Science.gov

Sample records for protection les expositions

  1. Italian Exposition

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-11

    Le DG parle dans son allocution à l'occasion de l'exposition (suivi d'une visite)de la contribution du Cern à la création d'une espace de la technologie européenne. Il parle de la manière comment organiser des formes fructueuses de coopération et coordination internationales dans ce domaine. "Afin de renforcer encore notre relation avec l'industrie et intensifier le transfert de la technologie nous proposerons au ministre de recherche de poursuivre dans le cadre du programme EUREKA ensemble avec les industries des programmes concrètes." Le ministre italien prend ensuite la parole.

  2. Italian Exposition

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le DG parle dans son allocution à l'occasion de l'exposition (suivi d'une visite)de la contribution du Cern à la création d'une espace de la technologie européenne. Il parle de la manière comment organiser des formes fructueuses de coopération et coordination internationales dans ce domaine. "Afin de renforcer encore notre relation avec l'industrie et intensifier le transfert de la technologie nous proposerons au ministre de recherche de poursuivre dans le cadre du programme EUREKA ensemble avec les industries des programmes concrètes." Le ministre italien prend ensuite la parole.

  3. [Exposit in a biological test].

    PubMed

    Hoyer, I; Gängler, P; Will, R; Benkert, O

    1989-01-01

    The biocompatibility of the composite resin materials Exposit and Evicrol was tested by functional studies of the rat incisor and the biological test of the dental pulp of pigs. Exposit shows mainly reversible reactions of the vascular connective tissue both in the vital-microscopical examination of the immediate reaction and in short-term tests (24 hours, 7 days), where positive adaptation reactions (new vessels and revascularization) are to be observed. Evicrol causes distinct and irreversible damages in the pulp of the rat incisor. The results of the vital-microscopical examination are proven by histological checks of the rat incisor. In the morphological picture Exposit shows in pig teeth mainly slight and partly moderate inflammatory pulpal reactions after a period of 30 and 90 days. For Evicrol, however, severe reactions with a massive accumulation of inflammatory cells is to be observed after a period of 30 days. Despite an acceptable and, compared to Evicrol, a better biocompatibility of Exposit there is a demand for an exact pulp protection. PMID:2534010

  4. Protection des ions organiques contre les dommages induits a l'ADN par les electrons de basse energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Ariane

    Il a ete demontre que les electrons de basse energie (EBE) peuvent induire des cassures simple brin (CSB) a l'ADN, via la formation d'anions transitoires qui decroissent par attachement dissociatif, ou dans d'autres etats electroniques dissociatifs menant a la fragmentation. Afin d'effectuer une etude complete des effets des electrons de basse energie sur la matiere biologique, il est necessaire de comprendre leur mecanismes d'interaction non seulement avec l'ADN, mais avec les constituants de son environnement. Les histones sont une composante importante de l'environnement moleculaire de l'ADN. Leur charge positive leur permet de s'associer aux groupements phosphate anionique de l'ADN. Le role principal de ces proteines basiques consiste a organiser l'ADN et l'empaqueter afin de former la chromatine. Les cations sont une autre composante importante de la cellule; ils jouent un role dans la stabilisation de la conformation B de l'ADN in vitro par leurs interactions avec les petits et grands sillons de l'ADN, ainsi qu'avec le groupement phosphate charge negativement. Avec les histones, ils participent egalement a la compaction de l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Cette etude a pour but de comprendre comment la presence d'ions organiques (sous forme de Tris et d'EDTA) a proximite de l'ADN modifie le rendement de cassures simple brin induit par les electrons de basse energie. Le Tris et l'EDTA ont-ete choisis comme objet d'etude, puisqu'en solution, ils forment le tampon standard pour solubiliser l'ADN dans les experiences in vitro (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA). De plus, la molecule Tris possede un groupement amine alors que l'EDTA possede 4 groupements carboxyliques. Ensembles, ils peuvent se comporter comme un modele simple pour les acides amines. Le ratio molaire de 10 :1 de Tris par rapport a l'EDTA a pour but d'imiter le comportement des histones qui sont riches en arginine et lysine, acides amines possedant un groupement amine charge positivement additionnel. Des films d

  5. U.S. BICENTENNIAL EXPOSITION PRESS CONFERENCE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Fielding questions from the press concerning 3rd Century America, the Bicentennial Exposition on Science and Technology are [left to right]: Herbert J. Rowe, NASA Associate Administrator for External Affairs; Miles Ross, KSC Deputy Director and Bicentennial General Manager; Lee Scherer, KSC Director, and Paul Donnelly, KSC Director of Space Transportation System Processing and Chief of the Exposition Site Development and Operations Office.

  6. Effet du vieillissement sur les proprietes de la membrane humidifuge en e-PTFE/NomexRTM utilisee dans les vetements de protection contre les incendies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Aidani, Rachid

    The moisture barrier membrane used in the manufacturing of fire protective clothing has an important protective role during use in service. This membrane usually consists of a coating of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) laminated to a Nomex® fabric. This study has examined the effects of thermal, photochemical and hydrolytic aging on the performance of this membrane. The properties of this material may evolve over time depending on the conditions of use in service. Thermal aging were conducted at five temperatures: 190, 220, 275, 300 and 320°C. Four UV intensities (0,35, 0,68, 1,35 and 1 W/m2) and three temperatures (50, 70 and 80°C) were used for the accelerated photochemical aging and three moisture levels were selected (60, 80 and 95 %) for the hydrolytic aging. The measured properties include tensile strength, tear strength and water vapor permeability. Complementary physico-chemical and morphological analysis were also performed. Significant reductions in the mechanical properties of the membrane after thermal, photochemical, hydrolytic, and alternated aging have been observed. They can be attributed among others to a degradation of the Nomex® fibers. The effect of thermal aging on the mechanical properties of the membrane can be described by an Arrhenius law. Other models have been developed to predict the service lifetime for the photochemical aging and the synergistic effect of these aging agents. Concerning the water vapour permeability, two competitive mechanisms have been observed. On the one hand a closure of the micropores in the e-PTFE membrane was observed at the lowest aging temperatures, leading to a decrease in the permeability. On the other hand, cracks appeared in the membrane for the highest aging temperatures and/or for sufficiently long exposure times. These cracks produce a dramatic increase in the permeability, far beyond the value observed in the new material. Measurements by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction

  7. Rhetoric--Warp and Woof of "All" Exposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Ruth M.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that to improve students' writing in upper level business communication courses they must be exposed to the thesis that it is impossible to put together any piece of exposition, specifically letters, memoranda, and reports, without using one, or a combination of, rhetorical techniques arranged logically. (FL)

  8. The Chesapeake College Social Sciences Exposition and Fair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Conway

    A Social Sciences Exposition and Fair has been conducted annually by Chesapeake College since 1978 as part of an effort to involve high school students and community organizations in competitive, academic events related to the social sciences and history, and to encourage faculty to participate in student recruitment. The first fair, held in…

  9. An Examination of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percoco, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan dealing with the Columbian Exposition of 1893 at the Chicago (Illinois) World's Fair. Stresses recognition of (1) the connection between the past and the present; (2) the significance of Columbus Day; (3) the use of photographs as primary sources; and (4) the architecture of historical periods. Includes suggestions,…

  10. Petition Signed by Thomas A. Edison for Sunday Openings at the World's Columbian Exposition. The Constitution Community: The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Linda

    In 1893, in just 184 days, 28 million people, about one-third of the U.S. population, visited the World's Colombian Exposition in Chicago (Illinois). This lesson focuses on petitioning the federal government, peaceably assembling, and exercising freedom of speech and religion, all of which are protected by the First Amendment to the U.S.…

  11. Fine Art at the Cotton States and International Exposition, Atlanta, 1895. Learning Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kate; Peckham, Kathleen

    With the end of the Civil War just 30 years past, the organizers of the Atlanta (Georgia) 1895 Cotton States and International Exposition sought to demonstrate the South's national patriotism and progressivism. While the exhibits at the exposition widely varied, among the most ambitious undertakings were the displays of fine arts found in the Fine…

  12. U.S. BICENTENNIAL EXPOSITION AMERICAN FLAG & ARBA SYMBOL PAINTING FINISHED ON THE VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The massive Vehicle Assembly Building provides the focal point for the Bicentennial Exposition on Science and Technology, 3rd Century America. The largest flag ever painted and a large American Revolution Bicentennial Administration symbol adorn the side of the building, overlooking the bicentennial site which features 15 domes housing exhibits. Sixteen federal agencies, 10 U. W. industries and numerous colleges and universities are participating in the Exposition, which runs through September 7.

  13. Les jeux de hasard chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rina; Pinzon, Jorge L

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Même si, au Canada, les mineurs n’ont pas le droit de jouer à des jeux de hasard légalisés, les adolescents participent souvent à des jeux de hasard soit légalisés (produits de loterie, casino, terminaux de jeux vidéo), soit autonomes (jeux de cartes, paris sportifs, dés) à la maison et en milieu scolaire. Chez les adultes, le taux de prévalence de dépendance aux jeux de hasard au cours de la vie se situe entre 1 % et 2 %. D’après les données existantes, la prévalence chez les adolescents serait de deux à quatre fois plus élevée. On ne sait pas grand-chose des facteurs de risque d’apparition et de perpétuation d’une dépendance pathologique aux jeux de hasard. Le présent document de principes vise à informer les pédiatres, les médecins de famille et les autres professionnels de la santé des connaissances émergentes sur les jeux de hasard pendant l’enfance et l’adolescence et du risque de conséquences graves qui s’y rattachent. On y exhorte également les gouvernements fédéral, provinciaux et territoriaux à inclure cette question dans leur programme et à tenir compte des facteurs sociopolitiques associés aux jeux de hasard.

  14. Increase in the exposition to floods in the Alicante coast (Valencia region, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olcina, J.; Rico, A. M.; Hernandez, M.; Martínez, E.

    2009-09-01

    During the last two decades, Flood episodes along the Alicante coastline have caused important material losses and general disruptions of everyday life in the municipalities affected. We can speak of an increase in the vulnerability to floods chiefly as a result of an increase in exposition. In turn this increase is fundamentally linked to the nature of the recent urbanization process in this area and the corresponding occupation of flood prone land. The province of Alicante occupies one of the first positions in Europe regarding flood risk (ESPON 2006). Even counting with legislation that regulates land uses, processes leading to the occupation of flood risk areas have proven very difficult to manage. In this sense, the Valencia region has enacted legislation such as the Land Use Planning Law of 1989, the Law on Urban Growth Regulations of 1994, and the Planning Regulations of 1998. All these legal pieces attempted to prohibit development in flood prone land declaring this land as "non.urban". New laws such as the Law on Land Use Planning and Landscape protection of 2004, the Law on New Urban Land (2004), and the Decree on Landscape (2006) also consider the need to include the flood hazard in planning activities. Furthermore in 1997, the so-called "Cartography of the flood hazard at the regional level" was elaborated. This mapping exercise was the base for the "Territorial Plan for the Reduction of Flood Risks (PATRICOVA) approved in 2003 and currently the main planning tool for flood management in Valencia. On the other hand, the European Directive 60/2007 pointed towards the need to take into consideration the social perception of Flood risks in order to develop integrated actions of risk management. Accordingly we have undertaken 285 interviews in the coastal communities of Alicante, Calpe and Campello (95 interviews each). We have chosen these municipalities for two reasons: first their significance in population and economic activity terms, and second, their

  15. U.S. BICENTENNIAL EXPOSITION & PAINTING OF AMERICAN FLAG ON VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Transformation of the U. S. Bicentennial on Science and Technology from an artist's concept to reality is well underway at KSC. At lower right are stages of the Saturn V rocket which will form part of the Exposition. Four of the 15 domes erected to house exhibits by 16 federal agencies and numerous industrial firms are visible in the foreground. At left center, workmen on a scaffold can be seen completing the blue field on the American flag being painted on the Vehicle Assembly Building. The Exposition will be open to the public from May 30 through September 7.

  16. Evaluation experimentale de l'efficacite des gants de protection contre les nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane dans des conditions de travail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinches, Ludwig

    Manufactured titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) enter into the formulation of several commercial products including cosmetics, paints, varnishes or food. An increasing number of people will be exposed to nanoparticles (NP), in particular, scientists during their research and workers in companies. As such, they are an emerging source of hazard. Indeed, an increasing number of studies are warning against their likely harmful effects on health. The International Agency for Research against Cancer has classified nTiO2 as being possibly carcinogenic to humans. Furthermore some studies have shown that the skin is not an impervious membrane to the NP and that NP penetration is possible when the skin is injured by abrasion, after repeated flexions or even intact. Therefore, dermal protection will be necessary in order to thoroughly protect NP users. Based upon the precautionary principle, gloves should be used as protection against chemicals. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study on their resistance towards NP has been conducted. In this study, the performance of protective gloves was evaluated with respect to nTiO2 solutions and powders, under conditions simulating occupational use. Mechanical deformations, simulating those produced by hand flexing, were applied to nitrile and butyl rubber and latex samples that were in contact with nTiO2 in water, in propylene glycol or in powder form. nTiO 2 penetration through the protective gloves was determined after deformations of the materials. Following these results, the physicochemical and mechanical phenomena that facilitate the penetration of nTiO2 were identified and studied. It was shown that mechanical deformations caused both damage to the sample surface but also a change in the degree of crystallinity of the glove material. Strain energy was also measured. It decreased significantly in presence and absence of nTiO2, indicating a weakening of the polymer chains. A qualitative study showed that repetitive

  17. Technology 2003: The Fourth National Technology Transfer Conference and Exposition, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackett, Michael (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    Proceedings from symposia of the Technology 2003 Conference and Exposition, December 7-9, 1993, Anaheim, CA, was discussed. Volume 1 features the Plenary Session and the Plenary Workshop, plus papers presented in Advanced Manufacturing, Biotechnology/Medical Technology, Environmental Technology, Materials Science, and Power and Energy.

  18. [Children with Multiple Risk Factor Exposition Benefit from the German "Strengthening Families Program"].

    PubMed

    Bröning, Sonja; Sack, Peter-Michael; Thomsen, Monika; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Children with Multiple Risk Factor Exposition Benefit from the German "Strengthening Families Program" The German adaptation of the substance use-preventive family-based Strengthening Families Program 10-14 (SFP, Iowa version) was evaluated in a longitudinal two-year follow-up trial. Participants were N = 292 children with a mean age of twelve years at baseline, and N = 292 parents. We employed a multi-centric, randomized-controlled, two-armed (SFP vs. minimal control condition) study design. Following a "risk moderation hypothesis", we assumed that children with an elevated risk-exposition R(+) would benefit more than children with a low risk-exposition R(-) irrespective of the preventive intervention, and that R(+) under SFP would benefit more than R(+) under the minimal control condition. "Risk-exposition" was measured in correspondence with the Communities That Care Youth Survey-questionnaire. A total of 28 % of children were classified with an elevated risk level. Children's reports confirmed our hypothesis: R(+) report a total of eleven improvements, four of these being significantly more distinct than in the other groups (Anxiety-Depressivity, Punitive Parenting of mother, Punitive Parenting of father, Unbalanced family functioning). In three measures an improvement appears solely in R(+) under SFP (Satisfaction with family functioning, School Attachment and Peer Relationship Quality, Quality of Life). Parents' reports showed a similar tendency, but were less pronounced. PMID:27595812

  19. U.S. BICENTENNIAL EXPOSITION EXHIBIT VISITED BY FLETCHER AND TEAGUE DURING NASA DAY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dr. James C. Fletcher, U. S. Representative Olin Teague [D.-Texas], a group of foreign ambassadors and executives from NASA Headquarters visited KSC today as part of the observance of NASA Day at 3rd Century America, the U. S. Bicentennial Exposition on Science and Technology.

  20. Technology 2001: The Second National Technology Transfer Conference and Exposition, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Papers from the technical sessions of the Technology 2001 Conference and Exposition are presented. The technical sessions featured discussions of advanced manufacturing, artificial intelligence, biotechnology, computer graphics and simulation, communications, data and information management, electronics, electro-optics, environmental technology, life sciences, materials science, medical advances, robotics, software engineering, and test and measurement.

  1. Rural Schools, Social Capital and the Big Society: A Theoretical and Empirical Exposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Carl; Hillyard, Sam

    2014-01-01

    The paper commences with a theoretical exposition of the current UK government's policy commitment to the idealised notion of the Big Society and the social capital currency underpinning its formation. The paper positions this debate in relation to the rural and adopts an ethnographically-informed methodological approach to provide an…

  2. Selling Indian Education at World's Fairs and Expositions, 1893-1904.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trennert, Robert A., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Describes attempts by the Bureau of Indian Affairs to gain public approval of its policies by presenting school exhibits at world's fairs and expositions from 1893-1904. Explains that although the exhibits touted achievements of assimilation education, they unwittingly added to the growing interest in traditional native life and customs. (NEC)

  3. Petition for a Fair Representation of African Americans at the World's Columbian Exposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamel, Wynell Burroughs; Blondo, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a history lesson using a petition written by prominent African Americans objecting to the coverage of African Americans at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. Explains that African-American citizens were largely ignored in the exhibits. Includes questions for class discussion, writing activities, a copy of the petition, and research…

  4. Rural and Agricultural Education at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Bulletin, 1916, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foght, H. W.

    1917-01-01

    This bulletin was prepared to indicate recent progress in rural life and education as disclosed by the educational exhibits at the Panama-Pacific Exposition of 1915. The discussion includes (1) the general phases of progress in rural education, and (2) advancement in its more specific agricultural phases. Little attempt has been made to present…

  5. To Hell with the Wigs! Native American Representation and Resistance at the World's Columbian Exposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, in celebration of the quadricentennial anniversary of Columbus's landing in the Americas, spread over six hundred acres of reclaimed marsh lands in Chicago's South Side. Fourteen great buildings and two hundred additional buildings stood on the fairgrounds, and if tourists had visited every exhibit, they…

  6. Technology 2003: The Fourth National Technology Transfer Conference and Exposition, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackett, Michael (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    Proceedings from symposia of the Technology 2003 Conference and Exposition, Dec. 7-9, 1993, Anaheim, CA, are presented. Volume 2 features papers on artificial intelligence, CAD&E, computer hardware, computer software, information management, photonics, robotics, test and measurement, video and imaging, and virtual reality/simulation.

  7. The "Hefferline Notes": B. F. Skinner's First Public Exposition of His Analysis of Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Terry J.

    2009-01-01

    B. F. Skinner's first public exposition of his analysis of verbal behavior was the "Hefferline Notes" (1947a), a written summary of a course Skinner taught at Columbia University during the summer of 1947 just prior to his presentation of the William James Lectures at Harvard University in the fall. The Notes are significant because they display…

  8. Corrosion `98: 53. annual conference and exposition, proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This conference was divided into the following sections: Corrosion in Gas Treating; Problems and Solutions in Commercial Building Water Systems; Green Corrosion/Scale Inhibitors; Atmospheric Corrosion; AIRPOL Update/98; Rubber Lining--Answers to Many Problems; Interference Problems; Environmental Assisted Cracking: Fundamental Research and Industrial Applications; Corrosion in Nuclear Systems; New Developments in Scale and Deposit Control; Corrosion and Corrosion Protection in the Transportation Industries; What`s All the Noise About--Electrochemical That Is; Refining Industry Corrosion; Corrosion Problems in Military Hardware: Case Histories, Fixes and Lessons Learned; Cathodic Protection Test Methods and Instrumentation for Underground and On-grade Pipelines and Tanks; Recent Developments in Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors; Corrosion in Supercritical Fluids; Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion; Advances in Understanding and Controlling CO{sub 2} Corrosion; Managing Corrosion with Plastics; Material Developments for Use in Exploration and Production Environments; Corrosion in Cold Regions; The Effect of Downsizing and Outsourcing on Cooling System Monitoring and Control Practices; New Developments in Mechanical and Chemical Industrial Cleaning; Mineral Scale Deposit Control in Oilfield Related Operations; Biocides in Cooling Water; Corrosion and Corrosion Control of Reinforced Concrete Structures; Materials Performance for Fossil Energy Conversion Systems; Marine corrosion; Thermal Spray--Coating and Corrosion Control; Flow Effects on Corrosion in Oil and Gas Production; Corrosion Measurement Technologies; Internal Pipeline Monitoring--Corrosion Monitoring, Intelligent Pigging and Leak Detection; Cathodic Protection in Natural Waters; Corrosion in Radioactive Liquid Waste Systems; On-line Hydrogen Permeation Monitoring Equipment and Techniques, State of the Art; Water Reuse and Recovery; Performance of Materials in High Temperature Environments; Advances in Motor

  9. The expositive discourse as pedagogical discourse: studying recontextualization in the production of a science museum exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper I report on the sociological and educational particulars of The Biodiscovery Space exhibition of the Life Museum of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Basil Bernstein's framework of pedagogic discourse and recontextualization. Data for analysis was obtained from interviews with the exhibition developers, field observations of museum visitors and analysis of exhibition documents. Using the ideas of power, classification and framework, among others, I analyzed the recontextualization process of the production of expositive discourse. Thus, working with Bernstein's idea of classification, I explain the relationship between the discourses of the science of biology, history of science, museology, education, and communication in order to produce an expositive discourse. I also make explicit how agents of the Official Recontextualization Field of the Museum and the Pedagogic Recontextualization Field "....of the Museum determine partly the final expositive discourse of an exhibition". Using the idea of a pedagogic discourse framework, I discuss how the constraints imposed by objects and texts in exhibitions help to create a specific manner of visitor interaction with these elements, "even if they have some autonomy". Considerations about the audience and the intended process of acquisition are presented, when I discuss the control strategies of the exhibition. I propose that the Biodiscovery Space exhibit has a visible pedagogy. Finally, using the collected data I discuss the power tensions created in the production of expositive discourse showing how distributive, recontextualization and evaluation rules work in the context of exhibitions. The study of the dynamics in forming the expositive discourse using Bernstein's framework reveals the individuals and institutions, the selection criteria, the negotiations and the power relations involved. It has the potential to assist both educators and researchers in the museum education

  10. The expositive discourse as pedagogical discourse: studying recontextualization in the production of a science museum exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marandino, Martha

    2016-06-01

    In this paper I report on the sociological and educational particulars of The Biodiscovery Space exhibition of the Life Museum of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Basil Bernstein's framework of pedagogic discourse and recontextualization. Data for analysis was obtained from interviews with the exhibition developers, field observations of museum visitors and analysis of exhibition documents. Using the ideas of power, classification and framework, among others, I analyzed the recontextualization process of the production of expositive discourse. Thus, working with Bernstein's idea of classification, I explain the relationship between the discourses of the science of biology, history of science, museology, education, and communication in order to produce an expositive discourse. I also make explicit how agents of the Official Recontextualization Field of the Museum and the Pedagogic Recontextualization Field "....of the Museum determine partly the final expositive discourse of an exhibition". Using the idea of a pedagogic discourse framework, I discuss how the constraints imposed by objects and texts in exhibitions help to create a specific manner of visitor interaction with these elements, "even if they have some autonomy". Considerations about the audience and the intended process of acquisition are presented, when I discuss the control strategies of the exhibition. I propose that the Biodiscovery Space exhibit has a visible pedagogy. Finally, using the collected data I discuss the power tensions created in the production of expositive discourse showing how distributive, recontextualization and evaluation rules work in the context of exhibitions. The study of the dynamics in forming the expositive discourse using Bernstein's framework reveals the individuals and institutions, the selection criteria, the negotiations and the power relations involved. It has the potential to assist both educators and researchers in the museum education

  11. Healing process of dog teeth after post space preparation and exposition of the filling material to the oral environment.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Henrian Gonzaga; Holland, Roberto; de Souza, Valdir; Dezan, Eloi Júnior; Bernabé, Pedro Felício Estrada; Otoboni, José Arlindo Filho; Nery, Mauro Juvenal

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the influence of coronal leakage on the behavior of periapical tissues after root canal filling and post space preparation. Forty root canals of dogs' teeth were instrumented and filled by the lateral condensation technique with gutta percha points and the cements Sealer 26 and Roth. After post space preparation, the remaining filling material was either protected or not protected with a plug of the temporary cement Lumicon. After root canal exposition to the oral environment for 90 days, the animals were killed and specimens were removed and prepared for histomorphological analysis. The Brown and Brenn technique showed 70% of cases with microorganism leakage for Roth cement, and 20% with Sealer 26. When a plug of Lumicon was employed, there was 30% leakage for Roth cement and 0% for Sealer 26. A chronic inflammatory reaction was more frequently observed with Roth cement than with Sealer 26. It was concluded that a plug of Lumicon was efficient in controlling microorganism coronal leakage (p = 0.05), and that Sealer 26 was more biocompatible and sealed root canals better than Roth sealer (p = 0.01). PMID:12964653

  12. The Hefferline Notes: B. F. Skinner's First Public Exposition of His Analysis of Verbal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Terry J

    2009-01-01

    B. F. Skinner's first public exposition of his analysis of verbal behavior was the Hefferline Notes (1947a), a written summary of a course Skinner taught at Columbia University during the summer of 1947 just prior to his presentation of the William James Lectures at Harvard University in the fall. The Notes are significant because they display Skinner's analysis as it made the transition from spoken to written form; moreover, they are an effective supplemental source of examples and early approximations for comprehending Skinner's functional verbal operants. PMID:22477433

  13. Proceedings of the Bio-Energy '80 world congress and exposition

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Many countries are moving with increasing urgency to obtain larger fractions of their energy from biomass. Over 1800 leading experts from 70 countries met on April 21 to 24 in Atlanta to conduct a World Congress and Exposition on Bio-Energy. This summary presents highlights of the Congress and thoughts stimulated by the occasion. Topics addressed include a comparison of international programs, world and country regionalism in the development of energy supplies, fuel versus food or forest products, production of ethyl alcohol, possibilities for expanded production of terrestrial vegetation and marine flora, and valuable chemicals from biomass. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 164 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  14. Public health preparedness for the world's largest mass gathering: 2010 World Exposition in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yi, He; Zheng'an, Yuan; Fan, Wu; Xiang, Guo; Chen, Dong; Yongchao, He; Xiaodong, Sun; Hao, Pan; Mahany, Mollie; Keim, Mark

    2012-12-01

    The 2010 World Exposition in Shanghai China (Expo) was the largest mass gathering in world history, attracting a record 72 million visitors. More than 190 countries participated in the Expo, along with more than 50 international organizations. The 2010 Expo was six months in duration (May 1 through October 30, 2010), and the size of the venue site comprised 5.28 square kilometers. Great challenges were imposed on the public health system in Shanghai due to the high number and density of visitors, long duration of the event, and other risk factors such as high temperatures, typhoon, etc. As the major metropolitan public health agency in Shanghai, the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDC) implemented a series of actions in preparing for, and responding to, the potential health impact of the world's largest mass gathering to date, which included partnerships for capacity building, enhancement of internal organizational structure, risk assessment, strengthened surveillance, disaster planning and exercises, laboratory management, vaccination campaign, health education, health intervention, risk communication and mass media surveillance, and technical support for health inspection. The clear-cut organizational structures and job responsibilities, as well as comprehensive operational and scientific preparations, were key elements to ensure the success of the 2010 World Exposition. PMID:22995587

  15. Diffusion dans les liquides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dianoux, A. J.

    2003-09-01

    Après une brève introduction qui rappelle les concepts détaillés dans le cours de M. Bée, nous présentons un aperçu de trois de nos travaux sur l'étude de la diffusion. Tout d'abord la dynamique de l'eau, dans son état normal ou surfondu, révèle la complexité apportée par le réseau de liaisons hydrogène. Ensuite l'effet du confinement sur la dynamique de l'eau sera étudié dans le cas de la membrane Nafion. Enfin la diffusion dans les phases nématique et smectique A d'un cristal liquide permet d'obtenir la valeur du potentiel qui maintient les couches dans la phase smectique.

  16. Fractal EEG analysis with Higuchi's algorithm of low-frequency noise exposition on humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panuszka, Ryszard; Damijan, Zbigniew; Kasprzak, Cezary

    2001-05-01

    Authors used methods based on fractal analysis of EEG signal to assess the influence of low-frequency sound field on the human brain electro-potentials. The relations between LFN (low-frequency noise) and change in fractal dimension EEG signal were measured with stimulations tones. Three types of LFN stimuli were presented; each specified dominant frequency and sound-pressure levels (7 Hz at 120 dB, 18 Hz at 120 dB, and 40 Hz at 110 dB). Standard EEG signal was recorded before, during, and after subject's exposure for 35 min. LFN. Applied to the analysis fractal dimension of EEG-signal Higuchis algorithm. Experiments show LFN influence on complexity of EEG-signal with calculated Higuchi's algorithm. Observed increase of mean value of Higuchi's fractal dimension during exposition to LFN.

  17. U.S. BICENTENNIAL EXPOSITION & FINISHED PAINTED AMERICAN FLAG ON VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Finishing touches on the largest American flag ever painted were completed today on the south side of the Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC's Launch Complex 39. The flag was painted as part of 3rd Century America, the U. S. Bicentennial Exposition on Science and Technology to be held here from May 30 through September 7. The flag is located on the western side of the VAB's south wall. Still to be painted is the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration's [ARBA] distinctive emblem. This will be placed on the eastern side of the south wall and should be completed by mid-May. The flag is 209 feet long and 100 feet in width. Each of its 13 red and white bars is nearly 8 and a half feet wide. The ARBA symbol will be 110 feet in diameter.

  18. On the simulation of allergenic pollen exposition and its atmospheric transport on regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernath, Christian; Klein, Christian; Hoffmann, Peter; Gayler, Sebastian; Priesack, Eckart

    2013-04-01

    In Germany approximately 30% of the population is vulnerable to pollinosis (hay fever). Exposure to allergenic pollen affects vulnerable persons recurring seasonally, but depending on the individual susceptibility to individual pollen species. To prevent the suffering the patients usually use preventive drugs and rely on the current pollen forecast. However, recently used pollen forecast models mainly consider temperature sums to predict pollen exposition by different plant species. The models often fail to describe the impact of regionally variable environmental conditions on plant growth which depends on the soil characteristics that affect the water and nutrient availability. Furthermore, water and nutrient availability may significantly affect the pollen yield and its allergenic potential. Thus, the improvement of the simulations of the exposition of allergenic pollen by plants and atmospheric pollen loads on the regional scale could improve the preventive medication of vulnerable persons. We propose a new soil-plant-atmosphere model system that allows a dynamic ressource aquisition for the plant biomass growth to account for the allergenic potential of exposed pollen and the subsequent pollen transport in the atmosphere. Therefore, to simulate pollen exposure the land surface model Expert-N (soil-plant-system model) was coupled to the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF). Expert-N uses site specific physical soil properties to simulate the nutrient and water transport, and the carbon and nitrogen turnover, as well as the interactions between plant and soil. The allergenic potential of pollen yield is simulated using a new C- and N-allocation model which accounts for the production of carbon-based secondary compounds (CBSCs). These CBSCs are involved in the determination of the allergenic potential of pollen. The WRF model is used to predict the weather conditions for plant growth. Depending on the weather conditions pollen exposed by the plants is then

  19. Culture as Curriculum: Education and the International Expositions (1876-1904). History of Schools and Schooling. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The great International Expositions of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries brought together the world's political, intellectual, and industrial leaders for the exchange of information and ideas. They also promoted specific cultural values and belief systems. In this book, Eugene F. Provenzo, Jr. looks specifically at the educational…

  20. Education Exhibits at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco, California, 1915. Bulletin, 1916, No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, W. Carson, Jr.

    1916-01-01

    The purpose of this bulletin is to present, for the benefit of school officials and others interested in education, a brief description of the education exhibits at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, held in San Francisco during 1915. Exhibits described herein are almost entirely limited to those that are educational in the narrower…

  1. [Radiation protection in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Adamus, R; Loose, R; Wucherer, M; Uder, M; Galster, M

    2016-03-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x‑ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X‑ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses. PMID:26913507

  2. Les aspects psychosociaux de l’obésité chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, Peter; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ En plus de donner des conseils aux familles au sujet de l’activité physique régulière et d’une saine alimentation, les cliniciens doivent déterminer les facteurs psychosociaux qui contribuent à l’obésité des enfants ou des adolescents et les aider à y faire face. Les personnes touchées peuvent souffrir de dépression, de mauvaise estime de soi, d’intimidation et de préjugés liés au poids, qui sont tous des expériences qui peuvent compliquer l’obtention des résultats de santé souhaités. Les cliniciens devraient tenter de déterminer les facteurs stressants sous-jacents et s’assurer de la mise en œuvre de conseils pertinents.

  3. An Exposition on the Nonlinear Kinematics of Shells, Including Transverse Shearing Deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth exposition on the nonlinear deformations of shells with "small" initial geometric imperfections, is presented without the use of tensors. First, the mathematical descriptions of an undeformed-shell reference surface, and its deformed image, are given in general nonorthogonal coordinates. The two-dimensional Green-Lagrange strains of the reference surface derived and simplified for the case of "small" strains. Linearized reference-surface strains, rotations, curvatures, and torsions are then derived and used to obtain the "small" Green-Lagrange strains in terms of linear deformation measures. Next, the geometry of the deformed shell is described mathematically and the "small" three-dimensional Green-Lagrange strains are given. The deformations of the shell and its reference surface are related by introducing a kinematic hypothesis that includes transverse shearing deformations and contains the classical Love-Kirchhoff kinematic hypothesis as a proper, explicit subset. Lastly, summaries of the essential equations are given for general nonorthogonal and orthogonal coordinates, and the basis for further simplification of the equations is discussed.

  4. "Focus on glaciers": an exposition of geo-photos to attract interest on a vanishing beauty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Giuliana; Bohm, Gualtiero; Saraò, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Public awareness of the effects of industrial activity on the environment and climate is growing, but the information needs to be disseminated to a larger number of people, of all ages, to be effective. Images can certainly be an optimal tool to communicate the important message of global warming effects and, thanks to the digital techniques, photography is gaining a new popularity. Anybody, owning just a phone or a tablet, has a camera to catch images that can be immediately spread worldwide via web sites, on-line newspapers, social media or blogs to convey messages and emotions. Fine art photography can surely help in attracting interest and in educating people. For this reason, we organize an exposition of artistic pictures; the beauty of the images attracts the eyes of the public, discovering an unknown reality and gives the opportunity to illustrate the dramatic retreat of the Alpine glaciers, and the majesty of the Antarctic landscape, put in danger by the climate changes. The glaciers are the main characters, with the infinite grey-blue shadows due to change in ice density, the spectacular staircases created by the seracs, and the contrast with the embedding rocks. A sub-set of the images will be presented in this context.

  5. A soldier suffering from PTSD, treated by controlled stress exposition using virtual reality and behavioral training.

    PubMed

    Tworus, Radosław; Szymanska, Sylwia; Ilnicki, Stanisław

    2010-02-01

    This article presents a case of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a 30-year-old soldier of the Polish Military Contingent in Iraq who narrowly escaped death three times. The first time occurred when during a change of guard he was unintentionally shot by his colleague. The projectile penetrated the victim's helmet, slid along its internal shell curvature, and left the shell causing only a scratch on the scalp skin. Another traumatic event was experienced by the soldier a month after the first incident. As a guard of honor, he was "shot" in the same rear head area with a cap of a cream tube, inadvertently stepped on by a colleague. The third event occurred a couple of days later, during a rocket attack on the Diwaniyah base. After this incident the soldier was evacuated to the Clinic of Psychiatry and Combat Stress in Warsaw. Multiform PTSDs that developed in this soldier are described in this work. The course of his comprehensive therapy during his two stays, with a total duration of 8 months, in the clinic is discussed. Also, a detailed description of the therapy controlled exposition to combat stressors in virtual reality (VR), supplemented with behavioral training consisting of desensitization of an aversive reaction to contact with a weapon at a shooting range is presented. The comprehensive treatment activities resulted in full remission of the PTSD symptoms. The soldier continues his service in a logistic support unit. PMID:20528300

  6. Physiological changes of the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum as result of carbon nanotubes exposition.

    PubMed

    Viana, Camila de O; Vaz, Raissa P; Cano, Abraham; Santos, Adelina P; Cançado, Luiz G; Ladeira, Luiz O; Junior, Ary Corrêa

    2015-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) is one of the more abundant nanomaterial produced in the world. Therefore, it is desirable to access its effects in all environment compartments, in order to mitigate environmental distress. This study aims to verify the potential use of lichens - classical atmospheric pollution indicators - as biomonitors of carbon nanotubes aerosols. To examine cause-effect relationships, preserving environmental microclimatic parameters, the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale was transplanted to open top chambers where aerosols of CNT were daily added. Physiological parameters such as cell viability, photosynthetic efficiency, cell permeability as well as nanoparticle internalization were assessed. Carbon nanotubes exposure led to reduction on the cell viability of P. tinctorum. The treatment with 100µg/mL of MWCNT-COOH resulted in intracellular ion leakage, probably due to changes in membrane permeability. No alterations on photosynthetic efficiency were detected. Carbon nanotubes entrapment and internalization into the lichen thallus were observed. Short term exposition of CNT produced measurable physiological changes in P. tinctorum lichen. This suggests the possibility of use of lichens as models to assess the environmental impact (air related) of engineered nanomaterials. PMID:26057077

  7. Catalase activity of different Candida species after exposition to specific antiserum

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaka, Natália R.S.; Unterkircher, Carmelinda S.; Shimizu, Mario T.

    2008-01-01

    Antisera were developed in rabbits after challenge with intracellular antigens of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. Microorganism catalase has been correlated with virulence, resistance to drugs and immunogenicity. The intracellular catalase is consistently present in strains of Candida and in this paper, the enzyme activity was analysed by PAGE after exposition to antisera. The catalases of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were immunogenic and differed in their binding to specific antibodies raised in rabbits. Tests of cross-reactivity between different Candida species showed that when antiserum from C. albicans immunized rabbit was incubated with intracellular extracts of these three Candida species, the catalases activities were abolished. However, the antisera from C. parapsilosis or C. tropicalis immunized rabbits did not affect the catalase activity of C. albicans; the enzyme of C. albicans was inactivated only by the antiserum to the catalase of own C. albicans. The antiserum to the catalase of C. tropicalis was species-specific and did not cross-react with catalases of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. The activities of Aspergillus niger and bovine catalases were not affected by the antiserum from any Candida immunized rabbits. This report is a preliminary study of specific antisera that react against intracellular catalase of Candida sp. and neutralize the enzymatic activity. Further study is necessary to develop species-specific antibody once differences in the susceptibility of the Candida species to commonly used antifungal drugs make identification to the species level important. PMID:24031174

  8. Les succédanés du sucre durant la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’ai une patiente enceinte qui consomme souvent des succédanés du sucre et elle m’a demandé si cette pratique continue pouvait nuire à sa grossesse ou à son enfant. Que devrais-je lui répondre et existe-t-il d’autres meilleurs choix durant la grossesse? Réponse Il faudrait faire plus de recherche pour déterminer plus exactement les effets de l’exposition aux succédanés du sucre in utero, mais les données disponibles ne laissent pas présager d’effets indésirables durant la grossesse. Toutefois, il est recommandé de consommer des substituts du sucre en quantités modérées et de se conformer aux doses journalières admissibles établies par les organismes de règlementation.

  9. Les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux cibles des effets des rayonnements ionisants : altérations fonctionnelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linard, C.; Esposito, V.; Wysocki, J.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptoms associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. The response of the gut is complex involving modifications of motility and fluid and electrolyte transport. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides have an important role in these functions. This study showed that radiation-induced tissue variations of neuropeptides have some repercussions on intestinal biological activity of these peptides soon after irradiation. In addition such modifications are also seen a few years after irradiation. Les symptômes associés à l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sont des nausées, vomissements et diarrhées. La réponse du système digestif est complexe, impliquant des modifications de la motilité et du transport d'eau et d'électrolytes. les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux ont un rôle important dans ces fonctions. Cette étude montre que les variations tissulaires de ces neuropeptides induites par l'irradiation ont des répercussions sur l'activité biologique intestinale pour des temps précoces mais que ces perturbations sont encore visibles quelques années après l'irradiation.

  10. Les violences conjugales à Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Soumah, Mohamed Maniboliot; Issa, Abdoul Wahab; Ndiaye, Mor; Ndoye, El Hadj Oumar; Sow, Mamadou Lamine

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif était d’évaluer les aspects épidémiologiques des violences conjugales, identifier les facteurs de risques et les différents types de violences conjugales, évaluer les conséquences des violences conjugales sur la santé des victimes, afin d'améliorer la prise en charge des victimes et la prévention du phénomène. Il s'est agit d'une étude transversale effectuée de décembre 2012 à janvier 2013 à Dakar. Les données ont été recueillies, après consentement, sur fiche d'enquête anonyme soumise à toute personne volontaire vivant en couple et résidant à Dakar. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée avec le logiciel SPSS 13.0. Le nombre de personnes victimes de violences conjugales était de 60 soit 37,30% dont 31 femmes (51,70%) et 29 hommes (48,30%). Le sex-ratio était de 0,93. Parmi les victimes, 53 étaient scolarisées soit 88,30%. Le régime matrimonial était de type monogame dans 39 cas (65%) et polygame dans 21 cas (35%). La vie en couple durait depuis moins de 11 ans dans 60% des cas et durait de 11 ans à 20 ans au plus dans 26,6% des cas. L’étude des types de violences montrait la fréquence des agressions physiques. Les armes utilisées étaient surtout les armes naturelles. Les principaux facteurs de risque de violence conjugale sont les facteurs sociodémographiques, culturels et économiques comme le jeune âge, l'inégalité du genre, les jeunes couples, la précarité, le niveau d'instruction élevé. La prise en charge des victimes et la prévention du phénomène restent insuffisantes dans nos pays. PMID:26918077

  11. Une vie active saine pour les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    De mauvais modes de vie, comme une alimentation malsaine et l’inactivité physique, sont d'importants facteurs contributifs à une augmentation de la morbidité et de la mortalité secondaires à des maladies chroniques à l’âge adulte. Depuis dix ans, on remarque une augmentation du mode de vie sédentaire et de l’obésité chez les enfants et les adolescents, tant en Amérique du Nord qu’ailleurs dans le monde. Les médecins doivent être conscients de l’importance du problème, fournir des conseils de prévention aux familles et promouvoir une vie active saine dans leur pratique.

  12. ["Les Impatients": expression through art].

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, Céline; Palardy, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    The organization called "Les Impatients" was founded in 1992. Using a unique model, Les Impatients welcomes those with mental health issues who would like to express themselves through art. Les Impatients offers free creative workshops and encourages exchanges with the community through the sharing of its participants' creations. The name Les Impatients reinforces the idea that the organization does not consider those attending its workshops as patients, but rather creators who are eager to heal, develop their craft and find their place in society. The participants contribute to the collective objective of breaking down the stigma that surrounds mental illness.Les Impatients collaborates with various mental health organizations in Quebec, such as the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal (IUSMM) affiliated to the Université de Montréal, Douglas Mental Health University Institute (DMHUI), the Centre de santé et services sociaux Drummond (CSSS Drummond) and the Centre de santé et services sociaux Pierre-Boucher (CSSS Pierre-Boucher). Les Impatients offers more than 48 workshops in eight different locations to around 450 participants each week.Dissemination activities, remarkable events, original projects: Les Impatients stands out through its realizations. Examples are exhibitions, collections of love letters, comic books, CD, concerts, and reading nights. The organization's originality resides in the exploration of the links between the work of the participants and that of professional artists. An illustration of this interest is the annual Parle-moi d'amour auction-exhibition, which has been one of Les Impatients' major events since 1999.As part of its mission, Les Impatients conserves the works of art created by the participants during the workshops. Its collection includes more than 15,000 works of art from Les Impatients as well as pieces donated by collectors of unconventional art, commonly known as "art brut" or "outsider art". The

  13. Life protecting habitats on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gomez, F.; Amils, R.

    Looking for possible protection ecosystems for life on Space and the effects of radiation, especially ultraviolet radiation, on microorganisms several experiments were accomplished. Taking into account the results obtained by MERs rovers about the geology of the Mars surface it seems to have sense to use acidophiles microorganism (chemolitotrophic bacteria) in the Mars atmosphere simulation experiments. Several trials of acidophilic bacteria (acidophiles from Rio Tinto ecosystem, SW Spain) gamma radiation exposition were developed in order to know the radiation resistance of this type of bacteria and the effects of the radiation on the microorganisms. By other hand, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was exposed to Mars surface simulation environment under the protection of a cake made up with a powder composed by ferric oxides and hydroxides. The powder was obtained from Rio Tinto environment, where such an acidic environment is governed by iron. The idea was to simulate a possible subsurface environment on Mars and to study the resistance of chemolitotrophic bacteria on that environment.

  14. Les plaies du tendon patellaire

    PubMed Central

    Mechchat, Atif; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Mardy, Abdelhak; Elayoubi, Abdelghni; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Les plaies du tendon patellaire sont peu fréquentes et sont peu rapportés dans la littérature, contrairement aux ruptures sous cutanées. Les sections du tendon patellaire nécessitent une réparation immédiate afin de rétablir l'appareil extenseur et de permettre une récupération fonctionnelle précoce. A travers ce travail rétrospectif sur 13 cas, nous analysons les aspects épidémiologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de ce type de pathologie en comparant différents scores. L’âge moyen est de 25 ans avec une prédominance masculine. Les étiologies sont dominées par les accidents de la voie publique (68%) et les agressions par agent tranchant (26%) et contendant (6 %). Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un parage chirurgical avec suture tendineuse direct protégée par un laçage au fils d'aciers en légère flexion. La rééducation est débutée après sédation des phénomènes inflammatoires. Au dernier recul les résultats sont excellents et bon à 92%. Nous n'avons pas noté de différence de force musculaire et d'amplitude articulaire entre le genou sain et le genou lésé. Les lésions ouvertes du tendon patellaire est relativement rare. La prise en charge chirurgicale rapide donne des résultats assez satisfaisants. La réparation est généralement renforcée par un semi-tendineux, synthétique ou métallique en forme de cadre de renfort pour faciliter la réadaptation et réduire le risque de récidive après la fin de l'immobilisation. PMID:25170379

  15. Validating LES for Jet Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Engineers charged with making jet aircraft quieter have long dreamed of being able to see exactly how turbulent eddies produce sound and this dream is now coming true with the advent of large eddy simulation (LES). Two obvious challenges remain: validating the LES codes at the resolution required to see the fluid-acoustic coupling, and the interpretation of the massive datasets that are produced. This paper addresses the former, the use of advanced experimental techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) and Raman and Rayleigh scattering, to validate the computer codes and procedures used to create LES solutions. This paper argues that the issue of accuracy of the experimental measurements be addressed by cross-facility and cross-disciplinary examination of modern datasets along with increased reporting of internal quality checks in PIV analysis. Further, it argues that the appropriate validation metrics for aeroacoustic applications are increasingly complicated statistics that have been shown in aeroacoustic theory to be critical to flow-generated sound, such as two-point space-time velocity correlations. A brief review of data sources available is presented along with examples illustrating cross-facility and internal quality checks required of the data before it should be accepted for validation of LES.

  16. Validating LES for Jet Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    Engineers charged with making jet aircraft quieter have long dreamed of being able to see exactly how turbulent eddies produce sound and this dream is now coming true with the advent of large eddy simulation (LES). Two obvious challenges remain: validating the LES codes at the resolution required to see the fluid-acoustic coupling, and the interpretation of the massive datasets that result in having dreams come true. This paper primarily addresses the former, the use of advanced experimental techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) and Raman and Rayleigh scattering, to validate the computer codes and procedures used to create LES solutions. It also addresses the latter problem in discussing what are relevant measures critical for aeroacoustics that should be used in validating LES codes. These new diagnostic techniques deliver measurements and flow statistics of increasing sophistication and capability, but what of their accuracy? And what are the measures to be used in validation? This paper argues that the issue of accuracy be addressed by cross-facility and cross-disciplinary examination of modern datasets along with increased reporting of internal quality checks in PIV analysis. Further, it is argued that the appropriate validation metrics for aeroacoustic applications are increasingly complicated statistics that have been shown in aeroacoustic theory to be critical to flow-generated sound.

  17. Les transfusions de globules rouges chez le nouveau-né : Des directives révisées

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    En général, depuis dix ans, les professionnels de la santé qui soignent des nouveau-nés à haut risque dans des unités de soins intensifs néonatals sont plus restrictifs dans leur utilisation de transfusions de globules rouges. Le présent énoncé est conçu pour ceux qui soignent des nouveau-nés à haut risque (des prématurés aux nouveau-nés d’un mois). Il vise à fournir des directives pour réduire l’incidence d’anémie chez les nourrissons prématurés et à terme, à repérer des stratégies pour réduire le besoin de transfusions de globules rouges et à limiter l’exposition à des donneurs au sein de cette population. Des recommandations portant sur les transfusions de globules rouges sont incluses.

  18. Etude de l'effet du vieillissement sur les proprietes d'un tissu en melange KevlarRTM-PBI utilise dans le revetement exterieur des habits de protection contre le feu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, Carlos

    The aim of this work is to study and model the effect of three aging factors, temperature, humidity and light radiation, on the properties of a fabric made of a blend of KevlarRTM and PBI fibers frequently used to manufacture fire-protective garments. Accelarated-aging treatments carried out at carefully chosen conditions for the three factors resulted in a sizeable loss of mechanical performance. The breaking force of both the fabric and the yarns extracted from it decreases to less than 50% after one month of continuous exposure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests performed on thermally-aged samples indicated an increase of the crystallinity of the fabric, whereas the disappearance of Raman spectral lines suggested instead a reduction of the crystallinity following thermal aging. To explain these seemingly contradictory results, a hypothesis was introduced, stating that two different processes occurred simultaneously during thermal aging. The first one, an increase of size of the crystallites in the direction of the fibers' axis, accounted for the increase in crystallinity observed in XRD tests. The second one, an increase in the gap separating lamellar crystallites that causes a non-measurable reduction of the crystallinity of the sample, was highlighted by the Raman analyses. The results of the dielectric spectroscopy analyses carried out on thermally-aged samples confirmed the XRD results showing a significant change in the Kevlar's morphology during thermal aging. Despite the important decrease of the breaking force that ensued thermal aging, no evidence of a chemical structure modification of KevlarRTM was found. On the other hand, differential thermal analyses conducted on thermally aged fabric samples indicated a reduction of the glass transition temperature of the other component of the blend, namely the PBI, a fact that suggests a decrease of molecular weight after thermal aging. Infrared spectroscopy analyses performed on samples exposed to high humidity

  19. Captured Knowledge: Presentations and Notes of the KMWorld Conference and Exposition (4th, Santa Clara, California, September 13-15, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca, Ed.; Nixon, Carol, Comp.; Burmood, Jennifer, Comp.

    This publication contains presentations, notes, and illustrative materials used in the annual KMWorld Conference and Exposition, "Knowledge Nets: Defining and Driving the E-Enterprise." Presentations include: "Knowledge Management Applied to the Manufacturing Enterprise" (Matthew Artibee); "Ryder Knowledge Center: Building Best practices through…

  20. SUSY Les Houches Accord 2

    SciTech Connect

    Allanach, B.; Balazs, C.; Belanger, G.; Bernhardt, M.; Boudjema, F.; Choudhury, D.; Desch, K.; Ellwanger, U.; Gambino, P.; Godbole, R.; Goto, T.; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Monash U. /Annecy, LAPTH /Bonn U. /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst. /Orsay, LPT /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /KEK, Tsukuba /Barcelona U.

    2007-11-08

    The Supersymmetry Les Houches Accord (SLHA) [1] provides a universal set of conventions for conveying spectral and decay information for supersymmetry analysis problems in high energy physics. Here, we propose extensions of the conventions of the first SLHA to include various generalizations: the minimal supersymmetric standard model with violation of CP, R-parity, and flavor, as well as the simplest next-to-minimal model.

  1. SUSY Les Houches Accord 2

    SciTech Connect

    Allanach, B.; Balazs, C.; Belanger, G.; Bernhardt, M.; Boudjema, F.; Choudhury, D.; Desch, K.; Ellwanger, U.; Gambino, P.; Godbole, R.; Goto, T.; Guasch, J.; Guchait, M.; Hahn, T.; Heinemeyer, S.; Hugonie, C.; Hurth, T.; Kraml, S.; Kreiss, S.; Lykken, J.; Moortgat, F.; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Monash U. /Annecy, LAPTH /Bonn U. /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst. /Orsay, LPT /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /KEK, Tsukuba /Barcelona U. /Tata Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys. /Montpellier U. /CERN /SLAC /Edinburgh U. /Fermilab /Zurich, ETH /Southampton U.

    2007-11-08

    The Supersymmetry Les Houches Accord (SLHA) provides a universal set of conventions for conveying spectral and decay information for supersymmetry analysis problems in high energy physics. Here, we propose extensions of the conventions of the first SLHA to include various generalizations: the minimal supersymmetric standard model with violation of CP, R-parity, and flavor, as well as the simplest next-to-minimal model.

  2. Appendicite chronique chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, David; Butterworth, Sonia A.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Alors que le diagnostic d’appendicite aigu est relativement simple à poser, celui d’appendicite chronique peut être controversé et souvent mal posé. De quelle manière et à quel moment les cliniciens devraient-ils investiguer l’appendicite chronique comme la cause de douleurs abdominales chroniques et récidivantes dans la population pédiatrique? Réponse L’appendicite chronique est une inflammation ou fibrose de longue date de l’appendice dont le tableau clinique est une douleur abdominale prolongée ou intermittente. Son diagnostic est souvent difficile à poser et elle peut entraîner des complications telles que des infections intra-abdominales, ou l’occlusion ou la perforation de l’intestin. Le tableau clinique, de même que les études d’imagerie, peuvent aider le clinicien à écarter d’autres affections, et chez les patients qui reçoivent un diagnostic, dont de nombreux enfants, l’appendicectomie soulage partiellement ou complètement la douleur.

  3. Les etoiles qui ne veulent pas vieillir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1995-12-01

    Qu'est-ce qui fait courir Jean-Claude Pecker ? Ses travaux sur les atmospheres stellaires qu'il poursuit aujourd'hui ? Son combat pour les droits de l'homme, ou contre le sceau du secret qui pese encore sur la recherche fondamentale ? Tout a la fois. Pour cette figure emblematique de l'astrophysique francaise, aujourd'hui a la retraite, pas question de raccrocher les armes...

  4. A noninvasive test of exposition to toxicants: quantitative analysis of cytochrome P4501A expression in fish scales.

    PubMed

    Quirós, Laia; Raldúa, Demetrio; Navarro, Anna; Casado, Marta; Barceló, Damià; Piña, Benjamin

    2007-10-01

    Elevated expression of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) is an established biomarker for exposition to a wide range of toxicants, particularly for dioxin and structurally similar compounds. Expression of CYP1A usually is analyzed in internal organs, which involves dissection of the specimen. To avoid unnecessary animal killing, we present here an alternative method based on the monitoring of CYP1A expression in fish scales. Using beta-naphthoflavone (BNF; 50 mg/kg body wt, intraperitoneal injection) as inducer in goldfish (Carassius auratus), we monitored levels of CYP1A mRNA both in scales and liver of treated and control specimens. Treatment with BNF resulted in a similar induction of CYP1A gene in both tissues, although scales responded faster (at 8 h after treatment) than liver (between 24 and 48 h). The scale-based test has the unique advantage of allowing sequential testing in the same specimen, which facilitates analysis of the time course of CYP1A induction and allows the study of individual variability. The method implies minimal suffering of the animals, because it only requires removal of a moderate (n = 1-3) number of scales for each time point. This nondestructive, fast, and relatively inexpensive test for toxic exposure therefore is suitable for environmental monitoring and food safety control programs in which specimen preservation is required. PMID:17867895

  5. Work function measurements during plasma exposition at conditions relevant in negative ion sources for the ITER neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Gutser, R.; Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.

    2011-02-15

    Cesium seeded sources for surface generated negative hydrogen ions are major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER. The stability and delivered current density depend highly on the work function during vacuum and plasma phases of the ion source. One of the most important quantities that affect the source performance is the work function. A modified photocurrent method was developed to measure the temporal behavior of the work function during and after cesium evaporation. The investigation of cesium exposed Mo and MoLa samples under ITER negative hydrogen ion based neutral beam injection relevant surface and plasma conditions showed the influence of impurities which result in a fast degradation when the plasma exposure or the cesium flux onto the sample is stopped. A minimum work function close to that of bulk cesium was obtained under the influence of the plasma exposition, while a significantly higher work function was observed under ITER-like vacuum conditions.

  6. Etude de l'influence de la temperature et de l'humidite sur les proprietes mecaniques en traction des fibres de chanvre et de coco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho Thi, Thu Nga

    L'objectif de cette etude fut d'etablir l'effet de l'humidite et de la temperature sur la resistance en traction et le module elastique des fibres de chanvre et de coco. Deux etudes ont ete realisees afin d'atteindre cet objectif. La premiere vise l'absorption de l'humidite dans ces fibres en exposition dans l'air (de 0%RH a 80%RH) ainsi que l'absorption de l'eau dans ces fibres immergees dans l'eau aux differentes temperatures. La deuxieme consiste a mesurer la resistance en traction et le module elastique de ces fibres sous differentes conditions d'humidite et de temperature. En basant sur les resultats experimentaux obtenus, les methodes semi empiriques et de reseaux de neurones ont ete utilisees pour but de predire les proprietes en traction (resistance et module d'elasticite) des fibres de chanvre et de coco sous l'influence de l'humidite et de la temperature.

  7. Regard sur les lazarets en terre canadienne

    PubMed Central

    Milot, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Puisant dans les nombreuses références qu’offrent les publications médicales canadiennes du milieu du XIXe siècle à nos jours, l’auteur fait découvrir l’existence de lazarets en terre canadienne, décrit l’impact de la maladie sur les conditions vie des lépreux qui y étaient confinés et en souligne les contrecoups tant sur le plan physique et psychologique que social. Il présente un bref aperçu de la maladie, ses symptômes, ses signes ainsi que ses complications oculaires et rappelle les premiers moyens thérapeutiques à base d’huile de chaulmoogra introduits dans la colonie de Tracadie vers 1901. Il illustre son propos en évoquant la vie dans les lazarets de l’île de Sheldrake (1844–1848) et de Tracadie (1848–1965) au Nouveau-Brunswick, puis dans ceux des îles D’Arcy (1891–1924) et de Bentinck (1924–1957) en Colombie-Britannique. PMID:19352451

  8. Results of studies on long-term exposition of dormant forms of various organisms in outer space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, Nataliya; Gusev, Oleg; Sugimoto, Manabu; Deshevaya, Elena; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Okuda, Takashi; Orlov, Oleg; Alekseev, Victor; Poddubko, Svetlana; Polikarpov, Nikolay

    The planetary quarantine is one of the key problems of deep space exploration. Risks of the possible transfer of biological objects across interplanetary space should be necessarily assessed during space exploration. The risks associated with a possible transfer of biological objects and primarily microorganisms in interplanetary space is a priority for space studies We can assume, that on the exterior side of both unmanned and manned space stations there can be millions of microbial cells, many of which are in spore forms, the stability of which towards the unfavorable factors is extremely high. However, direct evidence to support this assumption, obtained only in recent years. “Biorisk” is an apparatus designed for conduction of space experiments focused on long-term exposition of latent stages of different forms of organism on the outer side of Russian Segment of International Space Station was developed and used in SSC RF - Institute for Biomedical Problems RAS. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the principle capability of preservation of life capacity in test-cultures of microorganisms during long-term exposure (comparable with the term of interplanetary flight) in space. The first experiment was performed using spores of bacteria (Bacillus) and fungi (Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium) housed in 3 boxes that were exposed to outer space for 7, 12 or 18 months. It was for the first time demonstrated that bacterial and fungal spores could survive an exposure to outer space during the time period comparable with the duration of a return mission to Mars. Moreover, the microbial strains proved viable and highly active. The second experiment was expanded by flying, in addition to the above spores, dormant forms of higher plants, insects, lower crustaceans and vertebrates. The 31-month experiment showed that, in spite of harsher than in the first study temperatures, some specimens remained viable and capable of further multiplication. In

  9. LES versus DNS: A comparative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtilman, L.; Chasnov, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of forced isotropic turbulence at moderate Reynolds numbers. The subgrid scale model used in the LES is based on an eddy viscosity which adjusts instantaneously the energy spectrum of the LES to that of the DNS. The statistics of the large scales of the DNS (filtered DNS field or fDNS) are compared to that of the LES. We present results for the transfer spectra, the skewness and flatness factors of the velocity components, the PDF's of the angle between the vorticity and the eigenvectors of the rate of strain, and that between the vorticity and the vorticity stretching tensor. The above LES statistics are found to be in good agreement with those measured in the fDNS field. We further observe that in all the numerical measurements, the trend was for the LES field to be more gaussian than the fDNS field. Future research on this point is planned.

  10. Les Elements Legers: Diffusion dans les Enveloppes Stellaires et Implications Cosmologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, Jacques

    1992-01-01

    Les observations des abondances des elements legers (Z <= 5) sont utilisees pour estimer la quantitie de lithium qui a ete produite lors du Big -Bang, et obtenir simultanement des contraintes sur la nature des inhomogeneites qui ont pu exister durant la nucleosynthese primordiale. Nous utilisons un modele simple capable de simuler approximativement la diffusion et la retro-diffusion des neutrons a travers la matiere inhomogene durant les premieres minutes de l'expansion de l'Univers. Nous tenons compte de la difference possible entre l'abondance primordiale de Li et les abondances observees dans les plus vieilles etoiles. Cette difference (un facteur 2, environ) est estimee en construisant des modeles evolutifs d'etoiles peu massives de Population II, incluant la sedimentation gravitationnelle du lithium et de l'helium. Ces modeles montrent egalement que les ages des vieux amas stellaires sont grandement surestimes lorsqu'ils sont determines a partir de modeles stellaires n'incluant pas l'effet de la diffusion de He. Nous calculons ensuite comment evoluent les abondances de Li et Be dans des etoiles plus massives et plus jeunes, de la pre-sequence principale ou de la ZAMS, jusqu'a l'epuisement de leur hydrogene central. Les modeles incluent la sedimentation simultanee de l'helium a travers l'enveloppe. Une approche hierarchique (evolution du coeur--evolution de l'enveloppe --tri des elements traces) est utilisee pour simuler efficacement le grand nombre d'etoiles necessaire pour la construction d'isochrones. Une attention particuliere est portee aux consequences de la sedimentation de He sur l'etendue des zones convectives, et sur la diffusion de Li et Be. Les forces radiatives agissant sur ces deux elements sont calculees en detail a partir des donnees atomiques. Les etoiles simulees correspondent approximativement aux types spectraux A, F, et AmFm. Les abondances de Li et Be observees dans les etoiles jeunes de ces types sont comparees a nos predictions dans le

  11. Prise en charge de l’infection gonococcique chez les adultes et les jeunes

    PubMed Central

    Pogany, Lisa; Romanowski, Barbara; Robinson, Joan; Gale-Rowe, Margaret; Latham-Carmanico, Cathy; Weir, Christine; Wong, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter des recommandations sur la prise en charge de l’infection gonococcique chez les adultes et les jeunes. Qualité des données Les recommandations thérapeutiques des lignes directrices canadiennes sur les infections transmissibles sexuellement reposent sur une recherche documentaire de même que sur des catégories de recommandations et des niveaux de qualité de données déterminés par au moins 2 évaluateurs. Les recommandations ont été revues par des pairs et sont en instance d’approbation par le groupe de travail d’experts. Message principal Les nouvelles recommandations portant sur la prise en charge de l’infection gonococcique chez les adultes et les jeunes préconisent les cultures à titre d’outil diagnostique lorsqu’elles sont pratiques, le traitement par antibiothérapie combinée (ceftriaxone associée à l’azithromycine) et le signalement sans délai de tous les cas dont le traitement a échoué aux autorités de santé publique. Conclusion Si elles sont suivies, ces nouvelles recommandations pourraient réduire l’échec thérapeutique, contribuer à une surveillance plus étroite des tendances à la résistance de Neisseria gonorrhoeae aux antibiotiques et contribuer à prévenir la transmission de gonorrhée résistante à plusieurs médicaments.

  12. Les origines de l'astronomie chinoise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Saussure, Léopold; Ferrand, Preface by Gabriel

    2015-05-01

    Préface; Le texte astronomique du Yao-Tien; 1. L'origine des 'sieou'; 2. Les cinq palais célestes; 3. La série quinaire et ses dérivés; 4. La série des douze 'tche'; 5. Le cycle des douze animaux; 6. La règle des 'cho-t'i'; 7. Le cycle de Jupiter; 8. Le cycle de Jupiter (suite); 9. Les anciennes étoiles polaires; 10. Le zodiaque lunaire.

  13. Sun protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... age spots are caused by exposure to the sun. The two types of sun rays that can injure the skin are ultraviolet ... changes is to protect your skin from the sun. This includes using sunscreen and other protective measures. ...

  14. A New Formulation for Hybrid LES-RANS Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Ideally, a hybrid LES-RANS computation would employ LES only where necessary to make up for the failure of the RANS model to provide sufficient accuracy or to provide time-dependent information. Current approaches are fairly restrictive in the placement of LES and RANS regions; an LES-RANS transition in a boundary layer, for example, yields an unphysical log-layer shift. A hybrid computation is formulated here to allow greater control over the placement of LES and RANS regions and the transitions between them. The concept of model invariance is introduced, which provides a basis for interpreting hybrid results within an LES-RANS transition zone. Consequences of imposing model invariance include the addition of terms to the governing equations that compensate for unphysical gradients created as the model changes between RANS and LES. Computational results illustrate the increased accuracy of the approach and its insensitivity to the location of the transition and to the blending function employed.

  15. Les Troubles Respiratoires Chez Le Brule

    PubMed Central

    Fassi Fihri, J.; Ezzoubi, M.; Boukind, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A travers une revue de la littérature, cet article se propose d'exposer les particularités des troubles respiratoires chez le brûlé. Ces troubles sont liés à un mécanisme direct, lorsque l'arbre respiratoire est lésé par le transfert d'énergie thermique du à la brûlure et/ou par un mécanisme indirect, lorsque la fonction respiratoire et ventilatoire du poumon est perturbée par les phénomènes loco-régionaux ou généraux du brûlé. Ces troubles respiratoires sont aggravés par l'inhalation des gaz contenus dans la fumée d'incendie. Le diagnostic de ces troubles est clinique et paraclinique. Il doit être précoce et continu. Les patients nécessitent de différents moyens thérapeutiques tels que l'oxygénothérapie, la libération des voies respiratoires, l'amélioration de la mécanique ventilatoire et de la fonction respiratoire, l'antibiothérapie ou la chirurgie des séquelles. Cette prise en charge doit nécessairement être multidisciplinaire. PMID:21991224

  16. Insider protection

    SciTech Connect

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-07-01

    The government community is broadly addressing the insider threat. The first section of this paper defines protection approaches and the latter sections present various applicable technology developments. The bulk of the paper discusses technology developments applied to (1) personnel and material tracking and inventory, (2) classified document protection, and (3) protecting security systems. The personnel and material tracking system uses a PC based-host to (1) collect information from proximity tags and material movement sensors, (2) apply rules to this input to assure that the ongoing activity meets the site selectable rules and, (3) forward the results to either an automated inventory system or an alarm system. The document protection system uses a PC network to efficiently and securely control classified material which is stored on write-once-read-mostly optical media. The protection of sensor to multiplexer communications in a security system is emphasized in the discussion of protecting security systems.

  17. Les accidents du travail dans le transport urbain en commun de la ville province de Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo: une étude transversale descriptive

    PubMed Central

    Wangata, Jemima; Elenge, Myriam; De Brouwer, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le transport en commun urbain constitue un secteur où les travailleurs sont très exposés aux accidents du travail. Cette étude visait une description épidémiologique des accidents du travail dans le secteur informel du transport en commun à Kinshasa en vue d'apporter les pistes d'amélioration de la sécurité des travailleurs dans cette activité. Méthodes Un questionnaire sur les accidents du travail, administré en Décembre 2012 a permis d'explorer les tendances significatives entre les accidents et leurs circonstances, leurs facteurs associés, leurs conséquences au sein d'une population des travailleurs (n = 472) du transport en commun à Kinshasa. Résultats Durant les 12 derniers précédant l’étude 76.5% des travailleurs ont connu au moins un accident du travail, 54,8% ont connu un arrêt d'au moins 1jour. Les accidents liés à la circulation routière étaient plus important suivis des chutes. Les facteurs ayant montré des différences significatives étaient le travail sous l'influence de l'alcool et le port des équipements de protection individuelle. Les plaies (46,3%) et les contusions (39,4%) étaient les lésions les plus courantes. Les membres supérieurs (51,3%) et inférieurs (30,7%) étaient les plus atteints. 76,6% des travailleurs ont assumé seuls leur prise en charge médicale. Conclusion L'incidence des accidents du travail dans ce secteur est très élevée. La mise en place d'une politique de prévention et gestion de différents facteurs associés ainsi qu'un système de déclaration d'accidents est nécessaire dans ce secteur. Les patrons ainsi que les politiques devraient veiller à une prise en charge médicale correcte pour des travailleurs accidentés. PMID:25667703

  18. Criteria for Modeling in LES of Multicomponent Fuel Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Selle, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    A report presents a study addressing the question of which large-eddy simulation (LES) equations are appropriate for modeling the flow of evaporating drops of a multicomponent liquid in a gas (e.g., a spray of kerosene or diesel fuel in air). The LES equations are obtained from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) equations in which the solution is computed at all flow length scales, by applying a spatial low-pass filter. Thus, in LES the small scales are removed and replaced by terms that cannot be computed from the LES solution and instead must be modeled to retain the effect of the small scales into the equations. The mathematical form of these models is a subject of contemporary research. For a single-component liquid, there is only one LES formulation, but this study revealed that for a multicomponent liquid, there are two non-equivalent LES formulations for the conservation equations describing the composition of the vapor. Criteria were proposed for selecting the multicomponent LES formulation that gives the best accuracy and increased computational efficiency. These criteria were applied in examination of filtered DNS databases to compute the terms in the LES equations. The DNS databases are from mixing layers of diesel and kerosene fuels. The comparisons resulted in the selection of one of the multicomponent LES formulations as the most promising with respect to all criteria.

  19. Ranking the 'balance' of state long-term care systems: a comparative exposition of the SMARTER and CaRBS Techniques.

    PubMed

    Beynon, Malcolm; Kitchener, Martin

    2005-05-01

    The use of attribute sets to rank units of health provision (e.g., states, organizations) against policy goals is an essential task within decision-making and analysis. This paper elucidates and compares two techniques, SMARTER (Simple Multiattribute Rating Technique Exploiting Ranks) and CaRBS (Classification and Ranking Belief Simplex), within an expositional ranking of US states' long-term care (LTC) systems against the policy goal of providing a balance between (traditionally dominant) institutional care, and alternative home and community-based services (HCBS). While the (more established) SMARTER technique is used primarily for comparative purposes, greater emphasis is placed on elucidating CaRBS which is based on the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. It is shown that CaRBS offers four appealing features for health policy analysis: (1) the capacity to rank using either of two confidence measures (DST-related belief and plausibility values), (2) a systematic approach to managing missing data, (3) the production of stable rankings, and (4) the simplex plot method of data representation. In addition to discussing the LTC policy implications of the study findings, the issues of rank order stability and the management of missing data are discussed with respect to the two techniques employed. PMID:15952612

  20. Histological study of hamster buccal mucosa following topical application of DMBA and exposition to low-power 337-nm laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Rego, Christmas M. V.; Munin, Egberto; Redigolo, Marcela L.; Salgado, Miguel C.; de Souza, Hanriete P.; Colombo, C. E. D.; Nicolau, Renata A.; Alves, Leandro P.; Zangaro, Renato A.

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to analyze the histological changes on hamster buccal mucosa caused by the topical use of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and exposition to a 220 ´J/pulse nitrogen laser light (@ 337 nm) at an average power of 2,3 mW. Twenty-one hamsters divided into two experimental groups were treated six times with DMBA. One hamster was kept as control. Group I was composed by ten hamsters and was submitted only to DMBA. Group II, also with ten hamsters, received the same treatment as group I and was exposed to the laser radiation. The time duration of each irradiation section was 10 seconds. All the treatment happened in alternated days. The histological analysis took place twice, after the end of the treatment and after sixty days. Both experimental groups presented dilatation of vessels, thickening of the epithelial tissue and the presence of inflammatory infiltrates. The preliminary results indicates that in group II the number of dilated vessels and its new area are much more significant than in group I.

  1. Towards LES Models of Jets and Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, A. T.; Mansour, N. N.

    2000-01-01

    As pointed out by Rodi standard integral solutions for jets and plumes developed for discharge into infinite, quiescent ambient are difficult to extend to complex situations, particularly in the presence of boundaries such as the sea floor or ocean surface. In such cases the assumption of similarity breaks down and it is impossible to find a suitable entrainment coefficient. The models are also incapable of describing any but the most slowly varying unsteady motions. There is therefore a need for full time-dependent modeling of the flow field for which there are three main approaches: (1) Reynolds averaged numerical simulation (RANS), (2) large eddy simulation (LES), and (3) direct numerical simulation (DNS). Rodi applied RANS modeling to both jets and plumes with considerable success, the test being a match with experimental data for time-averaged velocity and temperature profiles as well as turbulent kinetic energy and rms axial turbulent velocity fluctuations. This model still relies on empirical constants, some eleven in the case of the buoyant jet, and so would not be applicable to a partly laminar plume, may have limited use in the presence of boundaries, and would also be unsuitable if one is after details of the unsteady component of the flow (the turbulent eddies). At the other end of the scale DNS modeling includes all motions down to the viscous scales. Boersma et al. have built such a model for the non-buoyant case which also compares well with measured data for mean and turbulent velocity components. The model demonstrates its versatility by application to a laminar flow case. As its name implies, DNS directly models the Navier-Stokes equations without recourse to subgrid modeling so for flows with a broad spectrum of motions (high Re) the cost can be prohibitive - the number of required grid points scaling with Re(exp 9/4) and the number of time steps with Re(exp 3/4). The middle road is provided by LES whereby the Navier-Stokes equations are formally

  2. Les enjuex éthiques entourant la recherche en santé sur les enfants

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La recherche en santé est un devoir moral parce qu’elle est la base des soins probants prodigués par tous les dispensateurs de soins. Des politiques et des règlements précis régissent la tenue des recherches sur des humains. Il faut procéder à une évaluation éthique d’un projet de recherche donné avant de pouvoir l’entreprendre. La recherche sur les enfants pose d’énormes défis en matière de consentement éclairé et d’assentiment, de vulnérabilité et de potentiel de conflit d’intérêts (CDI). Les chercheurs en santé pédiatrique devraient prôner la participation des enfants à la recherche, tout en se montrant attentifs à en limiter les risques.

  3. Developpement d'un vibrateur acoustique pour precipiter les defauts latents de circuits electroniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafleur, Francois

    2003-08-01

    presentation de l'equipement et finalement un dernier sur la personnalisation des spectres vibratoires. Les protections par brevet sont reliees aux sujets suivants: (1) Equipement de vibration par excitation acoustique; (2) Methode d'analyse modale a references multiples; (3) Methode de personnalisation des spectres de vibration.

  4. [The role of occupational physician in the application of the 2006 "agreement on workers' health protection through the good handling and use of crystalline silica and products containing it": the experience in mining sector].

    PubMed

    Coggiola, M; Baracco, A; Perrelli, F; Bosio, D; Gullino, A; Pira, E

    2007-01-01

    The 2006 "Agreement on Workers' Health Protection Through the Good Handling and Use of Crystalline Silica and Products Containing it" between social parts defines a standardization of exposition control methods and medical surveillance. The Occupational Physician is integral part in exposition evaluation process and risk stratification in which derives the medical surveillance program. This study presents a first application of the European agreement in mining sector and the role of Occupational Physician in the evaluation of the risk to define methods of prevention. In particular it will be precised the choice of homogenous groups, the classification of exposed workers from results of workplace monitoring, the choice of technical prevention and individual protection equipments, and then the strategy of medical surveillance. PMID:18409742

  5. Inhibiteurs de la pompe à protons pour les nourrissons irritables

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christine H.; Israel, David M.; Schreiber, Richard; Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Question Les pleurs sont communs chez les nourrissons; par ailleurs, prendre soin d'un nourrisson dont les pleurs sont inconsolables et qu'on surnommait aussi auparavant des coliques ou un reflux, peut souvent causer une détresse extrême aux parents. Le recours à un agent de suppression de l'acide gastrique (p. ex. les inhibiteurs de la pompe à protons [IPP]) est-il bénéfique chez ces nourrissons? Réponse On utilise de plus en plus les IPP chez les nourrissons et les enfants depuis quelques années. L'efficacité des inhibiteurs de la pompe à protons n'a pas été démontrée dans le traitement de l'irritabilité et des pleurs excessifs chez des enfants autrement en santé de moins de 3 mois. D'autre part, si les IPP sont généralement bien tolérés, il existe certaines données probantes reliant l'utilisation des IPP avec une susceptibilité accrue aux gastroentérites aiguës, à la pneumonie acquise dans la communauté et à des troubles de l'utilisation et de l'absorption des nutriments. Indépendamment des traitements, les pleurs et l'irritabilité durant la tendre enfance s'améliorent généralement avec le temps. Entre-temps, les inhibiteurs de la pompe à protons n'améliorent pas les symptômes.

  6. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  7. Protective Eyewear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Whether you’re on the basketball court, in chemistry class, or sitting by the pool, wearing protective ... remember to wear safety goggles. Using chemicals in chemistry class? Look like a real scientist by wearing ...

  8. Corrosion protection

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  9. Analysis of discretization errors in LES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosal, Sandip

    1995-01-01

    All numerical simulations of turbulence (DNS or LES) involve some discretization errors. The integrity of such simulations therefore depend on our ability to quantify and control such errors. In the classical literature on analysis of errors in partial differential equations, one typically studies simple linear equations (such as the wave equation or Laplace's equation). The qualitative insight gained from studying such simple situations is then used to design numerical methods for more complex problems such as the Navier-Stokes equations. Though such an approach may seem reasonable as a first approximation, it should be recognized that strongly nonlinear problems, such as turbulence, have a feature that is absent in linear problems. This feature is the simultaneous presence of a continuum of space and time scales. Thus, in an analysis of errors in the one dimensional wave equation, one may, without loss of generality, rescale the equations so that the dependent variable is always of order unity. This is not possible in the turbulence problem since the amplitudes of the Fourier modes of the velocity field have a continuous distribution. The objective of the present research is to provide some quantitative measures of numerical errors in such situations. Though the focus of this work is LES, the methods introduced here can be just as easily applied to DNS. Errors due to discretization of the time-variable are neglected for the purpose of this analysis.

  10. LES of mixing in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenio, Vincenzo; Roman, Federico

    2008-11-01

    Large eddy simulations of near shore mixing are carried out using a new large-scale model, LES-COAST. The model integrates the Boussinesq form of the NS equations using a curvilinear formulation of the fractional step method. Complex geometry is reproduced with a combination of curvilinear mesh and immersed boundaries. Anisotropy of the problem (δxvert/δxhor˜10-2) has required a two eddy-viscosities model. Specifically we use a mixed model, composed of an anisotropic scale-similar part and an eddy viscosity, Smagorinsky part. Two eddy-viscosities are used, νT,v/h=(Cv/hδv/h)^2 |Sv/h| respectively in the two directions. The quantities δv/h are chosen proportional to the local grid spacings in the two directions. Density stratification is also considered using a very simple SGS model, based on the assumption that PrT= ScT=1. The algorithm is being used for real applications. The following studies will be discussed: the intrusion of fresh water of the Tevere river in the Tirreno sea; mixing in the Muggia Bay (Region of Trieste) under the action of the breeze forcing. Results have clearly shown the reliability of new- generation LES large-scale models for applications in problems with horizontal and vertical scales respectively of the order of 10 km and 50 m.

  11. Les mémoires de la dynastie Tang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1996-07-01

    Dans la nuit des temps, les astronomes chinois ont ete d'incomparables observateurs de cometes. Ces savants, dont les notations raffinees ponctuaient l'histoire officielle des empereurs, relevaient chaque passage d'astre errant avec une precision inestimable. Un veritable tresor ou puise encore la science contemporaine.

  12. La Terre - les eaux - l'atmosphère.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bec-Borsenberger, A.; Catoire, M.; Kovalevsky, J.; Guinot, B.; Cazenave, A.; Levallois, J. J.; Lecolazet, R.; Jobert, G.; Francheteau, J.; Le Mouël, J.-L.; Goguel, J.; Serpolay, R.; Berroir, A.; Mégie, G.; Crépon, M.; Saint-Guily, B.; Eyriès, M.-M.; Ramamonjiarisoa, A.; Buat-Menard, P.; Lalou, C.; Serra, L.; Lliboutry, L.; Lorius, C.

    Contents: Repères et forces de gravité (J. Kovalevsky). La rotation de la Terre (B. Guinot). La géodésie (J. Kovalevsky, A. Cazenave, J. J. Levallois). Les marées terrestres (R. Lecolazet). La sismologie (G. Jobert). Lithosphère et tectonique des plaques (J. Francheteau). Le champ magnétique terrestre (J.-L. Le Mouël). Modèles de la constitution physique de la Terre (G. Jobert). La géothermie (J. Goguel). Le rayonnement énergétique (R. Serpolay). Les fluides géophysiques (A. Berroir). L'atmosphère (A. Berroir, R. Serpolay). L'ozonosphère (G. Mégie). Les océans en mouvement (M. Crépon, B. Saint-Guily). La marée océanique (M.-M. Eyriès). La houle et les vagues (A. Ramamonjiarisoa). Les cycles géochimiques dans l'océan (P. Buat-Menard, C. Lalou). La circulation des eaux (L. Serra). Les glaces naturelles et leur dynamique (L. Lliboutry). L'évolution des climats, les données du passé (C. Lorius).

  13. Le sumatriptan intranasal pour la migraine chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.; Meckler, Garth D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Je vois de plus en plus d’enfants et d’adolescents qui souffrent de céphalées pouvant se classer dans la catégorie des migraines. J’ai fait des lectures sur le sumatriptan par voie intranasale comme thérapie abortive. Est-ce un traitement efficace? Réponse La migraine aiguë chez les enfants et les adolescents est fréquente et difficile à traiter. Le sumatriptan intranasal est une option sûre et généralement efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents. La dose actuellement recommandée est de 20 mg pour les enfants qui pèsent plus de 40 kg et de 10 mg pour ceux dont le poids se situe entre 20 et 39 kg. Il faudrait faire des études de plus grande envergure pour contrecarrer les limitations des échantillons de petite taille et mieux comprendre la faible concentration plasmique et les effets placebo observés dans les études jusqu’à présent.

  14. Naines blanches : Les diamants sont éternels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1997-08-01

    Ces etoiles minuscules, composantes essentielles de la Galaxie, sont responsables de phenomenes spectaculaires, comme les novae ou certaines supernovae. Mais les naines blanches se sont aussi revelees un fantastique outil pour la physique du XXe siecle, fournissant des confirmations eclatantes de deux grandes theories: la relativite generale et la mecanique quantique.

  15. Les superpolynomes symetriques dans les problemes a plusieurs corps de la mecanique quantique supersymetrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrosiers, Patrick

    S'inspirant de la supersymetrie, on construit dans cette these une nouvelle generalisation de la theorie des fonctions symetriques. Une theorie physique est supersymetrique si: (1) elle contient des bosons (particules de spin entier) et des fermions (particules de spin demi-entier); (2) elle reste inchangee suite a une transformation des bosons en fermions et vice versa. Les fonctions symetriques dans le superespace (superfonctions symetriques) incorporent a la fois des variables commutatives (bosoniques) et anticommutatives (fermioniques). Ces dernieres engendrent une algebre de Grassmann. Une superfonction symetrique est invariante sous l'echange simultane des variables bosoniques et fermioniques (action diagonale du groupe symetrique); elle se caracterise par une superpartition, i.e., une juxtaposition appropriee de partitions usuelles d'entiers non negatifs. On utilise deux approches dans l'elaboration de la theorie des superfonctions symetriques: l'une provient de la combinatoire et l'autre, de la physique. Suivant la premiere approche, on obtient l'extension des elements standards de la theorie des fonctions symetriques fonctions monomiales, fonctions symetriques elementaires, fonctions completement symetriques, series de puissances, fonctions generatrices et formules de Cauchy. On demontre egalement qu'il existe une extension naturelle, a un parametre, du produit scalaire combinatoire defini par l'orthogonalite des series de puissances dans le superespace. La seconde approche consiste a resoudre des problemes a N corps de la mecanique quantique supersymetrique. On etudie les extensions supersymetriques des modeles Calogero-Moser-Sutherland (CMS), lesquels decrivent l'evolution de particules dont le potentiel d'inter action est proportionnel a l'inverse du carre de la distance separant les particules. Deux modeles supersymetriques CMS sont resolus: trigonometrique (sur un cercle) et rationnel (sur une ligne) avec confinement harmonique. Leurs fonctions d

  16. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Kit-built airplanes are more affordable because they are assembled by the owner and do not require Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. The Glasair III, is an advanced technology homebuilt, constructed of a fiberglass and graphite fiber composite material, and equipped with digital instruments. Both technologies make the airplane more susceptible to lightning effects. When Glasair manufacturer, Stoddard-Hamilton, decided that lightning protection would enable more extensive instrument flight and make the plane more marketable, they proposed a joint development program to NASA Langley Research Center (LAR). Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Langley contractors designed and tested a lightning protection system, and the Glasair III-LP became the first kit-built composite aircraft to be lightning tested and protection-verified under FAA guidelines for general aviation aircraft.

  17. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lightning Technologies, Inc., Pittsfield, MA, - a spinoff company founded by president J. Anderson Plumer, a former NASA contractor employee who developed his expertise with General Electric Company's High Voltage Laboratory - was a key player in Langley Research Center's Storm Hazards Research Program. Lightning Technologies used its NASA acquired experience to develop protective measures for electronic systems and composite structures on aircraft, both of which are particularly susceptible to lightning damage. The company also provides protection design and verification testing services for complete aircraft systems or individual components. Most aircraft component manufacturers are among Lightning Technologies' clients.

  18. Noise Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  19. LES of propelled bodies in crashback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2015-11-01

    Crashback is an off-design operating condition to quickly stop a propelled vehicle by rotating the propeller in reverse direction, thus yielding a negative thrust. The interaction of the freestream with the strong reverse flow from the propeller creates massive unsteadiness and flow separation. This talk will discuss our work towards simulation of crashback flow over an entire hull using Large-Eddy Simulation (LES).The results will be compared to the available experimental data and the flow physics will be discussed. The flowfield of the hull-attached propeller in crashback will be analyzed using dynamic mode decomposition to understand the mechanism of the unsteady loads. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  20. Protective Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Beta Glass material, originating from the Apollo program is supplied to Fyrepel by Owens-Corning and incorporated into Fyrepel's Fyretex and Beta-Mex aluminized fabrics. Fabrics are used in fire entry suits, several other types of protective suits for wear in hot industrial environments and such accessory items as heat-reflecting curtains for industrial applications.

  1. Protect thyself

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, A.M.

    1982-06-01

    The article considers items of personal protection for miners: Self-rescuers, respirators, hard hats and cap lamps. A table provides a comparison between five types of self-contained self-rescuer. Details are also given of hard hat cap lamp and respirator manufacturers.

  2. Protecting Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses privacy issues related to use of the Internet. Topics include data gathering functions that are built into applications of the World Wide Web; cookies that identify Web site visitors; personal identity information; libraries and privacy, including the need for privacy policies; protecting your privacy; and developing privacy literacy.…

  3. Protective Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Inorganic Coatings, Inc.'s K-Zinc 531 protective coating is water-based non-toxic, non-flammable and has no organic emissions. High ratio silicate formula bonds to steel, and in 30 minutes, creates a very hard ceramic finish with superior adhesion and abrasion resistance. Improved technology allows application over a minimal commercial sandblast, fast drying in high humidity conditions and compatibility with both solvent and water-based topcoats. Coating is easy to apply and provides long term protection with a single application. Zinc rich coating with water-based potassium silicate binder offers cost advantages in materials, labor hours per application, and fewer applications over a given time span.

  4. Influence of feeding and UVB exposition on the absorption mechanisms of calcium in the gastrointestinal tract of veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus)

    PubMed Central

    Haxhiu, D; Hoby, S; Wenker, C; Boos, A; Kowalewski, M P; Lewis, F; Liesegang, A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of feeding and UVB exposition on the occurrence and distribution patterns of vitamin D receptors (VDR) and calbindin D28k (Cb-D28k) in the gastrointestinal tract of veiled chameleons. Thus, 56 veiled chameleon hatchlings were divided into six treatment groups: UV (with UVB exposure); No (no supplements, no UVB exposure); CaAUV (with calcium (Ca), vitamin A supplementation, UVB exposure); CaA (with Ca, vitamin A supplementation); CaADUV (with Ca, vitamin A, vitamin D supplementation, UVB exposure); and CaAD (with Ca, vitamin A, vitamin D supplementation). Animals were reared under the suspected conditions for 6 months on locust-based diets. Tissue samples of stomach, duodenum, ileum and colon were taken, and semi-quantitative immunohistochemical methods (IHC) were performed to detect Cb-D28k and VDR. VDR immunoreactions were higher in the luminal epithelium of the duodenum than in that of the ileum. VDR immunoreactions in the luminal epithelium were higher at the base of the villi of the duodenum as compared to the tip. Cb-D28k immunoreactions were mainly observed in the luminal epithelium of the duodenum. The two groups treated with all dietary supplements (CaADUV, CaAD) exhibited a higher Cb-D28k immunoreaction as those with no supplements and UVB exposure only. No immunoreaction for both proteins could be detected in the stomach. This study suggests that the duodenum plays an important role in the active transcellular absorption of Ca in veiled chameleons as shown by the immunohistochemical detection of VDR and Cb-D28k. Expression of Cb-D28k, in particular, appears to be regulated by dietary supplementation of vitamin D and vitamin A. VDRs, however, tended to be upregulated when animals were not supplemented with Ca, vitamin D and vitamin A. This may be due to the decreased Ca concentrations which caused vitamin D activation in the skin without any supplementation, but UVB exposure. PMID:24848550

  5. Numerical and physical instabilities in massively parallel LES of reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinsot, Thierry

    LES of reacting flows is rapidly becoming mature and providing levels of precision which can not be reached with any RANS (Reynolds Averaged) technique. In addition to the multiple subgrid scale models required for such LES and to the questions raised by the required numerical accurcay of LES solvers, various issues related the reliability, mesh independence and repetitivity of LES must still be addressed, especially when LES is used on massively parallel machines. This talk discusses some of these issues: (1) the existence of non physical waves (known as `wiggles' by most LES practitioners) in LES, (2) the effects of mesh size on LES of reacting flows, (3) the growth of rounding errors in LES on massively parallel machines and more generally (4) the ability to qualify a LES code as `bug free' and `accurate'. Examples range from academic cases (minimum non-reacting turbulent channel) to applied configurations (a sector of an helicopter combustion chamber).

  6. Updrafts, Downdrafts, Entrainment, and Detrainment in the Giga-LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, S. K.; Glenn, I.

    2012-12-01

    We are investigating the properties of evolving three-dimensional updraft and downdraft "cores" in a model dataset from the Giga-LES, a large-domain LES (large-eddy simulation) of tropical oceanic deep convection (Khairoutdinov et al. 2009). We have also applied the analysis method developed by Kuang and Bretherton (2006) to investigate various aspects of the ensemble characteristics of cumulus convection in the Giga-LES. Our results agree with those of Kuang and Bretherton for the cumulus updraft properties. We have examined the relative merits of different entrainment and cloud-top-height assumptions in spectral plume models of cumulus updrafts, the characteristics of downdrafts, and the nature of a rapid transition from shallow to deep convection.isualization of cumulus clouds from the Giga-LES. The realistic structure is associated with entrainment.

  7. Ressources pour les personnes atteintes de démence

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Christopher; Feldman, Sid; Schulz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Résumer les services offerts par la Société Alzheimer et discuter des autres sources de soutien et d’information à la disposition des personnes atteintes de démence. Sources de l’information On a fait une recension dans Ovid MEDLINE à l’aide des expressions dementia, Alzheimer disease, community health services utilization et caregiver stress. Message principal Il a été démontré qu’il est bénéfique aux patients et aux aidants si le diagnostic de la démence est posé tôt dans la maladie. Une consultation auprès de la Société Alzheimer peut aider dans la prise en charge non pharmacologique de la démence au moment du diagnostic et en tout temps durant l’évolution de la maladie. Parmi les services offerts, on peut mentionner des renseignements au sujet de la démence, le soutien aux aidants, la coordination des services communautaires et une grande diversité de ressources écrites à l’intention des patients et des aidants. Là où il est offert, le programme Premier lien peut aider avec l’orientation vers des services en minimisant la nécessité pour les patients ou les aidants de communiquer eux-mêmes avec les filiales locales de la Société. On discute aussi d’autres ressources, y compris les soins de répit et les approches technologiques pour prendre en charge l’errance. Conclusion La Société Alzheimer joue un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la démence et les médecins de famille devraient toujours envisager d’y référer leurs patients au moment du diagnostic, quelle que soit la gravité de l’état. Premier lien, quand il est accessible, peut faciliter le contact avec les services. Des ressources comme les soins de répit et les programmes de jour devraient toujours être considérés lorsqu’ils sont disponibles.

  8. Coupling Turbulence in Hybrid LES-RANS Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    A formulation is proposed for hybrid LES-RANS computations that permits accurate computations during resolution changes, so that resolution may be changed at will in order to employ only as much resolution in each subdomain as is required by the physics. The two components of this formulation, establishing the accuracy of a hybrid model at constant resolutions throughout the RANS-to-LES range and maintaining that accuracy when resolution is varied, are demonstrated for decaying, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence.

  9. Progress on LES of Flow Past a Circular Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittal, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present research is to assess the usefulness of large-eddy simulation (LES) methodology for flows in complex geometries. Flow past a circular cylinder has been calculated using a central-difference based solver, and the results have been compared to those obtained by a solver that employs higher-order upwind biased schemes (Beaudan & Moin, 1994). This comparison allows us to assess the suitability of these schemes for LES in complex geometry flows.

  10. Developpement de mesures non destructives, par ondes ultrasonores, d'epaisseurs de fronts de solidification dans les reacteurs metallurgiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floquet, Jimmy

    Dans les cuves d'electrolyse d'aluminium, le milieu de reaction tres corrosif attaque les parois de la cuve, ce qui diminue leur duree de vie et augmente les couts de production. Le talus, qui se forme sous l'effet des pertes de chaleur qui maintiennent un equilibre thermique dans la cuve, sert de protection naturelle a la cuve. Son epaisseur doit etre controlee pour maximiser cet effet. Advenant la resorption non voulue de ce talus, les degats generes peuvent s'evaluer a plusieurs centaines de milliers de dollars par cuve. Aussi, l'objectif est de developper une mesure ultrasonore de l'epaisseur du talus, car elle serait non intrusive et non destructive. La precision attendue est de l'ordre du centimetre pour des mesures d'epaisseurs comprenant 2 materiaux, allant de 5 a 20 cm. Cette precision est le facteur cle permettant aux industriels de controler l'epaisseur du talus de maniere efficace (maximiser la protection des parois tout en maximisant l'efficacite energetique du procede), par l'ajout d'un flux thermique. Cependant, l'efficacite d'une mesure ultrasonore dans cet environnement hostile reste a demontrer. Les travaux preliminaires ont permis de selectionner un transducteur ultrasonore a contact ayant la capacite a resister aux conditions de mesure (hautes temperatures, materiaux non caracterises...). Differentes mesures a froid (traite par analyse temps-frequence) ont permis d'evaluer la vitesse de propagation des ondes dans le materiau de la cuve en graphite et de la cryolite, demontrant la possibilite d'extraire l'information pertinente d'epaisseur du talus in fine. Fort de cette phase de caracterisation des materiaux sur la reponse acoustique des materiaux, les travaux a venir ont ete realises sur un modele reduit de la cuve. Le montage experimental, un four evoluant a 1050 °C, instrumente d'une multitude de capteurs thermique, permettra une comparaison de la mesure intrusive LVDT a celle du transducteur, dans des conditions proches de la mesure

  11. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Ameron International Protective Coatings Group developed a special coating for NASA that would withstand the high temperatures generated by the Space Shuttle rocket engines. The coating remains intact for at least 10 minutes, and insulates the launch pad so that it does not exceed 150 degrees and buckle. The NASA formulation was from Ameron's Engineered Siloxane (PSX) chemistry, which employs an inorganic silicon-oxygen structure which the company states is stronger and more reliable than organic polymers. Some of Ameron's PSX product line is based on the NASA technology, used for everything from industrial equipment to bridges.

  12. Protecting Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    House Science Committee Chairman Robert Walker (R-Pa.) has introduced a bill into Congress to give the United States the legislative authority to implement the 1991 Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. That protocol established rules and principles to shield the Antarctic environment from human spoilage—placing limits on the discharge of pollutants, protecting plant and animal life, and requiring environmental impact assessments before new activities and programs are launched. The protocol also forbids prospecting or developing of mineral resources except for scientific research.

  13. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  14. Ventilatory impairment in the dysmyelinated Long Evans shaker (les) rat

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rebecca A.; Baker-Herman, Tracy L.; Duncan, Ian D.; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2010-01-01

    Although respiratory complications significantly contribute to morbidity/mortality in advanced myelin disorders, little is known concerning mechanisms whereby dysmyelination impairs ventilation, or how patients compensate (i.e. plasticity). To establish a model for studies concerning mechanisms of ventilatory impairment/compensation, we tested the hypotheses that respiratory function progressively declines in a model of CNS dysmyelination, the Long Evans shaker rat (les). The observed impairment is associated with abnormal inspiratory neural output. Minimal myelin staining was found throughout the CNS of les rats, including the brainstem and cervical bulbospinal tracts. Ventilation (via whole-body plethysmography) and phrenic motor output were assessed in les and wild-type (WT) rats during baseline, hypoxia (11% O2) and hypercapnia (7% CO2). Hypercapnic ventilatory responses were similar in young adult les and WT rats (2 months old); in hypoxia, rats exhibited seizure-like activity with sustained apneas. However, 5–6 month old les rats exhibited decreased breathing frequencies, mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI) and ventilation (V̇E) during baseline and hypercapnia. Although phrenic motor output exhibited normal burst frequency and amplitude in 5–6 month old les rats, intra-burst activity was abnormal. In WT rats, phrenic activity was progressive and augmenting; in les rats, phrenic activity was decrementing with asynchronized, multipeaked activity. Thus, although ventilatory capacity is maintained in young, dysmyelinated rats, ventilatory impairment develops with age, possibly through discoordination in respiratory motor output. This study is the first reporting age-related breathing abnormalities in a rodent dysmyelination model, and provides the foundation for mechanistic studies of respiratory insufficiency and therapeutic interventions. PMID:20542092

  15. Les Johnson Views Interstellar Sail Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Interstellar Propulsion Research department are proposing different solutions to combustion propellants for future space travel. One alternative being tested is the solar sail. The idea is, once deployed, the sail will allow solar winds to propel a spacecraft away from Earth and towards its destination. This would allow a spacecraft to travel indefinitely without the need to refuel during its ong journey. Thin reflective sails could be propelled through space by sunlight, microwave beams, or laser beams, just as the wind pushes sailboats on Earth. The sail will be the largest spacecraft ever built, sparning 440 yards, twice the diameter of the Louisiana Super Dome. Construction materials are being tested in a simulated space environment, where they are exposed to harsh conditions to test their performance and durability in extremely hot and cold temperatures. A leading candidate for the construction material is a carbon fiber material whose density is less than 1/10 ounce per square yard, the equivalent of flattening one raisin to the point that it covers a square yard. In space, the material would unfurl like a fan when it is deployed from an expendable rocket. This photo shows Les Johnson, manager of MSFC's Interstellar Propulsion Research Center holding the rigid, lightweight carbon fiber. An artist's concept of the sail is on the right. Mankind's first venture outside of our solar system is proposed for launch in a 2010 timeframe. An interstellar probe, powered by the fastest spacecraft ever flown, will zoom toward the stars at 58 miles per second. It will cover the distance from New York to Los Angeles in less than a minute and will travel over 23 billion miles beyond the edge of the solar system.

  16. Les inconvénients de perdre du poids

    PubMed Central

    Bosomworth, N. John

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Explorer les raisons pour lesquelles la perte de poids à long terme échoue la plupart du temps et évaluer les conséquences de diverses trajectoires pondérales, y compris la stabilité, la perte et le gain. Source des données Les études qui évaluent les paramètres pondéraux dans la population sont en majorité observationnelles. Des données probantes de niveau I ont été publiées pour évaluer l’influence des interventions relatives au poids sur la mortalité et la qualité de vie. Message principal Seulement un petit pourcentage des personnes qui désirent perdre du poids réussissent à le faire de manière durable. La mortalité est la plus faible chez les personnes se situant dans la catégorie de poids élevé-normal et surpoids. La trajectoire pondérale la plus sécuritaire est la stabilité du poids avec une optimisation de la condition physique et métabolique. Il est démontré que la mortalité est plus faible chez les personnes ayant des comorbidités reliées à l’obésité si elles perdent du poids. Il est aussi établi que la qualité de vie sur le plan de la santé est meilleure chez les personnes obèses qui perdent du poids. Par contre, la perte de poids chez une personne obèse autrement en santé est associée à une mortalité accrue. Conclusion La perte de poids est recommandable seulement chez les personnes qui ont des comorbidités reliées à l’obésité. Les personnes obèses en santé qui veulent perdre du poids devraient être informées qu’il peut y avoir des risques à le faire. Une stratégie qui se traduit par un indice de masse corporelle stable avec une condition physique et métabolique optimisée, peu importe le poids, est l’option d’intervention la plus sécuritaire en ce qui concerne le poids.

  17. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  18. A filtered tabulated chemistry model for LES of premixed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorina, B.; Auzillon, P.; Darabiha, N.; Gicquel, O.; Veynante, D.; Vicquelin, R.

    2010-03-15

    A new modeling strategy called F-TACLES (Filtered Tabulated Chemistry for Large Eddy Simulation) is developed to introduce tabulated chemistry methods in Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulent premixed combustion. The objective is to recover the correct laminar flame propagation speed of the filtered flame front when subgrid scale turbulence vanishes as LES should tend toward Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). The filtered flame structure is mapped using 1-D filtered laminar premixed flames. Closure of the filtered progress variable and the energy balance equations are carefully addressed in a fully compressible formulation. The methodology is first applied to 1-D filtered laminar flames, showing the ability of the model to recover the laminar flame speed and the correct chemical structure when the flame wrinkling is completely resolved. The model is then extended to turbulent combustion regimes by including subgrid scale wrinkling effects in the flame front propagation. Finally, preliminary tests of LES in a 3-D turbulent premixed flame are performed. (author)

  19. Influence of Sample Preparation on Assay of Functional Phenolic Phytochemicals (American Chemical Society, 233rd National Meeting & Exposition, March 25-29, 2007, Chicago, IL)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolics are one of the most diverse groups of phytochemicals that are ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. Phenolic phytochemicals are known to exhibit a wide range of health protective effects. Approximately 8000 different phenolics compounds have been isolated from natural re...

  20. Eulerian Time-Domain Filtering for Spatial LES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, C. David

    1997-01-01

    Eulerian time-domain filtering seems to be appropriate for LES (large eddy simulation) of flows whose large coherent structures convect approximately at a common characteristic velocity; e.g., mixing layers, jets, and wakes. For these flows, we develop an approach to LES based on an explicit second-order digital Butterworth filter, which is applied in,the time domain in an Eulerian context. The approach is validated through a priori and a posteriori analyses of the simulated flow of a heated, subsonic, axisymmetric jet.

  1. Status of the SUSY Les Houches Accord II Project

    SciTech Connect

    Allanach, B.C.; Balazs, C.; Belanger, G.; Boudjema, F.; Choudhury, D.; Desch, K.; Ellwanger, U.; Gambino, P.; Godbole, R.; Guasch, J.; Guchait, M.; Heinemeyer, S.; Hugonie, C.; Hurth, T.; Kraml, S.; Lykken, J.; Mangano, M.; Moortgat, F.; Moretti, S.; Penaranda, S.; Porod, W.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Supersymmetric (SUSY) spectrum generators, decay packages, Monte-Carlo programs, dark matter evaluators, and SUSY fitting programs often need to communicate in the process of an analysis. The SUSY Les Houches Accord provides a common interface that conveys spectral and decay information between the various packages. Here, we propose extensions of the conventions of the first SUSY Les Houches Accord to include various generalizations: violation of CP, R-parity and flavor as well as the simplest next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM).

  2. Les Hemorragies Gastroduodenales de Stress Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ababou, K.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Ihrai, I.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Les Auteurs rapportent trois observations d'hémorragies gastroduodénales de stress chez le brûlé grave. Ils rappellent l'importance des mesures thérapeutiques qui doivent être prises chez le brûlé grave, comme le traitement du choc, du sepsis, des plaies et de la douleur, la nutrition entérale précoce et l'oxygénothérapie. Tout cela permet de réduire les facteurs de risque de survenue d'une hémorragie gastroduodénale de stress. PMID:21991137

  3. On integrating LES and laboratory turbulent flow experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Grinstein, Fernando Franklin

    2008-01-01

    Critical issues involved in large eddy simulation (LES) experiments relate to the treatment of unresolved subgrid scale flow features and required initial and boundary condition supergrid scale modelling. The inherently intrusive nature of both LES and laboratory experiments is noted in this context. Flow characterization issues becomes very challenging ones in validation and computational laboratory studies, where potential sources of discrepancies between predictions and measurements need to be clearly evaluated and controlled. A special focus of the discussion is devoted to turbulent initial condition issues.

  4. On the protection of "protected areas".

    PubMed

    Joppa, Lucas N; Loarie, Scott R; Pimm, Stuart L

    2008-05-01

    Tropical moist forests contain the majority of terrestrial species. Human actions destroy between 1 and 2 million km(2) of such forests per decade, with concomitant carbon release into the atmosphere. Within these forests, protected areas are the principle defense against forest loss and species extinctions. Four regions-the Amazon, Congo, South American Atlantic Coast, and West Africa-once constituted about half the world's tropical moist forest. We measure forest cover at progressively larger distances inside and outside of protected areas within these four regions, using datasets on protected areas and land-cover. We find important geographical differences. In the Amazon and Congo, protected areas are generally large and retain high levels of forest cover, as do their surroundings. These areas are protected de facto by being inaccessible and will likely remain protected if they continue to be so. Deciding whether they are also protected de jure-that is, whether effective laws also protect them-is statistically difficult, for there are few controls. In contrast, protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest and West Africa show sharp boundaries in forest cover at their edges. This effective protection of forest cover is partially offset by their very small size: little area is deep inside protected area boundaries. Lands outside protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest are unusually fragmented. Finally, we ask whether global databases on protected areas are biased toward highly protected areas and ignore "paper parks." Analysis of a Brazilian database does not support this presumption. PMID:18451028

  5. Detailed characteristics of drop-laden mixing layers: LES predictions compared to DNS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okong'o, N.; Leboissetier, A.; Bellan, J.

    2004-01-01

    Results have been compared from Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of a temporal mixing layer laden with evaporating drops, to assess the ability of LES to reproduce detailed characteristics of DNS.

  6. Définir les choix à risque: l'éthique et les effets des décisions organisationnelles.

    PubMed

    Warren, Marika

    2016-07-01

    Les choix de vivre « à risque » sont complexes et difficiles. Ils peuvent être structurés par les politiques organisationnelles. Certaines personnes veulent vraiment vivre dans des situations à haut risque ou perçues comme telles parce qu'elles en tirent un avantage important. Cependant, il est probable que ces choix dépendent en grande partie du contexte et qu'ils ne se soient pas posés dans une autre situation. L'article plaide pour la responsabilité d'être attentif aux effets des décisions organisationnelles sur les choix de vivre à risque et sur la répartition globale du risque. PMID:27365384

  7. Etude des defauts apparaissant dans les amenagements interieurs des avions d'affaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charette, Emilie

    The evolution of the aeronautic industry led to the development of new materials for these high performance applications. Among other examples, composite sandwich structures are increasingly used for interior body panels of business airplanes. These structures are assembled and fixed to the fuselage using metallic inserts bonded inside the sandwich panels with an epoxy resin adhesive. A thin film of wood veneer covers the visible side of interior furniture in order to bring sophistication and esthetic to the interior design. However, due to multiple factors, surface defects frequently appear on the veneered side of the panel where inserts are located. Moreover the defects tend to appear months after the airplane delivery causing costly reparations. The sources of defects can be mechanical ( deformation due to an excessive tightening), chemical (shrinkage of the epoxy adhesive) or the result of hygrothermal exposition. It is therefore important to understand the source of such surface defects and ultimately prevent or control their appearance. The present thesis deals with defects from chemical and hygrothermal sources appearing on the composite panels used on the interior body of business jets after aging. The main objective was to identify and quantify phenomena causing the defects on the interior panels of business planes. This research project is the first part of a project sponsored by CRIAQ and NSERC. The interaction of several materials can lead to various phenomena causing the apparition of surface defects. The project was thus divided into three parts in order to study an increasingly complex problem. the first study deals with the characterization of the different constitutive materials taken separately. This first part focused on thermal, rheological and mechanical aspects of epoxy adhesives. It was shown that the two adhesives used have different mechanical properties and cure kinetic reactions. In addition, the mechanical properties of sandwich

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE 'PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA' RECA GENE: THE LES (LYSOGENY ESTABLISHMENT DEFICIENT)- PHENOTYPE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Les- (lysogeny establishment deficient) phenotype is a pleiotropic effect of the lesB908 mutation of Pseudomonas aruginosa PAO. LesB908-containing strains are also deficient in general recombination, sensitive to UV irradiation, and deficient in UV-stimulated induction of pro...

  9. Les reconstructions acétabulaires dans les prothèses totales de hanche

    PubMed Central

    Zejjari, Hassane; Louaste, Jamal; Cherrad, Taoufik; Bousbae, Hicham; Kasmaoui, Housseine; Amhajji, Larbi; Rachid, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    La chirurgie de reconstruction acétabulaire est une technique qui consiste à combler les pertes de substance osseuse siégeant au niveau du cotyle. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective de 15 patients (16 cotyles), sur une période de 6 ans (2006- 2012). Dans douze cas il s'agissait de prothèse totales de la hanche de première intention et dans quatre cas il s'agissait de reprise cotyloïdienne de PTH. L’évaluation clinique préopératoire et postopératoire de tous nos patients a été effectuée par le score de Postel et Merle d'Aubigné. L’évaluation des pertes de substances osseuse du cotyle a été classée selon la classification de Paprosky. L’âge moyen de nos patients au moment de l'intervention a été de 57 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 ans à 76 ans. La greffe osseuse a été utilisée chez 12 de nos patients. La reconstruction prothétique a été utilisée chez 8 patients (anneau de Kerboul dans six cas et anneau de Burch-Schneider dans deux cas). Recul post opératoire moyen a été de 56 mois. L’évaluation radiologique a été basée sur les clichés radiologiques du bassin de face strict ainsi que des radiographies de la hanche opérée de face prenant la totalité de la prothèse. Nos résultats cliniques et radiologiques ont été jugé bon à très bon dans la majorité des cas. Pour nous, nous optant pour le recentrage-reconstruction car c'est lui qui s'approche le plus de l'anatomie et de la biomécanique normale de la hanche. PMID:26955415

  10. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans

  11. [The Les Morts de la Rue collective, strong social commitment].

    PubMed

    Rocca, Cécile

    2016-02-01

    The problems faced by homeless people are varied and complex. They require numerous qualities on the part of professionals. Living on the streets often means dying on the streets. Professionals are thereby confronted with practical and ethical questions. They have a key role both in listening and providing support. This article shows the example of the Les Morts de la Rue collective. PMID:26861085

  12. Occupant Protection Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

  13. DNS and LES of a Shear-Free Mixing Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knaepen, B.; Debliquy, O.; Carati, D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work is twofold. First, given the computational resources available today, it is possible to reach, using DNS, higher Reynolds numbers than in Briggs et al.. In the present study, the microscale Reynolds numbers reached in the low- and high-energy homogeneous regions are, respectively, 32 and 69. The results reported earlier can thus be complemented and their robustness in the presence of increased turbulence studied. The second aim of this work is to perform a detailed and documented LES of the shear-free mixing layer. In that respect, the creation of a DNS database at higher Reynolds number is necessary in order to make meaningful LES assessments. From the point of view of LES, the shear-free mixing-layer is interesting since it allows one to test how traditional LES models perform in the presence of an inhomogeneity without having to deal with difficult numerical issues. Indeed, as argued in Briggs et al., it is possible to use a spectral code to study the shear-free mixing layer and one can thus focus on the accuracy of the modelling while avoiding contamination of the results by commutation errors etc. This paper is organized as follows. First we detail the initialization procedure used in the simulation. Since the flow is not statistically stationary, this initialization procedure has a fairly strong influence on the evolution. Although we will focus here on the shear-free mixing layer, the method proposed in the present work can easily be used for other flows with one inhomogeneous direction. The next section of the article is devoted to the description of the DNS. All the relevant parameters are listed and comparison with the Veeravalli & Warhaft experiment is performed. The section on the LES of the shear-free mixing layer follows. A detailed comparison between the filtered DNS data and the LES predictions is presented. It is shown that simple eddy viscosity models perform very well for the present test case, most probably because the

  14. Stochasticity of convection in Giga-LES data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Chevrotière, Michèle; Khouider, Boualem; Majda, Andrew J.

    2015-12-01

    The poor representation of tropical convection in general circulation models (GCMs) is believed to be responsible for much of the uncertainty in the predictions of weather and climate in the tropics. The stochastic multicloud model (SMCM) was recently developed by Khouider et al. (Commun Math Sci 8(1):187-216, 2010) to represent the missing variability in GCMs due to unresolved features of organized tropical convection. The SMCM is based on three cloud types (congestus, deep and stratiform), and transitions between these cloud types are formalized in terms of probability rules that are functions of the large-scale environment convective state and a set of seven arbitrary cloud timescale parameters. Here, a statistical inference method based on the Bayesian paradigm is applied to estimate these key cloud timescales from the Giga-LES dataset, a 24-h large-eddy simulation (LES) of deep tropical convection (Khairoutdinov et al. in J Adv Model Earth Syst 1(12), 2009) over a domain comparable to a GCM gridbox. A sequential learning strategy is used where the Giga-LES domain is partitioned into a few subdomains, and atmospheric time series obtained on each subdomain are used to train the Bayesian procedure incrementally. Convergence of the marginal posterior densities for all seven parameters is demonstrated for two different grid partitions, and sensitivity tests to other model parameters are also presented. A single column model simulation using the SMCM parameterization with the Giga-LES inferred parameters reproduces many important statistical features of the Giga-LES run, without any further tuning. In particular it exhibits intermittent dynamical behavior in both the stochastic cloud fractions and the large scale dynamics, with periods of dry phases followed by a coherent sequence of congestus, deep, and stratiform convection, varying on timescales of a few hours consistent with the Giga-LES time series. The chaotic variations of the cloud area fractions were

  15. Protéger les nourrissons contre la coqueluche

    PubMed Central

    Gilley, Meghan; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question Compte tenu du taux à la hausse de la coqueluche chez les enfants, plusieurs familles m’ont demandé quels moyens prendre pour protéger leurs tout-petits de cette infection. Quelles devraient être mes recommandations à ces familles? Réponse La coqueluche est une maladie évitable qui est endémique dans le monde entier. Chez les adultes, la coqueluche cause une maladie bénigne semblable à un rhume, suivie d’une toux persistante. Chez les nourrissons, elle peut causer de l’apnée, des convulsions, une encéphalopathie, une bronchopneumonie et la mort. Les décès dus à la coqueluche se produisent dans 86 % des cas chez des nourrissons de moins de 4 mois. La stratégie du cocooning, c’est-à-dire la vaccination des adultes en étroit contact avec des nourrissons, est recommandée par de nombreuses agences mondiales et nationales, mais elle ne prévient probablement que 20 % des cas de coqueluche chez les nourrissons. La vaccination durant la grossesse est plus efficace, mais elle n’est pas encore approuvée au Canada. Il n’a pas été démontré que la vaccination à la naissance soit uniformément efficace et elle n’est donc pas recommandée à l’heure actuelle.

  16. COMMUNITY BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community Based Environmental Protection intends to make environmental protection spring from the needs and values of the community of interest. Real community involvement in protecting the environment requires a process in which the environmental needs of communities and ecosyst...

  17. Les astronomes européens auscultent les cieux avec le plus grand télescope du monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malbet, F.

    2008-09-01

    À l'heure des projets de télescopes extrêmement grands, l'Europe a déjà une longueur d'avance. Le télescope européen (VLT), en mode interférométrique avec l'instrument AMBER devient le plus grand télescope jamais utilisé dans le domaine optique aussi bien en surface de miroir (plus de 150 m2) qúen finesse de résolution qui atteint celle d'un télescope de 130 m de diamètre. Le journal professionnel Astronomy & Astrophysics a publié en 2007 un numéro spécial qui rapporte les premiers résultats obtenus avec l'instrument AMBER (Astronomical MultiBEam Recombiner) par le très grand télescope européen. Ces articles couvrent pratiquement tous les stades de l'évolution stellaire depuis la formation des étoiles et des planètes jusqu'a l'observation de l'explosion de type nova dans un système stellaire évolué. Ces résultats inédits ont été obtenus en utilisant simultanément 3 des 4 télescopes du VLT basés à l'Observatoire européen austral du mont Paranal au Chili. L'instrument AMBER équipant le VLTI (mode interférométrique du VLT) permet dâatteindre une résolution angulaire inégalée de l'ordre du millième de seconde d'angle autorisant l'observation des astres dans différentes longueurs d'onde, dans l'infrarouge proche. Les astronomes obtiennent donc des observations avec une finesse 13 fois plus importante que celle d'un télescope seul. Il devient alors possible de sonder les régions de formation de planètes, d'observer les vents des étoiles en rotation très rapide, d'étudier les différents types de matières éjectées par une étoile massive, de séparer les deux composantes d'une étoile double serrée et de voir en direct l'évolution d'une nova quelques jours seulement après son explosion.

  18. Les maladies chroniques non transmissibles chez les militaires sénégalais: étude transversale en 2013

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Ndiaye Abdoul; Mohamed, Seck Sidy; Badara, Tall Alioune; Boubacar, Gueye; Gallo, Sow Papa; Awa, Gaye; Anta, Tal-Dia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Les maladies chroniques non transmissibles (MCNT) constituent un problème de santé publique. La transition épidémiologique coexiste avec les maladies infectieuses. En Afrique subsaharienne, leur ampleur est peu connue et l'OMS recommande aux pays à faible et moyen revenu de réaliser des enquêtes STEPS portant sur les comportements, des mesures physiques et biochimiques. L'absence de données au niveau national justifie cette étude auprès d'un groupe spécifique. L'objectif de l’étude était de déterminer la prévalence des MCNT et de leurs facteurs de risque chez les militaires Sénégalais. Méthodes Une enquête transversale a été réalisée incluant les militaires âgés de 25 à 60 ans. La participation était volontaire et l'accord des autorités hiérarchiques a préalablement été obtenu. Un sondage stratifié à deux niveaux a été utilisé permettant d'avoir un échantillon ajusté de 1513 individus. Les données ont été saisies avec le logiciel EPI Info 6 et analysées à l'aide de R. Un score de risque a été déterminé sur la base de cinq facteurs. Résultats Les résultats préliminaires concernent 1125 personnes. L’âge moyen était de 39,7 ±9,1 ans et le sex-ratio de 28,6. La prévalence du tabagisme actif était de 17,3% et ne variait pas significativement entre les différentes catégories d’âge. L’âge moyen auquel ils ont commencé à fumer était de 20,8 ±4,05 ans. La consommation médiane de fruits et légumes était de l'ordre de 4 par jour et seulement 5,7% des enquêtés prenaient au moins 5 portions par jour. Environs 72% des enquêtés avaient une activité physique intense ou modérée. Les prévalences de la surcharge pondérale, de l'HTA et du diabète étaient de 30,5%, 28,4% et 3,0% respectivement alors que la maladie rénale chronique était retrouvée chez un seul cas. Le calcul du score de risque cardiovasculaire a montré que 39,1% des militaires étaient à risque élevé (≥3 facteurs

  19. Les recommandations thérapeutiques relatives aux effets secondaires extrapyramidaux associés à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Doja, Asif; Belanger, Stacey; Patten, Scott

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE ET OBJECTIF : L’utilisation d’antipsychotiques augmente chez les enfants. Le présent article visait à orienter les cliniciens quant à la prise en charge clinique des effets secondaires extrapyramidaux des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les publications, les entrevues avec des informateurs clés et des échanges avec les membres d’un groupe de discussion et les partenaires ont permis de déterminer les principaux secteurs cliniques d’orientation et les préférences quant à la structure des présentes recommandations. Les membres responsables des lignes directrices ont reçu le projet de recommandations, ont évalué l’information recueillie grâce à une analyse bibliographique systématique et ont utilisé un processus de groupe nominal pour parvenir à un consensus quant aux recommandations thérapeutiques. Les lignes directrices contiennent une description des anomalies neurologiques souvent observées avec l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques ainsi que les recommandations sur le moyen d’examiner et de quantifier ces anomalies. Une démarche séquentielle sur la prise en charge des anomalies neurologiques est présentée. RÉSULTATS : On peut observer plusieurs types de symptômes extrapyramidaux attribuables à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques chez les enfants, y compris la dystonie aiguë, l’akathisie, le parkinsonisme et la dyskinésie tardive, toutes induites par les neuroleptiques, de même que la dystonie tardive, l’akathisie tardive et les dyskinésies de sevrage. La forte majorité des données probantes sur le traitement des troubles du mouvement induits par les antipsychotiques proviennent de patients adultes atteints de schizophrénie. Étant donné le peu de données pédiatriques, les recommandations découlent de publications portant tant sur des adultes que sur des enfants. Compte tenu des limites de généralisation des données provenant de sujets adultes pour des enfants, il

  20. Lignes directrices simplifiées sur les lipides

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Lindblad, Adrienne J.; Comeau, Ann; Coppola, John; Hudson, Brianne; Mannarino, Marco; McMinis, Cindy; Padwal, Raj; Schelstraete, Christine; Zarnke, Kelly; Garrison, Scott; Cotton, Candra; Korownyk, Christina; McCormack, James; Nickel, Sharon; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Produire un guide de pratique clinique comportant une approche simplifiée à la prévention primaire des maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV), en insistant sur l’estimation du risque de MCV et la prise en charge des profils lipidiques à l’intention des cliniciens de soins primaires et leurs équipes; nous avons recherché la contribution de professionnels des soins primaires qui n’avaient que peu ou pas de conflits d’intérêts et nous nous sommes concentrés sur les données probantes de la plus haute qualité accessibles. Méthodes Neuf professionnels de la santé (4 médecins de famille, 2 internistes, 1 infirmière praticienne, 1 infirmière autorisée et 1 pharmacienne) et 1 membre non votant (pharmacienne gestionnaire de projet) formaient le comité principal appelé le Lipid Pathway Committee (le comité). La sélection des membres s’est fondée sur la profession, le milieu de pratique et son emplacement. Les membres ont divulgué tous leurs conflits d’intérêts potentiels ou réels. Le processus d’élaboration des lignes directrices était itératif et s’appuyait sur des affichages en ligne, une révision détaillée des données probantes, des réunions par téléphone et en ligne. Le comité a cerné 12 questions prioritaires à répondre. Le groupe de révision des données probantes a répondu à ces questions. À la suite d’un examen des réponses, les principales recommandations ont été formulées par consensus du comité. Nous avons produit une ébauche des lignes directrices qui a ensuite été peaufinée, distribuée à un groupe de cliniciens (médecins de famille, autres spécialistes, pharmaciens, infirmières et infirmières praticiennes) et à des patients pour obtenir de la rétroaction, la réviser en conséquence et le comité l’a ensuite finalisée. Recommandations Des recommandations sont présentées concernant le dépistage et les analyses, les évaluations du risque, le suivi, de même que le r

  1. Signal transduction in esophageal and LES circular muscle contraction.

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, K. M.; Cao, W.; Kim, N.; Sohn, U. D.; Rich, H.; Behar, J.; Biancani, P.

    1999-01-01

    Contraction of normal esophageal circular muscle (ESO) in response to acetylcholine (ACh) is linked to M2 muscarinic receptors activating at least three intracellular phospholipases, i.e., phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), phospholipase D (PLD), and the high molecular weight (85 kDa) cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) to induce phosphatidylcholine (PC) metabolism, production of diacylglycerol (DAG) and arachidonic acid (AA), resulting in activation of a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. In contrast, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) contraction induced by maximally effective doses of ACh is mediated by muscarinic M3 receptors, linked to pertussis toxin-insensitive GTP-binding proteins of the G(q/11) type. They activate phospholipase C, which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2), producing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and DAG. IP3 causes release of intracellular Ca++ and formation of a Ca++-calmodulin complex, resulting in activation of myosin light chain kinase and contraction through a calmodulin-dependent pathway. Signal transduction pathways responsible for maintenance of LES tone are quite distinct from those activated during contraction in response to maximally effective doses of agonists (e.g., ACh). Resting LES tone is associated with activity of a low molecular weight (approximately 14 kDa) pancreatic-like (group 1) secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) and production of arachidonic acid (AA), which is metabolized to prostaglandins and thromboxanes. These AA metabolites act on receptors linked to G-proteins to induce activation of PI- and PC-specific phospholipases, and production of second messengers. Resting LES tone is associated with submaximal PI hydrolysis resulting in submaximal levels of inositol trisphosphate (IP3-induced Ca++ release, and interaction with DAG to activate PKC. In an animal model of acute esophagitis, acid-induced inflammation alters the contractile pathway of ESO and LES. In LES circular

  2. Adaptive resolution LES of a reacting non-premixed jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantano, Carlos; Deiterding, Ralf; Hill, David; Pullin, Dale

    2004-11-01

    We present results of a turbulent reactive non-premixed jet using Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) performed within the blockstructured adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure AMROC. A fully compressible formulation of the transport equations and the stretched-vortex subgrid-stress model of Misra & Pullin (1997) are integrated with the assumed Beta subgrid pdf model for non-premixed combustion. Flamelet libraries are precomputed with the Cantera chemistry package. The modeling technique has been previously used and validated/verified in prior work, primarily for incompressible flows. One difficulty commonly encountered for these unstationary flows is the need to resolve certain regions of the flow field more finely than others. These can include thin shear layers and regions of steep density gradients produced by combustion. We show that adaptive resolution can be used successfully in the context of LES. This work is part of Caltech's ASC center supported by the Department of Energy (DOE).

  3. Tuberculose multifocale chez les immunocompétents

    PubMed Central

    Rezgui, Amel; Fredj, Fatma Ben; Mzabi, Anis; Karmani, Monia; Laouani, Chadia

    2016-01-01

    La tuberculose multifocale est définie par la l'atteinte d'au moins deux sites extra-pulmonaires associée ou non à une atteinte pulmonaire. On se propose d’étudier les différentes caractéristiques cliniques et évolutives de la tuberculose multifocale à travers une étude rétrospective de 10 cas. Parmi 41 cas de tuberculose colligés entre 1999 et 2013. Dix patients avaient une tuberculose multifocale, soit 24% des patients. Il s'agissait de 9 femmes et 1 homme d’âge moyen à 50 ans (30-68 ans). Nos patients étaient tous correctement vaccinés par le BCG. Un bilan à la recherche d'une éventuelle immunodépression fait pour tous les patients était négatif. Il s'agissait d'une tuberculose ganglionnaire dans 7 cas, digestive dans 3 cas, péricardique dans 2 cas, ostéo-articulaire dans 2 cas, cérébrale dans 1 cas, urinaire dans 2 cas, uro-génitale dans 4 cas, surrénalienne dans 1 cas, cutanée dans 1 cas et musculaire dans 1 cas. Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un traitement antituberculeux pour une durée moyenne de 10 mois avec bonne évolution. La tuberculose multifocale est une des maladies à diagnostic difficile. Elle peut toucher les immunocompétents mais son pronostic est souvent bon. Un traitement anti-tuberculeux doit être instauré le plus rapidement possible pour éviter les séquelles. PMID:27583077

  4. A standard format for Les Houches Event Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwall, J.; Ballestrero, A.; Bartalini, P.; Belov, S.; Boos, E.; Buckley, A.; Butterworth, J. M.; Dudko, L.; Frixione, S.; Garren, L.; Gieseke, S.; Gusev, A.; Hinchliffe, I.; Huston, J.; Kersevan, B.; Krauss, F.; Lavesson, N.; Lönnblad, L.; Maina, E.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M. L.; Moortgat, F.; Mrenna, S.; Papadopoulos, C. G.; Pittau, R.; Richardson, P.; Seymour, M. H.; Sherstnev, A.; Sjöstrand, T.; Skands, P.; Slabospitsky, S. R.; Waş, Z.; Webber, B. R.; Worek, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.

    2007-02-01

    A standard file format is proposed to store process and event information, primarily output from parton-level event generators for further use by general-purpose ones. The information content is identical with what was already defined by the Les Houches Accord five years ago, but then in terms of Fortran commonblocks. This information is embedded in a minimal XML-style structure, for clarity and to simplify parsing.

  5. La force de Casimir et les plasmons de surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intravaia, F.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.

    2004-11-01

    La présence de fluctuations irréductibles de champ dans le vide est une prédiction importante de la théorie quantique. Ces fluctuations ont de nombreux effets bien connus, dont l'archétype est la force de Casimir apparaîssant entre deux miroirs placés dans le vide par suite de la pression de radiation du vide. Elle a été récemment mesurée avec une précision de l'ordre du %. De nombreux travaux sont consacrés à l'évaluation théorique de cette force en visant une précision du même ordre. Ici nous étudions la force de Casimir dans la configuration de deux miroirs métalliques plans parallèles à température nulle. En supposant les miroirs décrits par un modèle plasma nous interprétons la force de Casimir comme le résultat de l'interaction entre les plasmons de surface des deux miroirs.

  6. Les fracture-luxations transolécraniennes

    PubMed Central

    Fahsi, Mohamed; Benameur, Hamza; El Andaloussi, Yassir; Bennouna, Driss; Fadili, Mustapha; Nechad, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Les fracture-luxations transolécraniennes sont une entité rare des fracture-luxations du coude. Il s'agit d'une lésion complexe qui peut compromettre le pronostic fonctionnel du coude. Dix patients étaient diagnostiqués dans notre service entre janvier 2005 et novembre 2012. Tous nos patients étaient de sexe masculin, l’âge moyen était de 29 ans. Les fractures de l'olécrane étaient complexes et comminutives dans sept cas et simples chez trois patients. Deux cas étaient associés à des fractures de la tête radiale (Mason III) et deux autres à des fractures de l'apophyse coronoïde. Les résultats étaient évalués après un recul moyen de trois ans et demi par le score de BROBERG et MORREY: trois cas étaient excellents, quatre bons, deux moyens et un mauvais. Cette lésion complexe nécessite une bonne reconstruction de la surface articulaire et une réparation des lésions associées pour permettre une rééducation précoce, seul garant d'une bonne récupération fonctionnelle. PMID:26664553

  7. DNS and LES of Separated Flows at Moderate Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadieux, F.; Domaradzki, J. A.; Sayadi, T.; Bose, S.; Duchaine, F.

    2012-11-01

    Flows in rotating machinery, for unmanned and micro aerial vehicles, wind turbines, and propellers consist of different flow regimes. First, a laminar boundary layer is followed by a laminar separation bubble with a shear layer on top of it that experiences transition to turbulence. Subsequently, the separated turbulent flow reattaches and evolves downstream from a nonequilibrium turbulent boundary layer to an equilibrium one. Typical RANS and LES turbulence modeling methods experience difficulties when simulating such flows because they were developed for fully developed turbulent flows. This currently leaves DNS as the only reliable but computationally expensive alternative. Our work assesses the capability of LES to reduce the resolution requirements for such flows. Flow over a flat plate with suitable velocity boundary conditions away from the plate to produce a separation bubble is considered. Benchmark DNS data for this configuration was generated with the resolution of 50 ×106 mesh points; also used was a different DNS database with 15 ×106 points reported by Spalart and Strelets in JFM 403 (2000). Employing two codes, one using structured and another unstructured mesh, we concluded that accurate LES are possible using O(1%) of the DNS resolution. Work performed during Stanford-CTR Summer Program 2012.

  8. Nonequilibrium Behavior of the Daytime Atmospheric Boundary Layer, from LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, Balaji; Brasseur, James; McCandless, Tyler; Haupt, Sue

    2014-11-01

    LES of the daytime atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over flat topography is universally developed as an equilibrium ABL with steady surface heat flux Q0 and steady unidirectional ``geostrophic'' wind vector Vg above a capping inversion, where Vg also defines a spatially uniform transverse mean pressure gradient. The LES approaches a quasiequilibrium state characterized statistically by the ratio of boundary layer depth to Obukhov length scale. In contrast, the true daytime ABL is driven by surface heat flux increases to peak mid-day and drops in the afternoon, and by mesoscale wind vectors Ug that change in magnitude and direction during the day. We study the consequences of mesoscale weather on ABL dynamics by forcing ABL LES with a WRF simulation of the Midwest during 3 days of frontal passage over Kansas. Assuming horizontal homogeneity, we derive the relationship between Ug and Vg and study ABL response with systematic variation in Q0 and the magnitude and direction of Ug. Interesting results include: (1) asymmetry nonequilibrium diurnal response of the ABL; (2) directional changes in surface layer winds relevant to wind turbine function; and (3) changes in ABL stability state arising solely from changes in the direction of Ug. Supported by DOE. Computer resources by NSF/XSEDE.

  9. Les astronomes de l'Empire du Milieu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    2007-02-01

    Explosions d'étoiles, comètes, durée du jour, taches solaires, dans tous ces domaines, des observations chinoises datant de plusieurs siècles sont encore utilisées aujourd'hui. Pendant plus de 4000 ans, les astronomes de l'Empire du Milieu, organisés dans les grands observatoires impériaux, ont noté jour après jour, mois après mois, avec la plus grande précision tous les phénomènes célestes. Et ce sont des milliers de textes couvrant des périodes depuis au moins le Ve siècle avant l'ère moderne jusqu'à fin de la dernière dynastie des Qing en 1911, qui ont été conservés et dont une grande partie n'a pu encore être véritablement étudiée. Un véritable trésor, malheureusement très mal connu en Europe et, de façon incompréhensible, largement ignoré par l'histoire moderne des sciences.

  10. Spectres d'absorption X dans les plasmas femtosecondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Audebert, P.; Renaudin, P.; Chenais-Popovics, C.; Geindre, J. P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Nagels-Silvert, V.; Shepherd, R.; Matsushima, I.; Gary, S.; Girard, F.; Peyrusse, O.; Gauthier, J. C.

    2005-06-01

    Nous avons mesuré le spectre d'absorption en couche K de plasmas d'aluminium à haute densité. Deux faisceaux de la chaîne laser femtoseconde 100 TW du LULI (de durée 300 fs) ont été utilisés pour produire le plasma absorbant sur une feuille mince d'Al (830 Å ou 500 Å), et la source de radiographie sur du samarium massif. Les spectres X étaient résolus spatialement dans une direction perpendiculaire à la direction de la dispersion spectrale. Les spectres ont été mesurés pour différents retards entre la source deradiographie et le plasma d'Al. Des simulations des spectres et de l'ionisation en fonction du temps et de l'intensité, obtenues au moyen de codes hydrodynamiques et de structure atomique, montrent un bon accord avec les résultats expérimentaux.

  11. Ventilation of idealised urban area, LES and wind tunnel experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukačka, L.; Fuka, V.; Nosek, Š.; Kellnerová, R.; Jaňour, Z.

    2014-03-01

    In order to estimate the ventilation of vehicle pollution within street canyons, a wind tunnel experiment and a large eddy simulation (LES) was performed. A model of an idealised urban area with apartment houses arranged to courtyards was designed according to common Central European cities. In the wind tunnel, we assembled a set-up for simultaneous measurement of vertical velocity and tracer gas concentration. Due to the vehicle traffic emissions modelling, a new line source of tracer gas was designed and built into the model. As a computational model, the LES model solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations was used. In this paper, we focused on the street canyon with the line source situated perpendicular to an approach flow. Vertical and longitudinal velocity components of the flow with the pollutant concentration were obtained from two horizontal grids placed in different heights above the street canyon. Vertical advective and turbulent pollution fluxes were computed from the measured data as ventilation characteristics. Wind tunnel and LES data were qualitatively compared. A domination of advective pollution transport within the street canyon was determined. However, the turbulent transport with an opposite direction to the advective played a significant role within and above the street canyon.

  12. Characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa recA gene: the Les- phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Kokjohn, T.A.; Miller, R.V.

    1988-02-01

    The Les- phenotype (lysogeny establishment deficient) is a pleiotropic effect of the lesB908 mutation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO. lesB908-containing strains are also (i) deficient in general recombination, (ii) sensitive to UV irradiation, and (iii) deficient in UV-stimulated induction of prophages. The P. aeruginosa recA-containing plasmid pKML3001 complemented each of these pleiotropic characteristics of the lesB908 mutation, supporting the hypothesis that lesB908 is an allele of the P. aeruginosa recA gene. The phenotypic effects of the lesB908 mutation may be best explained by the hypothesis that the lesB908 gene product is altered in such a way that it has lost synaptase activity but possesses intrinsic protease activity in the absence of DNA damage. The Les- phenotype is a result of the rapid destruction of newly synthesized phage repressor, resulting in lytic growth of the infecting virus. This hypothesis is consistent with the observations that increasing the number of copies of the phage repressor gene by increasing the multiplicity of infection (i.e., average number of phage genomes per cell) or by introducing the cloned phage repressor gene into a lesB908 mutant will also suppress the Les- phenotype in a phage-specific fashion.

  13. A unified RANS–LES model: Computational development, accuracy and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalan, Harish; Heinz, Stefan; Stöllinger, Michael K.

    2013-09-15

    Large eddy simulation (LES) is computationally extremely expensive for the investigation of wall-bounded turbulent flows at high Reynolds numbers. A way to reduce the computational cost of LES by orders of magnitude is to combine LES equations with Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations used in the near-wall region. A large variety of such hybrid RANS–LES methods are currently in use such that there is the question of which hybrid RANS-LES method represents the optimal approach. The properties of an optimal hybrid RANS–LES model are formulated here by taking reference to fundamental properties of fluid flow equations. It is shown that unified RANS–LES models derived from an underlying stochastic turbulence model have the properties of optimal hybrid RANS–LES models. The rest of the paper is organized in two parts. First, a priori and a posteriori analyses of channel flow data are used to find the optimal computational formulation of the theoretically derived unified RANS–LES model and to show that this computational model, which is referred to as linear unified model (LUM), does also have all the properties of an optimal hybrid RANS–LES model. Second, a posteriori analyses of channel flow data are used to study the accuracy and cost features of the LUM. The following conclusions are obtained. (i) Compared to RANS, which require evidence for their predictions, the LUM has the significant advantage that the quality of predictions is relatively independent of the RANS model applied. (ii) Compared to LES, the significant advantage of the LUM is a cost reduction of high-Reynolds number simulations by a factor of 0.07Re{sup 0.46}. For coarse grids, the LUM has a significant accuracy advantage over corresponding LES. (iii) Compared to other usually applied hybrid RANS–LES models, it is shown that the LUM provides significantly improved predictions.

  14. LES validation for contaminant transport in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertwig, D.; Leitl, B.; Schatzmann, M.; Patnaik, G.

    2010-09-01

    Contaminant transport in urban areas poses a major challenge with respect to its simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The use of time-resolved approaches like large-eddy simulation (LES) can provide insight into transient flow and dispersion regimes, which are strongly influenced by the urban geometry. LES models have the potential to resolve the characteristic unsteady flow features and their impact on plume dynamics, whereas standard industrial codes based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations can only yield steady state solutions. However, the potential to simulate the energetically dominating part of an inherently unsteady turbulent flow with LES also sets higher requirements for validation strategies. This includes that the evaluation of the model performance must go beyond comparisons of first and second order statistics which were adequate for RANS models and currently provide the basis for most of the validation metrics used as a standard. With regard to an a posteriori validation of model results for atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow and dispersion in complex geometry, laboratory data from boundary-layer wind tunnels are of special value. Since inflow and boundary conditions are well-defined, systematic laboratory studies provide high statistical confidence levels of measured quantities. The potential of field measurements - in this regard - is limited due to the natural atmospheric variability. In order to verify the realistic simulation of the spatio-temporal behavior of turbulent eddies, transient flow phenomena have to be characterized in experimental validation data sets as well. This topic is closely linked to structure identification and the characterization of organized motions in ABL flows, for which advanced analysis strategies like wavelet transforms, orthogonal decomposition, or stochastic estimation can be employed. Systematic comparisons of wind-tunnel measurements and LES simulation results are planned

  15. Dissolution de la matiere lignocellulosique dans les liquides ioniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebiere, Jeremy

    De nos jours, avec la raréfaction des ressources fossiles, le développement de procédés entrant dans le cadre de la chimie verte s'accentue. De plus, ces procédés utilisent comme ressources, des matériaux d'origine végétale, abondants et biodégradables. Au cours de ces 20 dernières années, la littérature utilisant les liquides ioniques (LI) connait une importante croissance. Ces solvants sont de plus en plus employés dans des réactions chimiques classiques. Cependant le coût de leur synthèse en fait un solvant réactionnel cher dont l'application en tant que tel dans l'industrie ne peut être raisonnablement envisagée. Ces liquides ioniques permettent la dissolution des matériaux lignocellulosiques (lignine ou cellulose) et possèdent des propriétés physico-chimiques intéressantes. Nous savons également que la dissolution de la cellulose par des procédés d'hydrolyse classique s'effectue dans des conditions dures, dues à la structure cristalline de la cellulose, (fortes concentrations en acide) qui paraissent limitées pour une utilisation à grande échelle. Il est donc nécessaire de rechercher des méthodes moins onéreuses et plus efficaces écologiquement. S'appuyant sur des recherches démontrant que la dissolution de la cellulose dans les LI, diminue la cristallinité de la cellulose, nous allons chercher à démontrer au cours de ces travaux, la possibilité d'utiliser les LI comme moyen de prétraitement pour la dissolution de la cellulose. Nous allons nous attacher à dissoudre la cellulose, et à étudier les proportions pouvant être dissoutes. Puis nous chercherons à récupérer puis à réutiliser ces LI. Enfin nous cherchons à caractériser les modifications apportées à notre cellulose. Mots Clés liquide ionique, cellulose, cristallinité, réactivité, dissolution, régénération, non-solvant, purification, prétraitement, zone amorphe.

  16. Les sarcomes des tissus mous: à propos de 33 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Jiddou; Elkabous, Mustapha; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est de rapporter les particularités épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, thérapeutiques et évolutives des sarcomes des tissus mous à l'Institut National d'Oncologie et de définir les facteurs influençant la survie des patients. C'est une étude rétrospective de 33 cas de sarcome des tissus mous, colligés entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2010. Les critères d’éligibilité étaient un âge supérieur à 16 ans, une épreuve histologique d'un sarcome des tissus mous à l'exclusion des tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales (GIST). Les items recueillis étaient: épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, Radiologiques, et thérapeutiques. Des analyses univariées puis multivariées ont été réalisées à la recherche de facteurs influençant la survie à 2 ans. Il s'agit de 33 cas, 17 Hommes et 16 Femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,21 ans (Extrêmes= 18-76 ans). La tumeur était localisée aux extrémités dans 24 cas (72,72%). Le type histologique prédominant était le Liposarcome dans 9 cas (27,27%). Le stade tumoral était localisé dans 25 cas (75,8%), métastatique dans 8 cas (24,2%). Vingt-cinq tumeurs ont été traitées chirurgicalement dont 21 cas (84%) de chirurgie conservatrice et 4 cas (16%) de chirurgie radicale. La radiothérapie a été réalisée chez 10 patients (30,3%). La chimiothérapie a été faite chez 20 patients. En analyse univariée les facteurs pronostiques étaient l’âge (p=0,03) et le stade tumoral (p=0,09). L’âge et le stade tumoral sont des facteurs pronostiques influençant la survie des sarcomes des tissus mous. PMID:27022434

  17. Hémogramme chez les hypertendus vus au laboratoire du CHU-HJRB d'Antananarivo en 2013

    PubMed Central

    Rakotovao-Ravahatra, Zafindrasoa Domoina; Randriatsarafara, Fidiniaina Mamy; Razafimanantsoa, Fetralinjiva; Rabetokotany, Felana Ranaivo; Rakotovao, Andriamiadana Luc

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L'hémogramme est un bilan biologique de routine demandé chez tout patient souffrant d'Hypertension Artérielle (HTA). Cette étude se propose de décrire les résultats d'hémogramme chez les hypertendus et d'identifier les pathologies associées. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective type descriptif s’étalant du 01 Décembre 2012 au 31 Décembre 2013 au laboratoire du Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Hôpital Joseph Raseta Befelatanana (CHU-HJRB) d'Antananarivo. Tous les registres des résultats des hypertendus demandant un hémogramme ont été exploités. Résultats Parmi les 151 hypertendus, 91 (60,3%) ont présenté des hémogrammes pathologiques. Parmi ces derniers, 64 (70,4%) ont montré un seul type d'anomalie et 27 (29,6%) des anomalies multiples. Les anémies (33,91%), les hyperleucocytoses (33,04%), les polyglobulies (10,43%) et les leucopénies (9,57%) sont les plus fréquentes. Pour les anomalies multiples, les anémies associées aux hyperleucocytoses sont les plus observées (29,6%). Les anémies microcytaires (41%) et les hyperleucocytoses à polynucléaires neutrophiles sont les plus dominantes (47,4%). Les patients hospitalisés en néphrologie (90%) et en endocrinologie (81,3%) sont les plus concernés (p = 0,008). Les hypertendus moins de 20 ans (100%) et les femmes (61,5%) sont les plus affectés (p > 0,05). Les crises convulsives (100%), les œdèmes des membres inférieurs (100%) et le diabète (70%) sont les signes et pathologies associés les plus rencontrés (p > 0,05). Conclusion L'hémogramme doit être prescrit chez tout patient hypertendu pour connaître les affections sous-jacentes qui seront traitées simultanément avec l'HTA. Ainsi, le patient hypertendu sera pris en charge convenablement et son espérance de vie sera améliorée. PMID:27217875

  18. Les carcinomes epidermoïdes du scrotum: à propos de 7 cas avec revue de la litterature

    PubMed Central

    Halfya, Ayoub; Elmortaji, Khalid; Redouane, Rabii; fethi, Meziane; Rafik, Amine; Mohamed, Ezzoubi; Abdessamad, Chlihi

    2015-01-01

    Quoique rare le carcinome épidermoïde du scrotum a un mauvais pronostic. Les Carcinomes du scrotum induite et - liées au travail sont moins fréquentes en raison d'une meilleure hygiène, vêtements de protection, et la sensibilisation de la cancérogénicité des huiles industrielles. L’épidémie à l'HPV a induit une augmentation de l'incidence. Le traitement de dépend toujours exérèse locale de la lésion primaire. La radiothérapie a peu de bénéfice thérapeutique dans le traitement d'un carcinome épidermoïde du scrotum. La bléomycine peut être utile comme traitement adjuvant pour les maladies ilio-inguinal généralisée avant la tentative exérèse, même si cela n'a pas encore été prouvé. Entre janvier 2011 au 1er janvier 2013, 7 patients atteints de carcinome épidermoïde ont été pris en charge, Trois patients ont présenté une localisation ganglionnaire. Les sept patients ont eu un traitement chirurgical par exérèse large avec reconstruction, Deux patients ont été adressé pour chimiothérapie.2 patients ont présenté une récidive, dont un est décédé. PMID:26113906

  19. Etude de l'effet du gonflement par les solvants sur les proprietes du caoutchouc butyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohile, Cedrick

    Polymers and in particular elastomers are widely used for personal protective equipment against chemical and biological hazards. Among them, butyl rubber is one of the most effective elastomers against chemicals. However, if this rubber has a very good resistance to a wide range of them, it is sensitive to non polar solvents. These solvents will easily swell the material and may dramatically affect its properties. This situation may involve a large risk for. butyl rubber protective equipment users. It is thus essential to improve the understanding of the effect of solvents on the properties of butyl rubber. The research that was carried out had two objectives: to identify the parameters controlling the resistance of butyl rubber to solvents and to study the effect of swelling on the properties of butyl rubber. The results show that the resistance of butyl rubber to solvents appears to be controlled by three main parameters: the chemical class of the solvent, its saturation vapor pressure and its molar volume. In addition, swelling affects butyl rubber mechanical properties in a permanent way. The effects can be attributed to the extraction of plasticizers by the solvent and to the degradation of the physico-chemical structure of the polymer network. This chemical degradation was linked to a phenomenon of differential swelling which seems to be controlled by the solvent flow inside the material. These results question some general beliefs within the field of protection against chemical risks. They also open new perspectives for the development of predictive tools relative to the behavior of butyl rubber in the presence of solvents

  20. Comparison of linear and nonlinear subgrid scale model for hybrid RANS/LES modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Petr

    2016-06-01

    The contribution deals with application of the hybrid RANS/LES model for calculation of flow around the circular cylinder. Used hybrid RANS/LES model is based on transport equation for the kinetic energy which is shared in both RANS and LES modes. The linear and the nonlinear closure formulas are described in the paper. Numerical results are compared with the experimental data. Results show that the nonlinear model predicts development of the wake behind the cylinder better than the linear model.

  1. L’évaluation du risque cardiaque avant l’utilisation de stimulants chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, SA; Warren, AE; Hamilton, RM; Gray, C; Gow, RM; Sanatani, S; Côté, J-M; Lougheed, J; LeBlanc, J; Martin, S; Miles, B; Mitchell, C; Gorman, DA; Weiss, M; Schachar, R

    2009-01-01

    Les décisions en matière de réglementation et les documents scientifiques au sujet de la prise en charge du trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH) soulèvent des questions quant à l’innocuité des médicaments et à l’évaluation convenable à effectuer avant le traitement afin de déterminer la pertinence d’une pharmacothérapie. Ce constat est particulièrement vrai en présence de cardiopathies structurelles ou fonctionnelles. Le présent article contient l’analyse des données disponibles, y compris les publications révisées par des pairs, des données tirées du site Web de la Food and Drug Administration des États-Unis au sujet des réactions indésirables déclarées chez des enfants qui prennent des stimulants, ainsi que des données de Santé Canada sur le même problème. Des lignes directrices consensuelles sur l’évaluation pertinente sont proposées d’après l’apport des membres de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie, de la Société canadienne de cardiologie et de l’Académie canadienne de psychiatrie de l’enfant et de l’adolescent, qui possèdent notamment des compétences et des connaissances précises tant dans le secteur du TDAH que de la cardiologie pédiatrique. Le présent document de principes prône une anamnèse et un examen physique détaillés avant la prescription de stimulants et s’attarde sur le dépistage des facteurs de risque de mort subite, mais il ne contient pas de recommandations systématiques de dépistage électrocardiographique ou de consultations avec un spécialiste en cardiologie, à moins que les antécédents ou que l’examen physique ne le justifient. Le document contient un questionnaire pour repérer les enfants potentiellement vulnérables à une mort subite (quel que soit le type de TDAH ou les médicaments utilisés pour le traiter). Même si les recommandations dépendent des meilleures données probantes disponibles, le comité s’entend pour affirmer que

  2. Personal protective equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... protective equipment. Available at: www.cdc.gov/niosh/ppe . Accessed October 27, 2015. Holland MG, Cawthon D. Personal protective equipment and decontamination of adults and children. Emerg Med Clin N ...

  3. MSFC Respiratory Protection Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    CoVan, James P.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Marshall Space Flight Center Respiratory Protection program is provided in this poster display. Respiratory protection personnel, building, facilities, equipment, customers, maintenance and operational activities, and Dynatech fit testing details are described and illustrated.

  4. Medicare Rights and Protections

    MedlinePlus

    CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Medicare Rights & Protections This official government booklet has important information about: Your rights & protections in: ■ ■ Original Medicare ■ ■ Medicare Advantage Plan or other Medicare health ...

  5. Protecting Children's Online Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kresses, Mamie

    2001-01-01

    Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)

  6. Le gingembre contre la nausée et les vomissements de la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Lindblad, Adrienne J.; Koppula, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Question clinique Le gingembre peut-il traiter la nausée et les vomissements de la grossesse? Résultats Durant le premier trimestre, le gingembre soulagerait la nausée et les vomissements de quelque 4 points sur une échelle de 40 points, ou éliminerait les vomissements chez 1 femme sur 3 au jour 6. L’étude la plus vaste ne laisse croire à aucune hausse des malformations congénitales ou de la mortinatalité, mais les études de moins grande envergure laissent croire le contraire.

  7. La planification préalable des soins pour les patients en pédiatrie

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les progrès médicaux et technologiques ont permis d’ac-croître les taux de survie et d’améliorer la qualité de vie des nourrissons, des enfants et des adolescents ayant des maladies chroniques mettant la vie en danger. La planifi-cation préalable des soins inclut le processus relié aux discussions sur les traitements essentiels au maintien de la survie et la détermination des objectifs des soins de longue durée. Les dispensateurs de soins pédiatriques ont l’obligation éthique d’assimiler cet aspect des soins médicaux. Le présent document de principes vise à aider les dispensateurs de soins à discuter de la planification préalable des soins des patients pédiatriques dans diverses situations. La planification préalable des soins exige des communications efficaces afin de clarifier les objectifs des soins et de s’entendre sur les traitements pertinents ou non pour réaliser ces objectifs, y compris les mesures de réanimation et les mesures palliatives.

  8. Corium protection assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A corium protection assembly includes a perforated base grid disposed below a pressure vessel containing a nuclear reactor core and spaced vertically above a containment vessel floor to define a sump therebetween. A plurality of layers of protective blocks are disposed on the grid for protecting the containment vessel floor from the corium.

  9. Careers in Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Reed

    The book presents concerns of our society in protecting our environment and the challenges involved in meaningful careers in environmental protection and management. "Estimates by the Environmental Protection Agency indicate that, compared with their numbers in the mid-'70's, the need for environmental professionals will triple by 1980.'" In a…

  10. Une vie saine et active : des directives en matière d’activité physique chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lipnowski, Stan; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ L’épidémie d’obésité juvénile augmente partout dans le monde. Même si les facteurs de risque d’obésité sont multifactoriels, bon nombre sont liés au mode de vie et se prêtent à une intervention. Ces facteurs incluent le comportement sédentaire et la thermogenèse sans activité physique, de même que la fréquence, l’intensité, la quantité et le type d’activité physique. Les dispensateurs de soins de première ligne sont en position idéale pour surveiller le taux d’activité physique des enfants, des adolescents et de leur famille, évaluer les choix liés au mode de vie et offrir des conseils pertinents. Le présent document de principes contient des directives visant à réduire le comportement sédentaire et à accroître le taux d’activité physique au sein de la population pédiatrique. Des recommandations d’activités physiques adaptées au développement et visant les nourrissons, les tout-petits, les enfants d’âge préscolaire, les enfants et les adolescents sont présentées. Des stratégies de promotion d’une vie saine et active sur les scènes locale, municipale, provinciale, territoriale et fédérale sont proposées.

  11. Transition de phase quantique de type verrouillage-deverrouillage dans les canaux lineaires coherents des phases en rayures dans les doubles puits quantiques sous champ magnetique perpendiculaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faribault, Alexandre

    On peut creer un gaz electronique bidimensionnel en utilisant le potentiel de confinement d'une couche mince d'un semiconducteur dans un substrat fait d'une autre semiconducteur de gap plus eleve. L'ajout d'un champ magnetique perpendiculaire au plan de confinement modifie de facon drastique les proprietes du gaz electronique. Pour des densites et des valeurs du champ magnetique adequatement choisies, on obtient un etat fondamental en onde de densite de charge. Dans un systeme compose de deux de ces gaz bidimensionnels suffisamment rapproches l'un de l'autre, on prevoit theoriquement l'existence d'un etat fondamental compose d'une onde de densite de charge dans chacun des puits et d'une serie de regions lineaires ou l'on a une delocalisation coherente des electrons entre les deux puits. Dans cette these, on etudie le comportement a temperature nulle de cet etat fondamental en rayures coherentes. L'etude numerique des modes collectifs de ces phases laisse croire qu'un deverrouillage des canaux coherents est envisageable dans ce systeme. Afin d'etudier cette possibilite, nous construisons d'abord un modele effectif de canaux quasi-unidimensionnels couples qui permettent de reproduire correctement les excitations collectives a basse energie de la phase en rayures coherentes du double puits quantique. Dans un systeme de coordonnees adequatement choisi, ces excitations peuvent etre decrites par des ondes de pseudospin. Les parametres de ce modele effectif simple peuvent etre extraits des calculs des fonctions de reponse realises dans l'approximation Hartree-Fock dependante du temps (appelee aussi Generalized Random Phase Approximation). On constate l'efficacite de ce modele a decrire la dynamique basse energie du systeme pour une certaine plage de distances inter-puits. En retirant de ce modele les contributions a l'hamiltonien provenant des couplages de type Josephson entre les canaux, on obtient alors un systeme ou les canaux sont deverrouilles. Un traitement en

  12. L’acétaminophène chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Question Je suggère fréquemment aux parents d’utiliser de l’acétaminophène comme traitement de la fièvre et de la douleur pour leurs enfants. J’ai récemment reçu un enfant à mon cabinet qui s’est présenté avec une éruption cutanée sous forme de lésions en cibles une journée après avoir pris de l’acétaminophène. L’éruption s’est résorbée 3 jours après qu’on ait arrêté l’administration d’acétaminophène. L’acétaminophène comporte-t-elle des risques d’événements indésirables comme celui-ci? Réponse Comme les autres médicaments ou substances actives, les préparations d’acétaminophène pourraient poser des risques d’événements indésirables. Au cours des dernières années, on a procédé à une investigation concernant une association potentielle entre l’acétaminophène et l’asthme et la Food and Drug Administration des États-Unis a récemment publié un avertissement à propos de réactions cutanées éventuelles, graves mais rares, associées à l’acétaminophène. Même si l’acétaminophène est principalement un médicament sûr, les professionnels de la santé devraient être alertes et informer les parents à propos de la possibilité d’événements indésirables rares mais sévères.

  13. Toward a Model-Based Approach to Flight System Fault Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, John; Murray, Alex; Meakin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Fault Protection (FP) is a distinct and separate systems engineering sub-discipline that is concerned with the off-nominal behavior of a system. Flight system fault protection is an important part of the overall flight system systems engineering effort, with its own products and processes. As with other aspects of systems engineering, the FP domain is highly amenable to expression and management in models. However, while there are standards and guidelines for performing FP related analyses, there are not standards or guidelines for formally relating the FP analyses to each other or to the system hardware and software design. As a result, the material generated for these analyses are effectively creating separate models that are only loosely-related to the system being designed. Development of approaches that enable modeling of FP concerns in the same model as the system hardware and software design enables establishment of formal relationships that has great potential for improving the efficiency, correctness, and verification of the implementation of flight system FP. This paper begins with an overview of the FP domain, and then continues with a presentation of a SysML/UML model of the FP domain and the particular analyses that it contains, by way of showing a potential model-based approach to flight system fault protection, and an exposition of the use of the FP models in FSW engineering. The analyses are small examples, inspired by current real-project examples of FP analyses.

  14. Fire Protection Program Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  15. Grid Effects on LES Thermo-Acoustic Limit-Cycle of a Full Annular Aeronautical Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Pierre; Gicquel, Laurent Y. M.; Staffelbach, Gabriel; Poinsot, Thierry

    Recent developments in large scale computer architectures allow Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to be considered for the prediction of turbulent reacting flows in geometries encountered in industry. To do so, various difficulties must be overcome and the first one is to ensure that proper meshes can be used for LES. Indeed, the quality of meshes is known to be a critical factor in LES of reacting flows. This issue becomes even more crucial when LES is used to compute large configurations such as full annular combustion chambers. Various analysis of mesh effects on LES results have been published before but all are limited to single-sector computational domains. However, real annular gas-turbine engines contain ten to twenty of such sectors and LES must also be used in such full chambers for the study of ignition or azimuthal thermo-acoustic interactions. Instabilities (mostly azimuthal modes involving the full annular geometry) remain a critical issue to aeronautical or power-generation industries and LES seems to be a promising path to properly apprehend such complex unsteady couplings. Based on these observations, mesh effects on LES in a full annular gas-turbine combustion chamber (including its casing) is studied here in the context of its azimuthal thermo-acoustic response. To do so, a fully compressible, multi-species reacting LES is used on two meshes yielding two fully unsteady turbulent reacting predictions of the same configuration. The two tetrahedra meshes contain respectively 38 and 93 millions cells. Limit-cycles as obtained by the two LES are gauged against each other for various flow quantities such as mean velocity profiles, flame position and temperature fields. The thermo-acoustic limit-cycles are observed to be relatively indepedent of the grid resolution which comforts the use of LES tools to provide insights and understanding of the mechanisms triggering the coupling between the system acoustic eigenmodes and combustion.

  16. La prévention des blessures dans les terrains de jeux

    PubMed Central

    Fuselli, Pamela; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Dans un climat d’inquiétude croissante à l’égard de l’obésité juvénile et de l’inactivité, les terrains de jeux permettent aux enfants d’être actifs. Ils comportent toutefois aussi des risques, les blessures causées par des chutes étant de loin les plus courants. Les recherches démontrent la possibilité de réduire les blessures dans les terrains de jeux si on abaisse la hauteur des structures de jeu et si on utilise des surfaces molles et profondes pour amortir les chutes. L’Association canadienne de normalisation a publié des normes volontaires qu’elle a mises à jour plusieurs fois pour tenir compte de ces risques. Afin de contribuer à les réduire, les parents peuvent respecter des stratégies simples. Le présent document de principes souligne le fardeau des blessures subies dans les terrains de jeux. Il procure également aux parents et aux dispensateurs de soins des occasions de réduire l’incidence et la gravité des blessures grâce à l’éducation et à la défense d’intérêts, ainsi que de mettre en œuvre des normes de sécurité probantes et des stratégies plus sécuritaires dans les terrains de jeux locaux. Enfin, il remplace le document de principes de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie publié en 2002 sur le sujet.

  17. Les recommandations de prise en charge des complications métaboliques associées aux antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Josephine; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; McCrindle, Brian; Grisaru, Silviu; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : Les antipsychotiques de deuxième génération s’associent souvent à des complications métaboliques. Ces médicaments sont utilisés plus souvent pour le traitement des troubles de santé mentale chez les enfants, ce qui a requis l’élaboration de lignes directrices officielles sur la surveillance de leur innocuité et de leur efficacité. Des lignes directrices ont déjà été élaborées pour surveiller les complications métaboliques et neurologiques. Afin d’aider les praticiens qui effectuent ces interventions de surveillance, une série de recommandations thérapeutiques complémentaires a été élaborée pour les cas où l’on observe des mesures ou des résultats anormaux. OBJECTIF : Créer des recommandations probantes afin de contribuer à la prise en charge des complications métaboliques chez les enfants traités au moyen d’antipsychotiques de deuxième génération. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les auteurs ont procédé à une analyse systématique des publications sur les complications métaboliques des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants. Les membres du groupe consensuel ont évalué l’information recueillie grâce à l’analyse bibliographique systématique et ont fait appel à un processus de groupe nominal pour parvenir à un consensus à l’égard de recommandations thérapeutiques. Dans la mesure du possible, ils se sont reportés aux lignes directrices existantes sur l’évaluation et le traitement des anomalies métaboliques chez les enfants. RÉSULTATS : Des recommandations probantes sont présentées pour contribuer à la prise en charge des complications métaboliques, y compris la prise de poids, l’augmentation du tour de taille, l’élévation des taux de prolactine, de cholestérol, de triglycérides et de glucose, les épreuves de fonction hépatique anormales et les études thyroïdiennes anormales. CONCLUSION : Il faut recourir à des mesures de surveillance convenables lorsqu’on prescrit

  18. Office for Human Research Protections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Office for Human Research Protections The Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) provides leadership in the protection of the rights, welfare, and wellbeing of human subjects involved in ...

  19. LES of Langmuir supercells under constant crosswind tidal forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Rachel; Zhang, Jie; Juha, Mario; Gosch, Chester; Tejada-Martinez, Andres

    2015-11-01

    We report on the impact of a crosswind tidal current on Langmuir supercells (LSCs) in shallow water computed via LES. LSCs consist of parallel counter rotating vortices engulfing the water column in unstratified conditions. These cells have been observed in shallow continental shelf regions of ~15 meters depth during the passage of storms. The cells are aligned roughly in the wind direction and are generated by the interaction of the wind-driven shear current with the Stokes drift velocity induced by surface gravity waves. Without tides, LES reveals that the typical crosswind width of a LSC is ~4 times the water column depth (H). Under a relatively weak crosswind tidal current (weaker than the downwind current), the constant crosswind tidal forcing applied causes a merging of cells leading to cells of width ~8H. The opposite occurs under a crosswind tidal current stronger than the downwind current as the constant crosswind tidal force is able to break up the LSCs giving rise to smaller scale cells with different turbulent structure than that associated with LSC. Statistics of the turbulence during strong and weak crosswind tides will be contrasted and implications of an oscillating crosswind tidal force will be discussed. Support from the US National Science Foundation and the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative is gratefully acknowledged.

  20. LES with wall models for trailing-edge flow prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Cabot, William; Moin, Parviz

    1999-11-01

    Large-eddy simulation of wall-bounded turbulent flows becomes formidably expensive at high Reynolds numbers, unless the severe near-wall resolution requirement is removed though the use of a suitable wall model. The applicability of this approach to complex turbulent flows with separation is assessed by considering turbulent boundary layer flows past an asymmetric trailing-edge and the associated aeroacoustics. A simple stress balance model coupled with a mixing-length eddy viscosity, with or without pressure gradient imposed from the outer LES solution, is found to predict velocity statistics fairly well compared with those from the resolved LES, at less than 10 % of the original computational cost. In particular, the separation point near the trailing-edge is predicted correctly. The pressure gradient term is found necessary for the model to capture the correct behavior of the wall shear-stress in the favorable pressure gradient region. Numerical experiments using more elaborate wall models based on approximate boundary layer equations are underway. The effect of wall-modeling on the prediction of surface pressure fluctuations and noise radiation is investigated, and the results will be discussed.

  1. High speed turbulent reacting flows: DNS and LES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Givi, Peyman

    1990-01-01

    Work on understanding the mechanisms of mixing and reaction in high speed turbulent reacting flows was continued. Efforts, in particular, were concentrated on taking advantage of modern computational methods to simulate high speed turbulent flows. In doing so, two methodologies were used: large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS). In the work related with LES the objective is to study the behavior of the probability density functions (pdfs) of scalar properties within the subgrid in reacting turbulent flows. The data base obtained by DNS for a detailed study of the pdf characteristics within the subgrid was used. Simulations are performed for flows under various initializations to include the effects of compressibility on mixing and chemical reactions. In the work related with DNS, a two-dimensional temporally developing high speed mixing layer under the influence of a second-order non-equilibrium chemical reaction of the type A + B yields products + heat was considered. Simulations were performed with different magnitudes of the convective Mach numbers and with different chemical kinetic parameters for the purpose of examining the isolated effects of the compressibility and the heat released by the chemical reactions on the structure of the layer. A full compressible code was developed and utilized, so that the coupling between mixing and chemical reactions is captured in a realistic manner.

  2. LES on unstructured deforming meshes: Towards reciprocating IC engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, D. C.; Jansen, K.

    1996-01-01

    A variable explicit/implicit characteristics-based advection scheme that is second-order accurate in space and time has been developed recently for unstructured deforming meshes (O'Rourke & Sahota 1996a). To explore the suitability of this methodology for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES), three subgrid-scale turbulence models have been implemented in the CHAD CFD code (O'Rourke & Sahota 1996b): a constant-coefficient Smagorinsky model, a dynamic Smagorinsky model for flows having one or more directions of statistical homogeneity, and a Lagrangian dynamic Smagorinsky model for flows having no spatial or temporal homogeneity (Meneveau et al. 1996). Computations have been made for three canonical flows, progressing towards the intended application of in-cylinder flow in a reciprocating engine. Grid sizes were selected to be comparable to the coarsest meshes used in earlier spectral LES studies. Quantitative results are reported for decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence, and for a planar channel flow. Computations are compared to experimental measurements, to Direct-Numerical Simulation (DNS) data, and to Rapid-Distortion Theory (RDT) where appropriate. Generally satisfactory evolution of first and second moments is found on these coarse meshes; deviations are attributed to insufficient mesh resolution. Issues include mesh resolution and computational requirements for a specified level of accuracy, analytic characterization of the filtering implied by the numerical method, wall treatment, and inflow boundary conditions. To resolve these issues, finer-mesh simulations and computations of a simplified axisymmetric reciprocating piston-cylinder assembly are in progress.

  3. LES of an ignition sequence in a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Boileau, M.; Staffelbach, G.; Cuenot, B.; Poinsot, T.; Berat, C.

    2008-07-15

    Being able to ignite or reignite a gas turbine engine in a cold and rarefied atmosphere is a critical issue for many manufacturers. From a fundamental point of view, the ignition of the first burner and the flame propagation from one burner to another are phenomena that are usually not studied. The present work is a large eddy simulation (LES) of these phenomena. To simulate a complete ignition sequence in an annular chamber, LES has been applied to the full 360 geometry, including 18 burners. This geometry corresponds to a real gas turbine chamber. Massively parallel computing (700 processors on a Cray XT3 machine) was essential to perform such a large calculation. Results show that liquid fuel injection has a strong influence on the ignition times. Moreover, the rate of flame progress from burner to burner is much higher than the turbulent flame speed due to a major effect of thermal expansion. This flame speed is also strongly modified by the main burner aerodynamics due to the swirled injection. Finally, the variability of the combustor sectors and quadrant ignition times is highlighted. (author)

  4. Investigation of pressure gradient aware wall modeling in LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, Olivier; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Duponcheel, Matthieu

    2015-11-01

    This work focuses on the investigation of various wall modeling strategies for the simulation of high Reynolds number wall-bounded turbulent flows with acceleration and/or deceleration. Our code is based on fourth order finite differences, is momentum conserving, and is energy conserving up to fourth order. We here use a ``channel flow'' set-up, with no slip and wall modeling at the bottom, with slip at the top, and with blowing and/or suction at the top in order to generate the desired acceleration-deceleration profile. Two strategies are investigated and compared. Pressure gradient corrected algebraic models are first considered, and we investigate various local averaging techniques so as to avoid imposing mean profile laws pointwise. RANS sub-layer models are then also considered, where the turbulent viscosity is corrected to account for pressure gradient effects and for resolved LES fluctuations effects. A wall-resolved LES was also performed to provide a reference solution. Research fellow (Ph.D. student) at the F.R.S. - FNRS (Belgium).

  5. Les médicaments à libération prolongée pour les enfants et les adolescents ayant un trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, M; Bélanger, S

    2009-01-01

    Le trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH) touche un enfant canadien sur 20 et s’associe à un dossier scolaire et à un registre d’emploi défavorables, à des taux élevés de blessures et de consommation de drogues ou d’alcool, à des relations interpersonnelles médiocres, à de mauvaises issues en santé mentale et à une qualité de vie insatisfaisante. Des essais contrôlés démontrent que les médica-ments sont efficaces pour traiter les symptômes de TDAH tandis que des études d’observation indiquent qu’ils s’associent à de meilleures issues sociales et de santé. De nombreuses familles, ainsi que leur médecin traitant, préfèrent les médicaments à libération prolongée (LP) contre le TDAH aux médicaments à libération immédiate (LI) et à action brève. Toutefois, les préparations à LP sont souvent inabor-dables pour les familles, dont un nombre disproportionné fait partie de la strate à faible statut socioéconomique. Le présent document de principes vise à proposer une évaluation critique des données probantes sur l’efficacité relative des médicaments à LP par rapport aux médicaments à LI ainsi que des recommandations au sujet de leur utilisation convenable dans le traitement du TDAH. Lorsque les médicaments sont indiqués, il faut envisager d’utiliser des préparations à LP comme traitement de première intention contre le TDAH parce qu’elles sont plus efficaces et moins susceptibles d’être détournées. Les futures recherches et les analyses coûts-avantages doivent tenir compte à la fois de l’efficacité de médicaments dans des études contrôlées et de leur efficacité clinique en situation réelle ainsi que du potentiel de détournement et de mésusage de ces médicaments. L’industrie, les sociétés d’assurance et le gouvernement doivent collaborer pour rendre ces médicaments accessibles à tous les enfants et adolescents ayant un TDAH.

  6. Resilience from coastal protection.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. PMID:26392613

  7. Strategies for comparing LES and experimental data of urban turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertwig, D.; Nguyen van yen, R.; Patnaik, G.; Leitl, B.

    2012-12-01

    Unsteady flow within and above built environments is an important example of the complex nature of near-surface atmospheric turbulence. Typically, obstacle-resolving micro-scale meteorological models based on the Reynolds-averaged conservation equations are adopted to investigate and predict the mean-states of urban flow phenomena. The rapid advancements in computer capacities, however, fostered the use of time-resolved approaches like large-eddy simulation (LES) for applications on the urban micro-scale. LES has the potential to provide a realistic picture of the spatio-temporal behavior of turbulent flows within and above the urban canopy layer, which cannot be easily achieved with classic in-situ micro-meteorological measurements. The further success of eddy-resolving techniques, however, is coupled to the critical assessment of the model performance in terms of a rigorous validation against suitable reference data. This task is particularly challenging with regard to the time-dependent nature of the problem and the need to verify whether the model predicts turbulence structures in a realistic way. In this study, a hierarchy of validation strategies for urban LES flow fields is formulated and systematically applied. The test case is neutrally stratified turbulent flow in the inner city of Hamburg, Germany. The LES computations were conducted by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory on the basis of a monotone integrated LES methodology. Reference experiments in terms of single-point, high resolution time-series measurements were carried out in the boundary-layer wind-tunnel facility at the University of Hamburg. The wind-tunnel model was built on a scale of 1:350 and included building structures with a full-scale spatial resolution of 0.5 m. Benchmark parameters for the congruent representation of atmospheric inflow conditions in the physical and the numerical model were obtained from long-term sonic anemometer measurements at a suburban meteorological field site

  8. Relation entre les caractéristiques des table-bancs et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Benin

    PubMed Central

    Falola, Stève Marjelin; Gouthon, Polycarpe; Falola, Jean-Marie; Fiogbe, Michel Armand; Nigan, Issiako Bio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le mobilier scolaire et la posture assise en classe sont souvent impliqués dans l'apparition des douleurs rachidiennes, influant de fait sur la qualité des tâches réalisées par les apprenants. Aucune étude n'a encore vérifié le degré d'adéquation entre les caractéristiques du mobilier et celles des écoliers au Bénin. L'objectif de cette étude transversale est donc de déterminer la relation entre les dimensions des table-bancs utilisées en classe et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Bénin. Methods Elle a été réalisée avec un échantillon probabiliste de 678 écoliers, âgés de 4 à 17 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers et les mensurations relatives aux longueurs, largeurs et hauteurs des table-bancs ont été mesurées, puis intégrées aux équations proposées dans la littérature. Les pourcentages des valeurs situées hors des limitesacceptables, dérivées de l'application des équations ont été calculés. Results La largeur et la hauteur des table-bancs utilisées par les écoliers étaient plus élevées (p < 0,05) que les valeurs de référence recommandées par les structures officielles de contrôle et de production des mobiliers scolaires au Bénin. Quel que soit le sexe, il y avait une inadéquation entre la largeur du banc et la longueur fesse-poplité, puis entre la hauteur de la table et la distance coude-bancdes écoliers. Conclusion Les résultats suggèrent de prendre en compte l’évolution des mesures anthropométriques des écoliers dans la confection des table-bancs, afin de promouvoir de bonnes postures assises en classe et de réduire le risque de troubles du rachis. PMID:25317232

  9. STS-47 MS Davis dons LES with technicians' help prior to JSC bailout training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES), looks on as technicians adjust her LES parachute pack prior to launch emergency egress (bailout) exercises in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Davis is making her first flight in space.

  10. Prediction of dynamic and mixing characteristics of drop-laden mixing layers using DNS and LES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okong'o, N.; Leboissetier, A.; Bellan, J.

    2004-01-01

    Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) have been conducted of a temporal mixing layer laden with evaporating drops, in order to assess the ability of LES to reproduce dynamic and mixing aspects of the DNS which affect combustion, independently of combustion models.

  11. Pediatric Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (PQ-LES-Q): Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endicott, Jean; Nee, John; Yang, Ruoyong; Wohlberg, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The pediatric version of the Short Form of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (PQ-LES-Q) was developed to aid in the assessment of an important aspect of life experience in children and adolescents. Method: The reliability and validity of the PQ-LES-Q was tested using data from a sample of 376 outpatient…

  12. Les calculs urinaires de l'enfant au Burkina Faso: à propos de 67 cas

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Isso; Napon, Aïcha Madina; Bandré, Emile; Ouédraogo, Francis Somkieta; Tapsoba, Wendlamita Toussaint; Wandaogo, Albert

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est de déterminer la fréquence, de décrire les circonstances de découverte, les signes cliniques et paracliniques, la composition chimique des calculs prélevés et les difficultés rencontrées dans le traitement des lithiases urinaires. Notre étude a été rétrospective sur une période de six ans (janvier 2005 à décembre 2010) et a eu pour cadre le CHUP-CDG et a concerné 67 patients âgés de moins de 15 ans opérés pour lithiases urinaires. Les calculs de la dernière année au nombre de douze ont fait l'objet d'une analyse spectrophotométrique. La lithiase urinaire figure parmi les dix premières pathologies du service de chirurgie et représente 1,32% des hospitalisations. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de deux ans et varie de 6 mois à 14 ans. La symptomatologie de la lithiase urinaire est polymorphe. Le diagnostic des lithiases urinaires a été essentiellement radiologique (ASP) dans 87, 50 des cas. Les localisations les plus fréquentes sont: vésicales (49,25%) et pyéliques (46,26%). L'ECBU a révélé une infection urinaire chez 9 patients. Les germes le plus fréquemment rencontrés sont: Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumoniae (22,22%) et staphyloccocus aureus (22,22%). Les difficultés du traitement sont dues à la modicité de nos moyens diagnostiques et à la nature chimique des calculs et le traitement a été dans tous les cas chirurgical. La composition chimique est dominée par les sels calciques notamment les oxalates, les phosphates et les carbonates. PMID:26175840

  13. Multiwall thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Multiwall insulating sandwich panels are provided for thermal protection of hypervelocity vehicles and other enclosures. In one embodiment, the multiwall panels are formed of alternate layers of dimpled and flat metal (titanium alloy) foil sheets and beaded scarfed edge seals to provide enclosure thermal protection up to 1000 F. An additional embodiment employs an intermediate fibrous insulation for the sandwich panel to provide thermal protection up to 2000 F. A third embodiment employs a silicide coated columbium waffle as the outer panel skin and fibrous layered intermediate protection for thermal environment protection up to 2500 F. The use of multiple panels on an enclosure facilitate repair and refurbishment of the thermal protection system due to the simple support provided by the tab and clip attachment for the panels.

  14. Approche en soins primaires pour les problèmes de consommation de cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Suzanne D.; Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Étudier les caractéristiques et complications cliniques de la consommation à risque de cannabis et du trouble de consommation de cannabis, et présenter un protocole en cabinet pour le dépistage, l’identification et la prise en charge de ces problèmes. Sources des données Une recherche des essais contrôlés, des études d’observation et des révisions sur l’usage de cannabis par les adolescents et les jeunes adultes; les méfaits psychiatriques et médicaux liés au cannabis; le trouble de consommation de cannabis et son traitement; et les lignes directrices sur la consommation à faible risque de cannabis a été effectuée dans PubMed. Message principal Les médecins doivent questionner tous leurs patients quant à leur usage de cannabis. Ils doivent questionner plus souvent les adolescents et jeunes adultes de même que les personnes qui présentent un risque élevé de problèmes liés au cannabis (qui ont un trouble psychiatrique ou de consommation de drogue concomitant). Les problèmes pouvant être causés par le cannabis, comme les troubles de l’humeur, la psychose et les symptômes respiratoires, devraient susciter des questions sur la consommation de cannabis. Aux patients qui rapportent un usage de cannabis, les médecins devraient poser des questions sur la fréquence et la quantité consommée, la présence de symptômes de tolérance ou de sevrage, les tentatives de réduire leur consommation et la présence de problèmes liés au cannabis. Les usagers à faible risque fument, inhalent ou ingèrent le cannabis occasionnellement sans aucun signe de dysfonctionnement scolaire, professionnel ou social; les personnes dont l’usage est problématique consomment tous les jours ou presque tous les jours, ont de la difficulté à réduire leur consommation et leur fonctionnement scolaire, professionnel et social est perturbé. Les médecins devraient offrir à tous les patients dont l’usage est problématique des conseils

  15. Emergency Protection from Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, G.A.

    2001-11-13

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved.

  16. LES and Hybrid LES/RANS Study of Flow and Heat Transfer around a Wall-Bounded Short Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borello, D.; Delibra, G.; Hanjalić, K.; Rispoli, F.

    The flow in plate-fin-and-tube heat exchangers is featured by interesting dynamics of vortical structures, which, due to close proximity of bounding walls that suppress instabilities, differs significantly from the better-known patterns around long cylinders. Typically, several distinct vortex systems can be identified both in front and behind the pin. Their signature on the pin and end-walls reflects directly in the local heat transfer. The Reynolds numbers is usually moderate and the incoming flow is non-turbulent, transiting to turbulence on or just behind the first or few subsequent pin/tube rows. Upstream from the first pin a sequence of several horseshoe vortices attached to the boundingwall is created, while the unsteady wake contains also multiple vortical systems which control the entrainment of fresh fluid and its mixing with the hot fluid that was in contact with the heated surfaces [1]. The conventional CFD using standard turbulence models, as practiced by heat exchangers industries, falls short in capturing the subtle details of the complex vortex systems. A fine-grid LES can provide accurate solutions, but for more complex configurations and higher Re numbers a hybrid RANS/LES using a coarser grid seems a more rational option, provided it can capture all important flow and vortical features.

  17. NASA Fire Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on fire protection operations and administration at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The presentation also lists innovative practices and recent improvements.

  18. Protection - Principles and practice.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, G. S.; Denning, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The protection mechanisms of computer systems control the access to objects, especially information objects. The principles of protection system design are formalized as a model (theory) of protection. Each process has a unique identification number which is attached by the system to each access attempted by the process. Details of system implementation are discussed, taking into account the storing of the access matrix, aspects of efficiency, and the selection of subjects and objects. Two systems which have protection features incorporating all the elements of the model are described.

  19. Les psychoses de l’épileptique: approche clinique à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Charfi, Nada; Trigui, Dorsaf; Ben Thabet, Jihène; Zouari, Nasreddine; Zouari, Lobna; Maalej, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Pour discuter les liens entre épilepsie et psychose, les auteurs rapportent l'observation d'une fille âgée de 22 ans, traitée pour épilepsie fronto-temporale, adressée en psychiatrie pour des hallucinations sensorielles et cénesthésiques et un délire mystique et d'influence, apparus secondairement et non améliorés par le traitement antiépileptique. Les symptômes psychotiques, chez l’épileptique, peuvent entrer dans le cadre de psychoses intercritiques, post-critiques ou alternatives. Pour le cas rapporté, les symptômes psychotiques étaient intercritiques et chroniques. Il s'agissait vraisemblablement d'une psychose schizophréniforme. Dans ce type de psychose, une indifférence affective et une restriction des activités sont rarement rencontrés, alors que les fluctuations rapides de l'humeur sont fréquentes. Les thématiques délirantes sont assez souvent mystiques, alimentées par des hallucinations auditives et par des hallucinations visuelles inhabituelles. Les troubles négatifs sont rares. Les psychoses épileptiques n'ont pas été identifiées comme des entités nosographiques dans les systèmes de classification psychiatrique (DSM-IV et CIM-10), ce qui pose un problème de reconnaissance de ces troubles. Une collaboration entre psychiatre et neurologue devient ainsi nécessaire pour mieux comprendre cette comorbidité complexe, éviter les erreurs diagnostiques et optimiser la prise en charge. PMID:25309665

  20. L'Attitude Chirurgicale dans les Brulures Electriques Graves par Haut Voltage: À Propos de Deux Cas

    PubMed Central

    Moussaoui, A.; Fejjal, N.; Achbouk, A.; Tourabi, K.; Ribag, Y.; Bakkali, H.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Devant une brûlure électrique grave, deux attitudes chirurgicales se distinguent: 1. une attitude conservatrice; 2. une attitude d'amputation. A la lumière de deux observations, les Auteurs discutent les avantages et les difficultés de la mise en oeuvre de chaque attitude. PMID:21991118

  1. Les déterminants du statut “perdu de vue” chez les patients pris en charge pour cancer au Maroc: situation avant le Plan Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Najdi, Adil; Berraho, Mohamed; Bendahhou, Karima; Obtel, Majdouline; Zidouh, Ahmed; Errihani, Hassan; Nejjari, Chakib

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le cancer au Maroc représente un problème majeur de santé publique, sa prise en charge doit être globale, active et complète pour tous les patients. L'objectif de ce travail était d'estimer la fréquence des perdus de vue « PDV » en oncologie au Maroc durant la première année de suivi et de déterminer les facteurs associés à ce problème. Méthodes Par une étude rétrospective portant sur 2854 dossiers de malades hospitalisés dans les trois principaux centres d'oncologie au Maroc depuis janvier 2003 jusqu’à juin 2007 et concernant les cinq principales localisations de cancer au Maroc, nous avons cherché la date des dernières nouvelles des patients ayant un recul de 18 mois minimum afin de déterminer le statut de ces malades après un an de suivi. Résultats La moyenne d’âge était de 52±14 ans, une proportion féminine de 63%, les sujets actifs constituaient 28%, les mariés 71%, les analphabètes 51%, 70% des patients habitaient en milieu urbain et seulement 11% des malades disposaient d'une couverture sociale. La localisation cancéreuse la plus fréquente était le poumon (23,8%) suivie du colon-rectum (23,5%) puis le col (21,9%), le sein (20,4%) et les lymphomes (10,4%). Le taux des «PDV» à un an de suivi était de 48%, ce statut était significativement lié au sexe, à l’âge, au NSE et au statut matrimonial. Sur le plan médical, le statut «PDV» était lié à la localisation du cancer, au stade de diagnostic et au type de traitement reçu. Conclusion Notre étude a mis en évidence la grande ampleur du problème des PDV en cancérologie au Maroc ainsi que ces déterminants. Ces résultats incitent tous les acteurs dans le domaine de la cancérologie à collaborer ensemble pour prendre les mesures qui s'imposent pour y pallier PMID:25400850

  2. Commerce de detail de l'essence automobile: Modelisation de l'impact a court terme des facteurs endogenes et exogenes sur les ventes d'essence dans les stations-service a Montreal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguimbus, Raphael

    La determination de l'impact des facteurs sous controle et hors controle qui influencent les volumes de vente des magasins de detail qui vendent des produits homogenes et fortement substituables constitue le coeur de cette these. Il s'agit d'estimer un ensemble de coefficients stables et asymtotiquement efficaces non correles avec les effets specifiques aleatoires des sites d'essence dans le marche de Montreal (Quebec, Canada) durant is periode 1993--1997. Le modele econometrique qui est ainsi specifie et teste, isole un ensemble de quatre variables dont le prix de detail affiche dans un site d'essence ordinaire, la capacite de service du site pendant les heures de pointe, les heures de service et le nombre de sites concurrents au voisinage du site dans un rayon de deux kilometres. Ces quatre facteurs influencent les ventes d'essence dans les stations-service. Les donnees en panel avec les methodes d'estimation robustes (estimateur a distance minimale) sont utilisees pour estimer les parametres du modele de vente. Nous partons avec l'hypothese generale selon laquelle il se developpe une force d'attraction qui attire les clients automobilistes dans chaque site, et qui lui permet de realiser les ventes. Cette capacite d'attraction varie d'un site a un autre et cela est du a la combinaison de l'effort marketing et de l'environnement concurrentiel autour du site. Les notions de voisinage et de concurrence spatiale expliquent les comportements des decideurs qui gerent les sites. Le but de cette these est de developper un outil d'aide a la decision (modele analytique) pour permettre aux gestionnaires des chaines de stations-service d'affecter efficacement les ressources commerciales dans ies points de vente.

  3. Protecting the Crown Jewels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Cecil

    1979-01-01

    The National Park Service seeks to set the standard for environmental protection in the federally-owned lands which it administers. Often pollution from sources outside park boundaries creates adverse impacts within the parks. Innovative approaches and cooperative efforts are then required to protect the parks. (RE)

  4. A Duty to Protect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James

    2009-01-01

    Asylum is a value. At its most basic, it is about the importance of protecting someone's life from persecution. The 1951 Refugee Convention seeks to achieve this--by ensuring that those people with a well-founded fear of persecution should be able to find protection within a state that has signed up to the Convention. The UK's commitments under…

  5. Environmental protection Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Holland

    1999-12-01

    This ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities.

  6. Protective Garment Ensemble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    Protective garment ensemble with internally-mounted environmental- control unit contains its own air supply. Alternatively, a remote-environmental control unit or an air line is attached at the umbilical quick disconnect. Unit uses liquid air that is vaporized to provide both breathing air and cooling. Totally enclosed garment protects against toxic substances.

  7. Electroplating offers embrittlement protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, C. M., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Thin copper electrodeposited layer protects metal parts in environments with which they may be incompatible. Originally developed for main engine of Space Shuttle where high strength nickle alloy bellows must operate in high-pressure hydrogen, technique protects nickel and is unaffected by forming process or subsequent heat treatment and preinstallation processing.

  8. Comparing UCLALES-SALSA and WRF-Chem LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonttila, Juha; Dunne, Eimear; Ahola, Jaakko; Korhonen, Hannele; Kokkola, Harri; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2016-04-01

    The new UCLALES-SALSA model, which uses a sectional representation of aerosols and cloud droplets, is compared against the LES configuration of the established WRF-Chem model. Two configurations of WRF-Chem are compared: the first using the sectional MOSAIC aerosol representation, and the second using the modal MADE/SORGAM representation. Both sets of WRF-Chem simulations use the two-moment Morrisson bulk cloud scheme. Wherever possible, the three sets of simulations have identical processes and initial conditions. By comparing UCLALES-SALSA against an established model in an ideal scenario, we demonstrate that the new model provides a realistic representation of warm cloud processes. The two configurations of WRF-Chem make it possible (to an extent) to isolate whether differences in model outputs are due to meteorological or microphysical effects.

  9. A Hybrid RANS/LES Approach for Predicting Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Marvin E.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid acoustic prediction methods have an important advantage over the current Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based methods in that they only involve modeling of the relatively universal subscale motion and not the configuration dependent larger scale turbulence. Unfortunately, they are unable to account for the high frequency sound generated by the turbulence in the initial mixing layers. This paper introduces an alternative approach that directly calculates the sound from a hybrid RANS/LES flow model (which can resolve the steep gradients in the initial mixing layers near the nozzle lip) and adopts modeling techniques similar to those used in current RANS based noise prediction methods to determine the unknown sources in the equations for the remaining unresolved components of the sound field. The resulting prediction method would then be intermediate between the current noise prediction codes and previously proposed hybrid noise prediction methods.

  10. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  11. LES/RANS Simulation of a Supersonic Reacting Wall Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Jack R.; Boles, John A.; Baurle, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents results from large-eddy / Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (LES/RANS) simulations of the well-known Burrows-Kurkov supersonic reacting wall-jet experiment. Generally good agreement with experimental mole fraction, stagnation temperature, and Pitot pressure profiles is obtained for non-reactive mixing of the hydrogen jet with a non-vitiated air stream. A lifted flame, stabilized between 10 and 22 cm downstream of the hydrogen jet, is formed for hydrogen injected into a vitiated air stream. Flame stabilization occurs closer to the hydrogen injection location when a three-dimensional combustor geometry (with boundary layer development resolved on all walls) is considered. Volumetric expansion of the reactive shear layer is accompanied by the formation of large eddies which interact strongly with the reaction zone. Time averaged predictions of the reaction zone structure show an under-prediction of the peak water concentration and stagnation temperature, relative to experimental data and to results from a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculation. If the experimental data can be considered as being accurate, this result indicates that the present LES/RANS method does not correctly capture the cascade of turbulence scales that should be resolvable on the present mesh. Instead, energy is concentrated in the very largest scales, which provide an over-mixing effect that excessively cools and strains the flame. Predictions improve with the use of a low-dissipation version of the baseline piecewise parabolic advection scheme, which captures the formation of smaller-scale structures superimposed on larger structures of the order of the shear-layer width.

  12. Protection of multimaterial assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhail, L. Zheludkevich; Silvar, Kallip; Maria, Serdechnova

    2016-01-01

    The light-weight design calls for broader utilization of multimaterial mixes (M3) in different engineering structures, especially in the transportation area. Together with joining technologies for hybrid structures, the optimization of the life cycle of such systems is an issue of prime importance. Multimaterial structures are often prone to faster degradation under service conditions because of galvanically forced electrochemical corrosion. The protection technologies traditionally used for single-material structures are not always applicable for multimaterial design because of compatibility issues and a stronger thermodynamic driving force for degradation. In this chapter different strategies for protection of multimaterials structures are briefly overviewed. The main focus is on new alternative protection systems based on combination of synergistic inhibiting mixtures introduced into protective coatings. A road map which can be followed in order to create an efficient active protection coating for hybrid structures is suggested.

  13. Les abcès froids pariétaux thoraciques chez les sujets immunocompétents

    PubMed Central

    Benjelloun, Hanane; Morad, Sanaa; Zaghba, Nahid; Bakhatar, Abdelaziz; Yassine, Najiba; Bahlaoui, Abdelkrim

    2015-01-01

    Les abcès froids de la paroi thoracique représentent une forme rare et inhabituelle de tuberculose extrapulmonaire. Sa fréquence est estimée à moins de 5% des tuberculoses ostéoarticulaires, évaluées elles-mêmes à 15% des tuberculoses extrapulmonaires. L'objectif de ce travail est de rapporter la prise en charge diagnostique et thérapeutique de cette localisation dans notre structure. Etude rétrospective portant sur 18 cas colligés au service des maladies respiratoires du centre hospitalier universitaire Ibn Rochd de Casablanca, sur une période de 13 ans. La moyenne d’âge était de 34 ans (21-57). Un antécédent de tuberculose traitée était relevé dans un cas. Le tableau clinique était révélé par l'apparition insidieuse d'une masse pariétale de taille, de consistance et de siège variables. A l'imagerie thoracique, l'abcès pariétal était associé à une lyse osseuse dans sept cas, une atteinte parenchymateuse et pleurale dans quatre cas chacune et des adénopathies médiastinales dans deux cas. La confirmation diagnostique était bactériologique et/ou histologique dans tous les cas. La sérologie du virus de l'immunodéficience humaineétait négative chez tous nos malades. L’évolution sous traitement antibacillaire couplé ou non à une résection chirurgicale était favorable chez tous nos malades. Malgré la fréquence de la tuberculose dans notre contexte, la localisation pariétale thoracique reste rare, survenant chez une population non immunodéprimée et non toxicomane, contrairement à ce qui est souvent rapporté dans la littérature. Les abcès froids tuberculeux représentent une forme rare de tuberculose extrapulmonaire dont l’évolution reste favorable sous traitement précoce et bien conduit. PMID:26113904

  14. A Matter of Exposition: Examination and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schröder, Sabrina; Thompson, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    While current literature on examination and testing mostly engages with the objectivity of exams and their procedural logic, this article is concerned with the 'ethical dimension' of examination: Examinations provoke a particular relation to oneself, possibly self-transformation. The praxis of examination entails self-confrontation in the light of…

  15. [Light exposition in vitreoretinal surgery. I. Basics].

    PubMed

    Höh, A E; Ach, T; Amberger, R; Dithmar, S

    2008-10-01

    Due to its function of light perception, the eye is exposed to high levels of radiation of the optical spectrum. Most of the ultraviolet and infrared radiation is absorbed in the cornea and lens, and mostly only radiation of the visible spectrum can reach the retina. Visible light can cause retinal damage by photomechanical, photothermal, and photochemical mechanisms. The most important mechanism of light damage to the retina under daily conditions or when using ophthalmologic light sources is the photochemical light toxicity caused by light-induced chemical reactions. The extent of damage depends on several factors, such as wavelength, exposure time, and irradiance. Particularly the shorter portion of the visible light spectrum (blue light) is responsible for photochemical damage to the retina. PMID:18815792

  16. Unit 1003: The Language of Exposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This language unit for grade 10 builds on a definition of the expository use of language developed in the two previous 10th-grade units. In a brief overview of report language, the referential language of Thomas Huxley is compared with the expressive language of Edgar Allan Poe. The writings of S. I. Hayakawa, Hans Guth, and others are examined…

  17. Enhanced capacitative calcium entry and TRPC channel gene expression in human LES smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Laurier, Lisanne G; Sims, Stephen M; Preiksaitis, Harold G

    2003-06-01

    Transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) genes encode Ca(2+)-permeable channels mediating capacitative Ca(2+) entry (CCE), which maintains intracellular Ca(2+) stores. We compared TRPC gene expression and CCE in human esophageal body (EB) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES), because these smooth muscles have distinct contractile functions that are likely associated with different Ca(2+) regulatory mechanisms. Circular layer smooth muscle cells were grown in primary culture. Transcriptional expression of TRPC genes was compared by semiquantitative RT-PCR. CCE was measured by fura 2 Ca(2+) fluorescence after blockade of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase with thapsigargin. mRNA for TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, and TRPC6 was identified in EB and LES. TRPC3 and TRPC4 were more abundant in LES than EB. Basal concentration of free intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) was similar in cells from LES (138 +/- 8 nmol/l) and EB (110 +/- 6 nmol/l) and increased with ACh (10 micromol/l; 650 +/- 28 and 590 +/- 21 nmol/l, respectively). With zero Ca(2+) in bath, thapsigargin (2 micromol/l) increased [Ca(2+)](i) more in LES (550 +/- 22 nmol/l) than EB (250 +/- 15 nmol/l, P < 0.001). Subsequent external application of 1 mmol/l Ca(2+) increased [Ca(2+)](i) more in LES (585 +/- 35 nmol/l) than EB (295 +/- 21 nmol/l, P < 0.001), indicating enhanced CCE in LES. This demonstrates CCE and TRPC transcriptional expression in human esophageal smooth muscle. In LES cells, enhanced CCE and expression of TRPC3 and TRPC4 may contribute to the physiological characteristics that distinguish LES from EB. PMID:12736151

  18. Les corps étrangers en ORL: expérience de dix ans

    PubMed Central

    Hssaine, Khaoula; Belhoucha, Btissam; Rochdi, Youssef; Nouri, Hassan; Aderdour, Lahcen; Raji, Abdelaziz

    2015-01-01

    Les corps étrangers (CE) représentent une pathologie fréquemment rencontrée en pratique ORL d'urgence. Ils peuvent constituer une urgence vitale par leur aspect ou leur siège. Nous présentons le bilan de dix ans sur la prise en charge des CE de la sphère ORL avec une revue de la littérature. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective entre Janvier 2004 et Décembre 2013, incluant tous les cas de CE des voies aéro-digestives supérieures et auriculaires colligés dans le service d'ORL au CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech au Maroc. Sur les 1317 cas de CE de la sphère ORL colligés durant cette période, 80,48% concernaient les enfants. Le sex-ratio était de 1,5. L’âge moyen était de 12,92 ans. Les CE œsophagiens étaient les plus fréquents (47,53%). Les complications ont été rencontrées dans 11,69% des cas. Les CE dans la sphère ORL restent fréquents en pratique quotidienne surtout chez les enfants. Leur prise en charge nécessite une intervention rapide avec un matériel adapté et des médecins entrainés. La prévention reste la meilleure solution. PMID:26516392

  19. Wake Shield Target Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Valmianski, Emanuil I.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2003-05-15

    The heat flux from both gas convection and chamber radiation on a direct drive target must be limited to avoid target damage from excessive D-T temperature increase. One of the possibilities of protecting the target is a wake shield flying in front of the target. A shield will also reduce drag force on the target, thereby facilitating target tracking and position prediction. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code was used to calculate convection heat loads as boundary conditions input into ANSYS thermal calculations. These were used for studying the quality of target protection depending on various shapes of shields, target-shield distance, and protective properties of the shield moving relative to the target. The results show that the shield can reduce the convective heat flux by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on pressure, temperature, and velocity. The protective effect of a shield moving relative to the target is greater than the protective properties of a fixed shield. However, the protective effect of a shield moving under the drag force is not sufficient for bringing the heat load on the target down to the necessary limit. Some other ways of diminishing heat flux using a protective shield are discussed.

  20. Des recommandations probantes pour surveiller l’innocuité des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; Davidson, Jana; Ho, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : Au Canada, l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques, notamment les antipsychotiques de deuxième génération (ADG), a augmenté de façon considérable depuis cinq ans chez les enfants ayant des troubles de santé mentale. Ces médicaments ont le potentiel de causer de graves complications métaboliques et neurologiques lorsqu’on les utilise de manière chronique. OBJECTIF : Synthétiser les données probantes relatives aux effets secondaires métaboliques et neurologiques précis associés à l’usage d’ADG chez les enfants et fournir des recommandations probantes sur la surveillance de ces effets secondaires. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les auteurs ont procédé à une analyse systématique des essais cliniques contrôlés des ADG auprès d’enfants. Ils ont fait des recommandations à l’égard de la surveillance de l’innocuité des ADG d’après un modèle de classification fondé sur le système GRADE (système de notation de l’évaluation et de l’élaboration des recommandations). Lorsque les données probantes n’étaient pas suffisantes, ils fondaient leurs recommandations sur le consensus et l’avis d’experts. Un groupe consensuel multidisciplinaire a analysé toutes les données probantes pertinentes et est parvenu à un consensus à l’égard des recommandations. RÉSULTATS : Les recommandations probantes portant sur la surveillance de l’innocuité des ADG figurent dans les présentes lignes directrices. Les auteurs indiquent la qualité des recommandations relatives à des examens physiques et tests de laboratoire précis à l’égard de chaque ADG à des moments déterminés. CONCLUSION : De multiples essais aléatoires et contrôlés ont permis d’évaluer l’efficacité de bon nombre des ADG utilisés pour traiter les troubles de santé mentale en pédiatrie. Toutefois, leurs avantages ne sont pas sans risques : on observe à la fois des effets secondaires métaboliques et neurologiques chez les enfants traités au moyen d

  1. Assessment of stretched vortex subgrid-scale models for LES of incompressible inhomogeneous turbulent flow.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Dinesh A; Frankel, Steven H

    2013-09-20

    The physical space version of the stretched vortex subgrid scale model [Phys. Fluids 12, 1810 (2000)] is tested in large eddy simulations (LES) of the turbulent lid driven cubic cavity flow. LES is carried out using a higher order finite-difference method [J. Comput. Phys. 229, 8802 (2010)]. The effects of different vortex orientation models and subgrid turbulence spectrums are assessed through comparisons of the LES predictions against direct numerical simulations (DNS) [Phys. Fluids 12, 1363 (2000)]. Three Reynolds numbers 12000, 18000, and 22000 are studied. Good agreement with the DNS data for the mean and fluctuating quantities is observed. PMID:24187423

  2. Les valvulopathies cardiaques en milieu hospitalier à Lomé (Togo)

    PubMed Central

    Balaka, Abago; Tchamdja, Toyi; Djibril, Mohaman Awalou; Djagadou, Kodjo Agbéko; Tchandana, Makilioubè; Damorou, Findibé; Agbétra, Aïssah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Notre étude a consisté en l'identification les principales valvulopathies retrouvées en milieu hospitalier à Lomé (Togo). Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective, transversale, multicentrique menée du 1er janvier 2006 au 31 décembre 2010 et portant sur les dossiers de patients suivis dans le service de cardiologie du CHU Campus de Lomé. Résultats Du 1er janvier 2006 au 31 Décembre 2010,5412 patients ont été consulté dans le service de cardiologie du CHU Campus. Parmi eux, 241 (4,45%) présentaient une valvulopathie. On notait une prédominance féminine avec un sex-ratio H/F à 0,60. La moyenne d’âge était de 62,32 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 16 à 89 ans et un écart type de 14,27. Les antécédents le plus souvent retrouvés étaient l'hypertension artérielle (26,97%) et le diabète (8,29%). Parmi les motifs de consultations, les plus fréquents étaient la dyspnée (39,00%), les précordialgies (32,78%) et les palpitations (21,16%). A l'examen physique 30,70% des patients présentaient des signes de d'insuffisance cardiaque. A l’échographie, on notait des atteintes d'une seule valve (77,17%), de 02 valves (17,42%) ou 03 valves (5,4%). L'insuffisance mitrale (56,84%) et l'insuffisance aortique (30,70%) ont été les valvulopathies les plus fréquemment retrouvées. La maladie mitrale a été notée chez 05 patients. Les principales étiologies étaient dégénératives et ischémiques. Conclusion Les valvulopathies sont relativement fréquentes à Lomé. L'insuffisance cardiaque est leur principal mode de révélation. Les plus retrouvées sont l'insuffisance mitrale et aortique. PMID:26113911

  3. Model-Invariant Hybrid LES-RANS Computation of Separated Flow Past Periodic Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The requirement that physical quantities not vary with a hybrid LESRANS model's blending parameter imposes conditions on the computation that lead to better results across LES-RANS transitions. This promises to allow placement of those transitions so that LES is performed only where required by the physics, improving computational efficiency. The approach is applied to separated flow past periodic hills, where good predictions of separation-bubble size are seen due to the gradual, controlled, LES-RANS transition and the resulting enhanced near-wall eddy viscosity.

  4. Evaluation des complications cardiaques chez les hémodialysés chroniques de Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Moustapha, Cissé Mouhamadou; Tall, Lemrabott Ahmed; Maria, Faye; Khodia, Fall; Moustapha, Faye; Fary, Ka El Hadji; Abdou, Niang; Boucar, Diouf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L’évaluation cardiovasculaire est essentielle en hémodialyse périodique car les affections cardiovasculaires sont la première cause de mortalité chez les hémodialysés chroniques. Nous avons conduit cette étude afin de déterminer la prévalence et le type des différentes complications cardiovasculaires et d'identifier les principaux facteurs de risque cardiovasculaire. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective de 4 ans portant sur les dossiers de patients traités au moins 6 mois en hémodialyse et ayant des explorations cardio-vasculaires comportant une radiographie du thorax de face, un électrocardiogramme et une échographie cardiaque. Les données épidémiologiques, cliniques, paracliniques, les aspects évolutifs des complications cardiaques ont été recueillies pour chaque patient retenu. Résultats Trente huit dossiers de patients ont été inclus dans cette étude. L’âge moyen était de 52 ans ± 12,85 et le sex-ratio H/F de 1,53. Les complications cardiovasculaires étaient dominées par l'hypertrophie ventriculaire gauche (71,05%), la maladie coronaire (34,21%), l'insuffisance cardiaque congestive (18,42%), Calcifications vasculaires (5,78%), les troubles du rythme (7.89%), les fuites valvulaires mitrales (44,73%), tricuspidiennes (42,10%) et les accidents vasculaires cérébraux hémorragiques (5,26%). L'incidence moyenne de l'HVG était de 81% chez les patients hypertendus. Au cours de cette étude, 27 patients avaient poursuivi l'hémodialyse et 11 étaient décédés dont 6 de causes cardiovasculaires (54,55%). Conclusion L'hémodialyse est une technique d’épuration qui expose les patients à de multiples complications cardiovasculaires. PMID:27217869

  5. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    The 1995 Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA (hereafter known as the Act) was passed following complaints from Tucson Water customers receiving treated Central Arizona Project (CAP) water. Consequences of the Act demonstrate the uncertainties and difficulties that arise when the public is asked to vote on a highly technical issue. The recharge requirements of the Act neglect hydrogeological uncertainties because of confusion between "infiltration" and "recharge." Thus, the Act implies that infiltration in stream channels along the Central Wellfield will promote recharge in the Central Wellfield. In fact, permeability differences between channel alluvium and underlying basin-fill deposits may lead to subjacent outflow. Additionally, even if recharge of Colorado River water occurs in the Central Wellfield, groundwater will become gradually salinized. The Act's restrictions on the use of CAP water affect the four regulatory mechanisms in Arizona's 1980 Groundwater Code as they relate to the Tucson Active Management Area: (a) supply augmentation; (b) requirements for groundwater withdrawals and permitting; (c) Management Plan requirements, particularly mandatory conservation and water-quality issues; and (d) the requirement that all new subdivisions use renewable water supplies in lieu of groundwater. Political fallout includes disruption of normal governmental activities because of the demands in implementing the Act. Résumé La loi de 1995 sur la protection des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson (Arizona, États-Unis) a été promulguée à la suite des réclamations des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson alimentés en eau traitée à partir à la station centrale d'Arizona (CAP). Les conséquences de cette loi montrent les incertitudes et les difficultés qui apparaissent lorsque le public est appeléà voter sur un problème très technique. Les exigences de la loi en matière de recharge négligent les incertitudes hydrogéologiques du fait de la

  6. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    The 1995 Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA (hereafter known as the Act) was passed following complaints from Tucson Water customers receiving treated Central Arizona Project (CAP) water. Consequences of the Act demonstrate the uncertainties and difficulties that arise when the public is asked to vote on a highly technical issue. The recharge requirements of the Act neglect hydrogeological uncertainties because of confusion between "infiltration" and "recharge." Thus, the Act implies that infiltration in stream channels along the Central Wellfield will promote recharge in the Central Wellfield. In fact, permeability differences between channel alluvium and underlying basin-fill deposits may lead to subjacent outflow. Additionally, even if recharge of Colorado River water occurs in the Central Wellfield, groundwater will become gradually salinized. The Act's restrictions on the use of CAP water affect the four regulatory mechanisms in Arizona's 1980 Groundwater Code as they relate to the Tucson Active Management Area: (a) supply augmentation; (b) requirements for groundwater withdrawals and permitting; (c) Management Plan requirements, particularly mandatory conservation and water-quality issues; and (d) the requirement that all new subdivisions use renewable water supplies in lieu of groundwater. Political fallout includes disruption of normal governmental activities because of the demands in implementing the Act. Résumé La loi de 1995 sur la protection des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson (Arizona, États-Unis) a été promulguée à la suite des réclamations des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson alimentés en eau traitée à partir à la station centrale d'Arizona (CAP). Les conséquences de cette loi montrent les incertitudes et les difficultés qui apparaissent lorsque le public est appeléà voter sur un problème très technique. Les exigences de la loi en matière de recharge négligent les incertitudes hydrogéologiques du fait de la

  7. Radiation protection in space.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Facius, R; Sandler, H

    1995-01-01

    Radiation environment, basic concepts of radiation protection, and specific aspects of the space radiation field are reviewed. The discussion of physico-chemical and subcellular radiation effects includes mechanisms of radiation action and cellular consequences. The discussion of radiobiological effects includes unique aspects of HZE particle effects, space flight findings, terrestrial findings, analysis of somatic radiation effects and effects on critical organs, and early and delayed effects. Other topics include the impact of the space flight environment, measurement of radiation exposure, establishing radiation protection limits, limitations in establishing space-based radiation exposure limits, radiation protection measures, and recommendations. PMID:11541474

  8. Optimization of radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Lochard, J.

    1981-07-01

    The practical and theoretical problems raised by the optimization of radiological protection merit a review of decision-making methods, their relevance, and the way in which they are used in order to better determine what role they should play in the decision-making process. Following a brief summary of the theoretical background of the cost-benefit analysis, we examine the methodological choices implicit in the model presented in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication No. 26 and, particularly, the consequences of the theory that the level of radiation protection, the benefits, and the production costs of an activity can be treated separately.

  9. Protected areas and poverty

    PubMed Central

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  10. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  11. Protect Your Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead to infertility. To protect your chances of conceiving, maintain a healthy weight through proper nutrition and ... decreased sperm production. To improve your chances of conceiving in the future, avoid drugs now. For more ...

  12. Health protection well inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Health Protection (HP) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Plan (SRP) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRL research wells.

  13. Protective relaying performance reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.P.; Ingelson, J.W.; Arnold, P.F.; Babcock, G.; Burzese, A.A.; Cornelison, J.R.; Drum, P.R.; Hasenwinkle, I.; Johnson, R.; Marsh, W. J. Jr.

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports on the performance of protective relaying systems which is an issue within the electric power industry which has received inadequate attention. The wide variations in relaying types and styles and applications, as well as differences in company structures and industry terminology, have hindered the adoption of a standardized system for the evaluation of protective relaying system performance. Such a system, if adopted by a significant portion of the industry, would provide suppliers and users better information with which to improve the product and its application and operation. The Protective Relaying Performance Criteria Working Group of the IEEE Power System Relaying Committee has generated this paper for the purpose of defining a standardized protective relaying performance reporting system.

  14. Fire Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Avco has drawn upon its heat shield experience to develop a number of widely-accepted commercial fire protection materials. Originating from NASA's space shuttle thermal protection system, one such material is Chartek 59 fireproofing, an intumescent epoxy coating specifically designed for outdoor use by industrial facilities dealing with highly flammable products such as oil refineries and chemical plants. The coating is applied usually by spray gun to exterior structural steel conduits, pipes and valves, offshore platforms and liquefied petroleum gas tanks. Fireproofing provides two types of protection: ablation or dissipation of heat by burn-off and "intumescence" or swelling; the coating swells to about five times its original size, forming a protective blanket of char which retards transfer of heat to the metal structure preventing loss of structural strength and possible collapse which would compound the fire fighting problem.

  15. Protect Yourself: Respirators

    MedlinePlus

    ... worn whenever you are working in a hazardous atmosphere. The appropriate respi- rator will depend on the ... must not be used to protect from hazardous atmospheres. However, they may be useful in providing comfort ...

  16. Radiation Protection Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A handbook which sets forth the Kennedy Space Center radiation protection policy is presented. The book also covers administrative direction and guidance on organizational and procedural requirements of the program. Only ionizing radiation is covered.

  17. Protective Face Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mask to protect the physically impaired from injuries to the face and head has been developed by Langley Research Center. It is made of composite materials, usually graphite or boron fibers woven into a matrix. Weighs less than three ounces.

  18. Wired for Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Describes how growing acceptance of security measures such as access-control cards, video surveillance, and biometric devices is allowing colleges to protect students and their belongings more effectively. (EV)

  19. Tomboy as protective identity.

    PubMed

    Craig, Traci; Lacroix, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    The tomboy in contemporary U.S. culture is a complex identity, providing meaning to many girls and women. In this article, we argue tomboy as a gendered social identity also provides temporary "protections" to girls and women in three main ways. First, tomboy identity can excuse masculine-typed behavior in girls and women and, in doing so, protect women from presumptions about sexual reputation and sexual orientation. Second, tomboy identities can provide some protection for lesbian girls and women who prefer to not divulge their sexual orientation. And, third, tomboy identity can gain women limited privilege to spaces for which masculinity is an unspoken requirement. The temporary nature of the protections provided to tomboys undermines the ability of tomboys to truly transcend the binary gender system. PMID:21973066

  20. Adaptive forest management for drinking water protection under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeck, R.; Hochbichler, E.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water resources drawn from forested catchment areas are prominent for providing water supply on our planet. Despite the fact that source waters stemming from forested watersheds have generally lower water quality problems than those stemming from agriculturally used watersheds, it has to be guaranteed that the forest stands meet high standards regarding their water protection functionality. For fulfilling these, forest management concepts have to be applied, which are adaptive regarding the specific forest site conditions and also regarding climate change scenarios. In the past century forest management in the alpine area of Austria was mainly based on the cultivation of Norway spruce, by the way neglecting specific forest site conditions, what caused in many cases highly vulnerable mono-species forest stands. The GIS based forest hydrotope model (FoHyM) provides a framework for forest management, which defines the most crucial parameters in a spatial explicit form. FoHyM stratifies the spacious drinking water protection catchments into forest hydrotopes, being operational units for forest management. The primary information layer of FoHyM is the potential natural forest community, which reflects the specific forest site conditions regarding geology, soil types, elevation above sea level, exposition and inclination adequately and hence defines the specific forest hydrotopes. For each forest hydrotope, the adequate tree species composition and forest stand structure for drinking water protection functionality was deduced, based on the plant-sociological information base provided by FoHyM. The most important overall purpose for the related elaboration of adaptive forest management concepts and measures was the improvement of forest stand stability, which can be seen as the crucial parameter for drinking water protection. Only stable forest stands can protect the fragile soil and humus layers and hence prevent erosion process which could endanger the water

  1. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  2. Lightweight Protective Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed garment material protects wearer from poisonous chemicals, bacteria, and radioactive particulates. Garment allows heat, moisture, and carbon dioxide to pass from inside to outside so wearer remains comfortable. Garment made of cotton fabric on which thin layer of polyacrylate rubber is deposited by calendering or spraying. Lighter and cooler than existing protective garments. Polyacrylate rubber selected for garment material because it transmits water vapor and carbon dioxide at high rates.

  3. Maintaining radiation protection records

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-30

    This Report is part of a series prepared under the auspices of Scientific Committee 46 on Operational Radiation Safety. It provides guidance on maintaining radiation protection records. Record keeping is an essential element of every radiation protection program. This Report describes the elements that should enter into the design of a program for the maintenance of operational radiation safety records. The problems of the length of time for retention of records for operational, regulatory, epidemiologic and legal uses are discussed in detail.

  4. REDUCED PROTECTIVE CLOTHING DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, R.L.

    2003-06-13

    This technical basis document defines conditions where reduced protective clothing can be allowed, defines reduced protective clothing, and documents the regulatory review that determines the process is compliant with the Tank Farm Radiological Control Manual (TFRCM) and Title 10, Part 835, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR835). The criteria, standards, and requirements contained in this document apply only to Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) facilities.

  5. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  6. L’administration postnatale de corticoïdes pour traiter ou prévenir les affections pulmonaires chroniques chez les prématurés

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Le présent énoncé est conçu à l’intention des professionnels de la santé qui soignent des nouveau-nés et de jeunes nourrissons. Il vise à examiner les effets à court et à long terme de l’administration postnatale de corticoïdes systémiques et par inhalation pour prévenir ou traiter une affection pulmonaire chronique évolutive ou établie et à faire des recommandations quant à l’usage de corticoïdes chez les nourrissons à très faible poids de naissance. Le recours systématique à la dexaméthasone systémique pour prévenir ou traiter une affection pulmonaire chronique n’est pas recommandé chez les nourrissons à très faible poids de naissance.

  7. Improved engine wall models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plengsaard, Chalearmpol

    Improved wall models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) are presented in this research. The classical Werner-Wengle (WW) wall shear stress model is used along with near-wall sub-grid scale viscosity. A sub-grid scale turbulent kinetic energy is employed in a model for the eddy viscosity. To gain better heat flux results, a modified classical variable-density wall heat transfer model is also used. Because no experimental wall shear stress results are available in engines, the fully turbulent developed flow in a square duct is chosen to validate the new wall models. The model constants in the new wall models are set to 0.01 and 0.8, respectively and are kept constant throughout the investigation. The resulting time- and spatially-averaged velocity and temperature wall functions from the new wall models match well with the law-of-the-wall experimental data at Re = 50,000. In order to study the effect of hot air impinging walls, jet impingement on a flat plate is also tested with the new wall models. The jet Reynolds number is equal to 21,000 and a fixed jet-to-plate spacing of H/D = 2.0. As predicted by the new wall models, the time-averaged skin friction coefficient agrees well with experimental data, while the computed Nusselt number agrees fairly well when r/D > 2.0. Additionally, the model is validated using experimental data from a Caterpillar engine operated with conventional diesel combustion. Sixteen different operating engine conditions are simulated. The majority of the predicted heat flux results from each thermocouple location follow similar trends when compared with experimental data. The magnitude of peak heat fluxes as predicted by the new wall models is in the range of typical measured values in diesel combustion, while most heat flux results from previous LES wall models are over-predicted. The new wall models generate more accurate predictions and agree better with experimental data.

  8. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Clifford Smith

    2002-07-01

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this seventh quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, the Localized Dynamic subgrid Kinetic energy Model (LDKM) was improved and an initial Turbulent Artificial Neural Net (TANN) was developed. Validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the Vanderbilt lean premixed combustor and the Loughborough University combustor port flow experiment. Next quarter, LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will continue to be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of the subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the In Situ Adaptive Tabulation (ISAT) approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the TANN approach in CFD-ACE+ will be accomplished.

  9. Development of a Hybrid RANS/LES Method for Compressible Mixing Layer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Reshotko, Eli

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid method has been developed for simulations of compressible turbulent mixing layers. Such mixing layers dominate the flows in exhaust systems of modem day aircraft and also those of hypersonic vehicles currently under development. The hybrid method uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall bounded regions entering a mixing section, and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) procedure to calculate the mixing dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS/LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. The hybrid RANS/LES method is applied to a benchmark compressible mixing layer experiment. Preliminary two-dimensional calculations are used to investigate the effects of axial grid density and boundary conditions. Actual LES calculations, performed in three spatial directions, indicated an initial vortex shedding followed by rapid transition to turbulence, which is in agreement with experimental observations.

  10. A la recherches d'autres mondes - les exoplanètes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2013-10-01

    Habiter ailleurs que sur Terre, en dehors du système solaire, est-ce vraiment possible ? Est-ce que la vie existe en dehors du Système solaire et comment la chercher ? Ces questions sont celles que les hommes et les femmes se posent et celles qu'ils se sont posées de tout temps. Les scientifiques n'échappent pas à cette règle et nous vivons à une époque fascinante où cette recherche évolue extrêmement vite : ils ont découvert d'autres lieux potentiellement habitables ou habités, les exoplanètes, des planètes tournant autour d'autres soleils dans l'univers. À ce jour, plus de 900 exoplanètes ont ainsi été détectées

  11. STS-26 Pilot Richard O. Covey adjusts LES neck dam during preflight suiting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Richard O. Covey adjusts launch and entry suit (LES) neck dam during preflight suiting activities in the Operations and Checkout (O and C) Building at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  12. Les retractions cervicales post-brulure - a propos de 49 cas et revue de la litterature

    PubMed Central

    Elamrani, D.; Zahid, A.; Aboujaafr, N.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les brides cervicales post-brûlure sont la conséquence de brûlures profondes, souvent négligées ou mal prises en charge. Elles affectent la fonction, l’esthétique et l’état psychologique des patients et peuvent être de traitement difficile. A partir d’une étude rétrospective étalée sur une période de six ans (janvier 2002-janvier 2008), nous avons analysé les caractéristiques épidémiologiques et cliniques ainsi que les indications et les résultats thérapeutiques chez 49 patients présentant des brides cervicales post-brûlure, suivis au Centre National des Brûlés et de Chirurgie Plastique de Casablanca. L’enfant et l’adulte jeune sont les plus touchés, avec une légère prédominance féminine (59,2%). Les brûlures domestiques sont les plus fréquentes (93,9%) et l’étiologie de l’accident est dominée par la brûlure thermique (98,0%). Les brides cervicales modérées et sévères (selon la classification d’Achauer) sont les plus fréquentes et représentent respectivement 30,6% et 38,8% des cas. Le traitement chirurgical a fait appel aux greffes cutanées dans 67,3% des cas, aux plasties locales dans 24,5% des cas et aux lambeaux dans 8,2% des cas. Chez les 47 patients suivis à long terme, les résultats fonctionnels et esthétiques sont jugés bons dans 83,0% des cas et moyens dans 8,5% des cas, tandis que les cas restants (8,5%) ont nécessité une reprise chirurgicale. Sur le plan épidémiologique (âge, sexe, caractéristiques de la brûlure) et clinique (localisation des séquelles, formes cliniques), les résultats de notre série sont comparables aux données de la littérature. Le rôle de la prise en charge initiale (excision-greffe précoce, pressothérapie et immobilisation par minerve) dans la réduction de l’incidence et de la sévérité des séquelles de brûlures cervicales est prouvé. Lorsqu’un traitement chirurgical est indiqué, le choix du procédé de réparation dépend essentiellement de

  13. Les fluctuations supraconductrices dans le compose praseodyme-cerium-oxyde de cuivre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, Jacques

    Ce travail etudie les fluctuations supraconductrices dans le compose supraconducteur a haute temperature critique dope aux electrons Pr2-xCe xCuO4+delta. La technique utilisee pour sonder ces fluctuations est le transport electrique DC dans le plan ab. Il s'agit, a notre connaissance, de la premiere etude de ce type dans la classe generale des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique dopes aux electrons et, plus particulierement, dans Pr2-xCe xCuO4+delta. De plus, l'etude est effectuee pour trois regimes de dopage, soit sous-dope x = 0.135, dopage optimal x = 0.15 et surdope x = 0.17. Les echantillons etudies sont des couches minces d'epaisseur plus grande que 100 nm crues par ablation laser. Les mesures electriques DC effectuees dans ce travail sont la resistance en reponse lineaire et les courbes IV en reponse non lineaire en fonction de la temperature. La mise en oeuvre experimentale de ces mesures a necessite une grande attention au filtrage et aux effets de chauffage a haut courant. Nous montrons que, sans cette attention, les donnees experimentales sont toujours erronees dans le regime pertinent pour nos echantillons. Les resultats pour le dopage optimal x = 0.15 sont expliques de facon tres convaincante dans le cadre de fluctuations purement 2D. D'abord, le regime des fluctuations gaussiennes est tres bien decrit par le modele d'Aslamazov-Larkin en deux dimensions. Ensuite, le regime de fluctuations critiques, se trouvant a plus basse temperature que le regime gaussien, est tres bien decrit par la physique 2D de Kosterlitz-Thouless. Dans cette analyse, les deux regimes ont des temperatures critiques coherentes entre elles, ce qui semble confirmer ce scenario 2D. Une analyse des donnees dans le cadre de fluctuations 3D est exploree mais donne des conclusions incoherentes. Les resultats pour les autres dopages sont qualitativement equivalents avec le dopage optimal et permettent donc une explication purement 2D. Par contre, contrairement au dopage optimal

  14. Les Brulures Electriques par Haut Voltage - A Propos de 10 Cas

    PubMed Central

    Belmir, R.; Fejjal, N.; El Omari, M.; El Mazouz, S.; Gharib, N.; Abassi, A.; Belmahi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Les accidents électriques par haute tension (AEHT) provoquent des brûlures profondes par effet Joule le long des axes vasculo-nerveux entre les points d'entrée et de sortie, qui sont le siège de lésions délabrantes. Les Auteurs rapportent une série de dix cas d'AEHT admis au service de chirurgie réparatrice et de brûlés de l'Hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat à travers laquelle ils étudient les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques et thérapeutiques. Tous les patients étaient des adultes de sexe masculin dont l'âge moyen était de 31 ans. Dans 70% des cas, ces brûlures étaient secondaires à un contact avec les distributeurs d'électricité avec une surface brûlée inférieure à 20%. Le traitement des lésions électrothermiques a nécessité des interventions itératives avec amputation des segments de membres nécrosés dans 70% des cas, dont les suites étaient marquées par des séquelles fonctionnelles invalidantes. La prévention des AEHT, en particulier pour les accidents du travail au sein des professions exposées, reste fondamentale. PMID:21991124

  15. Development and Application of LES for the Unsteady Flows in Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in applying the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to flow control in turbomachinery is reviewed. The development of flow control in turbomachinery requires accurate prediction of detailed three-dimensional flow structures including unsteady motion of various vortex systems. It has been shown that LES provides more realistic description of the complex flowfields compared to steady and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier- Stokes simulations (RANS & URANS).

  16. Fluctuations quantiques et instabilites structurales dans les conducteurs a basse dimensionalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikande, Alain Moise

    Un engouement particulier s'est manifeste ces dernieres annees pour les systemes electroniques fortement correles, ce en rapport avec l'immense richesse de leurs proprietes physiques. En general, ces proprietes sont induites par la presence d'interactions entre electrons qui, combinees a la structure du reseau moleculaire, donnent parfois lieu a une tres grande variete de phases electroniques et structurales ayant des incidences directes sur les phenomenes de transport dans ces materiaux. Les systemes electroniques couples a un reseau moleculaire et designes systemes electron-phonon font partie de cette classe de materiaux qui ont recemment capte l'attention, en raison notamment de la competition entre plusieurs echelles d'energie dans un environnement caracterise par une forte anisotropie cristalline et une dynamique moleculaire assez importante. En effet, en plus des proprietes electroniques et structurales particulieres la dimensionalite de ces systemes contribue egalement a leur richesse. Ainsi, une tres forte anisotropie structurale peut rehausser de facon considerable l'importance des interactions entre electrons et entre molecules constituant le reseau au point ou la physique du systeme soit regie par de tres fortes fluctuations. Ce dernier contexte est devenu un domaine a part de la physique des systemes fortement correles, a savoir celui des les phenomenes critiques quantiques . Parmi les systemes electron-phonon, on retrouve les composes inorganique KCP et organique TTF-TCNQ decouverts durant les annees 70, et explores en profondeur a cause de leur tendance vers une instabilite du type onde de densite de charge a basse temperature. Ces composes, en general designes systemes de Peierls en reference a l'instabilite de leurs structures electroniques regie par le reseau moleculaire, ont recemment connu un regain d'interet a la lumiere des nouveaux developpements dans les techniques de caracterisation des structures electroniques ainsi que sur le plan de

  17. STS-26 Mission Specialist Nelson in LES prior to JSC WETF emergency exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, wearing newly designed (navy blue) launch and entry suit (LES), gets some moral support from Aimee Tess Nelson, his sixteen-year-old lifeguard daughter. Nelson was about to participate in a simulation of escape and rescue operations utilizing the crew escape system (CES) pole mode of egress from the Space Shuttle. Nelson is equipped with the LES partial pressure suit and parachute gear.

  18. Protecting the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, John

    Historically speaking, the Earth's Moon has been subject to a wide variety of protections and cautions associated with space exploration. Early lunar missions (cf., the Ranger series) were initially subjected to sterilization procedures to protect the Moon from biological contamination, and though these were relaxed in later periods (e.g., Surveyor, Apollo), those measures were never entirely abandoned until the mid-1980s. More recent lunar missions (e.g., Clementine, Lunar Prospector, SMART-1) have only been inadvertently concerned with protection of the Moon—Clementine in the attempt to have it leave the vicinity of the Earth entirely, Lunar Prospector in it end-of-mission crash into the lunar south pole (with a resultant outcry by the Navajo population in the US), and SMART-1 because of the keen attention paid by the astronomical community to its end-of-mission location. While operations on the Moon are not constrained by current COSPAR planetary protection restrictions, an increasing interest in the Moon suggests that additional protections should be imposed in the future. For example, if lunar ices exist as a repository of past impact volatiles, then the contamination of lunar ices with non-organically-clean spacecraft and tools presents an initial concern for the potentially lost science, as well as future resource contamination concerns if such ices are found and can be used to as part of a comprehensive life-support strategy for human outposts. Requirements for the protection of this aspect of the lunar environment, as well as others, has been initiated both within COSPAR and by NASA, which (in NPR 8715.6) now requires orbital debris protection for spacecraft in lunar orbit, and prior approval of any future landing (or crashing) sites on the Moon, requiring those to "be chosen (or precluded) with due regard to the planned usage of those sites in future exploration or scientific study and the interests of other spacefaring nations."

  19. Hybrid RANS/LES simulations of bluff-body flows on unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvetti, Maria Vittoria; Camarri, Simone; Koobus, Bruno; Dervieux, Alain

    2004-11-01

    A hybrid RANS/LES model is set up by blending a k-\\varepsilon model and the Smagorinsky model according to the LNS idea [1], i.e. using the minimum value among the eddy viscosities given by the RANS and the LES closures. The Navier-Stokes equations are discretized by a mixed finite-volume/finite-element formulation applicable to unstrucured grid. A low diffusion MUSCL scheme, designed for LES, is adopted [2]. Both explicit (Runge-Kutta) and implicit (second-order accurate) time advancing can be used. The hybrid model is applied to the simulation of the flows around a square cylinder and around a sphere. Results are compared with those obtained with RANS and LES and with experimental data. REFERENCES: [1] P.Batten.LNS-An approach towards embedded LES. In phAIAA Paper 2002-0427. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2002. [2] S.Camarri,M.V.Salvetti,B.Koobus and A.Dervieux. A low-diffusion MUSCL scheme for LES on unstructured grids. phComputers and Fluids 2003; 33:1101-1129.

  20. Progress Towards an LES Wall Model Including Unresolved Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew; Aikens, Kurt

    2015-11-01

    Wall models used in large eddy simulations (LES) are often based on theories for hydraulically smooth walls. While this is reasonable for many applications, there are also many where the impact of surface roughness is important. A previously developed wall model has been used primarily for jet engine aeroacoustics. However, jet simulations have not accurately captured thick initial shear layers found in some experimental data. This may partly be due to nozzle wall roughness used in the experiments to promote turbulent boundary layers. As a result, the wall model is extended to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness through appropriate alterations to the log-law. The methodology is tested for incompressible flat plate boundary layers with different surface roughness. Correct trends are noted for the impact of surface roughness on the velocity profile. However, velocity deficit profiles and the Reynolds stresses do not collapse as well as expected. Possible reasons for the discrepancies as well as future work will be presented. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.

  1. RANS and LES simulations of the airflow through nasal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    The prediction of detailed flow patterns in nasal cavities using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide essential information on the potential relationship between patient-specific geometrical characteristics and health problems. The long-term goal of the OpenNOSE project is to develop a reliable open-source computational tool based on the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox that can assist surgeons in their daily practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the turbulence model and boundary conditions on simulations of the airflow in nasal cavities. The geometry, including paranasal sinuses, was reconstructed from a carefully selected CT scan, and RANS and LES simulations were carried out for steady inspiration and expiration. At a flow rate near 20 l/min, the flow is laminar in most of the domain. During the inspiration phase, turbulence develops in nasopharynx and oropharynx regions; during the expiration phase, another vortical region is observed down the nostrils. A comparison between different boundary conditions suggests the use of a total pressure condition, or alternatively a uniform velocity, at the inlet and outlet. In future work the same geometry will be used for setting up a laboratory experiment, intended to cross-validate the numerical results.

  2. LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Implementation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson Jr., WI; Vogelmann, AM

    2015-09-01

    This document illustrates the design of the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) workflow to provide a routine, high-resolution modeling capability to augment the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s high-density observations. LASSO will create a powerful new capability for furthering ARM’s mission to advance understanding of cloud, radiation, aerosol, and land-surface processes. The combined observational and modeling elements will enable a new level of scientific inquiry by connecting processes and context to observations and providing needed statistics for details that cannot be measured. The result will be improved process understanding that facilitates concomitant improvements in climate model parameterizations. The initial LASSO implementation will be for ARM’s Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma and will focus on shallow convection, which is poorly simulated by climate models due in part to clouds’ typically small spatial scale compared to model grid spacing, and because the convection involves complicated interactions of microphysical and boundary layer processes.

  3. Turbulence effects on hemolysis by revisiting experiments with LES computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Mesude; O'Rear, Edgar; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    Determining mechanically stimulated red blood cell trauma as a function of turbulence properties is required to design prosthetic heart devices. Because blood is typically exposed to turbulence in such devices, the design of prosthetic heart devices depends on determining the effect of turbulent stresses on hemolysis. While turbulent stresses increase hemolysis when cells are exposed to them, turbulent flow characteristics in the vicinity of lysed blood cells, and the mechanism of cell damage remains uncertain. In this work, LES computations are used to investigate the effect of turbulent eddy structure on cell damage. The flow was simulated for classic Couette and capillary tube experiments, in order to examine the relation between hemolysis turbulence properties related to the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. The hypothesis tested is that eddies that are close in size with the erythrocytes are the ones that are responsible for hemolysis, rather than Reynolds stresses or viscous stresses. We define extensive measures, like the eddy areas for small eddies comparable to the size of the red blood cells, to provide a more general understanding of the mechanical cause of blood trauma.

  4. Marine Propeller Analysis with an Immersed Boundary LES methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Seth; Balaras, Elias

    2011-11-01

    Modern marine propeller design and analysis techniques employ a wide range of computational methods to balance time constraints and accuracy requirements. Potential flow and RANS based methods have historically comprised the tools necessary for design and global performance analysis. However, for analysis where unsteady flow phenomena are of interest, eddy resolving methodologies are required. In the present study we use the large-eddy simulation (LES) approach coupled with an immersed-boundary (IB) method to perform computations of the flow around a rotating propeller at laboratory Reynolds numbers. Compared to classical boundary conforming strategies our formulation eliminates meshing overhead time and allows for body motion without additional treatments such as overset or dynamic meshing. The structured Cartesian grid also allows for a non-dissipative solver which conserves mass, momentum and energy. We will focus on the Italian Ship Model Basin (INSEAN) E1619 propeller and compare the predictions of our method to experimental results. The E1619 propeller is a 7-bladed submarine stock propeller that has been the subject of extensive experimental testing and previous computational studies. Supported by ONR.

  5. Experimental assessment of subgrid mixing models for LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, O. S.; Su, L. K.

    2003-11-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) models for subgrid scalar flux and dissipation include dynamic structure models,(Chumakov, S. and Rutland, C.J., submitted to phAIAA J.) based on scale similarity ideas, as well as one-equation models that relate subgrid variance and dissipation.(Jiménez, C. phet al.) phPhys. Fluids 13 (2001) Previously, these models have only been tested a posteriori, or a priori using data from direct numerical simulations. Here, these models are evaluated a priori using simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a turbulent crossflowing jet. The models are tested by filtering the experimental data and comparing the results with computed model quantities. The measurements have sufficient resolution to permit accurate determination of subgrid quantities. Of primary interest is the structural accuracy of the models, which can be assessed by computing a correlation coefficient between exact and modeled terms. Preliminary results suggest that the assumptions of scale similarity underlying the dynamic structure models are more valid for modeling subgrid scalar flux than subgrid scalar dissipation.

  6. Rack Protection Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, Stanley G.

    1998-10-21

    A hardwired, fail-safe rack protection monitor utilizes electromechanical relays to respond to the detection by condition sensors of abnormal or alarm conditions (such as smoke, temperature, wind or water) that might adversely affect or damage equipment being protected. When the monitor is reset, the monitor is in a detection mode with first and second alarm relay coils energized. If one of the condition sensors detects an abnormal condition, the first alarm relay coil will be de-energized, but the second alarm relay coil will remain energized. This results in both a visual and an audible alarm being activated. If a second alarm condition is detected by another one of the condition sensors while the first condition sensor is still detecting the first alarm condition, both the first alarm relay coil and the second alarm relay coil will be de-energized. With both the first and second alarm relay coils de-energized, both a visual and an audible alarm will be activated. In addition, power to the protected equipment will be terminated and an alarm signal will be transmitted to an alarm central control. The monitor can be housed in a separate enclosure so as to provide an interface between a power supply for the protected equipment and the protected equipment.

  7. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. PMID:26875849

  8. Rack protection monitor

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Stanley G.

    2000-01-01

    A hardwired, fail-safe rack protection monitor utilizes electromechanical relays to respond to the detection by condition sensors of abnormal or alarm conditions (such as smoke, temperature, wind or water) that might adversely affect or damage equipment being protected. When the monitor is reset, the monitor is in a detection mode with first and second alarm relay coils energized. If one of the condition sensors detects an abnormal condition, the first alarm relay coil will be de-energized, but the second alarm relay coil will remain energized. This results in both a visual and an audible alarm being activated. If a second alarm condition is detected by another one of the condition sensors while the first condition sensor is still detecting the first alarm condition, both the first alarm relay coil and the second alarm relay coil will be de-energized. With both the first and second alarm relay coils de-energized, both a visual and an audible alarm will be activated. In addition, power to the protected equipment will be terminated and an alarm signal will be transmitted to an alarm central control. The monitor can be housed in a separate enclosure so as to provide an interface between a power supply for the protected equipment and the protected equipment.

  9. Data protection, privacy.

    PubMed

    La Monaca, G; Schiralli, I

    2010-01-01

    The topic of data protection is referred closely to the concept of privacy--characterized by the American political philosophy in order to indicate a sphere recognized as personal, and therefore private or intimate, of the person, which exclude other individuals or society--whose protection has deep roots in the international right. The technological progress in the field of telecommunication has increased the facility of acquisition and spreading of information, the exchange of data, and the possibility of access to confidential information by other people. This made it made necessary the regulation of the management and the transfer of these information in order to protect individual rights and, on the other hand, an easy circulation of data for legitimate and useful goals. PMID:20499037

  10. Microscope collision protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    DeNure, Charles R.

    2001-10-23

    A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

  11. Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

  12. La violence sur les réseaux canadiens de télévision

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Guy

    2003-01-01

    La question des effets de la violence à la télévision occupe une place très importante dans l’opinion publique depuis les vingt dernières années, et des centaines d’études y ont été consacrées. Plusieurs chercheurs concluent à une influence négative de cette violence sur le comportement. Le public, les diffuseurs et les autorités politiques ont tous endossé l’idée de réduire la quantité totale de violence présentée au petit écran – en particulier dans les émissions accessibles aux enfants. Nous avons analysé un millier d’émissions de fiction présentées entre 1993 et 2001 sur les principaux réseaux généralistes de télévision au Canada : TVA et TQS ainsi que CTV et Global pour les réseaux privés français et anglais, ainsi que Radio-Canada français et anglais pour les réseaux publics. La méthodologie utilisée est l’analyse de contenu classique, où l’acte de violence constitue l’unité d’analyse. Les données recueillies démontrent que la quantité de violence a augmenté régulièrement depuis 1993, malgré la volonté affirmée des télédiffuseurs de présenter une programmation moins violente. C’est le cas du nombre brut d’actes et du nombre d’actes à l’heure, qui est lui aussi en forte croissance. Les réseaux privés véhiculent trois fois plus de violence que les réseaux publics. On constate également qu’une très forte proportion d’actes de violence figure dans des émissions qui commencent avant 21 h, et que de nombreux enfants y sont probablement exposés. Nous signalons finalement la place de plus en plus importante occupée par la violence psychologique. PMID:20020031

  13. Les manifestations ophtalmologiques de la maladie de Behçet, à propos de 33 cas

    PubMed Central

    Andaloussi, Idriss Benatiya; Alami, Bouchra; Abdellaoui, Meryem; Bhallil, Salima; Bono, Wafae; Tahri, Hicham

    2012-01-01

    Les manifestations ophtalmologiques au cours de la maladie de Behçet sont dominées par les uvéites, les vascularites rétiniennes et les thromboses veineuses rétiniennes. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les malades atteints de la maladie de Behçet, hospitalisés au sein du service d'Ophtalmologie de Fès de Janvier 2007 à Décembre 2009. Au total ce sont 33 patients qui sont inclut dans l'étudeLa moyenne d’âge est de 28,4 ans. Le délai moyen de consultation varie entre 1 jour et 3 ans. L'atteinte oculaire est bilatérale chez 26 patients (78,8% des yeux). L'AV est très basse avant le traitement: 28,8% à moins de 1/10. Les manifestations oculaires sont dominées par l'uvéite avec 77,3%, suivie de la vascularite rétinienne 54, 5% et la maculopathie 51, 5%. Le pourcentage des yeux dont l'AV était inférieur à 1/10 est passé à 19,7% après traitement. La fréquence de l'atteinte oculaire au cours de la maladie de Behçet est diversement appréciée selon les auteurs et selon le mode de recrutement des patients: elle va de 29% à 100%. L'atteinte uvéale est la plus fréquente des manifestations ophtalmologiques. Les lésions vasculaires rétiniennes sont dominées par la vascularite rétinienne essentiellement la périphlébite aussi bien au pôle postérieur qu’à la périphérie rétinienne. En l'absence de traitement et de mauvaise observance, le pronostic oculaire de la maladie de Behçet est très mauvais. La cécité s'installe dans 13 à 32%. Les manifestations ophtalmologiques au cours de la maladie de Behçet ont une valeur considérable, tant sur le plan diagnostique que pronostique. Notre étude a permis de décrire les aspects cliniques de l'atteinte oculaire de la maladie de Behçet dans un service d'Ophtalmologie tertiaire au Maroc. PMID:23396991

  14. Spacecraft ceramic protective shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larriva, Rene F. (Inventor); Nelson, Anne (M.); Czechanski, James G. (Inventor); Poff, Ray E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A low areal density protective shield apparatus, and method for making same, for protecting spacecraft structures from impact with hypervelocity objects, including a bumper member comprising a bumper ceramic layer, a bumper shock attenuator layer, and a bumper confining layer. The bumper ceramic layer can be SiC or B.sub.4 C; the bumper shock attenuator layer can be zirconia felt; and the bumper confining layer can be aluminum. A base armor member can be spaced from the bumper member and a ceramic fiber-based curtain can be positioned between the bumper and base armor members.

  15. Material for radioactive protection

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  16. Radiation protection in space

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, E.A.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  17. Coral reef protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration announced the establishment on 13 November of the first U.S. zone to protect a sensitive coral reef area from potential damage by ships.The Florida Keys' Particularly Sensitive Sea Area, just one of a handful of such areas globally, has been designated by the International Maritime Organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations. The area protects a zone of more than 3,000 square nautical miles stretching from the Biscayne National Park to the Dry Tortugas.

  18. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities. PMID:26611003

  19. Protective overcoating of films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Kodak Film Type SO-212 was emulsion overcoated with gelatin and lacquer to evaluate the feasibility of application of the coatings, any image degradation, and the relative protection offered against abrasion. Evaluated were: Eastman motion picture film lacquer Type 485, water solutions of Eastman purified Calfskin gelatin, and experimental Eastman gelatin stripping film of 4 and 6 microns. Conclusions reached were: (1) All coatings can be applied with relative ease with the only limitation being that of equipment. (2) None of the coatings degrade the processed image. (3) All of the coatings provide protection to the emulsion. These conclusions apply to any film which may be considered for overcoating.

  20. Protection from space radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, R.K.; Wilson, J.W.; Shinn, J.L.

    2000-07-01

    The exposures anticipated for astronauts in the anticipated human exploration and development of space will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than for any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from galactic cosmic rays for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate. The authors evaluate their current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

  1. Pesticide personal protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Branson, D H; Sweeney, M

    1991-01-01

    A fairly large established data base provides information on clothing worn by U.S. and Canadian farmers to work with pesticides, their attitudes and beliefs about pesticide risk, and clothing as a dermal barrier. Very limited similar data are available for farmers in less developed countries. Clearly, farmers perceive the benefits of pesticides to far exceed any risks. While few report poisoning symptoms, most believe that their usual work clothing offers a sufficient pesticide barrier, and few wear special-purpose protective clothing. Gloves of various materials, including cotton and leather, appear to be the major protective clothing item. Although farmers feel that their usual work clothing provides excellent protection, fabric penetration research does not support this. Shirting-weight fabrics offer some limited protection against light spray of field-strenght pesticides. Heavier-weight fabrics, such as denim and twill, are better barriers. With a heavier spray or a spill, usual work clothing does not give sufficient protection. Greater protection can usually be achieved with the use of a fluorocarbon finished fabric, such as Scotchgard or Zepel. Scotchgard can readily be applied at home. A durable-press finish does not appear to improve fabric's pesticide-barrier resistance and some data suggest that it may decrease barrier properties. A second alternative for increased protection is the use of a special-purpose fabric, such as a coated nonwoven or possibly Gore-Tex. Numerous other new "waterproof breathable" fabrics have recently come to the market. Many of these are finished or coated fabrics and one would expect them to be at least somewhat resistant to pesticides. However, they have not been tested. Wearing an additional layer also appears to be another clothing strategy to minimize exposure. Fabric penetration research also shows that pesticide formulation, volume or spray regime, concentration, and active ingredients influence the barrier properties of

  2. Thermal Protection Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The main portion of this contract year was spent on the development of materials for high temperature applications. In particular, thermal protection materials were constantly tested and evaluated for thermal shock resistance, high-temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to hostile environmental effects. The analytical laboratory at the Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB), NASA-Ames played an integral part in the process of materials development of high temperature aerospace applications. The materials development focused mainly on the determination of physical and chemical characteristics of specimens from the various research programs.

  3. Protection from Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The exposures anticipated for our astronauts in the anticipated Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate [1,2]. The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate our current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and to discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

  4. Fire Protection Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NERAC, Inc., Tolland, CT, aided Paul Monroe Engineering, Orange, CA, in the development of their PC1200 Series Fire Protection Jacket that protects the oil conduit system on an offshore drilling platform from the intense hydrocarbon fires that cause buckling and could cause structural failure of the platform. The flame-proof jacketing, which can withstand temperatures of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit for four hours or more, was developed from a combination of ceramic cloth (similar to the ceramic in Space Shuttle tiles), and laminates used in space suits.

  5. Photovaporisation prostatique au laser chez les patients à haut risque hémorragique

    PubMed Central

    Bouabdallah, Zakaria; Kharbouchi, Amine; Colau, Alexandre; Cariou, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Les patients sous traitement anticoagulant sont à risque élevé de saignement lors de la résection transurétrale de la prostate ou de l'adénomectomie par taille vésicale et ils se voient souvent récuser pour la chirurgie de l'hyperplasie bénigne de la prostate symptomatique. En Utilisant la photovaporisation de la prostate, les patients à haut risque peuvent subir en toute sécurité la chirurgie. Nous avons évalué l'innocuité et l'efficacité de la photovaporisation de la prostate (PVP) chez les patients sous anticoagulants en cours avec les dérivés de la coumarine, l'aspirine ou le clopidogrel, se plaignant de symptômes d'hypertrophie bénigne de la prostate. Méthodes Entre janvier 2009 et mai 2010, 47 hommes sous anticoagulation systémique ont subi une photovaporisation de la prostate. Les données ont été recueillies sur les caractéristiques démographiques, les comorbidités, les complications, la natrémie, l'hémoglobine, le débit urinaire maximal, le résidu post-mictionnel, l'IPSS et les complications. Résultats L'âge moyen était de 78 ans, le volume prostatique moyen était de 44g et le PSA était de 3.4ng/ml. Parmi les 10 patients (21.2%) étaient sous AVK, 27 (57.4%) étaient sous aspirine, 2 (4.2%) étaient sous clopidogrel, un sous fondaparinux et 6 (12.7%) étaient sous 2 anticoagulants ou plus. Le score ASA moyen était de 3. La durée moyenne de fonctionnement de l'appareil était de 38 minutes, l'énergie moyenne utilisée était de 200kJ. La durée moyenne d'hospitalisation était de 2 jours. Les complications survenant dans les 30 jours comprenaient une infection urinaire chez 5 patients (10.6%), une dysurie chez 4 patients et une hémorragie retardée chez 4 autres (8.5%). Un seul de ces patients a nécessité une transfusion sanguine et aucun patient n'a nécessité une réintervention. En 3 mois de suivi un seul patient a nécessité une incision du col vésical pour sclérose du col. Aucune incontinence

  6. Passive Protection Against Coccidiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of chicken egg antibody (IgY) powder which were prepared from hens hyperimmunized with a purified recombinant protein from Eimeria acervulina merozoites (3-E) was evaluated in a chicken challenge model with 2 different Eimeria species, E. acervulina and E. tenella. The chickens...

  7. Advanced extravehicular protective systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    New technologies are identified and recommended for developing a regenerative portable life support system that provides protection for extravehicular human activities during long duration missions on orbiting space stations, potential lunar bases, and possible Mars landings. Parametric subsystems analyses consider: thermal control, carbon dioxide control, oxygen supply, power supply, contaminant control, humidity control, prime movers, and automatic temperature control.

  8. Protective coatings for concrete

    SciTech Connect

    NAGY, KATHRYN L.; CYGAN, RANDALL T.; BRINKER, C. JEFFREY; SELLINGER, ALAN

    2000-05-01

    The new two-layer protective coating developed for monuments constructed of limestone or marble was applied to highway cement and to tobermorite, a component of cement, and tested in batch dissolution tests. The goal was to determine the suitability of the protective coating in retarding the weathering rate of concrete construction. The two-layer coating consists of an inner layer of aminoethylaminopropylsilane (AEAPS) applied as a 25% solution in methanol and an outer layer of A2** sol-gel. In previous work, this product when applied to calcite powders, had resulted in a lowering of the rate of dissolution by a factor of ten and was shown through molecular modeling to bind strongly to the calcite surface, but not too strongly so as to accelerate dissolution. Batch dissolution tests at 22 C of coated and uncoated tobermorite (1.1 nm phase) and powdered cement from Gibson Blvd. in Albuquerque indicated that the coating exhibits some protective behavior, at least on short time scales. However, the data suggest that the outer layer of sol-gel dissolves in the high-pH environment of the closed system of cement plus water. Calculated binding configuration and energy of AEAPS to the tobermorite surface suggests that AEAPS is well-suited as the inner layer binder for protecting tobermorite.

  9. Armored garment for protecting

    DOEpatents

    Purvis, James W.; Jones, II, Jack F.; Whinery, Larry D.; Brazfield, Richard; Lawrie, Catherine; Lawrie, David; Preece, Dale S.

    2009-08-11

    A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

  10. Partners in Environmental Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehouse, Karen

    1975-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) and the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act's (CETA) cooperative relationship regarding the development of environmental manpower programs on a State and local level is discussed. Environmental programs resulting from CETA aid are described and EPA statistics given, stating that such programs are…

  11. Protecting against Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Kevin R.

    2006-01-01

    This article features an assistant professor of technology who shares his story of near disaster and offers advice for others about protecting their data. The author presents steps that can be taken to prevent unexpected events from destroying data. The author strongly recommends using backup files as a way of securing computer files and data.…

  12. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  13. Protectiveness, Persecution, and Powerlessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Kathleen G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of family pathology from a transactional viewpoint. The thesis proposed is that family pathology is a means of protecting the family and ensuring its survival. The father, mother, and child assume and exchange the roles of the Karpman drama triangle; namely, Persecutor, Victim, and Rescuer. (Author)

  14. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A.; Elder, Michael G.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  15. ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION AND RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    To carry out this mission, GLNPO established its Ecological Protection and Restoration Team (the E Team), consisting of a staff plus extended team members from EPA Regions 2, 3, and 5, other federal and state agencies, and non-governmental organizations. GLNPO expect...

  16. Protection of Intellectual Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary M.; McGrath, William T.

    1990-01-01

    The first of two articles discusses the extent to which piracy of intellectual property hurts the U.S. economy, the role of developing nations in piracy, and who benefits from the protection of intellectual property. The second explores the implications of a Supreme Court ruling on copyrighting of computer programs created by independent…

  17. Global protected area impacts

    PubMed Central

    Joppa, Lucas N.; Pfaff, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) dominate conservation efforts. They will probably play a role in future climate policies too, as global payments may reward local reductions of loss of natural land cover. We estimate the impact of PAs on natural land cover within each of 147 countries by comparing outcomes inside PAs with outcomes outside. We use ‘matching’ (or ‘apples to apples’) for land characteristics to control for the fact that PAs very often are non-randomly distributed across their national landscapes. Protection tends towards land that, if unprotected, is less likely than average to be cleared. For 75 per cent of countries, we find protection does reduce conversion of natural land cover. However, for approximately 80 per cent of countries, our global results also confirm (following smaller-scale studies) that controlling for land characteristics reduces estimated impact by half or more. This shows the importance of controlling for at least a few key land characteristics. Further, we show that impacts vary considerably within a country (i.e. across a landscape): protection achieves less on lands far from roads, far from cities and on steeper slopes. Thus, while planners are, of course, constrained by other conservation priorities and costs, they could target higher impacts to earn more global payments for reduced deforestation. PMID:21084351

  18. Protective Policy Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrin, Donald D.

    1994-01-01

    Offers ways to help student affairs administrators understand protective policy laws and regulations. Looks at how such federal guidelines affect campus policies, practices, and procedures. Examines the Buckley Amendment, student consumer information, student right-to-know, campus security, and the Drug Free Schools and Communities Act. (Includes…

  19. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  20. Protecting Gas Chromatographic Syringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruekberg, Ben

    1995-12-01

    This article describes the construction of a device which protects gas chromatographic syringes. The device lessens the likelihood of syringes rolling off tables and breaking. If the syringe is dropped, the glass barrel is less apt to be struck and shattered.

  1. Simulation numérique d'écoulement compressible dans les joints labyrinthe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriti, M.; Agouzoul, M.; Ouazar, D.; Micheau, P.

    1997-05-01

    The labyrinth seals are the devices used machines which serve to restrict the leakages crossing a carter (or stator) by a rotating shaft (or rotor) and to avoid the important friction to high rotation speeds. These devices, which in addition behave as shaft bearings, can modify the dynamics characteristics of the line of the shaft in which they are integrated. The present work has been carried out with the purpose of controlling better the flows within the labyrinth seals and to determine their static (leakage-pressure) and dynamic (stiffness and damping coefficients) characteristics. It's based on the development of a global numerical model, and on the integration of the obtained correlations by 3D axisymmetric computation in this model. Les joints labyrinthe sont des dispositifs utilisés dans les machines, ils servent à limiter les fuites à la traversée d'un carter (ou stator) par un arbre tournant (ou rotor) et éviter le frottement important aux vitesses de rotation élevées. Ces dispositifs, qui de plus, se comportent comme des paliers, peuvent modifier les caractéristiques dynamiques de la ligne d'arbre dans laquelle ils sont intégrés. Le travail présenté a été effectué dans le but de mieux maîtriser les écoulements dans les joints labyrinthe et de déterminer leurs caractéristiques statiques (débit-pression) et dynamiques (coefficients de raideur et d'amortissement). Il s'appuie sur le développement d'outils numériques intégrant dans les calculs globaux des résultats de calculs locaux (3D axisymétriques).

  2. Mesusage du tramadol par les adolescents et jeunes adultes en situation de rue

    PubMed Central

    Maiga, Djibo Douma; Seyni, Houdou; Moussa, Ali Ousmane; Sidikou, Amadou

    2012-01-01

    L’objectif de cette étude transversale et descriptive était de décrire quelques caractéristiques de l’addiction au Tramadol chez les adolescents et jeunes adultes en situation de rue, rattachés aux centres d’écoute du Service Educatif, Judiciaire et préventif (SEJUP) de Niamey. Le recueil des données a porté sur les variables sociodémographiques et la consommation de tramadol. L’analyse des données a calculé les moyennes, minima, maxima et écarts types. Les résultats indiquent que : trois centres d’écoute sur huit participaient à l’étude. L’échantillon constituait 61 adolescents et jeunes adultes dont l’âge moyen était de 17,49 ans. L’analyse indique que 47 adolescents et jeunes adultes de toutes les catégories sociodémographiques (sexe, niveau d’instruction, provenance familiale ; région de provenance ; antécdents médicaux; antécédents judiciaires) étaient usagers du Tramadol. 46 étaient dépendants du Tramadol. La quantité moyenne consommée était de 1455,31 ± 901,4mg. Le mésusage du tramadol par les jeunes en situation de rue est probablement une des conséquences de la vente illicite et libre des médicaments, dont il est urgent de préciser les données médicales et sociales. PMID:23330046

  3. Les liquéfacteurs d'hélium en France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianèse, P.; Maréchal, J. C.

    1991-02-01

    This article is a synopsis of a meeting held at the begining of 1990 between the managers of the principal helium liquefaction installations in France. The mains types of helium liquefiers encountered are described and then the French installations are listed and detailed. The problems encountered in different parts of the installations (liquefier, recovery system, purifying, ...) during the last few years are discussed. In a final section about the economics of liquefaction, the cost of liquefying helium and nitrogen is compared with the cost of purchasing these liquids commercially. Cet article constitue la synthèse d'une réunion tenue début 1990 qui regroupait les principaux responsables français des centres de liquéfaction d'hélium. L'article décrit successivement les principaux types de liquéfacteurs rencontrés puis recense les installations françaises en fournissant leurs principales caractéristiques. Il énumère ensuite les problèmes survenus avec les différents éléments d'une installation (liquéfacteur, circuit de récupération, épurateur, ...). L'article s'achève par un volet économique fournissant les coûts moyens actuels soit pour l'achat, soit pour la liquéfaction sur place de l'hélium et de l'azote liquide. Une comparaison entre les deux solutions est effectuée.

  4. Distribution épidémiologique de l'infection à VIH chez les femmes enceintes dans les dix régions du Cameroun et implications stratégiques pour les programmes de prévention

    PubMed Central

    Billong, Serge-Clotaire; Fokam, Joseph; Billong, Edson-Joan; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Essi, Marie-Josée; Fodjo, Raoul; Sosso, Samuel-Martin; Gomba, Armelle; Mosoko-Jembia, Joseph; Loni-Ekali, Gabriel; Colizzi, Vittorio; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kani; Monebenimp, Francisca; Nfetam, Jean-Bosco Elat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le Cameroun se situe dans un contexte d’épidémie généralisée du VIH. La sous-population des femmes enceintes, facilement accessible au sein de la population générale, représente une cible probante pour mener la surveillance du VIH et estimer l’évolution épidémiologique. L'objectif de notre étude était d’évaluer la distribution épidémiologique du VIH chez les femmes enceintes. Méthodes Étude transversale menée en 2012 chez 6521 femmes enceintes (49,3% âgées de 15-24 ans) en première consultation prénatale (CPN1) dans 60 sites des 10 régions Camerounaises. L'algorithme en série a été utilisé pour le sérodiagnostic du VIH. Résultats La prévalence du VIH était de 7,8% (508/6521), avec une différence non significative (p = 0,297) entre milieu rural (7,4%) et milieu urbain (8,1%). En zone rurale, cette prévalence variait de 0,7% à l'Extrême-Nord à 11,8% au Sud. Cependant, en zone urbaine elle variait de 4% à l'Ouest à 11,1% au Sud-Ouest. Suivant l’âge, la prévalence était plus élevée (11,3%) chez les femmes de 35-39 ans. Suivant le niveau de scolarisation, la prévalence du VIH était plus faible (4,4%) chez celles non-scolarisées, et plus élevée (9,3%) chez celles ayant un niveau primaire. Selon la profession, l'infection était plus élevée chez les coiffeuses (15,5%), secrétaires (14,8%), commerçantes (12,9%) et institutrices/enseignantes (10,8%). Conclusion La prévalence du VIH reste élevée chez les femmes enceintes au Cameroun, sans distinction entre milieux rural et urbain. Les stratégies de prévention devraient s'orienter préférentiellement chez les femmes enceintes âgées, celles du niveau d'instruction primaire, et celles du secteur des petites et moyennes entreprises. PMID:26090037

  5. La prévention des blessures non intentionnelles chez les enfants et adolescents autochtones au Canada

    PubMed Central

    Banerji, Anna

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les blessures non intentionnelles sont la principale cause de décès chez les enfants et adolescents autochtones canadiens, à un taux de trois à quatre fois la moyenne nationale. Non seulement les décès et les blessures invalidantes dévastent les familles et les communautés, mais elles font également d’énormes ravages sur les ressources de santé. L’absence de statistiques, de surveillance continue ou de programmes de prévention des blessures à l’égard des enfants et adolescents autochtones exacerbe les coûts en matière de main-d’œuvre et de santé. Les communautés autochtones sont hétérogènes sur le plan culturel, qu’il s’agisse de l’accès aux ressources ou même des risques et des types de blessures. Pourtant, en général, ces communautés sont beaucoup plus susceptibles d’être pauvres, d’habiter dans un logement insalubre et d’éprouver de la difficulté à accéder aux soins de santé, des facteurs qui accroissent le risque et les conséquences des blessures. Il existe un besoin urgent de surveillance des blessures, de recherche, de renforcement des capacités, de diffusion des connaissances et de programmes de prévention des blessures qui sont axés sur les populations autochtones. Pour prévenir les blessures de manière efficace, il faut adopter des démarches multidisciplinaires, coopératives et durables, fondées sur des pratiques exemplaires, tout en étant spécifiques et sensibles sur le plan culturel et linguistique.

  6. The TLWP cathodic protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper details the subsea corrosion protection system of the tension leg well platform (TLWP), which comprises coatings and cathodic protection (CP). Postinstallation surveys reveal potentials of at least 150 mV more protective than the minimum potential required for protection. The TLWP protection system weighs 434,000 lbm less than the conventional CP design, with 286,000 lbm less on the floating portion of the TLWP.

  7. Cosmic radiation in aviation: radiological protection of Air France aircraft crew.

    PubMed

    Desmaris, G

    2016-06-01

    Cosmic radiation in aviation has been a concern since the 1960s, and measurements have been taken for several decades by Air France. Results show that aircraft crew generally receive 3-4 mSv y(-1) for 750 boarding hours. Compliance with the trigger level of 6 mSv y(-1) is achieved by route selection. Work schedules can be developed for pregnant pilots to enable the dose to the fetus to be kept below 1 mSv. Crew members are informed of their exposition and the potential health impact. The upcoming International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report on cosmic radiation in aviation will provide an updated guidance. A graded approach proportionate with the time of exposure is recommended to implement the optimisation principle. The objective is to keep exposures of the most exposed aircraft members to reasonable levels. ICRP also recommends that information about cosmic radiation be disseminated, and that awareness about cosmic radiation be raised in order to favour informed decision-making by all concerned stakeholders. PMID:27044363

  8. Theorie de la Levitation Radiative a L'equilibre dans les Etoiles Naines Blanches Chaudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayer, Pierre

    1995-01-01

    Les resultats de nouveaux calculs detailles de levitation radiative dans des naines blanches chaudes utilisant la base de donnees atomiques TOPBASE sont presentes. Des accelerations radiatives et des abondances d'equilibre ont ete calculees pour C, N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ar, Ca, et Fe, sur des grilles de modeles d'enveloppes stellaires riches en hydrogene et riches en helium. La grille des modeles de DA a des gravites telles que log g = 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, et 8.5, et couvre les temperatures effectives pour lesquelles 100,000K >= T_ {rm eff} >= 20,000K par sauts de 2,500K. La grille des modeles de DO/DB est similaire mais se prolonge a T_{rm eff } = 130,000K. Les resultats d'abondances d'equilibre de Ni dans des DA utilisant la base de donnees de Kurucz sont aussi presentes. Nous discutons dans les moindres details de la physique incluse dans les calculs afin de fournir une bonne comprehension physique de la levitation radiative sous les conditions rencontrees dans les naines blanches. Nous discutons aussi de la forme et de la dependance en fonction de la profondeur des reservoirs des elements, crees par un equilibre entre l'acceleration radiative et la gravite locale effective dans differentes enveloppes stellaires. Nous soulignons le role important joue dans la morphologie de ces reserviors par les etats d'ionisation dominants se trouvant dans la configuration gaz noble. Nos resultats centraux sont presentes sous forme de figures montrant le comportement de l'abondance photospherique estimee pour chaque element en fonction de la temperature effective et de la gravite de surface. Nous apportons egalement des ameliorations aux calculs de levitation radiative en utilisant une approche de modeles d'atmospheres pour les etoiles riches en hydrogene. Nous mettons l'emphase, en particulier, sur le role des traces d'elements lourds qui peuvent etre presents dans le plasma. Nous utilisons une table d'opacite monochromatique detaillee calculee pour un plasma compose de H

  9. Enquete sur les aspects toxicologiques de la phytotherapie utilisee par un herboriste à Fes, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Zeggwagh, Ali Amine; Lahlou, Younes; Bousliman, Yassir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dans le but d'étudier l'aspect toxicologique des plantes médicinales utilisées en médecine traditionnelle, une étude ethnobotanique a été réalisée à la ville de Fès au centre du Maroc. Méthodes Ont été inclus dans l'étude tous les patients ayant bénéficié d'une prescription par l'herboriste de plantes à visée thérapeutique. La discussion de nos résultats s'est faite sur la base d'une revue de la littérature avec identification des principales plantes toxiques utilisées en phytothérapie au Maroc. L'approche bibliographique a permis de compléter les informations. Résultats L'âge moyen des patients traités par des plantes (38 femmes, 32 hommes) était de 35 ± 18 ans. L'enquête ethnobotanique à révélé que la majorité des plantes médicinales étaient utilisées contre les affections urinaires (21%), suivi des maladies de l'appareil digestif (19.6%) et des maladies rhumatologiques (18.2%). Le nombre de plantes prescrits par l'herboriste a été de 53 dont 5 sont potentiellement toxiques. L'identification taxonomique des plantes prescrites a recensé 30 familles dont les plus représentées sont les Lamiaceae (23.33%), les Apiaceae (13,33%) et les Asteraceae (10%). La prescription des plantes considérées comme toxiques a concerné 7,1% des consultants traités par les plantes médicinales. Aucune complication inhérente aux plantes prescrites n'a été déplorée. Conclusion Malgré les résultats encourageants de notre enquête sur le compte de la phytothérapie, la pratique de la phytothérapie est laissée à la vulgarisation et à l'oubli scientifique, législatif et universitaire. PMID:23734270

  10. Les tumeurs annexielles cutanées: étude anatomopathologique à propos de 96 cas

    PubMed Central

    El Ochi, Mohamed Réda; Boudhas, Adil; Allaoui, Mohammed; Rharrassi, Issam; Chahdi, Hafsa; Bouzidi, Abderrahman Al; Oukabli, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Les tumeurs annexielles cutanées sont des tumeurs primitives cutanées à la fois rares et hétérogènes. Elles sont le plus souvent bénignes et rarement malignes. Elles sont dominées du point de vu morphologique par leur polymorphisme lésionnel. Le but de cette étude est de relever le profil épidémiologique et les différents aspects anatomopathologiques de ce groupe de tumeurs dans une cohorte de population marocaine et de les comparer avec les données de la littérature. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective de 96 cas de tumeurs annexielles cutanées colligées au service d'anatomie et de cytologie pathologique de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V de rabat durant une période de 6 ans, de Janvier 2009 à Décembre 2014. Le pic de fréquence est situé entre 31 et 40 ans. L’âge moyen est de 36 ans avec une prédominance masculine (63,5%). Le siège de prédilection est la région de la tête et cou (47,9%). Les tumeurs bénignes (97,9%) sont plus fréquentes que les tumeurs malignes. La différenciation est folliculaire dans 51% des cas, eccrine/apocrine dans 44,8% des cas et sébacée dans 4,2% des cas. Le type histologique le plus fréquent est le pilomatrixome (33,4%) suivi par l'hidradénome (12,5%) et le spiradénome eccrine (11,5%). Les tumeurs annexielles cutanées sont rares et très variées. Le profil épidémiologique et les aspects anatomopathologiques qui ressortent sont globalement superposables à ceux rapportés dans la littérature. Elles sont majoritairement bénignes, à prédominance masculine et dominées par le pilomatrixome et l'hidradénome nodulaire. Les tumeurs malignes sont rares, agressives et surviennent à un âge plus avancé. PMID:26185579

  11. Les bisphosphonates dans le traitement de l’ostéoporose

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jacques P.; Morin, Suzanne; Leslie, William; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Cheung, Angela M.; Davison, Kenneth S.; Goltzman, David; Hanley, David Arthur; Hodsman, Anthony; Josse, Robert; Jovaisas, Algis; Juby, Angela; Kaiser, Stephanie; Karaplis, Andrew; Kendler, David; Khan, Aliya; Ngui, Daniel; Olszynski, Wojciech; Ste-Marie, Louis-Georges; Adachi, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Exposer l’efficacité et les risques du traitement par les bisphosphonates dans la prise en charge de l’ostéoporose et décrire les patients qui seraient de bons candidats aux congés thérapeutiques. Qualité des données Une recherche dans MEDLINE (PubMed, jusqu’au 31 décembre 2012) a permis de relever les publications pertinentes pour l’inclusion. La plupart des données probantes citées sont de niveau II (tirées d’essais non randomisés, de cohorte et d’autres essais comparatifs). Message principal L’efficacité des bisphosphonates de premier recours homologués pour la prévention des fractures a été éprouvée dans le cadre d’essais cliniques randomisés et contrôlés. Cependant, l’usage clinique répandu et prolongé des bisphosphonates a donné lieu à des rapports de manifestations indésirables rares, mais graves. L’ostéonécrose maxillaire et les fractures atypiques sous-trochantériennes ou diaphysaires du fémur seraient liées à l’emploi des bisphosphonates dans le traitement de l’ostéoporose, mais ces manifestations sont extrêmement rares et lorsqu’elles surviennent, elles sont accompagnées d’autres comorbidités ou de l’emploi concomitant de médicaments. Les congés thérapeutiques ne peuvent être envisagés que chez les patients à faible risque et dans un groupe restreint de patients dont le risque de fracture est modéré après un traitement de 3 à 5 ans. Conclusion Lorsque les bisphosphonates sont prescrits à des patients dont le risque de fracture est élevé, leur effet de prévention des fractures l’emporte de loin sur leurs torts potentiels. Chez les patients qui prennent des bisphosphonates depuis 3 à 5 ans, il faut réévaluer le besoin de poursuivre le traitement.

  12. Altération des sulfures des granulats dans les chaussées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jigorel, A.; Jauberthie, R.

    2002-07-01

    Sulfides present in hornsfeld aggregates, used in light pavanent construction in contact with humid air alter rapidly. Crystallisation of sulfates at the interface of bitumastic material and sub-base creates serious problems (intumescence and crazing) that can lead to a total reconstruction of the project (roads, sidewalks, sports areas, etc). The sulfides in the aggregates and the sulfates produced due to alteration are studied by SEM and XRD. The results show that the intensity of this phenomenon is linked to the nature and the crystallinity of the sulfides. The evolution of the sulfates formed during this alteration process is slow and complex. In new pavements (3 years) the sulfates have a pulverised appearance and consist mostly of epsomite, associated with pickeringite and halotrichite. In older pavements (20 years) the sulfates form a fibrous concretion consisting of pickeringite and small quantities of halotrichite. Les sulfures présents dans les granulats élaborés à partir de cornéen nes s'altèrent rapidement dans les chaussées légères en présence d'air humide. La cristallisation des sulfates à l'interface enrobé-couche de fondation crée des désordres si importants (intumescences, faiençage) qu'il est bien souvent nécessaire d'assurer la réfection totale des ouvrages (routes, trottoirs, plateaux sportifs...). Les sulfures des granulats et les sulfates issus du processus d'altération ont été étudiés par diffractométrie X et examen su Microscope Electronique à Balayage équipé de microanalyse X. Les résultats montrent que !intensité des désordres est liée à la nature et à la cristallinité des sulfures. Les sulfates formés évoluent su cours du processus d'altération qui est long et complexe. Dans les chaussées récentes (3 ans) ils ont un aspect pulvérulent et sont constitués d'epsomite dominante associée à de la pickeringite et à de l'halotrichite. Dans les chaussées plus anciennes (20 ans) ils forment des concr

  13. Protecting our patients by protecting ourselves

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Blake; Alsabbagh, Wasem; Houle, Sherilyn; Wenger, Lisa; Church, Dana; Waite, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Background: With recent expansions to scope of practice that have allowed Canadian pharmacists to play a larger role in administering influenza vaccinations to the public, it is important that pharmacists themselves meet Canadian guidelines recommending that 80% of health care professionals and 100% of vaccinators receive an annual influenza vaccination. Unvaccinated health care professionals pose an infection risk to patients they serve and are at an increased risk of infection themselves. Methods: An online, anonymous survey was sent to Ontario community pharmacists to determine whether they had received the influenza vaccination during the 2013–2014 influenza season. All significant univariate chi-square analysis respondent characteristics were included in a multivariate regression analysis model to determine predictors of vaccination status. Results: A total of 780 pharmacists completed the survey (18.1% response rate), which showed that 7 in 10 Ontario community pharmacists received the influenza vaccine. Those certified to immunize were nearly 3 times more likely to have received the influenza vaccine than those not certified (81.6% versus 61.2%, respectively). Discussion: Having 70% of Ontario community pharmacists vaccinated against influenza is both an accomplishment and an opportunity to improve vaccination rates. While similar to the influenza immunization rates of other health care professions, Ontario community pharmacists did not meet Public Health Canada’s recommendations. Comprehensive worksite programs, including promotion, education and convenient access to influenza vaccination at no cost, could increase community pharmacist influenza vaccination rates. Conclusion: The authors issue a call to arms to encourage all pharmacists to receive the influenza vaccine to protect the public and themselves. PMID:27540407

  14. Extended LES-PaSR model for simulation of turbulent combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabelnikov, V.; Fureby, C.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a novel model for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of high Reynolds moderate Damköhler number turbulent flames is proposed. The development is motivated by the need for more accurate and versatile LES combustion models for engineering applications such as jet engines. The model is based on the finite rate chemistry approach in which the filtered species equations of a reduced reaction mechanism are solved prior to closure modeling. The modeling of the filtered reaction rate provides the challenge: as most of the chemical activity, and thus also most of the exothermicity occurs on the subgrid scales, this model needs to be based on the properties of fine-scale turbulence and mixing and Arrhenius chemistry. The model developed here makes use of the similarities with the mathematical treatment of multiphase flows together with the knowledge of fine-scale turbulence and chemistry obtained by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and experiments. In the model developed, equations are proposed for the fine-structure composition and volume fraction that are solved together with the LES equations for the resolved scales. If subgrid convection can be neglected, the proposed model simplifies to the Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) model. To validate the proposed LES model, comparisons with experimental data and other LES results are made, using other turbulence chemistry interaction models, for a lean premixed bluff-body stabilized flame.

  15. Comparison of LES and DNS simulations for the late stratified wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogucki, Darek J.; Yang, X.; Radhakrishnan, S.; Domaradzki, Julian A.

    2001-11-01

    We have carried out fully three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulations of stratified late non-zero momentum wake using the sub-grid scale estimation model and the truncated Navier-Stokes dynamics. The LES runs were performed for a wide range of Froude numbers between Fr=10 and Fr= ∞ with the Reynolds numbers up to 10^5. The runs were initiated with a mean flow with cylindrical Gaussian streamwise non-zero momentum and with a background flow and temperature possessing mid-scale fluctuations with the k^(-5/3) spectrum and a rapid roll-off at the smallest scales. LES were validated by comparing cases with analogous DNS runs performed for the same values of flow parameters. The subgrid-scale quantities from DNS and LES as well as the time-dependent spectra of the velocity and the temperature fields are examined. Physical processes such as internal wave and vortex generations and propagation in both LES and DNS are also investigated. The usefulness of LES to stratified future wake simulations is discussed.

  16. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Cannon; Baifang Zuo; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Cliff Smith

    2002-01-01

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this fifth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was further tested in the LES code. The use of multiple trees and periodic tree dumping was investigated. Implementation of the Linear Eddy Model (LEM) for subgrid chemistry was finished for serial applications. Validation of the model on a backstep reacting case was performed. Initial calculations of the SimVal experiment were performed for various barrel lengths, equivalence ratio, combustor shapes, and turbulence models. The effects of these variables on combustion instability was studied. Georgia Tech continues the effort to parameterize the LEM over composition space so that a neural net can be used efficiently in the combustion LES code. Next quarter, the 2nd consortium meeting will be held at CFDRC. LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the ISAT approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the neural net approach, for chemical kinetics speed-up in CFD-ACE+, should be accomplished.

  17. Towards the understanding of cyclic variability in a spark ignited engine using multi-cycle LES

    SciTech Connect

    Vermorel, O.; Richard, S.; Colin, O.; Angelberger, C.; Benkenida, A.; Veynante, D.

    2009-08-15

    Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) has been used to analyze the occurrence and the causes of cycle-to-cycle combustion variations in a spark ignited four-valve single cylinder engine fueled with a homogeneous propane-air mixture. The combustion modeling combines an Eulerian model derived from the RANS AKTIM model that mimics the spark ignition and the Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM-LES) that describes the flame propagation. The motion of piston and valves is accounted for using an Arbitrary Eulerian Lagrangian (ALE) technique with body-fitted meshes. The computation covers nine consecutive complete four-stroke cycles following an initialization cycle. The obtained LES results are compared with experimental measurements. Although the number of computed cycles is fairly low, LES is shown to be able to reproduce both quantitatively and qualitatively the cyclic variability observed experimentally. The investigation of the possible causes of variability illustrates the unprecedented possibility LES offers for understanding cycle-to-cycle variations. (author)

  18. DNS/LES Simulations of Separated Flows at High Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakumar, P.

    2015-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large-eddy simulations (LES) simulations of flow through a periodic channel with a constriction are performed using the dynamic Smagorinsky model at two Reynolds numbers of 2800 and 10595. The LES equations are solved using higher order compact schemes. DNS are performed for the lower Reynolds number case using a fine grid and the data are used to validate the LES results obtained with a coarse and a medium size grid. LES simulations are also performed for the higher Reynolds number case using a coarse and a medium size grid. The results are compared with an existing reference data set. The DNS and LES results agreed well with the reference data. Reynolds stresses, sub-grid eddy viscosity, and the budgets for the turbulent kinetic energy are also presented. It is found that the turbulent fluctuations in the normal and spanwise directions have the same magnitude. The turbulent kinetic energy budget shows that the production peaks near the separation point region and the production to dissipation ratio is very high on the order of five in this region. It is also observed that the production is balanced by the advection, diffusion, and dissipation in the shear layer region. The dominant term is the turbulent diffusion that is about two times the molecular dissipation.

  19. Consommation de lait et production de mucus chez les enfants asthmatiques

    PubMed Central

    Thiara, Gurkaran; Goldman, Ran D.

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Question De nombreux parents qui ont des enfants asthmatiques hésitent de plus en plus à leur donner du lait parce qu’ils croient que cela aggrave leur asthme en augmentant la production de mucus. Sachant que le lait fait partie d’un régime alimentaire sain qui favorise la croissance et l’apport en calcium, est-il avisé d’exclure le lait de l’alimentation? Réponse Depuis le 12e siècle, on proscrit le lait chez les patients atteints d’asthme. Ceci étant dit, jusqu’à maintenant, aucune étude n’a pu établir de lien définitif qui puisse appuyer cette recommandation. Puisqu’il faudrait des preuves plus concluantes pour déterminer l’effet qu’a la consommation de lait chez les enfants asthmatiques et qu’on doit mieux comprendre les mécanismes de production de mucus, on ne devrait pas exclure le lait ou en consommer moins. Santé Canada recommande 2 portions de lait (0,5 l) par jour pour les enfants de 2 à 8 ans et 3 à 4 portions de lait par jour (0,75 à 1 l) pour les enfants de 9 à 13 ans pour un développement et une santé optimale.

  20. Midazolam intranasal pour arrêter les convulsions en contexte extra-hospitalier

    PubMed Central

    Zelcer, Michal; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Il arrive parfois que des parents se présentent à ma clinique après que leur enfant eut eu une crise convulsive et qu’une deuxième crise ait lieu à la clinique. En attendant le transfert à l’hôpital, existe-t-il des moyens de mettre fin aux convulsions sans devoir obtenir l’accès intraveineux à la clinique? Réponse Le diazépam par voie intraveineuse est depuis de nombreuses années un traitement de première intention pour mettre fin aux crises convulsives chez les enfants. Il est aussi possible d’administrer le médicament par les voies intramusculaire, rectale ou buccale, mais ces voies d’administration s’accompagnent de plusieurs inconvénients. D’autres données probantes laissent croire que la voie intranasale est rapide et efficace chez les enfants, et le midazolam continue de se montrer prometteur pour mettre fin aux crises convulsives. Doté d’un bon profil d’innocuité, le midazolam intranasal s’utilise en clinique et en contexte préhospitalier pour arrêter les convulsions chez les enfants.

  1. Multifunction protective relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, J.; Yalla, M.; Kantor, J.

    1991-11-01

    Since the enactment of the National Energy Act of 1979, many private energy producers have been planning and building small generation and cogeneration facilities in order to sell power to the local utility. Many of the non-utility generators built after 1979 are connected directly to the closest utility distribution circuit. Aware of the problems associated with connecting generators in this manner, electric utilities across the country developed specifications and standards to allow safe and reliable interconnection. The report describes a malfunction protective relay which uses state-of-the-art digital signal processing procedures to accomplish the objective of providing most of the relay requirements of utility electrical interconnections. The relay has been demonstrated to be suitable for this critical application through extensive laboratory and in-service field testing. The relay, incorporating thirteen distinct protection functions affords the user the savings of the initial capital cost plus simplicity of installation and use.

  2. Radiation protection in space.

    PubMed

    Blakely, E A; Fry, R J

    1995-08-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in our knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared with previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers, including space travelers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space. PMID:7480625

  3. Force protection: today's reality.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, Ron

    2004-11-11

    Most US infrastructure and major chemical manufacturing facilities as well as their supporting utility systems are inherently vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Force protection is a military and civilian term used to protect personnel and critical facilities and assets against would-be aggressors or terrorists. The war on terrorism is a 200-300-year war. Terrorist attacks on US soil could become as common-place as in the State of Israel. It is very easy to penetrate infrastructure or plants as evidenced by vulnerability assessments performed for states, cities, plants, and military facilities by Versar and others around the country. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive weapons can be readily used to attack facilities in the US. This paper will explain some of those vulnerabilities, outline the current DoD standard as it relates to vulnerability assessments, and explain how this may be used in commercial applications to deter potential aggressors. PMID:15573418

  4. Protected Flux Pairing Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Matthew; Zhang, Wenyuan; Ioffe, Lev; Gershenson, Michael

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the coherent flux tunneling in a qubit containing two submicron Josephson junctions shunted by a superinductor (a dissipationless inductor with an impedance much greater than the resistance quantum). The two low energy quantum states of this device, 0 and 1, are represented by even and odd number of fluxes in the loop, respectively. This device is dual to the charge pairing Josephson rhombi qubit. The spectrum of the device, studied by microwave spectroscopy, reflects the interference between coherent quantum phase slips in the two junctions (the Aharonov-Casher effect). The time domain measurements demonstrate the suppression of the qubit's energy relaxation in the protected regime, which illustrates the potential of this flux pairing device as a protected quantum circuit. Templeton Foundation, NSF, and ARO.

  5. Protective orders: questions and conundrums.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert; Faragher, Teri Marie

    2006-07-01

    Current media portrayal of protective orders is often negative, focusing on weaknesses in how protective orders are obtained and enforced. This review of research findings on protective orders examines issues and suggests areas in need of future research to clarify and improve public policy. More specifically, this review has five main objectives: (a) to provide background information about partner violence and the need for protective orders; (b) to describe what protective orders are, how many women obtain them, and the advantages and disadvantages of obtaining protective orders; (c) to examine characteristics of women who seek protective orders; (d) to explore research on whether protective orders actually increase women's safety; and (e) to highlight opportunities and gaps in the practice and research literature regarding the use of protective orders for women with violent partners or ex-partners. PMID:16785286

  6. Protective garment ventilation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ventilating a protective garment, space suit system, and/or pressure suits to maintain a comfortable and nontoxic atmosphere within is described. The direction of flow of a ventilating and purging gas in portions of the garment may be reversed in order to compensate for changes in environment and activity of the wearer. The entire flow of the ventilating gas can also be directed first to the helmet associated with the garment.

  7. Protecting beans from ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    1983-03-01

    A chemical treatment to protect navy beans from ozone damage increased yields by an average of more than 20% in 3 years of tests. An experimental antioxidant chemical, EDU, made by the DuPont company was tested as soil applications and sprays on several varieties and under a variety of soil and planting conditions. The average yield increases were between 16 and 24%. Chemical treatment also increased snap bean pod production by 12%.

  8. [History of sun protection].

    PubMed

    Couteau, Céline; Coiffard, Laurence

    2010-07-01

    Human behavior towards the sun has changed over the years along with trends. Tan succeeded the white complexion. The sunscreens appeared recently in history. It is lining up with the discovery of bad effects due to prolonged exposure to ultraviolet at the end of the 19th century. Initially, those products had no signs of efficacy on their packaging, then the solar protection factors increased gradually, up to a limit value of 50+ more recently. PMID:21032925

  9. Nitrite in organ protection

    PubMed Central

    Rassaf, Tienush; Ferdinandy, Peter; Schulz, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged to therapeutical importance. Modulation of endogenous nitrate and nitrite levels with the subsequent S-nitros(yl)ation of the downstream signalling cascade open the way for novel cytoprotective strategies. In the following, we summarize the actual literature and give a short overview on the potential of nitrite in organ protection. PMID:23826831

  10. Révision systématique des effets de la fréquence des repas en famille sur les résultats psychosociaux chez les jeunes

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Megan E.; Norris, Mark L.; Obeid, Nicole; Fu, Maeghan; Weinstangel, Hannah; Sampson, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Effectuer une révision systématique des effets de repas en famille fréquents sur les résultats psychosociaux chez les enfants et les adolescents et examiner s’il existe des différences dans les résultats selon le sexe. Sources des données Des études ont été cernées à la suite d’une recherche dans MEDLINE (de 1948 à la dernière semaine de juin 2011) et dans PsycINFO (de 1806 à la première semaine de juillet 2011) à l’aide de l’interface Ovide. Les expressions et mots clés MeSH utilisés seuls ou en combinaisons étaient les suivants : family, meal, food intake, nutrition, diets, body weight, adolescent attitudes, eating behaviour, feeding behaviour et eating disorders. Les bibliographies des articles jugés pertinents ont aussi été passées en revus. Sélection des études La recherche initiale a produit 1783 articles. Pour être incluses dans l’analyse, les études devaient répondre aux critères suivants : être publiées en anglais dans une revue révisée par des pairs; porter sur des enfants ou des adolescents; traiter de l’influence des repas en famille sur les paramètres psychosociaux (p. ex. consommation de drogues et autres substances, troubles de l’alimentation, dépression) chez les enfants ou les adolescents; avoir une conception d’étude appropriée, notamment des méthodes statistiques acceptables pour l’analyse des paramètres. Quatorze articles satisfaisaient aux critères d’inclusion. Deux examinateurs indépendants ont étudié et analysé les articles. Synthèse Dans l’ensemble, les résultats font valoir que la fréquence des repas en famille est inversement proportionnelle aux troubles de l’alimentation, à la consommation d’alcool et de drogues, aux comportements violents, aux sentiments de dépression ou aux pensées suicidaires chez les adolescents. Il existe une relation positive entre de fréquents repas en famille, une bonne estime de soi et la réussite scolaire. Les

  11. Protective immunity against plague.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Claire; Quenee, Lauriane; Anderson, Deborah; Schneewind, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    Plague, an infectious disease that reached catastrophic proportions during three pandemics, continues to be a legitimate public health concern worldwide. Although antibiotic therapy for the causative agent Yersinia pestis is available, pharmaceutical supply limitations, multi-drug resistance from natural selection as well as malicious bioengineering are a reality. Consequently, plague vaccinology is a priority for biodefense research. Development of a multi-subunit vaccine with Fraction 1 and LcrV as protective antigens seems to be receiving the most attention. However, LcrV has been shown to cause immune suppression and Y. pestis mutants lacking F1 expression are thought to be fully virulent in nature and in animal experiments. The LcrV variant, rV10, retains the well documented protective antigenic properties of LcrV but with diminished inhibitory effects on the immune system. More research is required to examine the molecular mechanisms of vaccine protection afforded by surface protein antigens and to decipher the host mechanisms responsible for vaccine success. PMID:17966437

  12. Thermal Protection and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Effie E.

    2013-01-01

    During all phases of a spacecraft's mission, a Thermal Protection System (TPS) is needed to protect the vehicle and structure from extreme temperatures and heating. When designing TPS, low weight and cost while ensuring the protection of the vehicle is highly desired. There are two main types of TPS, ablative and reusable. The Apollo missions needed ablators due to the high heat loads from lunar reentry. However, when the desire for a reusable space vehicle emerged, the resultant_ Space Shuttle program propelled a push for the development of reusable TPS. With the growth of reqsable TPS, the need for ablators declined, triggering a drop off of the ablator industry. As a result, the expertise was not heavily maintained within NASA or the industry. When the Orion Program initiated a few years back, a need. for an ablator reemerged. Yet, due to of the lack of industry capability, redeveloping the ablator material took several years and came at a high cost. As NASA looks towards the future with both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs, a need to preserve reusable, ablative, and other TPS technologies is essential. Research of the different TPS materials alongside their properties, capabilities, and manufacturing process was performed, and the benefits of the materials were analyzed alongside the future of TPS. Knowledge of the different technologies has the ability to help us know what expertise to maintain and ensure a lack in the industry does not occur again.

  13. Lightning Protection for Explosive Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M

    2001-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory funds construction of lightning protection systems to protect explosive processing and storage facilities. This paper provides an intuitive understanding of the lighting risks and types of lightning protection available. Managers can use this information to decide if limited funds should be spent constructing a lightning protection system for their own facilities. This paper answers the following questions: (1) Why do you need lightning protection systems? (2) How do lightning protection systems work? and (3) Why are there no documented cases of lightning problems at existing explosive facilities?

  14. Compressible and low Mach number LES of a swirl experimental burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, David; Kraushaar, Matthias; Staffelbach, Gabriel; Moureau, Vincent; Gicquel, Laurent Y. M.

    2013-01-01

    Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of a swirl experimental burner are performed using a compressible and a low Mach number solver. The investigations are focused on the modeling strategies in LES aimed at validating the flow predictions and principally the associated pressure losses. Accurate prediction of pressure drop through complex geometries, such as those typically encountered in industrial swirlers, is indeed of paramount importance to design and optimize the engine efficiency. LES is here probed and tested to identify the model parameters affecting pressure losses: grid resolution, wall treatment or solver accuracy, with the aim of highlighting the requirements for accurate pressure drop predictions. Results show that for the high Reynolds number flow considered, the wall law model provides the best predictions and minimizes the error compared to experimental findings with a reasonable overall CPU cost.

  15. L’hypertension chez les diabétiques de type 2

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Norm R.C.; Gilbert, Richard E.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Larochelle, Pierre; Tobe, Sheldon; Chockalingam, Arun; Ward, Richard; Morris, Dorothy; Tsuyuki, Ross T.; Harris, Stewart B.

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Résumer les données qui rappellent la nécessité d’améliorer le traitement pharmacologique de l’hypertension chez les diabétiques de type 2 et de fournir des conseils d’experts sur la façon d’améliorer le traitement de la tension artérielle (TA) en contexte de soins primaires. Source de l’information À partir d’études recueillies grâce à une revue systématique de la littérature sur l’hypertension et le diabète, on a élaboré et révisé des recommandations et on les a soumises au vote d’un groupe d’experts du Programme éducatif canadien sur l’hypertension et de l’Association canadienne du diabète; on a également tenu compte de l’opinion avisée des auteurs sur le traitement pharmacologique optimal. Principal message La pathogénie de l’hypertension chez les diabétiques est complexe et fait intervenir plusieurs facteurs biologiques et environnementaux, ainsi qu’une prédisposition génétique; par conséquent, l’hypertension du diabétique présente un plus grand danger de problèmes et de complications. Les diabétiques qui n’obtiennent pas un contrôle de la TA (c’est-à-dire une valeur cible de moins de 130/80 mm Hg) ont un taux de mortalité et de morbidité plus élevé. De vastes essais cliniques randomisés et des méta-analyses d’essais cliniques randomisés ont montré qu’à elle seule, une réduction pharmacologique de la TA est la façon la plus efficace de réduire les taux de décès et d’incapacité chez le diabétique, notamment le risque de problèmes cardiovasculaires. Pour que le traitement soit efficace, il est souvent nécessaire d’utiliser deux médicaments ou plus (diurétiques, inhibiteurs de l’enzyme de conversion de l’angiotensine, β–bloqueurs, bloqueurs des récepteurs de l’angiotensine, bloqueurs des canaux calciques, spironolactone, etc.), en particulier chez les patients dont la TA est difficile à contrôler. Toutefois, les coûts de santé engendr

  16. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Cannon; Baifang Zuo; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Clifford Smith

    2002-04-30

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this sixth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was implemented and tested within the Linear Eddy Model (LEM). ISAT type 3 is being tested so that extrapolation can be performed and further improve the retrieval rate. Further testing of the LEM for subgrid chemistry was performed for parallel applications and for multi-step chemistry. Validation of the software on backstep and bluff-body reacting cases were performed. Initial calculations of the SimVal experiment at Georgia Tech using their LES code were performed. Georgia Tech continues the effort to parameterize the LEM over composition space so that a neural net can be used efficiently in the combustion LES code. A new and improved Artificial Neural Network (ANN), with log-transformed output, for the 1-step chemistry was implemented in CFDRC's LES code and gave reasonable results. This quarter, the 2nd consortium meeting was held at CFDRC. Next quarter, LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will continue to be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the ISAT approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the neural net approach, for multi-step chemical kinetics speed-up in CFD-ACE+, will be accomplished.

  17. Etude morphométrique de l'oreille externe chez les jeunes adultes

    PubMed Central

    Nyemb, Philippe Manyacka Ma; Sankale, Anne-Aurore; Ndiaye, Lamine; NDiaye, Aïnina; Gaye, Magaye

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Connaitre les dimensions normales de l'oreille externe constitue un pré-requis en chirurgie. Le but de ce travail est de déterminer les valeurs moyennes des différentes mesures morphométriques des oreilles gauches et droites dans notre population d’étude. Méthodes Notre groupe d’étude était constitué de 100 sujets adultes jeunes (50 femmes et 50 hommes) âgés de 18 à 25 ans, et exempts de traumatismes ou d'anomalies congénitale de l'oreille externe. Les différentes mesures répertoriées étaient représentées par: la hauteur totale de l'oreille, la largeur totale de l'oreille, la hauteur lobulaire, la largeur lobulaire, la distance tragus - anti-hélix, la distance tragus - hélix, ainsi que la projection de l'oreille. Résultats L’âge moyen de notre population d’étude était de 22 ans. La hauteur totale de l'oreille était respectivement de 61,6 et 60,3 mm chez les sujets de sexe masculin et féminin. La largeur totale retrouvée était respectivement de 32,5 et 30,8 mm. Pour toutes les distances mesurées, nous retrouvions des différences entre hommes et femmes, ainsi que d'un coté à l'autre. Conclusion Pour le clinicien, il est important de prendre en compte les mesures morphométriques de l'oreille externe non seulement dans un but diagnostic, mais également pour reproduire lors de sa reconstruction une oreille anatomiquement correcte. PMID:25932068

  18. Modelisations des effets de surface sur les jets horizontaux subsoniques d'hydrogene et de methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Luis Fernando

    Le developpement des codes et de normes bases sur une methodologie scientifique requiert la capacite de predire l'etendue inflammable de deversements gazeux d'hydrogene sous differentes conditions. Des etudes anterieures ont deja etabli des modeles bases sur les lois de conservation de la mecanique des fluides basees sur des correlations experimentales qui permettent de predire la decroissance de la concentration et de la vitesse d'un gaz le long de l'axe d'un jet libre vertical. Cette etude s'interesse aux effets de proximite a une surface horizontale parallele sur un jet turbulent. Nous nous interessons a son impact sur l'etendue du champ de la concentration et sur l'enveloppe inflammable en particulier. Cette etude est comparative : l'hydrogene est compare au methane. Ceci permet de degager l'influence des effets de difference de la densite sur le comportement du jet, et de comparer le comportement de l'hydrogene aux correlations experimentales, qui ont ete essentiellement etablies pour le methane. Un modele decrivant l'evolution spatio-temporelle du champ de concentration du gaz dilue est propose, base sur la mecanique des fluides computationnelle. Cette approche permet de varier systematiquement les conditions aux frontieres (proximite du jet a la surface, par exemple) et de connaitre en detail les proprietes de l'ecoulement. Le modele est implemente dans le code de simulations par volumes finis de FLUENT. Les resultats des simulations sont compares avec les lois de similitudes decoulant de la theorie des jets d'ecoulements turbulents libres ainsi qu'avec les resultats experimentaux disponibles. L'effet de la difference des masses molaires des constituantes du jet et des constituantes du milieu de dispersion est egalement etudie dans le contexte du comportement d'echelle de la region developpee du jet.

  19. LES, DNS and RANS for the analysis of high-speed turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Colucci, P. J.; Taulbee, D. B.; Givi, P.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to continue our efforts in advancing the state of knowledge in large eddy simulation (LES), direct numerical simulation (DNS), and Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) methods for the computational analysis of high-speed reacting turbulent flows. In the second phase of this work, covering the period 1 Aug. 1994 - 31 Jul. 1995, we have focused our efforts on two programs: (1) developments of explicit algebraic moment closures for statistical descriptions of compressible reacting flows and (2) development of Monte Carlo numerical methods for LES of chemically reacting flows.

  20. STS-65 Commander Cabana dons LES equipment prior to WETF bailout exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Commander Robert D. Cabana, suited in his launch and entry suit (LES), is assisted by Lockheed's John A. Hopkins with LES safety gear prior to a launch emergency egress (bailout) training session at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Cabana was joined by five other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for the training session. The crew will spend approximately two weeks aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, later this year in support of the second International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission.

  1. Integrated RANS-LES Computations of Turbomachinery Components: Generic Compressor/Diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlueter, J. U.; Wu, X.; Kim, S.; Alonso, J. J.; Pitsch, H.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the current study is to apply the coupled RANS-LES approach to a compressor-diffuser geometry of a gas turbine. This flow configuration is important, since the outflow of the compressor alters the flow field in the subsequent diffuser. A detailed knowledge of the flow field in this section allows to optimize the difuser design in order to to achieve a decrease of pressure loss. Here, the NASA stage 35 compressor is coupled with a generic diffuser in order to assess the integrated RANS-LES approach.

  2. On the simulation of trailing edge noise with a hybrid LES/APE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewert, R.; Schröder, W.

    2004-02-01

    A hybrid method is applied to predict trailing edge noise based on a large eddy simulation (LES) of the compressible flow problem and acoustic perturbation equations (APE) for the time-dependent simulation of the acoustic field. The acoustic simulation in general considers the mean flow convection and refraction effects such that the computational domain of the flow simulation has to comprise only the significant acoustic source region. Using a modified rescaling method for the prediction of the unsteady turbulent inflow boundary layer, the LES just resolves the flow field in the immediate vicinity of the trailing edge. The linearized APE completely prevent the unbounded growth of hydrodynamic instabilities in critical mean flows.

  3. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford Smith

    2003-09-01

    Application and testing of the new combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this 12th quarterly report. In this quarter, continued validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the DOE-SimVal combustor. Also, beta testing by six consortium members was performed for various burner and combustor configurations. A list of suggested code improvements by the beta testers was itemized. Work will continue in FY04. A conditional modification to the contract will be granted. The additional work will focus on modeling/analyzing the SimVal experiments.

  4. Confronting multi-year idealized LES with measurements at a mid-latitude meteorological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemann, V.; Neggers, R.; Wegener, C.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) at permanent meteorological sites is increasingly being used for the evaluation and improvement of parameterizations of fast boundary-layer physics for weather and climate models. Typically, idealized LES are generated that represent fine-scale downscalings of a large-scale model state at locations of interest, resolved at temporal and spatial resolutions at which turbulence and boundary layer clouds can be expected to be resolved. The setup relies on prescribed large-scale forings in combination with continuous nudging, at a time-scale large enough to allow the resolved fast physics to have enough freedom to establish their own, unique state. This study critically assesses the representativeness of such long-term LES, and asks to what degree the continuous nudging affects the budgets of thermodynamic state variables. To this purpose long-term, multi-year LES is confronted with relevant observations at a European midlatitude continental site. The large-scale advective forcings and surface properties used to drive the LES are derived from analyses of the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Evaluated aspects of the boundary layer include near-surface meteorology, vertical structure, and bulk properties including clouds. The evaluation focuses on the diurnal cycle, with the oservational datasets derived from state-of-the-art instrumentation at the Juelich Observatory for Cloud Evolution (JOYCE) in Germany. Conditional sampling is used to highlight results for regimes of interest, including the clear convective and shallow cumulus topped boundary layer. We find that the LES is able to reproduce the observed amplitude and time-variation of key boundary layer properties, including clouds. Budget studies of the thermodynamic state variables reveal that a rough balance exists between the prescribed larger-scale advection and the turbulence/convection as resolved by the

  5. L'observance thérapeutique dans les dermatoses chroniques: à propos de 200 cas

    PubMed Central

    Amraoui, Nissrine; Gallouj, Salim; Berraho, Mohamed Amine; Najjari, Chakib; Mernissi, Fatima zohra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'observance thérapeutique est la capacité à prendre correctement son traitement, tel qu'il est prescrit par le médecin. Elle est peu étudiée en dermatologie. Méthodes Le but de notre étude est d’évaluer l'observance chez les patients suivis au service de dermatologie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hassan II de Fès pour une dermatose chronique et de rechercher les facteurs liés à une mauvaise observance à travers une étude incluant 200 patients suivis depuis au moins 6 mois. L’évaluation de l'observance s'est faite essentiellement à l'aide d'un entretien et les facteurs liés à l'observance ont été recherchés par un questionnaire. Résultats 68% de nos patients étaient observant, la mauvaise observance était associée à un niveau socio économique et d’étude bas, à une vie solitaire, à une durée de suivi longue, aux effets secondaires et au coût élevé des traitements, à l'absence d'efficacité, à une faible visibilité des lésions, à une ordonnance complexe, à une explication faible de la maladie, et à des difficultés d'accès à la consultation. Le taux d'observance retrouvé dans notre étude est un taux satisfaisant selon les données de la littérature, notre étude a confirmée certaines facteurs connues et a mis le point sur d'autres facteurs peu étudiés tel un traitement traditionnel associé, la part de chaque forme de traitement dans le respect de l'ordonnance, les dermatoses les plus touchées par les difficulté d'observance a savoir les dermatoses bulleuses et le psoriasis, et l'intérêt du pharmacien. Conclusion Cette analyse de la fréquence de ce phénomène et des facteurs essentiels qui l'influencent permet de cibler la prise en charge à travers une personnalisation de l'entretien médical, une adaptation du suivi au contexte de nos patients et à la nature de notre institution de santé. PMID:26848363

  6. The Design of Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Engineering study guides design and monitoring of lightning protection. Design studies for project are collected in 150-page report, containing wealth of information on design of lightning protection systems and on instrumentation for monitoring current waveforms of lightning strokes.

  7. Future Trends in Park Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, William O.; Murrell, Dan S.

    1986-01-01

    The roles of ranger and park police in America's parks have shifted from visitor protection and resources management to visitor management and resources protection. Eight issues facing park police are discussed. (MT)

  8. ESA Missions Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    This presentation will report the planetary protection status of ESA flight projects with planetary protection requirements. It will cover Rosetta, Mars Express, ExoMars 2016, ExoMars 2018, JUICE, Solar Orbiter, and Bepi Colombo.

  9. Chemical Protection Against Radiation Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaigne, Ernest

    1969-01-01

    Discusses potential war time and medical uses for chemical compounds giving protection against radiation damage. Describes compounds known to protect, research aimed at discovering such compounds, and problems of toxicity. (EB)

  10. Les Services culturels de l'Ambassade de France aux Etats-Unis (The Cultural Services of the French Embassy in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Anne

    1978-01-01

    An exposition of the activities of the cultural services of the French Embassy. It is the authority for French and American university relationships, pedagogical activities, administration and management of affairs regarding French professors, examinations, artistic exhibits, musical and theatrical performances, and promotion of films. (Text is in…

  11. Protective Film Moves Aside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Relatively warmer daytime temperatures on Mars have allowed the biobarrier -- a shiny, protective film -- to peel away a little more from the robotic arm of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    This image shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with the biobarrier unpeeled on landing day, or Sol (Martian day) 0, and the lander's first full day on Mars, Sol 1.

    The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

    The biobarrier is an extra precaution to protect Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

    These images were taken on May 25, 2008 and May 26, 2008 by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. [Protection against insects].

    PubMed

    Rudin, W

    2005-11-01

    Successful protection against haematophagous insects and ticks, especially in areas where transmission of diseases occurs, requires a consistent application of a combination of appropriate measures. However, this can never substitute a chemoprophylaxis. Which measures have to be used depends on the circumstances under which they have to work. Indoor, physical means such as mosquito-screens on doors and windows, air-conditioners, and bed nets can be used to keep the insects away. These measures can be supplemented or supported by insecticides used as knock-down sprays, by electrical evaporation or for the treatment of screens and bed nets. In the field, if it is not possible to avoid mosquito-areas during phases of activity, appropriate clothing and repellents must provide the protection. Bright, wide pants and shirts of dense weaving covering as much skin as bearable should be preferred. Repellents are sprays, lotions, milks or creams which are evenly applied to the skin to prevent insects from biting. They contain synthetic or natural active substances of substantially varying effectiveness. The gold standard since about 60 years is diethylbenzamine (DEET). There are a few other active substances with a lower risk of side effects, however, combined with a lower effectiveness mainly on people with a high attractiveness for mosquitoes. Products containing an extract of Eucalyptus citriodora provide the best protection amongst those with natural active substances. Wearing bracelets or necklaces treated with repellents, acoustic devices (buzzers), electrocuters, topical or systemic Vitamin B1 or eating garlic are useless measures to prevent insects from biting. PMID:16350532

  13. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    SciTech Connect

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  14. Protected programs at NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Many scientists and science administrators say they are disturbed by the fact that Congress “protected” funding for some National Science Foundation (NSF) programs in the fiscal year (FY) 1987 budget at a cost to other NSF programs. Especially disturbing to some was the notion that the earmarking reportedly occurred as a result of special interest lobbying efforts by their fellow scientists. The favored programs, and those that were cut back to compensate for them, were mostly related to geophysics. The protection of these programs is likely to have some impact on the size and number of grants awarded in some other areas.

  15. Hearing protection for miners

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, T.

    2008-10-15

    A NIOSH analysis showed that at age 50 approximately 90% of coal miners have a hearing impairment, yet noise included hearing loss is 100% preventable. The article discusses requirements of the MSHA regulations, 30 CFR Part 62 - occupational noise exposure (2000) and a 2008-MSHA document describing technologically achievable and promising controls for several types of mining machinery. Hearing protection is still required for exposure to greater than 90 dBA. These are now commercially available ways to determine how much attenuation an individual gets from a given hearing protector, known as 'fit testing'. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  16. Ablative thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, J.; Fisher, R.; Wojciechowski, C.; Dean, W.

    1983-01-01

    The procedures used to establish the TPS (thermal protection system) design of the SRB (solid rocket booster) element of the Space Shuttle vehicle are discussed. A final evaluation of the adequacy of this design will be made from data obtained from the first five Shuttle flights. Temperature sensors installed at selected locations on the SRB structure covered by the TPS give information as a function of time throughout the flight. Anomalies are to be investigated and computer design thermal models adjusted if required. In addition, the actual TPS ablator material loss is to be measured after each flight and compared with analytically determined losses. The analytical methods of predicting ablator performance are surveyed.

  17. New laser protective eyewear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLear, Mark

    1996-04-01

    Laser technology has significantly impacted our everyday life. Lasers are now used to correct your vision, clear your arteries, and are used in the manufacturing of such diverse products as automobiles, cigarettes, and computers. Lasers are no longer a research tool looking for an application. They are now an integral part of manufacturing. In the case of Class IV lasers, this explosion in laser applications has exposed thousands of individuals to potential safety hazards including eye damage. Specific protective eyewear designed to attenuate the energy of the laser beam below the maximum permissible exposure is required for Class 3B and Class IV lasers according to laser safety standards.

  18. RHIC prefire protection masks

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, A.; Biscardi, C.; Curcio, T.; Gassner, D.; DeSanto, L.; Fu, W.; Liaw, C. J.; Montag, C.; Thieberger, P.; Yip, K.

    2015-01-07

    The protection of the RHIC experimental detectors from damage due to beam hitting close upstream elements in cases of abort kicker prefires requires some dedicated precautionary measures with two general options: to bring the beam close to a limiting aperture (i.e. the beam pipe wall), as far upstream of the detector components as possible or, alternatively, to bring a limiting aperture close to the circulating beam. Spontaneous and random prefires of abort kicker modules (Pulse Forming Network, PFN) have a history as long as RHIC is being operated. The abort system consist of 5 kickers in per ring, each of them equipped with its own dedicated PFN.

  19. Tornado protection by venting

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability to protect a modern nuclear power plant from the effects of a tornado by the use of a system of venting in all safety-related structures outside of the containment. The paper demonstrates this by presenting a method of analysis and of equipment selection that fully complies with the intent and the letter of applicable federal regulatory guides. A report of an actual tornado in the City of Kalamazoo, Michigan, suggests that the concept of sealing a plant during a tornado may not always be applicable.

  20. Icing: Accretion, Detection, Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, John J.

    1994-01-01

    The global aircraft industry and its regulatory agencies are currently involved in three major icing efforts: ground icing; advanced technologies for in-flight icing; and tailplane icing. These three major icing topics correspondingly support the three major segments of any aircraft flight profile: takeoff; cruise and hold; and approach and land. This lecture addressess these three topics in the same sequence as they appear in flight, starting with ground deicing, followed by advanced technologies for in-flight ice protection, and ending with tailplane icing.

  1. Protective helmet assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor); Weiss, Fred R. (Inventor); Eck, John D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a protective helmet assembly with improved safety and impact resistance, high resistance to ignition and combustion, and reduced offgassing. The assembly comprises a hard rigid ballistic outer shell with one or more impact absorbing pads fitted to the interior surface. The pads are made of open cell flexible polyimide foam material, each of which is attached to the inner surface of the ballistic outer shell by cooperative VELCRO fastener strips of hook-and-loop material affixed respectively to the rigid outer shell and the impact absorbing pads. The helmet assembly with shell and pads is sized to fit relatively close over a wearer's head.

  2. Thermal insulation protection means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotts, R. L.; Smith, J. A.; Strouhal, G. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system for providing thermal insulation for portions of a spacecraft which do not exceed 900 F during ascent or reentry relative to the earth's atmosphere is described. The thermal insulation is formed of relatively large flexible sheets of needled Nomex felt having a flexible waterproof coating. The thickness of the felt is sized to protect against projected temperatures and is attached to the structure by a resin adhesive. Vent holes in the sheets allow ventilation while maintaining waterproofing. The system is heat treated to provide thermal stability.

  3. Douleurs induites par les soins: la réalité au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Befelatanana Antananarivo, Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Mahavivola, Ernestho-Ghoud Indretsy; Olivah, Razanaparany Miarisoa Mireille; Mihary, Dodo; Hendriniaina, Rakotoharivelo; Lalao, Randriamboavonjy Rado; Henintsoa, Rakotonirainy Oliva; Fahafahantsoa, Rapelanoro Rabenja

    2014-01-01

    La douleur induite par les soins correspond à la douleur survenant lors des actes à visé diagnostique et/ou thérapeutique. A notre connaissance, nous n'avons pas encore des données disponibles pour les douleurs induites par les soins à l'Hôpital de Befelatanana. Nos objectifs étaient de décrire le profil épidémiologique de la douleur induite par les soins, d'identifier les principaux facteurs influençant sur l'intensité de la douleur et leurs retentissements chez les patients. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective, transversale type un jour donné menée dans les douze services de Médecines au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Befelatanana en Novembre 2013. Cent deux patients ont été retenus dans l’étude et trois cent vingt trois actes douloureux étaient enregistrés. La fréquence de la douleur induite par les soins était de 69,86%. Le genre féminin prédominait dans 52% des cas (n = 53) avec un sex-ratio à 0,92. L’âge moyen était de 46 ans. Les ponctions vasculaires étaient l'acte prédominant dans 49,54% (n = 109) des cas. Les infirmiers réalisaient les soins dans 47,05% (n = 48) des cas. L'information verbale était la mesure préventive utilisée dans 57,84% des cas (n = 59). Le transport par marche à pied et au dos représentait 16,67% des cas (n = 17). Les patients naïfs des gestes étaient plus anxieux. Ces patients gardaient de mauvais souvenir dans 64,71% des cas (n = 66). La fréquence de douleur induite par les soins était trop élevée. Un effort important est nécessaire pour réduire la douleur induite par les soins PMID:25932071

  4. Le transfert de connaissances entre les mathematiques et les sciences. Une etude exploratoire aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, Ghislain

    2003-06-01

    Au moment ou dans plusieurs pays on travaille a refondre les programmes d'etudes, tant au primaire qu'au secondaire, l'interet pour le transfert renait. Un des concepts fondamentaux en apprentissage consiste en l'habilete a reutiliser de facon consciente et efficace un acquis d'une situation a une autre situation. Cette recherche emane de preoccupations professionnelles au moment ou le chercheur etait enseignant au secondaire. Au cours de ces annees, il lui a ete possible de constater que plusieurs eleves percevaient difficilement les liens presents entre les disciplines mathematiques et scientifiques. Des travaux en psychologie cognitive et plus particulierement selon une perspective du traitement de l'information ont servi de cadre de reference pour evaluer et analyser les capacites de transfert aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire. Ce cadre de reference permet de formuler le principal objectif qui est de mieux comprendre le processus de transfert chez des eleves en situation de resolution de problemes scientifiques. Cette these s'interesse donc au transfert en tant que phenomene important du processus d'apprentissage au sens de l'integration. La methode de recherche choisie, de nature qualitative, est principalement axee sur l'evaluation de la capacite a transferer des connaissances lors d'une epreuve et d'un entretien. Pour evaluer ce potentiel de transfert, nous avons elabore deux outils: une epreuve en mathematiques et en sciences et un guide d'entretien. Pour la passation de l'epreuve, le chercheur a pu compter sur la collaboration de 130 sujets provenant de deux ecoles. L'entretien complete la prise de donnees avec 13 sujets ayant accepte de poursuivre l'etude. Les donnees recueillies par ces instruments font ensuite l'objet d'une analyse de contenu. En premier lieu, les verbatims de l'epreuve et de l'entretien ont ete transcrits, puis codifies. La correction des reponses fournies pour les problemes resolus s'est faite a partir d'une grille d

  5. National Perspectives on Data Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurow, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of different approaches to protecting personal information in Europe and the United States highlights data protection laws and agreements (international transfer of personal data, European laws, United States state and federal laws), United States and European views of privacy protection, national economic and political goals, and…

  6. New concept in protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    A new concept in protective clothing is discussed. Preliminary design work has been done to develop a garment, a protective coverall, that would provide a necessary cushion of safety to significantly reduce the occurrence of injuries to underground miners. The protective coverall incorporates an elastic undergarment to provide needed support to the lower back.

  7. Patent protection strategies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Himanshu; Kumar, Suresh; Roy, Saroj Kumar; Gaud, R S

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent. PMID:21814422

  8. Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) are required to protect a vehicle returning from space or entering an atmosphere. The selection of the material depends on the heat flux, heat load, pressure, and shear and other mechanical loads imposed on the material, which are in turn determined by the vehicle configuration and size, location on the vehicle, speed, a trajectory, and the atmosphere. In all cases the goal is to use a material that is both reliable and efficient for the application. Reliable materials are well understood and have sufficient test data under the appropriate conditions to provide confidence in their performance. Efficiency relates to the behavior of a material under the specific conditions that it encounters TPS that performs very well at high heat fluxes may not be efficient at lower heat fluxes. Mass of the TPS is a critical element of efficiency. This talk will review the major classes of TPS, reusable or insulating materials and ablators. Ultra high temperature ceramics for sharp leading edges will also be reviewed. The talk will focus on the properties and behavior of these materials.

  9. Patent protection strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Himanshu; Kumar, Suresh; Roy, Saroj Kumar; Gaud, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent. PMID:21814422

  10. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems. PMID:15998496

  11. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  12. Guide de pratique clinique pour les lésions cérébrales traumatiques légères et les symptômes persistants

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Shawn; Bayley, Mark; McCullagh, Scott; Velikonja, Diana; Berrigan, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter les nouvelles lignes directrices sur la prise en charge des lésions cérébrales traumatiques légères (LCTL) et les symptômes persistants post-commotion (SPPC) afin de renseigner et d’orienter les médecins qui prennent en charge des patients qui se remettent d’une LCTL. Qualité des données On a effectué une recherche des guides de pratique clinique existants portant sur les LCTL et une synthèse critique des ouvrages scientifiques évaluant le traitement des SPPC. Étant donné la rareté des conseils sur la prise en charge des SPPC dans les travaux sur les lésions cérébrales traumatiques, une deuxième recherche documentaire a été faite pour recenser les guides de pratique clinique et les synthèses critiques concernant la prise en charge de ces symptômes communs dans la population en général. On a convoqué des professionnels de la santé provenant de différentes disciplines et régions du Canada et de l’étranger à une conférence consensuelle d’experts pour examiner les lignes directrices et les données probantes existantes et élaborer un guide complet pour la prise en charge des LCTL et des SPPC. Message principal À l’aide d’un processus Delphi modifié, on a produit 71 recommandations portant sur le diagnostic et la prise en charge des LCTL et des SPPC. De plus, on a inclus dans le guide de nombreuses ressources et des outils pour faciliter la mise en œuvre des recommandations. Conclusion Un guide de pratique clinique a été élaboré pour aider les professionnels de la santé à fournir des soins fondés sur les données probantes et les pratiques exemplaires à la population complexe de personnes qui ont des SPPC à la suite d’une LCTL.

  13. Protective Measurement and Quantum Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan

    2015-01-01

    1. Protective measurements: an introduction Shan Gao; Part I. Fundamentals and Applications: 2. Protective measurements of the wave function of a single system Lev Vaidman; 3. Protective measurement, postselection and the Heisenberg representation Yakir Aharonov and Eliahu Cohen; 4. Protective and state measurement: a review Gennaro Auletta; 5. Determination of the stationary basis from protective measurement on a single system Lajos Diósi; 6. Weak measurements, the energy-momentum tensor and the Bohm approach Robert Flack and Basil J. Hiley; Part II. Meanings and Implications: 7. Measurement and metaphysics Peter J. Lewis; 8. Protective measurements and the explanatory gambit Michael Dickson; 9. Realism and instrumentalism about the wave function: how should we choose? Mauro Dorato and Frederico Laudisa; 10. Protective measurements and the PBR theorem Guy Hetzroni and Daniel Rohrlich; 11. The roads not taken: empty waves, waveform collapse and protective measurement in quantum theory Peter Holland; 12. Implications of protective measurements on de Broglie–Bohm trajectories Aurelien Drezet; 13. Entanglement, scaling, and the meaning of the wave function in protective measurement Maximilian Schlosshauer and Tangereen V. B. Claringbold; 14. Protective measurements and the nature of the wave function within the primitive ontology approach Vincent Lam; 15. Reality and meaning of the wave function Shan Gao; Index.

  14. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saksonov, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  15. Les facteurs pronostiques de survie sans récidive chez les patientes atteintes de tumeur du col de l'utérus

    PubMed Central

    Dossou, Serpos; James, Laurianne; Bakkali, Hanae; Afif, Mohammed; Rahali, Leila; Irigo, Joelle; Ogandaga, Etienne; Kebdani, Tayeb; Ahid, Samir; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    La radiochimiothérapie est le traitement de référence des tumeurs du col localement avancées, et plusieurs études ont montré l'importance des facteurs pronostiques sur le contrôle local de la tumeur et la survie des malades. L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer l'impact des facteurs pronostiques, en particulier de l'étalement sur la survie sans récidive des patientes suivies pour cancer du col utérin. Il s'agit d'une série rétrospective portant sur 177 femmes suivies en 2011 pour tumeur du col utérin de stade IB à III selon la classification de FIGO 2009 ayant bénéficié d'une radiothérapie à la dose de 46 Grays sur le pelvis et une surimpression sur les paramètres envahis associée à du cisplatine 40mg/m2 par semaine suivie de curiethérapie réalisée selon le mode haut débit de dose (HDR) ou bas débit de dose (LDR). La moyenne d'âge était de 53ans, la médiane de l'étalement total était de 65 jours, 75% des patientes ont reçu 4 cures de chimiothérapie, et les patientes ont été suivies après le traitement pendant une durée médiane de 34 mois. La récidive locale et métastatique était de 33,3% chez les patientes ayant des adénopathies pelviennes, contre 16,3% chez celles qui en étaient indemnes (p= 0,031), elle était de 26,3% chez les patientes ayant un étalement supérieur à 65 jours contre 11% chez celles dont l'étalement en était inférieur (p= 0,01). La présence d'adénopathies pelviennes et l'étalement total de la radiothérapie apparaissaient respectivement comme les seuls facteurs pronostiques indépendant de survenue de récidive, p= 0,04 OR= 2,6 IC95% (1,05 6,3) et p= 0,01 OR= 2,9 IC95% (1,26 6,7). En analyse multivariée, la technique de curiethérapie p = 0,003 OR= 0,25 IC95% (0,1 0,6) et l'étalement total du traitement p= 0,0001 OR= 4,7 IC95% (2 10,8) apparaissaient comme les seuls facteurs pronostiques indépendant de survie sans récidive. L'étalement supérieur à 65 jours et la technique de curieth

  16. Hybrid LES/RANS Simulation of Transverse Sonic Injection into a Mach 2 Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boles, John A.; Edwards, Jack R.; Baurle, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    A computational study of transverse sonic injection of air and helium into a Mach 1.98 cross-flow is presented. A hybrid large-eddy simulation / Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (LES/RANS) turbulence model is used, with the two-equation Menter baseline (Menter-BSL) closure for the RANS part of the flow and a Smagorinsky-type model for the LES part of the flow. A time-dependent blending function, dependent on modeled turbulence variables, is used to shift the closure from RANS to LES. Turbulent structures are initiated and sustained through the use of a recycling / rescaling technique. Two higher-order discretizations, the Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM) of Colella and Woodward, and the SONIC-A ENO scheme of Suresh and Huyhn are used in the study. The results using the hybrid model show reasonably good agreement with time-averaged Mie scattering data and with experimental surface pressure distributions, even though the penetration of the jet into the cross-flow is slightly over-predicted. The LES/RANS results are used to examine the validity of commonly-used assumptions of constant Schmidt and Prandtl numbers in the intense mixing zone downstream of the injection location.

  17. STS-56 Commander Cameron, in LES, during JSC emergency egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-56 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Kenneth Cameron, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), poses at the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT) side hatch before climbing into the mockup. Cameron, along with the other STS-56 crewmembers, is participating in an emergency egress simulation at JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE.

  18. Evaluation of Leray, LANS and Verstappen regularizations in LES, without and with added SGS modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckelmans, G.; Bourgeois, N.; Collet, Y.; Duponcheel, M.

    2009-11-01

    Regularization approaches (Leray, LANS and Verstappen) for the ``restriction in the production of small-scales'' in turbulence simulations have regained some interest in the LES community, because of their potentially appealing properties due to filtering. Their potential is here investigated using the best possible numerics (dealiased pseudo-spectral code) and on simple problems: transition of the Taylor-Green vortex (TGV) and its ensuing turbulence, developed homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT). The filtered velocity field is obtained using discrete filters, also of various orders (2 and 6). Diagnostics include energy, enstrophy, and spectra. The performance of the regularizations on the TGV is first evaluated in inviscid mode (96^3 Euler), then in viscous mode at Re=1600 (256^3 DNS and 48^3 LES). Although they delay the production of small scales, none of the regularizations can perform LES when the flow has become turbulent: the small scales are still too energized, and thus added subgrid-scale (SGS) modeling is required. The combination of regularization and SGS modeling (here using the RVM multiscale model) is then also evaluated. Finally, 128^3 LES of fully developed HIT at very high Re is also investigated, providing the asymptotic behavior. In particular, it is found that the regularization helps increase a bit the true inertial subrange obtained with the RVM model.

  19. Evaluation of Leray and Verstappen regularizations in LES, without and with added SGS modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckelmans, G.; Bourgeois, N.; Collet, Y.; Duponcheel, M.

    2010-11-01

    Regularization approaches (Leray and Verstappen) for the "restriction in the rate of production of small-scales" in turbulence simulations have regained some interest in the LES community. Their potential is here investigated using the best numerics (dealiased pseudo-spectral code) and on two cases: transition of the Taylor-Green vortex (TGV) and its ensuing turbulence, decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT). The filtered velocity fields are obtained using discrete filters, also of various orders. Diagnostics include energy, enstrophy and spectra. The performance of the regularizations is first evaluated on the TGV in inviscid mode (96^3); then in viscous mode: 256^3 DNS at Re=1600, 128^3 LES at Re=5000 (compared to 1024^3 DNS). Although they indeed delay the rate of production of small scales, they cannot sustain LES when the flow has become turbulent: the small scales are still too energized. Added subgrid-scale (SGS) modeling is thus required. The combination of regularization and SGS modeling (here using the RVM multiscale model) is then also evaluated. Finally, 128^3 LES of fully developed HIT at very high Re is also investigated, providing the asymptotic behavior. The regularizations help increase the true inertial subrange obtained with the RVM model.

  20. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Cannon; Clifford Smith

    2003-04-01

    Application and testing of the new combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this 10th quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation has developed the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the DOE-Simval combustor. Also, Beta testing by consortium members was performed for various burner and combustor configurations. In the two quarters ahead, CFDRC will validate the code on the new DOE SimVal experiments. Experimental data from DOE should be available in June 2003, though LES calculations are currently being performed. This will ensure a truly predictive test of the software. CFDRC will also provide help to the consortium members on running their cases, and incorporate improvements to the software suggested by the beta testers. The beta testers will compare their predictions with experimental measurements and other numerical calculations. At the end of this project (October, 2003), a final released version of the software will be available for licensing to the general public.

  1. Assessing Laptop Use in Higher Education Classrooms: The Laptop Effectiveness Scale (LES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauricella, Sharon; Kay, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted examining the use of laptops in higher education, however, a reliable and valid scale to assess in-class use of laptops has yet to be developed. The purpose of the following study was to develop and evaluate the "Laptop Effectiveness Scale" (LES). The scale consisted of four constructs: academic use and…

  2. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, Pilot Richards adjusts LES before bailout exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-28 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Pilot Richard N. Richards, adjusts launch and entry suit (LES) neck ring after donning launch and entry helmet (LEH). Richards prepares for shuttle emergency egress (bailout) procedures in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A.

  3. A Test of the Validity of Inviscid Wall-Modeled LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redman, Andrew; Craft, Kyle; Aikens, Kurt

    2015-11-01

    Computational expense is one of the main deterrents to more widespread use of large eddy simulations (LES). As such, it is important to reduce computational costs whenever possible. In this vein, it may be reasonable to assume that high Reynolds number flows with turbulent boundary layers are inviscid when using a wall model. This assumption relies on the grid being too coarse to resolve either the viscous length scales in the outer flow or those near walls. We are not aware of other studies that have suggested or examined the validity of this approach. The inviscid wall-modeled LES assumption is tested here for supersonic flow over a flat plate on three different grids. Inviscid and viscous results are compared to those of another wall-modeled LES as well as experimental data - the results appear promising. Furthermore, the inviscid assumption reduces simulation costs by about 25% and 39% for supersonic and subsonic flows, respectively, with the current LES application. Recommendations are presented as are future areas of research. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.

  4. STS-49 MS Thuot, in LES, at CCT side hatch during JSC's egress exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) Pierre J. Thuot, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), prepares to enter JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT) via the open side hatch as a technician looks on. Thuot along with the other STS-49 crewmembers is participating in a post-landing emergency egress exercise in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9.

  5. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford E. Smith

    2004-04-01

    Previous LES calculations for one SIMVAL case ({phi}{sub inj} = 0.7) have repeatedly shown that the heat transfer/heat losses were not correctly captured, resulting in predicted NO{sub x} emissions being much higher than measurements. In a current Navy Phase I SBIR project, we are studying ways to improve the prediction of heat transfer/heat loss in LES calculations. To improve our understanding of heat transfer at walls, a series of thermal channel flow cases were analyzed and compared to DNS predictions. When trying to fully resolve the boundary layer, it was found that the grid size in all directions (i.e. {Delta}x, {Delta}y, and {Delta}z) must be smaller than the size of eddies formed in the boundary layer. Thus, the cell aspect ratio at the wall needs to typically be less that 25 when the boundary layer is being resolved. In previous SIMVAL LES calculations, this cell aspect ratio requirement was not followed, and thus the heat transfer was less than desired. For this quarter, the grid was adjusted, and the SIMVAL case was rerun. The LES results show that vortices are now formed in the exhaust duct near the walls, resulting in more heat loss from the exhaust duct flow and lower NO{sub x} predictions (more in line with the measurements).

  6. La parole, vue et prise par les etudiants (Speech as Seen and Understood by Student).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajo, Laurent, Ed.; Jeanneret, Fabrice, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Articles on speech and second language learning include: "Les sequences de correction en classe de langue seconde: evitement du 'non' explicite" ("Error Correction Sequences in Second Language Class: Avoidance of the Explicit 'No'") (Anne-Lise de Bosset); "Analyse hierarchique et fonctionnelle du discours: conversations entre basketteurs a plus de…

  7. Enjeux de fin de vie dans les cas de démence avancée

    PubMed Central

    Arcand, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Examiner les enjeux liés à l’établissement d’objectifs des soins pour les patients atteints de démence sévère, décrire lesles respectifs du médecin et des proches du patient dans le processus de prise de décision et suggérer des façons d’appuyer les proches qui souhaitent obtenir plus d’information sur les options thérapeutiques. Sources des données Une recherche d’articles pertinents publiés avant le 7 mars 2014 a été effectuée dans MEDLINE sur Ovid. Aucune étude de niveau I n’a été relevée; la plupart des articles fournissaient des preuves de niveaux III. Message principal Pour les patients atteints de démence avancée, la famille joue un rôle important dans la prise de décisions médicales. Les proches devraient recevoir de l’information ponctuelle sur l’évolution de la démence et les options relatives aux soins. Ils doivent comprendre qu’il pourrait être approprié d’adopter une approche de soins palliatifs, ce qui ne signifie pas que le patient est abandonné à son sort. Ils pourraient aussi souhaiter clarifier leur rôle dans le processus de prise de décision, surtout lorsqu’on envisage de mettre fin aux mesures de prolongement de vie. Conclusion Les médecins doivent voir la démence avancée comme une maladie terminale pour laquelle il existe un continuum de soins qui s’étend de l’approche de soins palliatifs avec mesures acceptables de prolongement de vie à l’approche exclusivement symptomatique. Il est primordial de clarifier les objectifs des soins et d’éduquer les proches pour éviter les interventions non souhaitées et pénibles.

  8. Recommandations pour le dépistage de l’hypertension chez les adultes canadiens

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Patrice; Gorber, Sarah Connor; Joffres, Michel; Birtwhistle, Richard; McKay, Donald; Cloutier, Lyne

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter des recommandations concernant le dépistage de l’hypertension chez les adultes de 18 ans et plus qui n’ont pas reçu antérieurement de diagnostic d’hypertension. Qualité des données Les données probantes sont tirées d’une recension systématique dans MEDLINE, EMBASE et la base de données des synthèses systématiques de la Collaboration Cochrane (EBM Reviews), de janvier 1985 à septembre 2011. Les types d’études retenues se limitaient aux études randomisées contrôlées, aux synthèses systématiques et aux études observationnelles avec groupes témoins. Message principal Trois fortes recommandations se sont dégagées de données probantes de qualité modérée. Il est recommandé de mesurer la pression artérielle à toutes les consultations appropriées en soins primaires, conformément aux techniques actuelles décrites dans les recommandations du Programme éducatif canadien sur l’hypertension pour la mesure de la pression artérielle en cabinet et en soins ambulatoires. Les critères du Programme éducatif canadien sur l’hypertension pour l’évaluation et le diagnostic de l’hypertension devraient s’appliquer aux personnes chez qui on observe une pression artérielle élevée. Conclusion À la suite d’un examen des plus récentes données probantes, le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs continue de recommander la mesure de la pression artérielle lors des consultations périodiques auprès du médecin.

  9. Laser diode protection circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Burgyan, L.; Hand, W.L.

    1990-05-08

    This patent describes a method for protecting a laser diode included within an electro-optical circuit. It comprises: the laser diode, a DC bias supply for supplying forward conduction current to the laser diode to cause it to emit light energy at a predetermined quiescent operating point, and an RF amplifier means for supplying an RF amplitude of an analog modulating signal to the laser diode for modulating the intensity of the emitted light energy about the quiescent operating point thereof, the method including providing a very high impedance to the laser diode during its nominal operating conditions about the quiescent point and, sensing an instantaneous amplitude of the RF amplitude modulating signal to detect amplitude surges therein, and responding to the sensing means by removing forward conduction current from the laser diode during the sense amplitude surges int he RF amplitude of the analog modulating signal, thereby causing the laser diode to reduce emission of light energy to a safe level.

  10. Macular protection with IOLs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderberg, Per G.; Lofgren, Stefan; Ayala, Marcelo; Dong, Xiuqin; Kakar, Manoj; Mody, Vino; Meyer, Linda; Laurell, Carl-Gustaf

    2004-07-01

    The clinical outcome within one month after phacoemulsification cataract extraction with implantation of the blue-blocking SN60AT IOL was examined prospectively and compared to a retrospectively examined material of implantations of the equivalent SA30AL without blue-blocker. There was no difference in best corrected visual acuity gain between the two lenses. In addition, the subjective color perception was examined for with a questionnaire after the first implantation of blue-blocking IOL and after the second implantation of blue-blocking IOL. Only one patient noted a changed color perception. There are thus strong theoretical reasons to block blue light in IOLs and no short term clinical inconvenience. But, it remains to be proven in long term follow up studies that the blue-blocking IOL protects against macular degeneration.

  11. ELECTRICAL PROTECTIVE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1958-05-01

    A protective system for high-energy resonant cavities is described. It is particularly directed to the discharging of resonant cavities for preventing energy back flow through associated equipment as a result of faults. The invention in general provides means defining a spark gap communicating with the interior of a cavity or waveguide adapted for high-power energization or an evacuated chamber containing an electrode having a large power differential from the wall or other electrode. A control or trigger circuit is connected between a power supply energizing the cavity and the spark gap whereby reverse current flow in the power supply circuit instantaneously triggers the spark gap to initiate discharge within the cavity, whereupon cavity energy discharges across the gap, or with an electrode present the electrode discharges to one of the spark gap elements.

  12. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A.; Moore, Troy K.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

  13. Protection Against Pertussis.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Parang N

    2016-08-01

    Though vaccines have been in use for over seventy years, we have been unable to eradicate or control pertussis. This disease is a worldwide problem, and recently has been occurring in outbreaks even in places with good immunization coverage. The debate about the use of acellular or whole cell vaccine has taken attention away from the other significant issues. The high rate of serious disease and death in young infants, and the repeated outbreaks of pertussis even in highly-vaccinated populations is a matter for grave concern. Finding strategies to protect the most vulnerable is a priority. Newer vaccines are under development, and will be welcome, but may be too expensive for mass use in resource-poor nations. It is important to adopt cost-effective strategies to deal with this disease. PMID:27567644

  14. Symbiont-mediated protection

    PubMed Central

    Haine, Eleanor R

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that all vertically transmitted symbionts sequester resources from their hosts and are therefore costly to maintain, there is an extraordinary diversity of them in invertebrates. Some spread through host populations by providing their hosts with fitness benefits or by manipulating host sex ratio, but some do not: their maintenance in host lineages remains an enigma. In this review, I explore the evolutionary ecology of vertically transmitted symbionts and their impact on host resistance, and provide an overview of the evidence for the three-way interactions between these symbionts, natural enemies and invertebrate hosts. A number of recent empirical and theoretical studies suggest that vertically transmitted symbionts may protect their hosts from pathogens. If this ‘symbiont-mediated protection’ is widespread, it is likely that vertically transmitted symbionts contribute significantly to variation in measures of invertebrate resistance to natural enemies. PMID:18055391

  15. Les rivières et les sources de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac: extrait du rapport sur les eaux souterraines de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    Les principales rivières de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac, la Rivière Grise ou Grande Rivière du Cul-de-Sac et la Rivière Blanche, prennent naissance sur le flanc Nord du Massif de la Selle à des altitudes de 1,300 à 1,800 mètres au dessus du niveau de la mer. Elles coulent à l’amont à travers des gorges profondes et sont éloignées de 9 Kms. dans la partie central de la bordure Sud de la plaine.

  16. Predicting sun protection behaviors using protection motivation variables.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Joanne W M; Glendon, A Ian

    2014-04-01

    Protection motivation theory components were used to predict sun protection behaviors (SPBs) using four outcome measures: typical reported behaviors, previous reported behaviors, current sunscreen use as determined by interview, and current observed behaviors (clothing worn) to control for common method bias. Sampled from two SE Queensland public beaches during summer, 199 participants aged 18-29 years completed a questionnaire measuring perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, response costs, and protection motivation (PM). Personal perceived risk (similar to threat appraisal) and response likelihood (similar to coping appraisal) were derived from their respective PM components. Protection motivation predicted all four SPB criterion variables. Personal perceived risk and response likelihood predicted protection motivation. Protection motivation completely mediated the effect of response likelihood on all four criterion variables. Alternative models are considered. Strengths and limitations of the study are outlined and suggestions made for future research. PMID:23292546

  17. Predicting the chemical protection factor of CBRN protective garments.

    PubMed

    Ambesi, Davide; Bouma, Richard; den Hartog, Emiel; Kleijn, Chris R

    2013-01-01

    The protection factor and pressure drop coefficient of single layers of active carbon particles in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) protective garments have been computed from computational fluid dynamics simulations of airflow and mass transport. Based on the results from the simulations, a closed-form analytical model has been proposed for the protection factor and the pressure drop coefficient as a function of layer porosity, particle diameter, and cross airflow velocity. This model has been validated against experimental data in literature. It can be used to find an optimal compromise between high protection factor and low pressure drop coefficient. Maximum protection factors are achieved when small carbon particles are employed in a layer with high packing density, at the expense of a high pressure drop coefficient. For a given required protection factor, the lowest pressure drop coefficient is found for layers combining a high porosity and small particle diameter. PMID:23473003

  18. L'effet des deformations plastiques severes sur les proprietes d'hydruration du magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Julien

    Le travail de recherche effectue durant mon projet de maitrise en physique a l'Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres dans les laboratoires de l'Institut de Recherche sur l'Hydrogene etait de comparer l'effet du laminage a froid de la poudre de MgH2 avec celui du broyage mecanique. Nous avons etudie cette nouvelle technique en utilisant un laminoir vertical concu specialement pour laminer de la poudre. Nous avons lamine la poudre de MgH2 5, 25, 50 et 100 fois. La comparaison de la morphologie de la poudre de MgH 2 telle que recu du manufacturier et broye mecaniquement pendant 30 minutes avec celle de la poudre laminee ete faite a l'aide d'un microscope electronique a balayage. Nous avons par la suite mesure les proprietes de sorption d'hydrogene grace un appareil PCT de type Sievert. Nous avons aussi determine la structure cristalline par diffraction de rayons X. A partir de ces resultats, nous avons constate que le nombre optimal de laminages est de cinq et a les caracteristiques d'absorption/desorption d'hydrogene similaires a un broyage mecanique de 30 minutes. Nous avons aussi utilise les courbes de cinetiques d'absorption et de desorption d'hydrogene pour calculer l'etape limitative dans les reactions de sorption des echantillons lamines. Comme cinq laminages se font en environ 10 secondes, on voit que le laminage a froid est une technique plus interessante industriellement que le broyage mecanique a cause de l'important gain en temps et en energie.

  19. A comparison of dispersion calculations in bluff body wakes using LES and unsteady RANS

    SciTech Connect

    Paschkewitz, J S

    2006-01-19

    Accurate modeling of the dispersion behavior of sprays or particles is critical for a variety of problems including combustion, urban pollution or release events, and splash and spray transport around heavy vehicles. Bluff body wakes are particularly challenging since these flows are both highly separated and strongly unsteady. Attempting to model the dispersion of droplets or particles interacting with bluff body wakes is even more difficult since small differences in the flow field encountered by particles can lead to large differences in the dispersion behavior. Particles with finite inertia can exhibit additional complicating effects such as preferential concentration. In this preliminary study, we consider the dispersion of solid particles in the wake of a rectangular plane at a Reynolds number (Re) of 10000 and that of droplets in the wake of a simplified tractor-trailer geometry at Re = 2 x 10{sup 6} using both the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) turbulence modeling approaches. The calculations were performed using identical meshes for both the LES and URANS models. Particle stresses are not backcoupled to the carrier fluid velocity solution. In the case of the rectangular plane wake, the LES calculation predicts a finer-scale and more persistent wake structure than the URANS one; the resulting particle dispersion is considerably ({approx} 40%) underpredicted for low inertia particles. For the case of the simplified tractor-trailer geometry, although the LES is underresolved, similar trends are observed with strong differences in the vertical and horizontal dispersion of the smallest particles. These results suggest that it may be necessary to use LES to accurately capture the dispersion behavior of small, low inertia particles or droplets, but that URANS may be sufficient for problems in which only large particles with substantial inertia are of primary concern.

  20. Les ruptures traumatiques du tendon quadricipital: à propos de 3 cas

    PubMed Central

    Benyass, Youssef; Chafry, Bouchaib; Koufagued, Kaldadak; Bouabid, Salim; Chagar, Belkacem

    2015-01-01

    Les ruptures traumatiques du tendon quadricipital sont rares, elles surviennent préférentiellement après 40 ans, suite à un traumatisme indirect chez le sportif (flexion contrariée du genou) ou traumatisme banal chez le sédentaire. La tendinopathie préexistante est fréquente. La rupture est le plus souvent totale et siège au corps du tendon 60% des cas ou décallotement quadricipital au bord supérieur de la rotule (40% des cas). Le diagnostic est essentiellement clinique. Les examens complémentaires (échographie et imagerie par résonance magnétique) sont utiles et appuient le diagnostique, mais sont souvent faussement rassurants hormis la radiographie qui montre une rotule basse. Le traitement essentiellement chirurgical associé à la rééducation fonctionnelle donne des résultats largement meilleurs. Le délai d'intervention est un facteur pronostic très important. Les auteurs rapportent 03cas de rupture de tendon quadricipital. L’âge moyen est de 50ans. Ils ont été traités chirurgicalement et revus régulièrement, avec un recul de 16 mois pour apprécier l’évolution. Les résultats ont été très bons chez 02 cas et bon chez 01 cas. L'amélioration a été très nette selon les critères: marche, douleur et reprise d'activité physique. PMID:26985261

  1. L’annonce d’une déficience motrice cérébrale : Une relation de confiance à construire entre les parents, le personnel paramédical et les médecins

    PubMed Central

    Pelchat, Diane; Lefebvre, Hélène; Bouchard, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ : L’annonce d’une déficience motrice cérébrale et des incapacités qui en découlent est une situation difficile à vivre pour les parents et les dispensateurs de soins (personnel paramédical et médecins). Un examen de la documentation médicale démontre que depuis vingt ans, le nombre de parents insatisfaits n’a pas changé. L’étude de type qualitatif et exploratoire, effectuée à la demande de milieux de réadaptation, vise à décrire le processus d’annonce d’un diagnostic de déficience motrice cérébrale (DMC) à partir de l’expérience des différents acteurs en cause et à déterminer les facteurs qui facilitent ou compliquent la relation de confiance. Les résultats indiquent que les parents et les dispensateurs de soins vivent dans deux mondes de perception différents au moment de l’annonce, lesquels se rejoignent difficilement. Les parents sont envahis par le drame qu’ils vivent, tandis que les médecins sont concentrés sur le contenu à transmettre aux parents. Cette annonce provoque une importante incertitude qui bloque la communication entre les partenaires, mais elle pourrait devenir un stimulant à de nouvelles stratégies d’adaptation. PMID:20084263

  2. Les eaux minérales naturelles et les eaux de source : cadre réglementaire et technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bligny, Jean-Christophe; Hartemann, Philippe

    2005-02-01

    Originating from a long-standing tradition of spas, natural mineral water and spring water are subject to a strict European regulation, which defines their denomination, their chemical and physical characteristics, and their microbiological quality. In compliance with international standards, naturally occurring undesirable elements must be removed while maintaining the natural autochthonous microbial flora and the natural essential chemical characteristics of the water. Certain aquifers also benefit from a dynamic and integrated aquifer protection programme, implemented by the company, providing the defence of the fundamental concept of 'water purity', for which all water stakeholders must strive and act to ensure the sustainability. To cite this article: J.-C. Bligny, P. Hartemann, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  3. La fibroscopie digestive haute chez 2795 patients au centre hospitalier universitaire-campus de Lomé: les particularités selon le sexe

    PubMed Central

    Lawson-Ananissoh, Laté Mawuli; Bouglouga, Oumboma; Bagny, Aklesso; Kaaga, Laconi; Redah, Datouda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Notre étude consistera à rapporter les indications et les lésions objectivées à la fibroscopie digestive haute et relever les particularités selon le sexe. Méthodes Étude rétrospective, descriptive sur des résultats de compte-rendu de la fibroscopie digestive haute menée en unité d'endoscopie digestive du service d'hépato-gastro-entérologie du CHU Campus de Lomé du 15 Mai 2009 au 31 Décembre 2013. Résultats La fibroscopie digestive haute a été réalisée chez 2795 patients dont 1188 hommes et 1607 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 40,65 ans (Extrêmes: 5 et 93 ans). La fibroscopie digestive haute était normale chez les femmes que chez les hommes avec une différence statistiquement significative (p = 0,000). Les principales indications étaient: les épigastralgies chez les femmes (p = 0,000); les hémorragies digestives hautes (p = 0,000) et l'hypertension portale (p = 0,000) chez les hommes; 3485 lésions pathologiques ont été observées. La pathologie inflammatoire prédominait (56,3%), la pathologie ulcéreuse (13,89%), la pathologie tumorale (2,01%). Les varices et la candidose œsophagiennes étaient significativement notées chez les hommes. Les ulcérations gastriques (p = 0,000), le reflux biliaire duodéno-gastrique (p = 0,017) étaient plus retrouvés chez les femmes et la gastropathie hypertensive beaucoup plus chez les hommes (p = 0,000). Que les lésions duodénales soient inflammatoires ou ulcéreuses associées ou non à une sténose bulbaire, elles étaient plus fréquentes chez les hommes. Conclusion De manière générale, il y avait une prédominance des lésions inflammatoires chez les femmes, les lésions tumorales et ulcéreuses chez les hommes PMID:25852805

  4. Protective coating for ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Churchward, Rex A. (Inventor); Lowe, David M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A protective coating for ceramic materials such as those made of silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, aluminoborosilicate and silicon dioxide, and a thermal control structure comprising a ceramic material having coated thereon the protective coating. The protective coating contains, in admixture, silicon dioxide powder, colloidal silicon dioxide, water, and one or more emittance agents selected from silicon tetraboride, silicon hexaboride, silicon carbide, molybdenum disilicide, tungsten disilicide and zirconium diboride. In another aspect, the protective coating is coated on a flexible ceramic fabric which is the outer cover of a composite insulation. In yet another aspect, a metallic foil is bonded to the outer surface of a ceramic fabric outer cover of a composite insulation via the protective coating. A primary application of this invention is as a protective coating for ceramic materials used in a heat shield for space vehicles subjected to very high aero-convective heating environments.

  5. Cathodic protection: Theory and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, V.; Booker, C.J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an account of cathodic protection. It covers the advances made over the past decade, both in terms of understanding the complexity of the systems to which cathodic protection has been applied and assuring the reliability of the designs which have evolved. It shows how computer-validated design is superseding empirical design. The use of field gradient measurements for current output, acoustic transmission of potential data, and monitoring and surveying of cathodic protection systems are included.

  6. Protective link for superconducting coil

    DOEpatents

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2009-12-08

    A superconducting coil system includes a superconducting coil and a protective link of superconducting material coupled to the superconducting coil. A rotating machine includes first and second coils and a protective link of superconducting material. The second coil is operable to rotate with respect to the first coil. One of the first and second coils is a superconducting coil. The protective link is coupled to the superconducting coil.

  7. Les facteurs prédictifs de morbimortalité chez les patients sous ballon de contre pulsion intra-aortique en chirurgie cardiaque

    PubMed Central

    Elahmadi, Brahim; Motiaa, Youssef; Hatim, Abdedaim Elghadbane; Atmani, Noureddine; Moutakillah, Younes; Wahid, Fouad Amal; Elbekkali, Youssef; Houssa, Mahdi Ait; Razine, Rachid; Boulahya, Abdelatif; Drissi, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Le ballon de contre pulsion intra-aortique (BCPIA) est fréquemment utilisé en chirurgie cardiaque, comme moyen d'assistance circulatoire en cas de bas débit cardiaque. Il est d'intérêt clinique de déterminer les facteurs pronostiques chez les patients porteurs d'un BCPIA en chirurgie cardiaque, et qui restent un sujet rarement élucidé dans la littérature. L'objectif de notre travail est de déterminer les facteurs prédictifs de morbi-mortalité chez les patients sous ballon de contre pulsion intraortique en périopératoire d'une chirurgie cardiaque. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective portant sur l'ensemble des patients opérés en chirurgie cardiaque sous circulation extracorporelle, et ayant bénéficiés de la mise en place d'un ballon de contre pulsion intra-aortique en périopératoire, au service de chirurgie cardiovasculaire de l'Hôpital Militaire Mohamed V de Rabat, entre le mois de janvier 2005 et le mois d'aout 20014. Soixante dix patients ont été inclus dans notre étude. En analyse univariée l'âge, la dyspnée de stade III et IV, l'insuffisance cardiaque, la présence d'un infarctus du myocarde, d'une coronaropathie mono et bitronculaire, les anomalies du doppler de trons supra-aortique et du membre inférieur, le caractère urgent de la chirurgie, la durée de la circulation extracorporelle, l'instabilité hémodynamique postopératoire, le saignement et l'insuffisance rénale postopératoire étaient statistiquement associés à une mortalité postopératoire élevée. La dyskinésie préopératoire et la sortie de circulation extracorporelle sous drogues étaient associées à une morbidité globale élevée. En analyse multi variée, seule l'âge, constituait un facteur de risque indépendant de mortalité dans notre série avec un Odds Ratio (OR): 1,89 ; un Intervalle de Confiance (IC) 95% de (1,52-4,97) et un p =0,045. Au terme de notre étude, le taux de mortalité était de 48,57% et de morbidité globale était de 87,1%. Il

  8. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford E. Smith; Steven M. Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; David L. Black; Karl V. Meredith

    2005-01-01

    In this project, an advanced computational software tool was developed for the design of low emission combustion systems required for Vision 21 clean energy plants. Vision 21 combustion systems, such as combustors for gas turbines, combustors for indirect fired cycles, furnaces and sequestrian-ready combustion systems, will require innovative low emission designs and low development costs if Vision 21 goals are to be realized. The simulation tool will greatly reduce the number of experimental tests; this is especially desirable for gas turbine combustor design since the cost of the high pressure testing is extremely costly. In addition, the software will stimulate new ideas, will provide the capability of assessing and adapting low-emission combustors to alternate fuels, and will greatly reduce the development time cycle of combustion systems. The revolutionary combustion simulation software is able to accurately simulate the highly transient nature of gaseous-fueled (e.g. natural gas, low BTU syngas, hydrogen, biogas etc.) turbulent combustion and assess innovative concepts needed for Vision 21 plants. In addition, the software is capable of analyzing liquid-fueled combustion systems since that capability was developed under a concurrent Air Force Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. The complex physics of the reacting flow field are captured using 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods, in which large scale transient motion is resolved by time-accurate numerics, while the small scale motion is modeled using advanced subgrid turbulence and chemistry closures. In this way, LES combustion simulations can model many physical aspects that, until now, were impossible to predict with 3D steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis, i.e. very low NOx emissions, combustion instability (coupling of unsteady heat and acoustics), lean blowout, flashback, autoignition, etc. LES methods are becoming more and more practical by linking together tens

  9. CEBAF - environmental protection program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    An important objective in the successful operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is to ensure protection of the public and the environment. To meet this objective, the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc., (SURA) is committed to working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop, implement, and manage a sound and workable environmental protection program at CEBAF. This environmental protection plan includes information on environmental monitoring, long-range monitoring, groundwater protection, waste minimization, and pollution prevention awareness program plan.

  10. Protecting a pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.H ); Garcia-Lopez, M. )

    1994-12-01

    This article describes some of the difficulties in constructing an oil pipeline in Colombia across a forested mountain range that has erosion-prone slopes. Engineers are finding ways to protect the pipeline against slope failures and severe erosion problems while contending with threats of guerrilla attacks. Torrential rainfall, precipitous slopes, unstable soils, unfavorable geology and difficult access make construction of an oil pipeline in Colombia a formidable undertaking. Add the threat of guerrilla attacks, and the project takes on a new dimension. In the country's central uplands, a 76 cm pipeline traverses some of the most daunting and formidable terrain in the world. The right-of-way crosses rugged mountains with vertical elevations ranging from 300 m to 2,000 mm above sea level over a distance of some 30 km. The pipeline snakes up and down steep forested inclines in some spots and crosses streams and faults in others, carrying the country's major export--petroleum--from the Cusiana oil field, located in Colombia's lowland interior, to the coast.

  11. Chronology protection conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1992-07-01

    It has been suggested that an advanced civilization might have the technology to warp spacetime so that closed timelike curves would appear, allowing travel into the past. This paper examines this possibility in the case that the causality violations appear in a finite region of spacetime without curvature singularities. There will be a Cauchy horizon that is compactly generated and that in general contains one or more closed null geodesics which will be incomplete. One can define geometrical quantities that measure the Lorentz boost and area increase on going round these closed null geodesics. If the causality violation developed from a noncompact initial surface, the averaged weak energy condition must be violated on the Cauchy horizon. This shows that one cannot create closed timelike curves with finite lengths of cosmic string. Even if violations of the weak energy condition are allowed by quantum theory, the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor would get very large if timelike curves become almost closed. It seems the back reaction would prevent closed timelike curves from appearing. These results strongly support the chronology protection conjecture: The laws of physics do not allow the appearance of closed timelike curves.

  12. Chronology protection conjecture

    SciTech Connect

    Hawking, S.W. )

    1992-07-15

    It has been suggested that an advanced civilization might have the technology to warp spacetime so that closed timelike curves would appear, allowing travel into the past. This paper examines this possibility in the case that the causality violations appear in a finite region of spacetime without curvature singularities. There will be a Cauchy horizon that is compactly generated and that in general contains one or more closed null geodesics which will be incomplete. One can define geometrical quantities that measure the Lorentz boost and area increase on going round these closed null geodesics. If the causality violation developed from a noncompact initial surface, the averaged weak energy condition must be violated on the Cauchy horizon. This shows that one cannot create closed timelike curves with finite lengths of cosmic string. Even if violations of the weak energy condition are allowed by quantum theory, the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor would get very large if timelike curves become almost closed. It seems the back reaction would prevent closed timelike curves from appearing. These results strongly support the chronology protection conjecture: {ital The} {ital laws} {ital of} {ital physics} {ital do} {ital not} {ital allow} {ital the} {ital appearance} {ital of} {ital closed} {ital timelike} {ital curves}.

  13. Optical Fiber Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    F&S Inc. developed and commercialized fiber optic and microelectromechanical systems- (MEMS) based instrumentation for harsh environments encountered in the aerospace industry. The NASA SBIR programs have provided F&S the funds and the technology to develop ruggedized coatings and coating techniques that are applied during the optical fiber draw process. The F&S optical fiber fabrication facility and developed coating methods enable F&S to manufacture specialty optical fiber with custom designed refractive index profiles and protective or active coatings. F&S has demonstrated sputtered coatings using metals and ceramics and combinations of each, and has also developed techniques to apply thin coatings of specialized polyimides formulated at NASA Langley Research Center. With these capabilities, F&S has produced cost-effective, reliable instrumentation and sensors capable of withstanding temperatures up to 800? C and continues building commercial sales with corporate partners and private funding. More recently, F&S has adapted the same sensing platforms to provide the rapid detection and identification of chemical and biological agents

  14. Radiation protection and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation was found not to be an operational problem during the Apollo program. Doses received by the crewmen of Apollo missions 7 through 17 were small because no major solar-particle events occurred during those missions. One small event was detected by a radiation sensor outside the Apollo 12 spacecraft, but no increase in radiation dose to the crewmen inside the spacecraft was detected. Radiation protection for the Apollo program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft. Radiation-exposure risks to crewmen were assessed and balanced against mission gain to determine mission constraints. Operational radiation evaluation required specially designed radiation detection systems onboard the spacecraft in addition to the use of satellite data, solar observatory support, and other liaison. Control and management of radioactive sources and radiation-generating equipment was important in minimizing radiation exposure of ground-support personnel, researchers, and the Apollo flight and backup crewmen.

  15. Personal Radiation Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Mark; Vinci, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the personal radiation protection system (PRPS), which has been invented for use on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. The PRPS comprises walls that can be erected inside spacecraft, where and when needed, to reduce the amount of radiation to which personnel are exposed. The basic structural modules of the PRPS are pairs of 1-in. (2.54-cm)-thick plates of high-density polyethylene equipped with fasteners. The plates of each module are assembled with a lap joint. The modules are denoted bricks because they are designed to be stacked with overlaps, in a manner reminiscent of bricks, to build 2-in. (5.08-cm)-thick walls of various lengths and widths. The bricks are of two varieties: one for flat wall areas and one for corners. The corner bricks are specialized adaptations of the flat-area bricks that make it possible to join walls perpendicular to each other. Bricks are attached to spacecraft structures and to each other by use of straps that can be tightened to increase the strengths and stiffnesses of joints.

  16. To Copy-Protect or Not to Copy-Protect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Jonathan

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the issues of software piracy, why people illegally copy software, protection afforded software developers by copyright laws, and current and future methods of disk-based protection built into software by developers and the problems these methods have created. (MBR)

  17. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Cheng, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2016-02-02

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  18. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-06-18

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  19. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford E. Smith

    2005-04-01

    Vision 21 combustion systems will require innovative low emission designs and low development costs if Vision 21 goals are to be realized. In this three-year project, an advanced computational software tool will be developed for the design of low emission combustion systems required for Vision 21 clean energy plants. The combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) software will be able to accurately simulate the highly transient nature of gaseous-fueled turbulent combustion so that innovative concepts can be assessed and developed with fewer high-cost experimental tests. During the first year, the project included the development and implementation of improved chemistry (reduced GRI mechanism), subgrid turbulence (localized dynamic), and subgrid combustion-turbulence interaction (Linear Eddy) models into the CFDACE+ code. University expertise (Georgia Tech and UC Berkeley) was utilized to help develop and implement these advanced submodels into the unstructured, parallel CFD flow solver, CFD-ACE+. Efficient numerical algorithms that rely on in situ look-up tables or artificial neural networks were implemented for chemistry calculations. In the second year, the combustion LES software was evaluated and validated using experimental data from lab-scale and industrial test configurations. This code testing (i.e., alpha testing) was performed by CFD Research Corporation's engineers. During the third year, six industrial and academic partners used the combustion LES code and exercised it on problems of their choice (i.e., beta testing). Final feedback and optimizations were then be implemented in the final release version of the combustion LES software that will be licensed to the general public. An additional one-year task was added for the fourth year of this program entitled, ''LES Simulations of SIMVAL Results''. For this task, CFDRC performed LES calculations of selected SIMVAL cases, and compared predictions with measurements. In addition to comparisons with NO{sub x

  20. Les accidents aux AVK: étude rétrospective à propos de 30 cas

    PubMed Central

    Serghini, Issam; Aissaoui, Younés; Quamouss, Youssef; Sedikki, Rachid; Taj, Nourredine; Salim Alaoui, Jaafar; Zoubir, Mohamed; Boughanem, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Les accidents hémorragiques sous AVK (antivitamines K) sont la première cause d’hospitalisation iatrogène. Le but de cette étude est de ressortir les caractéristiques des patients présentant des accidents hémorragiques graves sous AVK et de mettre le point sur la prise en charge. Nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 30 malades, réalisée au service de réanimation de l’hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de 59, 6 avec un sexe ratio de 1,5 (18 femmes et 12 femmes). On note dans notre série le terrain multi-taré des patients sous AVK avec plusieurs antécédents en cause. La fibrillation auriculaire était la principale indication recensée. Plus que la moitié ne bénéficiaient pas d’une bonne surveillance biologique à base d’INR (international normalized ratio). Le saignement d’origine gastro-intestinal était le plus fréquent. La conduite était différente en fonction des cas mais axée sur l’arrêt des AVK, l’administration de vit K, la transfusion de culots globulaires et plasma frais congelé. Plus du quart des patients admis sont décédés. L’index de Landefeld s’est avéré utile, il permet de classer les patients selon le risque prédictif de saignement (élevé moyen ou faible), ce qui concordait avec les résultats de notre étude. Son importance est d’ autant plus qu’il est facile à mesurer et à appliquer par le médecin en ambulatoire et permet de définir les patients nécessitant une surveillance accrue. La polymédication et les antécédents de saignement digestif sont apparus comme facteur de risque de saignement sous AVK. La prévention de la survenue de ces accidents est le pilier de la prise en charge, d’où l’importance de l’information et de l’éducation des différents intervenants dans cette complication iatrogène potentiellement mortelle. PMID:22514758

  1. Les fractures distales de la clavicule type II de Neer: plaque à crochet versus brochage transacromiale

    PubMed Central

    Mechchat, Atif; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Cette étude a été menée afin de faire une comparaison entre deux techniques chirurgicales différentes: la plaque à crochet et l'embrochage dans les fractures instables du quart externe de la clavicule. Nous avons mené une étude prospective entre 2009 et 2013, incluant deux groupes de patients: un premier groupe de 14 patients traités par plaque à crochet par voie d'abord antéro-inférieure, un second de 12 patients traités par brochage. Tous les patients ont été hospitalisés 24 h après la chirurgie et ont été suivi pendant 1 an. Nous avons comparé les résultats des deux techniques en étudiant: le temps opératoire, le saignement, délai de consolidation, la douleur et la fonction selon le score de constant. L'analyse statistique des résultats fonctionnels et radiologiques a montré la supériorité d'une technique par rapport à l'autre; ainsi l’âge moyen global était de 32,6 ans (+/- 13,7), le sex-ratio (H/F) était de 1. Le temps opératoire moyen est de 35 min pour la plaque à crochet contre 45 minutes pour le brochage, le délai moyen de consolidation était de 6,1 (+/-0,7) semaines dans le groupe traité par plaque vissée, et de 6 (+/-0,7) semaines dans le groupe traité par embrochage (p = 0,5), le score de Constant absolu moyen était respectivement de 86 (+/-10,4) et de 90,92 (+/-2,5) (p = 0,04). L'analyse uni variée a montré une association statistiquement significative entre les paramètres d’évaluation et les deux techniques chirurgicales étudiées. Par conséquent, l’étude a noté la supériorité de la plaque à crochet contre l'embroche dans les fractures instables du quart externe de la clavicule. PMID:26090053

  2. Nouvelle methode pour les etudes des interactions aeroservoelastiques en boucle ouverte sur les avions F/A-18, CL-604 et ATM et en boucle fermee sur l'ATM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, Alin Dorian

    2006-04-01

    Nous avons concu, implemente puis valide une nouvelle methode d'approximation des forces aerodynamiques non stationnaires a l'aide des polynomes orthogonaux de Chebyshev. Cela represente une contribution originale dans l'analyse des interactions aeroservoelastiques. La premiere serie de resultats obtenus par cette nouvelle methode (erreurs d'approximation des forces aerodynamiques non stationnaires) est comparee avec les resultats des methodes LS et de Pade. La deuxieme serie de resultats (vitesses et frequences de battement obtenues avec cette nouvelle methode) est comparee avec celles obtenues par les methodes classiques LS et de Pade. Ces deux series de resultats obtenus par notre methode et par les deux methodes classiques LS et de Pade sont validees sur trois types differents d'avions: l'ATM (Aircraft Test Model), le F/A-18 en collaboration avec les laboratoires de la NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, et enfin le Challenger CL-604 de Bombardier Aeronautique.

  3. 40 CFR 27.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective order. 27.24 Section 27.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 27.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by...

  4. 40 CFR 27.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protective order. 27.24 Section 27.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 27.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by...

  5. Protective Athletic Mouthguards

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Richard T.; Conrad, Robert S.; Wood, Charles Rieger; Warren, Aric J.; Kohler, Gerwald A.; Bullard, James W.; Benson, Gifty; Gulden, Judyth M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Protective athletic mouthguards (PAMs) have been worn in competitive sports for more than 100 years. Today, participants in contact and noncontact sports wear PAMs. Hypothesis: Wearing a PAM produces oral injury. Study Type: Case series. Study Design and Methods: Sixty-two Division I football players voluntarily participated in the study. Before the beginning of the season, each player underwent a thorough oral examination, and all abnormal oral findings were photographed (hyperkeratosis, erythema, ulceration, and combinations thereof). At midseason, 14 players were given complete oral examinations, with all abnormal oral findings documented. At season end, all remaining players (n = 53) had complete oral examinations and photographs taken of abnormal oral findings. Results: The preseason examination of 62 players found a total of 85 lesions (1.4 lesions per player) on the gingiva (n = 17), buccal mucosa (n = 60), and palate (n = 8). The 14 midseason players had 28 lesions (2.0 lesions per player) on gingiva (n = 8), buccal mucosa (n = 16), and tongue (n = 4). At season end, the 53 remaining players had 198 lesions (3.7 per player) on the gingiva (n = 96), buccal mucosa (n = 79), tongue (n = 18), and palate (n = 5). In addition, the lesion intensity scores progressively increased over the season. Because the palate did not come into direct contact with the PAM, it was used as an internal control. Conclusion: The wearing of a PAM may increase the number and intensity of oral mucosal injuries, which may cause localized soft tissue reactions such as hyperkeratosis, erythema, and ulceration. Clinical Relevance: Because the PAM reduces tooth injury but may cause oral lesions, it should be sanitized daily and changed regularly and replaced whenever it becomes sharp and jagged or when the athlete develops an irritation in the mouth. PMID:23015901

  6. Occupant Protection at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Jeffrey; Granderson, Brad; Scheuring, Rick

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's efforts to arrive at protection of occupants of the ORION space craft on landing. An Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) has been developed, it is an anatomically-based, consensus-derived, global severity scoring system that classifies each injury by body region according to its relative importance on a 6-point ordinal scale. It reviews an Operationmally Relevant Injury Scale (ORIS), a classification methodology, and shows charts that detail the results of applying this ORIS to the injury databases. One chart uses NASCAR injury classification. It discusses providing a context for the level of risk inherent in the Orion landings in terms that people understand and have a sense for. For example is the risk of injury during an Orion landing roughly the same, better or worse than: An aircraft carrier landing, a NASCAR crash, or a helicopter crash, etc? The data for NASCAR and Indy Racing league (IRL) racing crash and injury data was reviewed. The risk from the Air Force, Navy, and Army injury data was also reviewed. Past NASA and the Soyuz programs injury risks are also reviewed. The work is an attempt to formulate a recommendation to the Orion Project for an acceptable level of injury risk associated with Nominal and Off-Nominal landing cases. The presentation also discusses the data mining and use of the data to Validate NASA Operationally-Relevant Injury Scale (NORIS) / Military Operationally-Relevant Injury Scale (MORIS), developing injury risk criteria, the types of data that are required, NASCAR modeling techniques and crash data, and comparison with the Brinkley model. The development of injury risk curves for each biodynamic response parameter is discussed. One of the main outcomes of this work is to establish an accurate Automated Test Dummy (ATD) that can be used to measure human tolerances.

  7. Protecting Against Cerebrovascular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Guang; Arai, Ken; Murata, Yoshihiro; Wang, Sophia; Stins, Monique F.; Lo, Eng H.; van Leyen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose The concept of the neurovascular unit suggests that effects on brain vasculature must be considered if neuroprotection is to be achieved in stroke. We previously reported that 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) is upregulated in the peri-infarct area after middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice, and 12/15-LOX contributes to brain damage after ischemia–reperfusion. The current study was designed to investigate 12/15-LOX involvement in vascular injury in the ischemic brain. Methods In cell culture, a human brain microvascular endothelial cell line was subjected to either hypoxia or H2O2-induced oxidative stress with or without lipoxygenase inhibitors. For in vivo studies, mice were subjected to 90 minutes middle cerebral artery occlusion, and the effects of either 12/15-LOX gene knockout or treatment with lipoxygenase inhibitors were compared. Expression of 12/15-LOX and claudin-5 as well as extravasation of immunoglobulin G were detected by immunohistochemistry. Edema was measured as water content of brain hemispheres according to the wet–dry weight method. Results Brain endothelial cells were protected against hypoxia and H2O2 by the lipoxygenase inhibitor baicalein. After focal ischemia, 12/15-LOX was increased in neurons and endothelial cells. The vascular tight junction protein claudin-5 underwent extensive degradation in the peri-infarct area, which was partially prevented by the lipoxygenase inhibitor baicalein. Leakage of immunoglobulin G into the brain parenchyma was significantly reduced in 12/15-LOX knockout mice as well as wild-type mice treated with baicalein. Likewise, brain edema was significantly ameliorated. Conclusion 12/15-LOX may contribute to ischemic brain damage not just by causing neuronal cell death, but also by detrimental effects on the brain microvasculature. 12/15-LOX inhibitors may thus be effective as both neuroprotectants and vasculoprotectants. PMID:18635843

  8. Interactions électron-électron dans les fils mésoscopiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, F.

    Electron-electron interactions in mesoscopic wires In metallic thin films, the screening of Coulomb interactions is less efficient than in bulk metals because of electron elastic scattering from film boundaries, lattice defects, and impurities. As a consequence, at sub-kelvin temperatures, electron-electron interactions are expected to be the dominant inelastic process undergone by electrons, which determines energy exchange and limits the electronic phase coherence. We present in this book three experiments that probe inelastic collisions experienced by electrons at low temperature, in order to find out their mechanism. In the first part, we present a series of measurements of the energy distribution function of electrons in copper, gold and silver wires driven in a steady-state, out of equilibrium situation. These experiments reveal the rate at which electrons exchange energy. These results are compared in the second part with the temperature dependence of the phase coherence time of electrons tau_{φ}, which is deduced from the magnetoresistance of long wires. The phase coherence of electrons is limited by all inelastic collisions, independently of the energy exchanged. Different mechanisms to account for the energy exchange rate and dephasing times are proposed and compared with experiments. In the third part, we present measurements of the conductance of a long tunnel junction between an aluminum wire and a ground plane. The dip in the conductance at zero voltage is expected from the theory of electron-electron interactions. To compare measurements and theoretical predictions, we rephrase the microscopic theory of electron-electron interactions in terms of an electromagnetic impedance, as is done for the phenomenological theory of Coulomb blockade. Dans les couches minces métalliques, l'écrantage des interactions coulombiennes entre électrons est moins efficace que dans les métaux massifs en raison des chocs élastiques que subissent les électrons sur les

  9. Fire Protection in Educational Occupancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, Romeo P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origins of school fires and the components of the fire protection code called the Life Safety Code (LSC). Three of the following LSC requirements are described: means of egress; protection from hazards; and fire suppression and alarm systems. Information on who starts fires is highlighted along with preventive measures. (GR)

  10. Fire Protection for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevig, William A.

    Fire protection in rural Alaskan communities depends on individual home fire prevention and protection rather than on the services offered by a centralized fire department. Even when help is summoned to extinguish a blaze, aid does not come in the form of a cadre of highly trained firefighters; it comes instead from whomever happens to be in the…

  11. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisin, J. R.

    Some of the problems related to chemical protection against ionizing radiation are discussed with emphasis on : definition, classification, degree of protection, mechanisms of action and toxicity. Results on the biological response modifyers (BRMs) and on the combination of nontoxic (i.e. low) doses of sulphydryl radioprotectors and BRMs are presented.

  12. Groundwater protection management program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a groundwater protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable Federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office has prepared a ``Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan`` (groundwater protection plan) of sufficient scope and detail to reflect the program`s significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter 3, for special program planning. The groundwater protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor groundwater resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies project technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA groundwater protection management program. In addition, the groundwater protection plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA sites (long-term care at disposal sites and groundwater restoration at processing sites). This plan will be reviewed annually and updated every 3 years in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  13. GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency helps state and local governments protect the environment by encouraging good environmental management and by regulating human activities to ensure clean air and water. At the Corvallis research laboratory for the EPA, we improve the ways t...

  14. Corrosion protection for silver reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Arendt, Paul N.; Scott, Marion L.

    1991-12-31

    A method of protecting silver reflectors from damage caused by contact with gaseous substances which are often present in the atmosphere and a silver reflector which is so protected. The inventive method comprises at least partially coating a reflector with a metal oxide such as aluminum oxide to a thickness of 15 .ANG. or less.

  15. Eye Protection in Kansas Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Kenneth M.; And Others

    A law passed by a state legislature requires that students in industrial arts shops and science laboratories must wear eye protective devices. Explanatory material presents the text of the bill and guidelines for implementation, including--(1) types of eye hazards, (2) types of protective devices, (3) administrating eye safety equipment, (4)…

  16. Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

  17. The mirage of oil protection

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This book describes the historical background and structure of the U.S. oil industry and analyzes the failure of past policies designed to protect it. It argues against current proposals for reinstituting protection of the industry as harmful to consumers, the industry, and the nation as a whole. It also presents relevant statistics.

  18. Adaptive protection algorithm and system

    DOEpatents

    Hedrick, Paul [Pittsburgh, PA; Toms, Helen L [Irwin, PA; Miller, Roger M [Mars, PA

    2009-04-28

    An adaptive protection algorithm and system for protecting electrical distribution systems traces the flow of power through a distribution system, assigns a value (or rank) to each circuit breaker in the system and then determines the appropriate trip set points based on the assigned rank.

  19. Protecting Minors from Free Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Joan Kennedy

    1997-01-01

    Because the Supreme Court has put severe limits on the use of the concepts of national security and protection of women to justify censorship, the predominant strategy has become censorship to protect minors. This article examines the legal concepts of obscenity and material harmful to minors, restrictions on broadcasting, and challenges raised by…

  20. Protective Clothing for Pesticide Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brief, largely pictorial guide to protective clothing for pesticide users addresses moderately to highly toxic pesticides. The guide discusses the potential hazards of pesticides and the kinds of clothing and equipment that should be worn for personal protection. It also explains how the type of pesticide formulation affects an individual's…

  1. Thermal protection in space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salakhutdinov, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    The provision of heat protection for various elements of space flight apparata has great significance, particularly in the construction of manned transport vessels and orbital stations. A popular explanation of the methods of heat protection in rocket-space technology at the current stage as well as in perspective is provided.

  2. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  3. Protecting Trade Secrets in Canada.

    PubMed

    Courage, Noel; Calzavara, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Patents in the life sciences industries are a key form of intellectual property (IP), particularly for products such as brand-name drugs and medical devices. However, trade secrets can also be a useful tool for many types of innovations. In appropriate cases, trade secrets can offer long-term protection of IP for a lower financial cost than patenting. This type of protection must be approached with caution as there is little room for error when protecting a trade secret. Strong agreements and scrupulous security can help to protect the secret. Once a trade secret is disclosed to the public, it cannot be restored as the owner's property; however, if the information is kept from the public domain, the owner can have a property right of unlimited duration in the information. In some situations patents and trade secrets may be used cooperatively to protect innovation, particularly for manufacturing processes. PMID:25986591

  4. Insider protection: A report card

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Enhanced security measures against external threats (e.g., terrorists, criminals) have been implemented at most facilities that handle special nuclear material, classified information, or other assets critical to national security. Attention is now focusing on insider protection, and safeguards managers are attempting to provide balanced protection against insider and outsider threats. Potential insider threats include attempts by facility employees to steal special nuclear material (SNM), to cause a radiological hazard to the public, to sabotage critical facilities, or to steal property or classified information. This paper presents a report card on the status of insider protection at Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed facilities, with emphasis on SNM theft. The authors discuss the general trends in insider protection and the limitations of protection measures currently in use. They also discuss the most critical needs for improved procedures, technology, analytical tools, and education for safeguards personnel.

  5. Insider protection: a report card

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Enhanced security measures against external threats (e.g., terrorists, criminals) have been implemented at most facilities that handle special nuclear material, classified information, or other assets critical to national security. Attention is not focussing on insider protection, and safeguards managers are attempting to provide balanced protection against insider and outsider threats. Potential insider threats include attempts by facility employees to steal special nuclear material (SNM), to cause a radiological hazard to the public, to sabotage critical facilities, or to steal property or classified information. This paper presents a report card on the status of insider protection at Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed facilities, with emphasis on SNM theft. We discuss the general trends in insider protection and the limitations of protection measures currently in use. We also discuss the most critical needs for improved procedures, technology, analytical tools, and education for safeguards personnel.

  6. Protected area certificates: gaining ground for better ecosystem protection?

    PubMed

    Segerstedt, Anna; Grote, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Protected areas are vital to sustain a number of ecosystem services. Yet, many protected areas are underfinanced and lack management effectiveness. Protected area certificates have been suggested as a way to resolve these problems. This instrument would allow land managers to certify an area if it meets certain conservation criteria. The certificates could then be sold on an international market, for example to companies and any consumers that are interested in environmental protection. Some pilot initiatives have been launched, yet little is known about future demand and features of protected area certificates. To fill this knowledge gap, we conduct a choice experiment with close to 400 long-distance tourists from Germany as a potential group of buyers. Our results indicate that the respondents have the highest willingness to pay for certificates that conserve sensitive ecosystems and in addition to this lead to poverty reduction and safeguard water resources. For other attributes such as a greenhouse gas reduction, the preferences are less significant. Overall, the results are rather homogenous irrespective of where the protected areas are located. These insights are important for the future design and marketing of protected area certificates. PMID:25868572

  7. Protected Area Certificates: Gaining Ground for Better Ecosystem Protection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segerstedt, Anna; Grote, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Protected areas are vital to sustain a number of ecosystem services. Yet, many protected areas are underfinanced and lack management effectiveness. Protected area certificates have been suggested as a way to resolve these problems. This instrument would allow land managers to certify an area if it meets certain conservation criteria. The certificates could then be sold on an international market, for example to companies and any consumers that are interested in environmental protection. Some pilot initiatives have been launched, yet little is known about future demand and features of protected area certificates. To fill this knowledge gap, we conduct a choice experiment with close to 400 long-distance tourists from Germany as a potential group of buyers. Our results indicate that the respondents have the highest willingness to pay for certificates that conserve sensitive ecosystems and in addition to this lead to poverty reduction and safeguard water resources. For other attributes such as a greenhouse gas reduction, the preferences are less significant. Overall, the results are rather homogenous irrespective of where the protected areas are located. These insights are important for the future design and marketing of protected area certificates.

  8. Development of a Hybrid RANS/LES Method for Turbulent Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Reshotko, Eli

    2001-01-01

    Significant research has been underway for several years in NASA Glenn Research Center's nozzle branch to develop advanced computational methods for simulating turbulent flows in exhaust nozzles. The primary efforts of this research have concentrated on improving our ability to calculate the turbulent mixing layers that dominate flows both in the exhaust systems of modern-day aircraft and in those of hypersonic vehicles under development. As part of these efforts, a hybrid numerical method was recently developed to simulate such turbulent mixing layers. The method developed here is intended for configurations in which a dominant structural feature provides an unsteady mechanism to drive the turbulent development in the mixing layer. Interest in Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods have increased in recent years, but applying an LES method to calculate the wide range of turbulent scales from small eddies in the wall-bounded regions to large eddies in the mixing region is not yet possible with current computers. As a result, the hybrid method developed here uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall-bounded regions entering a mixing section and uses a LES procedure to calculate the mixing-dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS-LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. With this technique, closure for the RANS equations is obtained by using the Cebeci-Smith algebraic turbulence model in conjunction with the wall-function approach of Ota and Goldberg. The LES equations are closed using the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. Although the function of the Cebeci-Smith model to replace all of the turbulent stresses is quite different from that of the Smagorinsky subgrid model, which only replaces the small subgrid turbulent stresses, both are eddy viscosity models and both are derived at least in part from mixing-length theory. The similar formulation of these two models enables the RANS

  9. Evaluation of a liquid cooling garment as a component of the Launch and Entry Suit (LES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J.; Charles, J.; Fritsch, I.; Fortney, S.; Siconolfi, S.; Pepper, L.; Bagian, L.; Kumar, V.

    1994-01-01

    The LES is a partial pressure suit and a component of the shuttle life support system used during launch and reentry. The LES relies on gas ventilation with cabin air to provide cooling. There are conditions during nominal launch and reentry, landing, and post-landing phases when cabin temperature is elevated. Under these conditions, gas cooling may result in some discomfort and some decrement in orthostatic tolerance. There are emergency conditions involving loss of cabin ECS capability that would challenge crew thermal tolerance. The results of a series of tests are presented. These tests were conducted to assess the effectiveness of a liquid-cooled garment in alleviating thermal discomfort, orthostatic intolerance, and thermal intolerance during simulated mission phases.

  10. Reynolds Stress Structures in the Hybrid RANS/LES of a Planar Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatheritt, Jack; Sandberg, Richard; Lozano-Durán, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    The near-wall cycle of hybrid RANS/LES is studied by calculating the flow through a planar channel. Statistical results are commented on and related to instantaneous structures which are extracted from the flow field. The problematic structures in the artificial near-wall cycle, well known to be super-streaks, are identified and quantified. The calibration of such closures provides a correct mixing length argument in the logarithmic layer. However because of these overly intense streamwise streaks, it is impossible to simultaneously predict the Reynolds streamwise normal and shear stress components correctly. Further, because the location of the RANS-LES interface changes spatially and temporally, we see these structures are more free to move vertically and this further worsens statistical results.

  11. LES and acoustic analysis of thermo-acoustic instabilities in a partially premixed model combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Ignacio; Staffelbach, Gabriel; Poinsot, Thierry; Román Casado, Juan C.; Kok, Jim B. W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations were performed using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and acoustic analysis tools to study thermo-acoustic instabilities in a methane/air academic burner installed at the University of Twente (The Netherlands). It operates under fuel-lean partially premixed conditions at atmospheric pressure, and was built to study thermo-acoustic instabilities in conditions representative of gas turbine Lean Premixed systems: gaseous fuel is injected upstream of the combustor and has a limited time to mix with air. Even though the objective is to burn in a premixed mode, the actual regime corresponds to a partially premixed flame where strong equivalence ratio variations are created especially during combustion instabilities. Capturing these modes with LES is a challenge: here, simulations for both stable and unstable regimes are performed. In the unstable case, the limit cycle oscillations (LCO) are characterized and compared to experimental results. Reasonable agreement is found between simulations and experiments.

  12. Advanced Supersonic Nozzle Concepts: Experimental Flow Visualization Results Paired With LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Matthew; Magstadt, Andrew; Stack, Cory; Gaitonde, Datta; Glauser, Mark; Syracuse University Team; The Ohio State University Team

    2015-11-01

    Advanced supersonic nozzle concepts are currently under investigation, utilizing multiple bypass streams and airframe integration to bolster performance and efficiency. This work focuses on the parametric study of a supersonic, multi-stream jet with aft deck. The single plane of symmetry, rectangular nozzle, displays very complex and unique flow characteristics. Flow visualization techniques in the form of PIV and schlieren capture flow features at various deck lengths and Mach numbers. LES is compared to the experimental results to both validate the computational model and identify limitations of the simulation. By comparing experimental results to LES, this study will help create a foundation of knowledge for advanced nozzle designs in future aircraft. SBIR Phase II with Spectral Energies, LLC under direction of Barry Kiel.

  13. L’effet du yoga chez les patients atteints de cancer

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Andréanne; Daneault, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer si le yoga thérapeutique améliore la qualité de vie de patients atteints de cancer. Sources des données Recherche effectuée avec la base de données MEDLINE (1950–2010) en utilisant les mots-clés yoga, cancer et quality of life. Sélection des études Priorité accordée aux études cliniques randomisées contrôlées évaluant l’effet du yoga sur différents symptômes susceptibles de se présenter chez des patients atteints de cancer en Amérique du Nord. Synthèse Quatre études cliniques randomisées contrôlées ont d’abord été analysées, puis 2 études sans groupe-contrôle. Trois études réalisées en Inde et au Proche-Orient ont également apporté des éléments intéressants au plan méthodologique. Les interventions proposées comprenaient des séances de yoga d’une durée et d’une fréquence variables. Les paramètres mesurés variaient également d’une étude à l’autre. Plusieurs symptômes ont connu des améliorations significatives avec le yoga (meilleure qualité du sommeil, diminution des symptômes anxieux ou dépressifs, amélioration du bien-être spirituel, etc.). Il a aussi semblé que la qualité de vie, dans sa globalité ou dans certaines de ses composantes spécifiques, s’améliorait. Conclusion La variété des effets bénéfiques produits, l’absence d’effet secondaire et le rapport coût-bénéfice avantageux du yoga thérapeutique en fait une intervention intéressante à suggérer par les médecins de famille aux patients atteints de cancer. Certaines lacunes méthodologiques ont pu diminuer la puissance statistique des études présentées, à commencer par la taille restreinte des échantillons et par l’assiduité variable des patients soumis à l’intervention. Il est également possible que les échelles de mesure utilisées ne convenaient pas à ce type de situation et de clientèle pour qu’en soit dégagé un effet significatif. Toutefois, les commentaires

  14. Les fistules coronaires: à propos d'un cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Bouzerda, Abdelmaji

    2015-01-01

    Les fistules coronaires sont des anomalies congénitales ou acquises relativement rares, au travers desquelles le flux sanguin coronaire est drainé vers une chambre cardiaque, un gros vaisseau ou une autre structure. Une cavité réceptrice à basse pression est souvent le site de drainage de ces fistules. Nous rapportons le cas d'un homme âgé de 30ans présentant des précordialgies atypique. L’épreuve d'effort est positive. L’évaluation par coronarographie met en évidence un réseau coronaire sain et un aspect de fistule coronarocamérale. L'objectif de cet article est d'aborder Les aspects cliniques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques des fistules coronaires. PMID:26327982

  15. LES, DNS and RANS for the analysis of high-speed turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Givi, Peyman

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research is to continue our efforts in advancing the state of knowledge in Large Eddy Simulation (LES), Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), and Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) methods for the analysis of high-speed reacting turbulent flows. In the first phase of this research, conducted within the past six months, focus was in three directions: RANS of turbulent reacting flows by Probability Density Function (PDF) methods, RANS of non-reacting turbulent flows by advanced turbulence closures, and LES of mixing dominated reacting flows by a dynamics subgrid closure. A summary of our efforts within the past six months of this research is provided in this semi-annual progress report.

  16. Effects of subfilter velocity modelling on dispersed phase in LES of heated channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozorski, Jacek; Knorps, Maria; Łuniewski, Mirosław

    2011-12-01

    A non-isothermal turbulent flow with the dispersed phase is modelled using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach for fluid, one-way coupled with the equations of point-particle evolution. The channel is heated at both walls and isoflux boundary conditions are applied for fluid. Particle velocity and thermal statistics are computed. Of particular interest are the r.m.s. profiles and the probability density function of particle temperature in the near-wall region. We compare our findings with available reference data for particle-laden, heated channel flow. Moreover, an open issue in LES is the influence of non-resolved (residual) scales of fluid velocity and temperature fields on particles. In the present contribution, we apply a stochastic model for subfilter fluid velocity at the particle positions that aims at reconstructing the effects of the smallest scales of turbulence on particle dynamics. We analyse the impact of this model on particle thermal statistics.

  17. Approche pour les comportements sexuels inappropriés chez des personnes atteintes de démence

    PubMed Central

    Joller, Petra; Gupta, Neeraj; Seitz, Dallas P.; Frank, Christopher; Gibson, Michelle; Gill, Sudeep S.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille une mise à jour sur l’approche au diagnostic et à la prise en charge des comportements sexuels inappropriés (CSI) chez les personnes atteintes de démence. Sources des données On a fait une recherche dans MEDLINE et EMBASE pour cerner des articles pertinents publiés avant juin 2012. On n’a trouvé aucune étude de niveau I; la plupart des articles fournissaient des données probantes de niveau III. Message principal Les comportements sexuels inappropriés sont fréquents chez les personnes atteintes de démence. Divers facteurs (p. ex., culturels, religieux, perspectives sociétales de la sexualité gériatrique, questions médicolégales) pourraient compliquer l’évaluation de tels comportements et doivent être pris en compte pour permettre une prise en charge appropriée à chaque patient. Il existe des outils pour documenter les CSI. Des interventions créatives non pharmacologiques pour les CSI pourraient être efficaces quand elles sont adaptées à chaque patient. Certaines pharmacothérapies (p. ex., antidépresseurs, antiandrogènes, antipsychotiques et anticonvulsifs) ont été proposées pour les symptômes qui ne répondent pas aux interventions non pharmacologiques. Par ailleurs, les données probantes à l’appui des traitements à l’aide de médicaments sont limitées, les effets secondaires demeurent un aspect important à considérer et il est incertain s’ils devraient être utilisés comme traitement de première ou de deuxième intention. Conclusion Quoiqu’il n’y ait pas d’algorithme de traitements empiriquement établi pour les CSI reliés à la démence, les ouvrages actuels offrent certaines données probantes concernant diverses thérapies pharmacologiques et non pharmacologiques. Des recherches de grande qualité plus approfondies sont nécessaires de toute urgence pour guider les médecins de famille qui prennent en charge des patients qui ont des CSI reliés à la

  18. Enjeux de fin de vie dans les cas de démence avancée

    PubMed Central

    Arcand, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Répondre aux questions souvent posées sur la prise en charge de la pneumonie en phase terminale, de l’apport nutritionnel insuffisant et de la déshydratation dans les cas de démence avancée. Sources des données Une recherche a été effectuée dans MEDLINE sur Ovid pour des articles pertinents publiés jusqu’en février 2015. Aucune étude de niveau I n’a été relevée; la plupart des articles fournissaient des preuves de niveaux III. Les suggestions en matière de prise en charge des symptômes s’appuient en partie sur une récente participation à une approche Delphi visant à concevoir une directive pour le soulagement optimal des symptômes chez les patients atteints de pneumonie et de démence. Message principal Les sondes d’alimentation ne sont pas recommandés chez les patients atteints de démence terminale. L’alimentation de confort manuelle est préférable. L’hydratation parentérale pourrait être utile, mais elle peut aussi contribuer à l’inconfort à la fin de la vie. Si les soins buccaux sont adéquats, l’abstention ou la cessation de l’alimentation et de l’hydratation artificielles ne sont généralement pas associées à des manifestations d’inconfort. Puisque la pneumonie est habituellement très inconfortable, les cliniciens doivent être attentifs à la maîtrise des symptômes. La sédation pour maîtriser l’agitation est souvent utile chez les patients atteints de démence terminale. Conclusion Les soins à visée symptomatique sont une option appropriée pour les manifestations terminales de la démence avancée. Les lignes directrices de prise en charge des symptômes proposées s’appuient sur une revue de la littérature et sur un consensus d’experts.

  19. LES of High-Reynolds-Number Coanda Flow Separating from a Rounded Trailing Edge of a Circulation Control Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichino, Takafumi; Hahn, Seonghyeon; Shariff, Karim

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Large Eddy Simulation of a high reynolds number Coanda flow that is separated from a round trailing edge of a ciruclation control airfoil. The objectives of the study are: (1) To investigate detailed physics (flow structures and statistics) of the fully turbulent Coanda jet applied to a CC airfoil, by using LES (2) To compare LES and RANS results to figure out how to improve the performance of existing RANS models for this type of flow.

  20. Utilisation de la mélatonine pour le sommeil chez les enfants en bonne santé

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Irvin; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Une maman a amené son garçon de 12 ans me consulter à mon bureau. Elle s’inquiète, car il a de la difficulté à s’endormir presque tous les soirs. Elle travaille par quarts et elle prend elle-même de la mélatonine pour l’aider à s’endormir. Elle m’a demandé si son garçon pouvait aussi prendre de la mélatonine. Quels sont les recommandations et les éléments à considérer avant d’utiliser la mélatonine chez les enfants et les adolescents en bonne santé? Réponse L’insomnie est rapportée chez jusqu’à un quart des enfants en bonne santé et chez les trois quarts des enfants atteints d’une affection psychiatrique ou neurodéveloppementale, ce qui entraîne des conséquences négatives. Pour les enfants atteints du syndrome de retard de phase du sommeil, la mélatonine pourrait s’avérer utile lorsque jumelée à une évaluation de l’insomnie et à un suivi régulier. La mélatonine pourrait être envisagée pour des enfants sans diagnostic d’insomnie qui ont une bonne hygiène du sommeil. Bien qu’elle semble sans danger, il n’existe pas de données probantes en faveur de l’emploi systématique de la mélatonine chez les enfants en bonne santé.

  1. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating

  2. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    2010-01-21

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating

  3. Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, J

    1993-01-01

    The review of recent work on the mechanisms of soil removal from textiles assists in understanding decontamination of pesticide protective clothing. The current work provides explanatory conclusions about residue retention as a basis of making recommendations for the most effective decontamination procedures. A caution about generalizations: Some pesticides produce very idiosyncratic responses to decontamination. An example is the paraquat/salt response. Other pesticides exhibit noticeable and unique responses to a highly alkaline medium (carbaryl), or to bleach (chlorpyrifos), or are quickly volatilized (methyl parathion). Responses such as these do not apply to other pesticides undergoing decontamination. Given this caution, there are soil, substrate, and solvent responses that do maximize residue removal. Residue removal is less complete as the concentration of pesticide increases. The concentration of pesticide in fabric builds with successive exposures, and the more concentrated the pesticide, the more difficult the removal. Use a prewash product and/or presoak. The surfactant and/or solvent in a prewash product is a booster in residue removal. Residues transfer from contaminated clothing to other clothing during the washing cycle. Use a full washer of water for a limited number of garments to increase residue removal. The hotter the washing temperature, the better. Generally, this means a water temperature of at least 49 degrees C, and preferably 60 degrees C. Select the detergent shown to be more effective for the formulation: heavy-duty liquid detergents for emulsifiable concentrate formulations and powdered phosphate detergents for wettable powder formulations. If the fabric has a soil-repellent finish, use 1.25 times the amount recommended on the detergent label. For water hardness above 300 ppm, an additional amount of powdered phosphate detergent is needed to obtain the same level of residue removal as obtained with the heavy-duty liquid detergent when

  4. Numerical Study of High-Temperature Jet Flow Using RANS/LES and PANS Formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Elmiligui, Alaa

    2005-01-01

    Two multi-scale-type turbulence models are implemented in the PAB3D solver. The models are based on modifying the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The first scheme is a hybrid RANS/LES model utilizing the two-equation (k(epsilon)) model with a RANS/LES transition function dependent on grid spacing and the computed turbulence length scale. The second scheme is a modified version of the Partially Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) model, where the unresolved kinetic energy parameter (f(sub k)) is allowed to vary as a function of grid spacing and the turbulence length scale. This parameter is estimated based on a novel two-stage procedure to efficiently estimate the level of scale resolution possible for a given flow on a given grid for Partial Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS). It has been found that the prescribed scale resolution can play a major role in obtaining accurate flow solutions. The parameter f(sub k) varies between zero and one and equal to one in the viscous sub layer, and when the RANS turbulent viscosity becomes smaller than the LES viscosity. The formulation, usage methodology, and validation examples are presented to demonstrate the enhancement of PAB3D's time-accurate and turbulence modeling capabilities. The accurate simulations of flow and turbulent quantities will provide valuable tool for accurate jet noise predictions. Solutions from these models are compared to RANS results and experimental data for high-temperature jet flows. The current results show promise for the capability of hybrid RANS/LES and PANS in simulating such flow phenomena.

  5. STS-56 Commander Cameron, in LES, with sky genie during JSC egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-56 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Kenneth Cameron, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), gives the sky-genie escape device a tug as training instructor Kenneth D. Trujillo holds it in position and explains its operation. Cameron, along with the other STS-56 crewmembers, is briefed on emergency egress procedures at JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE prior to a training simulation. The sky-genie is carried on all Space Shuttle flights for emergency egress purposes.

  6. STS-57 Commander Grabe, in LES, listens to egress briefing at JSC's MAIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Commander Ronald J. Grabe, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), listens to emergency egress briefing prior to a simulation in JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT) located in the Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE. Grabe, along with other STS-57 crewmembers, is familiarizing himself with the procedures necessary in the event of an emergency during launch or landing aboard the space shuttle.

  7. STS-57 MS4 Voss, in LES, sits on CCT middeck during JSC egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist 4 (MS4) Janice E. Voss, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), listens to communications as she sits on the middeck of JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT), a space shuttle mockup. Voss, along with the other STS-57 crewmembers, is participating in side hatch emergency egress training. In the background, training instructors look on. The CCT is located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE.

  8. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Cliff Smith

    2001-05-01

    Further development of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this second quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. CFDRC has implemented and tested Smagorinsky and localized dynamic subgrid turbulence models on a 2.1 million cell DOE-NETL combustor case and a 400,000 cell nonreacting backstep case. Both cases showed good agreement between predicted and experimental results. The large DOE-NETL case results provided better agreement with the measured oscillation frequency than previous attempts because massive parallel computing (on a cluster of 24 pcs) allowed the entire computational domain, including the swirler vanes and fuel spokes, to be modeled. Subgrid chemistry models, including the conditional moment closure (CMC) and linear eddy model (LEM), are being tested and implemented. Reduced chemical mechanisms have been developed for emissions, ignition delay, extinction, and flame propagation using a computer automated reduction method (CARM). A 19-species natural gas mechanism, based on GRI2.11 and Miller-NO{sub x}, was shown to predict rich NO{sub x} emissions better than any previously published mechanisms. The ability to handle this mechanism in CFD-ACE+ was demonstrated by implementing operator splitting and a stiff ODE solver (DVODE). Efficient tabulation methods, including in situ adaptation and artificial neural nets, are being studied and will be implemented in the LES code. The LES combustion code development and testing is on schedule. Next quarter, initial results (including the DOE-NETL unstable combustor) with the CMC and LEM subgrid chemistry models will be completed and summarized.

  9. STS-52 Pilot Baker, in LES/LEH, during JSC WETF bailout exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Pilot Michael A. Baker smiles from under his launch and entry helmet (LEH) and from behind the communications carrier assembly (CCA) microphones as he adjusts his parachute harness. Baker, fully outfitted in a launch and entry suit (LES), prepares for emergency egress (bailout) training exercise in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. The WETF's 25-ft deep pool will be used in this simulation of a water landing.

  10. STS-52 Pilot Baker, in LES, dons parachute during JSC WETF bailout exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Pilot Michael A. Baker is assisted with a training version of his Shuttle partial-pressure launch and entry suit (LES). A technician adjusts his parachute harness prior to the emergency egress (bailout) training exercise in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. The WETF's 25-ft deep pool will be used in this simulation of a water landing.

  11. Les pneumopathies nosocomiales en réanimation de CHU Hassan II de Fès

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, Abdelkarim; Touzani, Soumaya; Elbakouri, Nabil; Bechri, Brahim; Derkaoui, Ali; Khatouf, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif principal de notre étude était d'identifier les bactéries incriminées dans la pneumopathie nosocomiale (PN) au service de réanimation A1 du CHU Hassan II de Fès, en vue d'en améliorer la prise en charge et de diminuer la morbi-mortalité associée. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective et descriptive, menée du 1er janvier 2012 au 31 décembre 2013. Seules les infections pulmonaires survenant au-delà de 48 heures de l'admission du patient au service de réanimation ont été incluses. L'incidence de la PN était de 11,2%. Les Bacilles à Gram négatif (BGN) étaient retrouvés dans 48,5% des cas, le Staphylocoque Aureus dans 21,21% des cas et le Klebsiella Pneumoniae était dans 10,7% des cas. Le taux de mortalité était de 48,33%. L’âge, la gravité de la pathologie sous jacente et le retard de l'instauration d'une antibiothérapie adaptée étaient considérées comme facteurs de mauvais pronostic. L’étude de la résistance aux antibiotiques, montre une multirésistance surtout pour les BGN, dont il faut tenir compte en mettant en place une stratégie de prévention active. PMID:26966481

  12. STS-49 MS Thornton, in LES, at the CCT side hatch during JSC egress exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) Kathryn C. Thornton, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and with foot propped on open side hatch, prepares to enter JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT) located in the Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9. Thornton along with other STS-49 crewmembers is participating in post-landing emergency egress training. Photo taken by NASA JSC contract photographer Mark Sowa.

  13. TRANSIENT LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER RELAXATION IN ACHALASIA: EVERYTHING BUT LES RELAXATION

    PubMed Central

    KWIATEK, Monika A.; POST, Jennifer; PANDOLFINO, John E.; KAHRILAS, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In conducting clinical high resolution esophageal pressure topography (HREPT) studies we observed that after subjects sat upright between series of supine and upright test swallows, they frequently had a transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (tLESR). When achalasia patients were studied in the same protocol, they exhibited a similar HREPT event leading to the hypothesis that achalasics had incomplete tLESRs. Methods: We reviewed clinical HREPT studies of 94 consecutive non-achalasics and 25 achalasics. Studies were analyzed for a tLESR-like event during the study and, when observed, that tLESR-like event was characterized for the degree and duration of distal esophageal shortening, the degree of LES relaxation, associated crural diaphragm (CD) inhibition, esophageal pressurization, and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) relaxation. Results: 64/94 (68%) non-achalasics and 15/24 (63%) of achalasics had a pressure topography event after the posture change characterized by a prolonged period of distal esophageal shortening and/or LES relaxation. Events among the non-achalasics and achalasics were similar in terms of magnitude and duration of shortening and all were associated with CD inhibition. Similar proportions had associated non-deglutitive UES relaxations. The only consistent differences were the absence of associated LES relaxation and the absence of HREPT evidence of reflux among the achalasics leading us to conclude that their events were incomplete tLESRs. Conclusions: Achalasic patients exhibit a selective defect in the tLESR response suggesting preservation of all sensory, central, and efferent aspects of the requisite neural substrate with the notable exception of LES relaxation, a function of inhibitory (nitrergic) myenteric plexus neurons. PMID:19552630

  14. STS-48 crewmembers don their LES boots prior to JSC emergency egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander John O. Creighton (left) and Pilot Kenneth D. Reightler, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs) sit while technicians help them don their boots. The crewmembers are donning the LES attire in preparation for post-landing emergency egress exercises. When suited the crewmembers will board JSC's Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT), a space shuttle mockup, for the simulation. The FFT is located in the Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A.

  15. Massively parallel LES of azimuthal thermo-acoustic instabilities in annular gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, P.; Staffelbach, G.; Roux, A.; Gicquel, L.; Poinsot, T.; Moureau, V.

    2009-06-01

    Increasingly stringent regulations and the need to tackle rising fuel prices have placed great emphasis on the design of aeronautical gas turbines, which are unfortunately more and more prone to combustion instabilities. In the particular field of annular combustion chambers, these instabilities often take the form of azimuthal modes. To predict these modes, one must compute the full combustion chamber, which remained out of reach until very recently and the development of massively parallel computers. In this article, full annular Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of two helicopter combustors, which differ only on the swirlers' design, are performed. In both computations, LES captures self-established rotating azimuthal modes. However, the two cases exhibit different thermo-acoustic responses and the resulting limit-cycles are different. With the first design, a self-excited strong instability develops, leading to pulsating flames and local flashback. In the second case, the flames are much less affected by the azimuthal mode and remain stable, allowing an acceptable operation. Hence, this study highlights the potential of LES for discriminating injection system designs. To cite this article: P. Wolf et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  16. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Cliff Smith

    2001-10-01

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this fourth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was further tested in the LES code. A more efficient PK binary tree data structure is being developed and implemented to replace the original BSP-tree structure. Implementation of the Linear Eddy Model (LEM) for subgrid chemistry has also started. In addition, Georgia Tech has shown that a chemical neural net (1-step chemistry) trained at certain turbulent conditions can be used at different turbulent conditions without expensive chemical kinetic integrations. Initial evaluations of the code accuracy have also been carried out. The evaluations cases included the unstable DOE-NETL combustor and a lid-driven cavity. Next quarter, the ISAT algorithm for efficient chemistry will be tested for the unstable DOE-NETL combustor. Initial flame calculations, with the LEM subgrid chemistry model are planned. Also, demonstration of the neural net approach, for chemical kinetics speed-up, should be demonstrated for more advanced chemistry (8-species and 19-species mechanisms).

  17. Numerical simulations of industrial-scale combustion chamber - LES versus RANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, Kamil; Jasiński, Daniel; Bajer, Konrad

    2011-12-01

    In this work we focus on the simulation of the process of biomass syngas combustion in the industrial combustion chamber directly linked with gasification chamber, where this gas is continuously producing from the biomass. Conflicting demands from the engineers to have rapid results and hints how to ensure the best conditions for combustion of this particular fuel and to lower the emission of pollutants, with simultaneously deep view inside the process and its stability motivates us to use both the RANS and LES techniques of turbulence modelling, compare it and take their advantages. We designed and performed series of 3D numerical simulations of both cold flow and combustion in complex geometry of industrial burner. It seems to us that the proper approach for modelling of biomass syngas combustion is steady flamelets model. Simulations performed with RANS closure are used as the initialisation of LES models, but their main goal is to predict the long-time oscillation of pressure and temperature observed in the working combustion chamber. On the other hand the main goal of the simulations with LES closure is to predict the proper level of short-time behaviour of the flame and local phenomena.

  18. The LES of the channel flow in a non aligned system of coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germano, Massimo; Abbà, Antonella

    2010-11-01

    The plane channel flow continues to be a very important test case for the verification and the validation of LES. In the channel flow test there is a privileged direction, usually one reference axis is oriented along the stream and the size of the computational box is increased in the streamwise direction in order to capture correctly the dominant turbulent structures and to produce a fully developed flow. All that is peculiar of this particular test, and in this paper we will investigate the sensitivity of the channel test to the particular alignment of the coordinate system with the mean flow. In a non aligned system of coordinates there is no privileged direction, there are two components of the forcing term, the mean pressure gradient, and the homogeneities of the Reynolds stresses are destroyed. In our paper we simulate the channel flow in a rotated system of coordinates, and we compare the results with the stream aligned data. We think that this test could evidence the flexibility of different LES codes and LES subgrid models to simulate the turbulent flow and to capture the correct statistical values in non aligned conditions. The first preliminary results are slightly contradictory: the resolved Reynolds stresses seem degraded while the mean flow is better predicted. The dynamic anisotropic subgrid model of Abbà, Cercignani and Valdettaro seems well fitted to represent correctly the large scales in non aligned conditions.

  19. LES on Plume Dispersion in the Convective Boundary Layer Capped by a Temperature Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Hiromasa; Tamura, Tetsuro; Abe, Satoshi

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) is applied to the problem of plume dispersion in the spatially-developing convective boundary layer (CBL) capped by a temperature inversion. In order to generate inflow turbulence with buoyant forcing, we first, simulate the neutral boundary layer flow (NBL) in the driver region using Lund's method. At the same time, the temperature profile possessing the inversion part is imposed at the entrance of the driver region and the temperature field is calculated as a passive scalar. Next, the buoyancy effect is introduced into the flow field in the main region. We evaluate the applicability of the LES model for atmospheric dispersion in the CBL flow and compare the characteristics of plume dispersion in the CBL flow with those in the neutral boundary layer. The Richardson number based on the temperature increment across the inversion obtained by the present LES model is 22.4 and the capping effect of the temperature inversion can be captured qualitatively in the upper portion of the CBL. Characteristics of flow and temperature fields in the main portion of CBL flow are similar to those of previous experiments[1],[2] and observations[3]. Concerning dispersion behavior, we also find that mean concentrations decrease immediately above the inversion height and the peak values of r.m.s concentrations are located near the inversion height at larger distances from the point source.

  20. LES of Temporally Evolving Mixing Layers by an Eighth-Order Filter Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadjadj, A; Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, B.

    2011-01-01

    An eighth-order filter method for a wide range of compressible flow speeds (H.C. Yee and B. Sjogreen, Proceedings of ICOSAHOM09, June 22-26, 2009, Trondheim, Norway) are employed for large eddy simulations (LES) of temporally evolving mixing layers (TML) for different convective Mach numbers (Mc) and Reynolds numbers. The high order filter method is designed for accurate and efficient simulations of shock-free compressible turbulence, turbulence with shocklets and turbulence with strong shocks with minimum tuning of scheme parameters. The value of Mc considered is for the TML range from the quasi-incompressible regime to the highly compressible supersonic regime. The three main characteristics of compressible TML (the self similarity property, compressibility effects and the presence of large-scale structure with shocklets for high Mc) are considered for the LES study. The LES results using the same scheme parameters for all studied cases agree well with experimental results of Barone et al. (2006), and published direct numerical simulations (DNS) work of Rogers & Moser (1994) and Pantano & Sarkar (2002).

  1. Investigations of vortex-cylinder mechanism of interaction using URANS and LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Marcel

    2007-11-01

    Numerical simulations of a single vortex superimposed on a uniform flow past a circular cylinder were performed using both unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (URANS) and large eddy simulation (LES) techniques for relatively high Reynolds number flows, Re = 1.4x10^6. Vortex-structure interaction flow phenomena are very common in many engineering applications, such as aircraft at high angle of attack, flow past landing gear, blade-vortex interaction for rotorcraft, etc. The vortex-structure interaction phenomenon is of critical importance due to the inheriting danger associated with the vortex induced vibrations. In the present analysis, parametric investigations were performed for different test cases, based on both the vortex-cylinder horizontal miss distance and the sense of vortex rotation. The URANS approach fails to accurately predict the unsteady flow field due to excessive dissipation. The LES technique provides a promising tool for obtaining the unsteady wall-pressure fields, aerodynamic coefficients and the acoustic source functions. From the present analysis using LES, it was observed that the presence of the vortex in the flow field causes an increase of the Strouhal number value. Also, the present analysis showed that the vortex-cylinder horizontal miss-distance influences the mechanism of interaction and implicitly the aerodynamic coefficients.

  2. A multivariate quadrature based approach for LES based supersonic combustion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donde, Pratik; Koo, Heeseok; Raman, Venkat

    2010-11-01

    The direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) was developed to solve high-dimensional probability density function (PDF) equations that arise in the description of turbulent combustion. This method is particularly useful in shock-containing supersonic internal flows such as those encountered in scramjet engines. In the DQMOM approach, the PDF is described in terms of a finite number of weighted delta functions whose weights and locations in composition space are obtained by solving specific transport equations. Since this approach is fully Eulerian in nature, it is advantageous compared to conventional Lagrangian methods used for solving the PDF transport equation. However, implementation of this formulation in the context of the large eddy simulation (LES) methodology leads to large numerical errors. For instance, the high-resolution numerical schemes used in LES lead to non-realizable and diffusive evolution of the DQMOM equations. Here, we propose a novel semi-discrete quadrature method of moments (SeQMOM) that overcomes this problem. A decoupling procedure is used to extend this method to multivariate PDF descriptions. The numerical implementation in LES as well as validation exercises will be presented.

  3. LES/FMDF of turbulent jet ignition in a rapid compression machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Validi, Abdoulahad; Schock, Harold; Toulson, Elisa; Jaberi, Farhad; CFD; Engine Research Labs, Michigan State University Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) is an efficient method for initiating and controlling combustion in combustion systems, e.g. internal combustion engines. It enables combustion in ultra-lean mixtures by utilizing hot product turbulent jets emerging from a pre-chamber combustor as the ignition source for the main combustion chamber. Here, we study the TJI-assisted ignition and combustion of lean methane-air mixtures in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) for various flow/combustion conditions with the hybrid large eddy simulation/filtered mass density function (LES/FMDF) computational model. In the LES/FMDF model, the filtered form of compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a high-order finite difference scheme for the turbulent velocity, while the FMDF transport equation is solved with a Lagrangian stochastic method to obtain the scalar (species mass fraction and temperature) field. The LES/FMDF data are used to study the physics of TJI and combustion in RCM. The results show the very complex behavior of the reacting flow and the flame structure in the pre-chamber and RCM.

  4. A multivariate quadrature based moment method for LES based modeling of supersonic combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donde, Pratik; Koo, Heeseok; Raman, Venkat

    2012-07-01

    The transported probability density function (PDF) approach is a powerful technique for large eddy simulation (LES) based modeling of scramjet combustors. In this approach, a high-dimensional transport equation for the joint composition-enthalpy PDF needs to be solved. Quadrature based approaches provide deterministic Eulerian methods for solving the joint-PDF transport equation. In this work, it is first demonstrated that the numerical errors associated with LES require special care in the development of PDF solution algorithms. The direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is one quadrature-based approach developed for supersonic combustion modeling. This approach is shown to generate inconsistent evolution of the scalar moments. Further, gradient-based source terms that appear in the DQMOM transport equations are severely underpredicted in LES leading to artificial mixing of fuel and oxidizer. To overcome these numerical issues, a semi-discrete quadrature method of moments (SeQMOM) is formulated. The performance of the new technique is compared with the DQMOM approach in canonical flow configurations as well as a three-dimensional supersonic cavity stabilized flame configuration. The SeQMOM approach is shown to predict subfilter statistics accurately compared to the DQMOM approach.

  5. Assessment of subgrid scalar dissipation models for LES of reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, O. S.; Su, L. K.

    2004-11-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) of non-premixed combustion requires accurate determination of not only resolved-scale scalar transport, but also species mixture fractions at the subgrid level. In particular, LES of reacting flows requires information on the subgrid scale (SGS) scalar dissipation. Several approaches have been taken to modeling the SGS scalar dissipation. Included among these is a gradient-based model developed using a local equilibrium assumption,(Pierce, C. and Moin, P. phPhys. Fluids) 10, 3041 (1998) a model based on a mechanical-to-scalar time scale ratio assumption,(Jiménez, C. phet al.) phPhys. Fluids 13, 1748 (2001) and a scale similarity-type model.(Chumakov, S. and Rutland, C. phAIAA J.) 42, 1132 (2004) The present objective is to examine the fundamental physical assumptions in the models, and to identify major factors influencing model performance. The models are evaluated pha priori using planar experimental measurements of velocity and mixing fields in an axisymmetric, turbulent co-flowing jet. Correlation coefficients and mean relative error between exact and modeled quantities are used to quantify the structural and statistical accuracy of the models. Spatial profiles of production and dissipation of SGS scalar variance, and of mechanical and scalar mixing time scales, are analyzed to examine local equilibrium and time-scale proportionality hypotheses, for example. The sensitivity of model behavior to parameters such as Reynolds number and LES filter type and size is studied as well.

  6. DNS and LES/FMDF of turbulent jet ignition and combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Validi, Abdoulahad; Jaberi, Farhad

    2014-11-01

    The ignition and combustion of lean fuel-air mixtures by a turbulent jet flow of hot combustion products injected into various geometries are studied by high fidelity numerical models. Turbulent jet ignition (TJI) is an efficient method for starting and controlling the combustion in complex propulsion systems and engines. The TJI and combustion of hydrogen and propane in various flow configurations are simulated with the direct numerical simulation (DNS) and the hybrid large eddy simulation/filtered mass density function (LES/FMDF) models. In the LES/FMDF model, the filtered form of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a high-order finite difference scheme for the turbulent velocity and the FMDF transport equation is solved with a Lagrangian stochastic method to obtain the scalar field. The DNS and LES/FMDF data are used to study the physics of TJI and combustion for different turbulent jet igniter and gas mixture conditions. The results show the very complex and different behavior of the turbulence and the flame structure at different jet equivalence ratios.

  7. Unstructured LES of Reacting Multiphase Flows in Realistic Gas Turbine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Frank; Apte, Sourabh; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Herrmann, Marcus; Constantinescu, George; Mahesh, Krishnan; Moin, Parviz

    2003-01-01

    As part of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program, an accurate and robust simulation tool is being developed to perform high-fidelity LES studies of multiphase, multiscale turbulent reacting flows in aircraft gas turbine combustor configurations using hybrid unstructured grids. In the combustor, pressurized gas from the upstream compressor is reacted with atomized liquid fuel to produce the combustion products that drive the downstream turbine. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach is used to simulate the combustor because of its demonstrated superiority over RANS in predicting turbulent mixing, which is central to combustion. This paper summarizes the accomplishments of the combustor group over the past year, concentrating mainly on the two major milestones achieved this year: 1) Large scale simulation: A major rewrite and redesign of the flagship unstructured LES code has allowed the group to perform large eddy simulations of the complete combustor geometry (all 18 injectors) with over 100 million control volumes; 2) Multi-physics simulation in complex geometry: The first multi-physics simulations including fuel spray breakup, coalescence, evaporation, and combustion are now being performed in a single periodic sector (1/18th) of an actual Pratt & Whitney combustor geometry.

  8. Parallel FEM LES with one-equation subgrid-scale model for incompressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Liu, Chun-Ho; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2010-01-01

    This article develops a parallel large-eddy simulation (LES) with a one-equation subgrid-scale (SGS) model based on the Galerkin finite element method and three-dimensional (3D) brick elements. The governing filtered Navier-Stokes equations were solved by a second-order accurate fractional-step method, which decomposed the implicit velocity-pressure coupling in incompressible flow and segregated the solution to the advection and diffusion terms. The transport equation for the SGS turbulent kinetic energy was solved to calculate the SGS processes. This FEM LES model was applied to study the turbulence of the benchmark open channel flow at a Reynolds number Reτ = 180 (based on the friction velocity and channel height) using different model constants and grid resolutions. By comparing the turbulence statistics calculated by the current model with those obtained from direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experiments in literature, an optimum set of model constants for the current FEM LES model was established. The budgets of turbulent kinetic energy and vertical Reynolds stress were then analysed for the open channel flow. Finally, the flow structures were visualised to further reveal some important characteristics. It was demonstrated that the current model with the optimum model constants can predict well the organised structure near the wall and free surface, and can be further applied to other fundamental and engineering applications.

  9. Analyse de la motivation pour les mathematiques d'eleves du secondaire participant a une activite de programmation informatique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellette, Jean-Michel

    Au Quebec, le decrochage scolaire cause par un manque de motivation de la part des eleves est une preoccupation actuelle. Dans une societe de savoirs ou les technologies prennent une place de plus en plus grande, il apparait important d'explorer toutes les pistes de travail quant a l'amelioration de la motivation scolaire des jeunes. Plus precisement, sachant qu'il existe des liens concrets entre la programmation informatique et les mathematiques, nous avons analyse l'apport possible de l'apprentissage de la programmation informatique a la motivation pour l'apprentissage des mathematiques. Trois eleves de troisieme secondaire ont participe a cette etude multicas. Selon les resultats d'analyse, tous les eleves ont vecu une amelioration de leur motivation a apprendre les mathematiques. A la lumiere de l'analyse de ces resultats, nous proposons une explication relativement aux liens possibles entre la participation des eleves a une activite parascolaire de programmation informatique et l'amelioration de leur motivation pour l'apprentissage des mathematiques.

  10. La prévention de l’étouffement et de la suffocation chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Cyr, Claude

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ L’étouffement, la suffocation et la strangulation sont responsables de graves blessures non intentionnelles chez les enfants et constituent des causes importantes de décès non intentionnels chez les nourrissons et les tout-petits. Presque la totalité des décès et des blessures attribuables à un étouffement, une suffocation ou une strangulation sont évitables. Le présent document de principes traite des définitions, de l’épidémiologie et des stratégies de prévention efficaces de ces blessures. Des recommandations qui combinent des démarches pour améliorer la sécurité, incluant des recherches, de la surveillance, des lois et des normes, la conception des produits et l’éducation, sont présentées. Les dispensateurs de soins pédiatriques devraient encourager les parents et autres personnes qui s’occupent d’enfants à apprendre la réanimation cardiorespiratoire (RCR) et les premiers soins en cas d’étouffement, et leur offrir des conseils préventifs adaptés à l’âge de leur enfant lors des bilans de santé réguliers afin de prévenir ces blessures.

  11. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA...

  12. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA...

  13. Transportable Collective Protection System (TCPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Tekesky, R.

    1990-08-15

    Human System Division (HSD/YAGD), Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-6503 requested assistance from the Air Force Packaging Evaluation Activity (AFPEA) to conduct vibration, shock and environmental testing on three Rowley containers with contents. The contents consist of a Transportable Collective Protective System (TCPS). The TCPS, manufactured by IIC/Dover Inc., is a chemical warfare tent. Personnel can enter the tent, remove protective clothing and perform duties in an uncontaminated environment. The purpose of this project was to determine if the Rowley containers would be able to contain and protect the TCPS during world-wide shipment, storage, and handling.

  14. Handbook for Designing MMOD Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Jim; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Alan; Hyde, James; Lear, Dana; Liou, J.C.; Lyons, Frankel; Prior, Thomas; Studor, George; Ratliff, Martin; Ryan, Shannon; Giovane, Frank; Corsaro, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft are subject to micro-meteoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impact damage which have the potential to degrade performance, shorten the mission, or result in catastrophic loss of the vehicle. Specific MMOD protection requirements are established by NASA for each spacecraft early in the program/project life, to ensure the spacecraft meets desired safety and mission success goals. Both the design and operations influences spacecraft survivability in the MMOD environment, and NASA considers both in meeting MMOD protection requirements. The purpose of this handbook is to provide spacecraft designers and operations personnel with knowledge gained by NASA in implementing effective MMOD protection for the International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and various science spacecraft. It has been drawn from a number of previous publications [10-14], as well as new work. This handbook documents design and operational methods to reduce MMOD risk. In addition, this handbook describes tools and equations needed to design proper MMOD protection. It is a living report, in that it will be updated and re-released periodically in future with additional information. Providing effective and efficient MMOD protection is essential for ensuring safe and successful operations of spacecraft and satellites. A variety of shields protect crew modules, external pressurized vessels and critical equipment from MMOD on the International Space Station (ISS). Certain Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicle systems are hardened from MMOD impact, and operational rules are established to reduce the risk from MMOD (i.e., flight attitudes are selected and late inspection of sensitive thermal protection surfaces are conducted to reduce MMOD impacts). Science spacecraft include specific provisions to meet MMOD protection requirements in their design (for example, Stardust & GLAST). Commercial satellites such as Iridium and Bigelow Aerospace Genesis spacecraft incorporate MMOD protection. The development of low

  15. Disease protection vs animal protection--synergisms and contradictions.

    PubMed

    Dimander, S O

    Health is an important part of animal welfare. This implies that measures for the protection against disease will also affect animal protection. In most instances, efforts to improve disease protection act synergistically with efforts to promote animal protection, and vice versa. In the context of farm animal transport, however, infectious disease protection and animal protection may not always be mutually beneficial. Examples of contradictions are: Logistic perturbations; Current farm animal production is increasingly sensitive to logistic perturbations. Control and prevention of epizootic diseases involve extraordinary transport precautions that rapidly result in overcrowded stables. Transhumance; The practise of transhumance is compromised when control measures are taken to prevent spread of epizootic diseases. Travel sickness; Travel sickness is a problem particularly in pigs. Starvation before transport prevents vomiting but result in hungry animals. Lack of experience; Animals that are kept under conditions estranged from situations associated with transport alike are more prone to transport induced stress. Flooring; A non-slip flooring is a prerequisite for firm footing but demand more careful cleaning and disinfection to prevent spread of infectious agents. PMID:16429802

  16. Les tumeurs conjonctives cutanées: à propos de 121 cas

    PubMed Central

    Hazmiri, Fatima Ezzahra; Fakhri, Anas; Rais, Hanane; Akhdari, Nadia; Amal, Said; Belaabidia, Badia

    2014-01-01

    Les tumeurs conjonctives cutanées sont des tumeurs dermiques et/ou hypodermiques relativement fréquentes. Elles sont dominées par les tumeurs bénignes. A travers une série de 121 cas, nous avons étudié le profil épidémiologique, anatomopathologique et évolutif de ces tumeurs. C'est une étude rétrospective réalisée au service d'anatomie pathologique du CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech entre 2004 et 2012. Il s'agit de 121 patients. La moyenne d’âge était de 36 ans (1-80ans). Le sex-ratio H/F était de 1,12. La tumeur avait un aspect nodulaire dans 90% des cas. Le membre inférieur était la localisation la plus fréquente (30,5%). L’étude anatomopathologique a porté sur un matériel biopsique dans 100% des cas. Soixante-neuf pour cent de ces tumeurs étaient bénignes. Elles étaient représentées essentiellement par les tumeurs vasculaires, suivies par les tumeurs fibreuses et fibro-histiocytaires. Trente et un pour cent des tumeurs étaient malignes. Il s'agissait essentiellement de tumeurs fibreuses et fibro-histiocytaires, suivies de tumeurs vasculaires. L’étude immunohistochimique était réalisée dans 2cas. Le traitement chirurgical était entrepris dans 73% des cas. L’évolution était précisée dans 19% des cas avec une évolution favorable dans 13% des cas. Un cas de décès et 2 cas de récidive étaient notés. Les tumeurs conjonctives cutanées bénignes sont de bon pronostic, mais posent un problème majeur de nosologie et de classification. D'autre part, la prise en charge diagnostique et thérapeutique ainsi que l’évaluation pronostique des sarcomes cutanés restent difficiles. PMID:25379113

  17. Numerical dissipation control in high order shock-capturing schemes for LES of low speed flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, D. V.; Yee, H. C.; Wray, A. A.; Sjögreen, B.; Kritsuk, A. G.

    2016-02-01

    The Yee & Sjögreen adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order scheme (High Order Filter Methods for Wide Range of Compressible Flow Speeds, ICOSAHOM 09, 2009) is further improved for DNS and LES of shock-free turbulence and low speed turbulence with shocklets. There are vastly different requirements in the minimization of numerical dissipation for accurate turbulence simulations of different compressible flow types and flow speeds. Traditionally, the method of choice for shock-free turbulence and low speed turbulence are by spectral, high order central or high order compact schemes with high order linear filters. With a proper control of a local flow sensor, appropriate amount of numerical dissipation in high order shock-capturing schemes can have spectral-like accuracy for compressible low speed turbulent flows. The development of the method includes an adaptive flow sensor with automatic selection on the amount of numerical dissipation needed at each flow location for more accurate DNS and LES simulations with less tuning of parameters for flows with a wide range of flow speed regime during the time-accurate evolution, e.g., time varying random forcing. An automatic selection of the different flow sensors catered to the different flow types is constructed. A Mach curve and high-frequency oscillation indicators are used to reduce the tuning of parameters in controlling the amount of shock-capturing numerical dissipation to be employed for shock-free turbulence, low speed turbulence and turbulence with strong shocks. In Kotov et al. (High Order Numerical Methods for LES of Turbulent Flows with Shocks, ICCFD8, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, July 14-18, 2014) the LES of a turbulent flow with a strong shock by the Yee & Sjögreen scheme indicated a good agreement with the filtered DNS data. A work in progress for the application of the adaptive flow sensor for compressible turbulence with time-varying random forcing is forthcoming. The present study examines the

  18. Long range lidar data processing for validating LES of wind turbine wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabucchi, D.; van Dooren, M.; Vollmer, L.; Schneemann, J.; Trujillo, J. J.; Witha, B.; Kühn, M.

    2014-12-01

    Scanning wind lidars offer the possibility to compare full-scale measurements in the wake of a wind turbine with LES wind fields calculated for the same test case. Due to the novelty and the peculiarity of lidar measurements, a comparison between experimental data and simulation results is non-trivial and several methods can be applied. This study presents validation methods for single and dual-doppler lidar measurements respectively.Consecutive azimuthal scans - commonly indicated as Plan Position Indicator (PPI) - at a low fixed elevation and centered on the wind turbine wake provide the radial wind speed, i.e. the wind component along the laser beam, on an almost flat polar grid. This data can be directly compared with the radial wind speed evaluated at the measurement point from the simulated wind field. This approach provides a detailed spatial description of the wind field and can be applied to averaged data for steady analysis. For the comparison with LES results, time average and spatial interpolation of the computed wind field are needed. Moreover, a proper wind direction should be chosen to evaluate the radial wind speed.With two lidars performing consecutive PPI scans over the same region from different places it is possible to estimate the horizontal wind field where the scanned regions overlap. Due to the limits in the synchronization of the PPI scans by the lidars, only steady analysis based on time averaged data can be done. A horizontal grid based on the one used for the LES is overlapped to the region covered by the two non-co-planar scans. The horizontal wind field at a considered point can be evaluated solving the system given by at least two non-aligned radial directions about this point. For each node, the data sampled by the lidars in a well defined volume during the considered time interval is used to write this system. Moreover, a discrete approximation of the continuity equation is applied to link the solutions for all the grid nodes

  19. Les masques trompeurs de la bipolarité: étude de 100 cas

    PubMed Central

    Nabih, Fadoua Oueriagli; Benali, Abdesslam; Adali, Imane; Manoudi, Fatiha; Asri, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Le trouble bipolaire (TB) est une pathologie dont la prévalence est estimée à 1-2%. Le diagnostic précoce du trouble constitue un enjeu thérapeutique majeur. L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer les différents diagnostiques attribués aux patients bipolaires avant de recevoir le diagnostic adéquat et de préciser le délai moyen du retard diagnostique. C'est une étude descriptive transversale portant sur 100 patients atteints de TB, inclus selon les critères du DSM V, qui ont été vus en consultation ou bien hospitalisés dans le service de psychiatrie de l'hôpital Militaire Avicenne de Marrakech, durant une période de deux ans. L’âge moyen des patients était de 29,5 ans avec une prédominance masculine (80%). 40% de nos patients ont reçu au début un autre diagnostic que celui du TB et le premier diagnostic retenu était celui de l’épisode dépressif majeur dans 36% des cas, suivi de l'accès psychotique aigu dans 28% des cas, la schizophrénie dans 16,8% et le trouble de personnalité dans 10,2%. Le délai moyen du retard diagnostic était de 64 mois. 50% des patients ayant reçu un autre diagnostic avaient consulté au moins un psychiatre et 60% des patients avaient été hospitalisés au moins une fois avant le diagnostic du TB. Les errances diagnostiques du TB sont bien établies, conduisant forcément à un retard de prise en charge adéquate. Ces données devraient alerter les psychiatres pour favoriser un meilleur dépistage de la manie et de l'hypomanie qui restent les éléments clé du diagnostic du TB. PMID:26587161

  20. A dynamic hybrid RANS/LES modeling methodology for turbulent/transitional flow field prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mohammad Faridul

    A dynamic hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-Large Eddy Simulation (LES) modeling framework has been investigated and further developed to improve the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) prediction of turbulent flow features along with laminar-to-turbulent transitional phenomena. In recent years, the use of hybrid RANS/LES (HRL) models has become more common in CFD simulations, since HRL models offer more accuracy than RANS in regions of flow separation at a reduced cost relative to LES in attached boundary layers. The first part of this research includes evaluation and validation of a dynamic HRL (DHRL) model that aims to address issues regarding the RANS-to-LES zonal transition and explicit grid dependence, both of which are inherent to most current HRL models. Simulations of two test cases---flow over a backward facing step and flow over a wing with leading-edge ice accretion---were performed to assess the potential of the DHRL model for predicting turbulent features involved in mainly unsteady separated flow. The DHRL simulation results are compared with experimental data, along with the computational results for other HRL and RANS models. In summary, these comparisons demonstrate that the DHRL framework does address many of the weaknesses inherent in most current HRL models. Although HRL models are widely used in turbulent flow simulations, they have limitations for transitional flow predictions. Most HRL models include a fully turbulent RANS component for attached boundary layer regions. The small number of HRL models that do include transition-sensitive RANS models have issues related to the RANS model itself and to the zonal transition between RANS and LES. In order to address those issues, a new transition-sensitive HRL modeling methodology has been developed that includes the DHRL methodology and a physics-based transition-sensitive RANS model. The feasibility of the transition-sensitive dynamic HRL (TDHRL) model has been investigated by