

    2010-05-15

    The experience of many years of experience in developing and utilization of ground fault protection in the stator winding of generators in the Siberian networks is generalized. The main method of protection is to apply a direct current or an alternating current with a frequency of 25 Hz to the primary circuits of the stator. A direct current is applied to turbo generators operating in a unit with a transformer without a resistive coupling to the external grid or to other generators. Applying a 25 Hz control current is appropriate for power generation systems with compensation of a capacitive short circuit current to ground. This method forms the basis for protection of generators operating on busbars, hydroelectric generators with a neutral grounded through an arc-suppression reactor, including in consolidated units with generators operating in parallel on a single low-voltage transformer winding.

  1. [Significance and importance of enzyme diagnosis in the framework of toxicological studies of plant protectives, pesticides and agents for biological process control].

    PubMed

    Plass, R; Lewerenz, H J

    1981-01-01

    In toxicological experimentation, clinico-chemical and biochemical data are increasingly involved in the comprehensive evaluation of adverse effects of plant protectives, pesticides and agents for the biological process control on the mammalian organism. Blood serum and urine or organic homogenates from experimental animals kept under standardized conditions are chiefly used for enzymodiagnostic analyses. Changes in enzyme activity occurring under the influence of the bioactive test substances must be regarded as indicative of direct effects on the biocatalyst, metabolic changes or impairments of certain organs. PMID:7278945

  2. Intranasal vaccination with a plant-derived H5 HA vaccine protects mice and ferrets against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge

    PubMed Central

    Major, Diane; Chichester, Jessica A; Pathirana, Rishi D; Guilfoyle, Kate; Shoji, Yoko; Guzman, Carlos A; Yusibov, Vidadi; Cox, Rebecca J

    2015-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 infection remains a public health threat and vaccination is the best measure of limiting the impact of a potential pandemic. Mucosal vaccines have the advantage of eliciting immune responses at the site of viral entry, thereby preventing infection as well as further viral transmission. In this study, we assessed the protective efficacy of hemagglutinin (HA) from the A/Indonesia/05/05 (H5N1) strain of influenza virus that was produced by transient expression in plants. The plant-derived vaccine, in combination with the mucosal adjuvant (3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric guanylic acid (c-di-GMP) was used for intranasal immunization of mice and ferrets, before challenge with a lethal dose of the A/Indonesia/05/05 (H5N1) virus. Mice vaccinated with 15 μg or 5 μg of adjuvanted HA survived the viral challenge, while all control mice died within 10 d of challenge. Vaccinated animals elicited serum hemagglutination inhibition, IgG and IgA antibody titers. In the ferret challenge study, all animals vaccinated with the adjuvanted plant vaccine survived the lethal viral challenge, while 50% of the control animals died. In both the mouse and ferret models, the vaccinated animals were better protected from weight loss and body temperature changes associated with H5N1 infection compared with the non-vaccinated controls. Furthermore, the systemic spread of the virus was lower in the vaccinated animals compared with the controls. Results presented here suggest that the plant-produced HA-based influenza vaccine adjuvanted with c-di-GMP is a promising vaccine/adjuvant combination for the development of new mucosal influenza vaccines. PMID:25714901

  3. Plant growth-promoting fungus Penicillium spp. GP15-1 enhances growth and confers protection against damping-off and anthracnose in the cucumber.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Motaher; Sultana, Farjana; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) have the potential to confer several benefits to plants in terms of growth and protection against pests and pathogens. In the present study, we tested whether a PGPF isolate, Penicillium spp. GP15-1 (derived from zoysiagrass rhizospheres), stimulates growth and disease resistance in the cucumber plant. The use of the barley grain inoculum GP15-1 significantly enhanced root and shoot growth and biomass of cucumber plants. A root colonization study revealed that GP15-1 was a very rapid and efficient root colonizer and was isolated in significantly higher frequencies from the upper root parts than from the middle and lower root parts during the first 14 d of seedling growth. Inoculating the cucumber seedlings with GP15-1 significantly reduced the damping-off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and the disease suppression effects of GP15-1 were considerably influenced by the inoculum potential of both GP15-1 and the pathogen. Treatment with the barley grain inoculum or a cell-free filtrate of GP15-1 increased systemic resistance against leaf infection by the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare, resulting in a significant decrease in lesion number and size. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer sequences of the genomic DNA of GP15-1 revealed that the fungal isolate is a strain of either Penicillium neoechinulatum or Penicillium viridicatum. PMID:24671024

  4. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Degradation, a Broadly Conserved Trait, Protects Ralstonia solanacearum from Chemical Plant Defenses and Contributes to Root Colonization and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Tiffany M; Ailloud, Florent; Allen, Caitilyn

    2015-03-01

    Plants produce hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) defense compounds to combat pathogens, such as the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. We showed that an HCA degradation pathway is genetically and functionally conserved across diverse R. solanacearum strains. Further, a feruloyl-CoA synthetase (?fcs) mutant that cannot degrade HCA was less virulent on tomato plants. To understand the role of HCA degradation in bacterial wilt disease, we tested the following hypotheses: HCA degradation helps the pathogen i) grow, as a carbon source; ii) spread, by reducing HCA-derived physical barriers; and iii) survive plant antimicrobial compounds. Although HCA degradation enabled R. solanacearum growth on HCA in vitro, HCA degradation was dispensable for growth in xylem sap and root exudate, suggesting that HCA are not significant carbon sources in planta. Acetyl-bromide quantification of lignin demonstrated that R. solanacearum infections did not affect the gross quantity or distribution of stem lignin. However, the ?fcs mutant was significantly more susceptible to inhibition by two HCA, namely, caffeate and p-coumarate. Finally, plant colonization assays suggested that HCA degradation facilitates early stages of infection and root colonization. Together, these results indicated that ability to degrade HCA contributes to bacterial wilt virulence by facilitating root entry and by protecting the pathogen from HCA toxicity. PMID:25423265

  5. Hydroxycinnamic acid degradation, a broadly conserved trait, protects Ralstonia solanacearum from chemical plant defenses and contributes to root colonization and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Tiffany M.; Ailloud, Florent; Allen, Caitilyn

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce hydroxycinnamic acid defense compounds (HCAs) to combat pathogens, such as the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. We showed that an HCA degradation pathway is genetically and functionally conserved across diverse R. solanacearum strains. Further, a Δfcs (feruloyl-CoA synthetase) mutant that cannot degrade HCAs was less virulent on tomato plants. To understand the role of HCA degradation in bacterial wilt disease, we tested the following hypotheses: HCA degradation helps the pathogen (1) grow, as a carbon source; (2) spread, by reducing physical barriers HCA-derived; and (3) survive plant antimicrobial compounds. Although HCA degradation enabled R. solanacearum growth on HCAs in vitro, HCA degradation was dispensable for growth in xylem sap and root exudate, suggesting that HCAs are not significant carbon sources in planta. Acetyl-bromide quantification of lignin demonstrated that R. solanacearum infections did not affect the gross quantity or distribution of stem lignin. However, the Δfcs mutant was significantly more susceptible to inhibition by two HCAs: caffeate and p-coumarate. Finally, plant colonization assays suggested that HCA degradation facilitates early stages of infection and root colonization. Together, these results indicated that ability to degrade HCAs contributes to bacterial wilt virulence by facilitating root entry and by protecting the pathogen from HCA toxicity. PMID:25423265

  6. [The role of trace elements in radiation protection of plants and animals on radionuclide contaminated territories of Poles'e].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, I N; Lazarev, N M; Grusha, V V; Bidenko, V N

    2011-01-01

    The retrospective review and analysis of works on some physiologically active trace elements influence on the radionuclides transfer from soil to plants and with forage to animals are presented. Also reviewed is their radioresistance in the contaminated territories. It is shown that some elements--zinc, manganese, cobalt--being appled to the soil at seeding or spraying plants with aqueous solutions and also in complex compounds are capable of reducing significantly the 90Sr and 137Cs transit to agricultural plants, and with forage--into the animals bodies. We have also shown that trace elements reduce the effects of radiation injury. The mechanisms of the radioprotective action of trace elements are also discussed in the paper. PMID:21520614

  7. Fe-Al Weld Overlay and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Thermal Spray Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Waterwalls in Fossil Fired Plants with Low NOx Burners

    SciTech Connect

    Regina, J.R.

    2002-02-08

    Iron-aluminum-chromium coatings were investigated to determine the best candidates for coatings of boiler tubes in Low NOx fossil fueled power plants. Ten iron-aluminum-chromium weld claddings with aluminum concentrations up to 10wt% were tested in a variety of environments to evaluate their high temperature corrosion resistance. The weld overlay claddings also contained titanium additions to investigate any beneficial effects from these ternary and quaternary alloying additions. Several High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings with higher aluminum concentrations were investigated as well. Gaseous corrosion testing revealed that at least 10wt%Al is required for protection in the range of environments examined. Chromium additions were beneficial in all of the environments, but additions of titanium were beneficial only in sulfur rich atmospheres. Similar results were observed when weld claddings were in contact with corrosive slag while simultaneously, exposed to the corrosive environments. An aluminum concentration of 10wt% was required to prevent large amounts of corrosion to take place. Again chromium additions were beneficial with the greatest corrosion protection occurring for welds containing both 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr. The exposed thermal spray coatings showed either significant cracking within the coating, considerable thickness loss, or corrosion products at the coating substrate interface. Therefore, the thermal spray coatings provided the substrate very little protection. Overall, it was concluded that of the coatings studied weld overlay coatings provide superior protection in these Low NOx environments; specifically, the ternary weld composition of 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr provided the best corrosion protection in all of the environments tested.

  8. Note des diteurs scientifiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, P.

    Cette srie d'articles est une revue de rsultats exprimentaux sur diffrents "fluides" molculaires, dans lesquels la cohsion est due des forces de Van der Waals et des liaisons hydrogne, l'eau tant un de ces fluides. Ces rsultats sont prsents de faon justifier exprimentalement un modle original, non extensif, des proprits de ces fluides, et l'ensemble se prsente sous la forme de trois articles dcrivant le modle, suivis chacun par un article le comparant aux rsultats exprimentaux publis par de nombreux auteurs. Le caractre non extensif des proprits physiques des fluides est choquant, contraire beaucoup d'ides tablies, il semble n'avoir en sa faveur qu'un argument, la comparaison avec un nombre de rsultats exprimentaux assez grand pour que l'effet du hasard soit difficilement souponnable. En particulier, les carts entre des rsultats de mesures faits par des auteurs diffrents dans des conditions diffrentes sont expliqus, le srieux et la comptence des diffrents exprimentateurs ne sont plus mis en doute : mais l'interprtation de ces rsultats avec un modle extensif non adapt est seule mise en cause. Les modles extensifs tant utiliss systmatiquement, au del des expriences de physiciens, dans les calculs d'ingnieurs, et dans la modlisation d'appareils qui fonctionnent et de phnomnes naturels observs par tout le monde, il fallait expliquer pourquoi on pouvait renoncer l'extensivit. Les raisons du succs pratique des modles extensifs sont donnes, d'abord dans le cas des nmatiques, puis dans celui des liquides ordinaires, et c'est ce qui rend l'ensemble cohrent, tant avec les mesures physiques fines qu'avec les observations quotidiennes. Il n'en reste pas moins que si l'interprtation donne dans cette srie d'articles est gnralisable, une justification thorique du modle utilis devient ncessaire. Pour ce qui est des proprits d'quilibre, une sparation de l'nergie libre en nergie libre de volume et en nergie libre de surface devrait donner les mmes rsultats ; par contre les choses deviennent troublantes ds que l'on passe aux coefficients de transport, c'est--dire l'aspect macroscopique de la dynamique molculaire. Il y a l un cart notable avec les conceptions courantes, ce qui rend trs surprenante la lecture de ces articles. On peut mentionner la liste des problmes thoriques poss par la description phnomnologique qui est celle de cette srie d'articles : la gnralisation de lois d'chelle en dehors de zones critiques n'est pas absolument nouvelle, par contre la simplicit des lois reliant l'exposant v la temprature pose problme ; le sens des temps de relaxation utiliss est sans doute galement prciser. Enfin les modes considrs semblent n'intervenir dans les proprits thermodynamiques que par un facteur par mode, comme si seulement l'nergie potentielle devait intervenir, les termes cintiques ne participant pas vraiment aux transitions de phase. Tout cela pose donc problme, et l'on peut se demander si un pareil modle peut tre compatible avec tout ce qui est connu par ailleurs en physique statistique. Mais s'il rend bien compte de beaucoup de rsultats exprimentaux, ce sont ces derniers qui seraient en difficult avec la mcanique statistique. Il a donc sembl prfrable de publier le modle, sa justification exprimentale et de poser quelques problmes, tant aux thoriciens, qui pourraient expliquer pourquoi un tel modle rend compte de rsultats observs, qu'aux exprimentateurs, qui pourraient reprendre certaines mesures, et dlimiter le caractre plus ou moins gnral du modle.

  9. 78 FR 16705 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... methods, including public notices in local newspapers and a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 26569... Fish and Wildlife Service Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/ Fish Screen... AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: We, the U.S....

  10. 78 FR 76317 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... bank erodes, the angle of flow and velocity of the water passing the screens will change, trapping fish... Register (77 FR 26569, May 4, 2012). We held a public meeting to solicit comments on the Draft EIS/EIR on... Fish and Wildlife Service Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/ Fish...

  11. PLANT PROTECTIVE RESPONSE TO ENHANCED UV-B RADIATION UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS: LEAF OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants of Vicia faba were grown in the field during early to midsummer while receiving two levels of supplemental UV-B radiation. Light-saturated photosynthesis and stomatal diffusive conductance of intact leaves did not show any indications of UV-radiation damage. Supplemental U...

  12. Genotype composition of populations of grapefruit-cross-protecting citrus tristeza virus strain GFMS12 in different host plants and aphid-transmitted sub-isolates.

    PubMed

    Scott, Katherine Anne; Hlela, Quinsile; Zablocki, Olivier; Read, David; van Vuuren, Stephanus; Pietersen, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes severe losses in grapefruit production in South Africa and requires mild-strain cross-protection to maintain production. Unfortunately, cross-protection breakdown of the pre-immunizing CTV grapefruit mild source GFMS12 is prevalent in grapefruit in South Africa. The CTV genotype composition of the GFMS12 population inoculated onto different hosts was determined by sequencing part of ORF1a and the p23 gene of multiple clones from each plant. Analysis of the GFMS12 population in Mexican lime and Marsh and Star Ruby grapefruit varieties revealed that at least four genotypes occur in the GFMS12 population and that genotype compositions differed amongst the populations in different host plants. Single-aphid-transmitted sub-isolates derived from the GFMS12 mother population on Mexican lime appeared to contain three populations of a mixture of VT-like and recombinant B165/VT-like genotypes; a mixture of recombinant RB/VT- and B165/VT-like genotypes; and a single recombinant B165/VT-like genotype. This study underlines the importance of determining the genotype composition of a potential CTV pre-immunizing source on a range of inoculated host species before utilization. PMID:22932923

  13. Insecticidal activity of the aqueous extracts of four under-utilized tropical plants as protectant of cowpea seeds from Callosobruchus maculatus infestation.

    PubMed

    Obembe, O M; Kayode, J

    2013-02-15

    The test plants species, namely Crotaria retusa, Hyptis suaveolens, Ricinus communis and Tithonia diversifolia were extracted with water. The extracts were evaluated on Callosobruchus maculatus for mortality, oviposition and adult emergence effects. The long-term protectant ability and viability were also investigated. The results showed that the aqueous extracts from T. diversifolia were most effective on C. maculatus, followed by extract from Ricinus communis. The least potent extracts were those extracted from Crotalaria retusa and Hyptis suaveolens. Also, the extracts considerably reduced oviposition by C. maculatus. Extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis drastically reduced infestation and subsequence damage of the treated cowpea seeds for a period of three months. Most of the treated seeds germinated after 90 days storage period. The results from this study revealed that aqueous extracts from all the four plants species were effective in controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for protection of stored cowpea seeds against bruchids. PMID:24171265

  14. Assessing the potential for intrinsic recovery in a Collembola two-generation study: possible implementation in a tiered soil risk assessment approach for plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Gregor; Kabouw, Patrick; Barth, Markus; Marx, Michael T; Frommholz, Ursula; Royer, Stefanie; Friedrich, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Collembola are soil dwelling organisms that provide important ecosystem services within soils. To increase realism in evaluating potential effects of plant protection products a Collembola two-generation study was developed. This test assesses the potential for recovery of Collembola when exposed to plant protection products. Juvenile individuals of Folsomia candida (Willem, Ann Soc Entomol Belg 46:275-283, 1902) which hatched under conditions of exposure to a test substance in a modified OECD 232 bioassay were introduced into a second consecutive bioassay containing the same test substance aged in soil. This test system determines whether a population which was initially impacted by a substance in a 1st bioassay shows normal reproduction or survival in a 2nd bioassay after aging of the test substance in soil. An intermediate period for juvenile growth is included between the 1st and 2nd bioassay in order to reduce the control treatment variability in reproduction and mortality to fulfill the validity criteria according to the OECD 232 guideline. The Collembola two-generation study is able to differentiate between substances showing either a potential long-term risk or comprising a low risk. Comparing the results of this two generation study with data from semi-field or field studies indicates a high degree of conservatism when this test is considered within a tiered risk assessment scheme. This approach represents a valuable tool which makes the risk assessment more efficient by providing an alternative refinement option for highly conservative tier 1 Collembola risk assessment. PMID:26441339

  15. Oral immunization of haemaggulutinin H5 expressed in plant endoplasmic reticulum with adjuvant saponin protects mice against highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Goeun; Na, Yun Jeong; Yang, Bo-Gie; Choi, Jun-Pyo; Seo, Yong Bok; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Yun, Chang Ho; Kim, Dae Heon; Sohn, Eun Ju; Kim, Jeong Hee; Sung, Young Chul; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Jang, Myoung Ho; Hwang, Inhwan

    2015-01-01

    Pandemics in poultry caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A virus occur too frequently globally, and there is growing concern about the HPAI A virus due to the possibility of a pandemic among humans. Thus, it is important to develop a vaccine against HPAI suitable for both humans and animals. Various approaches are underway to develop such vaccines. In particular, an edible vaccine would be a convenient way to vaccinate poultry because of the behaviour of the animals. However, an edible vaccine is still not available. In this study, we developed a strategy of effective vaccination of mice by the oral administration of transgenic Arabidopsis plants (HA-TG) expressing haemagglutinin (HA) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Expression of HA in the ER resulted in its high-level accumulation, N-glycosylation, protection from proteolytic degradation and long-term stability. Oral administration of HA-TG with saponin elicited high levels of HA-specific systemic IgG and mucosal IgA responses in mice, which resulted in protection against a lethal influenza virus infection with attenuated inflammatory symptoms. Based on these results, we propose that oral administration of freeze-dried leaf powders from transgenic plants expressing HA in the ER together with saponin is an attractive strategy for vaccination against influenza A virus. PMID:25065685

  16. The protection of invertebrates, fish, and vascular plants against inorganic mercury poisoning by sulfur and selenium derivatives.

    PubMed

    Siegel, B Z; Siegel, S M; Correa, T; Dagan, C; Galvez, G; LeeLoy, L; Padua, A; Yaeger, E

    1991-02-01

    Protection of organisms against mercury (Hg) poisoning is most commonly associated with the antagonistic effects of selenium (Se)-compounds against mercury alkyls in higher animals. This study shows that there is no consistent difference among Periodic Group VIA derivatives including S(IV), S(II) organic, Se (IV), Se (II) organic, possibly Se VI, as well and Te (IV) in their ability to protect against mercury poisoning. The organisms used in assays were: Coleus explants (leaf abscission); turnip (germination); pea (growth inhibition and Hg uptake); a planarian (regeneration); the brineshrimp (excystment, phototaxy); the mealworm larva Tenebrio (metamorphosis) and the fish "tilapia" (survival, Hg uptake). Thiamine was the most effective of the Group VIA derivatives against the widest spectrum of organisms and test systems. In planarian regeneration, it was active where S and Se compounds failed. The most unexpected observation was the hastening of insect metamorphosis by HgCl2 and the enhancement of that effect by thiamine. PMID:2014999

  17. Plant-derived H7 VLP vaccine elicits protective immune response against H7N9 influenza virus in mice and ferrets.

    PubMed

    Pillet, S; Racine, T; Nfon, C; Di Lenardo, T Z; Babiuk, S; Ward, B J; Kobinger, G P; Landry, N

    2015-11-17

    In March 2013, the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed the first reported case of human infection with an avian influenza A H7N9 virus. Infection with this virus often caused severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting in a case fatality rate >35%. The risk of pandemic highlighted, once again, the need for a more rapid and scalable vaccine response capability. Here, we describe the rapid (19 days) development of a plant-derived VLP vaccine based on the hemagglutinin sequence of influenza H7N9 A/Hangzhou/1/2013. The immunogenicity of the H7 VLP vaccine was assessed in mice and ferrets after one or two intramuscular dose(s) with and without adjuvant (alum or GLA-SE™). In ferrets, we also measured H7-specific cell-mediated immunity. The mice and ferrets were then challenged with H7N9 A/Anhui/1/2013 influenza virus. A single immunization with the adjuvanted vaccine elicited a strong humoral response and protected mice against an otherwise lethal challenge. Two doses of unadjuvanted vaccine significantly increased humoral response and resulted in 100% protection with significant reduction of clinical signs leading to nearly asymptomatic infections. In ferrets, a single immunization with the alum-adjuvanted H7 VLP vaccine induced strong humoral and CMI responses with antigen-specific activation of CD3(+) T cells. Compared to animals injected with placebo, ferrets vaccinated with alum-adjuvanted vaccine displayed no weight loss during the challenge. Moreover, the vaccination significantly reduced the viral load in lungs and nasal washes 3 days after the infection. This candidate plant-made H7 vaccine therefore induced protective responses after either one adjuvanted or two unadjuvanted doses. Studies are currently ongoing to better characterize the immune response elicited by the plant-derived VLP vaccines. Regardless, these data are very promising for the rapid production of an immunogenic and protective vaccine against this potentially pandemic virus. PMID:26432915

  18. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... following: Pelvic examination Pap test and colposcopy —A routine cervical Pap test is not adequate for DES ...

  19. An evaluation of fish early life stage tests for predicting reproductive and longer-term toxicity from plant protection product active substances.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, James R; Maynard, Samuel K; Crane, Mark

    2014-08-01

    The chronic toxicity of chemicals to fish is routinely assessed by using fish early life stage (ELS) test results. Fish full life cycle (FLC) tests are generally required only when toxicity, bioaccumulation, and persistence triggers are met or when there is a suspicion of potential endocrine-disrupting properties. This regulatory approach is based on a relationship between the results of fish ELS and FLC studies first established more than 35 yrs ago. Recently, this relationship has been challenged by some regulatory authorities, and it has been recommended that more substances should undergo FLC testing. In addition, a project proposal has been submitted to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to develop a fish partial life cycle (PLC) test including a reproductive assessment. Both FLC and PLC tests are animal- and resource-intensive and technically challenging and should therefore be undertaken only if there is clear evidence that they are necessary for coming to a regulatory decision. The present study reports on an analysis of a database of paired fish ELS and FLC endpoints for plant protection product active substances from European Union draft assessment reports and the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs Pesticide Ecotoxicity Database. Analysis of this database shows a clear relationship between ELS and FLC responses, with similar median sensitivity across substances when no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) are compared. There was also no indication that classification of a substance as a mammalian reproductive toxicant leads to more sensitive effects in fish FLC tests than in ELS tests. Indeed, the response of the ELS tests was generally more sensitive than the most sensitive reproduction NOEC from a FLC test. This analysis indicates that current testing strategies and guidelines are fit for purpose and that there is no need for fish full or partial life cycle tests for most plant protection product active substances. PMID:24799351

  20. Liver Fibrosis and Mechanisms of the Protective Action of Medicinal Plants Targeting Inflammation and the Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Cuevas, Jorge E.; González-Garza, María Teresa; Maldonado-Bernal, Carmen; Cruz-Vega, Delia Elva

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a central feature of liver fibrosis as suggested by its role in the activation of hepatic stellate cells leading to extracellular matrix deposition. During liver injury, inflammatory cells are recruited in the injurious site through chemokines attraction. Thus, inflammation could be a target to reduce liver fibrosis. The pandemic trend of obesity, combined with the high incidence of alcohol intake and viral hepatitis infections, highlights the urgent need to find accessible antifibrotic therapies. Medicinal plants are achieving popularity as antifibrotic agents, supported by their safety, cost-effectiveness, and versatility. The aim of this review is to describe the role of inflammation and the immune response in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and detail the mechanisms of inhibition of both events by medicinal plants in order to reduce liver fibrosis. PMID:25954568

  1. Application of heat stress in situ demonstrates a protective role of irradiation on photosynthetic performance in alpine plants.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Othmar; Stoll, Magdalena; Karadar, Matthias; Kranner, Ilse; Neuner, Gilbert

    2015-04-01

    The impact of sublethal heat on photosynthetic performance, photosynthetic pigments and free radical scavenging activity was examined in three high mountain species, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Senecio incanus and Ranunculus glacialis using controlled in situ applications of heat stress, both in darkness and under natural solar irradiation. Heat treatments applied in the dark reversibly reduced photosynthetic performance and the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv /Fm), which remained impeded for several days when plants were exposed to natural light conditions subsequently to the heat treatment. In contrast, plants exposed to heat stress under natural irradiation were able to tolerate and recover from heat stress more readily. The critical temperature threshold for chlorophyll fluorescence was higher under illumination (Tc (')) than in the dark (Tc). Heat stress caused a significant de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle pigments both in the light and in the dark conditions. Total free radical scavenging activity was highest when heat stress was applied in the dark. This study demonstrates that, in the European Alps, heat waves can temporarily have a negative impact on photosynthesis and, importantly, that results obtained from experiments performed in darkness and/or on detached plant material may not reliably predict the impact of heat stress under field conditions. PMID:25256247

  2. Ectopically expressed leaf and bulb lectins from garlic (Allium sativum L.) protect transgenic tobacco plants against cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis).

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Amin; Smagghe, Guy; Broeders, Sylvia; Hernalsteens, Jean-Pierre; De Greve, Henri; Peumans, Willy J; Van Damme, Els J M

    2008-02-01

    The insecticidal activity of the leaf (ASAL) and bulb (ASAII) agglutinins from Allium sativum L. (garlic) against the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was studied using transgenic tobacco plants expressing the lectins under the control of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter. PCR analysis confirmed that the garlic lectin genes were integrated into the plant genome. Western blots and semi-quantitative agglutination assays revealed lectin expression at various levels in the transgenic lines. Biochemical analyses indicated that the recombinant ASAL and ASAII are indistinguishable from the native garlic lectins. Insect bioassays using detached leaves from transgenic tobacco plants demonstrated that the ectopically expressed ASAL and ASAII significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the weight gain of 4th instar larvae of S. littoralis. Further on, the lectins retarded the development of the larvae and their metamorphosis, and were detrimental to the pupal stage resulting in weight reduction and lethal abnormalities. Total mortality was scored with ASAL compared to 60% mortality with ASAII. These findings suggest that garlic lectins are suitable candidate insect resistance proteins for the control of S. littoralis through a transgenic approach. PMID:17265166

  3. Application of heat stress in situ demonstrates a protective role of irradiation on photosynthetic performance in alpine plants

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, Othmar; STOLL, Magdalena; Karadar, Matthias; Kranner, Ilse; Neuner, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    The impact of sublethal heat on photosynthetic performance, photosynthetic pigments and free radical scavenging activity was examined in three high mountain species, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Senecio incanus and Ranunculus glacialis using controlled in situ applications of heat stress, both in darkness and under natural solar irradiation. Heat treatments applied in the dark reversibly reduced photosynthetic performance and the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), which remained impeded for several days when plants were exposed to natural light conditions subsequently to the heat treatment. In contrast, plants exposed to heat stress under natural irradiation were able to tolerate and recover from heat stress more readily. The critical temperature threshold for chlorophyll fluorescence was higher under illumination (Tc′) than in the dark (Tc). Heat stress caused a significant de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle pigments both in the light and in the dark conditions. Total free radical scavenging activity was highest when heat stress was applied in the dark. This study demonstrates that, in the European Alps, heat waves can temporarily have a negative impact on photosynthesis and, importantly, that results obtained from experiments performed in darkness and/or on detached plant material may not reliably predict the impact of heat stress under field conditions. PMID:25256247

  4. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) report. Fort Des Moines, Des Moines, Iowa. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.; Rausch, K.; Kang, J.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the results of the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) investigation conducted by The Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) at the Fort Des Moines, a U.S. Government property selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission. Under CERFA Federal agencies are required to identify real property that can be immediately reused and redeveloped. Satisfying this objective requires the identification of real property where no hazardous substances or petroleum products, regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), were stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed. Fort Des Moines is a 53.28-acre site located in Polk County, Iowa, within the city limits of Des Moines. The installation's primary mission is to provide support and shelter for the U.S. Army Reserve. Activities associated with the property that have environmental significance are photographic processing, vehicle maintenance, printing, and fuel storage. TETC reviewed existing investigation documents; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), State, and county regulatory records; environmental data bases; and title documents pertaining to Fort Des Moines during this investigation. In addition, TETC conducted interviews and visual inspections of Fort Des Moines as well as visual inspections and data base searches for the surrounding properties. Information in this CERFA Report was current as of April 1994.

  5. What data determine whether a plant taxon is distinct enough to merit legal protection? A case study of Sedum integrifolium (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Olfelt, J P; Furnier, G R; Luby, J J

    2001-03-01

    Measures of molecular and morphological genetic variation are often used to set conservation priorities and design management strategies for plant taxa. Evaluated together they can give insights into a taxon's evolutionary status that neither data type alone can achieve. We investigated the distinctness and variability of Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi, a federally and state-listed taxon, from its conspecific relatives using 33 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers (253 plants) and 37 morphological characters from 1308 common-garden-grown plants. We included S. integrifolium ssp. leedyi (four populations), its conspecific relatives (11 populations), and S. rosea and S. rhodanthum populations in our study. The morphological and molecular data correspond in showing that S. integrifolium ssp. leedyi populations are highly distinct. However, the data sets differ in their estimates of the relatedness of some S. integrifolium ssp. leedyi populations and in the percentage variation detected due to differences among them (25 and 9-13% for the molecular and morphological data, respectively) suggesting little gene flow among populations and some differentiation, possibly from selective pressures. Given our data, we recommend that S. integrifolium ssp. leedyi merits protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and that its populations be managed as distinct units. PMID:11250817

  6. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. [Demonstration plant at Newman, KY

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-21

    This document and its several appendices constitute an application for a Kentucky Permit to Construct an Air Contaminant Source as well as a Prevention of Significant Air Quality Deterioration (PSD) Permit Application. The information needed to satisfy the application requirements for both permits has been integrated into a complete and logical description of the proposed source, its emissions, control systems, and its expected air quality impacts. The Department of Energy believes that it has made every reasonable effort to be responsive to both the letter and the spirit of the PSD regulations (40 CFR 52.21) and Kentucky Regulation No. 401 KAR 50:035. In this regard, it is important to note that because of the preliminary status of some aspects of the process engineering and engineering design for the Demonstration Plant, it is not yet possible precisely to define some venting operations or their associated control systems. Therefore, it is not possible precisely to quantify some atmospheric emissions or their likely impact on air quality. In these instances, DOE and ICRC have used assumptions that produce impact estimates that are believed to be worst case and are not expected to be exceeded no matter what the outcome of future engineering decisions. As these decisions are made, emission quantities and rates, control system characteristics and efficiencies, and vent stack parameters are more precisely defined; this Permit Application will be supplemented or modified as appropriate. But, all needed modifications are expected to represent either decreases or at worst no changes in the air quality impact of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant.

  7. US-Russian collaboration for enhancing nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting at the Elektrostal uranium fuel-fabrication plant

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.; Allentuck, J.; Barham, M.; Bishop, M.; Wentz, D.; Steele, B.; Bricker, K.; Cherry, R.; Snegosky, T.

    1996-09-01

    In September 1993, an implementing agreement was signed that authorized collaborative projects to enhance Russian national materials control and accounting, physical protection, and regulatory activities, with US assistance funded by the Nunn-Lugar Act. At the first US-Russian technical working group meeting in Moscow in February 1994, it was decided to identify a model facility where materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) and regulatory projects could be carried out using proven technologies and approaches. The low-enriched uranium (LEU or RBMK and VVER) fuel-fabrication process at Elektrostal was selected, and collaborative work began in June 1994. Based on many factors, including initial successes at Elektrostal, the Russians expanded the cooperation by proposing five additional sites for MPC and A development: the Elektrostal medium-enriched uranium (MEU or BN) fuel-fabrication process and additional facilities at Podolsk, Dmitrovgrad, Obninsk, and Mayak. Since that time, multilaboratory teams have been formed to develop and implement MPC and A upgrades at the additional sites, and much new work is underway. This paper summarizes the current status of MPC and A enhancement projects in the LEU fuel-fabrication process and discusses the status of work that addresses similar enhancements in the MEU (BN) fuel processes at Elektrostal, under the recently expanded US-Russian MPC and A cooperation.

  8. Troxerutin, a plant flavonoid, protects cells against oxidative stress-induced cell death through radical scavenging mechanism.

    PubMed

    Panat, Niranjan A; Maurya, Dharmendra K; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S; Sandur, Santosh K

    2016-03-01

    Troxerutin (TRX) is a flavonoid present in tea, coffee, cereal grains, various fruits and vegetables have been reported to exhibit radioprotective, antithrombotic, nephro and hepato-protective effects. A systematic study was undertaken to evaluate its free radical scavenging ability and anti-apoptotic activity in cell-free and cellular systems. TRX scavenged superoxide, nitric oxide and also other model stable radicals like 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydazyl, and 2,2'-azinobis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid. It reacted with hydroxyl radicals, carbonate and thiocyanate anions, as evaluated by pulse radiolysis and stopped flow techniques. TRX protected different cell types (epithelial cells, fibroblasts and lymphocytes) against peroxyl radical-induced apoptosis, necrosis and mitotic death. It scavenged intracellular basal and inducible ROS levels and also restored depletion of intracellular GSH levels, suggesting that free radical scavenging ability may be responsible for the observed cytoprotection of different cell types. TRX may find application as an adjuvant in treating various diseases attributed to oxidative stress. PMID:26471524

  9. Supplementation with gliadin-combined plant superoxide dismutase extract promotes antioxidant defences and protects against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Vouldoukis, Ioannis; Conti, Marc; Krauss, Pascal; Kamat, Caroline; Blazquez, Samantha; Tefit, Maurel; Mazier, Dominique; Calenda, Alphonse; Dugas, Bernard

    2004-12-01

    The potential benefits to health of antioxidant enzymes supplied either through dietary intake or supplementation is still a matter of controversy. The development of dietary delivery systems using wheat gliadin biopolymers as a natural carrier represents a new alternative. Combination of antioxidant enzymes with this natural carrier not only delayed their degradation (i.e. the superoxide dismutase, SOD) during the gastrointestinal digestive process, but also promoted, in vivo, the cellular defences by strengthening the antioxidant status. The effects of supplementation for 28 days with a standardized melon SOD extract either combined (Glisodin) or not with gliadin, were evaluated on various oxidative-stress biomarkers. As already described there was no change either in superoxide dismutase, catalase or glutathione peroxidase activities in blood circulation or in the liver following non-protected SOD supplementation. However, animals supplemented with Glisodin showed a significant elevation in circulated antioxidant enzymes activities, correlated with an increased resistance of red blood cells to oxidative stress-induced hemolysis. In the presence of Sin-1, a chemical donor of peroxynitrites, mitochondria from hepatocytes regularly underwent membrane depolarization as the primary biological event of the apoptosis cascade. Hepatocytes isolated from animals supplemented with Glisodin presented a delayed depolarization response and an enhanced resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. It is concluded that supplementation with gliadin-combined standardized melon SOD extract (Glisodin) promoted the cellular antioxidant status and protected against oxidative stress-induced cell death. PMID:15742357

  10. Characterization of the Fungal Gibberellin Desaturase as a 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase and Its Utilization for Enhancing Plant Growth1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Ward, Dennis A.; Thomas, Stephen G.; Gong, Fan; Powers, Stephen J.; Carrera, Esther; Taylor, Benjamin; de Caceres Gonzalez, Francisco Nuñez; Tudzynski, Bettina; Phillips, Andrew L.; Davey, Michael R.; Hedden, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The biosynthesis of gibberellic acid (GA3) by the fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is catalyzed by seven enzymes encoded in a gene cluster. While four of these enzymes are characterized as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, the nature of a fifth oxidase, GA4 desaturase (DES), is unknown. DES converts GA4 to GA7 by the formation of a carbon-1,2 double bond in the penultimate step of the pathway. Here, we show by expression of the des complementary DNA in Escherichia coli that DES has the characteristics of a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase. Although it has low amino acid sequence homology with known 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, putative iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-binding residues, typical of such enzymes, are apparent in its primary sequence. A survey of sequence databases revealed that homologs of DES are widespread in the ascomycetes, although in most cases the homologs must participate in non-gibberellin (GA) pathways. Expression of des from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in the plant species Solanum nigrum, Solanum dulcamara, and Nicotiana sylvestris resulted in substantial growth stimulation, with a 3-fold increase in height in S. dulcamara compared with controls. In S. nigrum, the height increase was accompanied by a 20-fold higher concentration of GA3 in the growing shoots than in controls, although GA1 content was reduced. Expression of des was also shown to partially restore growth in plants dwarfed by ectopic expression of a GA 2-oxidase (GA-deactivating) gene, consistent with GA3 being protected from 2-oxidation. Thus, des has the potential to enable substantial growth increases, with practical implications, for example, in biomass production. PMID:22911627

  11. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face la crise conomique la conception de papier valeur ajoute est dveloppe par les industries papetires. Le but de se projet est l'amlioration des techniques actuelles de rticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pte papier visant produire un papier plus rsistant. En effet, lors des ractions de rticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte ngativement l'amlioration anticipe des proprits physiques du papier ou du matriau produit. Pour viter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas ragir entre eux est ncessaire. La rticulation des fibres par une raction de click chemistry appele cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalyse par du cuivre (CuAAC) a t l'une des solutions trouve pour remdier ce problme. De plus, une adaptation de cette raction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'tude que nous dsirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise optimiser la raction de CuAAC et les ractions intermdiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les ractions ont t adaptes en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vrifier sa faisabilit, puis transfre la pte kraft et l'influence de diffrents paramtres comme le temps de raction ou la quantit de ractifs utilise a t tudie. Dans un second temps, une tude des diffrentes proprits confres au papier par les ractions a t ralise partir d'une srie de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Cls Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  12. Selection for protection in an ant–plant mutualism: host sanctions, host modularity, and the principal–agent game

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, David P; Hassall, Mark; Sutherland, William J; Yu, Douglas W

    2005-01-01

    Retaliation against cheaters can prevent the breakdown of cooperation. Here we ask whether the ant–plant Cordia nodosa is able to apply retaliatory sanctions against its ant symbiont Allomerus octoarticulatus, which patrols new shoots to prevent herbivory. We test the hypothesis that the modular design of C. nodosa physiologically ties the growth of housing (stem swellings known as domatia) to the successful development of the attached leaves. We experimentally simulated herbivory by cutting leaves from patrolled shoots and found that the domatia on such ‘cheated’ shoots suffered higher mortality and lower growth than did controls, evidence for a host sanction. On the other hand, patrolling is costly to the ant, and experiment shows that non-patrollers run a low risk of being sanctioned because most leaves (and the attached domatia) escape heavy herbivory even when patrollers are absent. This suggests that cheaters might enjoy a higher fitness than do mutualists, despite sanctions, but we find that patrolling provides a net fecundity benefit when the colony and plant exceed a minimum size, which requires sustained ant investment in patrolling. These results map directly onto the principal–agent (P–A) game from economics, which we suggest can be used as a framework for studying stability in mutualisms, where high sampling costs and cheating do not allow market effects to select for mutual benefits. PMID:16537131

  13. Regulatory issues for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant long-term compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR 191B and 268

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Marietta, M.G.; Higgins, P.J. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), specifically the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191), and the Land Disposal Restrictions (40 CFR 268) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This paper provides background information on the regulations, describes the SNL WIPP PA Departments approach to developing a defensible technical basis for consistent compliance evaluations, and summarizes the major observations and conclusions drawn from the 1991 and 1992 PAs.

  14. [Activity of protective proteins in wheat plants treated with chitooligosaccharides with different degrees of acetylation and infection with Bipolaris sorokiniana].

    PubMed

    Iarullina, L G; Kasimova, R I; Akhatova, A R

    2014-01-01

    The influence of chitooligosaccharides (COS) with different degrees of acetylation (DA) on the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and changes in the level of gene expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins (oxalate oxidase AJ556991.1, peroxidase TC 151917, chitinase AV029935L, proteinase inhibitor EU293132.1) in the roots of the wheat Triticum aestivum L. inoculated with root rot pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoenaker was investigated. Differences were detected in plant responses to infection. These differences were due to the pretreatment of COS seeds with differing DA. Our results demonstrated that COS with a DA over 65% more effectively induced accumulation of H2O2 and increased the transcriptional activity of genes of PR-proteins as compared to COS with a DA of 30%. These data suggest an important role for DA in the manifestation of eliciting properties of COS, also in the presence of H2O2. PMID:25707110

  15. Very high resolution Earth observation features for monitoring plant and animal community structure across multiple spatial scales in protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairota, Paola; Cafarelli, Barbara; Labadessa, Rocco; Lovergine, Francesco; Tarantino, Cristina; Lucas, Richard M.; Nagendra, Harini; Didham, Raphael K.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the status and future trends in biodiversity can be prohibitively expensive using ground-based surveys. Consequently, significant effort is being invested in the use of satellite remote sensing to represent aspects of the proximate mechanisms (e.g., resource availability) that can be related to biodiversity surrogates (BS) such as species community descriptors. We explored the potential of very high resolution (VHR) satellite Earth observation (EO) features as proxies for habitat structural attributes that influence spatial variation in habitat quality and biodiversity change. In a semi-natural grassland mosaic of conservation concern in southern Italy, we employed a hierarchical nested sampling strategy to collect field and VHR-EO data across three spatial extent levels (landscape, patch and plot). Species incidence and abundance data were collected at the plot level for plant, insect and bird functional groups. Spectral and textural VHR-EO image features were derived from a Worldview-2 image. Three window sizes (grains) were tested for analysis and computation of textural features, guided by the perception limits of different organisms. The modelled relationships between VHR-EO features and BS responses differed across scales, suggesting that landscape, patch and plot levels are respectively most appropriate when dealing with birds, plants and insects. This research demonstrates the potential of VHR-EO for biodiversity mapping and habitat modelling, and highlights the importance of identifying the appropriate scale of analysis for specific taxonomic groups of interest. Further, textural features are important in the modelling of functional group-specific indices which represent BS in high conservation value habitat types, and provide a more direct link to species interaction networks and ecosystem functioning, than provided by traditional taxonomic diversity indices.

  16. A ?-Glutamyl Cyclotransferase Protects Arabidopsis Plants from Heavy Metal Toxicity by Recycling Glutamate to Maintain Glutathione Homeostasis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Bibin; Chhikara, Sudesh; Coomey, Joshua; Jung, Ha-il; Vatamaniuk, Olena; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2013-01-01

    Plants detoxify toxic metals through a GSH-dependent pathway. GSH homeostasis is maintained by the ?-glutamyl cycle, which involves GSH synthesis and degradation and the recycling of component amino acids. The enzyme ?-glutamyl cyclotransferase (GGCT) is involved in Glu recycling, but the gene(s) encoding GGCT has not been identified in plants. Here, we report that an Arabidopsis thaliana protein with a cation transport regulator-like domain, hereafter referred to as GGCT2;1, functions as ?-glutamyl cyclotransferase. Heterologous expression of GGCT2;1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced phenotypes that were consistent with decreased GSH content attributable to either GSH degradation or the diversion of ?-glutamyl peptides to produce 5-oxoproline (5-OP). 5-OP levels were further increased by the addition of arsenite and GSH to the medium, indicating that GGCT2;1 participates in the cellular response to arsenic (As) via GSH degradation. Recombinant GGCT2;1 converted both GSH and ?-glutamyl Ala to 5-OP in vitro. GGCT2;1 transcripts were upregulated in As-treated Arabidopsis, and ggct2;1 knockout mutants were more tolerant to As and cadmium than the wild type. Overexpression of GGCT2;1 in Arabidopsis resulted in the accumulation of 5-OP. Under As toxicity, the overexpression lines showed minimal changes in de novo Glu synthesis, while the ggct2;1 mutant increased nitrogen assimilation by severalfold, resulting in a very low As/N ratio in tissue. Thus, our results suggest that GGCT2;1 ensures sufficient GSH turnover during abiotic stress by recycling Glu. PMID:24214398

  17. Creation and application of voxelised dosimetric models, and a comparison with the current methodology as used for the International Commission on Radiological Protection's Reference Animals and Plants.

    PubMed

    Higley, K; Ruedig, E; Gomez-Fernandez, M; Caffrey, E; Jia, J; Comolli, M; Hess, C

    2015-06-01

    Over the past decade, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed a comprehensive approach to environmental protection that includes the use of Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) to assess radiological impacts on the environment. For the purposes of calculating radiation dose, the RAPs are approximated as simple shapes that contain homogeneous distributions of radionuclides. As uncertainties in environmental dose effects are larger than uncertainties in radiation dose calculation, some have argued against more realistic dose calculation methodologies. However, due to the complexity of organism morphology, internal structure, and density, dose rates calculated via a homogenous model may be too simplistic. The purpose of this study is to examine the benefits of a voxelised phantom compared with simple shapes for organism modelling. Both methods typically use Monte Carlo methods to calculate absorbed dose, but voxelised modelling uses an exact three-dimensional replica of an organism with accurate tissue composition and radionuclide source distribution. It is a multi-stage procedure that couples imaging modalities and processing software with Monte Carlo N-Particle. These features increase dosimetric accuracy, and may reduce uncertainty in non-human biota dose-effect studies by providing mechanistic answers regarding where and how population-level dose effects arise. PMID:25856572

  18. Dietary Protection Against Free Radicals: A Case for Multiple Testing to Establish Structure-activity Relationships for Antioxidant Potential of Anthocyanic Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Philpott, Martin; Lim, Chiara Cheng; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2009-01-01

    DNA damage by reactive species is associated with susceptibility to chronic human degenerative disorders. Anthocyanins are naturally occurring antioxidants, that may prevent or reverse such damage. There is considerable interest in anthocyanic food plants as good dietary sources, with the potential for reducing susceptibility to chronic disease. While structure-activity relationships have provided guidelines on molecular structure in relation to free hydroxyl-radical scavenging, this may not cover the situation in food plants where the anthocyanins are part of a complex mixture, and may be part of complex structures, including anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs). Additionally, new analytical methods have revealed new structures in previously-studied materials. We have compared the antioxidant activities of extracts from six anthocyanin-rich edible plants (red cabbage, red lettuce, blueberries, pansies, purple sweetpotato skin, purple sweetpotato flesh and Maori potato flesh) using three chemical assays (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC), and the in vitro Comet assay. Extracts from the flowering plant, lisianthus, were used for comparison. The extracts showed differential effects in the chemical assays, suggesting that closely related structures have different affinities to scavenge different reactive species. Integration of anthocyanins to an AVI led to more sustained radical scavenging activity as compared with the free anthocyanin. All but the red lettuce extract could reduce endogenous DNA damage in HT-29 colon cancer cells. However, while extracts from purple sweetpotato skin and flesh, Maori potato and pansies, protected cells against subsequent challenge by hydrogen peroxide at 0°C, red cabbage extracts were pro-oxidant, while other extracts had no effect. When the peroxide challenge was at 37°C, all of the extracts appeared pro-oxidant. Maori potato extract, consistently the weakest antioxidant in all the chemical assays, was more effective in the Comet assays. These results highlight the dangers of generalising to potential health benefits, based solely on identification of high anthocyanic content in plants, results of a single antioxidant assay and traditional approaches to structure activity relationships. Subsequent studies might usefully consider complex mixtures and a battery of assays. PMID:19399239

  19. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    Plasma outflows from a central gravitating object are a widespread phenomenon in astrophysics. They include the solar and stellar winds, jets from Young Stellar Objects, jets from compact stellar objects and extra-galactic jets associated with Active Galactic Nuclei and quasars. Beyond this huge zoology, a common theoretical ground exists. The aim of this review is to present qualitatively the various theories of winds (Part 1) and how different astrophysical domains interplay. A more or less complete catalog of the ideas proposed for explaining the acceleration and the morphologies of winds and jets is intended. All this part avoids getting into any mathematical formalism. Some macroscopic properties of such outflows may be described by solving the time-independent and axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equations. This formalism, underlying most of the theories, is presented in Part 2. It helps to introduce quantitatively the free integrals that such systems possess. Those integrals play an important role in the basic physics of acceleration and collimation, in particular the mass loss rate, the angular momentum loss rate and the energy of the magnetic rotator. Most of the difficulty in modelling flows lies in the necessity to cross critical points, characteristic of non linear equations. The physical nature and the location of such critical points is debated because they are the clue towards the resolution. We thus introduce the notions of topology and critical points (Parts 3 and 4) from the simplest hydrodynamic and spherically symmetric case to the most sophisticated, MHD and axisymmetric cases. Particular attention is given to self-similar models which allows to give some general and simple ideas on the problem due to their semi-analytical treatment. With the use of these notions, a more quantitative comparison of the various models is given (Parts 3 and 4), especially on the shape of the flows. It is thus shown that magnetic collimation of winds into jets is a well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'jection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phnomne largement rpandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'toiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifie fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modlisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de prsenter qualitativement le dveloppement, depuis leur origine, des diverses thories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarit dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une numration, plus ou moins exhaustive, des ides proposes pour expliquer l'acclration et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagne d'une prsentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathmatique. Ces coulements peuvent tre dcrits, au moins partiellement, en rsolvant les quations magntohydrodynamiques, axisymtriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, la base de la plupart des thories, est expos dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intgrales premires qu'un tel systme possde. Ces dernires sont amenes jouer un rle important dans la comprhension des phnomnes d'acclration ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'nergie du rotateur magntique. La difficult de modlisation rside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux quations non linaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un dbat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la rsolution. Nous introduisons donc la notion de topologie des points critiques (Parties 3 et 4

  20. Cartographie des disques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameury, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    Two techniques are frequently used to produce images of the accretion disc in an eclipsing binary: eclipse mapping and Doppler tomography. From the light curve, one can deduce the radial distribution of the effective temperature, assuming axial symmetry. On the other hand, from the variation of the line profile one can reconstruct an image in the velocity space, which can be converted into a real image if one knows the kinematics of the system. Deux techniques sont couramment utilisées pour obtenir des images des disques dans les systèmes binaires à éclipses. En utilisant la courbe de lumière, on peut remonter à la distribution radiale de la brillance de surface, en supposant que celle-ci a une symètrie axiale. D'autre part, les profils de raies renseignent sur la distribution de vitesse des régions émissives leur variation temporelle permet de réaliser une image dans l'espace des vitesses, que l'on peut ensuite transformer en carte dans l'espace (x,y) si on connaît la cinématique du système.

  1. Ultraviolet-B protection of ascorbate and tocopherol in plants related with their function on the stability on carotenoid and phenylpropanoid compounds.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yinan; You, Jingjing; Ou, Yongbin; Ma, Jinbiao; Wu, Xiuli; Xu, Gang

    2015-05-01

    Ascorbate and tocopherol are important hydrophilic or lipophilic antioxidants in plants, while their crucial roles in the antioxidant defense system under ultraviolet B radiation were not well understood. The mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana deficient in ascorbate (vtc1 and vtc2) or tocopherol (vte1) were used to analyze their physiological, biochemical and metabolic change in responses to Ultraviolet B radiation. Results showed that loss of either ascorbate or tocopherol caused reduction in phenylpropanoid and flavonol glycosides compounds, as well as reduction in superoxide dismutase activity and total cellular antioxidant capacity. This ultimately led to higher oxidative stress as well as lower levels of photosynthetic pigments (carotenoid and chlorophyll) and CO2 assimilation rate in the vtc1, vtc2, and vte1 mutants than the wild type under UV-B radiation, besides unstable early light-induced protein (ELIP1) in those mutants. On the other hand, the loss of tocopherol in vte1 mutants was compensated by the increase of zeaxanthin and anthocyanin contents, which armed vte1 mutants with higher heat dissipation capacity in PS II and higher antioxidative capacity than vtc mutants. Consequently the tolerance to UV-B radiation were much higher in vte1 mutant than in vtc mutants, furthermore, PS II function and light harvesting protein (LHCb1) abundance were reduced only in ascorbate-deficient mutant relative to wild type. Our results suggested that the ascorbate and tocopherol provided not only direct protective function against UV-B radiation but also indirect effects by influencing other protective system, in particular by affecting the stability of various carotenoid and phenylpropanoid compounds. PMID:25749732

  2. Improvement of growth, fruit weight and early blight disease protection of tomato plants by rhizosphere bacteria is correlated with their beneficial traits and induced biosynthesis of antioxidant peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Narendra Babu, Anupama; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Kestur Nagaraj, Amruthesh; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-02-01

    Five plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) of different genera, newly isolated from healthy tomato rhizosphere, were characterized with phosphate solubilizing and root colonizing ability. Treatment with these isolates recorded a significant increase in seed germination and seedling vigor as well as tomato growth and fruit weight which might be partly attributed to the ability of the PGPRs to produce IAA and enhance nutrient uptake and chlorophyll content in treated plants. More importantly, a strong protection against early blight disease was observed in PGPR-pretreated tomato plants infected with Alternaria solani which is in accordance with the presence of siderophores, HCN, chitinase and glucanase in the isolated PGPRs. Additionally, a significantly enhanced accumulation of antioxidant peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzymes was observed in the PGPR-pretreated plants with or without pathogen infection in comparison with water or pathogen control. Notably, the highest increase in POX and PPO accumulations was recorded in tomato plants raised from seeds primed with TN_Vel-35 strain. A significant upregulation of POX and PPO in tomato plants subjected to similar treatment with TN_Vel-35 versus respective control was also noticed, further strengthening that the PGPR-induced POX and PPO biosyntheses also contribute to PGPR-mediated protection against early blight disease in tomato plants. PMID:25575992

  3. The rat ErbB2 tyrosine kinase receptor produced in plants is immunogenic in mice and confers protective immunity against ErbB2(+) mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Mati?, Slavica; Quaglino, Elena; Arata, Lucia; Riccardo, Federica; Pegoraro, Mattia; Vallino, Marta; Cavallo, Federica; Noris, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    The rat ErbB2 (rErbB2) protein is a 185-kDa glycoprotein belonging to the epidermal growth factor-related proteins (ErbB) of receptor tyrosine kinases. Overexpression and mutations of ErbB proteins lead to several malignancies including breast, lung, pancreatic, bladder and ovary carcinomas. ErbB2 is immunogenic and is an ideal candidate for cancer immunotherapy. We investigated the possibility of expressing the extracellular (EC) domain of rErbB2 (653 amino acids, aa) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, testing the influence of the 23 aa transmembrane (TM) sequence on protein accumulation. Synthetic variants of the rErbB2 gene portion encoding the EC domain, optimized with a human codon usage and either linked to the full TM domain (rErbB2_TM, 676 aa), to a portion of it (rErbB2-pTM, 662 aa), or deprived of it (rErbB2_noTM, 653 aa) were cloned in the pEAQ-HT expression vector as 6X His tag fusions. All rErbB2 variants (72-74.5 kDa) were transiently expressed, but the TM was detrimental for rErbB2 EC accumulation. rERbB2_noTM was the most expressed protein; it was solubilized and purified with Nickel affinity resin. When crude soluble extracts expressing rErbB2_noTM were administered to BALB/c mice, specific rErbB2 immune responses were triggered. A potent antitumour activity was induced when vaccinated mice were challenged with syngeneic transplantable ErbB2(+) mammary carcinoma cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of expression of rErbB2 in plants and of its efficacy in inducing a protective antitumour immune response, opening interesting perspectives for further immunological testing. PMID:25865255

  4. Basis for the development of a scenario for ground water risk assessment of plant protection products to banana crop in the frame work of regulation 1107/2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Prados, Elena; Fernández-Getino, Ana Patricia; Alonso-Prados, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    The risk assessment to ground water of pesticides and their main metabolites is a data requirement under regulation 1107/2009, concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) are calculated according to the recommendations of Forum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and Their Use (FOCUS). The FOCUS groundwater working group developed scenarios for the main crops in European Union. However there are several crops which grow under specific agro-environmental conditions not covered by these scenarios and it is frequent to use the defined scenarios as surrogates. This practice adds an uncertainty factor in the risk assessment. One example is represented by banana crop which in Europe is limited to sub-tropical environmental conditions and with specific agronomic practices. The Canary Islands concentrates the higher production of banana in the European Union characterized by volcanic soils. Banana is located at low altitudes where soils have been eroded or degraded, and it is a common practice to transport soil materials from the high-mid altitudes to the low lands for cultivation. These cultivation plots are locally named "sorribas". These volcanic soils, classified as Andosols according to the FAO classification, have special physico-chemical properties due to noncrystalline materials and layer silicates. The good stability of these soils and their high permeability to water make them relatively resistant to water erosion. Physical properties of volcanic clayey soils are strongly affected by allophone and Fe and Al oxyhidroxides. The rapid weathering of porous volcanic material results in accumulation of stable organo-mineral complexes and short-range-order mineral such as allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite. These components induce strong aggregation that partly favors properties such as: reduced swelling, increased aggregate stability of clay minerals, high soil water retention capacity, low bulk density and high infiltration rate. They are also characterized by a pH around 6, high concentration in organic matter and a great capacity to fix P, which make them very fertile soils. Most of Andosols have excellent internal drainage because of their high porosity. Regarding this fact, the main distributive source of the drainage under banana plant is the stem-flow. It is a spatially localized input of water in the soil at the foot of the banana plant and it has a significant influence in the ground water recharge. In this work, we present a literature review of agronomic aspects for banana crop and specific hydraulic properties for soils in the Canary Islands. These data are compared with the ones for the surrogate scenarios. Based on the results, recommendations for further work on the development of specific scenario for banana crop are given.

  5. Impact of the plant protection practices on the operators' exposure: survey by the communes and ministry of equipment and transport (MET-RW).

    PubMed

    Godeaux, D; Schiffers, B; Culot, M

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, with a response rate of 60 out of 97 communes and 33 out of 65 districts. This article describes the health-related aspects of the surveys (environmental aspects are the subject of separate article). The surveys have brought to light a number of bad practices and a growing awareness of the non-agricultural users with respect to health risks. However, bad habits, legislation infringements and a failure to follow good plant protection practice are still a problem and pose major health risks (which endanger the operator and the public). Information, awareness-raising and, especially, training of people therefore remain a priority for non-agricultural users. PMID:19226831

  6. Development and validation of a confirmative LC-MS/MS method for the determination of -exotoxin thuringiensin in plant protection products and selected greenhouse crops.

    PubMed

    de Rijk, Theo C; van Dam, Ruud C J; Zomer, Paul; Boers, Ed A M; de Waard, Pieter; Mol, Hans G J

    2013-02-01

    Bacterial products based on Bacillus thuringiensis are registered in many countries as plant protection products (PPPs) and are widely used as insecticides and nematocides. However, certain B. thuringiensis strains produce harmful toxins and are therefore not allowed to be used as PPPs. The serotype B. thuringiensis thuringiensis produces the beta-exotoxin thuringiensin (eT) which is considered to be toxic for almost all forms of life including humans (WHO 1999). The use of a non-registered PPP based on B. thuringiensis thuringiensis called bitoxybacillin was established through the determination of eT. First, an analytical reference standard of eT was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Then, a confirmatory quantitative method for the determination of eT in PPPs and selected greenhouse crops based on LC-MS/MS was developed and validated. A limit of quantitation of 0.028 mg/kg was established, and average recoveries ranged from 85.6 % to 104.8 % with repeatability (RSDr) of 1.5-7.7 % and within-lab reproducibility (RSD(WLR)) of 17 %. The method was used for analysis of >100 samples. eT was found in leaves of ornamentals, but no evidence was found for use in edible crops. PMID:23208288

  7. Plant Natural Product Formononetin Protects Rat Cardiomyocyte H9c2 Cells against Oxygen Glucose Deprivation and Reoxygenation via Inhibiting ROS Formation and Promoting GSK-3β Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xia, Zhengyuan; Han, Yifan; Rong, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    The opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a major cause of cell death in ischemia reperfusion injury. Based on our pilot experiments, plant natural product formononetin enhanced the survival of rat cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells during oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation. For mechanistic studies, we focused on two major cellular factors, namely, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), in the regulation of mPTP opening. We found that formononetin suppressed the formation of ROS and superoxide in a concentration-dependent manner. Formononetin also rescued OGD/reoxygenation-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity. Further studies suggested that formononetin induced Akt activation and GSK-3β (Ser9) phosphorylation, thereby reducing GSK-3β activity towards mPTP opening. PI3K and PKC inhibitors abolished the effects of formononetin on mPTP opening and GSK-3β phosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation experiments further revealed that formononetin increased the binding of phosphor-GSK-3β to adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) while it disrupted the complex of ANT with cyclophilin D. Moreover, immunofluorescence revealed that phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9) was mainly deposited in the space between mitochondria and cell nucleus. Collectively, these results indicated that formononetin protected cardiomyocytes from OGD/reoxygenation injury via inhibiting ROS formation and promoting GSK-3β phosphorylation.

  8. Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Jrg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

    Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schdigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden fr die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflchigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfgbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen fhren jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfgbar, knnen in einzelnen Fllen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch ber Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentser Therapie knnen fr den Patienten jedoch hufig schwerwiegende, mglicherweise lebensverkrzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezchteten Geweben mglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die fr den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

  9. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans l'agenda politique du pays. Notre projet de recherche, par le truchement de l'approche des reseaux de politique publique, s'attarde a decrire et a expliquer le processus de la formulation d'une politique particuliere, soit la politique energetique a des fins de protection de l'environnement, elaboree en 1993. Il s'agit de mettre en evidence les facteurs affectant le choix des instruments de ces politiques publiques dans leur contexte national. Ainsi, la question generale de cette recherche est: Comment les phases evolutives de la formation d'un reseau de politique, en l'occurrence le Conseil canadien de l'energie (CCE), menent a des caracteristiques particulieres a ce reseau; et comment celles-ci determinent-elles les types des instruments de politique publique choisis, particulierement ceux de la recente orientation des politiques energetiques canadiennes a des fins environnementales elaborees en 1993? Afin d'atteindre l'objectif de notre recherche, deux facteurs primordiaux sont utilises, soit la circulation de l'information et l'exercice du controle sur les ressources des acteurs. L'analyse des caracteristiques du reseau en fonction des liens forts et des liens faibles autant que la presence ou l'absence des trous structuraux nous permettent de bien identifier les positions des differents acteurs, etatiques et non etatiques, sur le plan de l'information et du controle, qui a leur tour, nous semble-t-il, constituent des facteurs affectant les types des instruments des politiques publiques choisis: instruments substantifs, qui indiquent le degre de l'intervention du gouvernement, et instruments proceduraux, qui mettent plutot l'accent sur le degre de l'influence du gouvernement sur les acteurs non etatiques. L'etude soutient que l'approche des reseaux se distingue notamment par son potentiel a expliquer l'interrelation relative entre idees, interets et institutions, ce qui a son tour est susceptible de permettre une meilleure comprehension des processus de l'elaboration des politiques energetiques et environnementales canadiennes. Qui plus est, le fait de recourir a ce cadre d'analyse permet d'approcher autrement le sujet etudie en essayant de comprendre et d'expliquer non seulement les interactions entre les differents acteurs cibles, mais aussi le dynamisme et l'evolution de ces relations dans leur duree, comme etant des determinants primordiaux en matiere de selection des instruments des politiques.

  10. Novel Lipid-Soluble Thiol-Redox Antioxidant and Heavy Metal Chelator, N,N?-bis(2-Mercaptoethyl)Isophthalamide (NBMI) and Phospholipase D-Specific Inhibitor, 5-Fluoro-2-Indolyl Des-Chlorohalopemide (FIPI) Attenuate Mercury-Induced Lipid Signaling Leading to Protection Against Cytotoxicity in Aortic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Secor, Jordan D.; Kotha, Sainath R.; Gurney, Travis O.; Patel, Rishi B.; Kefauver, Nicholas R.; Gupta, Niladri; Morris, Andrew J.; Haley, Boyd E.; Parinandi, Narasimham L.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we investigated thiol-redox-mediated phospholipase D (PLD) signaling as a mechanism of mercury cytotoxicity in mouse aortic endothelial cell (MAEC) in vitro model utilizing the novel lipid-soluble thiol-redox antioxidant and heavy metal chelator, N,N?-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide (NBMI) and the novel PLD-specific inhibitor, 5-fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI). Our results demonstrated (i) mercury in the form of mercury(II) chloride, methylmercury, and thimerosal induced PLD activation in a dose- and time-dependent manner; (ii) NBMI and FIPI completely attenuated mercury- and oxidant-induced PLD activation; (iii) mercury induced upstream phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) leading to downstream threonine phosphorylation of PLD1 which was attenuated by NBMI; (iv) mercury caused loss of intracellular glutathione which was restored by NBMI; and (v) NBMI and FIPI attenuated mercury- and oxidant-induced cytotoxicity in MAECs. For the first time, this study demonstrated that redox-dependent and PLD-mediated bioactive lipid signaling was involved in mercury-induced vascular EC cytotoxicity which was protected by NBMI and FIPI. PMID:21994240

  11. Analyse des intensits et filtrage des nergies en mission lectronique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, P.; Blaise, G.; Henry, L.

    1991-10-01

    A different method for using a dispersive system consisting of a magnetic prism and an electrostatic mirror is proposed. This method allows one to study electron intensities and energies coming from the surface of a sample which has been bombarded by an electron beam of a given energy. Le systme dispersif constitu d'un prisme magntique et d'un miroir lectrostatique, utilis jusqu' prsent en microscopie lectronique par transmission pour l'analyse et le filtrage des nergies des lectrons transmis travers une couche mince, peut tre adapt pour constituer une nouvelle mthode d'tude des intensits et des nergies des lectrons diffuss par la surface d'un chantillon bombard par un faisceau d'lectrons d'nergie choisie.

  12. REXPO: A catchment model designed to understand and simulate the loss dynamics of plant protection products and biocides from agricultural and urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmer, I. K.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Stamm, C.

    2016-02-01

    During rain events, biocides and plant protection products are transported from agricultural fields but also from urban sources to surface waters. Originally designed to be biologically active, these compounds may harm organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Although several models allow either urban or agricultural storm events to be predicted, only few combine these two sources, and none of them include biocide losses from building envelopes. This study therefore aims to develop a model designed to predict water and substance flows from urban and agricultural sources to surface waters. We developed a model based on physical principles for water percolation and substance flow including micro- (also called matrix-) and macropore-flows for the agricultural areas together with a model representing sources, sewer systems and a wastewater treatment plant for urban areas. In a second step, the combined model was applied to a catchment where an extensive field study had been conducted. The modelled and measured discharge and compound results corresponded reasonably well in terms of quantity and dynamics. The total cumulative discharge was only slightly lower than the total measured discharge (factor 0.94). The total modelled losses of the agriculturally used herbicide atrazine were slightly lower (∼25%) than the measured losses when the soil pore water distribution coefficient (describing the partition between soil particles and pore water) (Kd) was kept constant and slightly higher if it was increased with time. The modelled urban losses of diuron from facades were within a factor of three with respect to the measured values. The results highlighted the change in importance of the flow components during a rain event from urban sources during the most intensive rain period towards agricultural ones over a prolonged time period. Applications to two other catchments, one neighbouring and one on another continent showed that the model can be applied using site specific data for land use, pesticide application, weather and literature data for soil related parameters such as saturated water content, hydraulic conductivity or lateral distances of the drainage pipes without any further calibration of parameters. This is a promising basis for using the model in a wide range of catchments.

  13. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The East Fork Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  14. [And Sarah Félix created "L 'Eau des Fées" and "La Parfumerie des Fées"].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    century, the parisian perfumery of Sarah Felix was famous especially for her cosmetic "L'Eau des Fées" ("Water of the Fairies"), a dyeing supposed to give back to the old hair the color of their youth. Sarah Felix, sister of the famous actress Rachel, exercised several jobs before becoming perfumer. At first, she was actress, then she tried ... oyster culture in Normandy ! Abandoning these activities, Sarah Felix became really a businesswoman in Paris. She dedicated herself to perfumery, in particular to "L'Eau des Fées", from 1866. To launch its product, she was associated to competency characters (engineer, pharmacist, physician) and benefited from the protection of the imperial family. A lawsuit between the associates and the 1870 war hindered the company's early days, but "L'Eau des Fées" provided with quality pledges, imposed itself definitely. The "Parfumerie des Fées" completed the range of its cosmetics with creams, powders, etc. Sarah Félix paid attention to present "L'Eau des Fées" as a dye devoid of toxicity. Was it really the case and could il be sold nowadays? These two issues are discussed in the last part. PMID:26827551

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-TIERED INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED CORN HYBRIDS EXPRESSING THE PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANT, BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant increase in genetically modified corn planting driven by biofuel demand is expected for the 2007 growing season with future planted acreages approaching 80% of total corn plantings anticipated by 2009. As demand increases, incidence of farmer non-compliance with ma...

  16. La participation des enfants et des adolescents la boxe

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Laura K; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    RSUM Des milliers de garons et de filles de moins de 19 ans font de la boxe en Amrique du Nord. Mme si la boxe comporte des avantages pour ceux qui y participent, y compris lexercice, lautodiscipline et la confiance en soi, le sport lui-mme favorise et rcompense des coups dlibrs la tte et au visage. Les personnes qui font de la boxe risquent de subir des blessures la tte, au visage et au cou, y compris des traumatismes neurologiques chroniques et mme fatals. Les commotions crbrales sont lune des principales blessures causes par la boxe. En raison du risque de blessures crniennes et faciales, la Socit canadienne de pdiatrie et lAmerican Academy of Pediatrics sopposent vigoureusement la boxe comme activit sportive pour les enfants et les adolescents. Ces organismes recommandent que les mdecins slvent contre la boxe auprs des jeunes et les encouragent participer dautres activits dans lesquelles les coups intentionnels la tte ne constituent pas un lment essentiel du sport.

  17. Mecanique et mecanisme de la dechirure des materiaux textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triki, Ennouri

    Cette thèse vise à apporter une contribution à l’étude et à la modélisation de la déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits. Notons que la résistance à la déchirure est l’une des caractéristiques mesurées pour les équipements de protection contre les agresseurs mécaniques en milieu de travail. Jusqu'à présent, ce comportement en déchirure a été étudié en mesurant la force de déchirure et le travail de déchirure. De fait, aucun critère de rupture en déchirure n’existe actuellement. Par conséquent, en s’inspirant de la théorie du Griffith et de la mécanique de la rupture, une formulation d’un nouveau critère de rupture des structures textiles a été proposée. Cette approche offre la possibilité de déterminer d’une manière plus précise l’énergie nécessaire pour la création d’une nouvelle surface de rupture. Ce critère nous permet d’analyser l’effet des caractéristiques des tissus sur la variation de l’énergie de rupture. Cette étude montre que la résistance au glissement des fils dans la structure est le principal facteur qui contrôle la propagation de la fissure. En se basant sur la théorie de la mécanique de la rupture, un modèle de calcul de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a été aussi élaboré. Ce modèle de déchirure relie l’énergie aux paramètres caractérisant les phénomènes affectant la déchirure des tissus, notamment la force de glissement et la force à la rupture des fils. Cette modélisation a tenu compte de certaines caractéristiques des tissus tels que l’épaisseur du matériau, la densité des fils, etc. Par l’étude de la variation de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure en fonction du rapport établi entre la force à la rupture et la force de glissement d’un fil ( FYB/FS), l’effet des mécanismes de la propagation de la fissure dans les tissus sur leur comportement en déchirure a été aussi observé. Les résultats obtenus permettent de distinguer deux différentes catégories de déchirure. Pour les basses densités des fils, la fissure se propage dans le tissu par glissement des fils, alors que pour les hautes densités des fils, la déchirure est obtenue par la rupture des fils. Ainsi, il est important de noter que l’énergie de rupture par déchirure des tissus est maximale lorsque le rapport FYB/FS est proche de l’unité. En ce qui a trait à la déchirure des textiles enduits, la propagation de la fissure est obtenue par déchirure du support textile et de l’enduit de manière simultanée ainsi que par le délaminage du système textile-enduit. La définition d’un critère de rupture pour les textiles enduits nous a permis de constater que l’enduction d’un support textile par une couche d’élastomère engendre une diminution de son énergie de rupture. En outre, l’étude de la déchirure du support textile, de l’enduit et des textiles enduits a montré que l’énergie obtenue pour la couche de l’enduit est très faible si nous la comparons avec celles du support textile et du textile enduit. L’étude de l’effet du vieillissement sur l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a aussi fait l’objet de cette thèse. L’exposition des textiles enduits à différentes températures de vieillissement montre que le comportement en déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits est similaire pour les durées les plus faibles. Par contre, une accélération de la réduction de la résistance à la déchirure est observée pour les textiles enduits aux temps de vieillissement plus élevés. Ce phénomène peut éventuellement être attribué à une augmentation de l’adhésion du système textile-enduit suite au traitement de vieillissement. La diminution de la mobilité des fils ainsi engendrée cause alors une importante chute de la valeur de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure. Mots clés : Textiles, Textiles enduits, Énergie de rupture, Modélisation, Vieillissement thermique.

  18. A propos des divergences en thorie des champs quantifis [83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comme nous le montrons ailleurs1), la causalit impose la matrice S qui dcrit l'volution d'un systme une structure bien dtermine : lorsqu'on dveloppe celle-ci suivant les oprateurs de translation dans l'espace des quanta, les coefficients S^{(i)} left[ {tau ''; u''../tau '; u' \\cdot \\cdot } right] sont des intgrales multiples o n'apparaissent, cOt des champs lis un seul point de l'espace temps, que les functions*): D^c (x/y) = D^s (x/y) + _2^i D^1 (x/y) x ne y

  19. Les Applications Therapeutiques Des Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetaud, J. M.; Mordon, S.; Bourez, J.; Mosquet, L.; Moschetto, Y.

    1984-03-01

    C'est de tres loin le mecanisme predominant dans les applications therapeutiques du laser. En concentrant le flux lumineux sur une surface redui-te, le laser chauffe localement les tissus qui se retractent (coagulation) pour etre elimines ensuite (detersion) ; si on chauffe plus intensement, les tissus peuvent etre volatilises. La coagulation est utilisee soit pour detruire de petits phenomenes tumoraux qui seront elimines lors du processus de detersion, soit pour arreter une hemorragie (hemo-stase) ; dans ce cas la retraction thermique des tissus va provoquer la fermeture de la lumiere des vaisseaux qui seront secondairement obliteres par des caillots formes sur place (thrombose). Par volatilisation it est possible de detruire des phenomenes tumoraux plus importants que ceux at-teints lors d'une simple coagulation. Si la zone volatilisee est tres etroite (de 0,1 a 1 mm) on obtient un effet de coupe avec une excellente hemostase au niveau des berges. Certes ces deux processus - coagulation et volatilisation - peuvent etre obtenus par d'autres procedes : echauffement par contact (sonde thermique) ou effet Joule (courant electrique haute frequence). Le laser a l'avantage de ne necessiter aucun contact mecanique entre le vecteur d'energie et les tissus ; on peut alors predire correctement la repartition d'energie au niveau des tissus et les effets sont tres repro-ductibles. Par ailleurs, l'absorption tissulaire variant considerablement avec la longueur d'onde on peut choisir la source laser en fonction des effets desires.

  20. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  1. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  2. Protection via parasitism: Datura odors attract parasitoid flies, which inhibit Manduca larvae from feeding and growing but may not help plants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J K; Woods, H A

    2015-12-01

    Insect carnivores frequently use olfactory cues from plants to find prey or hosts. For plants, the benefits of attracting parasitoids have been controversial, partly because parasitoids often do not kill their host insect immediately. Furthermore, most research has focused on the effects of solitary parasitoids on growth and feeding of hosts, even though many parasitoids are gregarious (multiple siblings inhabit the same host). Here, we examine how a gregarious parasitoid, the tachinid fly Drino rhoeo, uses olfactory cues from the host plant Datura wrightii to find the sphingid herbivore Manduca sexta, and how parasitism affects growth and feeding of host larvae. In behavioral trials using a Y-olfactometer, female flies were attracted to olfactory cues emitted by attacked plants and by cues emitted from the frass produced by larval Manduca sexta. M. sexta caterpillars that were parasitized by D. rhoeo grew to lower maximum weights, grew more slowly, and ate less of their host plant. We also present an analytical model to predict how tri-trophic interactions change with varying herbivory levels, parasitization rates and plant sizes. This model predicted that smaller plants gain a relatively greater benefit compared to large plants in attracting D. rhoeo. By assessing the behavior, the effects of host performance, and the variation in ecological parameters of the system, we can better understand the complex interactions between herbivorous insects, the plants they live on and the third trophic level members that attack them. PMID:26298191

  3. Vecteurs Singuliers des Theories des Champs Conformes Minimales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Louis

    En 1984 Belavin, Polyakov et Zamolodchikov revolutionnent la theorie des champs en explicitant une nouvelle gamme de theories, les theories quantiques des champs bidimensionnelles invariantes sous les transformations conformes. L'algebre des transformations conformes de l'espace-temps presente une caracteristique remarquable: en deux dimensions elle possede un nombre infini de generateurs. Cette propriete impose de telles conditions aux fonctions de correlations qu'il est possible de les evaluer sans aucune approximation. Les champs des theories conformes appartiennent a des representations de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Virasoro, une extension centrale de l'algebre conforme du plan. Ces representations sont etiquetees par h, le poids conforme de leur vecteur de plus haut poids, et par la charge centrale c, le facteur de l'extension centrale, commune a toutes les representations d'une meme theorie. Les theories conformes minimales sont constituees d'un nombre fini de representations. Parmi celles-ci se trouvent des theories unitaires dont les representation forment la serie discrete de l'algebre de Virasoro; leur poids h a la forme h_{p,q}(m)=[ (p(m+1) -qm)^2-1] (4m(m+1)), ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs et p+q<= m+1. L'entier m parametrise la charge centrale: c(m)=1 -{6over m(m+1)} avec n>= 2. Ces representations possedent un sous-espace invariant engendre par deux sous-representations avec h_1=h_{p,q} + pq et h_2=h_{p,q} + (m-p)(m+1-q) dont chacun des vecteurs de plus haut poids portent le nom de vecteur singulier et sont notes respectivement |Psi _{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+1-q}>. . Les theories super-conformes sont une version super-symetrique des theories conformes. Leurs champs appartiennent a des representation de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz, une des deux extensions super -symetriques de l'algebre de Virasoro. Les theories super -conformes minimales possedent la meme structure que les theories conformes minimales. Les representations sont elements de la serie h_{p,q}= [ (p(m+2)-qm)^2-4] /(8m(m+2)) ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs, p et q etant de meme parite, et p+q<= m+2. La charge centrale est donnee par c(m)={3over 2}-{12over m(m+2)} avec m >= 2. Les vecteurs singuliers | Psi_{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+2-q} > sont respectivement de poids h _{p,q}+pq/2 et h_ {p,q}+(m-p)(m+2-q)/2.. Les vecteurs singuliers ont une norme nulle et on doit les eliminer des representations pour que celles -ci soient unitaires. Cette elimination engendrent des equations (super-)differentielles qui dependent directement de la forme explicite des vecteurs singuliers et auxquelles doivent obeir les fonctions de correlations de la theorie. Ainsi la connaissance de ces vecteurs singuliers est intimement reliee au calcul des fonctions de correlation. Les equations definissant les vecteurs singuliers forment un systeme lineaire surdetermine dont le nombre d'equations est de l'ordre de N(pq), le nombre de partitions de l'entier pq. Puisque les vecteurs singuliers jouent un role capital en theorie conforme, il est naturel de chercher des formes explicites pour les vecteurs (ou pour des familles infinies de ceux -ci). Nous donnons ici la forme explicite pour la famille infinie de vecteurs singuliers ayant un de ses indices egal a 1, pour les algebres de Virasoro et de Neveu-Schwarz. Depuis ces decouvertes, d'autres techniques de construction des vecteurs singuliers ont ete developpees, dont celle de Bauer, Di Francesco, Itzykson et Zuber pour l'algebre de Virasoro qui reproduit directement l'expression explicite des vecteurs singuliers |Psi _{1,q}> et |Psi_{p,1}>. Ils ont utilise l'algebre des produits d'operateurs et la fusion entre representations irreductibles pour engendrer des relations de recurence produisant les vecteurs singuliers. Dans le dernier chapitre de cette these nous adaptons cet algorithme a la construction des vecteurs singuliers de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz.

  4. The conserved role of FtsH11 protease in protection of photosynthetic system from high temperature stress in higher plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As sessile organisms, plants employ multiple mechanisms to cope with seasonal and daily temperature fluctuations associated with their habitats. AtFtsH11 protease gene was identified via map-based cloning as essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate high temperatures. There are 12 predi...

  5. Etude de l'effet du vieillissement sur les proprietes d'un tissu en melange KevlarRTM-PBI utilise dans le revetement exterieur des habits de protection contre le feu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, Carlos

    The aim of this work is to study and model the effect of three aging factors, temperature, humidity and light radiation, on the properties of a fabric made of a blend of KevlarRTM and PBI fibers frequently used to manufacture fire-protective garments. Accelarated-aging treatments carried out at carefully chosen conditions for the three factors resulted in a sizeable loss of mechanical performance. The breaking force of both the fabric and the yarns extracted from it decreases to less than 50% after one month of continuous exposure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests performed on thermally-aged samples indicated an increase of the crystallinity of the fabric, whereas the disappearance of Raman spectral lines suggested instead a reduction of the crystallinity following thermal aging. To explain these seemingly contradictory results, a hypothesis was introduced, stating that two different processes occurred simultaneously during thermal aging. The first one, an increase of size of the crystallites in the direction of the fibers' axis, accounted for the increase in crystallinity observed in XRD tests. The second one, an increase in the gap separating lamellar crystallites that causes a non-measurable reduction of the crystallinity of the sample, was highlighted by the Raman analyses. The results of the dielectric spectroscopy analyses carried out on thermally-aged samples confirmed the XRD results showing a significant change in the Kevlar's morphology during thermal aging. Despite the important decrease of the breaking force that ensued thermal aging, no evidence of a chemical structure modification of KevlarRTM was found. On the other hand, differential thermal analyses conducted on thermally aged fabric samples indicated a reduction of the glass transition temperature of the other component of the blend, namely the PBI, a fact that suggests a decrease of molecular weight after thermal aging. Infrared spectroscopy analyses performed on samples exposed to high humidity levels showed the development of a new absorbing band in the spectrum of aged KevlarRTM yarns. This band was ascribed to the formation of carboxylic acid groups. Based on these results, the humidity aging mechanism was inferred. This mechanism corresponds to the hydrolysis of the amide bond of KevlarRTM catalyzed by an acid. The progress of the hydrolysis reaction was modeled mathematically using the evolution of the concentration of carboxylic acid groups. The mechanism of light radiation aging was also determined from infrared spectroscopy analyses as the absorbing band attributed to the carboxylic acid groups was once again observed. In the case of light radiation, the degradation mechanism corresponds to a photo-oxidation reaction initiated by the photolysis of the amide bond of KevlarRTM. The accumulation of Photo-Fries products on the surface of yarns is believed to slow down of the oxidation reaction, as indicated by the overlapping of breaking force vs. aging time curves for the light-radiation aged samples. Expressions based on the Arrhenius law were used to characterize both the thermal and hydrolytic aging, whereas an expression taking into account the irradiance as well as the temperature was used to model the light radiation aging. The global damage produced by the joint action of the three aging factors was modeled after Palmgren-Miner's linear cumulative damage theory.

  6. A DES ASIC Suitable for Network Encryption at 10 Gbps and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Gass, Karl; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Robertson, Perry J.; Wilcox, D. Craig; Witzke, Edward L.

    1999-04-30

    The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Data Encryption Standard (DES) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is the fastest known implementation of the DES algorithm as defined in the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Publication 46-2. DES is used for protecting data by cryptographic means. The SNL DES ASIC, over 10 times faster than other currently available DES chips, is a high-speed, filly pipelined implementation offering encryption, decryption, unique key input, or algorithm bypassing on each clock cycle. Operating beyond 105 MHz on 64 bit words, this device is capable of data throughputs greater than 6.7 Billion bits per second (tester limited). Simulations predict proper operation up to 9.28 Billion bits per second. In low frequency, low data rate applications, the ASIC consumes less that one milliwatt of power. The device has features for passing control signals synchronized to throughput data. Three SNL DES ASICS may be easily cascaded to provide the much greater security of triple-key, triple-DES.

  7. Peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Parida, S; Muniraju, M; Mahapatra, M; Muthuchelvan, D; Buczkowski, H; Banyard, A C

    2015-12-14

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  8. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  9. Diffusion incohrente des neutrons : modles analytiques pour la dynamique interne des protines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicout, D. J.

    2005-11-01

    La dynamique interne des protines joue un rle central dans la stabilit, la fonction et l'activit biologique de ces biomolcules. Il est maintenant tabli que les fluctuations d'tats conformationnels des protines influencent fortement la plupart des ractions biochimiques et s'accompagnent d'une augmentation brutale des dplacements carrs moyens des atomes au dessus de la temprature de la transition dynamique. Dans cette contribution, nous prsentons une revue critique de quelques modles thoriques couramment utiliss dans la littrature pour l'analyse des mouvements internes des protines et la description de la transition dynamique.

  10. Exploration des mcanismes de repliement des protines par dynamique molculaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilquin, B.

    2005-11-01

    Comment se replient les protines? Cette question est ancienne. En introduction nous rappellerons ce qu'est le paradoxe de Levinthal et comment on est pass de la notion de chemin de repliement la notion de paysage nergtique. Les simulations de dynamique molculaire ont permis d'aborder la comprhension du processus de repliement au niveau atomique. Cependant l'chelle de temps des processus de repliement (de l'ordre de la milliseconde) n'est pas accessible aux simulations numriques (de l'ordre de la nanoseconde). Plusieurs auteurs ont donc propos de simuler le dpliement des protines par dynamique molculaire. En admettant le principe de micro-rversibilit l'tude du processus de dpliement renseigne sur celui de repliement. Cependant, il est ncessaire d'acclrer le dpliement en introduisant un biais afin que les tats dplies soient accessibles aux chelles de temps des simulations. Nous prsenterons un exemple de ce qui a t ralise dans le cas de l'tude de protines de petite taille suivant un repliement simple, globalement deux tats. Nous prsenterons ensuite ce que nous avons ralis dans le cas d'une protine de taille plus importante et pour laquelle le processus de repliement est plus complexe car il existe un intermdiaire transitoire de repliement. C'est le cas du lysozyme pour lequel les simulations de dpliement permettent d'accder au mcanisme atomique de repliement et de comprendre pourquoi des mutants de cette protine se replient plus lentement et forment des fibres amylodiques. Ainsi les intermdiaires de repliement seraient l'origine de formes pathognes des protines observes dans les maladies neuro-dgneratives. Enfin nous montrerons comment partir de plusieurs simulations longues de dynamique molculaire, le paysage nergtique pour de petites protines peut tre calcul.

  11. Ephmrides astronomiques 2011 : Connaissance des Temps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau Des Longitudes (Bdl); Institut de Mcanique Cleste Et de Calcul Des Ephmrides (Imcce); Observatoire de Paris

    2011-12-01

    Cet ouvrage d'phmrides destin aux astronomes, aux professeurs et aux tudiants est divis en deux parties. Il donne les positions des astres pour l'anne 2011. Le livre prsente l'tat actuel des connaissances sur les bases et les explications de calculs des phmrides puis donne sous forme d'phmrides tabules les donnes permettant d'obtenir la position des astres observer. En utilisant le CD-ROM, l'utilisateur peut prparer ses observations.

  12. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  17. Deriving site-specific clean-up criteria to protect ecological receptors (plants and soil invertebrates) exposed to metal or metalloid soil contaminants via the direct contact exposure pathway

    PubMed Central

    Checkai, Ron; Van Genderen, Eric; Sousa, Jos Paulo; Stephenson, Gladys; Smolders, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Soil contaminant concentration limits for the protection of terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates are commonly based on thresholds derived using data from laboratory ecotoxicity tests. A comprehensive assessment has been made for the derivation of ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States; however, these limits are conservative because of their focus on high bioavailability scenarios. Here, we explain and evaluate approaches to soil limit derivation taken by 4 jurisdictions, 2 of which allow for correction of data for factors affecting bioavailability among soils, and between spiked and field-contaminated soils (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH] Regulation, European Union [EU], and the National Environment Protection Council [NEPC], Australia). Scientifically advanced features from these methods have been integrated into a newly developed method for deriving soil clean-up values (SCVs) within the context of site-specific baseline ecological risk assessment. Resulting site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability may permit a greater residual concentration in soil when compared to generic screening limit concentrations (e.g., Eco-SSL), while still affording acceptable protection. Two choices for selecting the level of protection are compared (i.e., allowing higher effect levels per species, or allowing a higher percentile of species that are potentially unprotected). Implementation of this new method is presented for the jurisdiction of the United States, with a focus on metal and metalloid contaminants; however, the new method can be used in any jurisdiction. A case study for molybdate shows the large effect of bioavailability corrections and smaller effects of protection level choices when deriving SCVs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:346357. PMID:24470189

  18. Deriving site-specific clean-up criteria to protect ecological receptors (plants and soil invertebrates) exposed to metal or metalloid soil contaminants via the direct contact exposure pathway.

    PubMed

    Checkai, Ron; Van Genderen, Eric; Sousa, Jos Paulo; Stephenson, Gladys; Smolders, Erik

    2014-07-01

    Soil contaminant concentration limits for the protection of terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates are commonly based on thresholds derived using data from laboratory ecotoxicity tests. A comprehensive assessment has been made for the derivation of ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States; however, these limits are conservative because of their focus on high bioavailability scenarios. Here, we explain and evaluate approaches to soil limit derivation taken by 4 jurisdictions, 2 of which allow for correction of data for factors affecting bioavailability among soils, and between spiked and field-contaminated soils (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH] Regulation, European Union [EU], and the National Environment Protection Council [NEPC], Australia). Scientifically advanced features from these methods have been integrated into a newly developed method for deriving soil clean-up values (SCVs) within the context of site-specific baseline ecological risk assessment. Resulting site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability may permit a greater residual concentration in soil when compared to generic screening limit concentrations (e.g., Eco-SSL), while still affording acceptable protection. Two choices for selecting the level of protection are compared (i.e., allowing higher effect levels per species, or allowing a higher percentile of species that are potentially unprotected). Implementation of this new method is presented for the jurisdiction of the United States, with a focus on metal and metalloid contaminants; however, the new method can be used in any jurisdiction. A case study for molybdate shows the large effect of bioavailability corrections and smaller effects of protection level choices when deriving SCVs. PMID:24470189

  19. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) COMPLEX TERRAIN MODEL DEVELOPMENT: DESCRIPTION OF A COMPUTER DATA BASE FROM THE FULL SCALE PLUME STUDY, TRACY POWER PLANT, NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the EPA's Complex Terrain Model Development Program, the Full Scale Study was conducted at the Tracy Power Plant near Reno, Nevada. SO6 tracer gas and oil-fog particles were injected into the base of a 91.4 smokestack, and CF3Br tracer was released from one of three le...

  20. The antagonistic strain Bacillus subtilis UMAF6639 also confers protection to melon plants against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate-and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses

    PubMed Central

    García-Gutiérrez, Laura; Zeriouh, Houda; Romero, Diego; Cubero, Jaime; Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Biological control of plant diseases has gained acceptance in recent years. Bacillus subtilis UMAF6639 is an antagonistic strain specifically selected for the efficient control of the cucurbit powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera fusca, which is a major threat to cucurbits worldwide. The antagonistic activity relies on the production of the antifungal compounds iturin and fengycin. In a previous study, we found that UMAF6639 was able to induce systemic resistance (ISR) in melon and provide additional protection against powdery mildew. In the present work, we further investigated in detail this second mechanism of biocontrol by UMAF6639. First, we examined the signalling pathways elicited by UMAF6639 in melon plants, as well as the defence mechanisms activated in response to P. fusca. Second, we analysed the role of the lipopeptides produced by UMAF6639 as potential determinants for ISR activation. Our results demonstrated that UMAF6639 confers protection against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate- and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses, which include the production of reactive oxygen species and cell wall reinforcement. We also showed that surfactin lipopeptide is a major determinant for stimulation of the immune response. These results reinforce the biotechnological potential of UMAF6639 as a biological control agent. PMID:23302493

  1. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  2. Classification of 4 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, K.; Amon, A.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  3. Classification of 15 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Gshwend, Julia; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  4. Classification of 3 DES Supernovae with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  5. Classification of 14 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Mould, J.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  6. Classification of 6 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G. F.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Martini, P.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  7. Operational experience and performance characteristics of a valve-regulated lead-acid battery energy-storage system for providing the customer with critical load protection and energy-management benefits at a lead-recycling plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, G. W.

    The Power Control Division of GNB Technologies, commissioned on May 13, 1996 a new facility which houses a 5-MW battery energy-storage system (BESS) at GNB's Lead Recycling Centre in Vernon, CA. When the plant loses utility power (which typically happens two or three times a year), the BESS will provide up to 5 MW of power at 4160 VAC in support of all the plant loads. Since the critical loads are not isolated, it is necessary to carry the entire plant load (maximum of 5 MVA) for a short period immediately following an incident until non-critical loads have been automatically shed. Plant loading typically peaks at 3.5 MVA with critical loads of about 2.1 MVA. The BESS also provides the manufacturing plant with customer-side-of-the-meter energy management options to reduce its energy demand during peak periods of the day. The BESS has provided a reduction in monthly electric bills through daily peak-shaving. By design, the battery can provide up to 2.5 MWh of energy and still retain 2.5 MWh of capacity in reserve to handle the possibility of a power outage in protecting the critical loads for up to 1 h. By storing energy from the utility during off-peak hours of the night in the batteries when the cost is low (US4.5 per kWh), GNB can then discharge this energy during high demand periods of the day (US14.50 per kW). For example, by reducing its peak demand by 300 kW, the lead-recycling centre can save over US4000 per month in its electric bills. The BESS at Vernon represents a first large-scale use of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in such a demanding application. This paper presents a summary of the operational experience and performance characteristics of the BESS over the past 2 years.

  8. Transport quantique dans des nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C.

    2002-09-01

    Quantum transport in nanostructures This work is devoted to the design, fabrication and magnetotransport investigations of mesoscopic devices. The sample are obtain by e-beam lithography and the measurements are performed at low temperature in a dilution refrigerator in the presence of a magnetic field. We have used MBE grown AlGaAs/GaAs heterojonctions as starting material to fabricate a bipartite tiling of rhombus called mathcal{T}3 lattice. We observe for the first time large amplitude h/e oscillations in this network as compared to the one measured in square lattices of similar size. These oscillations are the signature of a recently predited localization phenomenon induced by Aharonov-Bohm interferences on this peculiar topology. For particular values of the magnetic field the propagation of the electron wave function is bounded in a small number of cells, called Aharonov-Bohm cages. More strikingly, at high magnetic field, h/2e oscillations appear whose amplitude can be much higher than the fundamental period. Their temperature dependence is similar to that of the h/e signal. These observations withdraw a simple interpretation in terms of harmonics generation. The origin of this phenomenon is still unclear and needs more investigations. The influence electrical width of the wire defining the network and so the rule of the number of channels can be studied using a gate deposited over the lattice. In particular we have measured the amplitude dependence of the h/e and h/2e signal versus the gate voltage. Ce travail est consacr la ralisation d'chantillons msoscopiques partir de la lithographie lectronique ainsi qu' leur caractrisation trs basse temprature en magntotransport. Nous avons pour cela exploit le gaz bidimensionnel d'lectrons situ l'interface d'une htrojonction AlGaAs/GaAs pour raliser un rseau de boucle d'une gomtrie particulire baptise la gomtrie mathcal{T}3. Nous avons observ sur cette structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magntique de priode h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesure sur un rseau carr de mme dimension. Cette diffrence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magntique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spcifiques du champ magntique, du fait des interfrences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limite un ensemble fini de cellule du rseau appel cage. De la dpendance en temprature des oscillations de priode h/e mesures sur le rseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tir une longueur caractristique qui peut tre rattache au primtre des cages. Un phnomne inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magntiques plus importants, d'un doublement de frquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de priode h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude suprieure aux oscillations de priode h/e, une interprtation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur lectrique des fils constituant le rseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a t tudie en ralisant des grilles lectrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont t mesurs.

  9. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Appendix D. Impact assessment. [Demonstration plant at Newman, KY

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-21

    In appendix D, the air quality condition for various pollutants in the areas surrounding the proposed demonstration plant site is given with respect to attainment or non-attainment of US EPA regulations. The minimum pollutant emission rates for these regulated and for several other pollutants are given. Then the estimated emission rates from the proposed plant are given for a dozen pollutants which exceed these limits and therefore require an ambient air quality analysis. This involves taking into account the estimated emission of these pollutants from the proposed plant and from other sources in the surrounding area. Finally, background data from the surrounding area including meteorological data and sampling of regulated pollutants are given. (LTN)

  10. Fire Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Avco has drawn upon its heat shield experience to develop a number of widely-accepted commercial fire protection materials. Originating from NASA's space shuttle thermal protection system, one such material is Chartek 59 fireproofing, an intumescent epoxy coating specifically designed for outdoor use by industrial facilities dealing with highly flammable products such as oil refineries and chemical plants. The coating is applied usually by spray gun to exterior structural steel conduits, pipes and valves, offshore platforms and liquefied petroleum gas tanks. Fireproofing provides two types of protection: ablation or dissipation of heat by burn-off and "intumescence" or swelling; the coating swells to about five times its original size, forming a protective blanket of char which retards transfer of heat to the metal structure preventing loss of structural strength and possible collapse which would compound the fire fighting problem.

  11. Anti-Apoptotic Machinery Protects the Necrotrophic Fungus Botrytis cinerea from Host-Induced Apoptotic-Like Cell Death during Plant Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shlezinger, Neta; Minz, Anna; Gur, Yonatan; Hatam, Ido; Dagdas, Yasin F.; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Sharon, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Necrotrophic fungi are unable to occupy living plant cells. How such pathogens survive first contact with living host tissue and initiate infection is therefore unclear. Here, we show that the necrotrophic grey mold fungus Botrytis cinerea undergoes massive apoptotic-like programmed cell death (PCD) following germination on the host plant. Manipulation of an anti-apoptotic gene BcBIR1 modified fungal response to PCD-inducing conditions. As a consequence, strains with reduced sensitivity to PCD were hyper virulent, while strains in which PCD was over-stimulated showed reduced pathogenicity. Similarly, reduced levels of PCD in the fungus were recorded following infection of Arabidopsis mutants that show enhanced susceptibility to B. cinerea. When considered together, these results suggest that Botrytis PCD machinery is targeted by plant defense molecules, and that the fungal anti-apoptotic machinery is essential for overcoming this host-induced PCD and hence, for establishment of infection. As such, fungal PCD machinery represents a novel target for fungicides and antifungal drugs. PMID:21876671

  12. [Mechanisms of respiratory system lesions in chemical plant workers of the environmental protection department in comparison with workers of pesticide producing departments].

    PubMed

    Kossmann, Stefan; Friedek, Daniela; Grabowska-Bochenek, Rozalia; Kłuciński, Piotr; Konieczny, Bogusław; Kopieczna-Grzebieniak, Ewa; Kotrys-Puchalska, Elzbieta; Piskorska, Danuta; Sobczak, Andrzej; Tustanowski, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    In chemical plant workers producing pesticides chronic bronchitis and disturbed pulmonary ventilation are frequent. The aim of the examination of the staff (sewage-treatment plant, waste combustion plant, waste storage, industrial water pumping station)--16 males aged 21-53 years--was to assess: 1. Connective tissue metabolism--serum concentration of type I and III procollagen propeptides, collagen I telopeptide, hydroxyproline, alpha1-AP and alpha2-M antiproteases, interstitial collagenase (MMP-1) activity, as well as urine hydroxyproline and desmosine. 2. Free radical damage--serum malonic dialdehyde (TBARS) and ceruloplasmin concentration, erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity (SOD, catalase, GPx, GR), and neutrophils myeloperoxidase reaction. 3. Humoral (serum IgG, A and M, C3 complement component and the circulating immune complexes) and cellular (percentage of CD3, CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes) immunity rates. As compared to controls the following changes were found: 1. decreased MMP-1 activity and increased alpha2-M serum concentration; 2. increased erythrocyte SOD and GPx activities; 3. decreased percentage of T lymphocytes (CD3), increased serum concentration of the C3 complement component and the circulating immune complexes. The results were compared with those in workers of the departments producing liquid pesticides, dust pesticides and chlorfenvinphose, the changes of the investigated parameters were found to be less expressed. PMID:15682947

  13. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le mridien terrestre, 200 ans aprs". Cette publication annuelle fournit des phmrides et des donnes l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Compose de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les diffrents calendriers et leurs concordance, les ftes lgales en France, les dates et dcrets sur les heures lgales en France mtropolitaine ; une introduction l'astronomie fondamentale et aux diffrentes chelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des phmrides ; des tables fournissent les phmrides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de plantes, de satellites naturels, d'astrodes, de comtes, d'toiles brillantes ; des donnes pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des plantes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prdictions des phnomnes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astrodes et appulses, clipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnes des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier thmatique sur un sujet d'actulait, pour cette anne : "Legendre et le mridien terrestre, 200 ans aprs".

  14. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I Demonstruation Plant, Newman, Kentucky. Appendix B. Best available control technology (BACT) proposals. [Demonstration plant at Newman, KY

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-21

    The best available control technology (BACT) proposals for the following areas of the SRC-I demonstration plant are described: coal preparation and handling, SRC process and deashing, coke and liquid fuels (control of particles and hydrocarbon vapors), cryogenic systems and fuel gas purification (including sulfur recovery system and venting of gaseous wastes). (LTN)

  15. Plant Regulatory Organizations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Plant Regulatory Organizations is part of a book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. It covers the role of plant regulatory organizations from the international to state level in protecting plant health. At on...

  16. L'astronomie des Anciens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2009-04-01

    Quelle que soit la civilisation à laquelle il appartient, l'être humain cherche dans le ciel des réponses aux questions qu'il se pose sur son origine, son avenir et sa finalité. Le premier mérite de ce livre est de nous rappeler que l'astronomie a commencé ainsi à travers les mythes célestes imaginés par les Anciens pour expliquer l'ordre du monde et la place qu'ils y occupaient. Mais les savoirs astronomiques passés étaient loin d'être négligeables et certainement pas limités aux seuls travaux des Grecs : c'est ce que l'auteur montre à travers une passionnante enquête, de Stonehenge à Gizeh en passant par Pékin et Mexico, fondée sur l'étude des monuments anciens et des sources écrites encore accessibles. Les tablettes mésopotamiennes, les annales chinoises, les chroniques médiévales, etc. sont en outre d'une singulière utilité pour les astronomes modernes : comment sinon remonter aux variations de la durée du jour au cours des siècles, ou percer la nature de l'explosion qui a frappé tant d'observateurs en 1054 ? Ce livre offre un voyage magnifiquement illustré à travers les âges, entre astronomie et archéologie.

  17. Insider protection

    SciTech Connect

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-07-01

    The government community is broadly addressing the insider threat. The first section of this paper defines protection approaches and the latter sections present various applicable technology developments. The bulk of the paper discusses technology developments applied to (1) personnel and material tracking and inventory, (2) classified document protection, and (3) protecting security systems. The personnel and material tracking system uses a PC based-host to (1) collect information from proximity tags and material movement sensors, (2) apply rules to this input to assure that the ongoing activity meets the site selectable rules and, (3) forward the results to either an automated inventory system or an alarm system. The document protection system uses a PC network to efficiently and securely control classified material which is stored on write-once-read-mostly optical media. The protection of sensor to multiplexer communications in a security system is emphasized in the discussion of protecting security systems.

  18. A without-prejudice list of generic names of fungi for protection under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Paul M; Stalpers, Joost A; Braun, Uwe; Crous, Pedro W; Hansen, Karen; Hawksworth, David L; Hyde, Kevin D; Lcking, Robert; Lumbsch, Thorsten H; Rossman, Amy Y; Seifert, Keith A; Stadler, Mark

    2013-12-01

    As a first step towards the production of a List of Protected Generic Names for Fungi, a without-prejudice list is presented here as a basis for future discussion and the production of a List for formal adoption. We include 6995 generic names out of the 17072 validly published names proposed for fungi and invite comments from all interested mycologists by 31 March 2014. The selection of names for inclusion takes note of recent major publications on different groups of fungi, and further the decisions reached so far by international working groups concerned with particular families or genera. Changes will be sought in the Code to provide for this and lists at other ranks to be protected against any competing unlisted names, and to permit the inclusion of names of lichen-forming fungi. A revised draft will be made available for further discussion at the 10(th) International Mycological Congress in Bangkok in August 2014. A schedule is suggested for the steps needed to produce a list for adoption by the International Botanical Congress in August 2017. This initiative provides mycologists with an opportunity to place nomenclature at the generic level on a more secure and stable base. PMID:24563844

  19. Integration des sciences et de la langue: Creation et experimentation d'un modele pedagogique pour ameliorer l'apprentissage des sciences en milieu francophone minoritaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Marianne

    Les faibles resultats en sciences des eleves du milieu francophone minoritaire, lors d'epreuves au plan national et international, ont interpelle la recherche de solutions. Cette these avait pour but de creer et d'experimenter un modele pedagogique pour l'enseignement des sciences en milieu linguistique minoritaire. En raison de la presence de divers degres de francite chez la clientele scolaire de ce milieu, plusieurs elements langagiers (l'ecriture, la discussion et la lecture) ont ete integres a l'apprentissage scientifique. Nous avions recommande de commencer le processus d'apprentissage avec des elements langagiers plutot informels (redaction dans un journal, discussions en dyades...) pour progresser vers des activites langagieres plus formelles (redaction de rapports ou d'explications scientifiques). En ce qui a trait a l'apprentissage scientifique, le modele preconisait une demarche d'evolution conceptuelle d'inspiration socio-constructiviste tout en s'appuyant fortement sur l'apprentissage experientiel. Lors de l'experimentation du modele, nous voulions savoir si celui-ci provoquait une evolution conceptuelle chez les eleves, et si, simultanement, le vocabulaire scientifique de ces derniers s'enrichissait. Par ailleurs, nous cherchions a comprendre comment les eleves vivaient leurs apprentissages dans le cadre de ce modele pedagogique. Une classe de cinquieme annee de l'ecole de Grande-Digue, dans le Sud-est du Nouveau-Brunswick, a participe a la mise a l'essai du modele en etudiant les marais sales locaux. Lors d'entrevues initiales, nous avons remarque que les connaissances des eleves au sujet des marais sales etaient limitees. En effet, s'ils etaient conscients que les marais etaient des lieux naturels, ils ne pouvaient pas necessairement les decrire avec precision. Nous avons egalement constate que les eleves utilisaient surtout des mots communs (plantes, oiseaux, insectes) pour decrire le marais. Les resultats obtenus indiquent que les eleves ont progresse dans leurs conceptions au sujet des marais. A la suite de l'intervention pedagogique, ils peuvent decrire le marais de facon comparable a des scientifiques en mettant a profit des mots scientifiques (spartine alterniflore, detritus, chevalier a pattes jaunes). Selon nous, les apprentissages des eleves s'expliquent surtout par la juxtaposition, dans le modele pedagogique, des elements langagiers avec une demarche de changement conceptuel a caractere experientiel. En effet, lors de cette demarche, les eleves se sont beaucoup questionnes, ont ecrit leurs reflexions, discute de leurs preoccupations et consulte des documents. Ces activites langagieres se sont deroulees directement dans le marais ainsi qu'a la suite de visites dans celui-ci. Ainsi, la possibilite de decouverte a ete reelle pour eux. Ces differents elements se sont combines pour creer une forte motivation. Le tout s'est arrime pour permettre une evolution conceptuelle et langagiere. Le modele pedagogique experimente pourrait ainsi s'averer tres fecond aupres des eleves du milieu linguistique minoritaire.

  20. Transferring cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain coat protein gene into Cucumis melo L. and evaluating transgenic plants for protection against infections

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, C.; Xue, B.; Yepes, M.; Fuchs, M.; Ling, K.; Namba, S. . Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1994-03-01

    A single regeneration procedure using cotyledon examples effectively regenerated five commercially grown muskmelon cultivars. This regeneration scheme was used to facilitate gene transfers using either Agrobacterium tumefaciens or microprojectile bombardment methods. In both cases, the transferred genes were from the T-DNA region of the binary vector plasmid pGA482GG/cp cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain (CMV-WL), which contains genes that encode neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS), and the CMV-WL coat protein (CP). Explants treated with pGA482GG/cpCMV-WL regenerated shoots on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 4.4 [mu]m 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), kanamycin (Km) at 150 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1] and carbenicillin (Cb) at 500 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1]. The authors' comparison of A. tumefaciens- and microprojectile-mediated gene transfer procedures shows that both methods effectively produce nearly the same percentage of transgenic plants. R[sub 0] plants were first tested for GUS or NPT II expression, then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other tests were used to verify the transfer of the NPT II, GUS, and CMV-WL CP genes.

  1. Tornado protection by venting

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability to protect a modern nuclear power plant from the effects of a tornado by the use of a system of venting in all safety-related structures outside of the containment. The paper demonstrates this by presenting a method of analysis and of equipment selection that fully complies with the intent and the letter of applicable federal regulatory guides. A report of an actual tornado in the City of Kalamazoo, Michigan, suggests that the concept of sealing a plant during a tornado may not always be applicable.

  2. Effects of bradykinin and Des-Arg9-bradykinin on the ischemic rat heart.

    PubMed

    Chahine, R; Adam, A; Yamaguchi, N; Nadeau, R

    1992-01-01

    In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30 min stop flow followed by 5 min reperfusion, Bradykinin (Bk), 1 and 0.1 microM, significantly decreased ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, noradrenaline (NA) output at reperfusion as well as myocardial NA loss and lipid peroxidation, and preserved creatine kinase activity. Des-Arg9-Bk 0.1 microM had also similar effects. Hence, the active metabolite des-Arg9-Bk may be involved in the protective action of Bk, partly mediated by its inhibitory effect on NA liberation. PMID:1462852

  3. Classification of DES15S2myz and DES15S2mwz by GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.

    2015-12-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2myz and DES15S2mwz discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectra (495-920nm) were obtained using OSIRIS on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC).

  4. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Jr., John F.

    1981-02-13

    In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

  5. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    SciTech Connect

    Yanochko, Ronald M; Corcoran, Connie

    2012-11-15

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  6. Crystal structures of apo-form and binary/ternary complexes of Podophyllum secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in formation of health-protecting and plant defense lignans.

    PubMed

    Youn, Buhyun; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G; Kang, Chulhee

    2005-04-01

    (-)-Matairesinol is a central biosynthetic intermediate to numerous 8-8'-lignans, including the antiviral agent podophyllotoxin in Podophyllum species and its semi-synthetic anticancer derivatives teniposide, etoposide, and Etopophos. It is formed by action of an enantiospecific secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase, an NAD(H)-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of (-)-secoisolariciresinol. Matairesinol is also a plant-derived precursor of the cancer-preventative "mammalian" lignan or "phytoestrogen" enterolactone, formed in the gut following ingestion of high fiber dietary foodstuffs, for example. Additionally, secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase is involved in pathways to important plant defense molecules, such as plicatic acid in the western red cedar (Thuja plicata) heartwood. To understand the molecular and enantiospecific basis of Podophyllum secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase, crystal structures of the apo-form and binary/ternary complexes were determined at 1.6, 2.8, and 2.0 angstrom resolution, respectively. The enzyme is a homotetramer, consisting of an alpha/beta single domain monomer containing seven parallel beta-strands flanked by eight alpha-helices on both sides. Its overall monomeric structure is similar to that of NAD(H)-dependent short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases, with a conserved Asp47 forming a hydrogen bond with both hydroxyl groups of the adenine ribose of NAD(H), and thus specificity toward NAD(H) instead of NADP(H). The highly conserved catalytic triad (Ser153, Tyr167, and Lys171) is adjacent to both NAD(+) and substrate molecules, where Tyr167 functions as a general base. Following analysis of high resolution structures of the apo-form and two complex forms, the molecular basis for both the enantio-specificity and the reaction mechanism of secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase is discussed and compared with that of pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase. PMID:15653677

  7. Anticipating the spatio-temporal response of plant diversity and vegetation structure to climate and land use change in a protected area

    PubMed Central

    Boulangeat, Isabelle; Georges, Damien; Dentant, Cdric; Bonet, Richard; Van Es, Jrmie; Abdulhak, Sylvain; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation is a key driver of ecosystem functioning (e.g. productivity and stability) and of the maintenance of biodiversity (e.g. creating habitats for other species groups). While vegetation sensitivity to climate change has been widely investgated, its spatio-temporally response to the dual efects of land management and climate change has been ignored at landscape scale. Here we use a dynamic vegetation model called FATE-HD, which describes the dominant vegetation dynamics and associated functional diversity, in order to anticipate vegetation response to climate and land-use changes in both short and long-term perspectives. Using three contrasted management scenarios for the Ecrins National Park (French Alps) developed in collaboration with the park managers, and one regional climate change scenario, we tracked the dynamics of vegetation structure (forest expansion) and functional diversity over 100 years of climate change and a further 400 additional years of stabilization. As expected, we observed a slow upward shift in forest cover distribution, which appears to be severely impacted by pasture management (i.e. maintenance or abandonment). The tme lag before observing changes in vegetation cover was the result of demographic and seed dispersal processes. However, plant diversity response to environmental changes was rapid. Afer land abandonment, local diversity increased and spatial turnover was reduced, whereas local diversity decreased following land use intensification. Interestingly, in the long term, as both climate and management scenarios interacted, the regional diversity declined. Our innovative spatio-temporally explicit framework demonstrates that the vegetation may have contrasting responses to changes in the short and the long term. Moreover, climate and land-abandonment interact extensively leading to a decrease in both regional diversity and turnover in the long term. Based on our simulations we therefore suggest a continuing moderate intensity pasturing to maintain high levels of plant diversity in this system. PMID:25722538

  8. Protecting beans from ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    1983-03-01

    A chemical treatment to protect navy beans from ozone damage increased yields by an average of more than 20% in 3 years of tests. An experimental antioxidant chemical, EDU, made by the DuPont company was tested as soil applications and sprays on several varieties and under a variety of soil and planting conditions. The average yield increases were between 16 and 24%. Chemical treatment also increased snap bean pod production by 12%.

  9. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field. PMID:20919590

  10. Profil pidemio-clinique et radiologique des atteintes osto-articulaires des hmophiles Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Narindra, Lova Hasina Rajaonarison Ny Ony; Rabemanorintsoa, Feno Hasina; Randrianantenaina, Faralahy Ravelonarivo; Rakoto, Olivat Alson Aime; Ahmad, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dterminer le profil pidmio-clinique et radiologique des atteintes osto-articulaires des hmophiles malagasy. Mthodes Une tude prospective, descriptive portant sur 25 patients hmophiles venant de tout Madagascar a t ralise. Des radiographies numrises des genoux, des chevilles et des coudes en incidence de face et de profil ainsi qu'une chographie des hanches, des genoux, des chevilles et des coudes ont t ralises chez ces patients. Le type et la svrit de la maladie ainsi que l'aspect de la cavit articulaire, la synoviale, les noyaux piphysaires et les surfaces articulaires ont t analyss. Rsultats Soixante-huit pourcent des patients taient hmophiles de type A et 32 % de type B. Quarante pourcent taient classs svres, 28 % modrs et 32 % mineurs. Les atteintes osto-articulaires ont t retrouves chez 56 % des patients. Il n'existait pas de prdominance d'atteinte selon le type ni la svrit de la maladie. Les plus jeunes taient les plus atteints et l'articulation du genou et de la cheville taient les plus touches. Conclusion Les complications osto-articulaire de l'hmophilie sont graves et ne dpendent pas du type ni de la svrit de l'affection. Elles touchent surtout les enfants d'ge scolaire. Le couple radiographie-chographie permet de diagnostiquer et de surveiller ces lsions. PMID:25870742

  11. [The role of reactive oxygen species and calcium ions in the implementation of the stress-protective effect of brassinosteroids on plant cells].

    PubMed

    Kolupaev, Iu E; Va?ner, A A; Iastreb, T O; Obozny?, A I; Khripach, V A

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the brassinosteroids (BS) 24-epibrassiniolide and 24-epicastasterone on the thermoresistance of wheat coleoptile (Triticum aestivum L.) and their generation of the superoxide anion radical and antioxidant enzymes activity were investigated. The treatment of coleoptiles with 10 nM solutions of BS caused a transient increase in O2- generation and a subsequent increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase and an improvement in heat resistance. Pretreatment of coleoptiles with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor imidazole leveled the increase in production of the superoxide anion radical and prevented an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the development of cell thermostability. The investigated effects of BS were also depressed by the pretreatment of coleoptile segments with extracellular calcium chelator EGTA and inhibitor of ADP-ribosyl cyclase nicotinamide. A conclusion was made about the participation of calcium ions and reactive oxygen species generated by the action of NADPH oxidase in the implementation of the stress-protective effect of the BS in the cells of wheat coleoptile. PMID:25726668

  12. Acceptation et tolrance des allogreffes : nouveau concept

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    RSUM La dcouverte du microchimrisme dans la transplantation de rein et de foie a permis de mieux comprendre lacceptation des allogreffes, lanalyse des problmes de conditionnement et la recherche de nouvelles orientations dans le traitement des greffes. En fonction de ce nouveau concept, seront ici discutes les relations avec les maladies infectieuses provoques par des micro-organismes non cytopathologiques, les rponses aux questions autrefois poses, la raction immunologique et les implications dans le domaine de limmunologie gnrale. PMID:9622934

  13. Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant U. S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - 13460

    SciTech Connect

    Yanochko, Ronald M.; Corcoran, Connie

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix [1]. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility [2]. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling. This study [2] concluded that SBS direct disposal is a viable option to the WTP baseline. The results show: - Off-site transportation and disposal of the SBS condensate is achievable and cost effective. - Reduction of approximately 4,325 vitrified WTP Low Activity Waste canisters could be realized. - Positive WTP operational impacts; minimal WTP construction impacts are realized. - Reduction of mass flow from the LAW Facility to the Pretreatment Facility by 66%. - Improved Double Shell Tank (DST) space management is a benefit. (authors)

  14. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater monitoring is performed at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities located in the regime per the requirements of applicable operating/post closure permits and governing state/federal regulations and guidelines, including DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A require evaluation of available monitoring data with regard to: (1) groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by Y-12 Plant operations, (2) the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. This report presents the results of these DOE Order 5400.1A evaluations based on available data for the network of monitoring wells and springs in the Chestnut Ridge Regime sampled during calendar year (CY) 1998. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  15. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  16. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An airplane's wingtip tank is being struck by simulated lightning in a test conducted by Lightning Technologies, Inc., a firm specializing in design features to protect aircraft from the hazard of electrical phenomena. Much of the technology employed in tests originated in NASA - sponsored studies focusing on effects of lightning on aircraft structures, electrical systems, and fuel tanks, and on means of protecting against hazardous effects.

  17. Corrosion protection

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  18. Experimental and Mathematical Simulation Techniques for Determining AN In-Situ Response Testing Method for Neutron Sensors Used in Reactor Power Plant Protection Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behbahani, Alireza

    An analytical neutron sensor response model and methods for transient response measurements of neutron sensors (Compensated Ionization Chamber), including possible in-situ techniques have been developed and evaluated to meet the provisions of Draft Standard ISA Sd67.06, IEEE 338-1977, and NRC Guide 1.118. One in-situ method requires the perturbation of the high voltage detector (sensor) power supply and measurement of the sensor response. The response to a perturbation of the power supply is related to the response of the sensor to a transient change in neutron flux. Random signal analysis is another in-situ technique to monitor the neutron sensor response. In this method the power spectrum of the inherent fluctuations from the neutron sensor output (Current in CIC) are measured and evaluated. Transient response techniques (including in-situ methods) are experimentally and analytically evaluated to identify the mechanisms which may cause degradation in the response of the neutron sensors. Response time degradation was investigated through a change in sensor and signal cable response time in a predictable manner (through changes in the detector fill gas and use of a delay box for signal cable). Sensors and attached cables having different response times are evaluated using power supply perturbation, transient change in radiation flux (both x-ray and neutron flux), and analysis of the random signals from neutron sensors. The objective of the experimental evaluation was to correlate the measured response time using transient radiation flux changes and power supply perturbation. The objective of the analytical model of the different sensor response was to predict response time and degradation mechanisms. Completion of this work contributed to improved understanding, monitoring, and the response time verification of neutron sensors. As a consequence improved and safer nuclear power plant operation may be attained.

  19. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata

    PubMed Central

    Lyttleton, Oliver; Wright, Alexander; Treanor, Darren; Lewis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. Materials and Methods: We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. Results: We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. Conclusions: All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs. PMID:21969921

  20. Crop protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    Weather information from 1919 to 1978 for five crop districts in Montana was related to data on acres of winter wheat reseeded to spring wheat. The time when wheat usually benefits most from snow cover is during January and February. Heavy snow cover and/or low temperatures in the fall have an adverse effect, possibly preventing the plants from undergoing normal hardening. A non-hardened plant is unable to survive low temperatures of late winter.

  1. Des Lacs River and Souris River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

     The Des Lacs River coming in to the Souris River. Des Lacs River is the darker water, which is sediment and the Souris River is the lighter water. >Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

  2. Copernic: la piste des influences arabes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalatbari, A.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    Copernic a-t-il connu le travail des astronomes du Moyen-Orient ? S'en est-il inspir pour laborer sa thorie de l'hliocentrisme ? C'est l'hypothse avance par certains historiens des sciences pour comprendre le gnie de celui qui, le premier, a plac le Soleil au centre du monde. Enqute.

  3. Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupen, Claus

    Radiation protection is a very important aspect for the application of particle detectors in many different fields, like high energy physics, medicine, materials science, oil and mineral exploration, and arts, to name a few. The knowledge of radiation units, the experience with shielding, and information on biological effects of radiation are vital for scientists handling radioactive sources or operating accelerators or X-ray equipment. This article describes the modern radiation units and their conversions to older units which are still in use in many countries. Typical radiation sources and detectors used in the field of radiation protection are presented. The legal regulations in nearly all countries follow closely the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Tables and diagrams with relevant information on the handling of radiation sources provide useful data for the researcher working in this field.

  4. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Kit-built airplanes are more affordable because they are assembled by the owner and do not require Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. The Glasair III, is an advanced technology homebuilt, constructed of a fiberglass and graphite fiber composite material, and equipped with digital instruments. Both technologies make the airplane more susceptible to lightning effects. When Glasair manufacturer, Stoddard-Hamilton, decided that lightning protection would enable more extensive instrument flight and make the plane more marketable, they proposed a joint development program to NASA Langley Research Center (LAR). Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Langley contractors designed and tested a lightning protection system, and the Glasair III-LP became the first kit-built composite aircraft to be lightning tested and protection-verified under FAA guidelines for general aviation aircraft.

  5. La rfrigration des grandes machines supraconductrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gistau, Guy

    1991-02-01

    The large scale superconducting devices which are now in operation for deviation of heavy particles, acceleration of light particles or plasma confinement need very large powers of refrigeration. After a short survewing of the different functions of refrigerators and the special requirements for large units, the paper describes some existing or envisaged cooling systems which have an equivalent cooling power in the range of 5 kW at 4.5 K. Les grands appareils de physique utilisant les supraconducteurs demandent des puissances cryogniques de plus en plus importantes. Aprs un examen des fonctions lmentaires assures par un rfrigrateur lies au cahier des charges spcifique chaque utilisation, les spcificits des grosses units de rfrigration (fiabilit, efficacit, flexibilit, automatisme) sont mises en vidence. Les solutions proposes dans plusieurs grands projets ncessitant des puissances froides suprieures 5 kW 4,5 K sont discutes.

  6. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lightning Technologies, Inc., Pittsfield, MA, - a spinoff company founded by president J. Anderson Plumer, a former NASA contractor employee who developed his expertise with General Electric Company's High Voltage Laboratory - was a key player in Langley Research Center's Storm Hazards Research Program. Lightning Technologies used its NASA acquired experience to develop protective measures for electronic systems and composite structures on aircraft, both of which are particularly susceptible to lightning damage. The company also provides protection design and verification testing services for complete aircraft systems or individual components. Most aircraft component manufacturers are among Lightning Technologies' clients.

  7. Noise Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  8. Structures protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Materials of which an aircraft is made and the methods used to hold these materials together forming the aircraft structure were studied as factors important in protecting a modern aircraft from hazardous natural environments. Since all-metal aircraft are being replaced by aircraft constructed partly of fiber reinforced plastics with desirable light weight and high strength properties but with poor electrical conductivity, the danger of lightning strikes has become more serious. Lightning effects on metal structures were reviewed and design protection was discussed. The expected lightning effects on nonmetallic materials such as fiberglass and advanced composites were also reviewed.

  9. Protect thyself

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, A.M.

    1982-06-01

    The article considers items of personal protection for miners: Self-rescuers, respirators, hard hats and cap lamps. A table provides a comparison between five types of self-contained self-rescuer. Details are also given of hard hat cap lamp and respirator manufacturers.

  10. Protecting Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses privacy issues related to use of the Internet. Topics include data gathering functions that are built into applications of the World Wide Web; cookies that identify Web site visitors; personal identity information; libraries and privacy, including the need for privacy policies; protecting your privacy; and developing privacy literacy.…

  11. Protecting Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses privacy issues related to use of the Internet. Topics include data gathering functions that are built into applications of the World Wide Web; cookies that identify Web site visitors; personal identity information; libraries and privacy, including the need for privacy policies; protecting your privacy; and developing privacy literacy.

  12. Protective Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Beta Glass material, originating from the Apollo program is supplied to Fyrepel by Owens-Corning and incorporated into Fyrepel's Fyretex and Beta-Mex aluminized fabrics. Fabrics are used in fire entry suits, several other types of protective suits for wear in hot industrial environments and such accessory items as heat-reflecting curtains for industrial applications.

  13. Mycorrhizal networks: des liaisons dangereuses?

    PubMed

    Selosse, Marc-André; Richard, Franck; He, Xinhua; Simard, Suzanne W

    2006-11-01

    Mycorrhizal associations, by which most land plants receive mineral nutrition, are diffuse and often non-specific. A common mycorrhizal network is formed when fungal mycelia colonize and link together the roots of two or more plants, sometimes of different species. Here, we discuss recent work showing how, under realistic ecological conditions, such networks can affect the physiology and ecology of plants by facilitating interplant nutrient exchange, acting as inoculum reservoirs for seedlings and altering plant competitive abilities. Although mechanisms for their evolutionary emergence remain unclear, investigating mycorrhizal networks profoundly modifies our understanding of plant communities. PMID:16843567

  14. Repliement des protines : exemple de l'?-lactalbumine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushmarina, N. A.; Blanchet, C.; Vernier, G.; Forge, V.

    2005-11-01

    Cette revue sur le repliement des protines ne fait appel aucune exprience propre de diffusion de neutrons. Elle dcrit les aspects cintiques et thermodynamiques de la structuration des protines sur leur chemin de repliement, en faisant rfrence des techniques biophysiques varies permettant d'chantillonner des changements conformationnels sur des chelles de temps longues (ms. s.). Les neutrons constituent une sonde videmment complmentaire des techniques usuellement employes pour l'tude du repliement des protines. Nous avons choisi un modle d'tude, l'?-lactalbumine, pour donner un tat de l'art des connaissances acquises ce jour dans le domaine, et pour ainsi inciter biophysiciens et spectroscopistes dvelopper des techniques en temps rsolu sur des chelles plus rapides, afin de pouvoir dtecter les tapes prcoces du repliement. Les neutrons doivent trouver une place logique dans de tels dveloppements.

  15. Demographic variation and conservation of the narrow endemic plant Ranunculus weyleri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cursach, Joana; Besnard, Aurélien; Rita, Juan; Fréville, Hélène

    2013-11-01

    Ranunculus weyleri is a narrow endemic protected plant from Majorca Island. It is known from only five populations located in two mountain areas 48 km apart. Using demographic data collected from 2007 to 2010, we assessed the demographic status of two populations - font des Coloms (FC) and talaia Moreia (TM) - using Integral Projection Models (IPMs). We showed that none of the two populations were declining under a deterministic model. Population FC was stable (λ = 1.026, CI95% = 0.965-1.093), while population TM showed sign of demographic expansion (λ = 1.113, CI95% = 1.032-1.219). Plant survival, flowering probability and the mean number of seedlings per floral peduncle were lower in TM, whereas growth and the number of floral peduncles per reproductive plant were lower in FC. Elasticity analyses showed that management strategies increasing plant survival and growth would be the most efficient to increase λ for both populations. Herbivory pressure by goats has been shown to be high in TM, resulting in high predation rate on floral peduncles. Controlling goat pressure may thus represent a promising management option, provided that we can demonstrate a negative impact of herbivory by goats on survival and growth which are the most critical parts of the life cycle in this species. Meanwhile, initiating a long-term monitoring is of crucial importance to get more insights into the relationships between environmental variation, plant performance and population dynamics.

  16. Structure et dynamique des systmes dsordonns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damay, P.

    2003-09-01

    Dfinis par leur absence d'ordre, les systmes dsordonns ne forment pas proprement parler une famille. La notion de dsordre est elle-mme assez difficile dfinir. Aussi, dans ce type d'tude, le type de systmes, les techniques et les concepts sont-ils particulirement diversifis. Aprs avoir nonc quelques grandes gnralits sur la dfinition du dsordre et fait une tentative de classification des systmes dsordonns, cette revue a t principalement oriente sur les moyens d'tudes de la structure et de la dynamique des fluides et des verres. Une insistance particulire est mise sur les moyens mis disposition par la physique statistique aussi bien pour laborer des modles que pour analyser les rsultats d'expriences spectroscopiques ou de diffraction. En effet, le nombre de configurations locales des atomes et molcules dans ces systmes est tellement important que les rsultats exprimentaux et les modles ne dcrivent en gnral que des moyennes d'ensemble qui n'apportent que des informations partielles sur la ralit microscopique.

  17. Deoxysappanone B, a homoisoflavone from the Chinese medicinal plant Caesalpinia sappan L., protects neurons from microglia-mediated inflammatory injuries via inhibition of IκB kinase (IKK)-NF-κB and p38/ERK MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ke-Wu; Yu, Qian; Song, Fang-Jiao; Liao, Li-Xi; Zhao, Ming-Bo; Dong, Xin; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2015-02-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (Lignum Sappan) is a Chinese medicinal plant for treating ischemic cerebral apoplexy. Deoxysappanone B (DSB), a homoisoflavone compound isolated from C. sappan L. (Lignum Sappan), was studied for anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective properties using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglia neuroinflammation model and LPS-induced microglia-neuron co-culture system. Our findings showed that DSB effectively inhibited BV-2 microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory mediators׳ release including NO, PGE₂, TNF-α, IL-6 and reactive oxygen species. Moreover, DSB markedly protected neurons against inflammatory microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in a microglia-neuron co-culture system. Mechanism study revealed that DSB blocked two major neuroinflammation-related signaling pathways including IKK-IκB-nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and p38/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, further leading to the inhibition of neuroinflammatory mediators׳ production. The present study provides evidence that the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effect of DSB are due to the suppression of neuroinflammatory mediators׳ production as well as inflammation-induced neurotoxicity through regulation of multi-targets. Therefore, DSB may serve as a neuroprotective agent for the treatment of neuroinflammatory disorders and inflammation-related neuronal injury. PMID:25530267

  18. Environmental aspects in plant protection practices of non-agricultural pesticide users: case study of communes and the ministry of public works and transport (MET) of the Walloon Region (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Godeaux, D; Schiffers, B; Culot, M

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, with a response rate of 60 out of 97 communes and 33 out of 65 districts. This article describes the environmental aspects of the surveys (health-related aspects are the subject of separate article). The surveys have brought to light a number of good practices (including zero pesticides) and a growing awareness of environmental issues among non-agricultural users. However, bad habits, legislation infringements and a failure to follow good plant protection practice are still a problem and pose major environmental risks (in the form of water pollution from pesticides). Information, awareness-raising and training therefore remain a priority for non-agricultural users. PMID:19226830

  19. Seasonal variations of estrogenic compounds and their estrogenicities in influent and effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shiwei; Yang, Fangxing; Liao, Tao; Hui, Yang; Xu, Ying

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal variations of estrogenic compounds and the estrogenicities of influent and effluent were investigated by chemical analysis and in vitro assay in a municipal sewage treatment plant in Wuhan (China). The levels of eight estrogenic compounds, including 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), estrone (E(1)), estriol (E(3)), diethylstilbestrol (DES), 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, nonylphenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), and bisphenol A (BPA), were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total estrogenic activity of sewage was quantitatively assessed using primary cultured hepatocytes of male Megalobrama amblycephala Yih using vitellogenin as a biomarker. The E(2) equivalents (EEQs) obtained from the chemical analysis were consistent with those measured by bioassay. The natural (E(1), E(2), and E(3)) and synthetic (DES) estrogens, as well as NP, were the main contributors of the total EEQs of influent and effluent in the present study. The levels of natural estrogens E(1) and E(3) in the influent and effluent were higher in winter than in summer, whereas the situation for NP and OP was the reverse. The levels of E(2), DES, and BPA varied little among different seasons. 17alpha-Ethinylestradiol was not detected in the influent and effluent. The estrogenicities of the influent and of the primary and secondary effluents were all higher in summer than in winter. Estrogenic activities in winter mainly originated from natural (E(1), E(2), and E(3)) and synthetic (DES) estrogens, whereas the increase of EEQs in summer was contributed by NP. The results from chemical analysis and bioassay demonstrate that estrogenic compounds cannot be entirely removed by the existing sewage treatment process, which should be further improved to protect aquatic ecosystems and human health. PMID:18092861

  20. Etudes physiques des mélanges eau-cryoprotecteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassoille, R.; Perez, J.

    The aim of the following review is to present the most important studies concerning the physical properties of water-solutes mixtures used in cryobiology. Cryobiology is a branch of biology which deals with the very low temperature behaviour of cells. This technique is developed today in several directions. The creation of banks of cells and perhaps in a short time of small organs, is the purpose of much research in this domain. Before freezing, living cells are generally put in a solution containing one or more solutes. The role of these solutes is to protect the cells against damage due to crystallization of water (cryoprotectors). The mechanisms of cryoprotection are not well known ; nevertheless the vitreous state formation during cooling is often invoked. So, it is possible to avoid crystallization damage such as mechanical strain (due to an increase of volume of about 10 %) and salt effects (due to osmotic pressure). The conditions in which the vitreous state is obtained, maintained during cooling, storage at low temperature and rewarming can be defined by physical studies presented in the following review. Le présent travail est essentiellement une revue bibliographique des principales études physiques qui ont été réalisées avec des solutions de composés habituellement employés en cryobiologie. La cryobiologie est une branche de la biologie qui s'intéresse au comportement des cellules à basse température. Cette discipline est actuellement en plein développement dans des domaines très divers. Son principal but est la création de banques de cellules de plus en plus complexes avec comme perspective la conservation des organes. Les cellules vivantes sont généralement placées avant congélation dans une solution contenant divers composés dont le rôle est de protéger les cellules contre les effets de la cristallisation de l'eau. L'action protectrice de ces cryoprotecteurs est encore mal connue; cependant, la formation d'un état vitreux lors du refroidissement est souvent invoquée. Ainsi, il est possible d'éviter les dommages liés à la cristallisation : contrainte mécanique due à l'augmentation de volume, effets de sel dus à l'existence d'un gradient de pression osmotique de part et d'autre de la membrane cellulaire. Les conditions d'obtention et de maintien de cet état vitreux lors des opérations de congélation peuvent être définies par des études physiques dont nous proposons une revue.

  1. Protective Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Inorganic Coatings, Inc.'s K-Zinc 531 protective coating is water-based non-toxic, non-flammable and has no organic emissions. High ratio silicate formula bonds to steel, and in 30 minutes, creates a very hard ceramic finish with superior adhesion and abrasion resistance. Improved technology allows application over a minimal commercial sandblast, fast drying in high humidity conditions and compatibility with both solvent and water-based topcoats. Coating is easy to apply and provides long term protection with a single application. Zinc rich coating with water-based potassium silicate binder offers cost advantages in materials, labor hours per application, and fewer applications over a given time span.

  2. Ribonuclease protection.

    PubMed

    Thorvaldsen, J L; Bartolomei, M S

    2001-01-01

    The ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) is a sensitive technique for the analysis of total cellular RNA. It involves generating a specific antisense riboprobe, hybridizing the probe to total RNA, removing unprotected RNA by RNases, and finally isolating and analyzing the protected RNA on a denaturing gel. Although the RPA is somewhat more labor-intensive than Northern analysis, it has the advantage of being more sensitive (as little as 0.1 pg of target RNA can be detected with ideal hybridization conditions). RPAs are also more tolerant of partially degraded RNA (provided the area that is protected is intact). Although RPAs are not as sensitive as polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based RNA analyses, the target RNA is analyzed directly; a reverse transcription step is not required. Finally, the RPA is quantitative as long as the probe is in excess. More important for the study of imprinted genes, the RPA can be designed to detect allele-specific expression of the target gene of interest. PMID:12843446

  3. Protecting rebar in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, G.T. )

    1993-08-01

    In most building construction, concrete effectively protects reinforcement from damage caused by environmental factors or exposure to fire. In severe environments of some industrial plants, marine structures, bridge decks and parking structures, the destructive effects of reinforcement corrosion have been a problem. Research and field observations since the late 1960s have answered many questions about the mechanisms, consequences, and repair of corrosion of reinforcement in concrete. With proper design, mix selection, and construction practices, reinforced concrete structures can perform well in corrosive environments. Concrete cover makes an important contribution to this performance. This article examines why this is so and makes recommendations as to how to control the quality of concrete cover.

  4. Fundamentals of electrical propulsion plant design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, N. A.; Kuropatkin, P. V.; Khaykin, A. B.; Khomyakov, N. M.

    1982-04-01

    Contents: electrical propulsion plant equipment requirements; dc electrical propulsion plant main current circuits; dc electrical propulsion plant field and regulation circuits; dc electrical propulsion plant protection, indication, and blocking circuits; calculation of the static characteristics of dc electrical propulsion plants; electrical propulsion plant stability and control quality; transient processes in dc electrical propulsion plants (theory, analytical, and graphic-analytical calculation methods); mathematical modelling for analysis and synthesis of electrical propulsion plant transient processes; problems of ac electrical propulsion plant design and their prospective development; transient processes in ac electric propeller drive; geometrical and weight characteristics of electrical propulsion plant main machinery; and dual-current electrical propulsion plants.

  5. Fire protection system HMI in power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainal, Yuda Bakti

    2015-05-01

    The central power station, a place where there are machines that generate power, equipped with substation where the voltage is produced by the generator and increased to a certain voltage with a step up voltage transformer. Effect on transformer oil is very important, transformer may malfunction if the oil that serves as a coolant and insulator gradually decreased its ability, over time their use. Power transformer on usability is vital, so it needs to be maintained so that the temperature rise must be overcome by applying a temperature control that can inform and control the control valve to open the hydrant tap transformer cooling. HMI implemented to facilitate the operators cope with excess heat in the transformer using thermocouple censor. Test results show that the control transformer and monitored using PLC and HMI. Transformer can maintain the condition of a maximum of 80 degrees Celsius heat.

  6. Plant stress signalling: understanding and exploiting plant-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Pickett, J A; Rasmussen, H B; Woodcock, C M; Matthes, M; Napier, J A

    2003-02-01

    When plants are attacked by insects, volatile chemical signals can be released, not only from the damaged parts, but also systemically from other parts of the plant and this continues after cessation of feeding by the insect. These signals are perceived by olfactory sensory mechanisms in both the herbivorous insects and their parasites. Molecular structures involved can be characterized by means of electrophysiological assays, using the insect sensory system linked to chemical analysis. Evidence is mounting that such signals can also affect neighbouring intact plants, which initiate defence by the induction of further signalling systems, such as those that increase parasitoid foraging. Furthermore, insect electrophysiology can be used in the identification of plant compounds having effects on the plants themselves. It has been found recently that certain plants can release stress signals even when undamaged, and that these can cause defence responses in intact plants. These discoveries provide the basis for new crop protection strategies, that are either delivered by genetic modification of plants or by conventionally produced plants to which the signal is externally applied. Delivery can also be made by means of mixed seed strategies in which the provoking and recipient plants are grown together. Related signalling discoveries within the rhizosphere seem set to extend these approaches into new ways of controlling weeds, by exploiting the elusive potential of allelopathy, but through signalling rather than by direct physiological effects. PMID:12546668

  7. X-ray structure of putative acyl-ACP desaturase DesA2 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, David H.; Lyle, Karen S.; Rayment, Ivan; Fox, Brian G.

    2010-07-13

    Genome sequencing showed that two proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv contain the metal binding motif (D/E)X{sub 2}HX{sub {approx}100}(D/E)X{sub 2}H characteristic of the soluble diiron enzyme superfamily. These putative acyl-ACP desaturase genes desA1 and desA2 were cloned from genomic DNA and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). DesA1 was found to be insoluble, but in contrast, DesA2 was a soluble protein amenable to biophysical characterization. Here, we report the 2.0 {angstrom} resolution X-ray structure of DesA2 determined by multiple anomalous dispersion (MAD) phasing from a Se-met derivative and refinement against diffraction data obtained on the native protein. The X-ray structure shows that DesA2 is a homodimeric protein with a four-helix bundle core flanked by five additional helices that overlay with 192 structurally equivalent amino acids in the structure of stearoyl-ACP {Delta}9 desaturase from castor plant with an rms difference 1.42 {angstrom}. In the DesA2 crystals, one metal (likely Mn from the crystallization buffer) was bound in high occupancy at the B-site of the conserved metal binding motif, while the A-site was not occupied by a metal ion. Instead, the amino group of Lys-76 occupied this position. The relationships between DesA2 and known diiron enzymes are discussed.

  8. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. The enhancement of existing DES Maplet interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nur Lina; Mutalip, Rasidah Abdull; Abdullah, Kamilah

    2014-07-01

    This study pertains to the process of Data Encryption Standard, DES. DES consists of encryption and decryption processes linked with mathematical elements such as algebra and number theory. Preliminary, studies revealed that most of mathematics students face a problem in understanding the complicated process of DES. In modern learning methods, learning environment becomes more interesting with the use of computer and a variety of mathematical software packages. Several mathematical softwares such as Maple, Mathematica, Mathlab and Sage were developed in order to fulfill the specific calculation requirements. Correspondingly, motivated from that, this study incorporated with Maple to enhance the existing DES Maplet interface to be more interactive and user-friendly compared to the original version.

  10. Improve protective clothing and reduce radwaste

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, G.A.; Fryer, J.

    1995-12-31

    Nuclear power plants have been reducing radioactive waste production through aggressive volume reduction and control at the point of generation. Waste reduction efforts may, however, have reached a plateau. Certain items, such as protective clothing, are a necessary part of plant operations and cannot be eliminated. There are more than 800,000 sets of protective clothing currently in use at U.S. nuclear plants. Since up to 25% of these garments are removed from service each year, spent protective wear accounts for {approximately}100,000 ft{sup 3} of prevolume reduced waste annually. Furthermore, up to 10% of dry active waste produced at commercial power reactor sites is comprised of exhausted protective clothing and related goods. This report describes the design of protective clothing which lasts longer and is lighter than traditional fabrics.

  11. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Ameron International Protective Coatings Group developed a special coating for NASA that would withstand the high temperatures generated by the Space Shuttle rocket engines. The coating remains intact for at least 10 minutes, and insulates the launch pad so that it does not exceed 150 degrees and buckle. The NASA formulation was from Ameron's Engineered Siloxane (PSX) chemistry, which employs an inorganic silicon-oxygen structure which the company states is stronger and more reliable than organic polymers. Some of Ameron's PSX product line is based on the NASA technology, used for everything from industrial equipment to bridges.

  12. Eye Protection

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries. ImagesFigures 2a, bFigure 3Figures 4a, b, c, dFigure 5 PMID:21267100

  13. Cogeneration at wastewater treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Oyler, A. . Wastewater Utilities Dept.); Klem, E.

    1993-11-01

    This article describes an energy saving wastewater treatment plant incorporating cogeneration through powering of gas driven engine-generators by methane collected from the plants anaerobic digester system. The topics of the article include a description of the plant, gas storage and explosion protection, generating electricity, and energy expense savings.

  14. cologie des soins de sant au Canada

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Moira; Ryan, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Rsum Objectif Prsenter un profil populationnel pancanadien des besoins en soins de sant et de leur utilisation, facile daccs et permettant des comparaisons entre les provinces et avec dautres instances internationales. Conception Une comparaison des taux dutilisation des soins de sant entre les provinces en utilisant des donnes denqutes et des renseignements administratifs sur la sant. Contexte Les provinces du Canada. Principaux paramtres ltude Les taux canadiens et provinciaux de personnes en mauvaise sant (prsence de problmes chroniques) et dutilisation des soins de sant (contacts avec des mdecins de famille, avec dautres mdecins spcialistes, avec des infirmires et hospitalisations) sous forme de proportions mensuelles par 1000 habitants normalises en fonction de lge et du genre. Rsultats La proportion mensuelle par 1000 habitants de personnes souffrant dau moins 1 problme chronique variait de 524 au Qubec 638 en Nouvelle-cosse; les contacts avec un mdecin de famille se situaient entre 158 au Qubec et 295 en Colombie-Britannique; les contacts avec dautres mdecins spcialistes variaient entre 53 en Saskatchewan et 79 en Ontario; et le nombre de contacts avec des infirmires se situait entre 23 en Colombie-Britannique et 41 au Qubec. Le nombre de sjours lhpital variait entre 8 et 11 par 1000 habitants et les proportions taient semblables dune province lautre. Conclusion Il est essentiel de reconnatre les distinctions entre les provinces pour clairer les politiques sur la sant dans lensemble du pays. Les diffrences persistaient lorsque les taux taient normaliss en fonction de la composition dmographique variable selon lge et le genre dans les provinces. Cet article prsente une mthodologie simple laide de donnes publiquement accessibles qui peut servir dans chaque province examiner, lavenir, lvolution avec le temps de lutilisation des soins de sant par les instances provinciales.

  15. Caracterisation des proprietes acoustiques des materiaux poreux a cellules ouvertes et a matrice rigide ou souple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salissou, Yacoubou

    L'objectif global vise par les travaux de cette these est d'ameliorer la caracterisation des proprietes macroscopiques des materiaux poreux a structure rigide ou souple par des approches inverses et indirectes basees sur des mesures acoustiques faites en tube d'impedance. La precision des approches inverses et indirectes utilisees aujourd'hui est principalement limitee par la qualite des mesures acoustiques obtenues en tube d'impedance. En consequence, cette these se penche sur quatre problemes qui aideront a l'atteinte de l'objectif global precite. Le premier probleme porte sur une caracterisation precise de la porosite ouverte des materiaux poreux. Cette propriete en est une de passage permettant de lier la mesure des proprietes dynamiques acoustiques d'un materiau poreux aux proprietes effectives de sa phase fluide decrite par les modeles semi-phenomenologiques. Le deuxieme probleme traite de l'hypothese de symetrie des materiaux poreux selon leur epaisseur ou un index et un critere sont proposes pour quantifier l'asymetrie d'un materiau. Cette hypothese est souvent source d'imprecision des methodes de caracterisation inverses et indirectes en tube d'impedance. Le critere d'asymetrie propose permet ainsi de s'assurer de l'applicabilite et de la precision de ces methodes pour un materiau donne. Le troisieme probleme vise a mieux comprendre le probleme de transmission sonore en tube d'impedance en presentant pour la premiere fois un developpement exact du probleme par decomposition d'ondes. Ce developpement permet d'etablir clairement les limites des nombreuses methodes existantes basees sur des tubes de transmission a 2, 3 ou 4 microphones. La meilleure comprehension de ce probleme de transmission est importante puisque c'est par ce type de mesures que des methodes permettent d'extraire successivement la matrice de transfert d'un materiau poreux et ses proprietes dynamiques intrinseques comme son impedance caracteristique et son nombre d'onde complexe. Enfin, le quatrieme probleme porte sur le developpement d'une nouvelle methode de transmission exacte a 3 microphones applicable a des materiaux ou systemes symetriques ou non. Dans le cas symetrique, on montre que cette approche permet une nette amelioration de la caracterisation des proprietes dynamiques intrinseques d'un materiau. Mots cles. materiaux poreux, tube d'impedance, transmission sonore, absorption sonore, impedance acoustique, symetrie, porosite, matrice de transfert.

  16. Profil pidmiologique des tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires : propos de 154 cas

    PubMed Central

    Setti, Khadija; Mouanis, Mohamed; Moumni, Abdelmounim; Maher, Mostafa; Harmouch, Amal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les tumeurs des glandes salivaires sont des tumeurs rares reprsentant 3 5% des tumeurs de la tte et du cou. La classification de l'OMS 2005 distingue les tumeurs pithliales, les tumeurs msenchymateuses, les tumeurs hmatologiques et les tumeurs secondaires. Mthodes Notre travail consiste en une tude rtrospective ralise sur une priode de 10 ans allant de janvier 2002 janvier 2012. Les critres d'inclusion taient: l'ge, le sexe, le sige de la tumeur et le type histologique. Rsultats L'incidence annuelle des tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires dans notre srie tait de 15 cas par an. Cent cinquante quatre cas de tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires ont t colligs sans prdominance de sexe (78 femmes (50,6%) et 76 hommes (49,4%)). La moyenne d'ge tait de 60 ans avec des extrmes de 4 et 83 ans et un pic de frquence entre 51et 70 ans. Deux tiers des cas (65%) avaient une localisation au niveau des glandes principales avec 66 cas au niveau de la parotide (43%) et 34 cas au niveau de la glande sous maxillaire (22%). Cinquante quatre patients avaient une tumeur maligne des glandes salivaires accessoires (35%) dont 61% au niveau du palais. Aucun cas de tumeur maligne de la glande sublinguale n'a t recens dans notre tude. Le type histologique prdominant dans notre srie tait le carcinome adnode kystique et retrouv chez 43 patients (27,9%), suivi de l'adnocarcinome sans autre indication chez 37 patients (24%) puis du carcinome mucopidermode chez 16 patients (10,4%) et de l'adnocarcinome polymorphe de bas grade galement chez 16 patients (10. 4%). Conclusion Les tumeurs malignes des glandes salivaires reprsentent un ensemble htrogne de maladies de caractrisation complexe et de frquence variable. PMID:25120861

  17. Conserving our wild plant heritage

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.F.

    1980-11-01

    Conservationists who have neglected the protection of wild plants in the past are becoming more active in pressing for a broad range of programs. One tenth of the world's vascular plants are endangered, threatened, or rare. Plant habitats are being destroyed by logging, draining of wetlands, and clearing for agriculture. The international trade in wild plants and the growing number of plant collectors are also endangering wild plants. Federal legislation is needed to regulate foreign and interstate plant trade, while international regulations must be strengthened. (10 photos, 21 references)

  18. 75 FR 24690 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Plant-Incorporated... Budget (OMB). This ICR, entitled: ``Plant-Incorporated Protectants; CBI Substantiation and Adverse... of plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs). The North American Industrial Classification System...

  19. Influence de la dpendance en temprature des proprits optiques des matriaux sur la force de Casimir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joulain, K.; Henkel, C.; Greffet, J.-J.

    2006-10-01

    Nous valuons la force de Casimir entre deux surfaces planes mtalliques constitues d'argent. Nous prenons, pour effectuer cette valuation, des proprits optiques de l'argent diffrentes tempratures [1]. Nous montrons que cette dpendance en temprature modifie la force de Casimir (de 0.2%) y compris des distances infrieures la longueur d'onde thermique.

  20. 10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...,” referenced in 10 CFR 19.11(c). This form must be posted at locations sufficient to permit employees protected... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions §...