Sample records for protection des plantes

  1. Systems of plant protection.

    PubMed

    Teng, P S; Savary, S; Revilla, I

    1993-01-01

    A framework for associating pest management with farming systems may be characterized by a cropping index (number of crop cycles per year); a plant species homogeneity rank, described as the degree of monoculture or polyculture and intensity of use of modern, high-yielding varieties versus land races or traditional varieties; intensity of use of synthetic agrochemicals; the availability of societal infrastructure to support agriculture, such as irrigation and roads; and availability of support services such as credit, public/private sector research and extension services. Traditional methods of plant protection in the tribal areas of the Philippines rely heavily on ritual-based cultural practices that recognize the crop calendar and its activities as part of a larger social agenda. Most groundnut growers in West Africa utilize minimal inputs with little infrastructural support but they have often adopted improved varieties. Extensive farming systems with modern inputs are exemplified by wheat in the mid-western USA, where pests are managed mainly through host plant resistance. In intensive farming systems--vegetables in South-East Asia, wheat in The Netherlands and orchards in the USA--crop intensification is greatest and pest problems arising from overuse of pesticides are most noticeable. Unsustainable farming systems evolve if realistic plant protection is not taken into consideration. PMID:8149817

  2. Chitosan in Plant Protection

    PubMed Central

    El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Adam, Lorne R.; El Hadrami, Ismail; Daayf, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR) proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:20479963

  3. Influence des hautes tempratures des racines sur la croissance de plants de diverses varits de melon

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence des hautes températures des racines sur la croissance de plants de diverses variétés de melon (Cucumis melo L.). Aspects particuliers concernant la nutrition de la plante Georgette RISSER'Amélioration des Plantes maraîchères, Domaine Saint-Maurice. *LN.R.A., Station d'Agronomie, Domaine Saint

  4. PRA Anoplophora chinensis, Plant Protection Service, Wageningen, The Netherlands, September 2008 1 Pest Risk Analysis

    E-print Network

    Pest Risk Analysis Anoplophora chinensis #12;PRA Anoplophora chinensis, Plant Protection Service Organisation Européenne et Méditerranéenne pour la Protection des Plantes Guidelines on Pest Risk Analysis Lignes directrices pour l'analyse du risque phytosanitaire Pest Risk Analysis record format for PM5/3 (2

  5. 75 FR 77612 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...to developers of new varieties of plants, which are reproduced sexually by...tuber-propagated. A Certificate of Plant Variety Protection is awarded to...representing expertise in seed technology, plant breeding, and variety development,...

  6. La protection des donnes personnelles, un enjeu organisationnel et technique

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , le Privacy Impact Assessment qui devra précéder toute demande d'autorisation, ainsi que les exigences personne physique, ce qui peut impacter une part significative de l'activité économique. Si l'explosion des du Privacy by Design, qui veut que la protection de la vie privée soit prise en compte dès la phase

  7. Protection Goals for Aquatic Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Someone once said plants are the ugly stepchildren of the toxicological world. This was not out of lack of respect for plants, but rather reflected the common assumption that aquatic plants were less sensitive than aquatic fauna to chemicals. We now know this is not a valid gener...

  8. Pinellas Plant groundwater protection management program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-10-01

    The Groundwater Protection Management Program (GPMP) Plan outlines the program in place at the Pinellas Plant to detect and monitor contaminated groundwater, which may have become contaminated by materials and waste.

  9. Tritium protection at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Reinig, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant produces tritium for the nation's defense. In addition to the planned production, unwanted tritium results from neutron irradiation of the heavy water moderator in the plant's reactors. During the past 30 years, continual improvements have been made in methods to protect the large workforce at the reactors and at the tritium facility from the potential hazards of tritium. This paper describes the current protection program.

  10. Amlioration des plantes Etudes cytologiques de choux ttraplodes (Brassica

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Amélioration des plantes Etudes cytologiques de choux tétraploïdes (Brassica oleracea L. ssp de type diploïde et leur fertilité satisfaisante. Brassica oleracea - niveau de ploïdie - chloroplastes - comportement méiotique Summary — Cytological studies of tetraploid kale (Brassica oleracea

  11. Y-12 Plant Stratospheric Ozone Protection plan

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant staff is required by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) (formerly Martin Marietta Energy Systems) standard ESS-EP-129 to develop and implement a Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program which will minimize emissions of ozone-depleting substances to the environment and maximize the use of ozone-safe alternatives in order to comply with Title VI of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments and the implementing regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This plan describes the requirements, initiatives, and accomplishments of the Y-12 Plant Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program.

  12. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... containing urushiol from burning plants Symptoms of Skin Contact Red rash within a few days of contact ... page in: Español (Spanish) English (US) English (US) Contact Us: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( ...

  13. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Exemptions...

  14. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Exemptions...

  15. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Exemptions...

  16. Genetically Modified Pest Protected Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Released on April 5, this widely anticipated report on genetically modified foods from a twelve-member panel of the National Research Council, part of the US National Academy of Sciences, offers a cautious endorsement of biotech foods, but also calls for more oversight and regulation. Focusing only on plants that have been genetically engineered to produce their own pesticides, the report finds no evidence that any foods made from these plants are unsafe to eat. It also finds no inherent danger in the insertion of genes from one species into another. However, the report does advise the government to conduct studies on the long-term health effects of eating biotech foods and recommends that the EPA regulate crops modified to resist viruses. As would be expected, the report has been welcomed by biotechnology companies and blasted by foes of genetic engineering, some of whom accused the panel of a pro-industry bias. A free pre-publication copy of the report is available online at the National Academy Press Website. Users can view the text as page images in HTML format or as .pdf files.

  17. Protection de la vie prive base sur des ontologies dans un systme Android

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Protection de la vie privée basée sur des ontologies dans un système Android Johann Vincent.dubin@ecole.ensicaen.fr, christine.porquet@ensicaen.fr Résumé--Le système Android équipe aujourd'hui plus de la moitié des géolocalisation. Cet article présente une solution de protection de la vie privée intégrée au système Android

  18. Transgenic plants protected from insect attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaeck, Mark; Reynaerts, Arlette; Höfte, Herman; Jansens, Stefan; de Beuckeleer, Marc; Dean, Caroline; Zabeau, Marc; Montagu, Marc Van; Leemans, Jan

    1987-07-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces proteins which are specifically toxic to a variety of insect species. Modified genes have been derived from bt2, a toxin gene cloned from one Bacillus strain. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes synthesize insecticidal proteins which protect them from feeding damage by larvae of the tobacco hornworm.

  19. Pinellas Plant groundwater protection management program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-10-01

    The objectives of the Groundwater Protection Management Program (GPMP) are to establish that current operations and transition of the facility are not affecting groundwater in a way that creates unacceptable risks to human health and safety, or to the environment, and that the plant is working to address any such risks previously identified.

  20. A history of plant virology. Cross protection.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, S; Roggero, P; Conti, M

    2001-01-01

    Cross protection is a type of induced resistance developing in plants against viruses. Its basis is that prior infection with one virus affords protection against closely related ones. Its history started about seventy years ago, when the Dutchman Thung and the Englishman Salaman described the phenomenon independently. During the 1930s, several virologists confirmed the discovery, which was considered the first possibility to protect plants against virus infection. Growing interest also led plant virologists to formulate the first hypotheses on its mechanism, with the onset of a still unsolved debate. The hypotheses, that have been succeeded until the 1970s, included (i) antibody formation, (ii) exhaustion of essential metabolites, (iii) limited sites for virus multiplication, and (iv) specific adsorption by new cell compounds. These hypotheses were re-proposed and discussed on several occasions without arriving at a final conclusion. The statement of molecular genetics of viruses produced new interesting "theories", fundamentally based on the interference between virus strains. A model developed by the Americans Palukaitis and Zaitlin in 1984 indicates that excess of progeny positive-sense RNA of the protecting strain would sequester the minus-strand RNA of the challenging strain. Other models involve a function of the coat protein, or gene recombination. However, no model that could unify all the various facets of cross protection has hitherto been proposed. All that has not stopped the phenomenon having practical application. From the first attempts against a severe disease of cocoa in West Africa realized by Posnette in the 1940s, a number of crops (such as tomato, tobacco, citrus, cucurbits, grapevine, soybean, papaya, and so on) have been submitted to this practice. During the 1980s, cross protection came to a standstill because of the development of new resistant or tolerant cultivars. Its story is by no means ended, and much work is needed to understand its limits and possibilities. PMID:11209850

  1. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protected plant permits. 355.11 Section 355.11...of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Permission to Engage in Business...

  2. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protected plant permits. 355.11 Section 355.11...of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Permission to Engage in Business...

  3. 7 CFR 355.11 - Protected plant permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protected plant permits. 355.11 Section 355.11...of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Permission to Engage in Business...

  4. 1. INTRODUCTION The protection of crops against plant pests

    E-print Network

    treatment, further residual contact with the treated plants or exposure to contaminated pollen and nectar1. INTRODUCTION The protection of crops against plant pests and pathogens is a particularly acute hunger throughout the world. Phytopharmaceut- ical products, or pesticides, used for plant protection

  5. Coated lead shielding protects nuclear plant workers

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.A.; Mussman, R.L. Sr.

    1996-09-01

    This article describes how WNP-2 engineers discovered ways to coat lead shielding that enhance radiation protection while reducing lead oxide emissions. Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) developed a coated lead shielding program at its Washington Nuclear Project Unit 2 (WNP-2) nuclear power station that has proven to be a cost-effective way to reduce workers` radiation exposure while improving plant operations. This program uses permanent shields of tongue-in-groove coated lead for straight pipe runs and coated molded shields for valves, Ts and elbows to replace lead wool blankets. The new shielding materials are easy to install, create a more-effective shield, are more compact and make a neater, better-looking installation. The objective of the Shielding Program at WNP-2, a 1,150 MW boiling water reactor that went into operation in 1984, is to minimize total radiation exposure.

  6. Plant breeding: importance of plant secondary metabolites for protection against pathogens and herbivores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wink

    1988-01-01

    Chemical protection plays a decisive role in the resistance of plants against pathogens and herbivores. The so-called secondary metabolites, which are a characteristic feature of plants, are especially important and can protect plants against a wide variety of microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi) and herbivores (arthropods, vertebrates). As is the situation with all defense systems of plants and animals, a few

  7. U.S. Plant Variety Protection: Sound and Fury...?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Janis; Jay P. Kesan

    2002-01-01

    This Article offers a critical reassessment of U.S. approaches to intellectual property protection for plant innovation. Three developments make this reassessment timely. First, the Supreme Court has finally confirmed that utility patent claims to plants and seeds satisfy the 35 U.S.C. Section 101 subject matter eligibility requirement. Plant innovation in the United States is now subject to utility patent protection,

  8. Protection of goats against rinderpest by vaccination with attenuated peste des petits ruminants virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Diallo

    1995-01-01

    The ability of the attenuated peste des petits ruminants vaccine virus to protect small ruminants against virulent rinderpest virus was investigated. Out of four susceptible goats that were infected with the highly virulent Saudi strain of rinderpest virus by intranasal ioculation, three developed mild clinical signs of disease and infected susceptible in-contact goats and cattle with rinderpest virus. However, four

  9. VACCINATION ANTI-K99 ET PROTECTION COLOSTRALE DES VEAUX INFECTS EXPRIMENTALEMENT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the colostrum of B41 vaccinated cows are infected with E. coli B44 (09: K30: H-K99, F41Vaccination multiplies K99 antibodies in colostrum by seven. In B44 infected calves, specific K99, F41 antibodies protect 62 % (Acres et al., 19771 des veaux âgés de moins de 4 ou 5 jours. Un colostrum de vaches ne

  10. PROTECTION DES ROBOTS MOBILES POR TILISATION EN ATMOSPHERE EXPLOSIVE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    they arc integrated at thc beginning of the projcct. High powcr accumulators shall be protccted by increased safety :motors and gcnerators can be protected either by Same proof enclosure or pressurization. Electronic cucuits äs inverters or Computers will be easily protected by pressurization. Low power cireuits

  11. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670...Specially Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation...specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following...

  12. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670...Specially Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation...specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following...

  13. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670...Specially Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation...specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following...

  14. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670...Specially Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation...specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following...

  15. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670...Specially Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation...specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following...

  16. 40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant...

  17. 40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions...Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant...

  18. Protected-area boundaries as filters of plant invasions.

    PubMed

    Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; Jarošík, Vojt?ch; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Rouget, Mathieu

    2011-04-01

    Human land uses surrounding protected areas provide propagules for colonization of these areas by non-native species, and corridors between protected-area networks and drainage systems of rivers provide pathways for long-distance dispersal of non-native species. Nevertheless, the influence of protected-area boundaries on colonization of protected areas by invasive non-native species is unknown. We drew on a spatially explicit data set of more than 27,000 non-native plant presence records for South Africa's Kruger National Park to examine the role of boundaries in preventing colonization of protected areas by non-native species. The number of records of non-native invasive plants declined rapidly beyond 1500 m inside the park; thus, we believe that the park boundary limited the spread of non-native plants. The number of non-native invasive plants inside the park was a function of the amount of water runoff, density of major roads, and the presence of natural vegetation outside the park. Of the types of human-induced disturbance, only the density of major roads outside the protected area significantly increased the number of non-native plant records. Our findings suggest that the probability of incursion of invasive plants into protected areas can be quantified reliably. PMID:21166715

  19. Protected-Area Boundaries as Filters of Plant Invasions

    PubMed Central

    Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; JaroŠÍK, Vojt?ch; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Rouget, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Human land uses surrounding protected areas provide propagules for colonization of these areas by non-native species, and corridors between protected-area networks and drainage systems of rivers provide pathways for long-distance dispersal of non-native species. Nevertheless, the influence of protected-area boundaries on colonization of protected areas by invasive non-native species is unknown. We drew on a spatially explicit data set of more than 27,000 non-native plant presence records for South Africa's Kruger National Park to examine the role of boundaries in preventing colonization of protected areas by non-native species. The number of records of non-native invasive plants declined rapidly beyond 1500 m inside the park; thus, we believe that the park boundary limited the spread of non-native plants. The number of non-native invasive plants inside the park was a function of the amount of water runoff, density of major roads, and the presence of natural vegetation outside the park. Of the types of human-induced disturbance, only the density of major roads outside the protected area significantly increased the number of non-native plant records. Our findings suggest that the probability of incursion of invasive plants into protected areas can be quantified reliably. PMID:21166715

  20. tude de l'impact de la protection du milieu marin sur les activits Socioconomiques des les Kuriat

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    �tude de l'impact de la protection du milieu marin sur les activités Socioéconomiques des îles développés et d'estimer enfin les résultats obtenus. Mots-clés : Protection du milieu marin, îles Kuriat Kuriat A.Aguir Résumé Dans un souci de protection, de réhabilitation et de valorisation des espaces

  1. 7 CFR 97.3 - Plant Variety Protection Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    (a) The Plant Variety Protection Board shall consist of 14 members appointed for a 2-year term. The Board shall be appointed every 2 years and shall consist of individuals who are experts in various areas of varietal...

  2. 7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...measures. (6) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO). NAPPO is...

  3. 7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...measures. (6) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO). NAPPO is...

  4. 7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...measures. (6) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO). NAPPO is...

  5. 7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...measures. (6) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO). NAPPO is...

  6. 7 CFR 371.3 - Plant protection and quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...measures. (6) Regulating the field release into the environment, interstate movement, and importation of genetically modified organisms. (7) Serving as a member of the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO). NAPPO is...

  7. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Plant protection data requirements. 161.540 Section 161...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Data Requirement Tables § 161.540...

  8. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Plant protection data requirements. 161.540 Section 161...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Data Requirement Tables § 161.540...

  9. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Plant protection data requirements. 161.540 Section 161...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Data Requirement Tables § 161.540...

  10. 40 CFR 161.540 - Plant protection data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Plant protection data requirements. 161.540 Section 161...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Data Requirement Tables § 161.540...

  11. Public Lakes, Private Lakeshore: Modeling Protection of Native Aquatic Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey ( n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property.

  12. Wind Power Plant Grounding, Overvoltage Protection, and Insulation Coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Camm, E H [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Behnke, M. R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bolado, O. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bollen, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bradt, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Brooks, C. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Dilling, W. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Edds, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Hejdak, W. J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Houseman, D. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Klein, S. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Li, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Maibach, P. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Nicolai, T. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Pasupulati, S. V. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Patino, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Samaan, N. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Saylors, S. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Siebert, T. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Smith, Travis M [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Walling, R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group

    2009-01-01

    Proper insulation coordination is critical to achieving expected life from wind plant equipment. The collector systems of large wind plants require the application of surge arresters to protect the equipment insulation from transient overvoltages. The application of surge arresters is constrained by maximum operating and temporary overvoltage levels. This paper provides a tutorial description of the process of selecting and applying surge arresters to wind plant medium voltage collector systems, with emphasis on the peculiar properties of this application.

  13. Are you prepared Protecting your hydro plant from lightning strikes

    SciTech Connect

    Clemen, D.M. (Harza Engineering Co., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1993-12-01

    A properly designed lightning protection system requires a basic understanding of the physics of lightning and the means available to both divert and conduct lightning stroke energy around structures. Once the basics are understood, an engineer can using existing codes and standards to design an effective protection scheme for a given structure. A well-implemented scheme ensures that direct or close-proximity lightning strokes will not cause forced outages of hydroturbine-generator units. Lightning protection should be a part of the design of any new hydroelectric plant. If protection was not provided when the project was constructed, rehabilitation projects and activities offer opportunities to make corrections.

  14. Amlioration des plantes Mthodologie de l'amlioration de bl tendre

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Amélioration des plantes Méthodologie de l'amélioration de blé tendre (Triticum aestivum L). I / choix des parents / comparaison de méthodes Summary — Breeding methodology in wheat (Triticum aestivum L).I. Creation and study of a 16-parent artifi- cial population. Recurrent selection, though

  15. Water protection in coke-plant design

    SciTech Connect

    G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  16. Plant biology and pathology \\/ Biologie et pathologie végétales Symbiotic microorganisms, a key for ecological success and protection of plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc-André Selosse; Ezékiel Baudoin; Philippe Vandenkoornhuyse

    Plant-associated microbial diversity encompasses symbionts, protecting their host against various aggressions. Mycorrhizal and rhizospheric microorganisms buffer effects of soil toxic compounds and soil-borne pathogens. Endophytic bacteria and fungi, some of which are vertically inherited through seeds, take part in plant protection by acting directly on aggressive factors (mainly pathogens and herbivores) or by enhancing plant responses. Plant protective microbial symbionts

  17. Regulatory guidance for lightning protection in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R. A.; Wilgen, J. B.; Ewing, P. D.; Korsah, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P. O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6007 (United States); Antonescu, C. E. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects. (authors)

  18. Regulatory Guidance for Lightning Protection in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Ewing, Paul D [ORNL; Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Antonescu, Christina E [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects.

  19. Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    2006-11-15

    Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Amlioration des plantes L'incompatibilit pollinique chez le clmentinier

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ; Studies on the fertilization process in the clementine: observations on pollen tube growth in the styles confirmer l'existence d'anomalies, non pas au niveau des relations stigmate-pollen, mais au niveau des process 3 varieties were studied in regard to the type of incompatibility and their ability

  1. Lightning protection of a pharmaceutical plant, measurements and modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bargboer; A. P. J. van Deursen

    2009-01-01

    The lightning protection of a pharmaceutical plant has been tested by current-injection on the structure. The study aims at two goals: 1) proof of safety by scaling the currents and voltage to lightning realistic values and 2) a comparison between measurements and a Method of Moments calculation. We measured the current distribution near the source and the induced currents and

  2. Diversity protects plant communities against generalist molluscan herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Yvonne; Sandau, Nadine; Bruggisser, Odile T; Kehrli, Patrik; Aebi, Alexandre; Rohr, Rudolf P; Naisbit, Russell E; Bersier, Louis-Félix

    2012-01-01

    Wildflower strips are used to increase natural enemies of crop pests and to conserve insect diversity on farmland. Mollusks, especially slugs, can affect the vegetation development in these strips considerably. Although recent theoretical work suggests that more diverse plant communities will exhibit greater resistance against herbivore pressure, empirical studies are scarce. We conducted a semi-natural experiment in wildflower strips, manipulating trophic structure (reduction in herbivorous mollusks and reduction in major predators) and plant diversity (2, 6, 12, 20 and 24 sown species). This design allowed us to assess the effect of plant diversity, biomass and composition on mollusks, and vice versa, the effect of mollusc abundance on vegetation. Seven species of mollusks were found in the strips, with the slugs Arion lusitanicus, Deroceras reticulatum and Deroceras panormitanum being most frequent. We found a negative relationship between plant diversity and mollusk abundance, which was due predominantly to a decrease in the agricultural pest species A. lusitanicus. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that plant diversity can reduce the impact of herbivores. However, plant identity also had an effect on mollusks, and accounted for a much larger fraction of the variation in mollusk communities than biodiversity effects. While overall plant diversity decreased during the 3 years of the study, in the final year the highest plant diversity was found in the plots where mollusk populations were experimentally reduced. We conclude that selective feeding by generalist herbivores leads to changes in plant community composition and hence reduced plant diversity. Our results highlight the importance of plant biodiversity as protection against generalist herbivores, which if abundant can in the long term negatively impact plant diversity, driving the system along a “low plant diversity – high mollusk abundance” trajectory. PMID:23145332

  3. Amlioration des plantes Corrlations gntiques, hritabilits et possibilits de

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    multilocale précoce sur le rendement chez le blé tendre d'hiver (Triticum aestivum L.) P. Brabant1 Y. Manes1 M'hiver (Triticum aestivum L.) commencent par des croisements entre deux, trois ou quatre lignées, rarement

  4. Risk assessment of riparian plant invasions into protected areas.

    PubMed

    Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; Rouget, Mathieu; Richardson, David M

    2007-04-01

    Protected areas are becoming increasingly isolated. River corridors represent crucial links to the surrounding landscape but are also major conduits for invasion of alien species. We developed a framework to assess the risk that alien plants in watersheds adjacent to a protected area will invade the protected area along rivers. The framework combines species- and landscape-level approaches and has five key components: (1) definition of the geographical area of interest, (2) delineation of the domain into ecologically meaningful zones, (3) identification of the appropriate landscape units, (4) categorization of alien species and mapping of their distribution and abundance, and (5) definition of management options. The framework guides the determination of species distribution and abundance through successive, easily followed steps, providing the means for the assessment of areas of concern. We applied the framework to Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa. We recorded 231 invasive alien plant species (of which 79 were major invaders) in the domain. The KNP is facing increasing pressure from alien species in the upper regions of the drainage areas of neighboring watersheds. On the basis of the climatic modeling, we showed that most major riparian invaders have the ability to spread across the KNP should they be transported down the rivers. With this information, KNP managers can identify areas for proactive intervention, monitoring, and resource allocation. Even for a very large protected area such as the KNP, sustainable management of biodiversity will depend heavily on the response of land managers upstream managing alien plants. We suggest that this framework is applicable to plants and other passively dispersed species that invade protected areas situated at the end of a drainage basin. PMID:17391191

  5. The Mars Plant Growth Experiment and Implications for Planetary Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Heather

    Plants are the ultimate and necessary solution for O2 production at a human base on Mars. Currently it is unknown if seeds can germinate on the Martian surface. The Mars Plant growth experiment (MPX) is a proposal for the first step in the development of a plant- based O2 production system by demonstrating plant germination and growth on the Martian surface. There is currently no planetary protection policy in place that covers plants on the Martian surface. We describe a planetary protection plan in compliance with NASA and COSPAR policy for a closed plant growth chamber on a Mars rover. We divide the plant growth chamber into two categories for planetary protection, the Outside: the outside of the chamber exposed to the Martian environment, and the Inside: the inside of the chamber which is sealed off from Mars atmosphere and contains the plant seeds and ancillary components for seed growth. We will treat outside surfaces of the chamber as other outside surfaces on the rover, wiped with a mixture of isopropyl alcohol and water as per Category IVb planetary protection requirements. All internal components of the MPX except the seeds and camera (including the water system, the plant growth stage and interior surface walls) will be sterilized by autoclave and subjected to sterilizing dry heat at a temperature of 125°C at an absolute humidity corresponding to a relative humidity of less than 25 percent referenced to the standard conditions of 0°C and 760 torr pressure. The seeds and internal compartments of the MPX in contact with the growth media will be assembled and tested to be free of viable microbes. MPX, once assembled, cannot survive Dry Heat Microbial Reduction. The camera with the radiation and CO2 sensors will be sealed in their own container and vented through HEPA filters. The seeds will be vernalized (microbe free) as per current Space Station methods described by Paul et al. 2001. Documentation of the lack of viable microbes on representative seeds from the same seed lot as used in the flight unit and lack of viable microbes in the interior of the MPX will be confirmed by the assay methods outlined in NASA HDBK 6022. In this method surfaces are swabbed and the cells collected on the swabs are extracted and then cultured following a standard protocol. All operations involving the manipulation of sterile items and sample processing shall be performed in laminar flow environments meeting Class 100 air cleanliness requirements of Federal Standard 209B. The entire MPX will be assembled in a sterile environment within a month of launch if possible, but could withstand an earlier assembly if required.

  6. Isoprene synthesis protects transgenic tobacco plants from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Claudia E; Possell, Malcolm; Cojocariu, Cristian I; Velikova, Violeta B; Laothawornkitkul, Jullada; Ryan, Annette; Mullineaux, Philip M; Nicholas Hewitt, C

    2009-05-01

    Isoprene emission represents a significant loss of carbon to those plant species that synthesize this highly volatile and reactive compound. As a tool for studying the role of isoprene in plant physiology and biochemistry, we developed transgenic tobacco plants capable of emitting isoprene in a similar manner to and at rates comparable to a naturally emitting species. Thermotolerance of photosynthesis against transient high-temperature episodes could only be observed in lines emitting high levels of isoprene; the effect was very mild and could only be identified over repetitive stress events. However, isoprene-emitting plants were highly resistant to ozone-induced oxidative damage compared with their non-emitting azygous controls. In ozone-treated plants, accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) was inhibited, and antioxidant levels were higher. Isoprene-emitting plants showed remarkably decreased foliar damage and higher rates of photosynthesis compared to non-emitting plants immediately following oxidative stress events. An inhibition of hydrogen peroxide accumulation in isoprene-emitting plants may stall the programmed cell death response which would otherwise lead to foliar necrosis. These results demonstrate that endogenously produced isoprene provides protection from oxidative damage. PMID:19183288

  7. Immune responses to hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of peste des petits ruminants virus expressed in transgenic peanut plants in sheep.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Abha; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Rajasekhar, Malleshappa; Sita, G Lakshmi; Shaila, Melkote S

    2011-04-15

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious disease of small ruminants caused by a morbillivirus, Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). The disease is prevalent in equatorial Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. A live attenuated vaccine is in use in some of the countries and has been shown to provide protection for at least three years against PPR. However, the live attenuated vaccine is not robust in terms of thermotolerance. As a step towards development of a heat stable subunit vaccine, we have expressed a hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of PPRV in peanut plants (Arachis hypogea) in a biologically active form, possessing neuraminidase activity. Importantly, HN protein expressed in peanut plants retained its immunodominant epitopes in their natural conformation. The immunogenicity of the plant derived HN protein was analyzed in sheep upon oral immunization. Virus neutralizing antibody responses were elicited upon oral immunization of sheep in the absence of any mucosal adjuvant. In addition, anti-PPRV-HN specific cell-mediated immune responses were also detected in mucosally immunized sheep. PMID:21211855

  8. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE).'' In response...

  9. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE), Draft Report for...

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-09-24

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The DOE has mandated in DOE Order 5400.1 that its operations will be conducted in an environmentally safe manner. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with DOE Order 5400.1 and will conduct its operations in a manner that ensures the safety of the environment and the public. This document outlines how the WIPP will protect and preserve groundwater within and surrounding the WIPP facility. Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. The WIPP groundwater surveillance program is designed to determine statistically if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will be determined and appropriate corrective action initiated.

  12. Amlioration des plantes Contrle de la puret des semences de base

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    000 dry seeds for sunflower (table I). The sample in an assay was compared to controls artificially. seed /minicircle / cytoplasmic male sterility/ sunflower / sugarbeet INTRODUCTION Pour produire des mâle cytoplasmique / tournesol / betterave Summary — Control of cytoplasmic male-sterile seed

  13. 77 FR 75606 - Renewal of the Plant Variety Protection Board Charter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...to developers of new varieties of plants, which are reproduced sexually by...tuber-propagated. A Certificate of Plant Variety Protection is awarded to...representing expertise in seed technology, plant breeding, and variety development,...

  14. Leaf mimicry in a climbing plant protects against herbivory.

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Ernesto; Carrasco-Urra, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Mimicry refers to adaptive similarity between a mimic organism and a model. Mimicry in animals is rather common, whereas documented cases in plants are rare, and the associated benefits are seldom elucidated [1, 2]. We show the occurrence of leaf mimicry in a climbing plant endemic to a temperate rainforest. The woody vine Boquila trifoliolata mimics the leaves of its supporting trees in terms of size, shape, color, orientation, petiole length, and/or tip spininess. Moreover, sequential leaf mimicry occurs when a single individual vine is associated with different tree species. Leaves of unsupported vines differed from leaves of climbing plants closely associated with tree foliage but did not differ from those of vines climbing onto leafless trunks. Consistent with an herbivory-avoidance hypothesis, leaf herbivory on unsupported vines was greater than that on vines climbing on trees but was greatest on vines climbing onto leafless trunks. Thus, B. trifoliolata gains protection against herbivory not merely by climbing and thus avoiding ground herbivores [3] but also by climbing onto trees whose leaves are mimicked. Unlike earlier cases of plant mimicry or crypsis, in which the plant roughly resembles a background or color pattern [4-7] or mimics a single host [8, 9], B. trifoliolata is able to mimic several hosts. PMID:24768053

  15. Direction des Ressources Humaines Gestion Prvisionnelle des

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    et des plantes transgéniques (OGM). Contraintes / sujétions particulières du poste : Déplacements à l produits toxiques, des produits contaminants et des plantes transgéniques (OGM) CONNAISSANCES REQUISES #12

  16. Immune responses to hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of peste des petits ruminants virus expressed in transgenic peanut plants in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abha Khandelwal; Gourapura. J. Renukaradhya; Malleshappa Rajasekhar; G. Lakshmi Sita; Melkote S. Shaila

    2011-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious disease of small ruminants caused by a morbillivirus, Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). The disease is prevalent in equatorial Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. A live attenuated vaccine is in use in some of the countries and has been shown to provide protection for at least

  17. Development of a Dual Recombinant Vaccine To Protect Small Ruminants against Peste-des-Petits-Ruminants Virus and Capripoxvirus Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Berhe; C. Minet; C. Le Goff; T. Barrett; A. Ngangnou; C. Grillet; G. Libeau; M. Fleming; D. N. Black; A. Diallo

    2003-01-01

    A recombinant capripoxvirus vaccine containing a cDNA of the peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) fusion protein gene was constructed. A quick and efficient method was used to select a highly purified recombinant virus clone. A trial showed that a dose of this recombinant as low as 0.1 PFU protected goats against challenge with a virulent PPRV strain.

  18. UNPALATABLE PLANTS PROTECT NEIGHBORS FROM GRAZING AND INCREASE PLANT COMMUNITY DIVERSITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ragan M. Callaway; David Kikodze; Marina Chiboshvili; Liana Khetsuriani

    2005-01-01

    2 Institute of Botany of the Georgian Academy of Sciences, 1 Kojori Road, 380007, Tbilisi, Georgia Abstract. Tasty plants can be protected from herbivores by unpalatable neighbors. We used experimental exclosures, removal of unpalatable species, and transplants of palatable and unpalatable species in subalpine meadows of the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia to study the effects of two unpalatable species on

  19. [Occurrence of plant protection product residues in apples in 2007].

    PubMed

    Machowska, Anna; S?owik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Szpyrka, Ewa; Sad?o, Stanis?aw

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to present occurrence of plant protection product residues in apples in 2007. Gas chromatographic and spectroscopy methods were used. The most frequently found were fungicides: dithiocarbamate residues (18% of the analysed samples), captan residues (13%), pyrimethanil residues (6%) and insecticides: chlorpiryfos residues (6%), diazinon residues (6%) and pirimicarb residues (5%). 5.6% of analysed samples exceeded the national Maximum Residue Level established for apples. Violations were found for: flusilazole (n = 2), propiconazole (n = 2), cyprodinil (n = 1), dimethoate (n = 1), fenitrothion (n = 1). PMID:19143426

  20. Carbohydrates in plant immunity and plant protection: roles and potential application as foliar sprays

    PubMed Central

    Trouvelot, Sophie; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Poinssot, Benoît; Gauthier, Adrien; Paris, Franck; Guillier, Christelle; Combier, Maud; Trdá, Lucie; Daire, Xavier; Adrian, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest is devoted to carbohydrates for their roles in plant immunity. Some of them are elicitors of plant defenses whereas other ones act as signaling molecules in a manner similar to phytohormones. This review first describes the main classes of carbohydrates associated to plant immunity, their role and mode of action. More precisely, the state of the art about perception of “PAMP, MAMP, and DAMP (Pathogen-, Microbe-, Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns) type” oligosaccharides is presented and examples of induced defense events are provided. A particular attention is paid to the structure/activity relationships of these compounds. The role of sugars as signaling molecules, especially in plant microbe interactions, is also presented. Secondly, the potentialities and limits of foliar sprays of carbohydrates to stimulate plant immunity for crop protection against diseases are discussed, with focus on the roles of the leaf cuticle and phyllosphere microflora. PMID:25408694

  1. When defense backfires: Detrimental effect of a plant’s protective trichomes on an insect beneficial to the plant

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Eisner, Maria; Hoebeke, E. Richard

    1998-01-01

    The plant Mentzelia pumila (family Loasaceae) has leaves and stems densely covered with tiny hooked trichomes. The structures entrap and kill insects and therefore are most probably protective. But they are also maladaptive in that they incapacitate a coccinellid beetle (Hippodamia convergens) that preys upon an aphid enemy (Macrosiphum mentzeliae) of the plant. The adaptive benefit provided by the trichomes is evidently offset by a cost. PMID:9539750

  2. Application of recombinant DNA technology to plant protection: molecular approaches to engineering virus resistance in crop plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Pappu; C. L. Niblett; R. F. Lee

    1995-01-01

    Developments in plant tissue culture, plant transformation and regeneration, and improvements in techniques to isolate and manipulate viral genes have led to the exploitation of the concept of ‘cross protection’: turning the virus onto itself and controlling it with its own genes. By introducing and expressing genes of viral origin in crop plants, scientists have engineered resistance to several plant

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  4. N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria protect plants against plant and human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Reyes, Casandra; Schenk, Sebastian T; Neumann, Christina; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of beneficial microorganisms for plant protection has a long history. Many rhizobia bacteria are able to influence the immune system of host plants by inducing resistance towards pathogenic microorganisms. In this report, we present a translational approach in which we demonstrate the resistance-inducing effect of Ensifer meliloti (Sinorhizobium meliloti) on crop plants that have a significant impact on the worldwide economy and on human nutrition. Ensifer meliloti is usually associated with root nodulation in legumes and nitrogen fixation. Here, we suggest that the ability of S. meliloti to induce resistance depends on the production of the quorum-sensing molecule, oxo-C14-HSL. The capacity to enhanced resistance provides a possibility to the use these beneficial bacteria in agriculture. Using the Arabidopsis-Salmonella model, we also demonstrate that the application of N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria could be a successful strategy to prevent plant-originated infections with human pathogens. PMID:25234390

  5. Protective immune response of live attenuated thermo-adapted peste des petits ruminants vaccine in goats.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, V; Sen, A; Venkatesan, G; Bhanuprakash, V; Singh, R K

    2014-01-01

    Virulent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) of Indian origin (PPRV Jhansi 2003) initially adapted in Vero cells was further propagated in thermo-adapted (Ta) Vero cells grown at 40 °C for attaining thermo-adaption and attenuation of virus for development of Ta vaccine against PPR in goats and sheep. The virus was attenuated up to 50 passages in Ta Vero cells, at which, the virus was found sterile, innocuous in mice and guinea pigs and safe in seronegative goats and sheep. The developed vaccine was tested for its immunogenicity in goats and sheep by subcutaneous inoculation of 100 TCID50 (0.1 field dose), 10(3) TCID50 (one field dose) and 10(5) TCID50 (100 field doses) of the attenuated virus along with controls as per OIE described protocols for PPR vaccine testing and were assessed for PPRV-specific antibodies 7-28 days post vaccination (dpv) by PPR competitive ELISA and serum neutralization tests. The PPRV antibodies were detected in all immunized goats and sheep and goats were protective when challenged with virulent PPRV at 28th dpv along with controls for potency testing of the vaccine. The attenuated vaccine did not induce any adverse reaction at high dose (10(5) TCID50) in goats and sheep and provided complete protection even at low dose (10(2) TCID50) in goats when challenged with virulent virus. There was no shedding and horizontal transmission of the attenuated virus to in-contact controls. The results indicate that the developed PPR Ta attenuated virus is innocuous, safe, immunogenic and potent or efficacious vaccine candidate alternative to the existing vaccines for the protection of goats and sheep against PPR in the tropical countries like India. PMID:25674603

  6. A formal software requirements specification method for digital nuclear plant protection systems

    E-print Network

    of software requirements for instrumentation and control system for nuclear power plant has become the subject plant protection system in nuclear power plants. NuSCR improves the readability and specifiability those in aerospace, satellite and nuclear power plants, whose failure could result in danger to human

  7. Andre MARQUET-HAVELANGE, L'eau au travers des cellules vgtales : un parcours sous haute surveillance ! Printemps des Sciences consacr au thme de l'Eau -Observatoire du Monde des Plantes -UniversitdeLige-21-29mars2001

    E-print Network

    Liège, Université de

    Andrée MARQUET-HAVELANGE, L'eau au travers des cellules végétales : un parcours sous haute -UniversitédeLiège-21-29mars2001 1/2 Module « Observatoire du Monde des Plantes » L'eau au travers des cellules végétales : un parcours sous haute surveillance ! Cellule végétale La cellule végétale est entourée d

  8. In vitro maintenance and cryopreservation of Plant Variety Protection vouchers germplasm of Solanum tuberosum cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS, National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation maintains the voucher germplasm of Plant Variety Protection (PVP) potato (S. tuberosum) cultivars registered with the U.S. Plant Variety Protection Office. The potato cultivars are deposited at the Center as tissue culture and are main...

  9. Analyses of Plant Protection Major Job-Oriented Teaching Reform Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang-fan Gao; Ming-wang Shi; Yue-tao Li

    2010-01-01

    The paper is concerned about a teaching and learning reform of Plant protection Major. The student employment of this Major is a system engineering and Employment rate is one of the important indicators of its. This article analyses the problems that exist in the reform of the teaching of plant protection majors, and explores the way of intensifying the reform

  10. Plant Protect. Sci. Vol. 39, No. 2: 6164 Cereal aphids are a serious problem in wheat

    E-print Network

    Kratochvíl, Lukas

    growths of three cereal aphid species on winter wheat. Plant Protect. Sci., 39: 61­64. Population growths61 Plant Protect. Sci. Vol. 39, No. 2: 61­64 Cereal aphids are a serious problem in wheat growing (e.g. D 1987). In Central Europe, three species are serious pests of winter wheat: Metopolo- phium

  11. Protection versus culture-driven exploitation of wild plant resources: the case on Changbai Mountain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baihong Qu; Wei Li; Yanqiu Chen; Jisheng Liu

    2011-01-01

    Under Chinese culture it is believed that herbal medicine is always safe and wild food is always healthy. Generally, the rarer a plant, the higher its value. The booming economy in China has promoted tourism development in wilderness areas and wild medicinal and food plants are part of the attraction to tourists. Conflicts between wild plant exploitation and protection have

  12. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

  13. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

  14. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

  15. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

  16. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants...70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at a plutonium processing and...

  17. When Defense Backfires: Detrimental Effect of a Plant's Protective Trichomes on an Insect Beneficial to the Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Eisner; Maria Eisner; E. Richard Hoebeke

    1998-01-01

    The plant Mentzelia pumila (family Loasaceae) has leaves and stems densely covered with tiny hooked trichomes. The structures entrap and kill insects and therefore are most probably protective. But they are also maladaptive in that they incapacitate a coccinellid beetle (Hippodamia convergens) that preys upon an aphid enemy (Macrosiphum mentzeliae) of the plant. The adaptive benefit provided by the trichomes

  18. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redman, R.S.; Freeman, S.; Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) 'plant-defense' response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and -susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1 colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  19. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    SciTech Connect

    Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States) Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Botany); Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States)); Freeman, S. (Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1999-02-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) plant-defense response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and-susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  20. Novel enabling technologies of gene isolation and plant transformation for improved crop protection

    SciTech Connect

    Torok, Tamas

    2013-02-04

    Meeting the needs of agricultural producers requires the continued development of improved transgenic crop protection products. The completed project focused on developing novel enabling technologies of gene discovery and plant transformation to facilitate the generation of such products.

  1. Safety and Advantages of Bacillus thuringiensis-Protected Plants to Control Insect Pests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred S. Betz; Bruce G. Hammond; Roy L. Fuchs

    2000-01-01

    Plants modified to express insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (referred to as Bt-protected plants) provide a safe and highly effective method of insect control. Bt-protected corn, cotton, and potato were introduced into the United States in 1995\\/1996 and grown on a total of approximately 10 million acres in 1997, 20 million acres in 1998, and 29 million acres globally in

  2. A Domain-Specific Safety Analysis for Digital Nuclear Plant Protection Systems

    E-print Network

    a domain-specific point of view. In the RPS (Reactor Protection System) in nuclear power plants, the most of nuclear reactor protection systems specified with NuSCR requirement formal specification language of nuclear reactors, which is the most important event in the domain. Within the domain specific restrictions

  3. Expression of protective antigen in transgenic plants: a step towards edible vaccine against anthrax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohd. Azhar Aziz; Samer Singh; P Anand Kumar; Rakesh Bhatnagar

    2002-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA) is the most potent molecule for vaccination against anthrax. In the present study, we have successfully integrated protective antigen gene in nuclear genome of tobacco plants by Agrobacterium mediated leaf-disc transformation method. Expression of protective antigen gene was detected by immunoblot analysis using antisera raised against purified PA. A distinct band of ?83kDa lighted up in the

  4. Pathogenesis-Related Proteins for the Plant Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Borad; S. Sriram

    2008-01-01

    Fungi are far more complex organisms than viruses or bacteria and can developed numerous diseases in plants that cause loss of big portion of the crop every year. Plants have developed various mechanisms to defend themselves against these fungi which include the production of low molecular weight secondary metabolites, proteins and peptides having antifungal activity. In this review, brief information

  5. 40 CFR 158.2250 - Nontarget plant protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Residential and public access premises. (5) Medical premises and equipment. (6) Human...aquatic plant growth Tier II study exceeds a level of concern for aquatic plants. 3. Not...hydrolytic half-life is less than 5 days at pH 5, 7, and 9; or iii. The...

  6. The Impacts of Macroergonomics on Environmental Protection and Human Performance in Power Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Azadeh; J Nouri; I Mohammad Fam

    2005-01-01

    Human and his performance is a vital factor in protection of asset including environmental properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of total system design factors (TSD) on human performance in a power plant. The TSD factors are defined as design factors, which have impact on overall performance of the power plants in context of total

  7. Distribution, cenotic characteristic and protection of habitats of plants of the Bern Convention in East Polesye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLEKSANDR LUKASH

    The author reports on the results of the studies on distribution, cenotic characteristic and analysis of protection of habitats of plants of the Bern Convention in East Polesye. In 1995- 2006 the species of plants, which are given in the list of Appendix I of \\

  8. Salicylic Acid Protects Potato Plants-from Phytoplasma-associated Stress and Improves Tuber Photosynthate Assimilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Sánchez-Rojo; Humberto A. López-Delgado; Martha E. Mora-Herrera; Humberto I. Almeyda-León; Hilda Araceli Zavaleta-Mancera; David Espinosa-Victoria

    2011-01-01

    During a pathogen attack, cells triggers the overproduction of reactive oxygen species causing oxidative stress and physiological\\u000a damage. Plants develop strategies using these reactive molecules for protection against pathogen attack. Phytoplasma are bacteria\\u000a lacking cell walls that inhabit plant phloem and reduce yield, tuber quality, and commercial harvest value. Sprayed salicylic\\u000a acid (SA) activated plant defense response against phytoplasma attack

  9. Nuclear plant-aging research on reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the rsults of a review of the Reactor Trip System (RTS) and the Engineered Safety Feature Actuating System (ESFAS) operating experiences reported in Licensee Event Reports (LER)s, the Nuclear Power Experience data base, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, and plant maintenance records. Our purpose is to evaluate the potential significance of aging, including cycling, trips, and testing as contributors to degradation of the RTS and ESFAS. Tables are presented that show the percentage of events for RTS and ESFAS classified by cause, components, and subcomponents for each of the Nuclear Steam Supply System vendors. A representative Babcock and Wilcox plant was selected for detailed study. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research guidelines were followed in performing the detailed study that identified materials susceptible to aging, stressors, environmental factors, and failure modes for the RTS and ESFAS as generic instrumentation and control systems. Functional indicators of degradation are listed, testing requirements evaluated, and regulatory issues discussed.

  10. When defense backfires: detrimental effect of a plant's protective trichomes on an insect beneficial to the plant.

    PubMed

    Eisner, T; Eisner, M; Hoebeke, E R

    1998-04-14

    The plant Mentzelia pumila (family Loasaceae) has leaves and stems densely covered with tiny hooked trichomes. The structures entrap and kill insects and therefore are most probably protective. But they are also maladaptive in that they incapacitate a coccinellid beetle (Hippodamia convergens) that preys upon an aphid enemy (Macrosiphum mentzeliae) of the plant. The adaptive benefit provided by the trichomes is evidently offset by a cost. PMID:9539750

  11. DEVELOPPEMENT DE L'ESPECE ET CONSERVATION DES RACES. ABEL GRUVEL (1870-1941) ET LA PROTECTION DE LA NATURE DANS LES CO-

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    DEVELOPPEMENT DE L'ESPECE ET CONSERVATION DES RACES. ABEL GRUVEL (1870-1941) ET LA PROTECTION DE LA stations de biologie marine de la fin du XIX ème siècle et de la zoo- logie appliquée à l'agriculture, Abel protection dans les Co- lonies. Avec une approche particulière de la zoologie, entre science pure et science

  12. De-novo design of antimicrobial peptides for plant protection.

    PubMed

    Zeitler, Benjamin; Herrera Diaz, Areli; Dangel, Alexandra; Thellmann, Martha; Meyer, Helge; Sattler, Michael; Lindermayr, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the de-novo design of peptides that inhibit a broad range of plant pathogens. Four structurally different groups of peptides were developed that differ in size and position of their charged and hydrophobic clusters and were assayed for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth and fungal spore germination. Several peptides are highly active at concentrations between 0,1 and 1 µg/ml against plant pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Importantly, no hemolytic activity could be detected for these peptides at concentrations up to 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the peptides are also active after spraying on the plant surface demonstrating a possible way of application. In sum, our designed peptides represent new antimicrobial agents and with the increasing demand for antimicrobial compounds for production of "healthy" food, these peptides might serve as templates for novel antibacterial and antifungal agents. PMID:23951222

  13. Protection of goats against peste des petits ruminants with recombinant capripoxviruses expressing the fusion and haemagglutinin protein genes of rinderpest virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Romero; T. Barrett; R. P. Kitching; C. Bostock; D. N. Black

    1995-01-01

    Goats were protected against a lethal challenge of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus following vaccination with a recombinant capripoxvirus containing either the fusion (F) gene of rinderpest virus or the haemagglutinin (H) gene of rinderpest virus. The H gene recombinant produced high titres of neutralizing antibody to rinderpest virus in the vaccinated goats, whereas the F gene recombinant failed

  14. APHIS Industry Alert Plant Protection and Quarantine September 2012

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    of agricultural products and commodities, including baled hay, out of areas under quarantine for the pest. USDA to prevent the movement and establishment of the imported fire ant, the U.S. Depart- ment of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) seeks to facilitate the safe movement

  15. Biotechnological Approaches in Plant Protection: Achievements, New Initiatives and Prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the latest developments in the application of biotechnology to solve crop looses due to fungal disease. These include marker-assisted breeding, map-based cloning of genes, and development of transgenic plants. New areas of investigation which hold much promise are gene silenci...

  16. PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANT CROP MONITORING USING REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extent of past and anticipated plantings of transgenic corn in the United States requires a new approach to monitor this important crop for the development of pest resistance. Remote sensing by aerial and/or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pest...

  17. Tundra plants protect the soil surface from UV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin A. Hughes; Kerstin Scherer; Trond Svenøe; Petra Rettberg; Gerda Horneck; Pete Convey

    2006-01-01

    In the Arctic, seasonal ozone depletion is resulting in periods of enhanced UV-B radiation at ground level while regional climate change is associated with increasing temperatures. These changes are likely to alter plant distribution, biodiversity and morphology, which may have knock-on effects for microbially driven biogeochemical cycling and other soil processes. Our study examined the transmission of solar UV radiation

  18. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES IN PLANT PROTECTION: ACHIEVEMENTS, NEW INITIATIVES AND PROSPECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the latest developments in the application of biotechnology to solve crop looses due to fungal disease. These include marker-assisted breeding, map-based cloning of genes, and development of transgenic plants. New areas of investigation which hold much promise are gene silenci...

  19. Indian medicinal plants as a reservoir of protective phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Arora, Saroj; Kaur, Kamaljit; Kaur, Swayamjot

    2003-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the world so it has a vital stake in conservation and sustainable utilization of its biodiversity resources. Plant secondary metabolites have been of interest to man for a long time due to their pharmacological relevance. With this in view, the bark powder of Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Juglans regia, and the fruit powder of Terminalia bellerica, T. chebula, Emblica officinalis, and a combination drug "Triphala," which are known to be rich in polyphenols, were tested for their antimutagenic activities. Antimutagenic activities of the extracts were estimated by employing the plate incorporation Ames Salmonella histidine reversion assay by using the frame shift mutagen tester strain TA98 and base pair substitution strain TA100 against direct acting mutagens (NPD, sodium azide), and the S9-dependent mutagen 2-aminofluorene(2AF). Acetone extracts of all the plants exhibited significant antimutagenic activities among the other extracts tested, but an acetone extract of Acacia nilotica showed a marked anti-mutagent effect. Furthermore, it was more effective against indirect acting mutagen, 2AF, in both TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium than against the direct acting mutagens. The results indicate that an acetone extract of bark and fruit of the medicinal plants under study harbors constituents with promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that could be investigated further. PMID:12616620

  20. Rencontres Gosynthtiques 2011 VALUATION DE LA PROTECTION CONTRE L'ENDOMMAGEMENT DES

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    drainage layer, then during the life of the landfill site, in relation with the weight of waste, poinçonnement, protection, essais. ABSTRACT ­ Geotextiles are used in the constitution of landfill lining

  1. UVR8 mediated plant protective responses under low UV-B radiation leading to photosynthetic acclimation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suruchi; Agrawal, S B; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-08-01

    The UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 regulates the expression of several genes leading to acclimation responses in plants. Direct role of UVR8 in maintaining the photosynthesis is not defined but it is known to increase the expression of some chloroplastic proteins like SIG5 and ELIP. It provides indirect protection to photosynthesis by regulating the synthesis of secondary metabolites and photomorphogenesis. Signaling cascades controlled by UVR8 mediate many protective responses thus promotes plant acclimation against stress and secures its survival. PMID:24780386

  2. Generation of protective immune response against anthrax by oral immunization with protective antigen plant-based vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gorantala, Jyotsna; Grover, Sonam; Rahi, Amit; Chaudhary, Prerna; Rajwanshi, Ravi; Sarin, Neera Bhalla; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2014-04-20

    In concern with frequent recurrence of anthrax in endemic areas and inadvertent use of its spores as biological weapon, the development of an effective anthrax vaccine suitable for both human and veterinary needs is highly desirable. A simple oral delivery through expression in plant system could offer promising alternative to the current methods that rely on injectable vaccines extracted from bacterial sources. In the present study, we have expressed protective antigen (PA) gene in Indian mustard by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and in tobacco by plastid transformation. Putative transgenic lines were verified for the presence of transgene and its expression by molecular analysis. PA expressed in transgenic lines was biologically active as evidenced by macrophage lysis assay. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral immunization with plant PA in murine model indicated high serum PA specific IgG and IgA antibody titers. PA specific mucosal immune response was noted in orally immunized groups. Further, antibodies indicated lethal toxin neutralizing potential in-vitro and conferred protection against in-vivo toxin challenge. Oral immunization experiments demonstrated generation of immunoprotective response in mice. Thus, our study examines the feasibility of oral PA vaccine expressed in an edible plant system against anthrax. PMID:24548460

  3. Genetic Structure, Diversity and Long Term Viability of a Medicinal Plant, Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham. (Icacinaceae), in Protected and Non-Protected Areas in the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Shivaprakash, K. Nagaraju; Ramesha, B. Thimmappa; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Dayanandan, Selvadurai; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Question The harvesting of medicinal plants from wild sources is escalating in many parts of the world, compromising the long-term survival of natural populations of medicinally important plants and sustainability of sources of raw material to meet pharmaceutical industry needs. Although protected areas are considered to play a central role in conservation of plant genetic resources, the effectiveness of protected areas for maintaining medicinal plant populations subject to intense harvesting pressure remain largely unknown. We conducted genetic and demographic studies of Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham, one of the extensively harvested medicinal plant species in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India to assess the effectiveness of protected areas in long-term maintenance of economically important plant species. Methodology/Principal Findings The analysis of adults and seedlings of N. nimmoniana in four protected and four non-protected areas using 7 nuclear microsatellite loci revealed that populations that are distributed within protected areas are subject to lower levels of harvesting and maintain higher genetic diversity (He?=?0.816, Ho?=?0.607, A?=?18.857) than populations in adjoining non-protected areas (He?=?0.781, Ho?=?0.511, A?=?15.571). Furthermore, seedlings in protected areas had significantly higher observed heterozygosity (Ho?=?0.630) and private alleles as compared to seedlings in adjoining non-protected areas (Ho?=?0.426). Most populations revealed signatures of recent genetic bottleneck. The prediction of long-term maintenance of genetic diversity using BOTTLESIM indicated that current population sizes of the species are not sufficient to maintain 90% of present genetic diversity for next 100 years. Conclusions/Significance Overall, these results highlight the need for establishing more protected areas encompassing a large number of adult plants in the Western Ghats to conserve genetic diversity of economically and medicinally important plant species. PMID:25493426

  4. Thyme to touch: Infants possess strategies that protect them from dangers posed by plants

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, Annie E.; Wynn, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been central to human life as sources of food and raw materials for artifact construction over evolutionary time. But plants also have chemical and physical defenses (such as harmful toxins and thorns) that provide protection from herbivores. The presence of these defenses has shaped the behavioral strategies of non-human animals. Here we report evidence that human infants possess strategies that would serve to protect them from dangers posed by plants. Across two experiments, infants as young as eight months exhibit greater reluctance to manually explore plants compared to other entities. These results expand the growing literature showing that infants are sensitive to certain ancestrally recurrent dangers, and provide a basis for further exploration. PMID:24161794

  5. Thyme to touch: infants possess strategies that protect them from dangers posed by plants.

    PubMed

    Wertz, Annie E; Wynn, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Plants have been central to human life as sources of food and raw materials for artifact construction over evolutionary time. But plants also have chemical and physical defenses (such as harmful toxins and thorns) that provide protection from herbivores. The presence of these defenses has shaped the behavioral strategies of non-human animals. Here we report evidence that human infants possess strategies that would serve to protect them from dangers posed by plants. Across two experiments, infants as young as eight months exhibit greater reluctance to manually explore plants compared to other entities. These results expand the growing literature showing that infants are sensitive to certain ancestrally recurrent dangers, and provide a basis for further exploration. PMID:24161794

  6. Indirect Contributions of AM Fungi and Soil Aggregation to Plant Growth and Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristine A. Nichols

    \\u000a Ecological and biological engineering contribute indirectly to the fitness of the soil environment and promote plant growth\\u000a and protection. This engineering modifies soil physical, chemical, and biological attributes to enhance nutrient cycling,\\u000a increase soil organic matter, and improve soil quality. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, under most conditions, improve\\u000a plant growth directly by providing greater and more efficient access via fungal

  7. INTRODUCTION Cocaine is a neurotoxin that protects the coca plant (Erythroxylem

    E-print Network

    Ha, Taekjip

    163 INTRODUCTION Cocaine is a neurotoxin that protects the coca plant (Erythroxylem spp.) from herbivory by critically disrupting insect motor control (Nathanson et al., 1993). In humans, cocaine is also reward' (Sullivan et al., 2008). Solutions to this paradox often propose that cocaine evolved to deter

  8. FIELD ASSESSMENT OF INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT (IRM) FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED-PROTECTANTS (PIPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of target pest resistance to the products of transgene[s], e.g., plant-incorporated protectants is a serious risk both to the sustainability of these crops and to the wider utility of environmentally soft microbial pesticides. Therefore, the EPA requires growers...

  9. The Main Environmental Driving Forces of the Invasive Plant Species in the Romanian Protected Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Dumitrascu; Ines Grigorescu; Mihaela Nastase; Carmen Dragota; Gheorghe Kucsicsa

    2010-01-01

    The invasive flora of Romania currently includes more than 400 species (13.87% of the Romanian flora) and according to the third National Report of Biological Diversity Convention, six of them are tree species. Within the protected areas, some of the most representative invasive plant species (IPS) are: Amorpha fruticosa in Balta Mica a Brailei National Park, Ailanthus altissima in Muntii

  10. PROTECTION DES VERRES D'OPTIQUE ET MIROIRS ALUMINIS Par Mlle FLAMANT.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the protective film of Al2O3 chemical means have given moderate results. LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ET LE RADIUM facilement altérables. Les surfaces de ces verres, après avoir été soigneusement polies, ont été recouvertes

  11. Anti-corrosion protection for structural members and buildings at metallurgical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Strebkov, V.T. [Chelyabinsk Meteorology Plant, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-06-01

    This article describes anti-corrosion measures implemented by the contractor Ankor to protect the metal structures in existing shops at the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant. The method used to choose the coating system and technology is described along with the practical application of an effective method for protecting metal structures from corrosion. The anti-corrosion protection given natural draft cooling tower No. 1 at the coke and coal chemicals plant is used as an example. At a low cost in materials, the coating application system proposed by the contractor made it possible to guarantee a service life of 6-7 years for the metal structures, decrease the consumption of paint and lacquer by 18%, reduce the job cost by 20%, and complete the repair on schedule.

  12. An ants-eye view of an ant-plant protection mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Lanan, M. C.; Bronstein, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Ant protection of extrafloral nectar-secreting plants (EFN plants) is a common form of mutualism found in most habitats around the world. However, very few studies have considered these mutualisms from the ant, rather than the plant, perspective. In particular, a whole-colony perspective that takes into account the spatial structure and nest arrangement of the ant colonies that visit these plants has been lacking, obscuring when and how colony-level foraging decisions might affect tending rates on individual plants. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that recruitment of Crematogaster opuntiae (Buren) ant workers to the extrafloral nectar-secreting cactus Ferocactus wislizeni (Englem) is not independent between plants up to 5m apart. Colony territories of C. opuntiae are large, covering areas of up to 5000m2, and workers visit between five and thirty-four extrafloral nectar-secreting barrel cacti within the territories. These ants are highly polydomous, with up to twenty nest entrances dispersed throughout the territory and interconnected by trail networks. Our study demonstrates that worker recruitment is not independent within large polydomous ant colonies, highlighting the importance of considering colonies rather than individual workers as the relevant study unit within ant/plant protection mutualisms PMID:23515612

  13. The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange; tectonic setting and melange formation in the Quebec Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, P.A. (Universite du Quebec, Chicoutimi (Canada))

    1991-01-01

    The Riviere des Plante ophiolitic Melange (RPOM) is the largest and best exposed of the three known ophiolitic melanges that contain blocks of Chain Lakes Massif (CLM). All three lie along the Baie Verte-Brompton line, which marks the suture between the continental rocks of the Humber zone and the oceanic rocks of the Dunnage zone. The ophiolitic melange is composed of: serpentinized ultramafic rocks, some of which are sheared and/or carbonatized; blocks of amphibolitized gabbro; basalt; volcanogenic breccia; and conglomerates. It also contains continental K-rich granitoid rocks and high-grade metamorphic (upper amphibolite facies) rocks. The RPOM is part of the Saint-Daniel Melange, an accretionary prism onto which the RPOM has been tectonically emplaced. The CLM was part of a terrane accreted to the Laurentian margin during the Taconian orogeny. Blocks of the CLM along the Baie Verte-Brompton line are interpreted as fragments of this terrane caught within the suture zone. It is proposed that the CLM could be the equivalent of Grenville-derived greywacke originally laid down during the phase of continental rifting that led to the formation of the Iapetus Ocean and was later tectonized and metamorphosed during the Taconian and Acadian orogenies. The RPOM would represent the relic of a serpentinite diapir that rose within a deep oceanic fault. The presence of continental rocks like the CLM suggest that a continental magmatic arc was put in contact with an oceanic crust along this fault.

  14. Amlioration des plantes tude de la diversit gntique du bl tendre.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'utilisation des généalogies déclarées s'est avérée indispensable. Triticum aestivum / distance génétique. Triticum aestivum / genetic distance / pedigree / diversity / wheat storage protein INTRODUCTION L

  15. Protection of Nuclear Plants Against Vehicular Bombs Via Full Spectrum Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Campagna, M. S.; Sawruk, W.

    2003-02-25

    A more urgent need now exists since 9/11 to protect vital assets at nuclear plants from physical security threats. Any approach to successful defense must result in the best possible risk profile , while also performing this defense against credible threats within the context of limited personnel and materiel resources. Engineered solutions need to be well thought out, and take advantage of each plant's available organic strengths and opportunities. A robust, well trained/equipped highly motivated protective force will help reduce concerns where there are weaknesses making the plant vulnerable to threats. A thorough risk assessment takes into account the proper combination of both deterministic and probabilistic application of resources as a most advantageous approach; this is postulated to be development of integrated protection methods and plans, which blend solid engineering design with the highest caliber of protection forces. By setting a clear and ambitious objective to shield the nuclear assets with this type of dynamic full spectrum defense in depth, the risk of harm-breach or likelihood of any opponent's threat being realized should be reduced to the lowest practicable levels.

  16. Amlioration des plantes (synthse) Les cultures in vitro chez les lgumineuses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ,2 Mha. Puis viennent le pois, la fève, le lupin ainsi que les Vigna. Dans ces régions, les progrès des des espèces légumi- #12;neuses concernées (soja, arachide, pois, févero- le, lupin essentiellement

  17. Selenium accumulation protects plants from herbivory by Orthoptera via toxicity and deterrence.

    PubMed

    Freeman, John L; Lindblom, Stormy Dawn; Quinn, Colin F; Fakra, Sirine; Marcus, Matthew A; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2007-01-01

    To investigate whether selenium (Se) accumulation in plants provides a chemical defense against generalist insect herbivores, the feeding preference and performance of a mix of orthopteran species were investigated. The selenium hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata and accumulator Brassica juncea were used in herbivory studies in the laboratory, and S. pinnata was also used in a manipulative field experiment. In laboratory studies, both crickets and grasshoppers avoided plants pretreated with selenate, while those given no choice died after eating leaves with elevated Se (447 +/- 68 and 230 +/- 68 microg Se g(-1) DW, respectively). B. juncea has previously been shown to accumulate selenate, while S. pinnata hyperaccumulates methyl-selenocysteine. Thus, these findings demonstrate that both inorganic and organic forms of selenium protect plants from herbivory. Grasshoppers fed S. pinnata contained methylselenocysteine in their midgut and absorbed this form into surrounding tissues. In a manipulative field experiment, methylselenocysteine protected S. pinnata from invertebrate herbivory and increased its long-term survival rate over an entire growth season. * In native habitats of selenium hyperaccumulators, orthopterans represent a major group of insect herbivores. Protection offered by organic selenium accumulation against these herbivores may have promoted the evolution of selenium hyperaccumulation in plants. PMID:17635224

  18. Plant cytochromes P450: tools for pharmacology, plant protection and phytoremediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Morant; Søren Bak; Birger Lindberg Møller; Danièle Werck-Reichhart

    2003-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 catalyse extremely diverse and often complex regiospecific and\\/or stereospecific reactions in the biosynthesis or catabolism of plant bioactive molecules. Engineered P450 expression is needed for low-cost production of antineoplastic drugs such as taxol or indole alkaloids and offers the possibility to increase the content of nutraceuticals such as phytoestrogens and antioxidants in plants. Natural products may serve important

  19. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Arjan – Parishan protected area in Fars Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhahi, Mehdi; Dolatkhahi, Ali; Nejad, Javad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Today, medicinal plants are widely used in remedies for several ailments and improvement of human health because of their pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to document important useful medicinal plants and their medicinal characteristics for treatment of human ailments in the Arjan _ Parishan protected area in Fars province of Iran during 2010-2012. Materials and Methods : Data were obtained using direct interviews with 80 informants particularly those who were more familiar with the herbs and their medicinal properties. Collected plants were recognized and families, genera, and species determined using indispensable references. In this paper, scientific name, local name, parts used, and ways of application and ailments treated using traditional medicinal plant species have been provided. Results : We documented 85 plant species belonging to 39 families and 78 genera used for treating ailments. Among which, Asteraceae with 13 species was the most frequently used family and fruits and leaves were the favored parts for local users. Our results indicated that in this area, the highest compliance in the use of plants in treating ailments were related to the intestinal digestive system (40.8%). Conclusion : The present study is the first contribution to the ethnobotany of this region. Our results showed that some plants are used for medicinal purposes in this region, either for the same or for different purposes. Generally, the results of the present investigation can be used as a basis for selecting useful medicinal plants and also help to preserve precious information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. PMID:25386404

  20. Protection of Operators and Environment - the Safety Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, J.; Kuttruf, H.; Lumpp, W.; Pfeifer, W.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.

    2002-02-26

    The Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) plant is a milestone in decommissioning and complete dismantling of the former Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant WAK, which is in an advanced stage of disassembly. The VEK is scheduled to vitrify approx. 70 m3 of the highly radioactive liquid waste (HLW) resulting from reprocessing. Site preparation, civil work and component manufacturing began in 1999. The building will be finalized by mid of 2002, hot vitrification operation is currently scheduled for 2004/2005. Provisions against damages arising from construction and operation of the VEK had to be made in accordance with the state of the art as laid down in the German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Regulations. For this purpose, the appropriate analysis of accidents and their external and internal impacts were investigated. During the detailed design phase, a failure effects analysis was carried out, in which single events were studied with respect to the objectives of protection and ensuring activity containment, limiting radioactive discharges to the environment and protecting of the staff. Parallel to the planning phase of the VEK plant a cold prototype test facility (PVA) covering the main process steps was constructed and operated at the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) of FZK. This pilot operation served to demonstrate the process technique and its operation with a simulated waste solution, and to test the main items of equipment, but was conducted also to use the experimental data and experience to back the safety concept of the radioactive VEK plant. This paper describes the basis of the safety concept of the VEK plant and results of the failure effect analysis. The experimental simulation of the failure scenarios, their effect on the process behavior, and the controllability of these events as well as the effect of the results on the safety concept of VEK are discussed. Additionally, an overview of the actual status of civil work and manufacturing of the technical equipment is given.

  1. Strategies to protect crop plants against viruses: pathogen-derived resistance blossoms.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, T M

    1993-01-01

    Since 1986, the ability to confer resistance against an otherwise devastating virus by introducing a single pathogen-derived or virus-targeted sequence into the DNA of a potential host plant has had a marked influence on much of the research effort, focus, and short-term objectives of plant virologists throughout the world. The vast literature on coat protein-mediated protection, for example, attests to our fascination for unraveling fundamental molecular mechanism(s), our (vain) search for a unifying hypothesis, our pragmatic interest in commercially exploitable opportunities for crop protection, and our ingenuity in manipulating transgene constructions to broaden their utility and reduce real or perceived environmental risk issues. Other single dominant, pathogen-derived plant resistance genes have recently been discovered from a wide variety of viruses and are operative in an ever-increasing range of plant species. Additional candidates seem limited only by the effort invested in experimentation and by our ingenuity and imagination. This review attempts to consider, in a critical way, the current state of the art, some exceptions, and some proposed rules. The final impression, from all the case evidence considered, is that normal virus replication requires a subtle blend of host- and virus-coded proteins, present in critical relative concentrations and at specific times and places. Any unregulated superimposition of interfering protein or nucleic acid species can, therefore, result in an apparently virus-resistant plant phenotype. PMID:8475051

  2. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the electrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14

    The Electrochemical Plant (ECP) is the one of the Russian Federation`s four uranium enrichment plants and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. ECP is located approximately 200 km east of Krasnoyarsk in the closed city of Zelenogorsk (formerly Krasnoyarsk- 45). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with ECP in September of 1996. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with ECP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at ECP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  3. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the Urals electrochemical integrated plant

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) is the Russian Federation`s largest uranium enrichment plant and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. UEIP is located approximately 70 km north of Yekaterinburg in the closed city of Novouralsk (formerly Sverdlovsk- 44). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with UEIP in June of 1996, however because of some contractual issues the work did not start until September of 1997. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with UEIP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at UEIP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  4. A plant-based oral vaccine to protect against systemic intoxication by Shiga toxin type 2.

    PubMed

    Wen, Sharon X; Teel, Louise D; Judge, Nicole A; O'Brien, Alison D

    2006-05-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome, the leading cause of kidney failure in children, often follows infection with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and is mediated by the Shiga type toxins, particularly type 2 (Stx2), produced by such strains. The challenge in protecting against this life-threatening syndrome is to stimulate an immune response at the site of infection while also protecting against Shiga intoxication at distal sites such as the kidney. As one approach to meeting this challenge, we sought to develop and characterize a prototypic orally delivered, plant-based vaccine against Stx2, an AB5 toxin. First, we genetically inactivated the Stx2 active A subunit gene and then optimized both subunit genes for expression in plants. The toxoid genes were then transformed into the Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) cell line NT-1 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Toxoid expression was detected in NT-1 cell extracts, and the assembly of the holotoxoid was confirmed. Finally, mice were immunized by feeding with the toxoid-expressing NT-1 cells or by parenteral immunization followed by oral vaccination (prime-boost strategy). The immunized mice produced Stx2-specific mucosal IgA and Stx2-neutralizing serum IgG. The protective efficacy of these responses was assessed by challenging the immunized mice with E. coli O91:H21 strain B2F1, an isolate that produces an activatable variant of Stx2 (Stx2d) and is lethal to mice. The oral immunization fully protected mice from the challenge. Results of this study demonstrated that a plant-based oral vaccine can confer protection against lethal systemic intoxication. PMID:16641102

  5. Laboratory evaluation of four medicinal plants as protectants against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Mots)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Arannilewa; T. Ekrakene; J. O. Akinneye

    The petroleum ether extract of four medicinal plants; Aristolochia ringens (Vahl), Allium sativum (L), Ficus exasperata (L) and Garcinia kola (H), were evaluated as grain protectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Mots) in the laboratory at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (w\\/v) concentrations. Parameters assessed were adult mortality, rate of adult emergence, grain damage effect and weevil peforation index (WPI).

  6. Common vole (Microtus arvalis) ecology and management: implications for risk assessment of plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jens; Manson, Phil; Barfknecht, Ralf; Fredricks, Timothy

    2014-06-01

    Common voles (Microtus arvalis) are common small mammals in some European landscapes. They can be a major rodent pest in European agriculture and they are also a representative generic focal small herbivorous mammal species used in risk assessment for plant protection products. In this paper, common vole population dynamics, habitat and food preferences, pest potential and use of the common vole as a model small wild mammal species in the risk assessment process are reviewed. Common voles are a component of agroecosystems in many parts of Europe, inhabiting agricultural areas (secondary habitats) when the carrying capacity of primary grassland habitats is exceeded. Colonisation of secondary habitats occurs during multiannual outbreaks, when population sizes can exceed 1000 individuals ha(-1) . In such cases, in-crop common vole population control management has been practised to avoid significant crop damage. The species' status as a crop pest, high fecundity, resilience to disturbance and intermittent colonisation of crop habitats are important characteristics that should be reflected in risk assessment. Based on the information provided in the scientific literature, it seems justified to modify elements of the current risk assessment scheme for plant protection products, including the use of realistic food intake rates, reduced assessment factors or the use of alternativee focal rodent species in particular European regions. Some of these adjustments are already being applied in some EU member states. Therefore, it seems reasonable consistently to apply such pragmatic and realistic approaches in risk assessments for plant protection products across the EU. PMID:24293354

  7. Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 protects fungal cell walls against hydrolysis by plant chitinases accumulating during infection.

    PubMed

    van den Burg, Harrold A; Harrison, Stuart J; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Vervoort, Jacques; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2006-12-01

    Resistance against the leaf mold fungus Cladosporium fulvum is mediated by the tomato Cf proteins which belong to the class of receptor-like proteins and indirectly recognize extracellular avirulence proteins (Avrs) of the fungus. Apart from triggering disease resistance, Avrs are believed to play a role in pathogenicity or virulence of C. fulvum. Here, we report on the avirulence protein Avr4, which is a chitin-binding lectin containing an invertebrate chitin-binding domain (CBM14). This domain is found in many eukaryotes, but has not yet been described in fungal or plant genomes. We found that interaction of Avr4 with chitin is specific, because it does not interact with other cell wall polysaccharides. Avr4 binds to chitin oligomers with a minimal length of three N-acetyl glucosamine residues. In vitro, Avr4 protects chitin against hydrolysis by plant chitinases. Avr4 also binds to chitin in cell walls of the fungi Trichoderma viride and Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli and protects these fungi against normally deleterious concentrations of plant chitinases. In situ fluorescence studies showed that Avr4 also binds to cell walls of C. fulvum during infection of tomato, where it most likely protects the fungus against tomato chitinases, suggesting that Avr4 is a counter-defensive virulence factor. PMID:17153926

  8. Assessment of ethylene diurea-induced protection in plants against ozone phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya Abha; Singh, Shalini; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization, industrialization and unsustainable utilization of natural resources have made tropospheric ozone (03) one of the world's most significant air pollutants. Past studies reveal that 0 3 is a phytotoxic air pollutant that causes or enhances food insecurity across the globe. Plant sensitivity, tolerance and resistance to 0 3 involve a wide array of responses that range from growth to the physiological, biochemical and molecular. Although plants have an array of defense systems to combat oxidative stress from 0 3 exposure, they still suffer sizable yield reductions. In recent years, the ground-level 0 3 concentrations to which crop plants have been exposed have caused yield loses that are economically damaging. Several types of chemicals have been applied or used to mitigate the effects produced by 0 3 on plants. These include agrochemicals (fungicides, insecticides, plant growth regulators), natural antioxidants, and others. Such treatments have been effective to one degree to another, in ameliorating Or generated stress in plants. Ethylene diurea (EDU) has been the most effective protectant used and has also served as a monitoring agent for assessing plant yield losses from 0 3 exposure. In this review, we summarize the data on how EDU has been used, the treatment methods tested, and application doses found to be both protective and toxic in plants. We have also summarized data that address the nature and modes of action (biophysical and biochemical) of EDU. In general, the literature discloses that EDU is effective in reducing ozone damage to plants, and indicates that EDU should be more widely used on 0 3 sensitive plants as a tool for biomonitoring of 0 3 concentrations. Biomonitoring studies that utilize EDU are very useful for rural and remote areas and in developing countries where 0 3 monitoring is constrained from unavailability of electricity. The mechanism(s) by which EDU prevents 0 3 toxicity in plants is still not completely known. EDU possesses great utility for screening plant sensitivity under field conditions in areas that experience high 0 3 concentrations, because EDU prevents 0 3 toxicity only in 0 3 sensitive plants. Ozone-resistant plants do not respond positively to EDU applications. However, EDU application dose and frequency must be standardized before it can be effectively and widely used for screening 0 3 sensitivity in plants. EDU acts primarily by enhancing biochemical plant defense and delaying Or induced senescence, thereby reducing chlorophyll loss, and maintaining physiological efficiency and primary metabolites; these actions enhance growth, biomass and yield of plants. We believe that future studies are needed to better address the EDU dose response relationship for many plant species, and to screen for new cultivars that can resist 0 3 stress. Although some research on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of action of EDU have been performed, the new 'omics' tools have not been utilized to evaluate EDUs mechanism of action. Such data are needed, as is gene expression and proteome profiling studies on EDU-treated and -untreated plants. PMID:25367135

  9. Do fungivores trigger the transfer of protective metabolites from host plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae?

    PubMed

    Duhamel, Marie; Pel, Roel; Ooms, Astra; Bücking, Heike; Jansa, Jan; Ellers, Jacintha; van Straalen, Nico M; Wouda, Tjalf; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Kiers, E Toby

    2013-09-01

    A key objective in ecology is to understand how cooperative strategies evolve and are maintained in species networks. Here, we focus on the tri-trophic relationship between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, host plants, and fungivores to ask if host plants are able to protect their mutualistic mycorrhizal partners from being grazed. Specifically, we test whether secondary metabolites are transferred from hosts to fungal partners to increase their defense against fungivores. We grew Plantago lanceolata hosts with and without mycorrhizal inoculum, and in the presence or absence of fungivorous springtails. We then measured fungivore effects on host biomass and mycorrhizal abundance (using quantitative PCR) in roots and soil. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to measure host metabolites in roots, shoots, and hyphae, focusing on catalpol, aucubin, and verbascoside. Our most striking result was that the metabolite catalpol was consistently found in AM fungal hyphae in host plants exposed to fungivores. When fungivores were absent, catalpol was undetectable in hyphae. Our results highlight the potential for plant-mediated protection of the mycorrhizal hyphal network. PMID:24279273

  10. Thermal tolerance affects mutualist attendance in an ant-plant protection mutualism.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Ginny; Lanan, Michele C; Bronstein, Judith L

    2014-09-01

    Mutualism is an often complex interaction among multiple species, each of which may respond differently to abiotic conditions. The effects of temperature on the formation, dissolution, and success of these and other species interactions remain poorly understood. We studied the thermal ecology of the mutualism between the cactus Ferocactus wislizeni and its ant defenders (Forelius pruinosus, Crematogaster opuntiae, Solenopsis aurea, and Solenopsis xyloni) in the Sonoran Desert, USA. The ants are attracted to extrafloral nectar produced by the plants and, in exchange, protect the plants from herbivores; there is a hierarchy of mutualist effectiveness based on aggression toward herbivores. We determined the relationship between temperature and ant activity on plants, the thermal tolerance of each ant species, and ant activity in relation to the thermal environment of plants. Temperature played a role in determining which species interact as mutualists. Three of the four ant species abandoned the plants during the hottest part of the day (up to 40 °C), returning when surface temperature began to decrease in the afternoon. The least effective ant mutualist, F. pruinosus, had a significantly higher critical thermal maximum than the other three species, was active across the entire range of plant surface temperatures observed (13.8-57.0 °C), and visited plants that reached the highest temperatures. F. pruinosus occupied some plants full-time and invaded plants occupied by more dominant species when those species were thermally excluded. Combining data on thermal tolerance and mutualist effectiveness provides a potentially powerful tool for predicting the effects of temperature on mutualisms and mutualistic species. PMID:25012597

  11. Insecticidal activity of plant lectins and potential application in crop protection.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Oliveira, Caio F R; Oliveira, Carolina T

    2015-01-01

    Lectins constitute a complex group of proteins found in different organisms. These proteins constitute an important field for research, as their structural diversity and affinity for several carbohydrates makes them suitable for numerous biological applications. This review addresses the classification and insecticidal activities of plant lectins, providing an overview of the applicability of these proteins in crop protection. The likely target sites in insect tissues, the mode of action of these proteins, as well as the use of lectins as biotechnological tools for pest control are also described. The use of initial bioassays employing artificial diets has led to the most recent advances in this field, such as plant breeding and the construction of fusion proteins, using lectins for targeting the delivery of toxins and to potentiate expected insecticide effects. Based on the data presented, we emphasize the contribution that plant lectins may make as tools for the development of integrated insect pest control strategies. PMID:25633332

  12. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the plant protection schedule taken up for main crop and for intercrops, but was least in the insecticide sprayed to both the crops. Data on interaction of intercropping and plant protection schedules indicated that Bt cotton with chilli as intercrop and with zero plant protection showed the highest population of P-solubilizers, N2 fixers as well as urease and phosphatase activities at 135 days of crop growth. Similarly, population of total bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were highest in the treatment of Bt cotton + chilli + onion with zero protection but were on par with the treatment Bt cotton + chilli with zero protection at 135 days of crop growth. Dehydrogenase activity was found to be the highest in the treatment of Bt cotton + redgram with zero protection at 135 days of crop growth. Our studies showed harmful effects of insecticide sprays on soil microflora and enzyme activities.

  13. Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Awl, D.J.; Pounds, L.R.; Rosensteel, B.A.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1996-06-01

    Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T&E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T&E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to listed species. T&E plant species found on or near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are identified. Twenty-eight species identified on the ORR are listed by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation as either endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Four of these have been under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for possible listing (listed in the formerly-used C2 candidate category). Additional species listed by the state occur near and may be present on the ORR. A range of habitats support the rare taxa on the ORR: river bluffs, sinkholes, calcareous barrens, wetlands, utility corridors, and forests. The list of T&E plant species and their locations on the ORR should be considered provisional because the entire ORR has not been surveyed, and state and federal status of all species continues to be updated. The purpose of this document is to present information on the listed T&E plant species currently known to occur on the ORR as well as listed species potentially occurring on the ORR based on geographic range and habitat availability. For the purpose of this report, {open_quotes}T&E species{close_quotes} include all federal- and state-listed species, including candidates for listing, and species of special concern. Consideration of T&E plant habitats is an important component of resource management and land-use planning; protection of rare species in their natural habitat is the best method of ensuring their long-term survival.

  14. SYMPOSIUM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC PROGRAMS FOR MONITORING ECOLOGICAL IMPACT FROM PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Historically, monitoring programs in association with field releases of crops with plant incorporated protectants (PIPs) have been, explicitly or implicitly, called for as a part of risk assessment/management schemes or regulatory agenda. However...

  15. The role of selenium in protecting plants against prairie dog herbivory: implications for the evolution of selenium hyperaccumulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin F. Quinn; John L. Freeman; Miriam L. Galeas; Erin M. Klamper; Elizabeth A. H. Pilon-Smits

    2008-01-01

    Some plants can hyperaccumulate the element selenium (Se) up to 10,000 mg Se kg?1 dry weight. Hyperaccumulation has been hypothesized to defend against herbivory. In laboratory studies high Se levels protect\\u000a plants from invertebrate herbivores and pathogens. However, field studies and mammalian herbivore studies that link Se accumulation\\u000a to herbivory protection are lacking. In this study a combination of field surveys

  16. A new class of plant lipid is essential for protection against phosphorus depletion.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yozo; Otsuki, Hitomi; Narisawa, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Makoto; Sawai, Satoru; Kamide, Yukiko; Kusano, Miyako; Aoki, Toshio; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Saito, Kazuki

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus supply is a major factor responsible for reduced crop yields. As a result, plants utilize various adaptive mechanisms against phosphorus depletion, including lipid remodelling. Here we report the involvement of a novel plant lipid, glucuronosyldiacylglycerol, against phosphorus depletion. Lipidomic analysis of Arabidopsis plants cultured in phosphorus-depleted conditions revealed inducible accumulation of glucuronosyldiacylglycerol. Investigation using a series of sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol synthesis-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis determined that the biosynthesis of glucuronosyldiacylglycerol shares the pathway of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol synthesis in chloroplasts. Under phosphorus-depleted conditions, the Arabidopsis sqd2 mutant, which does not accumulate either sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol or glucuronosyldiacylglycerol, was the most severely damaged of three sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol-deficient mutants. As glucuronosyldiacylglycerol is still present in the other two mutants, this result indicates that glucuronosyldiacylglycerol has a role in the protection of plants against phosphorus limitation stress. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol was also found in rice, and its concentration increased significantly following phosphorus limitation, suggesting a shared physiological significance of this novel lipid against phosphorus depletion in plants. PMID:23443538

  17. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Auclair

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order

  18. Protection of Oilseed Rape ( Brassica napus ) Toward Fungal Pathogens by Strains of Plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesper Danielsson; Oleg Reva; Johan Meijer

    2007-01-01

    In this report, four Bacillus strains were tested for effects on plant fitness and disease protection of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The strains belonged to newly discovered plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and a recently proposed species, Bacillus endophyticus. The fungal pathogens tested represented different infection strategies and included Alternaria brassicae, Botrytis cinerea, Leptosphaeria maculans, and Verticillium longisporum. The B. amyloliquefaciens strains

  19. Amlioration des plantes Teneur en ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ) leaves. Effects of genotype and cutting stage. The content of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase correlation between these trends and the variations in climatic data (temperature, period of sunshine/oxy- génase (EC 4.1.1.39 de la classification interna- tionale des enzymes) ou rubisco est la protéine la plus

  20. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid ?-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid ? (A?) peptide. A? is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds’ aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on A? (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the Folin–Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against A?-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on A?-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in A?-induced HIPN. RESULTS: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from A? treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the A?-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. CONCLUSION: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against A?-mediated cell death. PMID:23833520

  1. Fire protection of safe shutdown capability at commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, K.

    1993-07-01

    The comprehensive industrial safety standards and codes that exist today have evolved from lessons learned through past experience, research results, and improvements in technological capabilities. The current requirements for fire safety features of commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US are a notable example of this practice. Although fire protection has always been an important design requirement, from the aftermath of a serious fire that occurred in 1975 at the Browns Ferry plant, it was learned that the life safety and property protection concerns of the major fire insurance underwriters may not sufficiently encompass nuclear safety issues, particularly with regard to the potential for fire damage to result in the common mode failure of redundant trains of systems, and components important to the safe shutdown of the reactor. Following its investigations into the Browns Ferry fire, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated guidance documents, which ultimately developed into mandatory regulations, necessary to assure the implementation of a fire protection program that would address nuclear safety concerns. The new criteria that evolved, contain prescriptive design features, as well as personnel and administrative requirements the Commission determined to be necessary to provide a defense-in-depth level of protection against the hazards of fire and its associated effects on safety related equipment. These criteria are primarily contained in Appendix R of Title 10 to the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50). Since 1983, various members of the Department of Nuclear Energy (DNE) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have provided technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of its evaluations of fire protection features implemented at commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US. This paper presents a discussion of the insights gained by the author during his active participation in this area.

  2. The role of selenium in protecting plants against prairie dog herbivory: implications for the evolution of selenium hyperaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Colin F; Freeman, John L; Galeas, Miriam L; Klamper, Erin M; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2008-03-01

    Some plants can hyperaccumulate the element selenium (Se) up to 10,000 mg Se kg(-1) dry weight. Hyperaccumulation has been hypothesized to defend against herbivory. In laboratory studies high Se levels protect plants from invertebrate herbivores and pathogens. However, field studies and mammalian herbivore studies that link Se accumulation to herbivory protection are lacking. In this study a combination of field surveys and manipulative field studies were carried out to determine whether plant Se accumulation in the field deters herbivory by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). The Se hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus (two-grooved milkvetch) occurs naturally on seleniferous soils in the Western USA, often on prairie dog colonies. Field surveys have shown that this Se hyperaccumulator is relatively abundant on some prairie dog colonies and suffers less herbivory than other forb species. This protection was likely owing to Se accumulation, as judged from subsequent manipulative field experiments. When given a choice between pairs of plants of the Se hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (prince's plume) that were pretreated with or without Se, prairie dogs preferred to feed on the plants with low Se; the same results were obtained for the non-hyperaccumulator Brassica juncea (Indian mustard). Plants containing as little as 38 mg Se kg(-1) DW were protected from herbivory. Taken together these results shed light on the functional significance of Se hyperaccumulation and the possible selection pressures driving its evolution. They also have implications for the use of plants in Se phytoremediation, or as Se-fortified crops. PMID:18278517

  3. Portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Berardinelli, S.P.; Rusczek, R.A.; Mickelsen, R.L.

    1987-10-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisorpropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals; nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protective clothing for its intended use.

  4. A portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant.

    PubMed

    Berardinelli, S P; Rusczek, R A; Mickelsen, R L

    1987-09-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisopropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals: nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however, provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protection clothing for its intended use. PMID:3687741

  5. Correlation between Sun Protection Factor and Antioxidant Activity, Phenol and Flavonoid Contents of some Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Enayatifard, Reza; Khalili, Masoumeh; Ghaffarloo, Mahdieh; Saeedi, Majid; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Long exposure of UV radiation increases risk of skin diseases such as cancer and photoallergic reactions. UV-B (280-320 nm) radiation is mainly responsible for inducing the skin problems. Skin protection is a suitable method against ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Various synthetic agents have been used as photo protective but because of their potential toxicity in humans, they have limited usage. Natural substances have been recently considered as potential sunscreen resources due to their absorption in the UV region and their antioxidant activity. In the present study, the UV protective effects of 20 extracts from four common medicinal plants were evaluated. Their phenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities were determined and correlation between SPF and these contents were evaluated. SPFs were between 0.102 and 24.470. The highest value was reached with ultrasonic extract of Crataegus pentagyna (SPF = 24.47) followed by methanolic extract of Feijoa sellowiana (SPF = 1.30). Good correlation was found between SPF and phenolic contents (Correlation Coefficient = 0.55 and p = 0.01) but no correlations were found between SPF and flavonoid contents or antioxidant activity. These extracts can be used alone or as additives in other sun screen formulations to enhance their SPF. PMID:25276206

  6. Correlation between Sun Protection Factor and Antioxidant Activity, Phenol and Flavonoid Contents of some Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Enayatifard, Reza; Khalili, Masoumeh; Ghaffarloo, Mahdieh; Saeedi, Majid; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Long exposure of UV radiation increases risk of skin diseases such as cancer and photoallergic reactions. UV-B (280-320 nm) radiation is mainly responsible for inducing the skin problems. Skin protection is a suitable method against ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Various synthetic agents have been used as photo protective but because of their potential toxicity in humans, they have limited usage. Natural substances have been recently considered as potential sunscreen resources due to their absorption in the UV region and their antioxidant activity. In the present study, the UV protective effects of 20 extracts from four common medicinal plants were evaluated. Their phenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities were determined and correlation between SPF and these contents were evaluated. SPFs were between 0.102 and 24.470. The highest value was reached with ultrasonic extract of Crataegus pentagyna (SPF = 24.47) followed by methanolic extract of Feijoa sellowiana (SPF = 1.30). Good correlation was found between SPF and phenolic contents (Correlation Coefficient = 0.55 and p = 0.01) but no correlations were found between SPF and flavonoid contents or antioxidant activity. These extracts can be used alone or as additives in other sun screen formulations to enhance their SPF. PMID:25276206

  7. Étude de l’activité des huiles essentielles de plantes aromatiques à propriétés antifongiques sur les différentes étapes du développement des dermatophytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ouraïni; A. Agoumi; M. Ismaïli-Alaoui; K. Alaoui; Y. Cherrah; M. Amrani; M.-A. Belabbas

    2005-01-01

    Résumé: Le travail que nous avons réalisé a été consacré à l’étude de l’activité fongitoxique (action fongistatique et fongicide) des huiles essentielles sur la germination, la croissance mycélienne et la sporulation des dermatophytes responsables de multiples mycoses chez l’homme.

  8. Predation and aggressiveness in host plant protection: a generalization using ants from the genus Azteca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Grangier, Julien; Leroy, Céline; Orivel, Jerôme

    2009-01-01

    In studying the ant genus Azteca, a Neotropical group of arboreal species, we aimed to determine the extent to which the ants use predation and/or aggressiveness to protect their host plants from defoliating insects. We compared a territorially dominant, carton-nester, Azteca chartifex, and three plant-ant species. Azteca alfari and Azteca ovaticeps are associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) and their colonies shelter in its hollow branches; whereas Azteca bequaerti is associated with Tococa guianensis (Melastomataceae) and its colonies shelter in leaf pouches situated at the base of the laminas. Whereas A. bequaerti workers react to the vibrations transmitted by the lamina when an alien insect lands on a leaf making it unnecessary for them to patrol their plant, the workers of the three other species rather discover prey by contact. The workers of all four species use a predatory behaviour involving spread-eagling alien insects after recruiting nestmates at short range, and, in some cases, at long range. Because A. alfari and A. ovaticeps discard part of the insects they kill, we deduced that the workers’ predatory behaviour and territorial aggressiveness combine in the biotic defence of their host tree.

  9. A bivalent vaccine against goat pox and Peste des Petits ruminants induces protective immune response in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madhusudan Hosamani; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Bimalendu Mondal; Arnab Sen; V. Bhanuprakash; Santanu Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Mahendra Pal Yadav; Raj Kumar Singh

    2006-01-01

    Safety and immunogenicity of an experimental combined vaccine comprising attenuated strains of Peste des Petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and goat poxvirus (GTPV) was evaluated in goats. Goats immunized subcutaneously with 1ml of vaccine consisting of 103TCID50 of each of PPRV and GTPV were monitored for clinical and serological responses for a period of 4 weeks postimmunization (pi) and postchallenge (pc).

  10. Activités antibactériennes des huiles essentielles de trois plantes aromatiques de Côte-d'Ivoire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gérard Koukoua; Coffi Kanko; Nathalie Guessend; Séri Yolou; Mireille Dosso; Yao Thomas N'Guessan; Gilles Figueredo; Jean-Claude Chalchat

    2004-01-01

    Antibacterial activities of essential oils of three aromatic plants from Ivory Coast. The essential oils of three aromatic plants from Ivory Coast (Ocimum gratissimum, Ocimum canum, Monodora myristica) tested on 14 bacteria have revealed bactericidal and bacteriostatic activities. The essential oils of Ocimum canum and Ocimum gratissimum act against almost all bacteria studied. To cite this article: K.R. Oussou et al.,

  11. Protection des ions organiques contre les dommages induits a l'ADN par les electrons de basse energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Ariane

    Il a ete demontre que les electrons de basse energie (EBE) peuvent induire des cassures simple brin (CSB) a l'ADN, via la formation d'anions transitoires qui decroissent par attachement dissociatif, ou dans d'autres etats electroniques dissociatifs menant a la fragmentation. Afin d'effectuer une etude complete des effets des electrons de basse energie sur la matiere biologique, il est necessaire de comprendre leur mecanismes d'interaction non seulement avec l'ADN, mais avec les constituants de son environnement. Les histones sont une composante importante de l'environnement moleculaire de l'ADN. Leur charge positive leur permet de s'associer aux groupements phosphate anionique de l'ADN. Le role principal de ces proteines basiques consiste a organiser l'ADN et l'empaqueter afin de former la chromatine. Les cations sont une autre composante importante de la cellule; ils jouent un role dans la stabilisation de la conformation B de l'ADN in vitro par leurs interactions avec les petits et grands sillons de l'ADN, ainsi qu'avec le groupement phosphate charge negativement. Avec les histones, ils participent egalement a la compaction de l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Cette etude a pour but de comprendre comment la presence d'ions organiques (sous forme de Tris et d'EDTA) a proximite de l'ADN modifie le rendement de cassures simple brin induit par les electrons de basse energie. Le Tris et l'EDTA ont-ete choisis comme objet d'etude, puisqu'en solution, ils forment le tampon standard pour solubiliser l'ADN dans les experiences in vitro (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA). De plus, la molecule Tris possede un groupement amine alors que l'EDTA possede 4 groupements carboxyliques. Ensembles, ils peuvent se comporter comme un modele simple pour les acides amines. Le ratio molaire de 10 :1 de Tris par rapport a l'EDTA a pour but d'imiter le comportement des histones qui sont riches en arginine et lysine, acides amines possedant un groupement amine charge positivement additionnel. Des films d'ADN de differentes epaisseurs, possedant entre 0 et 32 ions organiques/ nucleotide, ont ete irradies avec des electrons de 10eV. Les dommages induits par les electrons, sous forme de cassures, ont ete detectes par electrophorese. Nous avons demontre que le rendement de cassure simple brin diminuait de facon dramatique en fonction du nombre d'ions organiques/ nucleotide. Aussi peu que 2 ions organiques/ nucleotide sont suffisant pour decroitre le rendement de SSB de 70%. Cet effet radioprotecteur est en partie explique par l'augmentation de l'epaisseur des films, mais surtout par la modification du champ electrique a proximite de l'ADN, due a l'ajout de molecules chargees positivement. La modification du champ electrique pres de l'ADN altere les parametres de resonance comme le temps de vie de l'anion transitoire et la limite de dissociation, qui influent directement sur la section efficace d'attachement dissociatif. L'effet protecteur peut egalement etre explique par la restauration des bases anioniques deshydrogenees induites par l'attachement dissociatif de l'electron sur une base (G(-H)-). Ce sont les molecules Tris qui, en transferant un atome d'hydrogene ou un proton, restaurent les bases deshydrogenees et inhibent par le fait meme la formation de cassures simple brin. Ces resultats indiquent que les histones peuvent egalement participer a la reparation de dommages precoces induits a l'ADN avant qu'elles ne menent a des dommages encore plus nocifs et difficiles a reparer, comme les cassures simples brins. Mots cles : Electrons de basse energie, dommage a l'ADN, ions organiques, attachement dissociatif de l'electron.

  12. Benefits of protective fencing to plant and rodent communities of the western Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Matthew L.

    1995-01-01

    Human disturbance in the western Mojave Desert takes many forms. The most pervasive are livestock grazing and off-highway vehicle use. Over the past few decades several areas within this region have been fenced to preclude human disturbance. These areas provide opportunities to study the impact of human activities in a desert ecosystem. This paper documents the response of plant and small mammal populations to fencing constructed between 1978 and 1979 at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural Area, Kern County, California. Aboveground live annual plant biomass was generally greater inside than outside the fenced plots during April 1990, 1991, and 1992. The alien grass Schismus barbatus was a notable exception, producing more biomass in the unprotected area. Forb biomass was greater than that of alien annual grasses inside the fence during all three years of the study. Outside the fence, forb biomass was significantly higher than that of alien grasses only during spring 1992. Percent cover of perennial shrubs was higher inside the fence than outside, while no significant trend was detected in density. There was als more seed biomass inside the fence; this may have contributed to the greater diversity and density of Merriam's kangaroo rats ( Dipodomys merriami), long-tailed pocket mice ( Chaetodipus formosus), and southern grasshopper mice ( Onychomys torridus) in the protected area. These results show that protection from human disturbance has many benefits, including greater overall community biomass and diversity. The significance and generality of these results can be further tested by studying other exclosures of varying age and configurations in different desert regions of the southwestern United States.

  13. PVC flexible liners as corrosion protection for brine treatment tanks in chlor-alkali plants

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-de-Obanos, M. [Petroquimica de Venezuela, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela); Marin, S. [Univ. Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1999-11-01

    Three flexible PVC sheets were evaluated to determine their suitability as liners to protect existing steel tanks handling treated brine at 55 C in a membrane technology Chlor-Alkali plants. The evaluation included: characterization of liners and plasticizers (by Soxhlet technique, Infrared Spectroscopy (IRS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC)); quantification of brine pollutants by Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES) and weight-loss/volume ratios; observation of the superficial damage produced by extended immersion in acid hot brine by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); and the estimation of remaining properties in high temperature oxidative atmospheres (per ASTM D 3045). As a result of this evaluation, remaining property curves as a function of time and temperature are presented for high temperature atmospheric exposure. These curves are related to actual service and to changes in liner hardness. Economics of using flexible PVC liners are compared to flakeglass filled thermosetting coatings. The conclusions are that, even though flexible PVC linings are disposable, they protect steel against hot acid brine corrosion, and they are economically attractive compared to flakeglass filled coatings. In addition PVC linings may be more reliable because remaining PVC properties can be measured using nondestructive hardness measurements. PVC linings are not recommended above 65 C in corrosive service because life is notably reduced.

  14. Evaluation experimentale de l'efficacite des gants de protection contre les nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane dans des conditions de travail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinches, Ludwig

    Manufactured titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) enter into the formulation of several commercial products including cosmetics, paints, varnishes or food. An increasing number of people will be exposed to nanoparticles (NP), in particular, scientists during their research and workers in companies. As such, they are an emerging source of hazard. Indeed, an increasing number of studies are warning against their likely harmful effects on health. The International Agency for Research against Cancer has classified nTiO2 as being possibly carcinogenic to humans. Furthermore some studies have shown that the skin is not an impervious membrane to the NP and that NP penetration is possible when the skin is injured by abrasion, after repeated flexions or even intact. Therefore, dermal protection will be necessary in order to thoroughly protect NP users. Based upon the precautionary principle, gloves should be used as protection against chemicals. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study on their resistance towards NP has been conducted. In this study, the performance of protective gloves was evaluated with respect to nTiO2 solutions and powders, under conditions simulating occupational use. Mechanical deformations, simulating those produced by hand flexing, were applied to nitrile and butyl rubber and latex samples that were in contact with nTiO2 in water, in propylene glycol or in powder form. nTiO 2 penetration through the protective gloves was determined after deformations of the materials. Following these results, the physicochemical and mechanical phenomena that facilitate the penetration of nTiO2 were identified and studied. It was shown that mechanical deformations caused both damage to the sample surface but also a change in the degree of crystallinity of the glove material. Strain energy was also measured. It decreased significantly in presence and absence of nTiO2, indicating a weakening of the polymer chains. A qualitative study showed that repetitive deformations also lead to a decrease in the size of the agglomerates that were contained in the nTiO2 powder. Glove materials that were in contact with colloidal solutions produced a swelling phenomenon. Finally, measurements of the elongation of glove samples immersed in colloidal solutions were used to determine diffusion coefficients across the materials. The transport of the nanoparticles was driven by that of the carrier liquid (water or propylene glycol). Given the carrier solutions and nanoparticles could be transported through the gloves, exposure to skin could occur.

  15. Proanthocyanidin as a cytogenetic protective agent against adverse effects of plant growth regulators supplementation in rats.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hanaa A; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of grape seed extract (containing proanthocyandin) against the adverse effects of plant growth regulators (GA3 (gibberellic acid) and IAA (indoleacetic acid)). The present data showed that the administration of either GA3 and IAA caused undesirable changes in both hepatic and testicular structure. This was evidenced by a disturbed hepatic strands, pyknotic nuclei, central vein with collapsed endothelium, dilatation in bile sinusoids, congested blood vessel, binucleatd hepatocytes, lymphocytic infiltration, vacuolation, giant hepatic cells, increased Kupffer cells and karyoryxis. Additionally, it was shown that degenerative changes in the testis, spermatogenic arrest, moderate tubular necrosis, Leydig cell degeneration and reduction in the number and size of the seminiferous tubules with some spermatogonia detached from the basement membrane. Concerning flow cytometric study of the liver a significant decrease in G0/1 % and a significant increase in S phase %, G2/M  %, P(53) % and apoptosis % (sub G1) were detected. However, in testis the data recorded a significant decrease in the percentage of mature sperm (percentage of haploid cells) and a significant increase in the percentage of spermatide, diploid cells, P(53) and of apoptotic cells. On the other hand, a distinct recovery of the mentioned hepatic and testicular histopathological and cytogenetic disorders was observed when proanthocyanidin was supplemented to rats administered either of the plant growth hormones (GA3 and IAA). PMID:23900525

  16. HUILES ESSENTIELLES DE CERTAINES PLANTES MEDICINALES LIBANAISES DE LA FAMILLE DES LAMIACEAE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christo Hilan; Rabia Sfeir; Souad Aitour

    Blooming peaks of certain Lebanese medicinal plants have been identified and collected from various altitude and Lebanese regions. They have been hydro-distilled by the Clavenger method, and the physical and chemical properties of the essential oils have been determined. The yield of EO varies between 0.7 and 2.2 % v\\/w of plant material. The odor is characteristic but the color

  17. A plant-produced protective antigen vaccine confers protection in rabbits against a lethal aerosolized challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores

    PubMed Central

    Chichester, Jessica A.; Manceva, Slobodanka D.; Rhee, Amy; Coffin, Megan V.; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Mett, Vadim; Shamloul, Moneim; Norikane, Joey; Streatfield, Stephen J.; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2013-01-01

    The potential use of Bacillus anthracis as a bioterrorism weapon threatens the security of populations globally, requiring the immediate availability of safe, efficient and easily delivered anthrax vaccine for mass vaccination. Extensive research efforts have been directed toward the development of recombinant subunit vaccines based on protective antigen (PA), the principal virulence factor of B. anthracis. Among the emerging technologies for the production of these vaccine antigens is our launch vector-based plant transient expression system. Using this system, we have successfully engineered, expressed, purified and characterized full-length PA (pp-PA83) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using agroinfiltration. This plant-produced antigen elicited high toxin neutralizing antibody titers in mice and rabbits after two vaccine administrations with Alhydrogel. In addition, immunization with this vaccine candidate protected 100% of rabbits from a lethal aerosolized B. anthracis challenge. The vaccine effects were dose-dependent and required the presence of Alhydrogel adjuvant. In addition, the vaccine antigen formulated with Alhydrogel was stable and retained immunogenicity after two-week storage at 4°C, the conditions intended for clinical use. These results support the testing of this vaccine candidate in human volunteers and the utility of our plant expression system for the production of a recombinant anthrax vaccine. PMID:23324615

  18. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) R R R TEP or TGAI 1... Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) CR CR CR TEP or TGAI...

  19. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) R R R TEP or TGAI 1... Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) CR CR CR TEP or TGAI...

  20. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) R R R TEP or TGAI 1... Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) CR CR CR TEP or TGAI...

  1. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) R R R TEP or TGAI 1... Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) CR CR CR TEP or TGAI...

  2. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) R R R TEP or TGAI 1... Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant toxicity) CR CR CR TEP or TGAI...

  3. Hanford Waste Simulants Created to Support the Research and Development on the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.E.

    2001-07-26

    The development of nonradioactive waste simulants to support the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant bench and pilot-scale testing is crucial to the design of the facility. The report documents the simulants development to support the SRTC programs and the strategies used to produce the simulants.

  4. Protective efficacy of a single immunization with capripoxvirus-vectored recombinant peste des petits ruminants vaccines in presence of pre-existing immunity.

    PubMed

    Caufour, Philippe; Rufael, Tesfaye; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Lancelot, Renaud; Kidane, Menbere; Awel, Dino; Sertse, Tefera; Kwiatek, Olivier; Libeau, Geneviève; Sahle, Mesfin; Diallo, Adama; Albina, Emmanuel

    2014-06-24

    Sheeppox, goatpox and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) are highly contagious ruminant diseases widely distributed in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Capripoxvirus (CPV)-vectored recombinant PPR vaccines (rCPV-PPR vaccines), which have been developed and shown to protect against both Capripox (CP) and PPR, would be critical tools in the control of these important diseases. In most parts of the world, these disease distributions overlap each other leaving concerns about the potential impact that pre-existing immunity against either disease may have on the protective efficacy of these bivalent rCPV-PPR vaccines. Currently, this question has not been indisputably addressed. Therefore, we undertook this study, under experimental conditions designed for the context of mass vaccination campaigns of small ruminants, using the two CPV recombinants (Kenya sheep-1 (KS-1) strain-based constructs) developed previously in our laboratory. Pre-existing immunity was first induced by immunization either with an attenuated CPV vaccine strain (KS-1) or the attenuated PPRV vaccine strain (Nigeria 75/1) and animals were thereafter inoculated once subcutaneously with a mixture of CPV recombinants expressing either the hemagglutinin (H) or the fusion (F) protein gene of PPRV (10(3) TCID50/animal of each). Finally, these animals were challenged with a virulent CPV strain followed by a virulent PPRV strain 3 weeks later. Our study demonstrated full protection against CP for vaccinated animals with prior exposure to PPRV and a partial protection against PPR for vaccinated animals with prior exposure to CPV. The latter animals exhibited a mild clinical form of PPR and did not show any post-challenge anamnestic neutralizing antibody response against PPRV. The implications of these results are discussed herein and suggestions made for future research regarding the development of CPV-vectored vaccines. PMID:24837763

  5. Predators indirectly protect tundra plants by reducing herbivore Peter A. Hamback, Lauri Oksanen, Per Ekerholm, A sa Lindgren, Tarja Oksanen and Michael Schneider

    E-print Network

    Oksanen, Lauri

    Predators indirectly protect tundra plants by reducing herbivore abundance Peter A. Hamba¨ck, Lauri., Ekerholm, P., Lindgren, A° ., Oksanen, T. and Schneider, M. 2004. Predators indirectly protect tundra plants by reducing herbivore abundance. Á/ Oikos 106: 85Á/92. The role of predators in controlling

  6. Zeaxanthin Protects Plant Photosynthesis by Modulating Chlorophyll Triplet Yield in Specific Light-harvesting Antenna Subunits*

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Holt, Nancy E.; Kaligotla, Shanti; Fuciman, Marcel; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Carbonera, Donatella; Frank, Harry A.; Alric, Jean; Bassi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Plants are particularly prone to photo-oxidative damage caused by excess light. Photoprotection is essential for photosynthesis to proceed in oxygenic environments either by scavenging harmful reactive intermediates or preventing their accumulation to avoid photoinhibition. Carotenoids play a key role in protecting photosynthesis from the toxic effect of over-excitation; under excess light conditions, plants accumulate a specific carotenoid, zeaxanthin, that was shown to increase photoprotection. In this work we genetically dissected different components of zeaxanthin-dependent photoprotection. By using time-resolved differential spectroscopy in vivo, we identified a zeaxanthin-dependent optical signal characterized by a red shift in the carotenoid peak of the triplet-minus-singlet spectrum of leaves and pigment-binding proteins. By fractionating thylakoids into their component pigment binding complexes, the signal was found to originate from the monomeric Lhcb4–6 antenna components of Photosystem II and the Lhca1–4 subunits of Photosystem I. By analyzing mutants based on their sensitivity to excess light, the red-shifted triplet-minus-singlet signal was tightly correlated with photoprotection in the chloroplasts, suggesting the signal implies an increased efficiency of zeaxanthin in controlling chlorophyll triplet formation. Fluorescence-detected magnetic resonance analysis showed a decrease in the amplitude of signals assigned to chlorophyll triplets belonging to the monomeric antenna complexes of Photosystem II upon zeaxanthin binding; however, the amplitude of carotenoid triplet signal does not increase correspondingly. Results show that the high light-induced binding of zeaxanthin to specific proteins plays a major role in enhancing photoprotection by modulating the yield of potentially dangerous chlorophyll-excited states in vivo and preventing the production of singlet oxygen. PMID:23066020

  7. Zeaxanthin protects plant photosynthesis by modulating chlorophyll triplet yield in specific light-harvesting antenna subunits.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Holt, Nancy E; Kaligotla, Shanti; Fuciman, Marcel; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Carbonera, Donatella; Frank, Harry A; Alric, Jean; Bassi, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Plants are particularly prone to photo-oxidative damage caused by excess light. Photoprotection is essential for photosynthesis to proceed in oxygenic environments either by scavenging harmful reactive intermediates or preventing their accumulation to avoid photoinhibition. Carotenoids play a key role in protecting photosynthesis from the toxic effect of over-excitation; under excess light conditions, plants accumulate a specific carotenoid, zeaxanthin, that was shown to increase photoprotection. In this work we genetically dissected different components of zeaxanthin-dependent photoprotection. By using time-resolved differential spectroscopy in vivo, we identified a zeaxanthin-dependent optical signal characterized by a red shift in the carotenoid peak of the triplet-minus-singlet spectrum of leaves and pigment-binding proteins. By fractionating thylakoids into their component pigment binding complexes, the signal was found to originate from the monomeric Lhcb4-6 antenna components of Photosystem II and the Lhca1-4 subunits of Photosystem I. By analyzing mutants based on their sensitivity to excess light, the red-shifted triplet-minus-singlet signal was tightly correlated with photoprotection in the chloroplasts, suggesting the signal implies an increased efficiency of zeaxanthin in controlling chlorophyll triplet formation. Fluorescence-detected magnetic resonance analysis showed a decrease in the amplitude of signals assigned to chlorophyll triplets belonging to the monomeric antenna complexes of Photosystem II upon zeaxanthin binding; however, the amplitude of carotenoid triplet signal does not increase correspondingly. Results show that the high light-induced binding of zeaxanthin to specific proteins plays a major role in enhancing photoprotection by modulating the yield of potentially dangerous chlorophyll-excited states in vivo and preventing the production of singlet oxygen. PMID:23066020

  8. Leaf-cutting ant nests near roads increase fitness of exotic plant species in natural protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Ghermandi, Luciana

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that promote the invasion of natural protected areas by exotic plants is a central concern for ecology. We demonstrated that nests of the leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex lobicornis, near roadsides promote the abundance, growth and reproduction of two exotic plant species, Carduus nutans and Onopordum acanthium, in a national park in northern Patagonia, Argentina and determine the mechanisms that produce these effects. Refuse dumps (RDs) from ant nests have a higher nutrient content than nearby non-nest soils (NNSs); foliar nutrient content and their 15N isotopic signature strongly suggest that plants reach and use these nutrients. Both species of exotic plants in RDs were 50–600% more abundant; seedlings had 100–1000% more foliar area and root and leaf biomass; and adult plants produced 100–300% more seeds than nearby NNS plants. Plants can thus gain access to and benefit from the nutrient content of ant RD, supporting the hypotheses that enhanced resource availability promotes exotic plant performance that could increase the likelihood of biological invasions. The two exotics produce an estimated of 8?385?000 more seeds?ha?1 in areas with ant nests compared with areas without; this exceptional increase in seed production represents a potential threat to nearby non-invaded communities. We propose several management strategies to mitigate this threat. Removal efforts of exotics should be focused on ant RDs, where plants are denser and represent a higher source of propagules. PMID:18364316

  9. Decommissioning a phosphoric acid production plant: a radiological protection case study.

    PubMed

    Stamatis, V; Seferlis, S; Kamenopoulou, V; Potiriadis, C; Koukouliou, V; Kehagia, K; Dagli, C; Georgiadis, S; Camarinopoulos, L

    2010-12-01

    During a preliminary survey at the area of an abandoned fertilizer plant, increased levels of radioactivity were measured at places, buildings, constructions and materials. The extent of the contamination was determined and the affected areas were characterized as controlled areas. After the quantitative and qualitative determination of the contaminated materials, the decontamination was planned and performed step by step: the contaminated materials were categorized according to their physical characteristics (scrap metals, plastic pipes, scales and residues, building materials, etc) and according to their level of radioactivity. Depending on the material type, different decontamination and disposal options were proposed; the most appropriate technique was chosen taking into account apart from technical issues, the legal framework, radiation protection issues, the opinion of the local authorities involved as well as the owner's wish. After taking away the biggest amount of the contaminated materials, an iterative process consisting of surveys and decontamination actions was performed in order to remove the residual traces of contamination from the area. During the final survey, no residual surface contamination was detected; some sparsely distributed low level contaminated materials deeply immersed into the soil were found and removed. PMID:20813440

  10. Influence of scale deposition on cathodic-protection performance in desalination plant conditions.

    PubMed

    Hodgkiess, T; Najm-Mohammed, N A

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the interrelationships between the performance of an impressed current cathodic protection (CP) system and the deposition of scale compounds in a seawater pipe system. Some experiments were conducted on a laboratory set-up but the emphasis was on tests on a 0.25 m diameter steel pipe fed by seawater flowing to a thermal desalination plant. The experimental approach involved monitoring the CP current as a function of time at various set potentials and correlating this data with evidence from visual inspection of the pipe-wall surfaces and small probe specimens. The influences of control potential and seawater flow rate at temperatures of 25-35 degrees C were studied. Selected scale samples were subjected to examination by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The overall findings are discussed in terms of fundamental scale/CP-operation interactions and aspects relevant to practical operation of CP systems on seawater pipe installations. PMID:14982184

  11. Soil-plant-animal transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines: a case study from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S M; Pereira, M E; Duarte, A C; Römkens, P F A M

    2012-02-01

    Food chain models are essential tools to assess risks of soil contamination in view of product quality including fodder crops and animal products. Here we link soil to plant transfer (SPT) models for potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, U and Zn with models describing accumulation in animal organs. Current EU standards for food products and acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) for humans were used as critical limits. The combined model is used to assess the impact of soil contamination on animal health, product quality and human health using data from 100 arable fields. Results indicate that 42 existing arable fields near industrial and mining sites are unsuitable for animal grazing in view of food safety due to elevated intake of Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb by cows and sheep. At 10 sites daily intake levels of As by cows exceeded threshold concentrations regarding the quality of animal products. The food chain model also was used inversely to derive soil threshold concentrations in view of EU fodder standards. Calculated threshold levels in soil for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn appear to be in line with those proposed or used in other EU countries. As such the approach applied here can form a conceptual basis for a more harmonized risk assessment strategy regarding the protection of animal and human health. PMID:22208740

  12. Plant Virus Particles Carrying Tumour Antigen Activate TLR7 and Induce High Levels of Protective Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Jobsri, Jantipa; Allen, Alex; Rajagopal, Deepa; Shipton, Michael; Kanyuka, Kostya; Lomonossoff, George P.; Ottensmeier, Christian; Diebold, Sandra S.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Savelyeva, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Induction of potent antibody is the goal of many vaccines targeted against infections or cancer. Modern vaccine designs that use virus-like particles (VLP) have shown efficacy for prophylactic vaccination against virus-associated cancer in the clinic. Here we used plant viral particles (PVP), which are structurally analogous to VLP, coupled to a weak idiotypic (Id) tumour antigen, as a conjugate vaccine to induce antibody against a murine B-cell malignancy. The Id-PVP vaccine incorporates a natural adjuvant, the viral ssRNA, which acts via TLR7. It induced potent protective anti-Id antibody responses in an in vivo mouse model, superior to the “gold standard” Id vaccine, with prevalence of the IgG2a isotype. Combination with alum further increased antibody levels and maintained the IgG2a bias. Engagement of TLR7 in vivo was followed by secretion of IFN-? by plasmacytoid dendritic cells and by activation of splenic CD11chi conventional dendritic cells. The latter was apparent from up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and from secretion of a wide range of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including the Th1-governing cytokine IL-12, in keeping with the IgG2a antibody isotype distribution. PVP conjugates are a novel cancer vaccine design, offering an attractive molecular form, similar to VLP, and providing T-cell help. In contrast to VLP, they also incorporate a safe “in-built” ssRNA adjuvant. PMID:25692288

  13. Approche thérapeutique des dermatophyties par les huiles essentielles de plantes aromatiques marocaines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ouraïni; A. Agoumi; M. I. Alaoui; K. Alaoui; Y. Cherrah; M. Alaoui Belabbas

    2005-01-01

    Résumé: Dans le cadre de la recherche de substances naturelles antifongiques, nous avons testé l’effet fongitoxique in vitro (action fongicide et\\/ou fongistatique) de diverses huiles essentielles provenant de plantes aromatiques et médicinales marocaines. Les huiles essentielles extraites du thym (Thymus vulgaris L.), du romarin (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) et de la menthe pouliot (Mentha pulegium L.) ont été testées vis-à-vis de

  14. 76 FR 36896 - Notice of Establishment of a New Plant Protection and Quarantine Stakeholder Registry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ...PPQ activities on a variety of plant health topics. PPQ has redesigned...foreign pests and diseases, plant pest programs, and updates to manuals and the Fruits and Vegetables...envelope icon throughout the plant health pages on the APHIS...

  15. Comparison of the protective effectiveness of NPQ in Arabidopsis plants deficient in PsbS protein and zeaxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Maxwell A.; Belgio, Erica; Ruban, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of protective energy dissipation by non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in photosystem II (PSII) has been recently quantified by a new non-invasive photochemical quenching parameter, qPd. PSII yield (?PSII) was expressed in terms of NPQ, and the extent of damage to the reaction centres (RCIIs) was calculated via qPd as: ?PSII=qPd×(F v/F m)/{1+[1–(F v/F m)]×NPQ}. Here this approach was used to determine the amount of NPQ required to protect all PSII reaction centres (pNPQ) under a gradually increasing light intensity, in the zeaxanthin-deficient (npq1) Arabidopsis mutant, compared with PsbS protein-deficient (npq4) and wild-type plants. The relationship between maximum pNPQ and tolerated light intensity for all plant genotypes followed similar trends. These results suggest that under a gradually increasing light intensity, where pNPQ is allowed to develop, it is only the amplitude of pNPQ which is the determining factor for protection. However, the use of a sudden constant high light exposure routine revealed that the presence of PsbS, not zeaxanthin, offered better protection for PSII. This was attributed to a slower development of pNPQ in plants lacking PsbS in comparison with plants that lacked zeaxanthin. This research adds further support to the value of pNPQ and qPd as effective parameters for assessing NPQ effectiveness in different types of plants. PMID:25429003

  16. Chitin synthase-deficient mutant of Fusarium oxysporum elicits tomato plant defence response and protects against wild-type infection.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; Martín-Urdíroz, Magdalena; Roncero, María Isabel González; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Roldán, María Del Carmen Ruiz

    2010-07-01

    A mutant of the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, deficient in class V chitin synthase, has been shown previously to be nonvirulent. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of its avirulence could be the elicitation of the induced plant defence response, leading to the restriction of fungal infection. Co-inoculation of tomato plants with the wild-type strain and the DeltachsV mutant resulted in a significant reduction in symptom development, supporting a protective mechanism exerted by the mutant. The ability of the mutant to penetrate and colonize plant tissues was determined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, as well as fluorescence microscopy using green fluorescent protein- or cherry fluorescent protein-labelled fungal strains. The extent of wild-type strain colonization in co-inoculated plants decreased steadily throughout the infection process, as shown by the quantification of fungal biomass using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The hypothesis that defence responses are activated by the DeltachsV mutant was confirmed by the analysis of plant pathogenesis-related genes using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Tomato plants inoculated with the DeltachsV mutant showed a three fold increase in endochitinase activity in comparison with wild-type inoculated plants. Taken together, these results suggest that the perturbation of fungal cell wall biosynthesis results in elicitation of the plant defence response during the infection process. PMID:20618706

  17. Evaluating companion planting and non-host masking odors for protecting roses from the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Held, D W; Gonsiska, P; Potter, D A

    2003-02-01

    Effectiveness of companion planting, and use of nonhost masking odors were evaluated under field conditions for protecting roses against the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman. Three reputedly effective companion species, rue (Ruta graveolens L.), zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey), and garlic chives (Allium scheonparum L.) were interplanted with roses in replicated garden plots. Numbers of beetles on these roses were compared with rose-only control plots on 6 d during beetle flight. The masking odor hypothesis was tested by hanging mesh bags of aromatic herbs or other sources of reputedly repellent nonhost volatiles around potted roses in the field. Treatments included crushed red pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.), fennel seeds (Foeniculm vulgare Miller), crushed spearmint (Mentha picata L.), cedar shavings (Juniperus sp.), osage orange fruits (Maclura pomifera (Raif) Schneid.), and fleshy gingko seeds (Gingko biloba L.). No treatment significantly reduced numbers of beetles relative to the controls. Interplanting with geraniums significantly increased numbers of Japanese beetles on roses. Similarly, roses surrounded by sachets with fennel seeds, cedar shavings, crushed red pepper, or osage orange fruits had significantly more beetles than the control plants on two or more sample dates. Our results suggest that the use of companion or reputedly repellent plants or plant odors probably will be ineffective for protecting roses or other highly-susceptible ornamentals from P. japonica. Use of such tactics in an effort to discourage other garden pests might even increase Japanese beetle damage in those plantings. PMID:12650348

  18. Year-round behaviour of soil microarthropod communities under plant protection product application.

    PubMed

    Vaj, Claudia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Vighi, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The use of plant protection products (PPPs) in agro-environments can lead to undesired exposure of non-target organisms in non-target compartments. A year-round field survey was conducted in a vineyard in Northern Italy, for monitoring the changes in the structure of soil microarthropod communities under the application of PPPs, focusing on springtails and mites, both inside and 4 and 10 m outside the vineyard. Exposure to PPPs was estimated as time-weighted average soil concentrations. The fluctuations in the abundances of the different organisms after the application of PPPs, especially insecticides, were recorded. A recovery in abundances was observed at the end of the productive season outside the field and at the beginning of the next spring within the vineyard. Using multivariate statistical tools, the behaviour of each taxon in relation to the stressors was assessed. Some organisms were affected by the stressors, while others were favoured because of low vulnerability to PPPs and the indirect effect of the absence of other taxa. The principal response curves (PRC) method was the most sensitive tool for assessing PPP effects on soil arthropod communities. Strong differences were evident in the structure of the communities inside and outside the vineyard, with the communities sampled 4 and 10 m outside the vineyard being fairly similar, the latter considered as control. The role of physical stressors on community composition is recognised. However, chemical stressors, and in particular PPP exposure seemed to have larger effects on structural and functional characteristics of soil arthropod communities than physical stressors. PMID:24671560

  19. Drugs from bugs: the use of insects as a valuable source of transgenes with potential in modern plant protection strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Vilcinskas; Jürgen Gross

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic expression of antimicrobial peptides in crops has become a novel approach among the strategies to combat phytopathogens\\u000a in modern plant protection measures. The first antimicrobial transgenes of insect origin, modified cecropins, have been demonstrated\\u000a to confer resistance of several transgenic cultivars against both bacterial and fungal phytopathogens. Insects represent a\\u000a promising reservoir for antimicrobial peptides to engineer disease resistant

  20. Role of Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip) IV Transcription Factors in Plant Development and Plant Protection from Deleterious Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chew, William; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2013-01-01

    Homeobox genes comprise an important group of genes that are responsible for regulation of developmental processes. These genes determine cell differentiation and cell fate in all eukaryotic organisms, starting from the early stages of embryo development. Homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom. Members of the HD-Zip IV subfamily have a complex domain topology and can bind several cis-elements with overlapping sequences. Many of the reported HD-Zip IV genes were shown to be specifically or preferentially expressed in plant epidermal or sub-epidermal cells. HD-Zip IV TFs were found to be associated with differentiation and maintenance of outer cell layers, and regulation of lipid biosynthesis and transport. Insights about the role of these proteins in plant cuticle formation, and hence their possible involvement in plant protection from pathogens and abiotic stresses has just started to emerge. These roles make HD-Zip IV proteins an attractive tool for genetic engineering of crop plants. To this end, there is a need for in-depth studies to further clarify the function of each HD-Zip IV subfamily member in commercially important plant species. PMID:23584027

  1. Cost effectiveness in site selection to protect native plant communities from the weed, bitou bush, in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinden, Jack; Downey, Paul; Cacho, Oscar; Hester, Susan

    2013-10-15

    Government funding to protect native plant communities is usually limited. For cost effectiveness, priority sites for conservation must therefore be identified and funds allocated to protect these sites according to the quantity of communities conserved per dollar of cost. In 1999, invasion of coastal vegetation in New South Wales (NSW) by bitou bush was listed as a key threatening process under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995. In accordance with the Act, a Threat Abatement Plan (TAP) was prepared to reduce the impacts of the weed to threatened biodiversity at priority sites. In the present study, data collected for the TAP were analysed by linear programming to determine the feasibility of achieving cost effectiveness in identifying sites and allocating funds, and to explore the impact of associated economic issues on the quantity of native plant communities that are protected. In addition to the total funds and costs per site, the quantity was influenced by alternative funding policies and different site selection strategies. Allocations that recognise these issues can enhance protection outcomes, and promote the cost effectiveness of weed management. PMID:23933220

  2. Pathogenesis-related protein expression in the apoplast of wheat leaves protected against leaf rust following application of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari; Wilson, Neil L; Guest, David; Roberts, Thomas H

    2014-09-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major disease of wheat. We tested aqueous leaf extracts of Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae), Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae), and Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) for their ability to protect wheat from leaf rust. Extracts from all three species inhibited P. triticina urediniospore germination in vitro. Plants sprayed with extracts before inoculation developed significantly lower levels of disease incidence (number of plants infected) than unsprayed, inoculated controls. Sprays combining 0.6% leaf extracts and 2 mM salicylic acid with the fungicide Amistar Xtra at 0.05% (azoxystrobin at 10 ?g/liter + cyproconazole at 4 ?g/liter) reduced disease incidence significantly more effectively than sprays of fungicide at 0.1% alone. Extracts of J. mimosifolia were most active, either alone (1.2%) or in lower doses (0.6%) in combination with 0.05% Amistar Xtra. Leaf extracts combined with fungicide strongly stimulated defense-related gene expression and the subsequent accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in the apoplast of inoculated wheat leaves. The level of protection afforded was significantly correlated with the ability of extracts to increase PR protein expression. We conclude that pretreatment of wheat leaves with spray formulations containing previously untested plant leaf extracts enhances protection against leaf rust provided by fungicide sprays, offering an alternative disease management strategy. PMID:24624956

  3. An update on polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), a leucine-rich repeat protein that protects crop plants against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kalunke, Raviraj M; Tundo, Silvio; Benedetti, Manuel; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall proteins that inhibit the pectin-depolymerizing activity of polygalacturonases secreted by microbial pathogens and insects. These ubiquitous inhibitors have a leucine-rich repeat structure that is strongly conserved in monocot and dicot plants. Previous reviews have summarized the importance of PGIP in plant defense and the structural basis of PG-PGIP interaction; here we update the current knowledge about PGIPs with the recent findings on the composition and evolution of pgip gene families, with a special emphasis on legume and cereal crops. We also update the information about the inhibition properties of single pgip gene products against microbial PGs and the results, including field tests, showing the capacity of PGIP to protect crop plants against fungal, oomycetes and bacterial pathogens. PMID:25852708

  4. An update on polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), a leucine-rich repeat protein that protects crop plants against pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kalunke, Raviraj M.; Tundo, Silvio; Benedetti, Manuel; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall proteins that inhibit the pectin-depolymerizing activity of polygalacturonases secreted by microbial pathogens and insects. These ubiquitous inhibitors have a leucine-rich repeat structure that is strongly conserved in monocot and dicot plants. Previous reviews have summarized the importance of PGIP in plant defense and the structural basis of PG-PGIP interaction; here we update the current knowledge about PGIPs with the recent findings on the composition and evolution of pgip gene families, with a special emphasis on legume and cereal crops. We also update the information about the inhibition properties of single pgip gene products against microbial PGs and the results, including field tests, showing the capacity of PGIP to protect crop plants against fungal, oomycetes and bacterial pathogens. PMID:25852708

  5. The Utility of DNA Fingerprinting for Plant Patent Protection: An example for Lagerstroemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Patent and Trademark Office defines a plant as a “living plant organism which expresses a set of characteristics determined by its single genetic makeup, or genotype…” Here we demonstrate the utility of molecular markers to characterize the genome of a crapemyrtle plant that was re...

  6. Rangeland Watershed Management for Texans: Know Your Plants to Protect Your Watershed

    E-print Network

    Rector, Barron S.

    2000-10-30

    Plants are the foundation of the range ecosystem. The plant species growing on a property can indicate the health of the watershed and the success of the land manager. Learn how to "read your plants to understand the effect of your management....

  7. Recombinant adenovirus expressing the haemagglutinin of Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) protects goats against challenge with pathogenic virus; a DIVA vaccine for PPR.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Rebecca; Baron, Jana; Batten, Carrie; Baron, Michael; Taylor, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that can cause severe disease in sheep and goats, characterised by pyrexia, pneumo-enteritis, and gastritis. The socio-economic burden of the disease is increasing in underdeveloped countries, with poor livestock keepers being affected the most. Current vaccines consist of cell-culture attenuated strains of PPRV, which induce a similar antibody profile to that induced by natural infection. Generation of a vaccine that enables differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would benefit PPR control and eradication programmes, particularly in the later stages of an eradication campaign and for countries where the disease is not endemic. In order to create a vaccine that would enable infected animals to be distinguished from vaccinated ones (DIVA vaccine), we have evaluated the immunogenicity of recombinant fowlpox (FP) and replication-defective recombinant human adenovirus 5 (Ad), expressing PPRV F and H proteins, in goats. The Ad constructs induced higher levels of virus-specific and neutralising antibodies, and primed greater numbers of CD8+ T cells than the FP-vectored vaccines. Importantly, a single dose of Ad-H, with or without the addition of Ad expressing ovine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or ovine interleukin-2, not only induced strong antibody and cell-mediated immunity but also completely protected goats against challenge with virulent PPRV, 4 months after vaccination. Replication-defective Ad-H therefore offers the possibility of an effective DIVA vaccine. PMID:24568545

  8. Recombinant adenovirus expressing the haemagglutinin of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) protects goats against challenge with pathogenic virus; a DIVA vaccine for PPR

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that can cause severe disease in sheep and goats, characterised by pyrexia, pneumo-enteritis, and gastritis. The socio-economic burden of the disease is increasing in underdeveloped countries, with poor livestock keepers being affected the most. Current vaccines consist of cell-culture attenuated strains of PPRV, which induce a similar antibody profile to that induced by natural infection. Generation of a vaccine that enables differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would benefit PPR control and eradication programmes, particularly in the later stages of an eradication campaign and for countries where the disease is not endemic. In order to create a vaccine that would enable infected animals to be distinguished from vaccinated ones (DIVA vaccine), we have evaluated the immunogenicity of recombinant fowlpox (FP) and replication-defective recombinant human adenovirus 5 (Ad), expressing PPRV F and H proteins, in goats. The Ad constructs induced higher levels of virus-specific and neutralising antibodies, and primed greater numbers of CD8+ T cells than the FP-vectored vaccines. Importantly, a single dose of Ad-H, with or without the addition of Ad expressing ovine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or ovine interleukin-2, not only induced strong antibody and cell-mediated immunity but also completely protected goats against challenge with virulent PPRV, 4 months after vaccination. Replication-defective Ad-H therefore offers the possibility of an effective DIVA vaccine. PMID:24568545

  9. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Auclair, K. D.

    2002-02-25

    This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order to produce first glass in 2007. The Waste Treatment Plant is a large complex project that is driven by both technology and contractual requirements. It is also part of a larger overall mission, as a component of the River Protection Project, which is driven by programmatic requirements and regulatory, legal, and fiscal constraints. These issues are further complicated by the fact that both of the major contractors involved have a different contract type with DOE, and neither has a contract with the other. This combination of technical and programmatic drivers, constraints, and requirements will continue to provide challenges and opportunities for improvement and optimization. The Bechtel National, Inc. team is under contract to engineer, procure, construct, commission and test the Waste Treatment Plant on or ahead of schedule, at or under cost, and with a throughput capacity equal to or better than specified. The Department of Energy is tasked with the long term mission of waste retrieval, treatment, and disposal. While each mission is a compliment and inextricably linked to one another, they are also at opposite ends of the spectrum, in terms of expectations of one another. These mission requirements, that are seemingly in opposition to one another, pose the single largest challenge and opportunity for optimization: one of balance. While it is recognized that design maturation and optimization are the normal responsibility of any engineering firm responsible for any given project, the aspects of integrating requirements and the management of issues across contract boundaries is a more difficult matter. This aspect, one of a seamless systems approach to the treatment of tank wastes at the Hanford site, is the focus of the Optimization Studies. This ''big O''Optimization of Life-Cycle operations is what is meant when the term ''optimization'' is used on the River Protection Project and initiatives cited in this paper. From the early contractor centric methods and processes used to move toward an integrated solution, through extensive partnering approaches, to the current quality initiatives with multi-organizational participation, significant progress is being made towards achieving the goal of truly integrated life-cycle optimization for the Department of Energy's River Protection Project and Waste Treatment Plant.

  10. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... respiratory protection to protect against possible exposure to combustion products. These respirators should protect against exposure to ... plants, but will not protect against all possible combustion products in smoke, such as carbon monoxide. Respirators ...

  11. Influence of Elevation, Land Use, and Landscape Context on Patterns of Alien Plant Invasions along Roadsides in Protected Areas of South-Central Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANÍBAL PAUCHARD; PAUL B. ALABACK

    2004-01-01

    Alien plant species are a growing concern in protected areas, yet little information is available on the role of roads as corridors for alien species and the effects of elevation, land use, and landscape context in these invasions. These concerns are of particular interest in temperate zones of South America, where protected areas have high concentrations of endemic species. We

  12. Short-term damage-induced increases in tobacco alkaloids protect plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian T. Baldwin

    1988-01-01

    Leaf damage significantly increases the alkaloid content in undamaged leaves on damaged field-grown wild tobacco plants. Although field-grown pot-bound plants fail to exhibit the same damage-induced increase in alkaloid content, the ability to respond to leaf damage is restored 6 days after removing plants from their pots. Freshly hatched Manduca sexta larvae reared individually in the laboratory on the high-alkaloid

  13. Aromatic plants in nests of the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus protect chicks from bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mennerat, Adèle; Mirleau, Pascal; Blondel, Jacques; Perret, Philippe; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Heeb, Philipp

    2009-10-01

    Several bird species add fresh fragments of plants which are rich in volatile secondary compounds to their nests. It has been suggested, although never tested, that birds use fresh plants to limit the growth of nest microorganisms. On Corsica, blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) incorporate fresh fragments of aromatic plants into their nests. These plants do not reduce infestation by nest ectoparasites, but have been shown to improve growth and condition of chicks at fledging. To understand the mechanisms underlying such benefits, we experimentally tested the effects of these plants on the bacteria living on blue tits. Aromatic plants significantly affected the structure of bacterial communities, in particular reducing bacterial richness on nestlings. In addition, in this population where there is a strong association between bacterial density and infestation by blood-sucking Protocalliphora blow fly larvae, these plants reduced bacterial density on the most infested chicks. Aromatic plants had no significant effect on the bacteria living on adult blue tits. This study provides the first evidence that fresh plants brought to the nests by adult birds limit bacterial richness and density on their chicks. PMID:19633988

  14. Investigation of aerosol kinetics in the protective envelope when analyzing accidental emissions at nuclear plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Ivkov; M. A. Zatevakhin; V. V. Bezlepkin; S. E. Semashko; A. A. Ignatiev

    2010-01-01

    The course of an unanticipated accident with serious damage to the core is characterized by the emission of a large quantity\\u000a of radioactive materials into the first loop and then into the space inside the protective shell. The majority of the fission\\u000a products enter the protective shell in the form of radioactive aerosols, whose leakage largely determines the consequences\\u000a of

  15. Probabilistic evaluation of fire protection features found in nuclear power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Azarm; J. L. Boccio; C. Ruger

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a method which can be used to evaluate, on a relative basis, the NRC Fire Protection (FP) guidelines as found in Section 9.5.1 (Fire Protection) of the Standard Review Plan (SRP). The approach, a hybrid of existing physical models for fire propagation determinations and probabilistic models for fire-mitigation system reliability, can potentially be used as an adjunct

  16. Application of IEC 62305 to a large power and desalination plant-lightning protection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Velmurugan; K. Dhayalasundaram; K. Ilangovan

    2011-01-01

    Lightning is a natural phenomena, in which when strikes any grounded objects\\/structural buildings causes heavy loss including loss of human life, damage to structures,buildings,fire explosion, etc. The heavy discharge of electric charge from clouds can be safely diverted to earth by providing properly designed lightning protection system. In this paper Electro- Mechanical concept has been applied to protect the power

  17. Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Trás-os-Montes, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered. Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs. PMID:22112242

  18. PARTICIPATION OF CHITIN SPECIFIC ISOFORMS OF PEROXIDASE IN PROTECTIVE REACTION OF PLANTS INFECTED BY PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are interested in how isoforms of peroxidases may influence the cotton plant's resistance to pathogens. Cotton is a member of the Malvaceae and we have been investigating the resistance of wild members of the Malvaceae to the plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Using electrophoresis, we have obs...

  19. 110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc-

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    2002 and was causing serious damage to papaya, Plumeria spp., Hibiscus spp. and other plants such as Annona squamosa, Carica papaya, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Ipomoea spp., Manihot esculenta and Solanum in Plumeria spp. (Apocynaceae) plants. On Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) the tender shoots covered by mealybugs

  20. ADVANCES IN THE APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING TO PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANT CROP MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current forecasts call for significant increases to the plantings of transgenic corn in the United States for the 2007 growing season and beyond. Transgenic acreage approaching 80% of the total corn plantings could be realized by 2009. These conditions call for a new approach to ...

  1. ISOLATION, IN PLANTA DETECTION, AND USES OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA FOR PLANT PROTECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endophytic bacteria are defined as those that dwell intercellularly in association with plants for most, if not all of their life cycles. These organisms are therefore symbiotic and are further distinguished in that the bacterium lives within the plant or portions of it as a nonpathogen although sl...

  2. Induced plant defenses breached? Phytochemical induction protects an herbivore from disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Hunter; Jack C. Schultz

    1993-01-01

    Although wound-induced responses in plants are widespread, neither the ecological nor the evolutionary significance of phytochemical induction is clear. Several studies have shown, for example, that induced responses can act against both plant pathogens and herbivores simultaneously. We present the first evidence that phytochemical induction can inhibit a pathogen of the herbivore responsible for the defoliation. In 1990, we generated

  3. Antioxidant activity of herbaceous plant extracts protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbaceous plants containing antioxidants can protect against DNA damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant substances, antioxidant activity, and protection of DNA from oxidative damage in human lymphocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Our methods used acidic methanol and water extractions from six herbaceous plants, including Bidens alba (BA), Lycium chinense (LC), Mentha arvensis (MA), Plantago asiatica (PA), Houttuynia cordata (HC), and Centella asiatica (CA). Methods Antioxidant compounds such as flavonol and polyphenol were analyzed. Antioxidant activity was determined by the inhibition percentage of conjugated diene formation in a linoleic acid emulsion system and by trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Their antioxidative capacities for protecting human lymphocyte DNA from H2O2-induced strand breaks was evaluated by comet assay. Results The studied plants were found to be rich in flavonols, especially myricetin in BA, morin in MA, quercetin in HC, and kaemperol in CA. In addition, polyphenol abounded in BA and CA. The best conjugated diene formation inhibition percentage was found in the acidic methanolic extract of PA. Regarding TEAC, the best antioxidant activity was generated from the acidic methanolic extract of HC. Water and acidic methanolic extracts of MA and HC both had better inhibition percentages of tail DNA% and tail moment as compared to the rest of the tested extracts, and significantly suppressed oxidative damage to lymphocyte DNA. Conclusion Quercetin and morin are important for preventing peroxidation and oxidative damage to DNA, and the leaves of MA and HC extracts may have excellent potential as functional ingredients representing potential sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:24279749

  4. Sensitivity of non-target arthropods to plant protection products: Could Typhlodromus pyri and Aphidius spp. be used as indicator species?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Candolfi; F. Bakker; V. Cañez; M. Miles; Ch. Neumann; E. Pilling; M. Primiani; K. Romijn; R. Schmuck; S. Storck-Weyhermüller; A. Ufer; A. Waltersdorfer

    1999-01-01

    Data on the sensitivity of nine non-target arthropod families to 95 plant protection products (PPP), including herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and plant growth regulators, tested using currently established laboratory methods were analyzed. The data presented were supplied by 11 agro-chemical companies and were generated for regulatory purposes. All the studies were performed in compliance with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) standards. For

  5. Cotton plants transformed with a bacterial degradation gene are protected from accidental spray drift damage by the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce R. Lyon; Yvonne L. Cousins; Danny J. Llewellyn; Elizabeth S. Dennis

    1993-01-01

    The agronomic performance of broad leaved crop plants such as cotton would be greatly improved if genetically-engineered resistance to broadleaf herbicides could both protect the plants from accidental spray drift damage and allow the suppression of problem broadleaf weeds by chemical means. Followingin vitro modification and the addition of plant expression signals, the gene for 2,4-D monooxygenase, a bacterial enzyme

  6. A method for rapid production of heteromultimeric protein complexes in plants: assembly of protective bluetongue virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Thuenemann, Eva C; Meyers, Ann E; Verwey, Jeanette; Rybicki, Edward P; Lomonossoff, George P

    2013-09-01

    Plant expression systems based on nonreplicating virus-based vectors can be used for the simultaneous expression of multiple genes within the same cell. They therefore have great potential for the production of heteromultimeric protein complexes. This work describes the efficient plant-based production and assembly of Bluetongue virus-like particles (VLPs), requiring the simultaneous expression of four distinct proteins in varying amounts. Such particles have the potential to serve as a safe and effective vaccine against Bluetongue virus (BTV), which causes high mortality rates in ruminants and thus has a severe effect on the livestock trade. Here, VLPs produced and assembled in Nicotiana benthamiana using the cowpea mosaic virus-based HyperTrans (CPMV-HT) and associated pEAQ plant transient expression vector system were shown to elicit a strong antibody response in sheep. Furthermore, they provided protective immunity against a challenge with a South African BTV-8 field isolate. The results show that transient expression can be used to produce immunologically relevant complex heteromultimeric structures in plants in a matter of days. The results have implications beyond the realm of veterinary vaccines and could be applied to the production of VLPs for human use or the coexpression of multiple enzymes for the manipulation of metabolic pathways. PMID:23647743

  7. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1999-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2000 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by tie Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2000 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant GWPP during CY 2000 will comply with: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (SWDF); and DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Some of the data collected for these monitoring drivers also will be used to meet monitoring requirements of the Integrated Water Quality Program, which is managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. Data from five wells that are monitored for SWDF purposes in the Chestnut Ridge Regime will be used to comply with requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act post closure permit regarding corrective action monitoring. Modifications to the CY 2000 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in regulatory or programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  8. Protection of plants from frost using hydrophobic particle film and acrylic polymer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M P FULLER; F HAMED; M WISNIEWSKI; D M GLENN

    2003-01-01

    Summary Frost damage to potatoes, grapevine and citrus plants was assessed following treatment with either an acrylic polymer (AntistressTM) or with a hydrophobic particle film (CM-96-018). In large freezing tests, the application of the hydrophobic particle film consistently led to less damage whilst the acrylic polymer led to the same amount or more damage when compared to control plants. Detailed

  9. Low light grown duckweed plants are more protected against the toxicity induced by Zn and Cd

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Unai Artetxe; José Ignacio García-Plazaola; Antonio Hernández; José M. Becerril

    2002-01-01

    Duckweed (Lemna minor L.) plants acclimated to three light regimes: 50 low light (LL), 300 medium light (ML) and 500 high light (HL) ?mol m–2 s–1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) increased photoprotective potential according to irradiance status as shown by the two- to fourfold higher contents of xanthophyll cycle pigments (VAZ), total glutathione (GLU) and ?-tocopherol. LL, ML and HL plants

  10. Unique application of large-scale, cathodic-protection system on an MSF plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hodgkiess; N. A. Najm-Mohammed

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the main features and performance of a retrofitted cathodic protection (CP) system on six, 5.2 MGD multistage flash (MSF) units which has operated satisfactorily for an extremely long period. The installation of the CP system was precipitated by experience of severe corrosion on many carbon-steel components within months of commencing operation of the MSF units. An extensive

  11. Plant responses to abiotic stresses: heavy metal-induced oxidative stress and protection by mycorrhization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andres Schutzendubel; Andrea Polle

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this review is to assess the mode of action and role of antioxidants as protection from heavy metal stress in roots, mycorrhizal fungi and mycor- rhizae. Based on their chemical and physical proper- ties three different molecular mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity can be distinguished: (a) production of reactive oxygen species by autoxidation and Fenton reaction; this

  12. Aqueous extract of some indigenous medicinal plants inhibits glycation at multiple stages and protects erythrocytes from oxidative damage-an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tupe, Rashmi S; Sankhe, Neena M; Shaikh, Shamim A; Phatak, Devyani V; Parikh, Juhi U; Khaire, Amrita A; Kemse, Nisha G

    2015-04-01

    Azadirachta indica, Emblica officinalis, Syzygium cumini and Terminalia bellirica are common in Indian system of traditional medicine for the prevention of diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively and comparatively investigate the antiglycation potential of these plant extracts at multiple stages and their possible protective effect against glycated albumin mediated toxicity to erythrocytes. Antiglycation activities of these plant extracts was measured by co-incubation of plant extract with bovine serum albumin-fructose glycation model. The multistage glycation markers- fructosamines (early stage), protein carbonyls (intermediate stage) and AGEs (late stage) are investigated along with measurement of thiols and ? aggregation of albumin using amyloid-specific dyes-Congo red and Th T. Protection of erythrocytes from glycated albumin induced toxicity by these plant extracts was assessed by measuring erythrocytes hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and intracellular antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics, reducing power and antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were also measured. In vitro glycation assays showed that plant extracts exerted site specific inhibitory effects at multiple stages, with T. bellirica showing maximum attenuation. In erythrocytes, along with the retardation of glycated albumin induced hemolysis and lipid-peroxidation, T. bellirica considerably maintained cellular antioxidant potential. Significant positive correlations were observed between erythrocyte protection parameters with total phenolics. These plant extracts especially T. bellirica prevents glycation induced albumin modifications and subsequent toxicity to erythrocytes which might offer additional protection against diabetic vascular complications. PMID:25829572

  13. Methylobacterium-Induced Endophyte Community Changes Correspond with Protection of Plants against Pathogen Attack

    PubMed Central

    Ardanov, Pavlo; Sessitsch, Angela; Häggman, Hely; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Plant inoculation with endophytic bacteria that normally live inside the plant without harming the host is a highly promising approach for biological disease control. The mechanism of resistance induction by beneficial bacteria is poorly understood, because pathways are only partly known and systemic responses are typically not seen. The innate endophytic community structures change in response to external factors such as inoculation, and bacterial endophytes can exhibit direct or indirect antagonism towards pathogens. Earlier we showed that resistance induction by an endophytic Methylobacterium sp. in potato towards Pectobacterium atrosepticum was dependent on the density of the inoculum, whereas the bacterium itself had no antagonistic activity. To elucidate the role of innate endophyte communities in plant responses, we studied community changes in both in vitro and greenhouse experiments using various combinations of plants, endophyte inoculants, and pathogens. Induction of resistance was studied in several potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars by Methylobacterium sp. IMBG290 against the pathogens P. atrosepticum, Phytophthora infestans and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by M. extorquens DSM13060 against Gremmeniella abietina. The capacities of the inoculated endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains to induce resistance were dependent on the plant cultivar, pathogen, and on the density of Methylobacterium spp. inoculum. Composition of the endophyte community changed in response to inoculation in shoot tissues and correlated with resistance or susceptibility to the disease. Our results demonstrate that endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains have varying effects on plant disease resistance, which can be modulated through the endophyte community of the host. PMID:23056459

  14. Forward genetic in planta screen for identification of plant-protective traits of Sphingomonas sp. strain Fr1 against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christine; Innerebner, Gerd; Zingg, Judith; Guder, Jan; Vorholt, Julia A

    2012-08-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain Fr1 has recently been shown to protect Arabidopsis thaliana against the bacterial leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Here, we describe a forward genetic in planta screen to identify genes in Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 necessary for this effect. About 5,000 Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 mini-Tn5 mutants were assayed for a defect in plant protection against a luxCDABE-tagged P. syringae DC3000 derivative in a space-saving 24-well plate system. The bioluminescence of the pathogen was used as the indicator of pathogen proliferation and allowed for the identification of Sphingomonas sp. Fr1 mutants that had lost the ability to restrict pathogen growth before disease symptoms were visible. Potential candidates were validated using the same miniaturized experimental system. Of these mutants, 10 were confirmed as plant protection defective yet colonization competent. The mutants were subsequently evaluated in a previously described standard microbox system, and plants showed enhanced disease phenotypes after pathogen infection relative to those inoculated with the parental strain as a control. However, the disease severities were lower than those observed for control plants that were grown axenically prior to pathogen challenge, which suggests that several traits may contribute to plant protection. Transposon insertion sites of validated mutants with defects in plant protection were determined and mapped to 7 distinct genomic regions. In conclusion, the established screening protocol allowed us to identify mutations that affect plant protection, and it opens the possibility to uncover traits important for in planta microbe-microbe interactions. PMID:22660707

  15. Functional and taxonomic plant diversity for riverbank protection works: bioengineering techniques close to natural banks and beyond hard engineering.

    PubMed

    Cavaillé, Paul; Ducasse, Léon; Breton, Vincent; Dommanget, Fanny; Tabacchi, Eric; Evette, André

    2015-03-15

    Erosion control is a major issue in the Prealps region since piedmont is subject to both intense flood hazards and anthropic pressure. Riverbank protections may have major impacts on local ecosystem functioning and ecological corridor continuity. This study aimed to estimate the effects of the types of riverbank protection technique (from pure riprap to pure bioengineering) on the taxonomic and ecological composition of plant communities in comparison with unmanaged riverbanks as the referential system. Thirty-eight embankments were sampled in the foothills of the French and Swiss Alps. Four distinct riverbank techniques were analyzed and natural young willow stands were chosen as the referential system. At each site, vegetation was sampled along three transects from the waterline to the top of the riverbank. Plant communities were characterized using biological group composition (growth forms and life history, life strategies and distribution in space and time) and functional diversity indices (MFAD, FDc and wFDc). We identified 177 distinct plant species on 38 sites. Higher species richness levels were observed on bioengineered banks (from an average of 12 species recorded on ripraps to 27 species recorded on bioengineered banks) strongly dominated by Salicaceae species, especially for fascine and cribwall banks. Functional analyses of plant communities highlighted significant differences among bank types (p-value: 0.001) for all selected biological groups. Competitive - ruderal strategy, rooting shoots, stems or leaves that lie down or break off, and unisexual - dioecious, as well as pioneer plants and low shrubs (<4 m tall) distinguished bioengineered bank types. Functional diversity indices confirmed these differences among bank types (MFAD: p-value: 0.002; FDc: p-value: 0.003; wFDc: p-value: 0.005). Riprap always showed the lowest levels on functional diversity indices, fascine and cribwall banks were at the medium level and finally mixed and natural banks the highest level. These results confirm the low ecological potential of purely hard engineering techniques and highlight the similarity of bioengineered techniques and unmanaged riverbanks. PMID:25532058

  16. A conserved lysine residue of plant Whirly proteins is necessary for higher order protein assembly and protection against DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Cappadocia, Laurent; Parent, Jean-Sébastien; Zampini, Éric; Lepage, Étienne; Sygusch, Jurgen; Brisson, Normand

    2012-01-01

    All organisms have evolved specialized DNA repair mechanisms in order to protect their genome against detrimental lesions such as DNA double-strand breaks. In plant organelles, these damages are repaired either through recombination or through a microhomology-mediated break-induced replication pathway. Whirly proteins are modulators of this second pathway in both chloroplasts and mitochondria. In this precise pathway, tetrameric Whirly proteins are believed to bind single-stranded DNA and prevent spurious annealing of resected DNA molecules with other regions in the genome. In this study, we add a new layer of complexity to this model by showing through atomic force microscopy that tetramers of the potato Whirly protein WHY2 further assemble into hexamers of tetramers, or 24-mers, upon binding long DNA molecules. This process depends on tetramer–tetramer interactions mediated by K67, a highly conserved residue among plant Whirly proteins. Mutation of this residue abolishes the formation of 24-mers without affecting the protein structure or the binding to short DNA molecules. Importantly, we show that an Arabidopsis Whirly protein mutated for this lysine is unable to rescue the sensitivity of a Whirly-less mutant plant to a DNA double-strand break inducing agent. PMID:21911368

  17. Protective Role of Plant Sterol and Stanol Esters in Liver Inflammation: Insights from Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Plat, Jogchum; Hendrikx, Tim; Bieghs, Veerle; Jeurissen, Mike L. J.; Walenbergh, Sofie M. A.; van Gorp, Patrick J.; De Smet, Els; Konings, Maurice; Vreugdenhil, Anita C. E.; Guichot, Yasmin Dias; Rensen, Sander S.; Buurman, Wim A.; Greve, Jan Willem M.; Lütjohann, Dieter; Mensink, Ronald P.; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory component of non–alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can lead to irreversible liver damage. Therefore there is an urgent need to identify novel interventions to combat hepatic inflammation. In mice, omitting cholesterol from the diet reduced hepatic inflammation. Considering the effects of plant sterol/stanol esters on cholesterol metabolism, we hypothesized that plant sterol/stanol esters reduces hepatic inflammation. Indeed, adding plant sterol/stanol esters to a high-fat-diet reduced hepatic inflammation as indicated by immunohistochemical stainings and gene expression for inflammatory markers. Finally, adding sterol/stanol esters lowered hepatic concentrations of cholesterol precursors lathosterol and desmosterol in mice, which were highly elevated in the HFD group similarly as observed in severely obese patients with NASH. In vitro, in isolated LPS stimulated bone marrow derived macrophages desmosterol activated cholesterol efflux whereas sitostanol reduced inflammation. This highly interesting observation that plant sterol/stanol ester consumption leads to complete inhibition of HFD-induced liver inflammation opens new venues in the treatment and prevention of hepatic inflammation. PMID:25356831

  18. Protection from phenytoin-induced cognitive deficit by Bacopa monniera, a reputed Indian nootropic plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Divya Vohora; S. N Pal; K. K Pillai

    2000-01-01

    Many epileptic patients suffer from cognitive impairments; both the underlying pathology and antiepileptic drug therapy can cause such deficits. Phenytoin, one of the widely used anticonvulsants, is known to adversely affect cognitive function. A reputed Indian nootropic plant Bacopa monniera (BM) was evaluated alone and in combination with phenytoin for its effect on (a) passive-avoidance (PA) task; (b) maximal electroshock

  19. Effects of ionising radiation exposure on plants, fish and mammals: relevant data for environmental radiation protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Real; S. Sundell-Bergman; J. F. Knowles; D. S. Woodhead; I. Zinger

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop a framework for the assessment of the environmental impact of radiation, it is necessary to establish the relationship between exposure (dose rate, accumulated dose) and the effects that may be induced in plants and animals. With this purpose in mind, the data available on effects induced by ionising radiation in various wildlife groups have been reviewed

  20. Drowning out the protection racket: partner manipulation or drought can strengthen ant-plant mutualism.

    PubMed

    Denison, R Ford

    2014-07-01

    Two recent reports discuss interactions between plants and ants that defend them from herbivores. Acacia trees provide their ant bodyguards with a diet that reduces their ability to benefit from alternate hosts. Provisioning of ants by Cordia trees during drought may buy insurance against extreme defoliation events, not just average-year benefits. PMID:24815041

  1. A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbi?, Miodrag; Feyereisen, René; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to ?-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera. The recombinant mite enzyme had both ?-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase activity but enzyme kinetics showed that cyanide detoxification activity was strongly favored. Our results therefore suggest that an ancient horizontal transfer of a gene originally involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria was co-opted by herbivorous arthropods to detoxify plant produced cyanide. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02365.001 PMID:24843024

  2. An Investigation of Two Modes of Plant Protection by the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma virens

    E-print Network

    Crutcher, Frankie

    2012-02-14

    of the gene encoding the elicitor SM1 were examined as genetic sources for potential elicitors to induce systemic resistance in plants. A search of the T. virens genome revealed the presence of three paralogs of sm1. One paralog, sm3, was found to be expressed...

  3. Are boreal ecosystems susceptible to alien plant invasion? Evidence from protected areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Rose; Luise Hermanutz

    2004-01-01

    Although biological invasion by alien species is a major contributor to loss of indigenous biological diversity, few studies have examined the susceptibility of the boreal biome to invasion. Based on studies of other ecosystems, we hypothesized that alien plants will be restricted to disturbed areas near human activity and will not be found in natural areas of boreal ecosystems in

  4. Globalisation and sustainable exports of Indian medicinal and aromatic plants: A protection study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soumitra Kumar Bera

    2010-01-01

    India has a rich heritage of traditional systems of medicine viz. Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Tibetan which are mostly based on botanical formulations. Although biologically, the region is extremely rich in medicinal plants, due to years of unwise use, the availability of raw materials in desired quality and quantity has become difficult to obtain raising serious doubt about the safety and

  5. 148 American EntomologistFall 2012 man Resources. 2012. Plant and Enviromental Protection Sciences.

    E-print Network

    Mousseau, Timothy A.

    on Wildlife in Chernobyl We have been studying the impacts of nuclear accidents on wildlife for more than 12, as a consequence of human release of radioactive material such as during nuclear testing and the operations of nuclear power plants (NAS 2012), and from nuclear accidentssuchasthoseatthe

  6. Association with mature plants protects seedlings from predation in an arid grassland shrub, Gutierrezia microcephala

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew A. Parker

    1982-01-01

    Survivorship of Gutierrezia microcephala (Compositae) seedlings was studied in an undisturbed arid grassland and in experimental plots where various components of the natural vegetation were removed following seed germination. The major causes of seedling mortality were herbivore damage from the specialist grasshopper, Hesperotettix viridis, and drought stress associated with competition from established plants. The relative intensity of these mortality factors

  7. Cooperative prevention systems to protect rangelands from the spread of invasive plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plants continue to spread and impact rangelands in the western United States. Fortunately, many rangeland ecosystems still remain invasive weed-free.Cooperative prevention systems can safeguard these remaining areas. Local-level weed prevention areas (WPAs) prioritize prevention in the larg...

  8. NON-TARGET AND ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS CONTAINING PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The risk of unintended and unexpected adverse impacts on non-target organisms and ecosystems is a key issue in environmental risk assessment of PIP crop plants. While there has been considerable examination of the effects of insect resistant crops on certain non-target organisms...

  9. Integrating nonindigenous aquatic plant control with protection of snail kite nests in Florida.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, J A; Smith, H T; Thayer, D D

    2001-07-01

    The endangered snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) feeds primarily on the freshwater apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) in Florida. The nonindigenous, floating water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) impede kites from finding snails. Effective control of these aquatic plants in the littoral zone of central and south Florida lakes benefits kites by maintaining open foraging habitat. However, incidental herbicide spraying of nesting substrates result in nest collapse when kites breed in nonwoody, emergent plants [cattail (Typha spp.) and giant bulrush (Scirpus validus)] in the outer littoral zone during lower lake levels. Many endangered species recovery plans and their implementation have experienced problems due to inaction and/or noncooperation by various governmental agencies and their personnel. Herein, we describe the development and implementation of a buffer zone strategy to prevent secondary impacts from an aquatic plant control program to snail kites nesting on lakes in central and south Florida. A strategy was jointly developed by personnel of five state and federal agencies to control herbicide application near kite nesting areas during the normal breeding season. Although requiring various modifications during its implementation, this cooperative effort successfully integrated aquatic plant control objectives with snail kite conservation on Lake Okeechobee during 1988. The program was expanded the following year to lakes Kissimmee and Tohopekaliga. Since the implementation of the snail kite impact preclusion program, no nest loss was attributed to incidental herbicide applications on lakes Okeechobee, Kissimmee, and Tohopekaliga. PMID:11436998

  10. The Plant Variety Protection Act: Information for Texas Small Grain Producers

    E-print Network

    Brown, Steve; Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    . Infringement of the variety owner?s rights under the 1994 PVPA includes: ? Selling, offering, delivering, consigning, exchanging or advertising for sale a protected variety ? Dispensing the variety to another person without inform- ing that person the variety... if in compliance with state law (no advertising) *YES NO ?70 PVPA only NO CONDITIONER: ? Condition varieties for farmers *YES *YES *YES NO ? Store seed for farmers *YES *YES *YES NO ? Clean or stock as step in marketing variety NO NO NO NO ? Deliver seed as a step...

  11. Protection of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. plants from salt stress by paclobutrazol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Manivannan; C. Abdul Jaleel; A. Kishorekumar; B. Sankar; R. Somasundaram; R. Panneerselvam

    2008-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was conducted to estimate the stress ameliorating ability of paclobutrazol, a triazole fungicide in Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. plants. Treatments were given as 80mM NaCl, 80mM NaCl+15mgl?1 paclobutrazol and 15mgl?1 paclobutrazol alone. The samples were collected on 60 and 80 days after sowing (DAS). NaCl stress inhibited the root and stem length, total leaf area, fresh

  12. Expression of snowdrop lectin in transgenic tobacco plants results in added protection against aphids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Hilder; K. S. Powell; A. M. R. Gatehouse; J. A. Gatehouse; L. N. Gatehouse; Y. Shi; W. D. O. Hamilton; A. Merryweather; C. A. Newell; J. C. Timans; W. J. Peumans; E. van Damme; D. Boulter

    1995-01-01

    The range of sap-sucking insect pests to which GNA, (the mannose specific lectin from snowdrops (Galanthus nivalis) has been shown to be insecticidal in artificial diets has been extended to include the peach potato aphid (Myzus persicae). A gene construct for constitutive expression of GNA from the CaMV35S gene promoter has been introduced into tobacco plants. A transgenic tobacco line

  13. Status report of SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site instrumentation, control, and plant protection system activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, William F.; Bennett, Kenneth L.; Delisle, Gerald V.; Hampsten, Kenneth L.; Philipp, Barbara L.; Schneider, Thomas C.

    The SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site is a facility in which the prototype of a 100 kWe space reactor will be tested. The important systems which are being designed to conduct these tests and to acquire and manage data include those required for control, plant protection and test data handling. These systems are being designed and procured by the Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) section of the Test Site Engineering team. This paper describes the progress which has been made in the I&C area to date. Design reviews of all I&C systems have been conducted at the 60 percent completion point. The Facility Process Control System, a modern distributed system with CRT operator interfaces, has been ordered. Specifications for all other systems have been drafted.

  14. Proline induces heat tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants by protecting vital enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Neeru; Gupta, Kriti; Bhandhari, Kalpna; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thakur, Prince; Nayyar, Harsh

    2011-07-01

    Chickpea is a heat sensitive crop hence its potential yield is considerably reduced under high temperatures exceeding 35 °C. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of proline in countering the damage caused by heat stress to growth and to enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism in chickpea. The chickpea seeds were raised without (control) and with proline (10 ?M) at temperatures of 30/25 °C, 35/30 °C, 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C as day/ night (12 h/12 h) in a growth chamber. The shoot and root length at 40/35 °C decreased by 46 and 37 %, respectively over control while at 45/40 °C, a decrease of 63 and 47 %, respectively over control was observed. In the plants growing in the presence of 10 ?M proline at 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C, the shoot length showed improvement of 32 and 53 %, respectively over untreated plants, while the root growth was improved by 22 and 26 %, respectively. The stress injury (as membrane damage) increased with elevation of temperatures while cellular respiration, chlorophyll content and relative leaf water content reduced as the temperature increased to 45/40 °C. The endogenous proline was elevated to 46 ?mol g(-1) dw at 40/35 °C but declined to 19 ?mol g(-1) dw in plants growing at 45/40 °C that was associated with considerable inhibition of growth at this temperature. The oxidative damage measured as malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide content increased manifolds in heat stressed plants coupled with inhibition in the activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase) and levels of non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, glutathione, proline) antioxidants. The enzymes associated with carbon fixation (RUBISCO), sucrose synthesis (sucrose phosphate synthase) and sucrose hydrolysis (invertase) were strongly inhibited at 45/40 °C. The plants growing in the presence of proline accumulated proline up to 63 ?mol g(-1) dw and showed less injury to membranes, had improved content of chlorophyll and water, especially at 45/40 °C. Additionally, the oxidative injury was significantly reduced coupled with elevated levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. A significant improvement was also noticed in the activities of enzymes of carbon metabolism in proline-treated plants. We report here that proline imparts partial heat tolerance to chickpea's growth by reducing the cellular injury and protection of some vital enzymes related to carbon and oxidative metabolism and exogenous application of proline appears to have a countering effect against elevated high temperatures on chickpea. PMID:23573011

  15. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Berneski

    2011-12-10

    Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

  16. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  17. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  18. Protective potentials of a plant extract (Lycopodium clavatum) on mice chronically fed hepato-carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Surajit; Banerjee, Antara; Paul, Saili; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2009-07-01

    Chronic feeding of carcinogens p-dimethylamino azobenzene (initiator) and phenobarbital (promoter) for 90 and 120 days elevated activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, levels of blood glucose and cortisol and decreased the activities of glutathione reductase, succinate dehydrogenase, and blood cholesterol and hemoglobin contents, and levels of serum estradiol and testosterone in mice. Levels of these biomarkers in both liver and spleen tissues were positively altered along with a significant reduction of tumor incidence in liver of carcinogen intoxicated mice treated with spore extract of Lycopodium clavatum. The results validate the use of this plant extract in complementary and alternative medicines against hepato-toxicity. PMID:19761046

  19. The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Sustainability Program of Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Vakhonin, Alexander; Yuldashev, Rashid; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Eshter M.

    2009-09-30

    UEIP has been working on a comprehensive sustainability program that includes establishing a site sustainability working group, information gathering, planning, organizing, developing schedule and estimated costs, trhough joint UEIP-US DOE/NNSA National Laboratory sustainability contracts. Considerable efforts have been necessary in the sustainability planning, monitoring, and control of the scope of work using tools such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Project and SAP R/3. While information interchanges within the sustainability program provides adequate US assurances that US funds are well spent through its quarterly reporting methodology, proper information security and protection measures are taken throughout the process. Decommissioning of outdated equipment has also become part of determining sustainability requirements and processes. The site’s sustainability program has facilitated the development of a transition plan toward eventual full Russian funding of sustaining nuclear security upgrades.

  20. UV-B damage and protection at the molecular level in plants.

    PubMed

    Strid, A; Chow, W S; Anderson, J M

    1994-03-01

    Influx of solar UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) will probably increase in the future due to depletion of stratospheric ozone. In plants, there are several targets for the deleterious UV-B radiation, especially the chloroplast. This review summarizes the early effects and responses of low doses of UV-B at the molecular level. The DNA molecules of the plant cells are damaged by UV due to the formation of different photoproducts, such as pyrimidine dimers, which in turn can be combatted by specialized photoreactivating enzyme systems. In the chloroplast, the integrity of the thylakoid membrane seems to be much more sensitive than the activities of the photosynthetic components bound within. However, the decrease of mRNA transcripts for the photosynthetic complexes and other chloroplast proteins are among very early events of UV-B damage, as well as protein synthesis. Other genes, encoding defence-related enzymes, e.g., of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, are rapidly up-regulated after commencement of UV-B exposure. Some of the cis-acting nucleotide elements and trans-acting protein factors needed to regulate the UV-induced expression of the parsley chalcone synthase gene are known. PMID:24311138

  1. Potential Role of Pathogen Signaling in Multitrophic Plant-Microbe Interactions Involved in Disease Protection

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Brion; Keel, Christoph; Défago, Geneviève

    2004-01-01

    Multitrophic interactions mediate the ability of fungal pathogens to cause plant disease and the ability of bacterial antagonists to suppress disease. Antibiotic production by antagonists, which contributes to disease suppression, is known to be modulated by abiotic and host plant environmental conditions. Here, we demonstrate that a pathogen metabolite functions as a negative signal for bacterial antibiotic biosynthesis, which can determine the relative importance of biological control mechanisms available to antagonists and which may also influence fungus-bacterium ecological interactions. We found that production of the polyketide antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) was the primary biocontrol mechanism of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Q2-87 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici on the tomato as determined with mutational analysis. In contrast, DAPG was not important for the less-disease-suppressive strain CHA0. This was explained by differential sensitivity of the bacteria to fusaric acid, a pathogen phyto- and mycotoxin that specifically blocked DAPG biosynthesis in strain CHA0 but not in strain Q2-87. In CHA0, hydrogen cyanide, a biocide not repressed by fusaric acid, played a more important role in disease suppression. PMID:15006813

  2. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Pai Kotebagilu, Namratha; Reddy Palvai, Vanitha

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80%) and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton's reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and ?-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals. PMID:25436152

  3. Coexpression of potato type I and II proteinase inhibitors gives cotton plants protection against insect damage in the field

    PubMed Central

    Dunse, K. M.; Stevens, J. A.; Lay, F. T.; Gaspar, Y. M.; Heath, R. L.; Anderson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Potato type I and II serine protease inhibitors are produced by solanaceous plants as a defense mechanism against insects and microbes. Nicotiana alata proteinase inhibitor (NaPI) is a multidomain potato type II inhibitor (pin II) that is produced at high levels in the female reproductive tissues of the ornamental tobacco, Nicotiana alata. The individual inhibitory domains of NaPI target the major classes of digestive enzymes, trypsin and chymotrypsin, in the gut of lepidopteran larval pests. Although consumption of NaPI dramatically reduced the growth and development of a major insect pest, Helicoverpa punctigera, we discovered that surviving larvae had high levels of chymotrypsin activity resistant to inhibition by NaPI. We found a potato type I inhibitor, Solanum tuberosum potato type I inhibitor (StPin1A), was a strong inhibitor of the NaPI-resistant chymotrypsin activity. The combined inhibitory effect of NaPI and StPin1A on H. armigera larval growth in the laboratory was reflected in the increased yield of cotton bolls in field trials of transgenic plants expressing both inhibitors. Better crop protection thus is achieved using combinations of inhibitors in which one class of proteinase inhibitor is used to match the genetic capacity of an insect to adapt to a second class of proteinase inhibitor. PMID:20696895

  4. Signaling via the Trichoderma atroviride mitogen-activated protein kinase Tmk 1 differentially affects mycoparasitism and plant protection.

    PubMed

    Reithner, Barbara; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Stoppacher, Norbert; Pucher, Marion; Brunner, Kurt; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2007-11-01

    Trichoderma atroviride is a mycoparasite of a number of plant pathogenic fungi thereby employing morphological changes and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and antibiotics. The function of the tmk 1 gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) during fungal growth, mycoparasitic interaction, and biocontrol was examined in T. atroviride. Deltatmk 1 mutants exhibited altered radial growth and conidiation, and displayed de-regulated infection structure formation in the absence of a host-derived signal. In confrontation assays, tmk 1 deletion caused reduced mycoparasitic activity although attachment to Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea hyphae was comparable to the parental strain. Under chitinase-inducing conditions, nag 1 and ech 42 transcript levels and extracellular chitinase activities were elevated in a Deltatmk 1 mutant, whereas upon direct confrontation with R. solani or B. cinerea a host-specific regulation of ech 42 transcription was found and nag 1 gene transcription was no more inducible over an elevated basal level. Deltatmk 1 mutants exhibited higher antifungal activity caused by low molecular weight substances, which was reflected by an over-production of 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone and peptaibol antibiotics. In biocontrol assays, a Deltatmk 1 mutant displayed a higher ability to protect bean plants against R. solani. PMID:17509915

  5. Maize Purple Plant Pigment Protects Against Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Damage of Liver and Kidney in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Hiaohong; Wang, Fei; Song, Yingli; Liu, Shengnan; Xi, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanins are polyphenols and well known for their biological antioxidative benefits. Maize purple plant pigment (MPPP) extracted and separated from maize purple plant is rich in anthocyanins. In the present study, MPPP was used to alleviate the adverse effects generated by fluoride on liver and kidney in rats. The results showed that the ultrastructure of the liver and kidney in fluoride treated rats displayed shrinkage of nuclear and cell volume, swollen mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and vacuols formation in the liver and kidney cells. MPPP significantly attenuated these fluoride-induced pathological changes. The MDA levels in serum and liver tissue of fluoride alone treated group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05). The presence of 5 g/kg MPPP in the diet reduced the elevation of MDA levels in blood and liver, and increased the SOD and GSH-Px activities in kidney and GSH level in liver and kidney compared with the fluoride alone treated group (p < 0.05). In addition, MPPP alleviated the decrease of Bcl-2 protein expression and the increase of Bax protein expression induced by fluoride. This study demonstrated the protective role of MPPP against fluoride-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney of rats. PMID:24419046

  6. Maize purple plant pigment protects against fluoride-induced oxidative damage of liver and kidney in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Hiaohong; Wang, Fei; Song, Yingli; Liu, Shengnan; Xi, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanins are polyphenols and well known for their biological antioxidative benefits. Maize purple plant pigment (MPPP) extracted and separated from maize purple plant is rich in anthocyanins. In the present study, MPPP was used to alleviate the adverse effects generated by fluoride on liver and kidney in rats. The results showed that the ultrastructure of the liver and kidney in fluoride treated rats displayed shrinkage of nuclear and cell volume, swollen mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and vacuols formation in the liver and kidney cells. MPPP significantly attenuated these fluoride-induced pathological changes. The MDA levels in serum and liver tissue of fluoride alone treated group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05). The presence of 5 g/kg MPPP in the diet reduced the elevation of MDA levels in blood and liver, and increased the SOD and GSH-Px activities in kidney and GSH level in liver and kidney compared with the fluoride alone treated group (p < 0.05). In addition, MPPP alleviated the decrease of Bcl-2 protein expression and the increase of Bax protein expression induced by fluoride. This study demonstrated the protective role of MPPP against fluoride-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney of rats. PMID:24419046

  7. In the right place at the right time: habitat representation in protected areas of South american nothofagus-dominated plants after a dispersal constrained climate change scenario.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Diego; Cavieres, Lohengrin A

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of climate change in temperate rainforest plants in southern South America in terms of habitat size, representation in protected areas, considering also if the expected impacts are similar for dominant trees and understory plant species, we used niche modeling constrained by species migration on 118 plant species, considering two groups of dominant trees and two groups of understory ferns. Representation in protected areas included Chilean national protected areas, private protected areas, and priority areas planned for future reserves, with two thresholds for minimum representation at the country level: 10% and 17%. With a 10% representation threshold, national protected areas currently represent only 50% of the assessed species. Private reserves are important since they increase up to 66% the species representation level. Besides, 97% of the evaluated species may achieve the minimum representation target only if the proposed priority areas were included. With the climate change scenario representation levels slightly increase to 53%, 69%, and 99%, respectively, to the categories previously mentioned. Thus, the current location of all the representation categories is useful for overcoming climate change by 2050. Climate change impacts on habitat size and representation of dominant trees in protected areas are not applicable to understory plants, highlighting the importance of assessing these effects with a larger number of species. Although climate change will modify the habitat size of plant species in South American temperate rainforests, it will have no significant impact in terms of the number of species adequately represented in Chile, where the implementation of the proposed reserves is vital to accomplish the present and future minimum representation. Our results also show the importance of using migration dispersal constraints to develop more realistic future habitat maps from climate change predictions. PMID:25786226

  8. In the Right Place at the Right Time: Habitat Representation in Protected Areas of South American Nothofagus-Dominated Plants after a Dispersal Constrained Climate Change Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Diego; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of climate change in temperate rainforest plants in southern South America in terms of habitat size, representation in protected areas, considering also if the expected impacts are similar for dominant trees and understory plant species, we used niche modeling constrained by species migration on 118 plant species, considering two groups of dominant trees and two groups of understory ferns. Representation in protected areas included Chilean national protected areas, private protected areas, and priority areas planned for future reserves, with two thresholds for minimum representation at the country level: 10% and 17%. With a 10% representation threshold, national protected areas currently represent only 50% of the assessed species. Private reserves are important since they increase up to 66% the species representation level. Besides, 97% of the evaluated species may achieve the minimum representation target only if the proposed priority areas were included. With the climate change scenario representation levels slightly increase to 53%, 69%, and 99%, respectively, to the categories previously mentioned. Thus, the current location of all the representation categories is useful for overcoming climate change by 2050. Climate change impacts on habitat size and representation of dominant trees in protected areas are not applicable to understory plants, highlighting the importance of assessing these effects with a larger number of species. Although climate change will modify the habitat size of plant species in South American temperate rainforests, it will have no significant impact in terms of the number of species adequately represented in Chile, where the implementation of the proposed reserves is vital to accomplish the present and future minimum representation. Our results also show the importance of using migration dispersal constraints to develop more realistic future habitat maps from climate change predictions. PMID:25786226

  9. Effet d'une leve de dormance incomplte sur la qualit des tamines et du pollen chez le frai-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effet d'une levée de dormance incomplète sur la qualité des étamines et du pollen chez le frai », l'observation des étamines et du pollen sur des plants cultivés en serre à partir de 4 dates, 13 élevé de grains de pollen avortés que les fleurs des plants des séries entrées en serre plus tardivement

  10. Action des huiles essentielles de deux plantes aromatiques de Côte-d'Ivoire sur Callosobruchus maculatus F. du niébé

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Badama Philomène Seri-Kouassi; Coffi Kanko; Louis Roi Nondenot Aboua; Kouassi Alphonse Bekon; Adolé Isabelle Glitho; Gérard Koukoua; Yao Thomas N'Guessan

    2004-01-01

    Action of essential oils from two aromatic plants from Ivory Coast on Callosobruchus maculatus F. of cowpea. The essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation of two aromatic plants from western Africa – Melaleuca quinquenervia (L) et Ocimum gratissimum (L) – have been tested by fumigation with various concentrations on adults of the not-‘voilière’ shape of Callosobruchus maculatus Fab., at a temperature

  11. Unsaturation of very-long-chain ceramides protects plant from hypoxia-induced damages by modulating ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-Juan; Chen, Qin-Fang; Chen, Mo-Xian; Yu, Lu-Jun; Huang, Li; Chen, Liang; Wang, Feng-Zhu; Xia, Fan-Nv; Zhu, Tian-Ren; Wu, Jian-Xin; Yin, Jian; Liao, Bin; Shi, Jianxin; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Aharoni, Asaph; Yao, Nan; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2015-02-01

    Lipid remodeling is crucial for hypoxic tolerance in animals, whilst little is known about the hypoxia-induced lipid dynamics in plants. Here we performed a mass spectrometry-based analysis to survey the lipid profiles of Arabidopsis rosettes under various hypoxic conditions. We observed that hypoxia caused a significant increase in total amounts of phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid and oxidized lipids, but a decrease in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Particularly, significant gains in the polyunsaturated species of PC, PE and phosphatidylinositol, and losses in their saturated and mono-unsaturated species were evident during hypoxia. Moreover, hypoxia led to a remarkable elevation of ceramides and hydroxyceramides. Disruption of ceramide synthases LOH1, LOH2 and LOH3 enhanced plant sensitivity to dark submergence, but displayed more resistance to submergence under light than wild type. Consistently, levels of unsaturated very-long-chain (VLC) ceramide species (22:1, 24:1 and 26:1) predominantly declined in the loh1, loh2 and loh3 mutants under dark submergence. In contrast, significant reduction of VLC ceramides in the loh1-1 loh3-1 knockdown double mutant and lacking of VLC unsaturated ceramides in the ads2 mutants impaired plant tolerance to both dark and light submergences. Evidence that C24:1-ceramide interacted with recombinant CTR1 protein and inhibited its kinase activity in vitro, enhanced ER-to-nucleus translocation of EIN2-GFP and stabilization of EIN3-GFP in vivo, suggests a role of ceramides in modulating CTR1-mediated ethylene signaling. The dark submergence-sensitive phenotypes of loh mutants were rescued by a ctr1-1 mutation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that unsaturation of VLC ceramides is a protective strategy for hypoxic tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:25822663

  12. Unsaturation of Very-Long-Chain Ceramides Protects Plant from Hypoxia-Induced Damages by Modulating Ethylene Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lu-Jun; Huang, Li; Chen, Liang; Wang, Feng-Zhu; Xia, Fan-Nv; Zhu, Tian-Ren; Wu, Jian-Xin; Yin, Jian; Liao, Bin; Shi, Jianxin; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Aharoni, Asaph; Yao, Nan; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Lipid remodeling is crucial for hypoxic tolerance in animals, whilst little is known about the hypoxia-induced lipid dynamics in plants. Here we performed a mass spectrometry-based analysis to survey the lipid profiles of Arabidopsis rosettes under various hypoxic conditions. We observed that hypoxia caused a significant increase in total amounts of phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid and oxidized lipids, but a decrease in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Particularly, significant gains in the polyunsaturated species of PC, PE and phosphatidylinositol, and losses in their saturated and mono-unsaturated species were evident during hypoxia. Moreover, hypoxia led to a remarkable elevation of ceramides and hydroxyceramides. Disruption of ceramide synthases LOH1, LOH2 and LOH3 enhanced plant sensitivity to dark submergence, but displayed more resistance to submergence under light than wild type. Consistently, levels of unsaturated very-long-chain (VLC) ceramide species (22:1, 24:1 and 26:1) predominantly declined in the loh1, loh2 and loh3 mutants under dark submergence. In contrast, significant reduction of VLC ceramides in the loh1-1 loh3-1 knockdown double mutant and lacking of VLC unsaturated ceramides in the ads2 mutants impaired plant tolerance to both dark and light submergences. Evidence that C24:1-ceramide interacted with recombinant CTR1 protein and inhibited its kinase activity in vitro, enhanced ER-to-nucleus translocation of EIN2-GFP and stabilization of EIN3-GFP in vivo, suggests a role of ceramides in modulating CTR1-mediated ethylene signaling. The dark submergence-sensitive phenotypes of loh mutants were rescued by a ctr1-1 mutation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that unsaturation of VLC ceramides is a protective strategy for hypoxic tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:25822663

  13. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP and NBR1-Mediated Selective Autophagy Protect Additively against Proteotoxicity in Plant Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jingxia; Chi, Yingjin; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    Plant stress responses require both protective measures that reduce or restore stress-inflicted damage to cellular structures and mechanisms that efficiently remove damaged and toxic macromolecules, such as misfolded and damaged proteins. We have recently reported that NBR1, the first identified plant autophagy adaptor with a ubiquitin-association domain, plays a critical role in plant stress tolerance by targeting stress-induced, ubiquitinated protein aggregates for degradation by autophagy. Here we report a comprehensive genetic analysis of CHIP, a chaperone-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana implicated in mediating degradation of nonnative proteins by 26S proteasomes. We isolated two chip knockout mutants and discovered that they had the same phenotypes as the nbr1 mutants with compromised tolerance to heat, oxidative and salt stresses and increased accumulation of insoluble proteins under heat stress. To determine their functional interactions, we generated chip nbr1 double mutants and found them to be further compromised in stress tolerance and in clearance of stress-induced protein aggregates, indicating additive roles of CHIP and NBR1. Furthermore, stress-induced protein aggregates were still ubiquitinated in the chip mutants. Through proteomic profiling, we systemically identified heat-induced protein aggregates in the chip and nbr1 single and double mutants. These experiments revealed that highly aggregate-prone proteins such as Rubisco activase and catalases preferentially accumulated in the nbr1 mutant while a number of light-harvesting complex proteins accumulated at high levels in the chip mutant after a relatively short period of heat stress. With extended heat stress, aggregates for a large number of intracellular proteins accumulated in both chip and nbr1 mutants and, to a greater extent, in the chip nbr1 double mutant. Based on these results, we propose that CHIP and NBR1 mediate two distinct but complementary anti-proteotoxic pathways and protein's propensity to aggregate under stress conditions is one of the critical factors for pathway selection of protein degradation. PMID:24497840

  14. Can Sacrificial Feeding Areas Protect Aquatic Plants from Herbivore Grazing? Using Behavioural Ecology to Inform Wildlife Management

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kevin A.; Stillman, Richard A.; Daunt, Francis; O’Hare, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor) to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i) food quantity, (ii) food quality, and (iii) the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems. PMID:25077615

  15. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. R. Latorre; B. G. Mayn

    1979-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects for the low temperature overpressure protection system of the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria.

  16. Identification of priority areas for plant conservation in Madagascar using Red List criteria: rare and threatened Pandanaceae indicate sites in need of protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin W. Callmander; George E. Schatz; Porter P. Lowry II; Michel O. Laivao; Jeannie Raharimampionona; Sylvie Andriambololonera; Tantely Raminosoa; Trisha K. Consiglio

    2007-01-01

    A major problem in establishing effective protocols for conserving Madagascar's biodiversity is the lack of reliable information for the identification of priority sites in need of protection. Analyses of field data and information from herbarium collections for mem- bers of the plant family Pandanaceae (85 spp. of Pandanus; 6 spp. of Martellidendron) showed how risk of extinction assessments can inform

  17. Selection of areas for protecting rare plants with integration of land use conflicts: A case study for the west coast of Newfoundland, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Nantel; André Bouchard; Luc Brouillet; Stuart Hay

    1998-01-01

    On the west coast of Newfoundland (Canada) about 40% of the provincially rare plant species are not protected within the system of three national parks and two ecological reserves existing in the region. This study examines how heuristic algorithms can be used for selecting areas filling this gap while minimizing potential land use conflicts. One algorithm selected 78 areas of

  18. Leaf volatile compounds and the distribution of ant patrollingin an ant-plant protection mutualism: Preliminary results on Leonardoxa (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) and Petalomyrmex(Formicidae: Formicinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouat, Carine; McKey, Doyle; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Pascal, Laurence; Hossaert-McKey, Martine

    2000-12-01

    While observations suggest that plant chemicals could be important in maintaining the specificity and permitting the functioning of ant-plant symbioses, they have been little studied. We report here the strongest evidence yet for chemical signalling between ants and plants in a specific ant-plant protection symbiosis. In the mutualism between Leonardoxa africana subsp. africana and Petalomyrmex phylax, ants continuously patrol young leaves, which are vulnerable to attacks by phytophagous insects. We provide experimental evidence for chemical mediation of ant attraction to young leaves in this system. By a comparative analysis of the related non-myrmecophytic tree L. africana subsp. gracilicaulis, we identify likely candidates for attractant molecules, and suggest they may function not only as signals but also as resources. We also propose hypotheses on the evolutionary origin of these plant volatiles, and of the responses to them by mutualistic ants.

  19. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Quinn

    2005-05-02

    Use these links to find out more about plants. This site will help you determine what a plant needs to grow. Michigan's 4-H Children's Garden This site will send you through an adventure where you try to discover if you can grow plants on the moon. Adventures of the agronauts These 2 sites are teacher resource sites on plants. Light Plants and Dark Plants, Wet Plants and Dry Ones The New York Times Daily Lesson Plan: Growing Pains ...

  20. Plant cell death caused by fungal, bacterial, and viral elicitors: protective effect of mitochondria-targeted quinones.

    PubMed

    Kiselevsky, D B; Frolova, O Yu; Solovyev, A G; Dorokhov, Yu L; Morozov, S Yu; Samuilov, V D

    2014-12-01

    Chitosan (partially deacetylated chitin), a component of fungal cell walls, caused epidermal cell (EC) death in the leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and tobacco Nicotiana tabacum or Nicotiana benthamiana detected by destruction of cell nuclei. The mitochondria-targeted quinone SkQ1 prevented the destruction of EC nuclei induced by chitosan. Chitosan increased and SkQ1 suppressed the activity of protein kinases in N. benthamiana and P. sativum and eliminated the effect of chitosan. Chitosan induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the guard cells (GC) of pea plants. Treatment with chitosan or H2O2 did not cause destruction of GC nuclei; however, it resulted in disruption of the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane detected by propidium iodide fluorescence. Treatment with bacterial lipopolysaccharide but not peptidoglycan caused destruction of pea EC nuclei, which was prevented by SkQ1. Leaves of tobacco plants containing the N gene responsible for resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were infiltrated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells. These cells contained a genetic construct with the gene of the helicase domain of TMV replicase (p50); its protein product p50 is a target for the N-gene product. As a result, the hypersensitive response (HR) was initiated. The HR manifested itself in the death of leaves and was suppressed by SkQ3. Treatment of tobacco epidermal peels with the A. tumefaciens cells for the p50 gene expression stimulated the destruction of EC nuclei, which was inhibited by SkQ1 or SkQ3. The p50-lacking A. tumefaciens cells did not induce the destruction of EC nuclei. The protective effect of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants SkQ1 and SkQ3 demonstrates the involvement of mitochondria and their ROS in programmed cell death caused by pathogen elicitors. PMID:25716725

  1. Projected Range Contractions of European Protected Oceanic Montane Plant Communities: Focus on Climate Change Impacts Is Essential for Their Future Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Skeffington, Micheline Sheehy

    2014-01-01

    Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1) oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2) species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3) species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need significantly greater focus on potential climate change impacts, including models with higher-resolution species distribution and environmental data, to aid these communities' long-term survival. PMID:24752011

  2. INFORMATIONS SUR LES CAPTURES ACCESSOIRES DES THONIERS SENNEURS GERES PAR LES ARMEMENTS FRANÇAIS D'APRES LES OBSERVATIONS FAITES PAR LES OBSERVATEURS EMBARQUES PENDANT LES PLAN DE PROTECTION DES THONIDES DE L'ATLANTIQUE DE 1997 A 2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Goujon

    SUMMARY Since 1997, observers have been on board French tuna purse seiners during the months of November, December and January as a consequence of the Atlantic tuna protection plan (also called moratorium). During these periods onboard, observers have collected information on the purse-seine catch composition and on the size of the by-catch. The analysis of these data indicates that the

  3. Role of submerged vegetation in the retention processes of three plant protection products in flow-through stream mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Stang, Christoph; Wieczorek, Matthias Valentin; Noss, Christian; Lorke, Andreas; Scherr, Frank; Goerlitz, Gerhard; Schulz, Ralf

    2014-07-01

    Quantitative information on the processes leading to the retention of plant protection products (PPPs) in surface waters is not available, particularly for flow-through systems. The influence of aquatic vegetation on the hydraulic- and sorption-mediated mitigation processes of three PPPs (triflumuron, pencycuron, and penflufen; logKOW 3.3-4.9) in 45-m slow-flowing stream mesocosms was investigated. Peak reductions were 35-38% in an unvegetated stream mesocosm, 60-62% in a sparsely vegetated stream mesocosm (13% coverage with Elodea nuttallii), and in a similar range of 57-69% in a densely vegetated stream mesocosm (100% coverage). Between 89% and 93% of the measured total peak reductions in the sparsely vegetated stream can be explained by an increase of vegetation-induced dispersion (estimated with the one-dimensional solute transport model OTIS), while 7-11% of the peak reduction can be attributed to sorption processes. However, dispersion contributed only 59-71% of the peak reductions in the densely vegetated stream mesocosm, where 29% to 41% of the total peak reductions can be attributed to sorption processes. In the densely vegetated stream, 8-27% of the applied PPPs, depending on the logKOW values of the compounds, were temporarily retained by macrophytes. Increasing PPP recoveries in the aqueous phase were accompanied by a decrease of PPP concentrations in macrophytes indicating kinetic desorption over time. This is the first study to provide quantitative data on how the interaction of dispersion and sorption, driven by aquatic macrophytes, influences the mitigation of PPP concentrations in flowing vegetated stream systems. PMID:24875866

  4. Application of the “threshold of toxicological concern” to derive tolerable concentrations of “non-relevant metabolites” formed from plant protection products in ground and drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Melching-Kollmuß; Wolfgang Dekant; Fritz Kalberlah

    2010-01-01

    Limits for tolerable concentrations of ground water metabolites (“non-relevant metabolites” without targeted toxicities and specific classification and labeling) derived from active ingredients (AI) of plant protection products (PPPs) are discussed in the European Union. Risk assessments for “non-relevant metabolites” need to be performed when concentrations are above 0.75?g\\/L. Since oral uptake is the only relevant exposure pathway for “non-relevant metabolites”,

  5. [Specific diversity of plant populations at rainfed scale and crop protection: the example of banana production in the French West Indies].

    PubMed

    Ganry, Jacky

    2004-07-01

    Banana is a major crop in the French West Indies, where it is subjected to strong parasite pressure, resulting in pesticide pollution. An increase in plant population diversity in the cultivated ecosystem is generated by changing cultural practices. This results in a decrease in parasite pressure and hence a decrease in pollutant pesticide loads. Agricultural sustainability is therefore reinforced for better coexistence of populated, cultivated and protected areas. PMID:15344812

  6. Does the actual standard of 0.1 ?g\\/L overestimate or underestimate the risk of plant protection products to groundwater ecosystems?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michiel A. Daam; Emília Silva; Sara Leitão; Manuel J. Trindade; Maria José Cerejeira

    2010-01-01

    The present groundwater standard of 0.1?g\\/L for plant protection products (PPPs) has been under much debate because an ecotoxicological base is missing. In the present study, groundwater threshold values were calculated for all PPPs currently included in Annex I to Directive 91\\/414\\/EEC using three different approaches: (1) first-tier (Daphnia magna and Vibrio fisheri); (2) species sensitivity distributions, constructed for surrogate

  7. Does the actual standard of 0.1 microg/L overestimate or underestimate the risk of plant protection products to groundwater ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Daam, Michiel A; Silva, Emília; Leitão, Sara; Trindade, Manuel J; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2010-07-01

    The present groundwater standard of 0.1 microg/L for plant protection products (PPPs) has been under much debate because an ecotoxicological base is missing. In the present study, groundwater threshold values were calculated for all PPPs currently included in Annex I to Directive 91/414/EEC using three different approaches: (1) first-tier (Daphnia magna and Vibrio fisheri); (2) species sensitivity distributions, constructed for surrogate freshwater organisms for the truncated groundwater biodiversity; (3) the case-based model PERPEST. For the majority of the PPPs, the trigger value of 0.1 microg/L appears to be sufficiently protective. However, it may not fully protect groundwater life from several insecticides. Implications for the environmental risk assessment of groundwater and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:20083305

  8. Vaccination with recombinant adenoviruses expressing the peste des petits ruminants virus F or H proteins overcomes viral immunosuppression and induces protective immunity against PPRV challenge in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rojas, José M; Moreno, Héctor; Valcárcel, Félix; Peña, Lourdes; Sevilla, Noemí; Martín, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants caused by the Morbillivirus peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Two recombinant replication-defective human adenoviruses serotype 5 (Ad5) expressing either the highly immunogenic fusion protein (F) or hemagglutinin protein (H) from PPRV were used to vaccinate sheep by intramuscular inoculation. Both recombinant adenovirus vaccines elicited PPRV-specific B- and T-cell responses. Thus, neutralizing antibodies were detected in sera from immunized sheep. In addition, we detected a significant antigen specific T-cell response in vaccinated sheep against two different PPRV strains, indicating that the vaccine induced heterologous T cell responses. Importantly, no clinical signs and undetectable virus shedding were observed after virulent PPRV challenge in vaccinated sheep. These vaccines also overcame the T cell immunosuppression induced by PPRV in control animals. The results indicate that these adenovirus constructs could be a promising alternative to current vaccine strategies for the development of PPRV DIVA vaccines. PMID:25013961

  9. Vaccination with Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing the Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus F or H Proteins Overcomes Viral Immunosuppression and Induces Protective Immunity against PPRV Challenge in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, José M.; Moreno, Héctor; Valcárcel, Félix; Peña, Lourdes; Sevilla, Noemí; Martín, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants caused by the Morbillivirus peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Two recombinant replication-defective human adenoviruses serotype 5 (Ad5) expressing either the highly immunogenic fusion protein (F) or hemagglutinin protein (H) from PPRV were used to vaccinate sheep by intramuscular inoculation. Both recombinant adenovirus vaccines elicited PPRV-specific B- and T-cell responses. Thus, neutralizing antibodies were detected in sera from immunized sheep. In addition, we detected a significant antigen specific T-cell response in vaccinated sheep against two different PPRV strains, indicating that the vaccine induced heterologous T cell responses. Importantly, no clinical signs and undetectable virus shedding were observed after virulent PPRV challenge in vaccinated sheep. These vaccines also overcame the T cell immunosuppression induced by PPRV in control animals. The results indicate that these adenovirus constructs could be a promising alternative to current vaccine strategies for the development of PPRV DIVA vaccines. PMID:25013961

  10. A novel antimicrobial protein for plant protection consisting of a Xanthomonas oryzae harpin and active domains of cecropin A and melittin

    PubMed Central

    Che, Yi?Zhou; Li, Yu?Rong; Zou, Hua?Song; Zou, Li?Fang; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Gong?You

    2011-01-01

    Summary Discoveries about antimicrobial peptides and plant defence activators have made possible the de novo and rational design of novel peptides for use in crop protection. Here we report a novel chimeric protein, Hcm1, which was made by linking the active domains of cecropin A and melittin to the hypersensitive response (HR)?elicitor Hpa1 of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of rice bacterial leaf streak. The resulting chimeric protein maintained not only the HR?inducing property of the harpin, but also the antimicrobial activity of the cecropin A?melittin hybrid. Hcm1 was purified from engineered Escherichia coli and evaluated in terms of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the 50% effective dose (ED50) against important plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Importantly, the protein acted as a potential pesticide by inducing disease resistance for viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens. This designed drug can be considered as a lead compound for use in plant protection, either for the development of new broad?spectrum pesticides or for expression in transgenic plants. PMID:21895994

  11. Confiance, approbation et opposition : une approche simultanée des déterminants de l'opposition aux OGM en Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samira Chaklatti; Damien Rousselière

    2006-01-01

    L'apparition des plantes génétiquement modifiées, en Europe, a donné lieu à des débats importants notamment en ce qui a trait à la consommation des produits alimentaires issus des procédures de génie génétique. Dans ce contexte le mouvement collectif associatif est apparu comme un acteur important de diffusion de l'information sur le sujet, influençant de cette manière les comportements individuels des

  12. Roles of FtsH protease in choloroplast biogensis and protection of photosystems from high temperatures stress in higher plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AtFtsH11 protease gene is essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate heat stress. Under high and normal light at 21ºC, ftsh11 mutants were indistinguishable from wild type plants in photosynthesis capability and in overall growth. However, mutant plants display a host of dramatic change...

  13. Role of ethylene in the protection of tomato plants against soil-borne fungal pathogens conferred by an endophytic Fusarium solani strain.

    PubMed

    Kavroulakis, Nektarios; Ntougias, Spyridon; Zervakis, Georgios I; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

    2007-01-01

    An endophytic fungal isolate (Fs-K), identified as a Fusarium solani strain, was obtained from root tissues of tomato plants grown on a compost which suppressed soil and foliar pathogens. Strain Fs-K was able to colonize root tissues and subsequently protect plants against the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), and elicit induced systemic resistance against the tomato foliar pathogen Septoria lycopersici. Interestingly, attenuated expression of certain pathogenesis-related genes, i.e. PR5 and PR7, was detected in tomato roots inoculated with strain Fs-K compared with non-inoculated plants. The expression pattern of PR genes was either not affected or aberrant in leaves. A genetic approach, using mutant tomato plant lines, was used to determine the role of ethylene and jasmonic acid in the plant's response to infection by the soil-borne pathogen F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), in the presence or absence of isolate Fs-K. Mutant tomato lines Never ripe (Nr) and epinastic (epi1), both impaired in ethylene-mediated plant responses, inoculated with FORL are not protected by isolate Fs-K, indicating that the ethylene signalling pathway is required for the mode of action used by the endophyte to confer resistance. On the contrary, def1 mutants, affected in jasmonate biosynthesis, show reduced susceptibility to FORL, in the presence Fs-K, which suggests that jasmonic acid is not essential for the mediation of biocontrol activity of isolate Fs-K. PMID:18048373

  14. Comparing ecotoxicological standards of plant protection products potentially toxic to groundwater life with their measured and modelled concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Santos; Cerejeira, Maria José; Daam, Michiel A

    2014-04-01

    Trigger values (TVs) for groundwater ecosystems in the European Union (EU), as elsewhere, are not based on toxicity data for the biota of that ecosystem. At present, very few toxicity tests have been conducted with groundwater organisms so the true sensitivity of groundwater ecosystems is largely unknown. In a previous published study, we set groundwater TVs for all plant protection products (PPPs) allowed for use at the time of the study based on toxicity data for surface water organisms as surrogates for groundwater organisms and calculated TVs lower than the current EU standard of 0.1 ?g/L for 16 PPPs. This thus reveals that the effect assessment of these PPPs may not be fully adequate, but would still only indicate risk if the (expected) concentrations of these PPPs are greater than their calculated TVs. The present study was therefore initiated to evaluate whether predicted and measured concentrations of these PPPs are higher than the previously calculated TVs lower than 0.1 ?g/L. To this end, predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were calculated using the PELMO and SCI-GROW models that are currently used for this purpose in the EU and USA, respectively, and measured concentrations (MECs) were obtained from the open literature. In addition, the empirical PERPEST model was used to assess the severity and probability of effects that may be expected at these concentrations on taxonomic groups known to be well represented in groundwater ecosystems. In addition, only for dimethoate a PEC greater than 0.1 ?g/L was calculated. However, when considering concentrations actually measured in the field, 99.7% showed risk quotients (RQ, as MEC/TV) values higher than 1 and 36.7% even higher than 100. Future field monitoring studies are needed to validate and eventually calibrate the way PEC values are currently calculated with the different models and scenarios currently in use. Such studies would also aid in the question to what extent the high MEC values may be attributed to diffuse or point-source pollution. PMID:24530731

  15. Are different facets of plant diversity well protected against climate and land cover changes? A test study in the French Alps

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Guéguen, Maya; Georges, Damien; Bonet, Richard; Chalmandrier, Loïc; Garraud, Luc; Renaud, Julien; Roquet, Cristina; Van Es, Jérémie; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Lavergne, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Climate and land cover changes are important drivers of the plant species distributions and diversity patterns in mountainous regions. Although the need for a multifaceted view of diversity based on taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic dimensions is now commonly recognized, there are no complete risk assessments concerning their expected changes. In this paper, we used a range of species distribution models in an ensemble-forecasting framework together with regional climate and land cover projections by 2080 to analyze the potential threat for more than 2,500 plant species at high resolution (2.5 km × 2.5 km) in the French Alps. We also decomposed taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity facets into ? and ? components and analyzed their expected changes by 2080. Overall, plant species threats from climate and land cover changes in the French Alps were expected to vary depending on the species’ preferred altitudinal vegetation zone, rarity, and conservation status. Indeed, rare species and species of conservation concern were the ones projected to experience less severe change, and also the ones being the most efficiently preserved by the current network of protected areas. Conversely, the three facets of plant diversity were also projected to experience drastic spatial re-shuffling by 2080. In general, the mean ?-diversity of the three facets was projected to increase to the detriment of regional ?-diversity, although the latter was projected to remain high at the montane-alpine transition zones. Our results show that, due to a high-altitude distribution, the current protection network is efficient for rare species, and species predicted to migrate upward. Although our modeling framework may not capture all possible mechanisms of species range shifts, our work illustrates that a comprehensive risk assessment on an entire floristic region combined with functional and phylogenetic information can help delimitate future scenarios of biodiversity and better design its protection. PMID:25722539

  16. Science du sol Cintiques de transfert des ions phosphate du sol

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Science du sol Cinétiques de transfert des ions phosphate du sol vers la solution du sol des plantes dans un sol peut dépendre de la vitesse de renouvellement des ions phosphate de la transfert entre la phase solide et la phase liquide, (ii) un temps moyen de séjour des ions phosphate dans

  17. The oxidative burst protects plants against pathogen attack: Mechanism and role as an emergency signal for plant bio-defence — a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Doke; Y. Miura; L. M. Sanchez; H. J. Park; T. Noritake; H. Yoshioka; K. Kawakita

    1996-01-01

    Various aspects, mechanisms and functions of the oxidative burst with generation of O2? superoxide anions in plant cells, which is stimulated by active defence-inducing agents such as fungal infection or elicitor treatment, were reviewed mainly on the basis of experimental evidence obtained in a system of Solanaceae plants and Phytophthora spp. The oxidative burst may be due to an O2?-generating

  18. Protective effects of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum on soil and Viburnum tinus plants irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bellot, María José; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Nortes, Pedro Antonio; Vicente-Sánchez, Javier; Martín, Félix Fernández; Bañón, Sebastián; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2014-12-10

    Currently, irrigation using recycled water is increasing, especially in semiarid environments, but a potential problem of using reclaimed wastewater is its elevated salt levels. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could be a suitable option to mitigate the negative effects produced by the salinity. In this work, the combined effect of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum and two types of water: Control, C, with EC <0.9 dS m(-1) and reclaimed water (wastewater previously treated in a sewage treatment plant) with EC 4 dS m(-1) during a first saline period (11 weeks) and with EC 6 dS m(-1) during a second saline period (25 weeks), was evaluated for laurustinus (Viburnum tinus) plants under field conditions. This plant is a popular shrub very used for gardening. Chemical properties of soil as well as physiological behavior, leaf nutrition, and esthetic value of plants were evaluated. Due to the high salinity from wastewater at 6 dS m(-1), laurustinus plants decreased their stem water potential values and, to a lesser extent, the stomatal conductance. Also, the visual quality of the plants was diminished. The inoculated AMF satisfactorily colonized the laurustinus roots and enhanced the structure of the soil by increasing the glomalin and carbon contents. Furthermore, G. iranicum var. tenuihypharum inoculation decreased Na and Cl content, stimulated flowering and improved the stem water potential of the plants irrigated with both types of reclaimed water. The AMF also had a positive effect as a consequence of stimulation of plant physiological parameters, such as the stem water potential and stomatal conductance. Effective AMF associations that avoid excessive salinity could provide wastewater reuse options, especially when the plants grow in soils. PMID:25492808

  19. Protection from ground faults in the stator winding of generators at power plants in the Siberian networks

    SciTech Connect

    Vainshtein, R. A., E-mail: vra@tpu.ru [Tomsk Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Lapin, V. I. [ODU Sibiri (Integrated Dispatcher Control for Siberia), branch of JSC 'SO EES' (Russian Federation); Naumov, A. M.; Doronin, A. V. [JSC NPP 'EKRA' (Russian Federation); Yudin, S. M. [Tomsk Polytechnical University (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-15

    The experience of many years of experience in developing and utilization of ground fault protection in the stator winding of generators in the Siberian networks is generalized. The main method of protection is to apply a direct current or an alternating current with a frequency of 25 Hz to the primary circuits of the stator. A direct current is applied to turbo generators operating in a unit with a transformer without a resistive coupling to the external grid or to other generators. Applying a 25 Hz control current is appropriate for power generation systems with compensation of a capacitive short circuit current to ground. This method forms the basis for protection of generators operating on busbars, hydroelectric generators with a neutral grounded through an arc-suppression reactor, including in consolidated units with generators operating in parallel on a single low-voltage transformer winding.

  20. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SRowley

    2006-04-28

    Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

  1. Hydroxycinnamic acid degradation, a broadly conserved trait, protects Ralstonia solanacearum from chemical plant defenses and contributes to root colonization and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Tiffany M.; Ailloud, Florent; Allen, Caitilyn

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce hydroxycinnamic acid defense compounds (HCAs) to combat pathogens, such as the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. We showed that an HCA degradation pathway is genetically and functionally conserved across diverse R. solanacearum strains. Further, a ?fcs (feruloyl-CoA synthetase) mutant that cannot degrade HCAs was less virulent on tomato plants. To understand the role of HCA degradation in bacterial wilt disease, we tested the following hypotheses: HCA degradation helps the pathogen (1) grow, as a carbon source; (2) spread, by reducing physical barriers HCA-derived; and (3) survive plant antimicrobial compounds. Although HCA degradation enabled R. solanacearum growth on HCAs in vitro, HCA degradation was dispensable for growth in xylem sap and root exudate, suggesting that HCAs are not significant carbon sources in planta. Acetyl-bromide quantification of lignin demonstrated that R. solanacearum infections did not affect the gross quantity or distribution of stem lignin. However, the ?fcs mutant was significantly more susceptible to inhibition by two HCAs: caffeate and p-coumarate. Finally, plant colonization assays suggested that HCA degradation facilitates early stages of infection and root colonization. Together, these results indicated that ability to degrade HCAs contributes to bacterial wilt virulence by facilitating root entry and by protecting the pathogen from HCA toxicity. PMID:25423265

  2. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  3. Onondaga County Department of Water Environment Protection: Process Optimization Saves Energy at Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-12-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Onondaga County, New York, is saving nearly 3 million kWh and 270 million Btu annually at a wastewater treatment plant after replacing inefficient motors and upgrading pumps.

  4. Fall Protection for Roof Workers Before working on roofs above 7 feet,1 Physical Plant staff should implement an

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    lumber or equivalent material for rails. The top rail should withstand a force of 13 pounds per linear greater than 5:12. Anchor them to the roof; secure lanyards no lower than the employee's waist; and limit feet horizontally and not lower than 10 feet below the working surface. They offer protection when

  5. Oral immunization of haemaggulutinin H5 expressed in plant endoplasmic reticulum with adjuvant saponin protects mice against highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Goeun; Na, Yun Jeong; Yang, Bo-Gie; Choi, Jun-Pyo; Seo, Yong Bok; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Yun, Chang Ho; Kim, Dae Heon; Sohn, Eun Ju; Kim, Jeong Hee; Sung, Young Chul; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Jang, Myoung Ho; Hwang, Inhwan

    2015-01-01

    Pandemics in poultry caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A virus occur too frequently globally, and there is growing concern about the HPAI A virus due to the possibility of a pandemic among humans. Thus, it is important to develop a vaccine against HPAI suitable for both humans and animals. Various approaches are underway to develop such vaccines. In particular, an edible vaccine would be a convenient way to vaccinate poultry because of the behaviour of the animals. However, an edible vaccine is still not available. In this study, we developed a strategy of effective vaccination of mice by the oral administration of transgenic Arabidopsis plants (HA-TG) expressing haemagglutinin (HA) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Expression of HA in the ER resulted in its high-level accumulation, N-glycosylation, protection from proteolytic degradation and long-term stability. Oral administration of HA-TG with saponin elicited high levels of HA-specific systemic IgG and mucosal IgA responses in mice, which resulted in protection against a lethal influenza virus infection with attenuated inflammatory symptoms. Based on these results, we propose that oral administration of freeze-dried leaf powders from transgenic plants expressing HA in the ER together with saponin is an attractive strategy for vaccination against influenza A virus. PMID:25065685

  6. Insecticidal activity of the aqueous extracts of four under-utilized tropical plants as protectant of cowpea seeds from Callosobruchus maculatus infestation.

    PubMed

    Obembe, O M; Kayode, J

    2013-02-15

    The test plants species, namely Crotaria retusa, Hyptis suaveolens, Ricinus communis and Tithonia diversifolia were extracted with water. The extracts were evaluated on Callosobruchus maculatus for mortality, oviposition and adult emergence effects. The long-term protectant ability and viability were also investigated. The results showed that the aqueous extracts from T. diversifolia were most effective on C. maculatus, followed by extract from Ricinus communis. The least potent extracts were those extracted from Crotalaria retusa and Hyptis suaveolens. Also, the extracts considerably reduced oviposition by C. maculatus. Extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis drastically reduced infestation and subsequence damage of the treated cowpea seeds for a period of three months. Most of the treated seeds germinated after 90 days storage period. The results from this study revealed that aqueous extracts from all the four plants species were effective in controlling cowpea bruchid, C. maculatus and could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides for protection of stored cowpea seeds against bruchids. PMID:24171265

  7. Assessment of antioxidative, chelating, and DNA-protective effects of selected essential oil components (eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, borneol, eucalyptol) of plants and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil.

    PubMed

    Horvathova, Eva; Navarova, Jana; Galova, Eliska; Sevcovicova, Andrea; Chodakova, Lenka; Snahnicanova, Zuzana; Melusova, Martina; Kozics, Katarina; Slamenova, Darina

    2014-07-16

    Selected components of plant essential oils and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil (RO) were investigated for their antioxidant, iron-chelating, and DNA-protective effects. Antioxidant activities were assessed using four different techniques. DNA-protective effects on human hepatoma HepG2 cells and plasmid DNA were evaluated with the help of the comet assay and the DNA topology test, respectively. It was observed that whereas eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol showed high antioxidative effectiveness in all assays used, RO manifested only antiradical effect and borneol and eucalyptol did not express antioxidant activity at all. DNA-protective ability against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA lesions was manifested by two antioxidants (carvacrol and thymol) and two compounds that do not show antioxidant effects (RO and borneol). Borneol was able to preserve not only DNA of HepG2 cells but also plasmid DNA against Fe(2+)-induced damage. This paper evaluates the results in the light of experiences of other scientists. PMID:24955655

  8. Will climate change drive alien invasive plants into areas of high protection value? An improved model-based regional assessment to prioritise the management of invasions.

    PubMed

    Vicente, J R; Fernandes, R F; Randin, C F; Broennimann, O; Gonçalves, J; Marcos, B; Pôças, I; Alves, P; Guisan, A; Honrado, J P

    2013-12-15

    Species distribution models (SDMs) studies suggest that, without control measures, the distribution of many alien invasive plant species (AIS) will increase under climate and land-use changes. Due to limited resources and large areas colonised by invaders, management and monitoring resources must be prioritised. Choices depend on the conservation value of the invaded areas and can be guided by SDM predictions. Here, we use a hierarchical SDM framework, complemented by connectivity analysis of AIS distributions, to evaluate current and future conflicts between AIS and high conservation value areas. We illustrate the framework with three Australian wattle (Acacia) species and patterns of conservation value in Northern Portugal. Results show that protected areas will likely suffer higher pressure from all three Acacia species under future climatic conditions. Due to this higher predicted conflict in protected areas, management might be prioritised for Acacia dealbata and Acacia melanoxylon. Connectivity of AIS suitable areas inside protected areas is currently lower than across the full study area, but this would change under future environmental conditions. Coupled SDM and connectivity analysis can support resource prioritisation for anticipation and monitoring of AIS impacts. However, further tests of this framework over a wide range of regions and organisms are still required before wide application. PMID:24161807

  9. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NRICH team

    2012-01-01

    In this logic activity, students must determine how to represent three quantities using a fixed amount of space (Venn diagram) and objects. The goal is to represent the siblings’ ages, 5,6, and 7, using only ten plants. This resource includes teacher notes with extension suggestions and possible support options.

  10. Fish-protecting functions of water treatment machines in water supply systems of thermal and nuclear power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Ya. Martenson; V. M. Braitsev; Yu. S. Odinets

    1990-01-01

    Conclusions 1.More than a decade of operation of water-cleaning machines with a conical net has demonstrated their good technical and economic characteristics as regards failure-free operation and water-cleaning performance.2.After a simple modification, the existing water-cleaning machines with a vertical axis of cone rotation can perform a fish-protecting function.3.For larger water consumers (such as water supply systems of thermal and nuclear

  11. PLANT PROTECTIVE RESPONSE TO ENHANCED UV-B RADIATION UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS: LEAF OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants of Vicia faba were grown in the field during early to midsummer while receiving two levels of supplemental UV-B radiation. Light-saturated photosynthesis and stomatal diffusive conductance of intact leaves did not show any indications of UV-radiation damage. Supplemental U...

  12. Farmers' insect pest management practices and pesticidal plant use in the protection of stored maize and beans in Southern Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Kamanula; Gudeta W. Sileshi; Steven R. Belmain; Phosiso Sola; Brighton M. Mvumi; Greenwell K. C. Nyirenda; Stephen P. Nyirenda; Philip C. Stevenson

    2010-01-01

    Storage losses due to pests threaten livelihoods of farmers across Africa. Synthetic pesticides provide effective control when used correctly but resource-poor farmers cannot afford them. A survey of farmer ethno-ecological knowledge of pests of stored maize and bean, and their pest management practices including pesticidal plant use, was conducted in eastern Zambia and northern Malawi. Almost all respondents reported serious

  13. 78 FR 16705 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...state-of-the-art fish screens. The fish-screening...erodes, the angle of flow and velocity of the water passing the screens will change, trapping...allow the river to flow parallel to the pumping plant and fish screen facility, which...

  14. Pre?historic eating patterns in Latin America and protective effects of plant?based diets on cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Acosta Navarro, Julio C; Cárdenas Prado, Silvia M; Cárdenas, Pedro Acosta; Santos, Raul D; Caramelli, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we present the contributions to nutrition science from Latin American native peoples and scientists, appreciated from a historic point of view since pre?historic times to the modern age. Additionally, we present epidemiological and clinical studies on the area of plant?based diets and their relation with the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases conducted in recent decades, and we discuss challenges and perspectives regarding aspects of nutrition in the region. PMID:21120310

  15. Signaling via the Trichoderma atroviride mitogen-activated protein kinase Tmk1 differentially affects mycoparasitism and plant protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Reithner; Rainer Schuhmacher; Norbert Stoppacher; Marion Pucher; Kurt Brunner; Susanne Zeilinger

    2007-01-01

    Trichoderma atroviride is a mycoparasite of a number of plant pathogenic fungi thereby employing morphological changes and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and antibiotics. The function of the tmk1 gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) during fungal growth, mycoparasitic interaction, and biocontrol was examined in T. atroviride. ?tmk1 mutants exhibited altered radial growth and conidiation, and displayed de-regulated

  16. Application of heat stress in situ demonstrates a protective role of irradiation on photosynthetic performance in alpine plants.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Othmar; Stoll, Magdalena; Karadar, Matthias; Kranner, Ilse; Neuner, Gilbert

    2015-04-01

    The impact of sublethal heat on photosynthetic performance, photosynthetic pigments and free radical scavenging activity was examined in three high mountain species, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Senecio incanus and Ranunculus glacialis using controlled in situ applications of heat stress, both in darkness and under natural solar irradiation. Heat treatments applied in the dark reversibly reduced photosynthetic performance and the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv /Fm ), which remained impeded for several days when plants were exposed to natural light conditions subsequently to the heat treatment. In contrast, plants exposed to heat stress under natural irradiation were able to tolerate and recover from heat stress more readily. The critical temperature threshold for chlorophyll fluorescence was higher under illumination (Tc (') ) than in the dark (Tc ). Heat stress caused a significant de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle pigments both in the light and in the dark conditions. Total free radical scavenging activity was highest when heat stress was applied in the dark. This study demonstrates that, in the European Alps, heat waves can temporarily have a negative impact on photosynthesis and, importantly, that results obtained from experiments performed in darkness and/or on detached plant material may not reliably predict the impact of heat stress under field conditions. PMID:25256247

  17. US-Russian collaboration for enhancing nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting at the Elektrostal uranium fuel-fabrication plant

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Allentuck, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Barham, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bishop, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wentz, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Steele, B.; Bricker, K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cherry, R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Snegosky, T. [Dept. of Defense, Washington, DC (United States). Defense Nuclear Agency

    1996-09-01

    In September 1993, an implementing agreement was signed that authorized collaborative projects to enhance Russian national materials control and accounting, physical protection, and regulatory activities, with US assistance funded by the Nunn-Lugar Act. At the first US-Russian technical working group meeting in Moscow in February 1994, it was decided to identify a model facility where materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) and regulatory projects could be carried out using proven technologies and approaches. The low-enriched uranium (LEU or RBMK and VVER) fuel-fabrication process at Elektrostal was selected, and collaborative work began in June 1994. Based on many factors, including initial successes at Elektrostal, the Russians expanded the cooperation by proposing five additional sites for MPC and A development: the Elektrostal medium-enriched uranium (MEU or BN) fuel-fabrication process and additional facilities at Podolsk, Dmitrovgrad, Obninsk, and Mayak. Since that time, multilaboratory teams have been formed to develop and implement MPC and A upgrades at the additional sites, and much new work is underway. This paper summarizes the current status of MPC and A enhancement projects in the LEU fuel-fabrication process and discusses the status of work that addresses similar enhancements in the MEU (BN) fuel processes at Elektrostal, under the recently expanded US-Russian MPC and A cooperation.

  18. Plant pathology A new source of resistance to bacterial wilt

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant pathology A new source of resistance to bacterial wilt of eggplants obtained from a cross'Amélioration des Plantes, BP 1232, 97184 Pointe-à-Pitre Cedex; 2 INRA, station d'Amélioration des Plantes such as hot season planting (July- August) (Bereau and Messiaen, 1975) or plant- ing in poorly drained fields

  19. Regulatory issues for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant long-term compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR 191B and 268

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Marietta, M.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Higgins, P.J. Jr. [USDOE Albuquerque Field Office, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Integration Office

    1993-10-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), specifically the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191), and the Land Disposal Restrictions (40 CFR 268) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This paper provides background information on the regulations, describes the SNL WIPP PA Departments approach to developing a defensible technical basis for consistent compliance evaluations, and summarizes the major observations and conclusions drawn from the 1991 and 1992 PAs.

  20. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. [Demonstration plant at Newman, KY

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1980-11-21

    This document and its several appendices constitute an application for a Kentucky Permit to Construct an Air Contaminant Source as well as a Prevention of Significant Air Quality Deterioration (PSD) Permit Application. The information needed to satisfy the application requirements for both permits has been integrated into a complete and logical description of the proposed source, its emissions, control systems, and its expected air quality impacts. The Department of Energy believes that it has made every reasonable effort to be responsive to both the letter and the spirit of the PSD regulations (40 CFR 52.21) and Kentucky Regulation No. 401 KAR 50:035. In this regard, it is important to note that because of the preliminary status of some aspects of the process engineering and engineering design for the Demonstration Plant, it is not yet possible precisely to define some venting operations or their associated control systems. Therefore, it is not possible precisely to quantify some atmospheric emissions or their likely impact on air quality. In these instances, DOE and ICRC have used assumptions that produce impact estimates that are believed to be worst case and are not expected to be exceeded no matter what the outcome of future engineering decisions. As these decisions are made, emission quantities and rates, control system characteristics and efficiencies, and vent stack parameters are more precisely defined; this Permit Application will be supplemented or modified as appropriate. But, all needed modifications are expected to represent either decreases or at worst no changes in the air quality impact of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant.

  1. Ce fascicule fait le point des recherches menes en Cvennes dans le cadre du projet INTERREG IIIB SUDOE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    total des terrasses de culture. Mais des efforts sont actuellement déployés pour développer des feu. La remise en valeur de terrasses de culture à proximité des villages participe à la protection de régulation hydrologique des terrasses de culture et d'apprécier leur rôle en matière de prévention

  2. Selection for protection in an ant-plant mutualism: host sanctions, host modularity, and the principal-agent game.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Hassall, Mark; Sutherland, William J; Yu, Douglas W

    2006-03-01

    Retaliation against cheaters can prevent the breakdown of cooperation. Here we ask whether the ant-plant Cordia nodosa is able to apply retaliatory sanctions against its ant symbiont Allomerus octoarticulatus, which patrols new shoots to prevent herbivory. We test the hypothesis that the modular design of C. nodosa physiologically ties the growth of housing (stem swellings known as domatia) to the successful development of the attached leaves. We experimentally simulated herbivory by cutting leaves from patrolled shoots and found that the domatia on such 'cheated' shoots suffered higher mortality and lower growth than did controls, evidence for a host sanction. On the other hand, patrolling is costly to the ant, and experiment shows that non-patrollers run a low risk of being sanctioned because most leaves (and the attached domatia) escape heavy herbivory even when patrollers are absent. This suggests that cheaters might enjoy a higher fitness than do mutualists, despite sanctions, but we find that patrolling provides a net fecundity benefit when the colony and plant exceed a minimum size, which requires sustained ant investment in patrolling. These results map directly onto the principal-agent (P-A) game from economics, which we suggest can be used as a framework for studying stability in mutualisms, where high sampling costs and cheating do not allow market effects to select for mutual benefits. PMID:16537131

  3. [Activity of protective proteins in wheat plants treated with chitooligosaccharides with different degrees of acetylation and infection with Bipolaris sorokiniana].

    PubMed

    Iarullina, L G; Kasimova, R I; Akhatova, A R

    2014-01-01

    The influence of chitooligosaccharides (COS) with different degrees of acetylation (DA) on the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and changes in the level of gene expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins (oxalate oxidase AJ556991.1, peroxidase TC 151917, chitinase AV029935L, proteinase inhibitor EU293132.1) in the roots of the wheat Triticum aestivum L. inoculated with root rot pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoenaker was investigated. Differences were detected in plant responses to infection. These differences were due to the pretreatment of COS seeds with differing DA. Our results demonstrated that COS with a DA over 65% more effectively induced accumulation of H2O2 and increased the transcriptional activity of genes of PR-proteins as compared to COS with a DA of 30%. These data suggest an important role for DA in the manifestation of eliciting properties of COS, also in the presence of H2O2. PMID:25707110

  4. A ?-Glutamyl Cyclotransferase Protects Arabidopsis Plants from Heavy Metal Toxicity by Recycling Glutamate to Maintain Glutathione Homeostasis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Bibin; Chhikara, Sudesh; Coomey, Joshua; Jung, Ha-il; Vatamaniuk, Olena; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2013-01-01

    Plants detoxify toxic metals through a GSH-dependent pathway. GSH homeostasis is maintained by the ?-glutamyl cycle, which involves GSH synthesis and degradation and the recycling of component amino acids. The enzyme ?-glutamyl cyclotransferase (GGCT) is involved in Glu recycling, but the gene(s) encoding GGCT has not been identified in plants. Here, we report that an Arabidopsis thaliana protein with a cation transport regulator-like domain, hereafter referred to as GGCT2;1, functions as ?-glutamyl cyclotransferase. Heterologous expression of GGCT2;1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced phenotypes that were consistent with decreased GSH content attributable to either GSH degradation or the diversion of ?-glutamyl peptides to produce 5-oxoproline (5-OP). 5-OP levels were further increased by the addition of arsenite and GSH to the medium, indicating that GGCT2;1 participates in the cellular response to arsenic (As) via GSH degradation. Recombinant GGCT2;1 converted both GSH and ?-glutamyl Ala to 5-OP in vitro. GGCT2;1 transcripts were upregulated in As-treated Arabidopsis, and ggct2;1 knockout mutants were more tolerant to As and cadmium than the wild type. Overexpression of GGCT2;1 in Arabidopsis resulted in the accumulation of 5-OP. Under As toxicity, the overexpression lines showed minimal changes in de novo Glu synthesis, while the ggct2;1 mutant increased nitrogen assimilation by severalfold, resulting in a very low As/N ratio in tissue. Thus, our results suggest that GGCT2;1 ensures sufficient GSH turnover during abiotic stress by recycling Glu. PMID:24214398

  5. The role of isoflavone metabolism in plant protection depends on the rhizobacterial MAMP that triggers systemic resistance against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Osumi.

    PubMed

    Algar, Elena; Gutierrez-Mañero, F Javier; Garcia-Villaraco, Ana; García-Seco, Daniel; Lucas, J Antonio; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz

    2014-09-01

    Glycine max (L.) Merr. plays a crucial role in both the field of food and the pharmaceutical industry due to their input as plant protein and to the benefits of isoflavones (IF) for health. In addition, IF play a key role in nodulation and plant defense and therefore, an increase in IF would be desirable for better field performance. IF are secondary metabolites and therefore, inducible, so finding effective agents to increase IF contents is interesting. Among these agents, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been used to trigger systemic induction of plant's secondary metabolism through their microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) that fit in the plant's receptors to start a systemic response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of 4 PGPR that had a contrasted effect on IF metabolism, to protect plants against biotic stress and to establish the relation between IF profile and the systemic response triggered by the bacteria. Apparently, the response involves a lower sensitivity to ethylene and despite the decrease in effective photosynthesis, growth is only compromised in the case of M84, the most effective in protection. All strains protected soybean against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (M84 > N5.18 > Aur9>N21.4) and only M84 and N5.18 involved IF. N5.18 stimulated accumulation of IF before pathogen challenge. M84 caused a significant increase on IF only after pathogen challenge and N21.4 caused a significant increase on IF content irrespective of pathogen challenge. Aur9 did not affect IF. These results point out that all 4 strains have MAMPs that trigger defensive metabolism in soybean. Protection induced by N21.4 and Aur9 involves other metabolites different to IF and the role of IF in defence depends on the previous metabolic status of the plant and on the bacterial MAMP. PMID:24869797

  6. Fire Protection Research Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klamerus

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the Fire Protection Research Project at Sandia Laboratories are: (1) to provide data either to confirm the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in light water reactor power plants or to indicate areas where those standards should be upgraded; (2) to obtain data that will provide improved technical bases either

  7. @ PLANTS

    E-print Network

    Rocky Mountain; James L. Reveal

    maple, rock maple, dwarf maple, Uses Rocky Mountain maple is planted to a limited extent to improve wildlife habitat, to stabilize slopes, and to provide low-maintenance landscaping. The striking red bark and contrasting light green leaves, turning red in the fall, make it a desirable ornamental shrub. Rocky Mountain maple is a highly valued big game browse species. Moose, elk, mule deer, and whitetailed deer to varying degrees throughout the year eat its leaves and twigs, but it is especially important as a winter food source. Post-wildfire brush fields, with Rocky Mountain maple as an important component, are prime winter range and provide both cover and food for moose, elk, and deer. The species also provides considerable cover and nesting habitat for many game birds, songbirds, and small mammals, especially where the maples grow more densely in open habitats. In commercial timber operations, shrub fields of Rocky Mountain maple often interfere with seedling establishment and early growth of conifers, and the maple is removed. The easily bendable stems were used by various American Indian tribes to make drying racks, drum hoops, snowshoe frames, spears, pegs, toys, and masks. The fibrous bark was woven into mats and rope. A bark decoction was used as a poison antidote.

  8. Improvement of growth, fruit weight and early blight disease protection of tomato plants by rhizosphere bacteria is correlated with their beneficial traits and induced biosynthesis of antioxidant peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Narendra Babu, Anupama; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Kestur Nagaraj, Amruthesh; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-02-01

    Five plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) of different genera, newly isolated from healthy tomato rhizosphere, were characterized with phosphate solubilizing and root colonizing ability. Treatment with these isolates recorded a significant increase in seed germination and seedling vigor as well as tomato growth and fruit weight which might be partly attributed to the ability of the PGPRs to produce IAA and enhance nutrient uptake and chlorophyll content in treated plants. More importantly, a strong protection against early blight disease was observed in PGPR-pretreated tomato plants infected with Alternaria solani which is in accordance with the presence of siderophores, HCN, chitinase and glucanase in the isolated PGPRs. Additionally, a significantly enhanced accumulation of antioxidant peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzymes was observed in the PGPR-pretreated plants with or without pathogen infection in comparison with water or pathogen control. Notably, the highest increase in POX and PPO accumulations was recorded in tomato plants raised from seeds primed with TN_Vel-35 strain. A significant upregulation of POX and PPO in tomato plants subjected to similar treatment with TN_Vel-35 versus respective control was also noticed, further strengthening that the PGPR-induced POX and PPO biosyntheses also contribute to PGPR-mediated protection against early blight disease in tomato plants. PMID:25575992

  9. Protection matrielle des (bases de) donnes

    E-print Network

    sans contact, smart badges, smart sensors FLASH RAM CPU Crypto Gigabytes of (unsecure) storage SecureNavigateur InternetServlets JAVA Application + Serveur Data management in embedded smart devices 4 USB 2.0SGBD BD telco Personal database Secure multi-actors interactions Privacy- preserving global queries e

  10. Plant breeding Dihaploid plants of roses (Rosa x hybrida,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Plant breeding Dihaploid plants of roses (Rosa x hybrida, cv 'Sonia') obtained by parthenogenesis Siadous 1INRA, Station d'Amélioration des Plantes Florales, La Gaudine, F83370 Saint-Aygulf; 2Commissariat produced plants through in vitro culture after being pollinated with irradiated (gamma rays) pollen. A 500

  11. Plant breeding (review) Tools for marking plant disease

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant breeding (review) Tools for marking plant disease and pest resistance genes: a review V of disease resistance genes will help improve the efficiency of plant breeding and will lead to a better Lefebvre AM Chèvre 1 INRA, station d'amélioration des plantes maraîchères, domaine Saint-Maurice, BP 94, F

  12. Pseudomonas protegens sp. nov., widespread plant-protecting bacteria producing the biocontrol compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin.

    PubMed

    Ramette, Alban; Frapolli, Michele; Fischer-Le Saux, Marion; Gruffaz, C; Meyer, Jean-Marie; Défago, Geneviève; Sutra, Laurent; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2011-05-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas strains producing the antimicrobial secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) play a prominent role in the biocontrol of plant diseases. A subset of Phl-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas strains, which can additionally synthesize the antimicrobial compound pyoluteorin (Plt), appears to cluster separately from other fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and shares at most 98.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with any other Pseudomonas species. In this study, a polyphasic approach based on molecular and phenotypic methods was used to clarify the taxonomy of representative Phl(+) Plt(+) strains isolated from tobacco, cotton or wheat on different continents. Phl(+) Plt(+) strains clustered separately from their nearest phylogenetic neighbors (i.e. species from the 'P. syringae', 'P. fluorescens' and 'P. chlororaphis' species complexes) based on rpoB, rpoD or gyrB phylogenies. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments clarified that Phl(+) Plt(+) strains formed a tight genomospecies that was distinct from P. syringae, P. fluorescens, or P. chlororaphis type strains. Within Phl(+) strains, the Phl(+) Plt(+) strains were differentiated from other biocontrol fluorescent Pseudomonas strains that produced Phl but not Plt, based on phenotypic and molecular data. Discriminative phenotypic characters were also identified by numerical taxonomic analysis and siderotyping. Altogether, this polyphasic approach supported the conclusion that Phl(+) Plt(+) fluorescent Pseudomonas strains belonged to a novel species for which the name Pseudomonas protegens is proposed, with CHA0(T) (=CFBP 6595(T), =DSM 19095(T)) as the type strain. PMID:21392918

  13. Ultraviolet-B protection of ascorbate and tocopherol in plants related with their function on the stability on carotenoid and phenylpropanoid compounds.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yinan; You, Jingjing; Ou, Yongbin; Ma, Jinbiao; Wu, Xiuli; Xu, Gang

    2015-05-01

    Ascorbate and tocopherol are important hydrophilic or lipophilic antioxidants in plants, while their crucial roles in the antioxidant defense system under ultraviolet B radiation were not well understood. The mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana deficient in ascorbate (vtc1 and vtc2) or tocopherol (vte1) were used to analyze their physiological, biochemical and metabolic change in responses to Ultraviolet B radiation. Results showed that loss of either ascorbate or tocopherol caused reduction in phenylpropanoid and flavonol glycosides compounds, as well as reduction in superoxide dismutase activity and total cellular antioxidant capacity. This ultimately led to higher oxidative stress as well as lower levels of photosynthetic pigments (carotenoid and chlorophyll) and CO2 assimilation rate in the vtc1, vtc2, and vte1 mutants than the wild type under UV-B radiation, besides unstable early light-induced protein (ELIP1) in those mutants. On the other hand, the loss of tocopherol in vte1 mutants was compensated by the increase of zeaxanthin and anthocyanin contents, which armed vte1 mutants with higher heat dissipation capacity in PS II and higher antioxidative capacity than vtc mutants. Consequently the tolerance to UV-B radiation were much higher in vte1 mutant than in vtc mutants, furthermore, PS II function and light harvesting protein (LHCb1) abundance were reduced only in ascorbate-deficient mutant relative to wild type. Our results suggested that the ascorbate and tocopherol provided not only direct protective function against UV-B radiation but also indirect effects by influencing other protective system, in particular by affecting the stability of various carotenoid and phenylpropanoid compounds. PMID:25749732

  14. Towards Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) Development

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    This issue Towards Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) Development : Cap des Trois Fourches : a future Improving the capacities of Libyan MPAs stakeholders P.5 MPAs forum and meetings : The 2012 Forum of Marine: a characterization of a priority marine site suitable to become a future marine protected area Following

  15. Basis for the development of a scenario for ground water risk assessment of plant protection products to banana crop in the frame work of regulation 1107/2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Prados, Elena; Fernández-Getino, Ana Patricia; Alonso-Prados, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    The risk assessment to ground water of pesticides and their main metabolites is a data requirement under regulation 1107/2009, concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) are calculated according to the recommendations of Forum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and Their Use (FOCUS). The FOCUS groundwater working group developed scenarios for the main crops in European Union. However there are several crops which grow under specific agro-environmental conditions not covered by these scenarios and it is frequent to use the defined scenarios as surrogates. This practice adds an uncertainty factor in the risk assessment. One example is represented by banana crop which in Europe is limited to sub-tropical environmental conditions and with specific agronomic practices. The Canary Islands concentrates the higher production of banana in the European Union characterized by volcanic soils. Banana is located at low altitudes where soils have been eroded or degraded, and it is a common practice to transport soil materials from the high-mid altitudes to the low lands for cultivation. These cultivation plots are locally named "sorribas". These volcanic soils, classified as Andosols according to the FAO classification, have special physico-chemical properties due to noncrystalline materials and layer silicates. The good stability of these soils and their high permeability to water make them relatively resistant to water erosion. Physical properties of volcanic clayey soils are strongly affected by allophone and Fe and Al oxyhidroxides. The rapid weathering of porous volcanic material results in accumulation of stable organo-mineral complexes and short-range-order mineral such as allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite. These components induce strong aggregation that partly favors properties such as: reduced swelling, increased aggregate stability of clay minerals, high soil water retention capacity, low bulk density and high infiltration rate. They are also characterized by a pH around 6, high concentration in organic matter and a great capacity to fix P, which make them very fertile soils. Most of Andosols have excellent internal drainage because of their high porosity. Regarding this fact, the main distributive source of the drainage under banana plant is the stem-flow. It is a spatially localized input of water in the soil at the foot of the banana plant and it has a significant influence in the ground water recharge. In this work, we present a literature review of agronomic aspects for banana crop and specific hydraulic properties for soils in the Canary Islands. These data are compared with the ones for the surrogate scenarios. Based on the results, recommendations for further work on the development of specific scenario for banana crop are given.

  16. Characterization of the fungal gibberellin desaturase as a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase and its utilization for enhancing plant growth.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Ward, Dennis A; Thomas, Stephen G; Gong, Fan; Powers, Stephen J; Carrera, Esther; Taylor, Benjamin; de Caceres Gonzalez, Francisco Nuñez; Tudzynski, Bettina; Phillips, Andrew L; Davey, Michael R; Hedden, Peter

    2012-10-01

    The biosynthesis of gibberellic acid (GA(3)) by the fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is catalyzed by seven enzymes encoded in a gene cluster. While four of these enzymes are characterized as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, the nature of a fifth oxidase, GA(4) desaturase (DES), is unknown. DES converts GA(4) to GA(7) by the formation of a carbon-1,2 double bond in the penultimate step of the pathway. Here, we show by expression of the des complementary DNA in Escherichia coli that DES has the characteristics of a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase. Although it has low amino acid sequence homology with known 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, putative iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-binding residues, typical of such enzymes, are apparent in its primary sequence. A survey of sequence databases revealed that homologs of DES are widespread in the ascomycetes, although in most cases the homologs must participate in non-gibberellin (GA) pathways. Expression of des from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in the plant species Solanum nigrum, Solanum dulcamara, and Nicotiana sylvestris resulted in substantial growth stimulation, with a 3-fold increase in height in S. dulcamara compared with controls. In S. nigrum, the height increase was accompanied by a 20-fold higher concentration of GA(3) in the growing shoots than in controls, although GA(1) content was reduced. Expression of des was also shown to partially restore growth in plants dwarfed by ectopic expression of a GA 2-oxidase (GA-deactivating) gene, consistent with GA(3) being protected from 2-oxidation. Thus, des has the potential to enable substantial growth increases, with practical implications, for example, in biomass production. PMID:22911627

  17. Article original tude de l'effet de diverses espces de plantes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Article original Étude de l'effet de diverses espèces de plantes des prairies permanentes sur l, rapide et répétable a été mise au point pour estimer le potentiel de diverses espèces de plantes des constituants pariétaux sous l'action de la cellulase. La détermination de l'IANP pour de nombreuses plantes des

  18. Discrimination des lupins basse teneur en alcalodes par les adultes de Sitona lineatus L. (Col. Curculionidae)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NOTE Discrimination des lupins à basse teneur en alcaloïdes par les adultes de Sitona lineatus L'Amélioration des Plantes fourragères F86600 Lusignan R�SUM� Dans le cadre du développement des cultures de lupin. Mots clés additionnels : Dégâts, Infestation artificielle, Plantules. SUMMARY Discrimination of lupin

  19. Effet des innovations organisationnelles et des technologies de l'information sur le rendement des entreprises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wulong Gera Surendra Gu

    2004-01-01

    Dans ce document, on vise a determiner si les investissements dans les technologies de l'information et des communications, combines a des changements organisationnels et aux competences des travailleurs, contribuent a ameliorer le rendement des entreprises canadiennes.

  20. Universit de Lausanne, Institut des sciences sociales des religions contemporaines cole Pratique des Hautes tudes, Section des sciences religieuses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Université de Lausanne, Institut des sciences sociales des religions sciences des religions de l'Université de Lausanne (Suisse) pour l'obtention du Doctorat en Sciences des contemporaines �cole Pratique des Hautes �tudes, Section des sciences religieuses

  1. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The East Fork Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  2. Legal protection of medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Pashkov

    1977-01-01

    adays, when the technical capabilities and the scale of the effects of human society on nature as a whole and on its separate systems are increasing continuously, prevention of the impoverishment of the gene stock is one of the most important problems confronting mankind. A wide range of measures is involved in its solution, not least the solution of a

  3. Rheologie des Polymeres Charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepez, Olivier

    Une etude des proprietes rheologiques en ecoulement oscillatoire et en ecoulement transitoire a ete realisee sur des suspensions de particules spheriques dans des solutions de polymere d'une part et dans des polymeres a l'etat fondu d'autre part. Une attention particuliere a ete portee sur l'influence des parametres suivants sur les proprietes en ecoulement de ces fluides complexes: nature du fluide suspendant, fraction volumique en particule, temperature. Apres analyse des resultats, de nouveaux modeles empiriques ont ete proposes afin de predire l'allure des courbes d'ecoulement de ces suspensions en cisaillement oscillatoire. Enfin, certaines analogies entre les proprietes visqueuses et viscoelastiques des suspensions dans les deux milieux mentionnes precedemment ont ete discutees.

  4. Food ProtectionTrends,Vol. 25, No. 12, Pages 981990 2005, International Association for Food Protection

    E-print Network

    Food ProtectionTrends,Vol. 25, No. 12, Pages 981­990 Copyright© 2005, International Association for Food Protection 6200 Aurora Ave., Suite 200W, Des Moines, IA 50322-2864 Factors Impacting Food Workers' and Managers' Safe Food Preparation Practices: A Qualitative Study LAURA R. GREEN1* and CAROL SELMAN2 1 Health

  5. Characterization of the Fungal Gibberellin Desaturase as a 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase and Its Utilization for Enhancing Plant Growth1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Ward, Dennis A.; Thomas, Stephen G.; Gong, Fan; Powers, Stephen J.; Carrera, Esther; Taylor, Benjamin; de Caceres Gonzalez, Francisco Nuñez; Tudzynski, Bettina; Phillips, Andrew L.; Davey, Michael R.; Hedden, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The biosynthesis of gibberellic acid (GA3) by the fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is catalyzed by seven enzymes encoded in a gene cluster. While four of these enzymes are characterized as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, the nature of a fifth oxidase, GA4 desaturase (DES), is unknown. DES converts GA4 to GA7 by the formation of a carbon-1,2 double bond in the penultimate step of the pathway. Here, we show by expression of the des complementary DNA in Escherichia coli that DES has the characteristics of a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase. Although it has low amino acid sequence homology with known 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, putative iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-binding residues, typical of such enzymes, are apparent in its primary sequence. A survey of sequence databases revealed that homologs of DES are widespread in the ascomycetes, although in most cases the homologs must participate in non-gibberellin (GA) pathways. Expression of des from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in the plant species Solanum nigrum, Solanum dulcamara, and Nicotiana sylvestris resulted in substantial growth stimulation, with a 3-fold increase in height in S. dulcamara compared with controls. In S. nigrum, the height increase was accompanied by a 20-fold higher concentration of GA3 in the growing shoots than in controls, although GA1 content was reduced. Expression of des was also shown to partially restore growth in plants dwarfed by ectopic expression of a GA 2-oxidase (GA-deactivating) gene, consistent with GA3 being protected from 2-oxidation. Thus, des has the potential to enable substantial growth increases, with practical implications, for example, in biomass production. PMID:22911627

  6. Plant pathology Immunogold labelling of beet necrotic yellow vein

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant pathology Immunogold labelling of beet necrotic yellow vein virus particles inside its fungal- * Present address: University of Agriculture, Department of Plant Pathology, 165 21 Praha ainsi que sa transmission à la plante hôte, des coupes ultrafines ont été réali- sées dans des

  7. Plant pathology (review) Fusarium wilt of peas (a review)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant pathology (review) Fusarium wilt of peas (a review) JM Kraft US Department of Agriculture, quand le pathogène a développé des quantités suffisantes d'inoculum et qu'on plante un cultivar sensible, il en résulte des pertes sévères. Les symptômes sur la plante consistent en folioles chlorotiques

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-TIERED INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED CORN HYBRIDS EXPRESSING THE PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANT, BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant increase in genetically modified corn planting driven by biofuel demand is expected for the 2007 growing season with future planted acreages approaching 80% of total corn plantings anticipated by 2009. As demand increases, incidence of farmer non-compliance with ma...

  9. DTERMINISME DE LA CONSTRUCTION DES CELLULES DE MALES ET DES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DÉTERMINISME DE LA CONSTRUCTION DES CELLULES DE MALES ET DES CELLULES D'OUVRIÈRES CHEZ APIS-sur-Yvette Faculté des Sciences Rennes I,e problème du déterminisme de construction des cellules mâles et des cellules d'ouvrières chez APis Mellifica n'a pas été étudié jusqu'à présent par beaucoup d'auteurs. 1,e

  10. 10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by the Corporation, a...

  11. 10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by the Corporation, a...

  12. 10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by the Corporation, a...

  13. 10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by the Corporation, a...

  14. 10 CFR 76.7 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Employee protection. 76.7 Section 76.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by the Corporation, a...

  15. Triangle des vitesses Failles transformantes

    E-print Network

    Grigné, Cécile

    Triangle des vitesses ab Failles transformantes A B A B TD - UE Terre Profonde #12;Triangle des vitesses ab A B Dorsales A B TD - UE Terre Profonde #12;Triangle des vitesses ab B A B A Subduction TD - UE Terre Profonde #12;Triangle des vitesses B A A B C C TD - UE Terre Profonde #12;Triangle des vitesses B

  16. Removal of Feedback Inhibition of D1Pyrroline5- Carboxylate Synthetase Results in Increased Proline Accumulation and Protection of Plants from Osmotic Stress1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zonglie Hong; Karuna Lakkineni; Zhongming Zhang; Desh Pal; S. Verma

    The D1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS; EC not as- signed) is the rate-limiting enzyme in proline (Pro) biosynthesis in plants and is subject to feedback inhibition by Pro. It has been suggested that the feedback regulation of P5CS is lost in plants under stress conditions. We compared Pro levels in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing a wild-type form of Vigna aconitifolia

  17. UN DES ROLES DES CHAINES D'ABEILLES : LA TORSION DES RAYONS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    UN DES ROLES DES CHAINES D'ABEILLES : LA TORSION DES RAYONS POUR LES RENDRE PARALLÈLES ENTRE EUX R régissant le parallé- lisme des rayons et décrit la technique des Abeilles qui l'établissent. Ces insectes utilisent en particulier deux méthodes pour rendre parallèle un rayon placé anormalement : W Ils allongent

  18. Amlioration des plantes Evolution des caractristiques de la graine

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in characteristics of sunflower seed and capitula during ripening. Changes in the humidi- ty of capitula and seed of 25 sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) varieties were followed from flowering to maturity, the oil content of seeds diminished regularly during the 7 weeks of the study, with significant varietal rate

  19. CMENTATION DU NIOBIUM PAR DES SILICIURES DE TITANE ET DE CHROME EN VUE DE RALISER

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    551 C�MENTATION DU NIOBIUM PAR DES SILICIURES DE TITANE ET DE CHROME EN VUE DE R�ALISER DES of titanium 2014 and chromium modified silicide coatings suitable for oxidation protection of niobium. One, susceptibles de protéger le niobium et ses alliages contre l'oxydation. Le disiliciure de niobium pur n

  20. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

  1. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

  2. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

  3. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

  4. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...of a tolerance. Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a...

  5. Protection of Tomato Seedlings against Infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato by Using the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoav Bashan; L. E. de-Bashan

    2002-01-01

    population of A. brasilense (>108 CFU\\/g (dry weight) of leaf), decreased the population of P. syringae pv. tomato to almost undetectable levels, almost eliminated disease development, and improved plant growth to the level of uninoculated healthy control plants. Based on our results, we propose that A. brasilense be used in prevention programs to combat the foliar bacterial speck disease caused

  6. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  7. Pathologie vgtale Contribution l'tude des jaunisses de la vigne

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    protection des végétaux de Bourgogne, ZI Nord , BP 177, F21205 Beaune cedex, France; 4 Istituto di Patologia Patologia vegetale, via Valdisavoia 5, Catania, Sicilia, Italie; 6 KWV, PO Box 528, Suider Paarl 7624, Union

  8. Protective Eyewear

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & ... protection means more than just wearing the contact lenses or glasses you may use for vision correction. The type of eye protection needed will ...

  9. Sun Protection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Radiation-Emitting Products Print this page Share this page E-mail ... wear sunglasses that indicate the UV protection level. Toy sunglasses may not have any UV protection, so ...

  10. Influence du sexe et de l'ge des insectes vec-teurs injects dans l'preuve d'infectivit des

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Influence du sexe et de l'âge des insectes vec- teurs injectés dans l'épreuve d'infectivité des of sex and age of the injected insect vector in infectivity tests for plant yellows diseases in their bodies (fig. 2). Consequently, the volume of solution received and retained by injected insects

  11. Fire Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Avco has drawn upon its heat shield experience to develop a number of widely-accepted commercial fire protection materials. Originating from NASA's space shuttle thermal protection system, one such material is Chartek 59 fireproofing, an intumescent epoxy coating specifically designed for outdoor use by industrial facilities dealing with highly flammable products such as oil refineries and chemical plants. The coating is applied usually by spray gun to exterior structural steel conduits, pipes and valves, offshore platforms and liquefied petroleum gas tanks. Fireproofing provides two types of protection: ablation or dissipation of heat by burn-off and "intumescence" or swelling; the coating swells to about five times its original size, forming a protective blanket of char which retards transfer of heat to the metal structure preventing loss of structural strength and possible collapse which would compound the fire fighting problem.

  12. Pathologie vgtale (synthse) Le striga, mauvaise herbe parasite des crales

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pathologie végétale (synthèse) Le striga, mauvaise herbe parasite des céréales africaines ; accepté le 6 novembre 1995) Résumé — La mauvaise herbe parasite Striga hermonthica cause de graves conducteurs de sève des 2 plantes. Cela permet au parasite de prélever chez son hôte l'eau, les élé- ments

  13. Deriving site-specific clean-up criteria to protect ecological receptors (plants and soil invertebrates) exposed to metal or metalloid soil contaminants via the direct contact exposure pathway.

    PubMed

    Checkai, Ron; Van Genderen, Eric; Sousa, José Paulo; Stephenson, Gladys; Smolders, Erik

    2014-07-01

    Soil contaminant concentration limits for the protection of terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates are commonly based on thresholds derived using data from laboratory ecotoxicity tests. A comprehensive assessment has been made for the derivation of ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States; however, these limits are conservative because of their focus on high bioavailability scenarios. Here, we explain and evaluate approaches to soil limit derivation taken by 4 jurisdictions, 2 of which allow for correction of data for factors affecting bioavailability among soils, and between spiked and field-contaminated soils (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH] Regulation, European Union [EU], and the National Environment Protection Council [NEPC], Australia). Scientifically advanced features from these methods have been integrated into a newly developed method for deriving soil clean-up values (SCVs) within the context of site-specific baseline ecological risk assessment. Resulting site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability may permit a greater residual concentration in soil when compared to generic screening limit concentrations (e.g., Eco-SSL), while still affording acceptable protection. Two choices for selecting the level of protection are compared (i.e., allowing higher effect levels per species, or allowing a higher percentile of species that are potentially unprotected). Implementation of this new method is presented for the jurisdiction of the United States, with a focus on metal and metalloid contaminants; however, the new method can be used in any jurisdiction. A case study for molybdate shows the large effect of bioavailability corrections and smaller effects of protection level choices when deriving SCVs. PMID:24470189

  14. Deriving site-specific clean-up criteria to protect ecological receptors (plants and soil invertebrates) exposed to metal or metalloid soil contaminants via the direct contact exposure pathway

    PubMed Central

    Checkai, Ron; Van Genderen, Eric; Sousa, José Paulo; Stephenson, Gladys; Smolders, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Soil contaminant concentration limits for the protection of terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates are commonly based on thresholds derived using data from laboratory ecotoxicity tests. A comprehensive assessment has been made for the derivation of ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States; however, these limits are conservative because of their focus on high bioavailability scenarios. Here, we explain and evaluate approaches to soil limit derivation taken by 4 jurisdictions, 2 of which allow for correction of data for factors affecting bioavailability among soils, and between spiked and field-contaminated soils (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH] Regulation, European Union [EU], and the National Environment Protection Council [NEPC], Australia). Scientifically advanced features from these methods have been integrated into a newly developed method for deriving soil clean-up values (SCVs) within the context of site-specific baseline ecological risk assessment. Resulting site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability may permit a greater residual concentration in soil when compared to generic screening limit concentrations (e.g., Eco-SSL), while still affording acceptable protection. Two choices for selecting the level of protection are compared (i.e., allowing higher effect levels per species, or allowing a higher percentile of species that are potentially unprotected). Implementation of this new method is presented for the jurisdiction of the United States, with a focus on metal and metalloid contaminants; however, the new method can be used in any jurisdiction. A case study for molybdate shows the large effect of bioavailability corrections and smaller effects of protection level choices when deriving SCVs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:346–357. PMID:24470189

  15. EVOLUTION DES OUTILS DE CONTRLE ET DES CRITERES DE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EVOLUTION DES OUTILS DE CONTRÔLE ET DES CRITERES DE PERFORMANCE, FACE AUX DEFIS DE CHANGEMENT communication étudie tout d'abord le nouveau contexte stratégique et organisationnel des entreprises contexte stratégique et organisationnel des entreprises en mutation interpelle les outils de contrôle de

  16. Elimination des noeuds dans le probleme newtonien des quatre corps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Françoise Boigey; M. Curie

    1982-01-01

    Résumé Nous appliquons la méthode des transformations canoniques à variables imposées à la réduction du problème newtonien des quatre corps. L'élimination du centre de gravité étant supposée faite, le problème est ramené à celui des trois corps fictifs. Alors nous menons à bien la réduction dûe aux intégrales des aires explicitement sous forme Hamiltonienne en tenant compte de l'aspect géométrique

  17. Modelisation des interactions lors de la migration des cellules tumorales

    E-print Network

    Aubert, Marine

    Mod´elisation des interactions lors de la migration des cellules tumorales Marine AUBERT IMNC% des tumeurs du syst`eme nerveux central. Elles d´erivent des cellules gliales (astrocytes par exemple. En effet, lorsque cette tumeur est diagnostiqu´ee, les cellules tumorales ont d´ej`a envahit une

  18. Politique de gestion des documents administratifs et des archives

    E-print Network

    Politique de gestion des documents administratifs et des archives Préparation : Division de la gestion des documents administratifs et des archives Révision : Bureau du secrétaire général Entrée en vigueur : 15 février 2012 Approbation : (CA-2012-6) Cadre juridique : Loi sur les archives (L

  19. agronomie: plant genetics and breeding Early assessment of adult plant reaction of wheat

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    agronomie: plant genetics and breeding Early assessment of adult plant reaction of wheat (Triticum Pavoine G Doussinault Station d'amélioration des plantes, Inra, domaine de La Motte, BP 29, F-35650 Le leading to the early prediction of adult plant reaction to powdery mildew infection at a seedling stage

  20. Micropropagation The European plant tissue culture industry -1990

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Micropropagation The European plant tissue culture industry - 1990 F Ó Ríordáin Kinsealy Research / micropropagation / plant tissue culture Résumé — L'industrie européenne de la culture des tissus végétaux. Le'annuaire. enquête / annuaire / micropropagation / culture de cellules végétales INTRODUCTION Information

  1. MOUVEMENTS DES TROMPES ET PROGRESSION DES ŒUFS CHEZ LA BREBIS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    MOUVEMENTS DES TROMPES ET PROGRESSION DES ŒUFS CHEZ LA BREBIS S. WINTENBERGER, Jouy-en-Josas. SOMMAIRE Nous avons étudié la motilité des trompes utérines, et leur rôle dans la trompe étudiée soit des ovocytes colorés, soit des particules de matière plastique noire de même taille

  2. Osmose électrique des tissues et des cellules sur le vivant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Girard

    1932-01-01

    Sommaire I.Sur des tissus vivants, en place sur l'animal, et normalement irrigués, on peut réaliser soit à travers les interstices cellulaires soit sur la cellule elle même à travers les interstices des micelles protoplasmiques des endosmoses et des exosmoses électriques.II.Sur l'oeil du lapin ou du chat c'est à travers des interstices que les cellules de la cornée laissent entre-elles que

  3. Insider protection

    SciTech Connect

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-07-01

    The government community is broadly addressing the insider threat. The first section of this paper defines protection approaches and the latter sections present various applicable technology developments. The bulk of the paper discusses technology developments applied to (1) personnel and material tracking and inventory, (2) classified document protection, and (3) protecting security systems. The personnel and material tracking system uses a PC based-host to (1) collect information from proximity tags and material movement sensors, (2) apply rules to this input to assure that the ongoing activity meets the site selectable rules and, (3) forward the results to either an automated inventory system or an alarm system. The document protection system uses a PC network to efficiently and securely control classified material which is stored on write-once-read-mostly optical media. The protection of sensor to multiplexer communications in a security system is emphasized in the discussion of protecting security systems.

  4. Plant Regulatory Organizations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Plant Regulatory Organizations is part of a book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. It covers the role of plant regulatory organizations from the international to state level in protecting plant health. At on...

  5. NUCLEAR PLANT AND CONTROL

    E-print Network

    NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND CONTROL KEYWORDS: software require- ments, safety analysis, formal for the digital protection systems of a nuclear power plant. When spec- ifying requirements for software and CRSA processes are described using shutdown system 2 of the Wolsong nuclear power plants as the digital

  6. Oral immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice of transgenic rice plants producing a vaccine candidate antigen (As16) of Ascaris suum fused with cholera toxin B subunit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasunobu Matsumoto; Seiko Suzuki; Tomoko Nozoye; Takashi Yamakawa; Yasuhiro Takashima; Takeshi Arakawa; Naotoshi Tsuji; Fumio Takaiwa; Yoshihiro Hayashi

    2009-01-01

    Cereal crops such as maize and rice are considered attractive for vaccine production and oral delivery. Here, we evaluated\\u000a the rice Oryza sativa for production of As16—an antigen protective against the roundworm Ascaris suum. The antigen was produced as a chimeric protein fused with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), and its expression level in the\\u000a endosperm reached 50 ?g\\/g seed. Feeding

  7. A novel ?-1, 3-glucan elicits plant defense responses in potato and induces protection against Rhizoctonia solani AG3 and Fusarium solani f. sp. eumartii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika A. Wolski; Sara Maldonado; Gustavo R. Daleo; Adriana B. Andreu

    2006-01-01

    All glucan elicitors from fungal cell walls have been described as ß-glucans. In a previous work, we have isolated and characterized an ?-1, 3-glucan from a non-pathogenic Rhizoctonia isolate which induced glucanase activity in potato sprouts. In this work we showed that, in addition to eliciting a wide array of defense reactions, the ?-1, 3-glucan induces protection against Rhizoctonia canker

  8. A gene for plant protection: expression of a bean polygalacturonase inhibitor in tobacco confers a strong resistance against Rhizoctonia solani and two oomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Borras-Hidalgo, Orlando; Caprari, Claudio; Hernandez-Estevez, Ingrid; Lorenzo, Giulia De; Cervone, Felice

    2012-01-01

    We have tested whether a gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) protects tobacco against a fungal pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) and two oomycetes (Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae and Peronospora hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina). The trials were performed in greenhouse conditions for R. solani and P. parasitica and in the field for P. hyoscyami. Our results show that expression of PGIP is a powerful way of engineering a broad-spectrum disease resistance. PMID:23264779

  9. Archives participatives Au milieu des ralisations remarquables de mdiation numrique des bibliothques et des

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Archives participatives Au milieu des réalisations remarquables de médiation numérique des bibliothèques et des musées sur les médias sociaux, les services d'archives ont un positionnement relativement en revanche des projets ambitieux de crowdsourcing, d'« archives participatives » (voir encart

  10. Tornado protection by venting

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability to protect a modern nuclear power plant from the effects of a tornado by the use of a system of venting in all safety-related structures outside of the containment. The paper demonstrates this by presenting a method of analysis and of equipment selection that fully complies with the intent and the letter of applicable federal regulatory guides. A report of an actual tornado in the City of Kalamazoo, Michigan, suggests that the concept of sealing a plant during a tornado may not always be applicable.

  11. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) COMPLEX TERRAIN MODEL DEVELOPMENT: DESCRIPTION OF A COMPUTER DATA BASE FROM THE FULL SCALE PLUME STUDY, TRACY POWER PLANT, NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the EPA's Complex Terrain Model Development Program, the Full Scale Study was conducted at the Tracy Power Plant near Reno, Nevada. SO6 tracer gas and oil-fog particles were injected into the base of a 91.4 smokestack, and CF3Br tracer was released from one of three le...

  12. Pathologie vgtale Maladies des plantes dues Rhizoctonia

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - capacité saprophytique - fongicides - lutte - Trichoderma spp. - Thanatephorus cucu- meris Summary &mdash to improve control are discussed. soil infectivity - competitive saprothytic ability - control -Trichoderma

  13. Influence des tanins hydrolysables de chtaignier sur le mtabolisme azot des ovins et des caprins

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence des tanins hydrolysables de châtaignier sur le métabolisme azoté des ovins et des caprins Les tanins ont la propriété de se complexer aux protéines. Ceci peut conduire à l'insolubilisation de effets de l'ingestion de tanins sur le métabolisme azoté des ovins et caprins. Des tanins hydrolysables

  14. RADIATION PROTECTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1958-01-01

    The basis of radiation protection is the limitation of the dose received. ; In specifying permissible levels of irradiation the factors to be considered are ; (1) the source of the radiation, external or internal, (2) exposure to total or ; partial irradiation, and (3) the biological effects involved, somatic or genetic. ; The basic principles of rsdiation protection bassd

  15. Investigation of anti-oxidative, cytotoxic, DNA-damaging and DNA-protective effects of plant volatiles eugenol and borneol in human-derived HepG2, Caco-2 and VH10 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Slamenová, Darina; Horváthová, Eva; Wsólová, Ladislava; Sramková, Monika; Navarová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Plant volatiles, which can get into the human organism in food, medicines, or cosmetic preparations, frequently manifest antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and other effects. We studied anti-oxidative, cytotoxic, genotoxic and possible DNA-protective effects of eugenol and borneol. Anti-oxidative activities of aqueous and ethanolic solutions of these two volatile compounds of plants were determined by a spectrophotometric method by the use of the stable DPPH radical. Borneol did not show any anti-oxidative activity even at the highest concentrations soluble in water or ethanol (<1000mM), while eugenol did manifest anti-oxidative activity, and at much lower concentrations (5-100 microM). The cytotoxicity of eugenol and borneol as well as their DNA-damaging effects and their influence on sensitivity of cells against the DNA-damaging effects of H(2)O(2) were investigated in three different cell lines, i.e. malignant HepG2 hepatoma cells, malignant Caco-2 colon cells, and nonmalignant human VH10 fibroblasts. The trypan-blue exclusion assay showed that in the three cell lines the cytotoxicity of eugenol was significantly higher than that of borneol. Single-cell gel electrophoresis revealed that borneol did not cause any DNA strand-breaks at the concentrations studied, but showed that all concentrations of eugenol (<600 microM) significantly increased the level of DNA breaks in human VH10 fibroblasts and to a lower degree in Caco-2 colon cells. The DNA-damaging effects of eugenol were not observed in metabolically active HepG2 hepatoma cells. Borneol and eugenol differed also with respect to their DNA-protective effects. While borneol protected HepG2 and, to a lesser extent, VH10 cells (but not Caco-2) against H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage, eugenol either did not change the cellular sensitivity to H(2)O(2) (HepG2 cells) or it even increased the sensitivity (Caco-2 and VH10 cells). These results do not indicate any correlation between the DNA-protective and the anti-oxidative capacities of eugenol and borneol. PMID:19501671

  16. Novel Lipid-Soluble Thiol-Redox Antioxidant and Heavy Metal Chelator, N,N?-bis(2-Mercaptoethyl)Isophthalamide (NBMI) and Phospholipase D-Specific Inhibitor, 5-Fluoro-2-Indolyl Des-Chlorohalopemide (FIPI) Attenuate Mercury-Induced Lipid Signaling Leading to Protection Against Cytotoxicity in Aortic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Secor, Jordan D.; Kotha, Sainath R.; Gurney, Travis O.; Patel, Rishi B.; Kefauver, Nicholas R.; Gupta, Niladri; Morris, Andrew J.; Haley, Boyd E.; Parinandi, Narasimham L.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we investigated thiol-redox-mediated phospholipase D (PLD) signaling as a mechanism of mercury cytotoxicity in mouse aortic endothelial cell (MAEC) in vitro model utilizing the novel lipid-soluble thiol-redox antioxidant and heavy metal chelator, N,N?-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide (NBMI) and the novel PLD-specific inhibitor, 5-fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI). Our results demonstrated (i) mercury in the form of mercury(II) chloride, methylmercury, and thimerosal induced PLD activation in a dose- and time-dependent manner; (ii) NBMI and FIPI completely attenuated mercury- and oxidant-induced PLD activation; (iii) mercury induced upstream phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) leading to downstream threonine phosphorylation of PLD1 which was attenuated by NBMI; (iv) mercury caused loss of intracellular glutathione which was restored by NBMI; and (v) NBMI and FIPI attenuated mercury- and oxidant-induced cytotoxicity in MAECs. For the first time, this study demonstrated that redox-dependent and PLD-mediated bioactive lipid signaling was involved in mercury-induced vascular EC cytotoxicity which was protected by NBMI and FIPI. PMID:21994240

  17. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Appendix D. Impact assessment. [Demonstration plant at Newman, KY

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1980-11-21

    In appendix D, the air quality condition for various pollutants in the areas surrounding the proposed demonstration plant site is given with respect to attainment or non-attainment of US EPA regulations. The minimum pollutant emission rates for these regulated and for several other pollutants are given. Then the estimated emission rates from the proposed plant are given for a dozen pollutants which exceed these limits and therefore require an ambient air quality analysis. This involves taking into account the estimated emission of these pollutants from the proposed plant and from other sources in the surrounding area. Finally, background data from the surrounding area including meteorological data and sampling of regulated pollutants are given. (LTN)

  18. INTERACTIONS DES MATHMATIQUES

    E-print Network

    Pouyanne, Nicolas

    - tégral sont venus s'adjoindre de nombreux autres concepts et techniques mathématiques- Maïs les échanges plusieurs phases : étude de leur cohérence, existence de so- lutions, comportement des solutions, résolution

  19. Slectionner Des peuplements endmiques

    E-print Network

    milieu naturel, comme pour la bêche de mer. Peuplement naturel d'Araucaria columnaris sélectionné. plantation expérimentale d'Araucaria columnaris, une des principales espèces destinées à la forêt cultivée

  20. Vole-feeding damage and forest plantation protection: Large-scale application of diversionary food to reduce damage to newly planted trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Sullivan; Druscilla S. Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Forest and agricultural crops periodically experience feeding damage from herbivorous rodents such as voles of the genera Microtus and Clethrionomys. This problem has a long history, which needs a management solution that is both economically and ecologically viable. This study tested the hypothesis that large-scale (6–16ha) application of diversionary food would reduce vole-feeding damage to newly planted trees. Four overwinter

  1. Cramiques des vivants, cramiques des morts et des sites cultuels l'ge du Bronze en France.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , European Societies in the Bronze Age, Cambridge, 2000, p. 308. « [ ...] des lieux de culte, [...] desCéramiques des vivants, céramiques des morts et des sites cultuels à l'âge du Bronze en France disparues, ou de vaisselle pour leur consommation. Les céramiques des sépultures de l'âge du Bronze halshs

  2. Critical considerations for utility\\/cogeneration intertie protection scheme configuration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rasheek M. Rifaat

    1995-01-01

    For interties between cogeneration plants and existing host utility power systems, special considerations must be given to protection systems. The considerations are reviewed in light of contemporary experience with midsize cogenerating plants. Typical intertie configurations are deliberated. Implications on the design of protection systems are emphasized. Relevant protection schemes are presented, and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated. The importance

  3. Root Disease, Associated with Verticicladiella alacris, of Pines in South Africa M. J. WINGFIELD, Plant Pathologist, Plant Protection Research Institute, and P. S. KNOX-DA VIES, Professor of

    E-print Network

    Root Disease, Associated with Verticicladiella alacris, of Pines in South Africa M. J. WINGFIELD. KNOX-DAVIES. 1980. Root disease, associated with Verricicladiel/a alacris, of pines in South Africa. Plant Disease 64:569-571. A disease of Pinus pinasrer and P. radiara associated with root infection

  4. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1981-02-13

    In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

  5. Influence of protein formulation and carrier solution on asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation: a case study of the plant-produced recombinant anthrax protective antigen pp-PA83.

    PubMed

    Palais, Caroline; Chichester, Jessica A; Manceva, Slobodanka; Yusibov, Vidadi; Arvinte, Tudor

    2015-02-01

    Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (afFFF) was used to investigate the properties of a plant-produced anthrax toxin protective antigen, pp-PA83. The afFFF fractogram consisted of two main peaks with molar masses similar to the molecular mass of pp-PA83 monomer. afFFF carrier solutions strongly influenced the ratio and the intensity of the two main peaks. These differences indicate that conformation changes in the pp-PA83 molecule occurred during the afFFF analysis. Similar fractograms were obtained for different pp-PA83 formulations when the afFFF carrier solution and the protein formulation were the same (or very similar). The data show that in specific cases, afFFF could be used to study protein conformation and document the importance of studying the influence of the carrier solution on afFFF. PMID:25417936

  6. Copy Protection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leske, Cavin.

    2002-01-01

    With the recent shut down of the peer-to-peer file sharing utility Audiogalaxy, copy protection of all kinds of data is a very hot topic. Distribution of music, movies, and software is running rampant, and many believe the solution lies in better copy protection.To learn the basics of copy protection, visit Link Data Security (1). This company specializes in secure products that reduce piracy, and this article explains the characteristics of good protection. The DVD Copy Control Association (2) manages the Content Scramble System (CSS), which prevents illegal duplication of DVD movies. Many documents about CSS and other projects are available on their Web site. One of the most high-profile fighters against piracy is the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) (3). The RIAA home page asserts the rules of music on the Internet and stresses the importance of obeying copyright restrictions. The other side of the argument is presented on this site (4). These activists state that recent changes to copyright laws have deprived citizens of basic rights, and they present their proposed Consumer Technology Bill of Rights, along with plenty of other information. Released on April 25, 2002, a report by the Senate examines the progress of content protection (5). The three original goals of content protection are outlined, and the status of various efforts to achieve them is discussed. Another report by the Broadcast Protection Discussion Group (6) summarizes its findings about "preventing unauthorized redistribution of unencrypted digital terrestrial broadcast television." A recent article in Wired News (7) looks at how a state-of-the-art copy protection technology was broken with a remarkably easy approach. The views of a Netscape co-founder offers a bleak forecast of copy protection in this article (8), but also implies that it might not be as big a problem as many people think.

  7. BILAN CRITIQUE DE CINQUANTE ANS D'ETUDES SUR LE DEVENIR ADULTE DES ENFANTS PLACES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    études sur le devenir adulte d'anciens placés dans le cadre de la Protection de l'enfance. Plus de trente insertion sociale de plus en plus favorable avec l'âge. Mots clés : Protection de l'Enfance, placement consultées : Medline, Francis, Eric, Pascal, Jstor. Ont été exclus de ce recensement bibliographique des

  8. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field. PMID:20919590

  9. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  10. Eye Protection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and cutting can expose you to visible, infrared (IR), and sometimes UV light radiation. Arc welding exposes ... are designed to protect the eyes from visible, IR and UV rays. Choose the darkest shade that ...

  11. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An airplane's wingtip tank is being struck by simulated lightning in a test conducted by Lightning Technologies, Inc., a firm specializing in design features to protect aircraft from the hazard of electrical phenomena. Much of the technology employed in tests originated in NASA - sponsored studies focusing on effects of lightning on aircraft structures, electrical systems, and fuel tanks, and on means of protecting against hazardous effects.

  12. Corrosion protection

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  13. Transferring cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain coat protein gene into Cucumis melo L. and evaluating transgenic plants for protection against infections

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, C.; Xue, B.; Yepes, M.; Fuchs, M.; Ling, K.; Namba, S. (Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1994-03-01

    A single regeneration procedure using cotyledon examples effectively regenerated five commercially grown muskmelon cultivars. This regeneration scheme was used to facilitate gene transfers using either Agrobacterium tumefaciens or microprojectile bombardment methods. In both cases, the transferred genes were from the T-DNA region of the binary vector plasmid pGA482GG/cp cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain (CMV-WL), which contains genes that encode neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS), and the CMV-WL coat protein (CP). Explants treated with pGA482GG/cpCMV-WL regenerated shoots on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 4.4 [mu]m 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), kanamycin (Km) at 150 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1] and carbenicillin (Cb) at 500 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1]. The authors' comparison of A. tumefaciens- and microprojectile-mediated gene transfer procedures shows that both methods effectively produce nearly the same percentage of transgenic plants. R[sub 0] plants were first tested for GUS or NPT II expression, then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other tests were used to verify the transfer of the NPT II, GUS, and CMV-WL CP genes.

  14. Qualit des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Qualité des composts et des digestats Fabienne MULLER Direction consommation durable et déchets organiques se construit, avec aujourd'hui le développement important de la méthanisation. Les composts actuellement produits, peuvent l'être avec des digestats ou non. Les quantités de compost produit ne cessent d

  15. The DES Story: Lessons Learned

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Robert Hoover discusses the DES followup study, which follows diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposed and unexposed mothers, daughters and sons, and granddaughters for adverse health effects resulting from this exposure.

  16. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    SciTech Connect

    Yanochko, Ronald M [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  17. La biogenèse des mélanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Delevoye, Cédric; Giordano, Francesca; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2012-01-01

    Les mélanocytes situés à la base de l’épiderme produisent des mélanosomes qui sont transférés aux kératinocytes pour assurer la pigmentation de l’épiderme et sa photoprotection contre les rayons ultraviolets. Les mélanosomes, organites apparentés aux lysosomes, sont le lieu de synthèse et de stockage d’un pigment, la mélanine. Leur formation dépend de protéines mélanosomales qui transitent par les voies de biosynthèse et d’endocytose et exploitent les mécanismes moléculaires du trafic intracellulaire. Les acteurs moléculaires impliqués dans le transport des protéines mélanosomales et la biogenèse des mélanosomes sont la cible de mutations dans des maladies génétiques accompagnées d’hypopigmentation comme l’albinisme et les maladies lysosomales. Les études menées sur les mélanocytes issus de souris modèles de ces maladies permettent de comprendre certaines des étapes-clés de la mélanogenèse ainsi que les dysfonctionnements associés à ces pathologies. De plus, décrypter la mélanogenèse facilite également la compréhension d’autres processus physiologiques, comme l’illustrent les similitudes inattendues avec l’amyloïdogenèse dans les maladies neurodégénératives. PMID:21382323

  18. Crystal structures of apo-form and binary/ternary complexes of Podophyllum secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in formation of health-protecting and plant defense lignans.

    PubMed

    Youn, Buhyun; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G; Kang, Chulhee

    2005-04-01

    (-)-Matairesinol is a central biosynthetic intermediate to numerous 8-8'-lignans, including the antiviral agent podophyllotoxin in Podophyllum species and its semi-synthetic anticancer derivatives teniposide, etoposide, and Etopophos. It is formed by action of an enantiospecific secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase, an NAD(H)-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of (-)-secoisolariciresinol. Matairesinol is also a plant-derived precursor of the cancer-preventative "mammalian" lignan or "phytoestrogen" enterolactone, formed in the gut following ingestion of high fiber dietary foodstuffs, for example. Additionally, secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase is involved in pathways to important plant defense molecules, such as plicatic acid in the western red cedar (Thuja plicata) heartwood. To understand the molecular and enantiospecific basis of Podophyllum secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase, crystal structures of the apo-form and binary/ternary complexes were determined at 1.6, 2.8, and 2.0 angstrom resolution, respectively. The enzyme is a homotetramer, consisting of an alpha/beta single domain monomer containing seven parallel beta-strands flanked by eight alpha-helices on both sides. Its overall monomeric structure is similar to that of NAD(H)-dependent short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases, with a conserved Asp47 forming a hydrogen bond with both hydroxyl groups of the adenine ribose of NAD(H), and thus specificity toward NAD(H) instead of NADP(H). The highly conserved catalytic triad (Ser153, Tyr167, and Lys171) is adjacent to both NAD(+) and substrate molecules, where Tyr167 functions as a general base. Following analysis of high resolution structures of the apo-form and two complex forms, the molecular basis for both the enantio-specificity and the reaction mechanism of secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase is discussed and compared with that of pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase. PMID:15653677

  19. Anticipating the spatio-temporal response of plant diversity and vegetation structure to climate and land use change in a protected area

    PubMed Central

    Boulangeat, Isabelle; Georges, Damien; Dentant, Cédric; Bonet, Richard; Van Es, Jérémie; Abdulhak, Sylvain; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation is a key driver of ecosystem functioning (e.g. productivity and stability) and of the maintenance of biodiversity (e.g. creating habitats for other species groups). While vegetation sensitivity to climate change has been widely investgated, its spatio-temporally response to the dual efects of land management and climate change has been ignored at landscape scale. Here we use a dynamic vegetation model called FATE-HD, which describes the dominant vegetation dynamics and associated functional diversity, in order to anticipate vegetation response to climate and land-use changes in both short and long-term perspectives. Using three contrasted management scenarios for the Ecrins National Park (French Alps) developed in collaboration with the park managers, and one regional climate change scenario, we tracked the dynamics of vegetation structure (forest expansion) and functional diversity over 100 years of climate change and a further 400 additional years of stabilization. As expected, we observed a slow upward shift in forest cover distribution, which appears to be severely impacted by pasture management (i.e. maintenance or abandonment). The tme lag before observing changes in vegetation cover was the result of demographic and seed dispersal processes. However, plant diversity response to environmental changes was rapid. Afer land abandonment, local diversity increased and spatial turnover was reduced, whereas local diversity decreased following land use intensification. Interestingly, in the long term, as both climate and management scenarios interacted, the regional diversity declined. Our innovative spatio-temporally explicit framework demonstrates that the vegetation may have contrasting responses to changes in the short and the long term. Moreover, climate and land-abandonment interact extensively leading to a decrease in both regional diversity and turnover in the long term. Based on our simulations we therefore suggest a continuing moderate intensity pasturing to maintain high levels of plant diversity in this system. PMID:25722538

  20. Oral immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice of transgenic rice plants producing a vaccine candidate antigen (As16) of Ascaris suum fused with cholera toxin B subunit.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasunobu; Suzuki, Seiko; Nozoye, Tomoko; Yamakawa, Takashi; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Takeshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Takaiwa, Fumio; Hayashi, Yoshihiro

    2009-04-01

    Cereal crops such as maize and rice are considered attractive for vaccine production and oral delivery. Here, we evaluated the rice Oryza sativa for production of As16-an antigen protective against the roundworm Ascaris suum. The antigen was produced as a chimeric protein fused with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), and its expression level in the endosperm reached 50 microg/g seed. Feeding the transgenic (Tg) rice seeds to mice elicited an As16-specific serum antibody response when administered in combination with cholera toxin (CT) as the mucosal adjuvant. Although omitting the adjuvant from the vaccine formulation resulted in failure to develop the specific immune response, subcutaneous booster immunization with bacterially expressed As16 induced the antibody response, indicating priming capability of the Tg rice. Tg rice/CT-fed mice orally administered A. suum eggs had a lower lung worm burden than control mice. This suggests that the rice-delivered antigen functions as a prophylactic edible vaccine for controlling parasitic infection in animals. PMID:18763047

  1. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency... (a) The Director may establish a manatee protection area under the provisions...imminent danger of a taking of one or more manatees, and that such establishment is...

  2. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency... (a) The Director may establish a manatee protection area under the provisions...imminent danger of a taking of one or more manatees, and that such establishment is...

  3. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency... (a) The Director may establish a manatee protection area under the provisions...imminent danger of a taking of one or more manatees, and that such establishment is...

  4. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency... (a) The Director may establish a manatee protection area under the provisions...imminent danger of a taking of one or more manatees, and that such establishment is...

  5. 50 CFR 17.106 - Emergency establishment of protection areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.106 Emergency... (a) The Director may establish a manatee protection area under the provisions...imminent danger of a taking of one or more manatees, and that such establishment is...

  6. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Protection Agency. 76.53 Section 76.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application...

  7. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Protection Agency. 76.53 Section 76.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application...

  8. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Protection Agency. 76.53 Section 76.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application...

  9. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Protection Agency. 76.53 Section 76.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application...

  10. 10 CFR 76.53 - Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Protection Agency. 76.53 Section 76.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.53 Consultation with Environmental Protection Agency. In reviewing an application...

  11. 10 CFR 73.54 - Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Section 73.54 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical...licensed to operate a nuclear power plant under part 50...Implement security controls to protect the...

  12. 10 CFR 73.54 - Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Section 73.54 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical...licensed to operate a nuclear power plant under part 50...Implement security controls to protect the...

  13. 10 CFR 73.54 - Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Section 73.54 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical...licensed to operate a nuclear power plant under part 50...Implement security controls to protect the...

  14. 10 CFR 73.54 - Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Section 73.54 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical...licensed to operate a nuclear power plant under part 50...Implement security controls to protect the...

  15. 10 CFR 73.54 - Protection of digital computer and communication systems and networks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection...currently licensed to operate a nuclear power plant under part 50 of this chapter...license for which the records were developed, and shall maintain...

  16. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Kit-built airplanes are more affordable because they are assembled by the owner and do not require Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. The Glasair III, is an advanced technology homebuilt, constructed of a fiberglass and graphite fiber composite material, and equipped with digital instruments. Both technologies make the airplane more susceptible to lightning effects. When Glasair manufacturer, Stoddard-Hamilton, decided that lightning protection would enable more extensive instrument flight and make the plane more marketable, they proposed a joint development program to NASA Langley Research Center (LAR). Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Langley contractors designed and tested a lightning protection system, and the Glasair III-LP became the first kit-built composite aircraft to be lightning tested and protection-verified under FAA guidelines for general aviation aircraft.

  17. Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupen, Claus

    Radiation protection is a very important aspect for the application of particle detectors in many different fields, like high energy physics, medicine, materials science, oil and mineral exploration, and arts, to name a few. The knowledge of radiation units, the experience with shielding, and information on biological effects of radiation are vital for scientists handling radioactive sources or operating accelerators or X-ray equipment. This article describes the modern radiation units and their conversions to older units which are still in use in many countries. Typical radiation sources and detectors used in the field of radiation protection are presented. The legal regulations in nearly all countries follow closely the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Tables and diagrams with relevant information on the handling of radiation sources provide useful data for the researcher working in this field.

  18. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lightning Technologies, Inc., Pittsfield, MA, - a spinoff company founded by president J. Anderson Plumer, a former NASA contractor employee who developed his expertise with General Electric Company's High Voltage Laboratory - was a key player in Langley Research Center's Storm Hazards Research Program. Lightning Technologies used its NASA acquired experience to develop protective measures for electronic systems and composite structures on aircraft, both of which are particularly susceptible to lightning damage. The company also provides protection design and verification testing services for complete aircraft systems or individual components. Most aircraft component manufacturers are among Lightning Technologies' clients.

  19. Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant U. S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - 13460

    SciTech Connect

    Yanochko, Ronald M. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix [1]. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility [2]. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling. This study [2] concluded that SBS direct disposal is a viable option to the WTP baseline. The results show: - Off-site transportation and disposal of the SBS condensate is achievable and cost effective. - Reduction of approximately 4,325 vitrified WTP Low Activity Waste canisters could be realized. - Positive WTP operational impacts; minimal WTP construction impacts are realized. - Reduction of mass flow from the LAW Facility to the Pretreatment Facility by 66%. - Improved Double Shell Tank (DST) space management is a benefit. (authors)

  20. 10 CFR 73.40 - Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements...Fixed Sites § 73.40 Physical protection: General...licensee shall provide physical protection at a fixed...sites where licensed activities are...

  1. 10 CFR 73.40 - Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements...Fixed Sites § 73.40 Physical protection: General...licensee shall provide physical protection at a fixed...sites where licensed activities are...

  2. 10 CFR 73.40 - Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements...Fixed Sites § 73.40 Physical protection: General...licensee shall provide physical protection at a fixed...sites where licensed activities are...

  3. 10 CFR 73.40 - Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements...Fixed Sites § 73.40 Physical protection: General...licensee shall provide physical protection at a fixed...sites where licensed activities are...

  4. 10 CFR 73.40 - Physical protection: General requirements at fixed sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements...Fixed Sites § 73.40 Physical protection: General...licensee shall provide physical protection at a fixed...sites where licensed activities are...

  5. Etude de l'effet du vieillissement sur les proprietes d'un tissu en melange KevlarRTM-PBI utilise dans le revetement exterieur des habits de protection contre le feu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, Carlos

    The aim of this work is to study and model the effect of three aging factors, temperature, humidity and light radiation, on the properties of a fabric made of a blend of KevlarRTM and PBI fibers frequently used to manufacture fire-protective garments. Accelarated-aging treatments carried out at carefully chosen conditions for the three factors resulted in a sizeable loss of mechanical performance. The breaking force of both the fabric and the yarns extracted from it decreases to less than 50% after one month of continuous exposure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests performed on thermally-aged samples indicated an increase of the crystallinity of the fabric, whereas the disappearance of Raman spectral lines suggested instead a reduction of the crystallinity following thermal aging. To explain these seemingly contradictory results, a hypothesis was introduced, stating that two different processes occurred simultaneously during thermal aging. The first one, an increase of size of the crystallites in the direction of the fibers' axis, accounted for the increase in crystallinity observed in XRD tests. The second one, an increase in the gap separating lamellar crystallites that causes a non-measurable reduction of the crystallinity of the sample, was highlighted by the Raman analyses. The results of the dielectric spectroscopy analyses carried out on thermally-aged samples confirmed the XRD results showing a significant change in the Kevlar's morphology during thermal aging. Despite the important decrease of the breaking force that ensued thermal aging, no evidence of a chemical structure modification of KevlarRTM was found. On the other hand, differential thermal analyses conducted on thermally aged fabric samples indicated a reduction of the glass transition temperature of the other component of the blend, namely the PBI, a fact that suggests a decrease of molecular weight after thermal aging. Infrared spectroscopy analyses performed on samples exposed to high humidity levels showed the development of a new absorbing band in the spectrum of aged KevlarRTM yarns. This band was ascribed to the formation of carboxylic acid groups. Based on these results, the humidity aging mechanism was inferred. This mechanism corresponds to the hydrolysis of the amide bond of KevlarRTM catalyzed by an acid. The progress of the hydrolysis reaction was modeled mathematically using the evolution of the concentration of carboxylic acid groups. The mechanism of light radiation aging was also determined from infrared spectroscopy analyses as the absorbing band attributed to the carboxylic acid groups was once again observed. In the case of light radiation, the degradation mechanism corresponds to a photo-oxidation reaction initiated by the photolysis of the amide bond of KevlarRTM. The accumulation of Photo-Fries products on the surface of yarns is believed to slow down of the oxidation reaction, as indicated by the overlapping of breaking force vs. aging time curves for the light-radiation aged samples. Expressions based on the Arrhenius law were used to characterize both the thermal and hydrolytic aging, whereas an expression taking into account the irradiance as well as the temperature was used to model the light radiation aging. The global damage produced by the joint action of the three aging factors was modeled after Palmgren-Miner's linear cumulative damage theory.

  6. 77 FR 66650 - Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR...that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As...

  7. Protective Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Beta Glass material, originating from the Apollo program is supplied to Fyrepel by Owens-Corning and incorporated into Fyrepel's Fyretex and Beta-Mex aluminized fabrics. Fabrics are used in fire entry suits, several other types of protective suits for wear in hot industrial environments and such accessory items as heat-reflecting curtains for industrial applications.

  8. Protect thyself

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, A.M.

    1982-06-01

    The article considers items of personal protection for miners: Self-rescuers, respirators, hard hats and cap lamps. A table provides a comparison between five types of self-contained self-rescuer. Details are also given of hard hat cap lamp and respirator manufacturers.

  9. Improve protective clothing and reduce radwaste

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, G.A. [Interstate Nuclear Service Corporation, Springfield, MA (United States); Fryer, J. [Indiana/Michigan Utilities, Bridgman, MI (United States); Smith, J.M. [Precision Fabrics Group, Inc., Greensboro, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Nuclear power plants have been reducing radioactive waste production through aggressive volume reduction and control at the point of generation. Waste reduction efforts may, however, have reached a plateau. Certain items, such as protective clothing, are a necessary part of plant operations and cannot be eliminated. There are more than 800,000 sets of protective clothing currently in use at U.S. nuclear plants. Since up to 25% of these garments are removed from service each year, spent protective wear accounts for {approximately}100,000 ft{sup 3} of prevolume reduced waste annually. Furthermore, up to 10% of dry active waste produced at commercial power reactor sites is comprised of exhausted protective clothing and related goods. This report describes the design of protective clothing which lasts longer and is lighter than traditional fabrics.

  10. Radioactivity Environmental Protection Course

    E-print Network

    Ishii, Hitoshi

    D1 D4 D5 D1 Radioactivity Environmental Protection Course Radioactivity Environmental Protection Course Radioactivity Social Recovery Course protect the environment from radioactivity protect human lives from radiation disasters protect the human society from radioactivity Development of Phoenix

  11. 76 FR 4258 - Occupational Radiation Protection; Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...CFR Part 835 Federal buildings and facilities, Nuclear energy, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Nuclear safety, Occupational safety and health, Radiation protection, and Reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

  12. 76 FR 20489 - Occupational Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...CFR Part 835 Federal buildings and facilities, Nuclear energy, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Nuclear safety, Occupational safety and health, Radiation protection, and Reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

  13. 78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...NRC-2012-0268] Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR...that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As...

  14. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. 174.705 Section 174.705 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS List of Approved...Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. An inert ingredient, and...

  16. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. 174.705 Section 174.705 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS List of Approved...Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. An inert ingredient, and...

  17. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. 174.705 Section 174.705 Protection...PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS List of Approved...Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. An inert ingredient, and...

  18. Conservation des Textiles

    E-print Network

    Brest, Université de

    Conservation des Textiles Les 22 et 23 mai 2013 Soit 2 jours - 14 heures OBJECTIFS DE LA FORMATION essentielles dans la gestion de collections textiles, depuis leur identification jusqu'à leur conservation conservation d'éléments et de collections textiles, et toutes personnes travaillant dans le domaine du

  19. Fachprfungsordnung des Bachelorstudiengangs Geographie

    E-print Network

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    Fachprüfungsordnung des Bachelorstudiengangs Geographie an der Ernst Geographie: Inhaltsverzeichnis: § 1 Studium § 2 Zulassungsvoraussetzungen § 3 Module § 4 Berufsbezogenes Bachelorstudiengang Geographie. Ergänzend gilt die Gemeinsame Prüfungsordnung für Bachelor- und Masterstudiengänge

  20. Das Bandenspektrum des CO +

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Coster; H. H. Brons; H. Bulthuis

    1932-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Es wird die Rotationsstruktur der s ? s Banden (1 ? 4, 2 ? 4, 2 ? 5, 3 ? 5, 3 ? 6, 4 ? 7) des CO+ analysiert und eine Nullinienformel für diese Banden abgeleitet. Von denII ? s-Banden (5 ? 0, 6 ? 0, 7 ? 0, 8 ? 0) wird die Rotationsstruktur analysiert. Jede Bande

  1. Die Stoffwechselsituation des Reizleitungssystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Th. H. Schiebler; M. Stark; R. Caesar

    1956-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Die spezifische Muskulatur des Reizleitungssystems unterscheidet sich u. a. von der Arbeitsmuskulatur durch ein vermindertes Vorkommen von Sarkosomen, eine schwächere Bernsteinsäuredehydrogenase-und Oxydasereaktion und einen geringeren Sauerstoffverbrauch. Wir schließen daraus auf einen stoffwechselmäßigen Unterschied zwischen den beiden Muskelarten und stellen zur Diskussion, ob das Reizleitungssystem relativ unabhängig von der Sauerstoffversorgung ist. Das Reizleitungssystem weist auch unter Thyroxinbelastung einen zäh festgehaltenen,

  2. des sciences pharmaceutiques

    E-print Network

    Pellier, Damien

    .-M. Scherrmann La faculté de pharmacie de Paris est habilitée à percevoir 45 % du montant total de votre Taxe d pharmacie de paris en sera bénéficiaire ! En indiquant précisément lors de votre déclaration de versement de'Observatoire - 75006 Paris Diplôme : docteur en pharmacie - Monsieur le doyen Faculté des sciences pharmaceutiques et

  3. The species of Botanochara Dejean, 1836 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Argentina: an identification key, new host plant records and list of Cassidinae found in birds' nests and other protected places.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Osvaldo Di

    2014-01-01

    The genus Botanochara Dejean, 1836 comprises 43 species distributed in the Neotropical Region, among which 26 (57%) are known from Argentina. Botanochara praefica (Spaeth, 1940) is synonymized with B. macularia (Boheman, 1850). Botanochara missionea (Spaeth, 1915) and B. tessellata (Burmeister, 1870) are illustrated for the first time. Botanochara duodecimnotata (Boheman, 1850) and Botanochara segnis (Boheman, 1862) are new country records. Six species are shared with Bolivia, 21 with Brazil, 15 with Paraguay, one with Peru, and 7 with Uruguay. The known geographic distributions, synonymies, hybrids, chromosome numbers, and host plants in Argentina and adjacent countries are summarized. New localities and host plants, and some corrections of misidentified species from Argentina are given. Distribution maps of all species in Argentina with known localities superimposed with biogeographic provinces are provided. The southern limits of Botanochara in western, central and eastern Argentina are established and correlates with the known distributions of Ipomoea L. species (Convolvulaceae). A total of 12,815 specimens of Cassidinae were found inside birds' nests from Argentina, from which 11,538 (90.03%) belong to 8 species of Botanochara; 9,331 (80.87%) were found during Autumn (21th March to 20th June) and Winter (21th June to 20th September) (diapause), and 2,207 (19.13%) during Spring (21 th September to 20 th December) and Summer (21 th December to 20 th March) (aseasonal quiescence). Additional records of two other Cassidinae found in birds' nests and other protected places, Carlobruchia tricostata (Spaeth, 1907) and Stolas lacordairei (Boheman, 1850), are also provided.  PMID:25544373

  4. CHROMATOGRAPHIE EN PHASE GAZEUSE DES COMPOSS VOLATILS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CHROMATOGRAPHIE EN PHASE GAZEUSE DES COMPOSÉS VOLATILS DES GLANDES A PHÉROMONES DES ABEILLES'introduction directe et en petit nombre des glances à phéromones à l'entrée d'une colonne à chromatographie; le procédé : chromatographie phase gazeuse, glande, phéromone, substance d'alarme, abeille ouvrière. INTRODUCTION La vie des

  5. TRANSFORMATION ET DEVENIR DES CELLULES ADIPEUSES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    TRANSFORMATION ET DEVENIR DES CELLULES ADIPEUSES AU COURS DE L'AMAIGRISSEMENT. ÉTUDE environ 400 g, les transformations ultrastructurales des cellules adipeuses et leur devenir ont été. Le reste des cellules adipeuses des dépôts, représentant environ 90 p. 100 de la totalité des

  6. fevrier 2012 Journes Francophones des Langages Applicatifs JFLA12 Separation des couleurs dans un -calcul bichrome

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AlligatorEggs3 cherche `a expliquer le -calcul `a des enfants. Pour cela il utilise la couleur pour relier des alligators affam´es et des oeufs afin de constituer des familles. La couleur sert `a expliciter les liaisons des variables dans les termes, des oeufs naissent de nouveaux alligators ou familles lors

  7. Plant breeding Breeding for management adaptation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant breeding Breeding for management adaptation in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L). II, Station d'Amélioration des Plantes Fourragères, F86600 Lusignan, France (Received 15 November 1993 in breeding for yield under a given manage- ment. From 58 half-sib families derived from a single polycross

  8. DESULFURIZATION OF STEEL MILL SINTER PLANT GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of using limestone scrubbing technology to control sinter plant emissions. Data from Soviet and Japanese sinter plants employing limestone scrubbing technology were used to develop a realistic des...

  9. Coastal Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Chu; Shuwang Yan

    \\u000a In recent years, global warming has caused the sea level to rise. The river or coastal related disasters\\u000a such as tsunami, cyclone and flood have also become higher in frequency and stronger in intensity. As one of the counter\\u000a measures, some of the existing coastal protection structures need to be rehabilitated and new, stronger or taller coastal\\u000a structures have to

  10. 1984 - 1992 : alourdissement des loyers et des charges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laure Pitrou

    1995-01-01

    [fre] 1984-1992 : alourdissement des loyers et . Au cours des années 1984-1992 les loyers ont augmenté beaucoup plus rapidement que le niveau général des prix. Cette évolution reflète à la fois le coût plus élevé que par le passé conféré au droit d'usage du logement et l'amélioration du confort du parc locatif. Elle est à nuancer suivant le secteur

  11. Plants 1: Plant Parents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2001-10-20

    This is the first of two lessons about reproduction in plants. This lesson covers how most plants normally reproduce - sexually. The second Science NetLinks lesson in this series, Plant Propagation, teaches how plants can be forced to reproduce asexually. In this lesson, students will learn the parts of the flower and the process of sexual reproduction in plants.

  12. des butineuses disponibles, ce groupe de visiteurs est le seul pouvoir utiliser de

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Entfernen oder Addieren des Neo- phyten. Wir haben Stachys palustris, als sympatrisch blühende, einheimische and the native Stachys palustris? Pollination is an important but complex resource for reproductive success the invasive plant. We observed Stachys palustris as the sympatrically flowering native plant for changes

  13. UPPER DES PLAINES RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES, IL & WI FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT AND ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION PROJECT

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    natural state, eradicating invasive plant species, and reestablishing native plant communities. FiveUPPER DES PLAINES RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES, IL & WI FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT AND ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION risk to residential and commercial structures and restore impaired aquatic ecosystems in the watershed

  14. Expression of biologically active Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Peste des petits ruminants virus in transgenic pigeonpea [ Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Prasad; V. V Satyavathi; Sanjaya; K. M Valli; Abha Khandelwal; M. S Shaila; G Lakshmi Sita

    2004-01-01

    Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene of Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) has been expressed in pigeonpea for the development of an edible vaccine for Peste des Petits ruminant (PPR). PPRV, causes PPR disease in sheep and goats with high mortality rate. The two surface glycoproteins of PPRV Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein (F) confer protective immunity. We report the successful generation of

  15. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section...incorporated by reference, see § 193.2013). However, LNG plants existing on March 31, 2000, need not comply...

  16. PLANNING DES STAGES Dpartements

    E-print Network

    Stouls, Nicolas

    'offres PFE en laboratoire INSA de 49 jours (Peut avoir lieu en entreprise) Projets innovants Stage 20PLANNING DES STAGES Départements BIOSCIENCES : Filière Biochimie et Biotechnologies 3ère année 4ème année GENIE ENERGETIQUE ET ENVIRONNEMENT 3ère année 4ème année 5ème année Stage de 16 semaines Stage

  17. Bibliothek des indischen Parlaments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaum eine prestigeträchtigere Bauaufgabe konnte in den letzten 15 Jahren in Indien ausgeschrieben werden als ein Neubau in\\u000a der Nähe der Parlamentsbauten kolonialer Vergangenheit. Ebenso wie der Auftraggeber, die Regierung, war sich der Gewinner\\u000a des Wettbewerbs, Raj Rewal, einer historischen Aufgabe bewusst, die eine sowohl zeitgemäße als auch den dominierenden Nachbarn\\u000a angemessene Lösung verlangte. Die Chance durfte nicht vertan werden,

  18. Plant breeding Brown-midrib genes of maize: a review

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant breeding Brown-midrib genes of maize: a review Y Barrière* O Argillier INRA, Station d'Amélioration des Plantes Fourragères, F86600 Lusignan, France (Received 21 May 1993; accepted 23 September 1993 incrustration. Four brown-midrib genes (bm1, bm2, bm3 and bm4) have been described in maize. Brown-midrib plants

  19. Animateur 2D/3D-Illustrateur 3D Rendu des couleurs, des textures, des

    E-print Network

    Jeanjean, Louis

    spéciaux d'un produit ou d'un site grâce à des logiciels d'animation en 2D ou en 3D. Ce métier exige à la presse et l'édition, le DA élabore la charte graphique (choix des styles de caractères, taille des photos de rough (esquisse du projet) ou de story-board (scénario d'un film sous forme de BD). Il assure le

  20. Pouvoirs et protection des femmes dans les glises pentectistes africaines

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Boundaries, (Thematic Session 32 : Women's rights, religions and democracy leaded by M.-A., Roy and M.J. Rosado). Communication : « Women's rights and freedom in the African churches in Europe », from 18 to 22-ROSETTE, Privilege Without Power : Women in African Cults and Churches. In : Women in Africa and the African Diaspora

  1. PROTECTION DES PROTINES ALIMENTAIRES CONTRE LA DSAMINATION BACTRIENNE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . — Ã?TUDES IN VITRO : COMPORTEMENT EN MILIEU DE RUMEN DE QUELQUES PROTÃ?INES TANNÃ?ES AVEC DU TANIN DE celles de tanin de châtaignier n'exer- cent pas d'effet négatif. Les doses d'aldéhydes qui assurent

  2. Caractrisation des systmesCaractrisation des systmes industriels

    E-print Network

    Histace, Aymeric

    Chapitre 3 Caractérisation des systèmesCaractérisation des systèmes industriels Aymeric Histace 1 Plan 1. Performances d'un système industriel 2. Etude temporelle 3. Etude fréquentielleq Aymeric comment concrètement les prévoir ou les mesurer pratiquement pour un système industriel donné. Aymeric

  3. Facult des arts et des sciences Dpartement de science politique

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Lael

    Faculté des arts et des sciences Département de science politique POL6523 - Diplomatie et affaires département de science politique (responsable du cours) · Nadja Pollaert, directrice générale, Fondation Paul System," in P. Kerr and G. Wiseman (dir) Diplomacy in a Globalizing World: Theories and Practices. New

  4. Modlisation multivarie des comportements risque des conducteurs d'automobile

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ~ 1 ~ Modélisation multivariée des comportements à risque des conducteurs d'automobile Mériem la probabilité de l'utilisation du téléphone portable au volant. Mots clés : Assurance automobile of phoning while driving. Key words: Car insurance, risky behavior, survey, trivariate probit model

  5. Expos de synthse Etude immunochimique des molcules du CMH des

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Exposé de synthèse Etude immunochimique des molécules du CMH des bovins (BoLA) D. Levy, J. Goyeneche C. Demeulemester M. Baquero INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, laboratoire pathologie et'histocompatibilité - réunion scientifique - structure - fonction Bovine CMH (BoLA) molecules : immunochemical study major

  6. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  7. LABORATOIRE DE PHYSIQUE DES SOLIDES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud 11, Université de

    LABORATOIRE DE PHYSIQUE DES SOLIDES UMR 8502 Centre Universitaire, Bât. 510 91405 Orsay cedex) 212503. #12;LABORATOIRE DE PHYSIQUE DES SOLIDES UMR 8502 Centre Universitaire, Bât. 510 91405 Orsay cedex fundamental fine particle magnetism utilizing colloidal dispersions or ferrofluids as the medium for study

  8. STRUCTURE ET DFAUTS DES NANOTUBES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud 11, Université de

    STRUCTURE ET D�FAUTS DES NANOTUBES Pascale Launois Laboratoire de Physique des Solides (UMR CNRS://www.lps.u-psud.fr/Collectif/gr_23/themes/fullnano/en_fullnano.htm http://www.lps.u-psud.fr/Utilisateurs/launois/ PLAN 1. Nanotubes de carbone Structure Défauts Arrangement Autres nanofilaments 2. Nanotubes hétéroatomiques #12

  9. Ageismus – Sprachliche Diskriminierung des Alters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Undine Kramer

    Daniel Sanders, einer der bedeutendsten Lexikografen des 19. Jahrhunderts, wertete für sein Wörterbuch Quellen seit der Lutherzeit aus und\\u000a vermerkt im Wörterbuchartikel zu alt eine „bald lobende, bald tadelnde“ Bedeutung des Adjektivs. Sein Zeit- und Berufsgenosse Jacob Grimm benennt in seiner Rede über das Alter die zeitgenössischen Synonyme zu alt und Alter: „aus einheimischen schriftstellern liesze sich eine lange reihe

  10. DEFORMATIONS EQUIVARIANTES DES COURBES SEMISTABLES

    E-print Network

    Di Girolami, Cristina

    - portement par d´eformation des points du bord, les rev^etements stables. Il est fortement souhaitable de description heuristique des points du bord, et leur comportement par d´eformation. Par exemple, peut-on donner 2, on examine les probl`emes globaux, plus particuli`erement les interactions entre les obstructions

  11. Fonctionnement et restauration des milieux

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    préservation, la restauration et la valorisation des écosystèmes aquatiques ou à l'exercice des métiers de la fonctionnelle, biologie cellulaire et moléculaire, physiologie, écophysiologie, écologie), mais aussi de chimie

  12. des doublcls ainsi forms devraient tre plus petites que la vitesse des rayons B, de mme celles des

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    88 des doublcls ainsi formés devraient être plus petites que la vitesse des rayons B, de même celles des rayons secondaires qu'ils libèrent en se brisant. Ceci est en désaccord avec les expériences des rayons B qui donnent naissance à ces pulsations, La théorie du professeur Thomson supprime cette

  13. Comptes Rendus des JNC 16 Toulouse 2009 Essais et simulations des mes Nomex sous des sollicitations de type

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comptes Rendus des JNC 16 Toulouse 2009 Essais et simulations des âmes Nomex sous des sollicitations de type statique et fatigue Experimental tests and prediction of Nomex cores under statique en cisaillement hors plan des âmes nids d'abeilles Nomex® lors de sollicitations de fatigue. La

  14. Demographic variation and conservation of the narrow endemic plant Ranunculus weyleri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cursach, Joana; Besnard, Aurélien; Rita, Juan; Fréville, Hélène

    2013-11-01

    Ranunculus weyleri is a narrow endemic protected plant from Majorca Island. It is known from only five populations located in two mountain areas 48 km apart. Using demographic data collected from 2007 to 2010, we assessed the demographic status of two populations - font des Coloms (FC) and talaia Moreia (TM) - using Integral Projection Models (IPMs). We showed that none of the two populations were declining under a deterministic model. Population FC was stable (? = 1.026, CI95% = 0.965-1.093), while population TM showed sign of demographic expansion (? = 1.113, CI95% = 1.032-1.219). Plant survival, flowering probability and the mean number of seedlings per floral peduncle were lower in TM, whereas growth and the number of floral peduncles per reproductive plant were lower in FC. Elasticity analyses showed that management strategies increasing plant survival and growth would be the most efficient to increase ? for both populations. Herbivory pressure by goats has been shown to be high in TM, resulting in high predation rate on floral peduncles. Controlling goat pressure may thus represent a promising management option, provided that we can demonstrate a negative impact of herbivory by goats on survival and growth which are the most critical parts of the life cycle in this species. Meanwhile, initiating a long-term monitoring is of crucial importance to get more insights into the relationships between environmental variation, plant performance and population dynamics.

  15. Dictionary of environmental protection technology

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, E.

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary comprises about 14,000 entries in each of the four languages covering the following fields: Air, Water, Water quality, Sewage treatment, Coastal engineering, Pollution of the sea, Flora and fauna, Ecosystems, Waste, Working environment, living conditions, environmental conditions, environmental monitoring. The dictionary deals above all with the technological aspects of environmental protection, i.e., techniques, methods, equipment, machinery, plants and plant systems. Terms regarding the scientific, socioeconomic and politico-cultural aspects have also been included, though in less detail.

  16. Qualit germinative des semences de pois -I. Dveloppement de la gousse et des graines

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Qualité germinative des semences de pois - I. Développement de la gousse et des graines : incidences sur la germination des semences avec ou sans séchage Zohreh RACHIDIAN Yvon LE DEUNFF Institut étapes ; à chacune peuvent être asso- ciés des événements dans la croissance des graines. La germination

  17. Peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, P C; Diallo, A

    1990-12-01

    The peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is proving to be a disease which has an increasingly significant economic impact on a number of countries in Africa and the Middle East, and possibly also on the Indian sub-continent. The antigenic relationships which exist between the PPR and rinderpest viruses pose problems for diagnosis which complicates rinderpest control and eradication programmes. Progress has recently been made in regard to diagnosis (specific nucleic probes and monoclonal antibodies), as well as control (homologous vaccine). International legislation remains to be established and epidemiological surveys should be conducted in order to determine the exact geographical distribution of the disease. PMID:2132714

  18. Des Moines Water Works

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Users can access information about educational programs and materials for teachers and students, including tours, traveling exhibits and presentations by the staff of the Des Moines Water Works. "Water Trunks", which contain water-related literature, books, science experiments, videos, games, CD-ROMs, hands-on activities, picture cards, career information, and a teacher resource book, are available to order. There are also links to other water websites, a teachers' newsletter and pollution prevention tips for classroom use and for the general public.

  19. NEUROMARKETING ET NEUROSCIENCES AU SERVICE DES PUBLICITAIRES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 NEUROMARKETING ET NEUROSCIENCES AU SERVICE DES PUBLICITAIRES : QUESTIONNEMENTS ETHIQUES Didier neuromarketing et des neurosciences au service des publicitaires soulève immanquablement des questions éthiques débats éthiques entre les personnes adeptes du neuromarketing (les "pro-neuromarketing") et les "anti-neuromarketing

  20. Analyse thermographique du comportement des matriaux

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    transfert et de traitement des images infrarouges, rendant plus conviviale l'utilisation des nouveaux de degré Celsius. L'intérêt de la thermographie pour le mécanicien vient du fait que la déformation d traitement des données infrarouges. En effet, cette analyse s'appuie sur une mesure des effets (les