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1

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROGRAM TO DEMONSTRATE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR INDOOR RADON: INITIAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives initial results of an EPA program to demonstrate mitigation measures for indoor radon. EPA has installed radon mitigation techniques in 18 concrete block basement homes in the Reading Prong area of eastern Pennsylvania, all designed to demonstrate techniques which...

2

Environmental Protection Agency: Radon (Rn)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Indoor Air Quality division of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) presents this Web page dedicated to information about radon, the colorless and odorless radioactive known to cause lung cancer. In addition to general resources on radon (including a guide to reducing radon levels in the home), visitors will find information on how to obtain a free educational video (Breathing Easy: What Home Buyers and Sellers Should Know About Radon) recently released by the EPA. Geared primarily toward homebuyers and sellers (as well as real estate professionals), this video thoroughly reviews radon science, lung cancer risk, home inspection, how to build a new home radon-resistant, and more.

3

National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program: Individual Proficiency Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program to assist the public in identifying organizations capable of providing reliable radon measurement services. In December 1991, EPA ...

1992-01-01

4

National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program: Individual Proficiency Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program to assist the public in identifying organizations capable of providing reliable radon measurement services. Until recently, the RM...

1993-01-01

5

National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program Individual Proficiency Report, January 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In February 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program to assist the public in identifying organizations capable of providing reliable radon measurement services. In December 1991, EPA ...

1994-01-01

6

SITE-SPECIFIC MEASUREMENTS OF RESIDENTIAL RADON PROTECTION CATEGORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a series of benchmark measurements of soil radon potential at seven Florida sites and compares the measurements with regional estimates of radon potential from the Florida radon protection map. The measurements and map were developed under the Florida Radon R...

7

30 CFR 57.5046 - Protection against radon gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection against radon gas. 57.5046 Section 57.5046 Mineral Resources...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5046 Protection against radon gas. Where radon daughter concentrations exceed 10 WL, respirator...

2013-07-01

8

30 CFR 57.5046 - Protection against radon gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Protection against radon gas. 57.5046 Section 57.5046 Mineral Resources...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5046 Protection against radon gas. Where radon daughter concentrations exceed 10 WL, respirator...

2009-07-01

9

30 CFR 57.5046 - Protection against radon gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection against radon gas. 57.5046 Section 57.5046 Mineral Resources...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5046 Protection against radon gas. Where radon daughter concentrations exceed 10 WL, respirator...

2010-07-01

10

Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program  

SciTech Connect

This reporting period marks the end of Phase 1 Screening and the beginning of Phase 2 Assessment. During Phase 1, radon detectors were shipped to all Department of Navy (DON) sites with family housing areas, child-care centers, schools, hospitals, bachelor quarters, and brigs. 14,350 radon detectors have been returned and analyzed, and 3.4% of the housing and nonhousing results obtained were above the Environmental Protection Agency's action level of 4 pCi/L. Suspect screening results were confirmed. Phase 2 Assessment consists of two categories, Assessment and Phase 2 Screening. All activities with radon in excess of 4 pCi/L are included in Assessment. Phase 2 Screening consists of screening Navy-Owned Reserve Centers, Rescreening (sites with inconclusive data), and screening of Nonhousing Unit Identity Codes ((UICs) activities without Phase 1 test structures). All housing assessment was scheduled to be conducted during 1991 and 1992. Phase 2 housing and nonhousing have been established. In addition, a quality assurance program and technical guidebook have been developed to achieve accurate data during Phase 2. As of July 1, 1991, assessment of housing was 40% complete, nonhousing 4%, reserve centers 100%, and nonhousing UICs were 9% complete.

Not Available

1991-10-01

11

Calibration of scintillation cells for radon-222 measurements at the US Environmental Protection Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc sulfide coated scintillation cells are the primary method for measuring radon-222 at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Radiation Programs (ORP), Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility (EERF). These cells are used to measure concentrations of radon in exposure chambers that are used to calibrate or test other devices or instruments. Calibrations of individual cells are discussed in the

E. I. Sensintaffar; S. T. Windham

1990-01-01

12

Calibration of Scintillation Cells for Radon-222 Measurements at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zinc sulfide coated scintillation cells are the primary method for measuring radon-222 at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Radiation Programs (ORP), Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility (EERF). These cells are used to measure ...

E. I. Sensintaffar S. T. Windham

1990-01-01

13

Radon program of the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

The Radon Program of the Czech Republic 2010-2019 - Action Plan is based on Governmental Decision No. 594/2009 (Radon Program of the Czech Republic 2010-2019 - Action Plan, Government of the Czech Republic, Decision No. 594/2009, May 4 2009) and is coordinated by the State Office for Nuclear Safety. It covers both prevention in new house construction and intervention in existing houses with high indoor radon concentration. The Program is aimed at developing an effective public information system. It takes advantage of long-term experience and good scientific and technological background-staff, methods, standards and technologies. PMID:24714113

Petrov, K; Pravdov, E

2014-07-01

14

Radon  

MedlinePLUS

... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. [ 5 ] "A Physician's Guide | Radon | U.S. EPA." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/radon/pubs/physic.html#WhatIs (accessed September 14, 2009). A A ...

15

Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2005-2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen. Methods We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms radon, radiation, or lung. Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC programs most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state. Results Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n = 21), remediation (n = 11), support radon policy activities (n = 13), and policy evaluation (n = 1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n = 21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws. Conclusion Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs.

Stewart, Sherri L.; Angell, William

2013-01-01

16

Radon (Rn)  

MedlinePLUS

... Your state radon office can help | Radon Hotlines Radon Leaders Saving Lives Leaders from The Conference of ... the CERTI site) . Protecting People and Families from Radon Protecting People and Families From Radon: A Federal ...

17

A summary of EPA radon chamber tests and results for rounds 3 and 4 of the National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency`s Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) established the National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program in 1986. Through this voluntary program, participants can demonstrate their ability to measure radon and/or radon decay products by submitting their detection devices to a blind test in a designated radon chamber. In this report, two EPA radon and radon decay products test chambers (chambers A and C) located at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory in Montgomery, Alabama are described. These chambers were used to expose detectors submitted for testing in Round 4 of the National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program and are used routinely for calibration purposes. Also described are the measurement and calibration procedures which were used to establish the official target values for radon and radon decay products concentrations during RMP Round 4 testing. The results for RMP Round 3 (conducted at the US DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory radon chamber in New York) and RMP Round 4 (conducted in the two NAREL chambers) are discussed and compared. Following Round 4, the NAREL staff analyzed the collective performance for each measurement method tested in these rounds and found that all methods agreed with the target values within expected limits except for RPISU`s and charcoal adsorbers. After analyzing the RMP4 results, NAREL staff spent several months evaluating the difference in charcoal adsorber response between Round 3 and 4 by performing radon chamber tests using EPA 4-inch, open-faced charcoal adsorbers.

Smith, J.M.; Sensintaffar, E.L.

1993-02-01

18

Evaluation of methods for the estimation of indoor radon daughter concentrations for remedial action programs  

SciTech Connect

The methods considered were those which use the Radon Progeny Integrating Sampling Unit (RPISU) technique, grab sampling, radon exhalation rate, alpha track registration, time-integrated radon measurements, continuous measurements, gamma exposure rates, and radium measurements. The methods were evaluated to determine whether they satisfied two critieria, namely, that the method provide reasonable assurance of compliance with the standards for cleanup as set by the Environmental Protection Agency and codified in federal regulations; and that the method minimize the cost of verifying that the standards had been met. The RPISU method and the alpha track method, as used by the Colorado Department of Health, were found to satisfy these criteria and are therefore recommended for use in remedial action programs. Methods that use grab sampling of radon and radon daughters gamma exposure rates, radium measurements, and continuous measurements were found to be unacceptable. Data obtained for grab sampling of radon and radon daughters had unacceptable coefficients of variation (close to 80%). Grab sampling appeared to be most useful for highly ventilated structures or for structures where immediate assessments are required. The estimation of the radon daughter concentration by the indoor gamma exposure rate or the radium content of construction material was found to be influenced by too many variables to be reliable. The time-integrated radon measurement technique using alpha track or Passive Environmental Radon Monitor (PERM) devices showed promise for being an excellent approach for estimating average radon daughter concentrations. However, more data are necessary before a definitive judgment can be rendered on this approach. The radon exhalation rate method for estimating average radon daughter concentration also could not be fully evaluated because of insufficient data.

Langner, G.H. Jr.; Pacer, J.C.; Johnson, V.G.; Gillings, M.A.

1983-06-01

19

ICRP draft publication on 'radiological protection against radon exposure'.  

PubMed

To control the main part of radon exposure, the Main Commission of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends an integrated approach focused as far as possible on the management of the building or location in which radon exposure occurs whatever the purpose of the building and the types of its occupants. This approach is based on the optimisation principle and a graded approach according to the degree of responsibilities at stake, notably in workplace, as well as the level of ambition of the national authorities. The report which is being developed by the Committee 4 is considering the recently consolidated ICRP general recommendations, the new scientific knowledge about the radon risk and the experience gained by many organisations and countries in the control of radon exposure. PMID:24778388

Lecomte, J-F

2014-07-01

20

FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM: TECHNICAL SUPPORT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RADON RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the technical direction of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP), its current objectives, and accomplishments to date. he 1988 Florida Legislature mandated the development of standards for the construction of radon resistant buildings. In support of this d...

21

Protection from radon exposure at home and at work in the directive 2013/59/Euratom.  

PubMed

In recent years, international organisations involved in radiation protection and public health have produced new guidance, recommendations and requirements aiming better protection from radon exposure. These organisations have often worked in close collaboration in order to facilitate the establishment of harmonised standards. This paper deals with such standards and specifically with the new European Council Directive of 5 December 2013 on basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation (2013/59/Euratom). This new Directive has established a harmonised framework for the protection against ionising radiations, including protection from radon exposure. Requirements for radon in workplace are much more tightening than in previous Directive, and exposures to radon in dwellings are regulated for the first time in a Directive. Radon-related articles of this Directive are presented and discussed in this paper, along with some comparisons with other relevant international standards. PMID:24729590

Bochicchio, F

2014-07-01

22

Radon  

MedlinePLUS

You can't see radon. And you can't smell it or taste it. But it may be a problem in your home. Radon comes from the natural breakdown of uranium in soil, rock, and water. Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer ...

23

Fire Protection Program Manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

Sharry, J A

2012-05-18

24

SOIL AND FILL LABORATORY SUPPORT - 1991, FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of soil analysis laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). nalyses were performed on soil and fill samples collected during 1991 by the FRRP Research House program and the New House Evaluation pr...

25

Report on the Bonneville Power Administration's Radon Monitoring in the Residential Weatherization Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In October 1984, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began offering free radon monitoring to participants of its regionwide Residential Weatherization Program. The purpose of the radon monitoring is to provide information to participating homeowners...

1986-01-01

26

Radon.  

PubMed

Radon is a radioactive gas that emanates from uranium-bearing soil and porous rock. Although radon is most highly concentrated in areas of high uranium concentration, the presence of trace amounts of uranium in most ground sources means that all humans are exposed to radon to some degree. Radon migrates out of soil and rock into the surrounding air, resulting in accumulation in poorly ventilated or closed areas. Such areas represent the primary environments in which humans are exposed to radioactivity from radon to experience detrimental health effects. There is no convincing evidence that any cancers other than lung cancer are associated with exposure to radon. There is, on the other hand, consistent evidence of a substantially elevated risk of lung cancer among Canadians exposed to radon in certain occupational settings, particularly uranium mining. While the combined evidence for a positive association between residential radon exposure and lung cancer is less compelling, the inherent methodological difficulties in mounting such studies may render it impossible for any single study to detect the relationship more conclusively. The best available evidence to date from pooled analyses indicates a positive, but weak association between residential radon and lung cancer risk. Residential radon is of critical importance because it is ubiquitous; a small excess risk that may exist in relation to radon exposures encountered in a residential setting translates into the potential for a far greater number of excess cancers in the general population than does exposure of a relatively small number of miners, even though the latter may be exposed to much higher levels of ionizing radiation. Fortunately, a number of techniques are available to homeowners to reduce radon concentrations in their homes. PMID:21199598

Bissett, Randall J; McLaughlin, John R

2010-01-01

27

Methods and Results of EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) Study of Radon in Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1978, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility (EERF), began sampling radon in drinking water. During the next two to three years, approximately 27 states were included in this pilot study, the pur...

T. R. Horton

1983-01-01

28

U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

1994-12-31

29

AN OVERVIEW OF INDOOR RADON RISK REDUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Radon in the indoor environment is a recognized environmental hazard. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established several programs to develop, demonstrate, and transfer radon mitigation technology. Administration and management of these programs are shared by EPA's ...

30

Results of the 2010 National Radiation Protection Institute intercomparison of radon and its short-lived decay product continuous monitors.  

PubMed

During the Sixth European Conference on Protection Against Radon at Home and at Work held in autumn 2010 in Prague, the first intercomparison of continuous radon and its short-lived decay product monitors was organised and held by the Natural Radiation Division of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in Prague. Eight laboratories submitted eight continuous radon monitors, two electronic monitors, three passive integral systems based on charcoal and three continuous radon short-lived decay product monitors. The intercomparison included exposures to both the radon gas concentration and equivalent equilibrium radon concentration (EEC) under different ambient conditions similar to the ones in dwellings. In particular, the influence of the equilibrium factor F, unattached fraction of EEC f(p) and absolute air humidity were investigated. The results of the radon gas measurements were performed on a calibration level of about 8 kBq m(-3). The results of all monitors were compared with the reference NRPI monitor. PMID:21471124

Jlek, K; Maruiakov, M

2011-05-01

31

Continuous, environmental radon monitoring program at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

A continuous, environmental radon monitoring program has been established in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The monitoring program is to characterize the natural radon emissions at the YMP site, to understand the existing radon concentrations in the environmental background, and to assess and control the potential work exposure. Based upon a study of the monitoring results, this paper presents a preliminary understanding of the magnitudes, characteristics, and exposure levels of radon at the YMP site.

Liu, N.; Sorensen, C.D.; Tung, C.H.; Orchard, C.R.

1995-05-01

32

Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. Progress report, June 1990--July 1991  

SciTech Connect

This reporting period marks the end of Phase 1 Screening and the beginning of Phase 2 Assessment. During Phase 1, radon detectors were shipped to all Department of Navy (DON) sites with family housing areas, child-care centers, schools, hospitals, bachelor quarters, and brigs. 14,350 radon detectors have been returned and analyzed, and 3.4% of the housing and nonhousing results obtained were above the Environmental Protection Agency`s action level of 4 pCi/L. Suspect screening results were confirmed. Phase 2 Assessment consists of two categories, Assessment and Phase 2 Screening. All activities with radon in excess of 4 pCi/L are included in Assessment. Phase 2 Screening consists of screening Navy-Owned Reserve Centers, Rescreening (sites with inconclusive data), and screening of Nonhousing Unit Identity Codes [(UICs) activities without Phase 1 test structures]. All housing assessment was scheduled to be conducted during 1991 and 1992. Phase 2 housing and nonhousing have been established. In addition, a quality assurance program and technical guidebook have been developed to achieve accurate data during Phase 2. As of July 1, 1991, assessment of housing was 40% complete, nonhousing 4%, reserve centers 100%, and nonhousing UICs were 9% complete.

Not Available

1991-10-01

33

GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.  

SciTech Connect

THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

2002-05-31

34

RECOMMENDED FOUNDATION FILL MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the technical basis for a recommended foundation fill materials standard for new construction houses in Florida. he radon-control construction standard was developed by the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). ill material standards are formulated for: (1)...

35

Develop a Wellhead Protection Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will develop a wellhead protection program for a hypothetical community. Students assume various roles in the community such as gas station owner, photo lab owner or employee, beauty salon owner, restaurant owner, resident, or environmentalist so that each student can bring the perspective of his or her role to the discussion. Students will discover that the relationships between businesses, environmentalists, and community leaders can be, but need not be, adversarial. As they progress through this activity students learn about the tools communities may use to develop a wellhead protection program. They will also recognize that developing a community wellhead protection program is not easy and that, while it is important to protect drinking water supplies, it can be very difficult to develop a program that will gain support from the overall community.

36

Protection against radon-222 at home and at work. A report of a task group of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.  

PubMed

The Commission has used an epidemiological basis for the assessment and control of radon exposure in this report. Since all the available epidemiological studies use the quantity inhaled potential alpha energy, this has been used as the primary quantity in this report. The Commission does not recommend the use of the dosimetric human respiratory model (ICRP, 1994) for the assessment and control of radon exposures. The Commission sees practical advantages in the delineation of radon-prone areas where more buildings than usual have elevated radon levels. For dwellings, it is suggested that areas with more than 1% of buildings with radon concentrations exceeding ten times the national average concentration might be designated as radon-prone, but the choice will depend on local conditions. A similar approach might be adopted in non-residential areas. Action against radon should be focused on such radon-prone areas. The imperatives of intervention against adventitious exposure to radon in buildings are clear. Above appropriate action levels, intervention is practicable and usually more cost-effective than other investments in radiological protection. Two types of building need to be considered, dwellings and workplaces. In both cases, radon concentrations are most likely to be elevated by the ingress of soil gas from the subjacent ground. Preventive and remedial measures to avoid this circumstance are recommended. The action levels adopted should fall within the recommended range of values given in Table 7. Proven measures against radon are readily available. For remedial work, the technical procedure that is most likely to maintain the radon level to a value well below the action level should be adopted from the outset. Intervention should take place soon after the discovery of elevated levels, especially if the concentrations are substantially above the action levels adopted by the competent authority. For preventive work, construction codes and building guides should be devised that will consistently achieve low concentrations of radon in the completed buildings. In workplaces, both in buildings and underground, where the radon concentrations remain above the recommended action level after any appropriate remedial measures have been taken, the Commission's system of protection should be applied and radon should be treated in the same way as any other radioactive material at work. The relevant data on conversion coefficients are given in Table 6 and the main quantitative recommendations are summarised in Table 7. Corresponding values in historical units are given in Table 8. PMID:8179237

1993-01-01

37

Protective Coating Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program consists of two primary segments: (1) installing an environmental monitoring station at the Toyota marshalling yard at Georgetown, Kentucky, and (2) conducting laboratory and field tests of paint and wax-coated painted specimens to assess the...

J. E. Funk T. Hopwood D. G. Hartman C. M. Oberst R. D. Saylor A. R. Sethuraman

1991-01-01

38

SOIL RADON POTENTIAL MAPPING OF TWELVE COUNTIES IN NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the approach, methods, and detailed data used to prepare soil radon potential maps of 12 counties in North-Central Florida. he maps were developed under the Florida Radon Research Program to provide a scientific basis for implementing radon-protective buildin...

39

SOIL RADON POTENTIAL MAPPLING OF TWELVE COUNTIES IN NORTH-CENTRAL FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the approach, methods, and detailed data used to prepare soil radon potential maps of 12 counties in North-Central Florida. he maps were developed under the Florida Radon Research Program to provide a scientific basis for implementing radon-protective buildin...

40

SOIL AND FILL LABORATORY SUPPORT - 1992 RADIOLOGICAL ANALYSES, FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of soil analysis laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). nalyses were performed on soil and fill samples collected during 1992 by the FRRP Research House Program and the New House Evaluation Pr...

41

National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program: Individual Proficiency Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report will assist State, EPA Regions, and local government officials in providing advice to the public on the selection of proficient radon measurement contractors. The Report is a listing of 1,000 individual contractors who have met the requirements...

1993-01-01

42

RECOMMENDED PERFORMANCE STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a revised version of a support document for the performance testing portion of the proposed Florida statewide building standard for radon-resistant construction. he support document was developed by the Alternate Performance Standard Development Committee of the Flo...

43

U.S. EPA'S INDOOR AIR QUALITY IMPLEMENTATION PLAN. APPENDIX C. EPA RADON PROGRAM. APPENDIX D. INDOOR AIR RESOURCE HISTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The 'EPA Radon Program' briefly describes the goals, strategy and implementation plan adopted by the Agency for dealing specifically with radon as an indoor air pollutant. This discussion is excerpted from a more comprehensive report, 'EPA Interim Report to Congress on Indoor Air...

44

GUIDANCE FOR RESEARCH HOUSE STUDIES OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM, VOLUME 1: RESEARCH PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides guidance and a readily available reference to groups involved with the Florida Radon Research Program's (FRRP's) research house studies. t includes: 1): Lists of Parameters for continuous and periodic high and low resolution measurements; (2) Protocols for cha...

45

Wellhead protection programs: Tools for local governments  

SciTech Connect

The Technical Assistance Document (TAD) describes how localities can, as a part of a State Wellhead Protection Program, develop and implement effective techniques for the protection of ground water. The document emphasizes innovative wellhead protection methods that have been used by local communities, discusses combinations of programs that have worked well, and presents several factors that affect the success of local wellhead protection programs, such as budgetary constraints and legal issues.

Harvey, R.; Linquiti, P.

1989-04-01

46

GUIDANCE FOR RESEARCH HOUSE STUDIES OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM, VOLUME 2: MODEL-BACKED EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINING RADON  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides guidance and a readily available reference to groups involved with the Florida Radon Research Program's (FRRP's) research house studies. It includes: 1): Lists of Parameters for continuous and periodic high and low resolution measurements; (2) Protocols for c...

47

GUIDANCE FOR RESEARCH HOUSE STUDIES OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM, VOLUME 2: MODEL-BACKED EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINING RADON RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS.  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides guidance and a readily available reference to groups involved with the Florida Radon Research Program's (FRRP's) research house studies. t includes: 1): Lists of Parameters for continuous and periodic high and low resolution measurements; (2) Protocols for cha...

48

Radon optical processing in radon space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stated goals of the Radon program were: (1) Theoretical investigation of the role of the Radon transform in signal processing, including enumeration of the operations achievable in Radon space. (2) Construction of a practical system for two dimensional spectral analysis and image filtering. (3) Proof-of-principle experiments for other processing operations, such as bandwidth compression and calculation of the Wigner

H. H. Barrett

1986-01-01

49

Planetary Protection Bioburden Analysis Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program is a Microsoft Access program that performed statistical analysis of the colony counts from assays performed on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft to determine the bioburden density, 3-sigma biodensity, and the total bioburdens required for the MSL prelaunch reports. It also contains numerous tools that report the data in various ways to simplify the reports required. The program performs all the calculations directly in the MS Access program. Prior to this development, the data was exported to large Excel files that had to be cut and pasted to provide the desired results. The program contains a main menu and a number of submenus. Analyses can be performed by using either all the assays, or only the accountable assays that will be used in the final analysis. There are three options on the first menu: either calculate using (1) the old MER (Mars Exploration Rover) statistics, (2) the MSL statistics for all the assays, or This software implements penetration limit equations for common micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shield configurations, windows, and thermal protection systems. Allowable MMOD risk is formulated in terms of the probability of penetration (PNP) of the spacecraft pressure hull. For calculating the risk, spacecraft geometry models, mission profiles, debris environment models, and penetration limit equations for installed shielding configurations are required. Risk assessment software such as NASA's BUMPERII is used to calculate mission PNP; however, they are unsuitable for use in shield design and preliminary analysis studies. The software defines a single equation for the design and performance evaluation of common MMOD shielding configurations, windows, and thermal protection systems, along with a description of their validity range and guidelines for their application. Recommendations are based on preliminary reviews of fundamental assumptions, and accuracy in predicting experimental impact test results. The software is programmed in Visual Basic for Applications for installation as a simple add-in for Microsoft Excel. The user is directed to a graphical user interface (GUI) that requires user inputs and provides solutions directly in Microsoft Excel workbooks. This work was done by Shannon Ryan of the USRA Lunar and Planetary Institute for Johnson Space Center. Further information is contained in a TSP (see page 1). MSC- 24582-1 Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) Shield Ballistic Limit Analysis Program Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Commercially, because it is so generic, Enigma can be used for almost any project that requires engineering visualization, model building, or animation. Models in Enigma can be exported to many other formats for use in other applications as well. Educationally, Enigma is being used to allow university students to visualize robotic algorithms in a simulation mode before using them with actual hardware. This work was done by David Shores and Sharon P. Goza of Johnson Space Center; Cheyenne McKeegan, Rick Easley, Janet Way, and Shonn Everett of MEI Technologies; Mark Manning of PTI; and Mark Guerra, Ray Kraesig, and William Leu of Tietronix Software, Inc. For further information, contact the JSC Innovation Partnerships Office at (281) 483-3809. MSC-24211-1 Spitzer Telemetry Processing System NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2

Beaudet, Robert A.

2013-01-01

50

Pinellas Plant groundwater protection management program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Groundwater Protection Management Program (GPMP) Plan outlines the program in place at the Pinellas Plant to detect and monitor contaminated groundwater, which may have become contaminated by materials and waste.

Not Available

1995-10-01

51

Improving Installation Level Classified Information Protection Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent DoD and USAF reviews of security policies and practices have uncovered serious deficiencies in security programs developed to protect classified and sensitive information. Organizing security program managers and command oversight at the installati...

A. T. Akeo

1987-01-01

52

Interim results of the prompt alpha-track radon detector study. [Remedial Action Program  

SciTech Connect

The Technical Measurements Center is evaluating the reliability of using short-term exposures of alpha-track radon detectors to estimate annual average radon-daughter concentrations (RDC) in residences in the Grand Junction, Colorado, area. This Prompt Alpha-Track Study was initiated in the summer of 1985 and will be completed in the summer of 1986. Two sets of data are being collected, each consisting of two-, three-, four-, five-, and six-month-long exposures of alpha-track radon detectors. October 2 was selected as the midpoint of the Fall set of exposures and April 2 as the midpoint of the Spring set of exposures. These dates were selected after analyzing the RDC data collected by the Colorado Department of Health during the Grand Junction Remedial Action Program. This interim report on the Prompt Alpha-Track Study discusses the preliminary results of the Fall measurements. Terradex Type SF Track Etch detectors were exposed at 50 stations in 34 structures where previous annual average RDC and/or radon data have been collected. Two detectors were deployed at each station for each short-term exposure. Three additional annual detectors were deployed at each station concurrently with the six-month Fall detectors. The detectors were processed at a sensitivity level of 0.2 picocurie-month per liter. Preliminary results indicate that all of the short-term Fall measurements using October 2 as the midpoint of the exposure can reliably estimate the annual average indoor radon concentration in structures. The precision of both the short-term measurements and the methods is acceptable at 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/l). Results of a paired t-test indicate no difference in the measured radon concentration between a short-term measurement and an annual measurement, at the 0.01 level of significance. These conclusions are provisional since only the Fall data have been analyzed. A final report will integrate the Fall, Spring, and annual data.

George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

1986-07-01

53

UNIFIED RADON RELATIVE RISK MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Unified Radon Relative Risk Model (UR3M) is a Windows program for PCs. It was developed to fill the need for a comprehensive approach to radon health risks and to allow users or their clients to make informed decisions with respect to radon. The model combines three radon sou...

54

Individual and Collective Protection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FY06-07 goal was to advance the development of the Triosyn Super HEPA (TSH) media as an enhanced filtration material to be included in individual protection and collective protection end-use applications. Work was also done to pursue the development o...

A. Gendron A. Staffa D. Ohayon M. SansCartier S. Franzot

2007-01-01

55

Radiation Protection. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air- radon 222. A proposed ISO standard.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon isotopes (222, 220, 219) are radioactive gases produced by the disintegration of radium isotopes 226, 224 and 223, which are decay products of uranium238, thorium232 and uranium235 respectively. All are found in the earth's crust. Solid elements, also radioactive, are produced by radon disintegration. Radon is classed as a rare gas in the periodic table of elements, along with helium, argon, neon, krypton and xenon. When disintegrating, radon emits alpha particles and generates solid decay products, which are also radioactive (polonium, bismuth, lead etc.). The potential danger of radon lies in its solid decay products rather than the gas itself. Whether or not they are attached aerosols, radon decay products can be inhaled and deposited in the bronchopulmonary tree to varying depths according to their size. Radon today is considered to be the main source of human exposure to natural radiation. At the international level, radon accounts for 52% of global average exposure to natural radiation. Isotope 222 (48%) is far more significant than isotope 220 (4%), whilst isotope 219 is considered as negligible. Exposure to radon varies considerably from one region to another, depending on factors such as weather conditions, and underlying geology. Activity concentration can therefore vary by a factor of 10 or even a 100 from one period of time to the next and from one area to another. There are many ways of measuring the radon 222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products. Measuring techniques fall into three categories: - spot measurement methods; continuous measurement; integrated measurement. The proposed ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) document suggests guidelines for measuring radon222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in a free (environment) and confined (buildings) atmosphere. The target date for availability of this work item is 2011. The ISO document here highlighted is a working draft. ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies. Keywords: radon; international standards; measurement techniques.

Gillmore, G.; Woods, M.

2009-04-01

56

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

2007-08-09

57

DATA LOGGING SYSTEMS FOR MONITORING LONG-TERM RADON MITIGATION EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS IN SCHOOLS AND OTHER LARGE BUILDINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses data logging systems for monitoring long-term radon mitigation experimental programs in schools and other large buildings. Several mitigation systems have been installed in schools as part of a mitigation research program conducted by the U.S. EPA. ach install...

58

Mars Technology Program: Planetary Protection Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the development of Planetary Protection Technology in the Mars Technology Program. The goal of the program is to develop technologies that will enable NASA to build, launch, and operate a mission that has subsystems with different Planetary Protection (PP) classifications, specifically for operating a Category IVb-equivalent subsystem from a Category IVa platform. The IVa category of planetary protection requires bioburden reduction (i.e., no sterilization is required) The IVb category in addition to IVa requirements: (i.e., terminal sterilization of spacecraft is required). The differences between the categories are further reviewed.

Lin, Ying

2006-01-01

59

Radiation Protection Program of Petrobras.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Risks present in oil industry require specific control programs, especially when using radioactive sources. Main uses of ionizing radiation in oil industry are in process control systems, industrial radiography and oilwell logging. A comprehensive and sys...

M. Signorini

1988-01-01

60

Evaluation of methods for the estimation of indoor radon daughter concentrations for remedial action programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods considered were those which use the Radon Progeny Integrating Sampling Unit (RPISU) technique, grab sampling, radon exhalation rate, alpha track registration, time-integrated radon measurements, continuous measurements, gamma exposure rates, and radium measurements. The methods were evaluated to determine whether they satisfied two critieria, namely, that the method provide reasonable assurance of compliance with the standards for cleanup as

G. H. Jr. Langner; J. C. Pacer; V. G. Johnson; M. A. Gillings

1983-01-01

61

LUMPED-PARAMETER MODEL ANALYSES OF DATA FROM THE 1992 NEW HOUSE EVALUATION PROJECT - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents analyses of Phase 2 data from the Florida Radon Research Program's New House Evaluation Project (NHEP) that were performed using a lumped-parameter model. The houses evaluated in Phase 2 were monitored by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) and the Univers...

62

Clearing the Air on Radon Testing: The Duty of Real Estate Brokers to Protect Prospective Homebuyers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Note recommends that the federal government create legislation that will impose a duty on real estate brokers to test homes for radon and to disclose the results to prospective purchasers. Based on a common law negligence theory, such a duty would become part of the current obligation of a real estate broker: (1) to conduct a reasonably diligent and

Sheldon Winicour

1987-01-01

63

US Environmental Protection Agency: National Estuary Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1987 by amendments to the Clean Water Act and administered by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds (OWOW), the National Estuary Program (NEP) identifies, restores and protects estuaries along the coasts of the United States. Unlike the traditional regulatory approaches to environmental protection, the NEP targets a wide range of issues and engages local communities in the process. At the site users can find descriptions of the NEP, specific NEP projects, estuaries involved in the NEP (including location, size, presence of threatened and endangered species, major habitat types, etc.), a current awareness section, links to related sites, and the full text of NEP's newsletter, Coastlines.

64

Hanford Protective Barriers Program asphalt barrier studies -- FY 1988  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Protective Barrier (HPB) Program is evaluating alternative barriers to provide a means of meeting stringent water infiltration requirements. One type of alternative barrier being considered is an asphalt-based layer, 1.3 to 15 cm thick, which has been shown to be very effective as a barrier for radon gas and, hence, should be equally effective as a barrier for the larger molecules of water. Fiscal Year 1988 studies focused on the selection and formulation of the most promising asphalt materials for further testing in small-tube lysimeters. Results of laboratory-scale formulation and hydraulic conductivity tests led to the selection of a rubberized asphalt material and an admixture of 24 wt% asphalt emulsion and concrete sand as the two barriers for lysimeter testing. Eight lysimeters, four each containing the two asphalt treatments, were installed in the Small Tube Lysimeter Facility on the Hanford Site. The lysimeter tests allow the performance of these barrier formulations to be evaluated under more natural environmental conditions.

Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.

1989-05-01

65

The Pennsylvania radon story  

SciTech Connect

In December 1984, the Pennsylvania Bureau of Radiation Protection found itself confronted with the discovery of a home in eastern Pennsylvania having the highest level of radon daughters ever reported. The Bureau responded with a massive radon monitoring, educational, and remediation effort. As of November, 1986, over 18,000 homes had been screen for radon daughters, of which approximately 59% were found to have levels in excess of the 0.020 Working Level guideline. Pennsylvania's response to the indoor radon problem is detailed in this article.

Gerusky, T.M.

1987-01-01

66

Pinellas Plant groundwater protection management program plan  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Groundwater Protection Management Program (GPMP) are to establish that current operations and transition of the facility are not affecting groundwater in a way that creates unacceptable risks to human health and safety, or to the environment, and that the plant is working to address any such risks previously identified.

Not Available

1996-10-01

67

River Protection Project (RPP) Environmental Program Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Environmental Program Plan was developed in support of the Integrated Environment, Safety, and Health Management System Plan (ISMS) (RPP-MP-003), which establishes a single, defined environmental, safety, and health management system that integrates requirements into the work planning and execution processes to protect workers, the public, and the environment. The ISMS also provides mechanisms for increasing worker involvement in work

2000-01-01

68

Protection of Computer Programs--A Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer programs, as legitimate original inventions or creative written expressions, are entitled to patent or copyright protection. Understanding the legal implications of this concept is crucial to both computer programmers and their employers in our increasingly computer-oriented way of life. Basically the copyright or patent procedure

Carnahan, William H.

69

State wetlands and riparian area protection programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protection of wetlands and riparian areas has emerged as an important environmental planning issue. In the United States, several federal and state laws have been enacted to protect wetlands and riparian areas. Specifically, the federal Clean Water Act includes protection requirements in Sections 301 and 303 for state water quality standards, Section 401 for state certification of federal actions (projects, permits, and licenses), and Section 404 for dredge and fill permits. The Section 401 water quality state certification element has been called the sleeping giant of wetlands protection because it empowers state officials to veto or condition federally permitted or licensed activities that do not comply with state water quality standards. State officials have used this power infrequently. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effectiveness of state wetland and riparian programs. Contacts were established with officials in each state and in the national and regional offices of key federal agencies. Based on interviews and on a review of federal and state laws, state program effectiveness was analyzed. From this analysis, several problems and opportunities facing state wetland protection efforts are presented.

Steiner, Frederick; Pieart, Scott; Cook, Edward; Rich, Jacqueline; Coltman, Virginia

1994-03-01

70

Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs  

SciTech Connect

There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.

McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.; Selby, J.M.

1991-10-01

71

Predictors of Home Radon Testing and Implications for Testing Promotion Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of 4 New Jersey studies of 3,329 homeowners found that (1) thinking about radon testing is predicted by general radon knowledge; (2) decision to test is related to perceived likelihood of risk; and (3) actual testing is influenced by situational factors such as locating and choosing test kits. (SK)

Sandman, Peter M.; Weinstein, Neil D.

1993-01-01

72

The effectiveness of mitigation for reducing radon risk in single-family Minnesota homes.  

PubMed

Increased lung cancer incidence has been linked with long-term exposure to elevated residential radon. Experimental studies have shown that soil ventilation can be effective in reducing radon concentrations in single-family homes. Most radon mitigation systems in the U.S. are installed by private contractors. The long-term effectiveness of these systems is not well known, since few state radon programs regulate or independently confirm post-mitigation radon concentrations. The effectiveness of soil ventilation systems in Minnesota was measured for 140 randomly selected clients of six professional mitigators. Homeowners reported pre-mitigation radon screening concentrations that averaged 380 Bq m (10.3 pCi L). Long term post-mitigation radon measurements on the two lowest floors show that, even years after mitigation, 97% of these homes have concentrations below the 150 Bq m U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level. The average post-mitigation radon in the houses was 30 Bq m, an average observed reduction of >90%. If that reduction was maintained over the lifetime of the 1.2 million Minnesotans who currently reside in single-family homes with living space radon above the EPA action level, approximately 50,000 lives could be extended for nearly two decades by preventing radon-related lung cancers. PMID:22850228

Steck, Daniel J

2012-09-01

73

Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection, establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, Compliance Demonstration Table, contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

none,

2013-04-30

74

Intercomparison of radon and decay product measurements in an underground mine and EPA Radon Laboratory: a study organized by the IAEA International Radon Metrology Programme. International Atomic Energy Agency.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna and the European Union (EU) in Bruxelles formed the "International Radon Metrology Programme" (IRMP, scientific secretary: F. Steinhusler, University of Salzburg, Austria). The IRMP is designed to assess and foster the improvement of radon and decay product measurements that are made around the world. Within the framework of the IRMP, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory (EPA) in Las Vegas, Nevada, organized jointly with the U.S. Bureau of Mines an international intercomparison exercise at a former uranium mine (Twilight Mine, Colorado) and the EPA Radon Laboratory. The main objective of this exercise was to compare radon and radon decay product instruments under both well-controlled as well as widely fluctuating exposure conditions. The laboratory exposures occurred under relatively steady radon and decay product conditions, with a moderate equilibrium ratio, while the conditions in the mine fluctuated greatly and the equilibrium ratio was low. An additional purpose of the exercise was to provide a forum for manufacturers and measurement organizations worldwide to exchange information and plan improvements in their operations and calibration programs. Altogether 19 organizations from seven countries intercomparing 32 different radon and radon decay product instruments participated in this exercise. This paper summarizes the results from the analysis of the experimental data obtained in the Bureau of Mines Twilight Mine in July of 1994, as well as the results from the EPA Radon laboratory in August of 1994. PMID:9790554

Budd, G; Hopper, R; Braganza, E; Ronca-Battista, M; Steinhusler, F; Stegner, P

1998-11-01

75

70 FR 66392 - Endangered Species Protection Program Field Implementation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...update Bulletins as protection decisions are made...this will allow protections to be implemented...Endangered Species Protection Program Field Implementation...plan is based on two goals. The first...provide appropriate protection to listed species...listed species protections where such...

2005-11-02

76

Assessment of the uncertainties in the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) radon measurements service.  

PubMed

The RPII radon (Rn) laboratory holds accreditation for the International Standard ISO/IEC 17025. A requirement of this standard is an estimate of the uncertainty of measurement. This work shows two approaches to estimate the uncertainty. The bottom-up approach involved identifying the components that were found to contribute to the uncertainty. Estimates were made for each of these components, which were combined to give a combined uncertainty of 13.5% at a Rn concentration of approximately 2500 Bq m(-3) at the 68% confidence level. By applying a coverage factor of k=2, the expanded uncertainty is +/-27% at the 95% confidence level. The top-down approach used information previously gathered from intercomparison exercises to estimate the uncertainty. This investigation found an expanded uncertainty of +/-22% at approximately 95% confidence level. This is good agreement for such independent estimates. PMID:18243446

Hanley, O; Gutirrez-Villanueva, J L; Currivan, L; Pollard, D

2008-10-01

77

Chemical properties of radon  

SciTech Connect

Radon is frequently regarded as a totally inert element. It is, however, a ''metalloid'' - an element which lies on the diagonal of the Periodic Table between the true metals and nonmetals and which exhibits some of the characteristics of both. It reacts with fluorine, halogen fluorides, dioxygenyl salts, fluoro-nitrogen salts, and halogen fluoride-metal fluoride complexes to form ionic compounds. Several of the solid reagents can be used to collect radon from air but must be protected from moisture, since they hydrolyze readily. Recently, solutions of nonvolatile, cationic radon have been produced in nonaqueous solvents. Ion-exchange studies have shown that the radon can be quantitatively collected on columns packed with either Nafion resins or complex salts. In its ionic state, radon is able to displace H/sup +/, Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Cs/sup +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Ba/sup 2 +/ ions from a number of solid materials. 27 refs., 6 figs.

Stein, L.

1986-01-01

78

River Protection Project (RPP) Environmental Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Program Plan was developed in support of the Integrated Environment, Safety, and Health Management System Plan (ISMS) (RPP-MP-003), which establishes a single, defined environmental, safety, and health management system that integrates requirements into the work planning and execution processes to protect workers, the public, and the environment. The ISMS also provides mechanisms for increasing worker involvement in work planning, including hazard and environmental impact identification, analysis, and control; work execution; and feedback/improvement processes. The ISMS plan consists of six core functions. Each section of this plan describes the activities of the River Protection Project (RPP) (formerly known as the Tank Waste Remediation System) Environmental organization according to the following core functions: Establish Environmental Policy; Define the Scope of Work; Identify Hazards, Environmental Impacts, and Requirements; Analyze Hazards and Environmental Impacts and Implement Controls; Perform Work within Controls; and Provide Feedback and Continuous Improvement.

POWELL, P.A.

2000-03-29

79

Interim results of the prompt alpha-track radon detector study. [Remedial Action Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Technical Measurements Center is evaluating the reliability of using short-term exposures of alpha-track radon detectors to estimate annual average radon-daughter concentrations (RDC) in residences in the Grand Junction, Colorado, area. This Prompt Alpha-Track Study was initiated in the summer of 1985 and will be completed in the summer of 1986. Two sets of data are being collected, each consisting

J. L. George; G. H. Jr. Langner

1986-01-01

80

Radon evasion rates in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans as determined during the Geosecs program  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Geosecs expedition in the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans, more than 100 stations were occupied for the measurement of surface radon profiles. The radon deficiency in these profiles gives estimates of the gas transfer rate across the sea-air interface. The global mean transfer rate is estimated to be 2.9 m\\/d (at 20° C) which is corresponding to a

T.-H. Peng; W. S. Broecker; G. G. Mathieu; Y.-H. Li; A. E. Bainbridge

1979-01-01

81

Radon optical processing in radon space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stated goals of the Radon program were: (1) Theoretical investigation of the role of the Radon transform in signal processing, including enumeration of the operations achievable in Radon space. (2) Construction of a practical system for two dimensional spectral analysis and image filtering. (3) Proof-of-principle experiments for other processing operations, such as bandwidth compression and calculation of the Wigner distribution function. (4) Determination of the feasibility of Radon-space processing of three dimensional data, emphasizing not only system architecture but also storage media capable of saving rapidly retrieving the requisite data arrays. Several 2D signal-processing operations are discovered susceptible to solution in Radon space. These include the Hartley transform, certain joint coordinate-frequency representations (e.g., the Wigner distribution function and Woodward ambiguity functions), certain algorithms for spectrum estimation (e.g., the periodogram and the Yule Walker autoregressive model), and the cepstrum. Most of these Radon space operations have been demonstrated in computer simulations and some have been performed by means of analog hardware in the hybrid Radon space signal processing system. This system can perform a family of processing operations at about five frames per second, limited by the image-rotation rate. Processing is performed by surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters, and the 2D processed signal is displayed on a CRT.

Barrett, H. H.

1986-06-01

82

RADON FLUORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of trace amounts of radon with fluorine was studied and it ; was found that radon forms a stable fluoride which is less volatile than XeF\\/sub ; 4\\/. The composition of the radon fluoride was not determined. The fluoride can ; be reduced with hydrogen to quantitatively recover elemental radon. At 200 deg ; the compound appeared to

P. R. Fields; L. Stein; M. H. Zirin

1962-01-01

83

Distribution of Indoor Radon Concentrations in Pennyslvania, 1990-2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results from 548,507 indoor radon tests from a database compiled by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, Radon Division, are evaluated in this report in an effort to determine areas where concentrations ...

E. L. Gross

2013-01-01

84

The Austrian radon activities on the way to the national radon action plan.  

PubMed

Based on the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS), all EU member states will be obliged to design a strategy to address long-term risks from radon exposure, which is laid down in the 'national radon action plan'. In Austria, the National Radon Centre is responsible for the development of the action plan. This paper presents the current and planned radon protection activities on the way to establish the radon action plan-like the national radon database, the definition of radon risk areas by improving the existing radon map, as well as strategies and activities to increase the radon awareness of the public and decision-makers and to involve the building sector. The impact of and the need for actions caused by the BSS requirements on the Austrian radon legislation, strategy and programme are discussed. PMID:24736297

Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Haider, W

2014-07-01

85

Mineral dusts and radon in uranium mines  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to assert that radon is a major cause of lung cancer in this country. EPA is fostering a radon program that could entail huge financial and emotional costs while yielding negligible benefits to public health. Justification for the program was the occurrence of lung cancer in men exposed to huge amounts of radon, mineral dusts, and other lung irritants in uranium mines on the Colorado Plateau. Lung cancer has been reported in about 356 cigarette smokers and in about 25 nonsmokers. During the era of high radon levels, monitoring was sporadic. Conditions in only a small fraction of the mines were measured, and that on a few separate occasions. Later, cumulative exposure to radon was calculated on the basis of measurements involving only a tiny fraction of the miners. Some were exposed to more than 15,000 pCi/liter of radon and its products. The level in the average home is about 1.5 pCi/liter. In making extrapolations from mine to home, the assumption is made that residents are in their dwellings most of the time and that miners spend only 170 hours a month in the mine. Two major questionable assumptions are involved in extrapolations from high doses of radon in the mines to low doses in homes. One is that no threshold is involved; that is, that humans have no remediation mechanism for {alpha} particle damages. There is evidence to the contrary. The most unrealistic assumption is that heavy exposure to silica has no effect on inducing lung cancer. Many studies have shown that silica dust causes lung cancer in animals. Exposure of human culture cells to silica has resulted in formation of neoplastic tissue. EPA has no solid evidence that exposures to 4 pCi/liter of radon causes lung cancer in either smokers or nonsmokers. Indeed, there is abundant evidence to the contrary in the fact that in states with high levels of radon, inhabitants have less lung cancer than those in states with low levels.

Abelson, P.H.

1991-11-08

86

Computer program for the sensitivity calculation of a CR-39 detector in a diffusion chamber for radon measurements.  

PubMed

Computer software for calculation of the sensitivity of a CR-39 detector closed in a diffusion chamber to radon is described in this work. The software consists of two programs, both written in the standard Fortran 90 programming language. The physical background and a numerical example are given. Presented software is intended for numerous researches in radon measurement community. Previously published computer programs TRACK_TEST.F90 and TRACK_VISION.F90 [D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 160 (2006); D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 178, 591 (2008)] are used here as subroutines to calculate the track parameters and to determine whether the track is visible or not, based on the incident angle, impact energy, etching conditions, gray level, and visibility criterion. The results obtained by the software, using five different V functions, were compared with the experimental data found in the literature. Application of two functions in this software reproduced experimental data very well, while other three gave lower sensitivity than experiment. PMID:24593338

Nikezic, D; Yu, K N; Stajic, J M

2014-02-01

87

National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program Individual Proficiency Report, August 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report will assist State, EPA Regions, and local government officials in providing advice to the public on the selection of proficient radon measurement contractors. The Report is a listing of 1,723 individual contractors who have met the requirement...

1994-01-01

88

RECOMMENDED SUB-SLAB DEPRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS DESIGN STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report recommends sub-slab depressurization systems design criteria to the State of Florida's Department of Community Affairs for their building code for radon resistant houses. Numerous details are set forth in the full report. Primary criteria include: (1) the operating soi...

89

Programming Protection: The Problem of Software.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the issue of protection of computer software in an expanding market. Presents the legal questions arising from attempts to invoke protection from patent, copyright, and trade secret laws. (JMF)

Slack, Jennifer Daryl

1981-01-01

90

The radon problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of the radon problem is illustrated by the fact that the indoor exposure to radon and radon daughters amounts to about 40% of the total effective dose equivalent to which the population is exposed to both, from natural and man made sources. This exposure may increase even further due to new building technologies optimized for energy conservation. Although radon and its decay products are well known to cause lung cancer at high exposure levels, considerable controversy remains about the magnitude of risk due to low-level exposure. Linear extrapolation from the dose-response values of uranium miners who were heavily exposed to these nuclides would suggest that a relevant fraction (10-40%) of lung cancers in the general population are caused by the inhalation of radon daughters. Moreover, the results of monitoring programs in several countries during the past years have revealed that for a small, but not negligible fraction of the population, the lifetime exposure from indoor radon daughters is comparable to, or even exceeds the occupational radon exposure of moderately exposed underground miners still showing a significant excess lung cancer frequency.

Crameri, Reto; Burkart, Werner

91

Proceedings of the second APCA international specialty conference on indoor radon (supplement)  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the proceedings of the second APCA international specialty conference. Topics included are: Legal Issues in Radon: A Panel Discussion, The Radon/Radon Progeny Measurement Proficiency Program: A Voluntary, Quality Assurance Program, and Radon and Radon Daughters in Homes of Radioactive Anomalies of Quebec - One Year Study.

Not Available

1987-01-01

92

Respiratory Protection Program medical clearance for respirator use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background on occupational exposure to various inhalents is discussed including on-site hazard control measures, procedures, physiological effects, and interpretation of results for the medical clearance of employee for use of personal respiratory protection devices. The purpose of the Respiratory Protection Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Respiratory Protection at LeRC are discussed.

1993-01-01

93

Space shuttle program: Lightning protection criteria document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lightning environment for space shuttle design is defined and requirements that the design must satisfy to insure protection of the vehicle system from direct and indirect effects of lightning are imposed. Specifications, criteria, and guidelines included provide a practical and logical approach to protection problems.

1975-01-01

94

Operating manual for the radon-daughter chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radon-daughter chamber was constructed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility for the purpose of calibrating, testing and evaluating radon and radon-daughter measuring instruments used in support of DOE remedial action programs. The chamber is an environmentally controlled cylindrical vessel through which air containing radon can be circulated. Environmental parameters within the chamber

G. H. Jr. Langner; T. Nelson

1985-01-01

95

Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

Not Available

1991-12-31

96

Systems Approach to Nuclear Plant Protective Systems Data Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Douglas United Nuclear engineers have developed and refined a computerized data program for the Hanford nuclear reactor complex over an eight-year period. This program is used for the recording, checking, handling, and utilization of large amounts of test and inspection data on nuclear plant protective systems. The program features data collection at the system level, yet it readily permits data

P. A. Crosetti; M. L. Faught

1971-01-01

97

Indoor radon  

SciTech Connect

The first awareness of radon as a health hazard came from observations of increased lung cancer incidence among uranium and other miners. During the past decade there has been increasing recognition of the importance of radon in the indoor environment as well. Extrapolations from radon exposures in mines to those in homes indicate that radon will cause a significant number of lung cancer deaths among the general population if its effects are linearly proportional to the magnitude of the exposure. For example, in the United States roughly 5000 to 20,000 lung cancer deaths per year are now attributed to indoor radon. Consistent with this, the effective dose equivalent from indoor radon is larger than the dose from any other radiation source for most people in temperate climates. Radon is a noble gas and can diffuse freely through the air. The most important isotope of radon, Rn-222, is produced in the alpha-particle decay of Ra-226, which is present in all soil and rock as a product of the U-238 decay series. In consequence, radon is present in both the outdoor and indoor environments, primarily due to its escape from the soil into the open air or into houses. The indoor concentrations are usually much higher than the outdoor concentrations, because the radon that enters into houses escapes relatively slowly. 120 refs., 12 tabs.

Rabkin, M.A.; Bodansky, D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1988-12-31

98

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs A...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...Appendix A to Part 45Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs...

2013-07-01

99

Meeting the requirements of the wellhead protection program. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this technical guide (TG) is to provide U.S. Army installations with basic guidance on the steps required to address the Wellhead Protection (WHP) Program established in the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1986.

Spellman, S.

1996-02-14

100

Emergency Watershed Protection Program. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Emergency Watershed Protection (EWP) Program helps remove threats to life and property that remain in the nation's watersheds in the aftermath of natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and wildfires. This Programmatic Environmental I...

2004-01-01

101

Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Report to Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) responds to Congress's specific requests for information on: the findings of the Administrator resulting from the screening program; recommendations for further testing needed to evaluate the impact on...

2000-01-01

102

77 FR 35700 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP/IICD, 245 Murray Lane, SW., Mailstop...internal PCII Program, IICD, and NPPD/IP use only.OMB is particularly...

2012-06-14

103

67 FR 71549 - Endangered Species Protection Program Field Implementation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pesticide. The major drawbacks to this...larger and more complex. At the request...consultation into two parts. FWS has...program materials; contribute to the development...proposal is based on two goals. The first...endangered species protections under existing...provide adequate protections for listed species...continually improve......

2002-12-02

104

Indoor Radon II  

SciTech Connect

Because of the growing interest in and public concern about indoor radon, APCA sponsored the Second International Specialty Conference on Indoor Radon. The papers presented in this book from the conference include discussions on: a current assessment of the nature of the problem; issues related to health effects and risk assessment; the development of public and private sector initiatives; research into methods of control and prevention; international perspectives; and measurement methods and programs. Authors include federal, state and provincial program officials and members of the academic and private sectors.

Not Available

1987-01-01

105

78 FR 79619 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0938-AR74 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange...Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange...Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity:...

2013-12-31

106

Y-12 Site environmental protection program implementation plan (EPPIP)  

SciTech Connect

The Y-12 Plant Environmental Protection Program is conducted to: (1) protect public health and the environment from chemical and radiological releases occurring from current plant operations and past waste management and operational practices; (2) ensure compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations and DOE directives; (3) identify potential environmental problems; (4) evaluate existing environmental contamination and determine the need for remedial actions and mitigative measures; (5) monitor the progress of ongoing remedial actions and cleanup measures; and (6) inform the public of environmental issues relating to DOE operations. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, defines the general requirements for environmental protection programs at DOE facilities. This Environmental Protection Program Implementation Plan (EPPIP) defines the methods by which the Y-12 Plant staff will comply with the order by: (1) referencing environmental protection goals and objectives and identifying strategies and timetables for attaining them; (2) providing the overall framework for the design and implementation of the Y-12 Environmental Protection Program; and (3) assigning responsibilities for complying with the requirements of the order. The EPPIP is revised and updated annually.

NONE

1996-11-01

107

A statistical evaluation of the influence of housing characteristics and geogenic radon potential on indoor radon concentrations in France.  

PubMed

Radon-222 is a radioactive natural gas produced by the decay of radium-226, known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure. Effective risk management needs to determine the areas in which the density of buildings with high radon levels is likely to be highest. Predicting radon exposure from the location and characteristics of a dwelling could also contribute to epidemiological studies. Beginning in the nineteen-eighties, a national radon survey consisting in more than 10,000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations was conducted in French dwellings by the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). Housing characteristics, which may influence radon accumulation in dwellings, were also collected. More recently, the IRSN generated a French geogenic radon potential map based on the interpretation of geological features. The present study analyzed the two datasets to investigate the factors influencing indoor radon concentrations using statistical modeling and to determine the optimum use of the information on geogenic radon potential that showed the best statistical association with indoor radon concentration. The results showed that the variables associated with indoor radon concentrations were geogenic radon potential, building material, year of construction, foundation type, building type and floor level. The model, which included the surrounding geogenic radon potential (i.e. the average geogenic radon potential within a disc of radius 20km centered on the indoor radon measurement point) and variables describing house-specific factors and lifestyle explained about 20% of the overall variability of the logarithm of radon concentration. The surrounding geogenic radon potential was fairly closely associated with the local average indoor radon concentration. The prevalence of exposure to radon above specific thresholds and the average exposures to radon clearly increased with increasing classes of geogenic radon potential. Combining the two datasets enabled improved assessment of radon exposure in a given area in France. PMID:24056050

Demoury, C; Ielsch, G; Hemon, D; Laurent, O; Laurier, D; Clavel, J; Guillevic, J

2013-12-01

108

Radon Quest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this module, students pretend to be an environmental consulting firm that has been hired by the County to investigate two cases involving radon exposure. They will prepare a report addressing: the probable causes of the elevated radon values; the extent of the potential problem; the possible routes and effects of human exposure to radon, and ways to educate the public; and strategies for clean up and reduction of exposure to radon in the area. Students will form field, laboratory, risk and impact investigative teams in order to complete their reports.

109

Improved Windshield and Canopy Protection Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses a program to develop high performance aircraft windshields and canopies capable of sustaining impacts by 4 lb birds at speeds of 500 knots and above. A multi-task program evaluated not only bird impact resistance but structural and th...

H. E. Littell

1974-01-01

110

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RESEARCH PROGRAM GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Annual extramural research program guide for the Office of Research and Development. This report provides information on work being done in each part of ORD, research which EPA is planning for FY 1984, and how much the authors intend to spend on each program area. Some of the are...

111

Department of Defense Fire Protection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Instruction reissues and updates DoD Instruction 6055.6, June 10, 1981, to provide criteria for the allocation, assignment, operation, and administration of fire departments and related fire protection functions at DoD shore facilities according to Do...

J. Anderson

1988-01-01

112

US Environmental Protection Agency's quality assurance program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its predecessor organizations historically have devoted considerable time and effort to the standardization of test procedures, the development and use of calibration and performance audit procedures, quality control and reference samples, training, and other quality assurance (QA) activities. However, these QA activities were essentially voluntary, and most of the data generated were reported with

T. W. Stanley; S. S. Verner

1985-01-01

113

Program reduces fire protection system corrosion  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a three-phase chemical treatment that eliminates microbiologically induced corrosion in the fire protection system at Texas Utility`s Comanche Peak facility. Biological colonization was evident by the appearance of ringed blisters at significant corrosion sites. Some specimens showed limited corrosion attack in the presence of a ferrous sulfide film. Where operational flushing and pre-testing had occurred the system had suffered major corrosion damage.

Rittenhouse, R.C.

1995-10-01

114

Development of Environmental Education Programs for Protected Areas in Madagascar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental education programs for schools in the peripheral zone of protected areas in Madagascar are still needed in numerous locations. My research investigated the status of environmental education and communication (EE&C) programs at Masoala National Park, Madagascar, as well as the attitudes of local residents toward the park and park

Ormsby, Alison

2007-01-01

115

Researching Radon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a project in which students examined the physics, chemistry, and geology of radon and used available technology to measure radon concentrations in their homes. Uses the inquiry process, analytical skills, communication skills, content knowledge, and production of authentic products for student assessment. (YDS)

Lucidi, Louis; Mecca, Peter M.

2001-01-01

116

Air quality protection program at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

To protect human health and safety, meet regulatory emissions requirements, and comply with other applicable DOE and corporate requirements, Du Pont has developed a comprehensive Environmental Implementation Plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This Environmental Implementation Plan contains program objectives and strategies for all environmental media including air. The presentation describes our experiences in managing the air quality protection program. Program objectives and strategy are presented. Program implementation will then be reviewed in terms of our performances in the air emission permitting, air quality assessments, radioactive and nonradioactive management, emergency response, and air emission inventory. Air quality protection activities involving quality assurance, environmental audit, and environmental awareness will not be addressed in this presentation. 30 figs.

Huang, Ju-Chrong

1988-01-01

117

Improved Windshield and Canopy Protection Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses a program to develop high performance aircraft windshields and canopies capable of sustaining impacts by 4 lb birds at speeds of 500 knots and above. The designs were to interface with existing aircraft and deviate as little as possib...

E. E. Littell

1974-01-01

118

Radon Health Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... EPA Home Air Indoor Air Radon Health Risks Health Risks (September 2009) The United Nation's World Health Organization ( ... page, 26 K) . For More Information on Radon Health Risks Radon Frequently Asked Questions EPA's 2003 Updated Radon ...

119

Sampling and measurement of radon-222 in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radon-222 content of water especially is of interest considering aspects of radiation protection or techniques to investigate hydrologie characteristics of aquifers using radon-222 as a natural tracer. Sampling and measurement of radon in groundwater are complicated by the high volatility of the gas. A method including sampling techniques (pumping, flushing time, filling arrangement and sample transportation) and rapid analysis

K. Freyer; H. C. Treutler; J. Dehnert; W. Nestler

1997-01-01

120

Groundwater Radon Studies for Earthquake Precursors in Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most important accomplishments in the USC radon monitoring program during the last contract year are: (1) Completion of the design and construction of 10 microprocessor-based continuous radon monitors (CRMs) that have significantly augmented the field...

T. Teng

1985-01-01

121

Public communication strategy for NASA's planetary protection program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Planetary Protection Office, in the Office of Space Science, has a long-term initiative under way in communication research and planning. The possibility of extraterrestrial life and efforts to search for evidence of it is one of NASA's key missions, and of great interest to the public. Planetary protection plays a key role in the search for signs of life elsewhere, and as NASA expands its solar system exploration efforts, communication planning for planetary protection must expand to meet growing needs. NASA's Clearly Protection Office has long recognized the importance of communications in accomplishing its goals and objectives. With solar system exploration missions advancing into the era of sample return and with the science of astrobiology changing assumptions about the nature and boundaries of life, the Planetary Protection office is expanding its communication planning efforts and taking first steps toward implementation of a long-term strategy. For the past 10 years, communication research sponsored by the NASA planetary protection program has focused on reaching members of the science community and addressing legal and ethical concerns. In 2003, the program expanded its communication research efforts, initiating the development of a communication strategy based on a participatory model and intended to address the needs of a broad range of extra audiences. The Planetary Protection Office aims to ensure that its scientific, bureaucratic, and other constituencies are fully informed about planetary protection policies and procedures and prepared to communicate with a variety of public audiences about issues relating to planetary protection. This paper will describe NASA's ongoing planetary protection communication research efforts, focusing on development of a participatory communication strategy to enable broadest possible public participation in planning and development of solar system sample return missions and Earth-based sample receiving facilities.

Billings, L.

122

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

SciTech Connect

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L A

1981-01-01

123

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

SciTech Connect

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L A

1981-04-01

124

Radon Measurements in Schools: An Interim Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radon-222 is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally in soil, rocks, underground water, and air. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other scientific organizations have identified an increased risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes. Schools in many

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation Programs.

125

Radon Measurement in Schools. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other major national and international scientific organizations have concluded that radon is a human carcinogen and a serious environmental health problem. The EPA has conducted extensive research on the presence and measurement of radon in schools. This report provides school administrators and

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

126

Removal of Radon from Household Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By far, the greatest risk to health from radon occurs when the gas enters the house from underlying soil and is inhaled. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying ways to reduce radon in houses, including methods to remove the gas from water to prevent its release in houses when the water is used. While this research has not

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

127

Radon Reduction Methods: A Homeowner's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying the effectiveness of various ways to reduce high concentrations of radon in houses. This booklet was produced to share what has been learned with those whose radon problems demand immediate action. The booklet describes nine methods that have been tested successfully--by EPA and/or other

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

128

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

Radiological Control Managers' Council

2008-06-01

129

50 CFR 300.103 - Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites. 300.103...Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites. (a) General...activities prior to entering a CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program (CEMP)...

2010-10-01

130

50 CFR 300.103 - Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites. 300.103...Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites. (a) General...activities prior to entering a CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program (CEMP)...

2009-10-01

131

DoD Coral Reef Protection and Management Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DoD Coral Reef Protection and Management Program (CRTF) goals are to 1) Ensure sustainable use of marine resources for DoD operations and training exercises. 2) Identify and map locations of DoD coral reef ecosystems. 3) Inventory and monitor coral resour...

A. Viana L. Schwartz P. Lobel S. Smith T. Egeland

2004-01-01

132

Intellectual Property Law and the Protection of Computer Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews the laws pertaining to copyrights, patents, and trade secrets, and discusses how each of these may be applied to the protection of computer programs. The comparative merits and limitations of each category of law are discussed and recent court decisions are summarized. (CLB)

Lomio, J. Paul

1990-01-01

133

NASA's planetary protection program as an astrobiology teaching module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently developing a teaching module on the NASA's Planetary Protection Program for UW-Parkside SENCER courses. SENCER stands for Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibility. It is a national initiative of the National Science Foundation (NSF), now in its fifth year, to improve science education by teaching basic sciences through the complex public issues of the 21st century. The Planetary Protection Program is one such complex public issue. Teaching astrobiology and the NASA's goals via the Planetary Protection module within the SENCER courses seems to be a good formula to reach large number of students in an interesting and innovative way. We shall describe the module that we are developing. It will be launched on our web site titled "Astrobiology at Parkside" (http://oldweb.uwp.edu/academic/chemistry/kolb/organic_chemistry/, or go to Google and then to Vera Kolb Home Page), and thus will be available for teaching to all interested parties.

Kolb, Vera M.

2005-09-01

134

40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND...

2013-07-01

135

40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND...

2009-07-01

136

40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND...

2010-07-01

137

Indoor radon II  

SciTech Connect

Because of the growing interest in and public concern about indoor radon, APCA, in April 1987, sponsored the Second International Specialty Conference on Indoor Radon. This book is the proceedings of this conference and includes discussions on: A current assessment of the nature of the problem; Issues related to health effects and risk assessment; The development of public and private sector initiatives; Research into methods of control and prevention; International perspectives; and Measurement methods and programs. The material is intended for the technically oriented and for those responsible for developing programs and initiatives to address this important public health issue. Contributors include federal, state, and provincial program officials and members of the academic and private sectors.

Not Available

1987-01-01

138

Accreditation of human research protection program: An Indian perspective  

PubMed Central

With the increasing number of clinical trials being placed in India, it is the collective responsibility of the Investigator sites, Government, Ethics Committees, and Sponsors to ensure that the trial subjects are protected from risks these studies can have, that subjects are duly compensated, and credible data generated. Most importantly, each institution/hospital should have a strong Human Research Protection Program to safe guard the trial subjects. In order to look at research with a comprehensive objective approach, there is a need for a formal auditing and review system by a recognized body. As of now, only the sponsors are monitoring/auditing their respective trials; however, there is an increasing need to perform a more detailed review and assessment of processes of the institution and the Ethics Committee. This challenge can be addressed by going for accreditation by a reputed association that encompasses-the institutions, the ethics committees, and researcher/research staff. Starting their journey for the accreditation process in late 2010, Kasturba Medical College and Hospital [KMC], Manipal, and Manipal Hospital Bangalore [MHB] received full Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs (AAHRPP) accreditation in Dec 2011a first in India. This article delves into the steps involved in applying for AAHRPP accreditation from an Indian Perspective, the challenges, advantages, and testimonials from the two hospitals on the application experience and how the accreditation has improved the Human Research Protection Program at these hospitals.

Bairy, K. L.; Pereira, Pratibha

2012-01-01

139

34 CFR 381.1 - What is the Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS General § 381...Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights program? This...and human rights of eligible individuals with disabilities. (Authority: Sec....

2013-07-01

140

S. 791: This Act may be cited as the Radon Information Act of 1991, introduced in the US Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, April 9, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This bill was introduced into the US Senate on April 9, 1991 to amend Title III of the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 USC. 2661 et seq.). This legislation will require certain information relating to radon to be made available in connection with certain real estate transactions. In addition, radon testing devices offered for sale will be required to be tested in the radon measurement proficiency program of the Environmental Protection Agency. Buyers of homes have the right to know about radon risks, radon testing, and radon abatement techniques before they purchase a home. The purposes of this bill are: to establish a procedure by which home buyers receive information about radon; and to provide radon-related information to prospective home buyers at the time of all home sale transactions involving mortgage loans that are secured by a first lien on residential real property and are federally insured, guaranteed, made, or assisted or are purchased by a federally chartered secondary mortgage market institution.

Not Available

1991-01-01

141

Radon in ground water of the Lower Susqehanna and Potomac River basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water samples collected from 267 wells were analyzed for radon as part of a water-quality reconnaissance of subunits of the Lower Susquehanna and Potomac River Basins conducted by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. Radon is a product of the radioactive decay of uranium. Airborne radon has been cited by the Surgeon General of the United States as the second-leading cause of lung cancer and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has identified ground-water supplies as possible contributing sources of indoor radon. Eighty percent of ground-water samples collected for this study were found to contain radon at activities greater than 300 pCi/L (picocuries per liter), the USEPA's proposed Maximum Contaminant Level for radon in drinking water, and 31 percent of samples contained radon at activities greater than 1,000 pCi/L. The 10 subunits where samples were collected were grouped into three classes - median ground-water radon activity less than 300 pCi/L, between 300 pCi/L and 1,000 pCi/L, and greater than 1,000 pCi/L. Subunits underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont Physiographic Province typically have the highest median ground-water radon activities (greater than 1,000 pCi/L); although there is a large variation in radon activities within most of the subunits. Lower median radon activities (between 300 pCi/L and 1,000 pCi/L) were found in ground water in subunits underlain by limestone and dolomite. Of three subunits underlain by sandstone and shale, one fell into each of the three radon-activity classes. The large variability within these subunits may be attributed to the fact that the uranium content of sandstone and shale is related to the uranium content of the sediments from which they formed.

Lindsey, Bruce D.; Ator, Scott W.

1996-01-01

142

Control of Indoor Radon and Radon Progeny Concentrations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air - restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon p...

R. G. Sextro

1985-01-01

143

Radon remediation and prevention status in 23 European countries.  

PubMed

Radon remediation and prevention aim at reducing indoor radon concentrations in the existing and new buildings. This paper gives an estimate of the number of dwellings where remediation or preventive measures have been applied so far in Europe. Questionnaires were sent to contact persons in national radiation protection authorities and radon-related research institutes. Answers from 23 European countries were obtained. Approximately 26 000 dwellings have been remediated in total. Millions of dwellings remain to be remediated and the number is increasing due to the rare use of radon prevention. These facts imply a need for an efficient radon strategy to promote radon remediation. Moreover, the importance of radon prevention in new construction and the regulations concerning radon in the national building codes should be emphasised. PMID:23771958

Holmgren, O; Arvela, H; Collignan, B; Jirnek, M; Ringer, W

2013-12-01

144

PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON RADON POTENTIAL MAPPING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents a workshop on radon potential mapping, in Gainesville, FL, on April 20, 1990. he workshop, part of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP), was designed to identify and discuss in an expert forum the technical issues associated with radon potential characte...

145

40 CFR 700.41 - Radon user fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radon user fees. 700.41 Section 700.41 ...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Fees § 700.41 Radon user fees. User fees relating to radon proficiency programs authorized under the...

2010-07-01

146

40 CFR 700.41 - Radon user fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radon user fees. 700.41 Section 700.41 ...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Fees § 700.41 Radon user fees. User fees relating to radon proficiency programs authorized under the...

2013-07-01

147

40 CFR 700.41 - Radon user fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...30 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Radon user fees. 700.41 Section 700.41 ...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Fees § 700.41 Radon user fees. User fees relating to radon proficiency programs authorized under the...

2009-07-01

148

Radon detection  

DOEpatents

A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01

149

Radon detection  

DOEpatents

A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element is described. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding. 3 figures.

MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

1994-01-25

150

Interpreting the radon transform using Prolog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radon transform is an important method for identifying linear features in a digital image. However, the images which the Radon transform generates are complex and require intelligent interpretation, to identify lines in the input image correctly. This article describes how the images can be pre-processed to make the spots in the Radon transform image more easily identified and describes Prolog programs which can recognize constellations of points in the Radon transform image and thereby identify geometric figures within the input image.

Batchelor, Bruce G.

1992-03-01

151

Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia Laboratories. [BWR; PWR  

SciTech Connect

Sandia Laboratories is executing a program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. This paper summarizes the activities of this ongoing program through December 1979. Characterization of electrically initiated fires revealed a margin of safety in the separation criteria of Regulatory Guide 1.75 for such fires in IEEE-383 qualified cable. However, tests confirmed that these guidelines and standards are not sufficient, in themselves, to protect against exposure fires. This paper describes both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness. It also describes full scale tests to determine the effects of walls and ceilings on fire propagation between cable trays.

Klamerus, L.J.

1980-01-01

152

Developing a model lifeline protection program for DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

A National Lifeline Standard Development Program is currently being conducted by FEMA and NIST. The Department of Energy is following these developments and supplementing them to meet Life-Safety and mission requirements for all DOE facilities as part of the Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation Plan. The task will be overseen by a DOE management team with technical guidance provided by a Steering Group of management and operating contractor representatives. The DOE will participate in the federal program by conducting a workshop on lifeline protection issues, developing an overall plan, organizing a Steering Group, and conducting a pilot study at a DOE facility.

Lowing, A.N.

1996-11-01

153

Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

Not Available

1991-08-27

154

Indoor radon  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this conference was to review past experiences and to characterize the current state of knowledge on measurement and control of indoor radon in the United States, Canada and other countries. The conference, held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was attended by 325 people representing government, industry, academia, and the international community. The proceedings includes papers in the following areas: Sources and distribution of indoor radon; Measurement methods; Exposure and health risks; Methods of control and costs; and International perspectives on environmental standards. A total of 23 papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Information Data Base and the International Nuclear Information System.

Not Available

1986-01-01

155

Radiation doses from radon in buildings.  

PubMed

Not until about 1970 was it possible to estimate the magnitude of the correlation between additional lung cancer frequency and radon daughter exposure in miners. In addition, it has been realised that high levels of radon daughters in homes may be found in all countries and therefore the interest in radon in buildings has rapidly increased during the last 10 years. Radon gas enters the house from underground, from building materials and in some cases from tap water. Indoor radon daughter concentrations vary between countries and regions. The absorbed dose in the basal cells of the bronchial epithelium based on an average of the population in Canada, U.S.A. and West Germany can be estimated to be about 1 mGy a-1 (average radon daughter concentration about 25 Bq m-3) for Great Britain about half of that value and for the Nordic countries about double this value. 300-3000 lung cancer cases (most probable 1100) may occur in the future in the Swedish population of 8.4 million from radon daughter exposure indoors today. This estimation is made by the National Institute of Radiation Protection. A lower estimate of 100-1000 lung cancer cases is made by the Swedish Cancer Committee. Efforts to decrease the exposure from radon daughters indoors have been made in some countries by establishing limits or recommendations for the radon or radon daughter concentration indoors. Measuring methods for finding houses with high radon daughter concentrations and effective building techniques in order to decrease the radon daughter concentrations in both existing and for planned buildings are available. PMID:2831438

Swedjemark, G A

1987-01-01

156

Assessment and management of residential radon health risks: a report from the health Canada radon workshop.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies of uranium miners and other underground miners have consistently shown miners exposed to high levels of radon to be at increased risk of lung cancer. More recently, concern has arisen about lung cancer risks among people exposed to lower levels of radon in homes. The current Canadian guideline for residential radon exposure was set in 1988 at 800 Bq/m(3). Because of the accumulation of a considerable body of new scientific evidence on radon lung cancer risks since that time, Health Canada sponsored a workshop to review the current state-of-the-science on radon health risks. The specific objectives of the workshop were (1) to collect and assess scientific information relevant to setting national radon policy in Canada, and (2) to gather information on social, political, and operational considerations in setting national policy. The workshop, held on 3-4 March 2004, was attended by 38 invited scientists, regulators, and other stakeholders from Canada and the United States. The presentations on the first day dealt primarily with scientific issues. The combined analysis of North American residential radon and lung cancer studies was reviewed. The analysis confirmed a small but detectable increase in lung cancer risk at residential exposure levels. Current estimates suggest that radon in homes is responsible for approximately 10% of all lung cancer deaths in Canada, making radon the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. This was followed by a perspective from an UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) working group on radon. There were two presentations on occupational exposures to radon and two presentations considered the possibility of radon as a causative factor for cardiovascular disease and for cancer in other organs besides the lung. The possible contribution of environmental tobacco smoke to lung cancers in nonsmokers was also considered. Areas for future research were identified. The second day was devoted to policy and operational issues. The presentations began with a perspective from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, followed by a history of radon policy development in Canada. Subsequent presentations dealt with the cost-effectiveness of radon mitigation, Canadian building codes and radon, and a summary of radon standards from around the world. Provincial representatives and a private consultant were given opportunities to present their viewpoints. A number of strategies for reducing residential radon exposure in Canada were recognized, including testing and mitigation of existing homes (on either a widespread or targeted basis) and changing the building code to require that radon mitigation devices be installed at the time a new home is constructed. The various elements of a comprehensive national radon policy were set forth. PMID:16608836

Tracy, Bliss L; Krewski, Daniel; Chen, Jing; Zielinski, Jan M; Brand, Kevin P; Meyerhof, Dorothy

2006-04-01

157

SITE-SPECIFIC PROTOCOL FOR MEASURING SOIL RADON POTENTIALS FOR FLORIDA HOUSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a protocol for site-specific measurement of radon potentials for Florida houses that is consistent with existing residential radon protection maps. The protocol gives further guidance on the possible need for radon-protective house construction features. In a...

158

Radon in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... are here: EPA Home Air Indoor Air Radon Health Risks Drinking Water Radon in Drinking Water Public Health ... States and community water systems for reducing radon health risks in both drinking water and indoor air quality, ...

159

Radon in Schools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., HVAC system design and operation) that influence radon entry and mitigation system design. It also discusses mitigation systems instal...

K. W. Leovic

1989-01-01

160

Radon: The Invisible Invader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief background on indoor radon and the health risks associated with radon exposure, with special emphasis on nonresidential buildings. One school district's experience in radon testing and monitoring is included. (MLF)

School Leader, 1987

1987-01-01

161

Radon Testing in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools may be a significant source of radon exposure for children and staff. Describes radon detection kits and technologies, when to use them, and what action to take given the results of a radon test. (MLF)

Wheeler, Robert

1989-01-01

162

U.S. planetary protection program: Implementation highlights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implementation of planetary protection in the United States space program has reflected the trend in policy from an absolute to a probabilistic prohibition of the contamination of the celestial bodies of the solar system. The early emphasis on spacecraft sterilization (e.g. Ranger) was replaced by the imposition of contamination control procedures on later missions such as Pioneer, Viking, and Voyager. Similarly, analytical and laboratory techniques were developed to demonstrate compliance with probabilistic requirements. Microbial burden reduction methods that are not hazardous for spacecraft reliability supplanted the abstract concept of sterilization. The United States implementation of planetary protection has been completely successful. In an exploration program that has included Mercury, Venus, Mars, the Jovian system, and the Saturnian system, there have been no accidental impacts or detection of false positives (terrestrial microbes). Further, the contamination control and microbial burden procedures have proved beneficial to spacecraft systems and on-board science instruments. We review in this paper the implementation of planetary protection procedures by the Pioneer (10 and 11), Viking and Voyager projects.

Barengoltz, J.; Stabekis, P. D.

163

Residential Radon Appears to Prevent Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Residential radon has been found to be associated with lung cancer in epidemiological/ecological studies and the researchers have inappropriately concluded that residential radon causes lung cancer. Their conclusion relates to the linear-no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis-based, risk-assessment paradigm; however, the LNT hypothesis has been invalidated in numerous studies. It is shown in this paper that our hormetic relative risk (HRR) model is consistent with lung cancer data where detailed measurements of radon in each home were carried out. Based on the HRR model, low-level radon radioactive progeny is credited for activated natural protection (ANP) against lung cancer including smoking-related lung cancer. The proportion B(x) (benefit function) of ANP beneficiaries increases as the average radon level x increases to near the Environmental Protection Agencys action level of 4 picocuries/L (approximately 150 Bq m?3). As the average level of radon increases to somewhat above the action level, ANP beneficiaries progressively decrease to zero (B(x) decreases to 0), facilitating the occurrence of smoking-related lung cancers as well as those related to other less important risk factors. Thus, residential radon does not appear to cause lung cancer but rather to protect, in an exposure-level-dependent manner, from its induction by other agents (e.g., cigarette-smoke-related carcinogens).

Scott, Bobby R.

2011-01-01

164

Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program.  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) Program. During each such visit, the PSA documents information about the facility's current CIKR protection posture and overall security awareness. The primary goals for ECIP site visits (DHS 2009) are to: (1) inform facility owners and operators of the importance of their facilities as an identified high-priority CIKR and the need to be vigilant in light of the ever-present threat of terrorism; (2) identify protective measures currently in place at these facilities, provide comparisons of CIKR protection postures across like assets, and track the implementation of new protective measures; and (3) enhance existing relationships among facility owners and operators; DHS; and various Federal, State, local tribal, and territorial partners. PSAs conduct ECIP visits to assess overall site security; educate facility owners and operators about security; help owners and operators identify gaps and potential improvements; and promote communication and information sharing among facility owners and operators, DHS, State governments, and other security partners. Information collected during ECIP visits is used to develop metrics; conduct sector-by-sector and cross-sector vulnerability comparisons; identify security gaps and trends across CIKR sectors and subsectors; establish sector baseline security survey results; and track progress toward improving CIKR security through activities, programs, outreach, and training (Snyder 2009). The data being collected are used in a framework consistent with the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) risk criteria (DHS 2009). The NIPP framework incorporates consequence, threat, and vulnerability components and addresses all hazards. The analysis of the vulnerability data needs to be reproducible, support risk analysis, and go beyond protection. It also needs to address important security/vulnerability topics, such as physical security, cyber security, systems analysis, and dependencies and interdependencies. This report provides an overview of the approach being developed to estimate vulnerability and provide vulnerability comparisons for sectors and subsectors. the information will be used to assist DHS in analyzing existing protective measures and vulnerability at facilities, to identify potential ways to reduce vulnerabilities, and to assist in preparing sector risk estimates. The owner/operator receives an analysis of the data collected for a specific asset, showing a comparison between the facility's protection posture/vulnerability index and those of DHS sector/subsector sites visited. This comparison gives the owner/operator an indication of the asset's security strengths and weaknesses that may be contributing factors to its vulnerability and protection posture. The information provided to the owner/operator shows how the asset compares to other similar assets within the asset's sector or subsector. A 'dashboard' display is used to illustrate the results in a convenient format. The dashboard allows the owner/operator to analyze the implementation of additional protective measures and to illustrate how such actions would impact the asset's Protective Measures Index (PMI) or Vulnerability Index (VI).

Fisher, R. E.; Buehring, W. A.; Whitfield, R. G.; Bassett, G. W.; Dickinson, D. C.; Haffenden, R. A.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; LANL

2009-10-14

165

Radon: implications for the health professional  

SciTech Connect

Radon is a colorless, odorless gas formed by radioactive decay of radium and uranium, which are naturally present in the earth's crust. When concentrated indoors, this invisible gas becomes a potential health hazard. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that up to 20,000 lung cancer deaths annually can be attributed to prolonged radon exposure. Radon is an important health issue that should be understood by all health care professionals. This paper discusses some of the important issues regarding radon, such as the incidences of lung cancer believed to be attributable to radon, the high-risk areas in the United States, federal safety guidelines, and public apathy. These issues and their impact on the health care required by professionals, especially nurse practitioners, are discussed.

Romano, C.A.

1990-01-01

166

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR 264.90 through 264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] 6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

2005-07-01

167

Geochemistry of atmospheric radon and radon products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following topics are discussed: measurement of the radon-222 flux to the atmosphere; measurement of the lead-210 atmospheric flux; and the mean residence time of aerosols. A total global model is proposed for radon-222 and its daughters.

K. K. Turekian; Y. Nozaki; L. K. Benninger

1977-01-01

168

Economic Evaluation of the US Environmental Protection Agency's SunWise Program: Sun Protection Education for Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.The SunWise School Program is a school-based sun safety education pro- gram that was developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency and aims to teach children how to protect themselves from overexposure to the sun. The objec- tives of this study were to assess the health benefits of the SunWise School Program and use economic analysis to determine the program's

Jessica W. Kyle; James K. Hammitt; Henry W. Lim; Alan C. Geller; Luke H. Hall-Jordan; Edward W. Maibach; Edward C. De Fabo; Mark C. Wagner

2010-01-01

169

Radon programme: presence and future.  

PubMed

An overview of radon programme experience is presented. The paper summarises broad topics concerning radon issue: philosophy of radon policy, radon measurements strategies with respect to indoor radon variation, progress in radon measurement of an individual house (radon diagnosis), national programmes, the role of preventive measures and interventions with respect to existing and future exposure and knowledge of radon risk, problems of remediation strategies, radon mapping process and sense of delineation of radon prone areas, public awareness on radon issue and publicity campaign. Some research activities are proposed aiming at effective solutions for radon issues in the future. PMID:18420575

Hulka, J

2008-01-01

170

Indoor radon and decay products: Concentrations, causes, and control strategies  

SciTech Connect

This report is another in the on going technical report series that addresses various aspects of the DOE Radon Research Program. It provides an overview of what is known about the behavior of radon and its decay products in the indoor environment and examines the manner in which several important classes of factors -- structural, geological, and meteorological -- affect indoor radon concentrations. Information on US indoor radon concentrations, currently available monitoring methods and novel radon control strategies are also explored. 238 refs., 22 figs., 9 tabs.

Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

1990-11-01

171

IRS' Security Program Requires Improvements to Protect Confidentiality of Income Tax Information: Department of the Treasury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

IRS designed a security program to protect the confidentiality of tax data under its control. But weaknesses in carrying out the program are widespread and some essential procedures and controls are lacking completely. Because of the program shortcomings,...

1977-01-01

172

Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories is executing a program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. This paper summarizes the activities of this ongoing program through October 1980. Characterization of electrically initiated fires revealed a margin of safety in the separation criteria of Regulatory Guide 1.75 for such fires in IEEE-383 qualified cable. However, tests confirmed that these guidelines and standards are not sufficient, in themselves, to protect against exposure fires. This paper describes both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness. It also describes full scale tests to determine the effects of walls and ceilings on fire propagation between cable trays. Some small-scale scoping tests have been conducted to investigate the effects of varying the furnace pressure on cable penetration performance in the ASTM-E-119 Fire Test. The Sandia Fire Research Facility has been completed and a series of tests have been run to assess the effectiveness of Halon-1301 as a suppression system in extinguishing deep-seated cable-tray fires. It was found that given sufficient soak times Halon systems are effective in extinguishing such fires.

Klamerus, L.J.

1980-01-01

173

International intercomparison of measuring instruments for radon/thoron gas and radon short-lived daughter products in the NRPI Prague.  

PubMed

During the 7th European Conference on Protection Against Radon at Home and at Work held in the autumn of 2013 in Prague, the second intercomparison of measuring instruments for radon and its short-lived decay products and the first intercomparison of radon/thoron gas discriminative passive detectors in mix field of radon/thoron were organised by and held at the Natural Radiation Division of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in Prague. In total, 14 laboratories from 11 different countries took part in the 2013 NRPI intercomparison. They submitted both continuous monitors for the measurement of radon gas and equivalent equilibrium radon concentration in a big NRPI chamber (48 m(3)) and sets of passive detectors including radon/thoron discriminative for the measurement of radon gas in the big chamber and thoron gas in a small thoron chamber (150 dm(3)). PMID:24729560

Jlek, K; Ha, M; Kotk, L; Thomas, J; Tomek, L

2014-07-01

174

Radon Pollution Control Act of 1987. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Tourism, and Hazardous Materials of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, April 23, 1987  

SciTech Connect

Ten witnesses from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), state and local environmental agencies, teachers, health providers, and others testified on the risks and possible control measures of radon gas emissions in homes. Home tests are finding as many as 40% to have unacceptable levels, but EPA and other government agencies have waited for the media to alert the population. The witnesses were asked to suggest ways in which EPA can initiate assistance in this area in order to protect public health. EPA spokesmen reviewed their programs, including the Radon Action Program, which began operating in 1985. Material submitted for the record by EPA follows the testimony.

Not Available

1987-01-01

175

Exposure to atmospheric radon.  

PubMed Central

We measured radon (222Rn) concentrations in Iowa and Minnesota and found that unusually high annual average radon concentrations occur outdoors in portions of central North America. In some areas, outdoor concentrations exceed the national average indoor radon concentration. The general spatial patterns of outdoor radon and indoor radon are similar to the spatial distribution of radon progeny in the soil. Outdoor radon exposure in this region can be a substantial fraction of an individual's total radon exposure and is highly variable across the population. Estimated lifetime effective dose equivalents for the women participants in a radon-related lung cancer study varied by a factor of two at the median dose, 8 mSv, and ranged up to 60 mSv (6 rem). Failure to include these doses can reduce the statistical power of epidemiologic studies that examine the lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Steck, D J; Field, R W; Lynch, C F

1999-01-01

176

78 FR 65045 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...45 CFR Parts 144, 146, 147, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program...CMS-9964-F3] RIN 0938-AR82; RIN 0938-AR74 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program...final rule implements provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act...

2013-10-30

177

Comparisons between soil radon and indoor radon  

SciTech Connect

Several thousand indoor radon measurements have been obtained for homes in northern Virginia. Compilations of these data according to the geologic units under the homes show that some units have relatively high or relatively low medium indoor radon levels, and that these differences persist through all four seasons. An attempt to determine if soil radon and soil permeability could yield similar results, in terms of relative indoor radon, was not successful. Care should be taken in using such measurements to characterize the potential for radon problems in established communities and in areas of as-yet undeveloped property.

Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). Chemistry Dept.

1999-10-01

178

Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

Droppo, J.G.

1985-04-01

179

Application of the advanced radon diagnosis methods in the indoor building environment.  

PubMed

The health risk and dose calculations from exposure to indoor radon and its decay products are generally based on long-term integral measurements and standard ICRP recommendations. In this context, the results of assessments predicate more about human activities inside the building instead of a quality and an effectiveness of applied measures against the radon. The present paper is focused on a set of different measuring techniques and methods practically used for a classification of buildings regarding to the radon protection requirements. The fundamental quantitative and qualitative procedures of radon transport pathways and radon sources analysis, commonly named as radon diagnostic methods are performed in detail. PMID:18390535

Fronka, Ales; Moucka, Ladislav; Cechk, Toms

2008-01-01

180

Guidance for Applicants for State Wellhead Protection Program Assistance Funds under the Safe Drinking Water Act.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) establish a new Wellhead Protection (WHP) Program to protect ground waters that supply wells and wellfields contributing drinking water to public water supply systems. The Guidance outlines procedu...

1987-01-01

181

Geometric programming prediction of design trends for OMV protective structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global optimization trends of protective honeycomb structural designs for spacecraft subject to hypervelocity meteroid and space debris are presented. This nonlinear problem is first formulated for weight minimization of the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) using a generic monomial predictor. Five problem formulations are considered, each dependent on the selection of independent design variables. Each case is optimized by considering the dual geometric programming problem. The dual variables are solved for in terms of the generic estimated exponents of the monomial predictor. The primal variables are then solved for by conversion. Finally, parametric design trends are developed for ranges of the estimated regression parameters. Results specify nonmonotonic relationships for the optimal first and second sheet mass per unit areas in terms of the estimated exponents.

Mog, R. A.; Horn, J. R.

1990-01-01

182

Protection in good and bad times ? the Turkish green card health program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the equity and financial protection implications of the expansion of the Green Card (Yesil Kart) non-contributory health insurance program in Turkey during the growth years from 2003 to 2008. It also considers the program's protective impact during the economic crisis in 2009. The authors find that the rapid expansion of the program between 2003 and 2008 was

Meltem A. Aran; Jesko S. Hentschel

2012-01-01

183

Radon monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

A year-long radon monitoring program began in July 1990 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to determine the background concentrations of radon (222Rn) in specific areas of interest. Electret-passive radon monitors (E-PERMs) were the primary measurement instruments used in one configuration to measure radon concentrations and in another configuration to measure the location-by-location gamma background radiation. Time-integrated radon concentrations for the first quarter of monitoring indicated that both surface and underground radon concentrations were less than 1.0 pCi/liter and that concrete liners of the Air Intake Shaft and Waste Shaft do not appear to increase the radon concentrations underground. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

Pendlebury, L.S. (USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Carlsbad, NM (USA). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Office); Boyer, R.D.; Cordes, O.L. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (USA). Waste Isolation Div.)

1991-01-01

184

Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

NONE

1996-06-01

185

Hanford Protective Barriers Program water-erosion studies, FY 1989  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting the water-erosion control task of the Hanford Protective Barriers Program to assess barrier stability against soil erosion and slumping. The purpose of the barriers is to protect shallow-burial waste sites at the Hanford Site from water infiltration, biointrusion, and surficial erosion for up to 10,000 years. These aboveground, mounded structures will consist of layered, fine-grained sediment and rock designed to direct surface- and ground-water pathways away from the buried waste. The fine-grained sediment for the barrier will be obtained from the McGee Ranch on the Hanford Site. The purpose of the FY 1989 field work was to test two hypotheses concerning the behavior of McGee Ranch soil: runoff may occur on very dry, fine-grained sediment prior to complete saturation and rainsplash is an important erosional process for this type of sediment. This report describes plot construction, sediment sampling, and calibration testing of the rainfall simulator. Baseline stratigraphic and sedimentologic data include bulk density and textural properties of sediment in the test plots. Baseline precipitation data consist of predetermined raindrop sizes, rainfall intensities, plot coverage, and operational data for the simulator. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Hoover, K.A.; Cadwell, L.L.; Walters, W.H.

1990-06-01

186

25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds awarded...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

2013-04-01

187

25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program? 63.30...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

2013-04-01

188

U.S. EPA OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OVERVIEW OF CURRENT RADON RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives as overview of current radon research being conducted by EPA. n 1984, EPA began a research program to develop and demonstrate radon mitigation alternatives. ince then, the program has evolved from an initial focus on houses with severely elevated radon levels in B...

189

Review of long term radon studies at the gran sasso underground laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper are presented the measurements of radon concentration taken in the period 1991 May 1994 in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory, Assergi (L'Aquila), Italy. The radon level was reduced to acceptable values from the point of view of radiation protection and low background radiation to the experiments. The radon concentration depends strongly on the ventilation of the

A. Bassignani; B. B. Bam; G. Colombo; H. Dekhissi; R. Fresca Fantoni; G. Giacomelli; G. Maltoni Giacomelli; C. Sartorio

1995-01-01

190

Controlling the Radon Threat Needn't Be Another Costly Nightmare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a study of 3,000 classrooms in 130 schools in 16 states, the Environmental Protection Agency urged all schools to conduct tests for radon. Explains a 6-step screening test, methods of reducing radon concentrations, and how the risk from radon exposure compares with other risks. (MLF)

Freije, Matthew R.

1989-01-01

191

Indoor radon pollution: Control and mitigation. June 1978-December 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for June 1978-December 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the control and mitigation of radon pollution in homes and commercial buildings. Citations cover radon transport studies in buildings and soils, remedial action proposals on contaminated buildings, soil venting, building ventilation, sealants, filtration systems, water degassing, reduction of radon sources in building materials, and evaluation of existing radon mitigation programs including their cost effectiveness. Analysis and detection of radon and radon toxicity are covered in separate published bibliographies. (Contains 129 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-01-01

192

RADON MITIGATION IN CRAWL SPACE HOUSES IN NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE  

EPA Science Inventory

Approximately 15 percent of existing U.S. houses are built over dirt crawl spaces, and little or no data exist relative to radon mitigation techniques for this style of house construction. The paper discusses and Environmental Protection Agency radon mitigation demonstration. A v...

193

Environmental Challenges: Radon and Carbon Dioxide in School Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many school buildings with high radon levels also exhibit high carbon dioxide levels that starve the minds of students for oxygen. Administrators must realize that the world's best educator cannot teach minds made dysfunctional by their environment. This article describes Environmental Protection Agency testing results and offers radon monitoring

Krueger, James

1991-01-01

194

FEASIBILITY AND APPROACH FOR MAPPING RADON POTENTIALS IN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an analysis of the feasibility and approach for developing statewide maps of radon potentials in Florida. he maps would provide a geographic basis for implementing new radon-protective building construction standards to reduce public health risks from ...

195

National radon database documentation. Volume 5. The EPA/state residential radon surveys: Years 5 and 6. Final report 1986-1992  

SciTech Connect

The National Radon Database has been developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to distribute information collected in two recently completed radon surveys: the EPA/State Residential Radon Surveys, Years 1 to 6; and The National Residential Radon Survey. The goals of the state radon surveys were twofold. Some measure of the distribution of radon levels among residences was desired for major geographic areas within each state and for each state as a whole. In addition, it was desired that each state survey would be able to identify areas of potentially high residential radon concentrations (hot spots) in the state, enabling the state to focus its attention on areas where indoor radon concentrations might pose a greater health threat. The document discusses year 5, 1990-91. The areas surveyed are: Arkansas; Illinois; Maryland; Eastern Cherokee Nation; Mississippi; Texas; and Washington.

Not Available

1993-01-01

196

Environmental Assessment for moving the Pacific Northwest Laboratory radon generators from Life Sciences Laboratory II, Richland North Area, to Life Sciences Laboratory I, 300 Area, and their continued use in physical and biological research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) radon generators are a core resource of the overall U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Radon Research Program and are administratively controlled within the ''Radon Hazards in Homes'' project. This project primarily ...

I. C. Nelson

1993-01-01

197

24 CFR 5.363 - Housing programs: Protection of the pet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Housing programs: Protection of the pet. 5.363 Section 5.363 Housing and...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

2010-04-01

198

Radon in private drinking water wells.  

PubMed

At least 10 % of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bql(-1). This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. PMID:24714110

Otahal, P; Merta, J; Burian, I

2014-07-01

199

Radon: A health problem  

SciTech Connect

Nurses can and should function as effective teachers about the potential hazards to health of radon contamination in the home as well as become activists in the development of health care policy on radon.

Pucci, J.; Gaston, S.

1990-01-01

200

68 FR 50533 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Notice 18 for Significant New Alternatives Policy Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...impervious butyl gloves, eye protection, chemical resistant aprons...guidelines in the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 2001...Policy (SNAP) program. The major provisions of section 612...suppression and explosion protection; [sbull] Sterilants...updates to these lists as separate notices of...

2003-08-21

201

National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will describe the NREL program for addressing lightning protection for wind turbines. A test program will begin this summer at the Central and South West Services Inc. (CSW) wind farm near Fort Davis, Texas, to assess lightning risk, the frequency of lightning strikes on wind turbines compared to risk assessment predictions, and the effectiveness of some protection techniques.

E. Muljadi; B. McNiff

1997-01-01

202

Radon and lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon, an inert gas released during the decay of uranium-238, is ubiquitous in indoor and outdoor air and contaminates many underground mines. Extensive epidemiologic evidence from studies of underground miners and complementary animal data have documented that radon causes lung cancer in smokers and nonsmokers. Radon must also be considered a potentially important cause of lung cancer for the general

Jm Samet

1989-01-01

203

RADON CONTROL STRATEGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter covers strategies that can be used to effectively reduce elevated radon levels in buildings. t provides an overview in diagnosing radon problems and in selecting radon control strategies both in existing structures and in new construction. t covers methods for diagnos...

204

Mapping the geogenic radon potential of the eastern Canary Islands.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main contribution of indoor radon comes from soils and thus, the knowledge of the concentration of this gas in soils is important for estimating the risk of finding high radon indoor concentrations. To characterize the behavior of radon in soils, it is common to use the a quantity named Radon Potential which results of a combination of properties of the soil itself and from the underlying rock, such as concentration and distribution of radium, porosity, permeability, the moisture content and meteorological parameters, among others. In this work, the results three year of campaigns of measurement radon gas as well as the permeability in soils of the Eastern Canary Islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) are presented. By combining these two parameters and through the use of geostatistic interpolation techniques, the radon potential of soils is estimated and it is used to carry on a classification of the territory into hazard zones according to their potential for radon emanation. To measure the radon soil gas a probe equipped with a "lost" sharp tip is inserted to the desired sampling depth. One of the characteristics of the Canary Islands is the absence of developed soils and so the bedrock is found typically at very shallow depth. This fact has led us to adopt a sampling depth of 50 cm at most. The probe is connected to the continuous radon monitor Durridge RAD7 equipped with a solid-state alpha spectrometer to determine concentration radon using the activity its short-lived progeny. Dried soil air is delivered to the RAD7 radon monitor by pumping. A half hour counting time for all sampling points has been taken. In parallel to the radon measurement campaign, the permeability of soils has also been determined at each point using the permeameter RADON-JOK. The principle of operation of this equipment consists of air withdrawal by means of negative pressure. The gas permeability is then calculated using the known flow of air flowing through the probe using a calibrated nomogram. As results, maps of radon in soils have been developed for the three islands to identify areas where may appear high activity concentrations of radon due to natural sources. Finally to determine the radon potential of soils analyzed we applied a procedure to classify the radon areas in several levels of risk using the measured values of radon activity concentration and soil permeability. Acknowledgments: This work was financed by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) through a grant in its R&D program 2009 and by the European Development Fund (ERDF) through a research project program 2007 granted by Canary Agency for Research, Innovation and Information Society (ACIISI) of the Canary Islands.

Rubiano, Jess G.; Alonso, Hector; Arnedo, Miguel. A.; Tejera, Alicia; Martel, Pablo; Gil, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Rafael; Gonzlez, Jonay

2014-05-01

205

Interlaboratory comparisons for passive radon measuring devices at BfS.  

PubMed

Since 2003, the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) has conducted annual interlaboratory comparisons for passive radon measuring devices in order to ensure the quality of these measurements. Passive radon devices which use solid state nuclear track detectors, electrets or activated charcoal can be tested. The exposures of radon devices are carried out in the radon calibration laboratory at BfS. Radon activity concentrations are traced back to the national standard, being established at the National Institute of Physics and Metrology (PTB). According to the national guideline, radon services which offer radon monitoring at workplaces have to participate in the intercomparisons and prove the suitability of their radon devices for the measurements. PMID:17562644

Beck, T R; Buchrder, H; Foerster, E; Schmidt, V

2007-01-01

206

QA programme for radon and its short-lived progeny measuring instruments in NRPI Prague.  

PubMed

To subserve the institutional research and tasks coming out from the Czech National Radon Programme, a new QA programme to calibrate all the known types of devices that measure radon and its short-lived progeny was developed at the Department of Radon mobile group of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) at Prague. The programme also included calibration of instruments measuring a unique quantity of unattached and attached fractions of short- lived radon progeny Generally, NRPI declares estimation of radon concentration during all routine calibration measurements with an overall uncertainty <5% (one sigma) and of equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration with an overall uncertainty <10% (one sigma). The results of the comparative measurements of the unattached and attached fractions of each short-lived radon progeny carried out with a comparing continuous monitor Fritra 4 in the German reference radon chamber at PTB Braunschweig indicated an acceptable level of agreement, up to 10%. PMID:18440962

Jlek, K; Thomas, J; Brabec, M

2008-01-01

207

Radon and lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

Radon, an inert gas released during the decay of uranium-238, is ubiquitous in indoor and outdoor air and contaminates many underground mines. Extensive epidemiologic evidence from studies of underground miners and complementary animal data have documented that radon causes lung cancer in smokers and nonsmokers. Radon must also be considered a potentially important cause of lung cancer for the general population, which is exposed through contamination of indoor air by radon from soil, water, and building materials. This review describes radon's sources, levels in U.S. homes, dosimetry, the epidemiologic evidence from studies of miners and the general population, and the principal, recent risk assessments.91 references.

Samet, J.M.

1989-05-10

208

Radon: Detection and treatment  

SciTech Connect

Within the last few years, natural radon exposure in non-industrial settings, primarily homes, has become a health concern. Research has demonstrated that many homes throughout the United States have radon concentrations much higher than the legal federal limits set for miners. Thousands of unsuspecting people are being exposed to high levels of radiation. It is estimated that up to 15 percent of lung cancers are caused from radon. This is a significant health risk. With basic knowledge of the current information on radon, a primary health care provider can address patients' radon concerns and make appropriate referrals.

Loken, S.; Loken, T. (Salt Lake City Veterans Administration Medical Center, UT (USA))

1989-11-01

209

EVALUATION OF WATERBORNE RADON IMPACT ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program was conducted with two objectives: (1) evaluation of waterborne radon impacts on indoor air quality, and (2) assessment of available control technologies to limit indoor exposures to radon and its decay products. This report contains a review of radon's phys...

210

Human Lung Cancer Risks from Radon - Part III - Evidence of Influence of Combined Bystander and Adaptive Response Effects on Radon Case-Control Studies - A Microdose Analysis  

PubMed Central

Since the publication of the BEIR VI (1999) report on health risks from radon, a significant amount of new data has been published showing various mechanisms that may affect the ultimate assessment of radon as a carcinogen, in particular the potentially deleterious Bystander Effect (BE) and the potentially beneficial Adaptive Response radio-protection (AR). The case-control radon lung cancer risk data of the pooled 13 European countries radon study (Darby et al 2005, 2006) and the 8 North American pooled study (Krewski et al 2005, 2006) have been evaluated. The large variation in the odds ratios of lung cancer from radon risk is reconciled, based on the large variation in geological and ecological conditions and variation in the degree of adaptive response radio-protection against the bystander effect induced lung damage. The analysis clearly shows Bystander Effect radon lung cancer induction and Adaptive Response reduction in lung cancer in some geographical regions. It is estimated that for radon levels up to about 400 Bq m?3 there is about a 30% probability that no human lung cancer risk from radon will be experienced and a 20% probability that the risk is below the zero-radon, endogenic spontaneous or perhaps even genetically inheritable lung cancer risk rate. The BEIR VI (1999) and EPA (2003) estimates of human lung cancer deaths from radon are most likely significantly excessive. The assumption of linearity of risk, by the Linear No-Threshold Model, with increasing radon exposure is invalid.

Leonard, Bobby E.; Thompson, Richard E.; Beecher, Georgia C.

2012-01-01

211

The Environmental protection agency industrial technology transfer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today TAC consists of a full service information center and five programs, which are: (1) our industrial program; (2) the energy information center; (3) the business and industry extension program; (4) the remote sensing program; and (5) the center for environmental research and development.

Suter, K. H.

1974-01-01

212

Design of an airborne plutonium survey program for personnel protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various options were considered for surveying and real-time monitoring for airborne plutonium for optimum protection of personnel. Placement of samplers, dilution factors, and analysis time were considered in the strategy for achieving regulatory compliance and maintaining internal dose as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). It was found that protection was relatively insensitive to placement as was sensitivity of detection. It

J. L. Alvarez; W. S. Bennett; T. L. Davidson

1994-01-01

213

THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has directed much attention to watersheds and water quality during its tenure as the United States Federal Agency charged with protection of human health and the environment. Watershed research as a vehicle to understand the interaction ...

214

Radon-hazard potential the Beaver basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Indoor-radon levels in the Beaver basin of southwestern Utah are the highest recorded to date in Utah, ranging from 17.5 to 495 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Because the U.S. Environment Protection Agency considers indoor-radon levels above 4 pCi/L to represent a risk of lung cancer from long-term exposure, the Utah Geological Survey is preparing a radon-hazard-potential map for the area to help prioritize indoor testing and evaluate the need for radon-resistant construction. Radon is a chemically inert radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium-238, which is commonly found in rocks and soils. Soil permeability, depth to ground water, and uranium/thorium content of source materials control the mobility and concentration of radon in the soil. Once formed, radon diffuses into the pore space of the soil and then to the atmosphere or into buildings by pressure-driven flow of air or additional diffusion. The Beaver basin has been a topographic and structural depression since late Miocene time. Paleocene to Miocene volcanic and igneous rocks border the basin. Uraniferous alluvial-fan, piedmont-slope, flood-plain, and lacustrine sediments derived from the surrounding volcanic rocks fill the basin. A soil-gas radon and ground radioactivity survey in the Beaver basin shows that soils have high levels of radon gas. In this survey, uranium concentrations range from 3 to 13 parts per million (ppm) and thorium concentrations range from 10 to 48 ppm. Radon concentrations in the soil gas ranged from 85 to 3,500 pCi/L. The highest concentrations of uranium, thorium, and radon gas and the highest radon-hazard-potential are in the well-drained permeable soils in the lower flood- plain deposits that underlie the city of Beaver.

Bishop, C.E. [Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1995-06-01

215

Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program  

Microsoft Academic Search

ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program's inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy-efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open

Marla C. Sanchez; Richard E. Brown; Carrie Webber; Gregory K. Homan

2008-01-01

216

Mitigating factors on air concentrations of radon emanating from different granite samples  

SciTech Connect

Continuous exposure to increased air concentrations of radon in living areas is to be avoided according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and several published reports. Radon concentrations in ambient air are influenced by several factors related to the nature of the radon source itself, environmental conditions, and the presence of mitigating factors, if any. In this study, crushed granite samples of different types, particle diameters, and moisture contents were compared in simplified test systems with regard to radon emanation from the samples. The effects of selected mitigating factors, namely, ventilation and different barriers to diffusion of emanated radon were determined.

Qari, T.M.; Mamoon, A.M.; Abdul-Fattah, A.F. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia))

1991-11-01

217

Indoor Radon: The Deadliest Pollutant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the origin, occurrence, and effects of radon gas. Cites studies which attribute 5,000 to 20,000 deaths per year to radon exposure and the synergistic effect between radon and smoking. Explains ways to reduce risks. (RT)

Kerr, Richard A.

1988-01-01

218

Establishing a Human Research Protection Program in a Combatant Command.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extensive United States combat operations commenced for the first time in over decade in 2003. Early in 2004 there was no human research protection regulatory review and approval mechanism based in a deployed military combatant command. The absence of suc...

J. B. Holcomb J. C. Thompson L. R. Brosch P. R. Cordts

2008-01-01

219

RADON REDUCTION IN A CRAWL SPACE HOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is drawn from the soil into a house when low air pressure exists in the house. This is a commonplace environmental hazard in the United States, Canada, and northern Europe. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing ...

220

DURABILITY OF SUBSLAB DEPRESSURIZATION RADON MITIGATION SYSTEMPERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a review of the quarterly performance ofsub-slab depressurization (SSD) radon mitigation systems in eighthouses in the New Jersey (NJ) Piedmont study and houses in whichthe NJ Department of Environmental Protection measurements haveindicated operation a...

221

Radon assay and purification techniques  

SciTech Connect

Radon is a source of background in many astroparticle physics experiments searching for rare low energy events. In this paper an overview about radon in the field is given including radon detection techniques, radon sources and material screening with respect to radon emanation. Finally, also the problem of long-lived radioactive {sup 222}Rn-daughters and the question of gas purification from radon is addressed.

Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fr Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fr Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-08-08

222

Radon assay and purification techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon is a source of background in many astroparticle physics experiments searching for rare low energy events. In this paper an overview about radon in the field is given including radon detection techniques, radon sources and material screening with respect to radon emanation. Finally, also the problem of long-lived radioactive 222Rn-daughters and the question of gas purification from radon is addressed.

Simgen, Hardy

2013-08-01

223

Privacy: Total Information Awareness Programs and Related Information Access, Collection, and Protection Laws.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the Total Information Awareness (TIA) programs in the Defense Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the Department of Defense, and related information access, collection, and protection laws. TIA is a new technology under development t...

G. M. Stevens

2003-01-01

224

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This technology ...

225

ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Protective Liner Systems, Inc., Epoxy Mastic, PLS-614  

EPA Science Inventory

The Protective Liner Systems International, Inc. Epoxy Mastic PLS-614 coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and T...

226

76 FR 16000 - Voluntary Protection Programs Information; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0056] Voluntary Protection Programs...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for public...SUMMARY: OSHA solicits public comments concerning...

2011-03-22

227

78 FR 46799 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections of Information From Applicant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 272 [FNS-2009-0024] RIN 0584-AD91 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections...Applicant Households AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION:...

2013-08-02

228

76 FR 28165 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections of Information From Applicant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 272 [FNS-2009-0024] RIN 0584-AD91 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections...Applicant Households AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION:...

2011-05-16

229

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

230

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation-protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A Practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

231

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: WET-WEATHER FLOW/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program which was established to overcome the numerous impediments to commercialization experienced by developers of innovative environmental technologies. ...

232

STATUS OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENCODRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Status of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Susan Laws. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC. In response to emergi...

233

Complainants Did Not Always Receive Appropriate Investigations Under the Whistleblower Protection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) created the Whistleblower Protection Program to enforce Section 11(c) of the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act of 1970, which prohibits employers from retaliating against employees who exerci...

2010-01-01

234

75 FR 23783 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Sector-Specific Agency Executive Management Office...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Sector-Specific Agency Executive Management...Collection Request should be forwarded to NPPD/IP/SSA EMO, Attn.: Esther Langer, Esther...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On behalf of DHS, IP manages the Department's program to...

2010-05-04

235

75 FR 41213 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection...an information collection entitled, ``IP Data Call.'' This is a correction notice...published 60-day notice to read, ``IP Data Call Survey.'' There are no...

2010-07-15

236

The Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program Developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) was signed into law on 3 August 1996. FQPA amended both laws under which the Environmental Protection Agency manages the regulatory process for pesticide registration and use in the United States. Many new requirements were incorporated into these two laws, including the development of a screening program, using appropriate validated test systems and other

Penelope A. Fenner-Crisp; Anthony F. Maciorowski; Gary E. Timm

2000-01-01

237

69 FR 58903 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Notice 19 for Significant New Alternatives Policy Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...New Data The Environmental Protection Agency published in the...information, EPA published two correction notices in the...Policy (SNAP) program. The major provisions of section 612...suppression and explosion protection; Sterilants; Aerosols...updates to these lists as separate notices of rulemaking...Suppression and Explosion...

2004-10-01

238

Evaluation of a Stress Management Program in a Child Protection Agency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High stress levels experienced by child protection workers have been well documented. This study examined the effectiveness of a stress management program in a child protection agency. Subjects were case workers, immediate supervisors, and clerical staff; 320 subjects participated in pretesting and 279 subjects participated in posttesting.

Cahill, Janet; Feldman, Lenard H.

239

A theoretical study of radon measurement with activated charcoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of radon in a bed of activated charcoal is described by diffusion equations. An analytical solution of these equations is presented for the case of constant radon concentration in the atmosphere. The solutions are given separately for short term and long term exposure. An analytical form of the calibration constant f for long term exposure and constant radon concentration in air, was found to be f=kp {D}/{?}S {sinh{?}/{D}l }/{cosh{?}/{D}l } A numerical method and computer code based on the method of finite elements is developed for the case of variable radon concentration in air. This program simulates radon adsorption by the activated charcoal bed, enabling determination of sensitivity. The dependence of sensitivity on different parameters, such as temperature, thickness of the charcoal, etc. was studied using this program.

Nikezi?, Dragoslav; Uroevi?, Vlade

1998-02-01

240

Laser protective eyewear program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The proliferation of lasers at Los Alamos focused considerable attention on providing adequate eye protection for experimenters involved in the use of a wide variety of nonionizing radiation. Experiments with fast-pulsed lasers (Nd:YAG, HF, and CO/sub 2/) were performed to gain biological threshold data on ocular damage. In parallel, eye protection devices were evaluated, which resulted in the development of lightweight, comfortable spectacles of colored glass filters that can be ground to prescription specifications. Goggle styles are employed in specific applications.

Winburn, D.C.

1980-01-01

241

Protective barrier program: Test plan for plant community dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are jointly developing protective barriers for the long term isolation of low-level radioactive defense waste for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Arid Sites. Protective barriers have been identified as an integral part of the overall final disposal strategy for low-level defense waste at the Arid Sites (DOE 1987). At present, the conceptual design of the Arid Site protective barrier is a multilayer structure that will minimize waster infiltration into and through the underlying waste, and will prevent intrusion into the waste by plant roots, animals, and humans. This multilayer system consists of a fine soil layer overlying a coarse sand and/or gravel geo-filter overlying a layer of large cobbles or basalt riprap. Plants contribute several crucial functions to the overall performance of the protective barrier.Through transpiration, plants are capable of removing considerably more moisture from a given volume of soil than the physical process of evaporation alone. This becomes especially important after periods of excessive precipitation when the possibility of saturation of the textural break and leeching to the buried waste is increased. Plants also function in significantly reducing the amount of wind and water erosion that would be expected to occur on the barrier surface. In addition to these physical functions, plants also influence other biotic effects on barrier performance.

Sackschewsky, M.R. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Chatters, J.C.; Link, S.O.; Brandt, C.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-01-01

242

Determination of radon level and radon effective dose rate using SSNTD in dwellings in the Bathinda district of Punjab, India.  

PubMed

The problem of indoor radon has attracted a great deal of attention worldwide as radon is the largest contributor to the total natural radiation dose. The dwellings belonging to the Bathinda district of Punjab, India, are investigated for the yearly average of indoor radon concentrations using solid-state nuclear track detectors. The annual average indoor radon values in the study area vary from 122.30 to 147.10 Bq m(-3), which is well within the recommended action level given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The calculated lifetime fatality risk values vary from 1.61 to 1.94. The seasonal variations and the contribution of building materials and ventilation conditions to the indoor radon in dwellings are also discussed. PMID:22927649

Mehra, R; Badhan, K

2012-11-01

243

Establishing a human research protection program in a combatant command.  

PubMed

Extensive United States combat operations commenced for the first time in over decade in 2003. Early in 2004 there was no human research protection regulatory review and approval mechanism based in a deployed military combatant command. The absence of such a system presented a critical impediment to implementation of the time-honored tradition of a robust combat casualty care research effort. A coalition of concerned military medical personnel from the US Army proposed a novel mechanism to meet Department of Defense (DOD) requirements for the human research protection oversight of studies conducted in the combat theater of operations. In 2005, the Commander of Task Force 44 Medical Command (44th MEDCOM), who was serving as the Multi-National Corps Iraq (MNC-I) Surgeon, was charged with negotiating a DOD Assurance and implementing a new system of research review and protections. He deployed an Army Medical Department Medical Corps officer to assist in this endeavor and operationalize the plan. On March 19, 2005, the Multi-National Corps Iraq Commander signed a historic agreement with the US Army Surgeon General who developed a regulatory support and oversight mechanism to conduct research in theater. This innovative system not only honored the Army's commitment to human research protections, but also provided much needed support in the form of scientific and ethical review and compliance oversight to those deployed medical personnel with the vision to conduct healthcare studies in the combat environment. On July 20, 2005, the first DOD Assurance of Compliance for the Protection of Human Research Subjects was approved for MNC-I. This assurance allows the conduct of human subjects research in full compliance with all Federal, DOD, and Army regulatory requirements. This article describes that unique process. PMID:18376178

Brosch, Laura R; Holcomb, John B; Thompson, Jennifer C; Cordts, Paul R

2008-02-01

244

New technique for the determination of radon diffusion coefficient in radon-proof membranes.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new device and a method to determine the radon diffusion coefficient in damp-proof membranes developed in the Czech Republic. The main advantage of the device is that it enables tests to be carried out in all the known measuring modes used throughout Europe. Two recently developed computer programs are presented for the numerical modelling of the time-dependent radon transport through damp-proof membranes. According to this method, the radon diffusion coefficient is derived from the process of fitting the numerical solution to the measured curve of radon concentration in a receiver container. Numerical simulation and measured data are also compared. Reasons for disagreements between different methods and specific configurations of the measuring device are also discussed. PMID:18397928

Jirnek, M; Fronka, A

2008-01-01

245

National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection  

SciTech Connect

This paper will describe the NREL program for addressing lightning protection for wind turbines. A test program will begin this summer at the Central and South West Services Inc. (CSW) wind farm near Fort Davis, Texas, to assess lightning risk, the frequency of lightning strikes on wind turbines compared to risk assessment predictions, and the effectiveness of some protection techniques. A Web page will be assembled to provide resources for designers and operators and feedback for issues as they arise. Also, a database of lightning events (and corresponding damage) will be collected to assist in maturing the understanding of wind turbine lightning protection.

Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)] [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

1997-09-01

246

Summary of fire protection programs of the United States Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

This edition of the Annual Summary of DOE Fire Protection Programs continues the series started in 1972. Since May 1950, an annual report has been required from each field organization. The content has varied through the years and most of the accident data reporting requirements have been superseded by the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System administered by EG G, Idaho. However, this report is the sole source of information relating to fire protection programs, and to the actions of the field offices and to headquarters that are of general fire protection interest.

Not Available

1991-10-01

247

RADON REDUCTIONAND RADON RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The report covers three tasks related to indoor radon: (1) the demonstration of radon reduction techniques in 8 houses in each of two uniquely different radon prone areas of the State of New York; (2) the evaluation and repair of 14 radon mitigation systems in houses mitigated 4 ...

248

RADON REDUCTION AND RADON RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The report covers three tasks related to indoor radon: (1) the demonstration of radon reduction techniques in 8 houses in each of two uniquely different radon prone areas of the State of New York; (2) the evaluation and repair of 14 radon mitigation systems in houses mitigated 4 ...

249

Radiation Protection Program of Petrobras in Industrial Radiography Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Industrial hygiene; main purpose is the preservation of employee physical well being when exposed to certain aggressive agents. PETROBRAS Industrial hygiene program forecasts preventive policies in several specific fields. For the ionizing radiations area...

M. Signorini

1988-01-01

250

Overview of EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) LIMB technology development program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives an overview of EPA's Limestone Injection with Multistage Burners (LIMB) program, a program for research, development, and demonstration of cost-effective emissions control technology for coal-fired boilers that can reduce both sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The LIMB concept uses low-NOx burners plus sorbent injection to control these pollutants simultaneously. LIMB technology represents a lower-cost alternative

Lachapelle

1985-01-01

251

Summary of fire protection programs of the United States Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

This edition of the Annual Summary of DOE Fire Protection Programs continues the series started in 1972. Since May 1950, an annual report has been required from each field organization. The content has varied through the years and most of the accident data reporting requirements have been superseded by the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System administered by EG G, Idaho. However, this report is the sole source of information relating to fire protection systems, and to the actions of the operations office and to the headquarters that are of general fire protection interest. The fire protection program is the only safety program that compiles and publishes such data. As such, it is a principal medium of communication between headquarters and the operations offices.

Not Available

1991-08-01

252

Planetary protection program for Mars 94/96 mission.  

PubMed

Mars surface in-situ exploration started in 1975 with the American VIKING mission. Two probes landed on the northern hemisphere and provided, for the first time, detailed information on the martian terrain, atmosphere and meteorology. The current goal is to undertake larger surface investigations and many projects are being planned by the major Space Agencies with this objective. Among these projects, the Mars 94/96 mission will make a major contributor toward generating significant information about the martian surface on a large scale. Since the beginning of the Solar System exploration, planets where life could exist have been subject to planetary protection requirements. Those requirements accord with the COSPAR Policy and have two main goals: the protection of the planetary environment from influence or contamination by terrestrial microorganisms, the protection of life science, and particularly of life detection experiments searching extra-terrestrial life, and not life carried by probes and spacecrafts. As the conditions for life and survival for terrestrial microorganisms in the Mars environment became known, COSPAR recommendations were updated. This paper will describe the decontamination requirements which will be applied for the MARS 94/96 mission, the techniques and the procedures which are and will be used to realize and control the decontamination of probes and spacecrafts. PMID:11538980

Rogovski, G; Bogomolov, V; Ivanov, M; Runavot, J; Debus, A; Victorov, A; Darbord, J C

1996-01-01

253

Reference samples for water-related programs in the US Environmental Protection Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory at Cincinnati provides quality assurance (QA) support for US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water-related programs. Two important segments of this support are the Quality Control Sample Program, which furnishes samples of known concentrations for use as independent checks on intralaboratory QA activities, and the EPA's Repository for Toxic and Hazardous Materials, which provides calibration

1985-01-01

254

National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper will describe the NREL program for addressing lightning protection for wind turbines. A test program will begin this summer at the Central and South West Services Inc. (CSW) wind farm near Fort Davis, Texas, to assess lightning risk, the freque...

E. Muljadi, B. McNiff

1997-01-01

255

Sun Protection is Fun! A Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Preschools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Sun Protection is Fun! skin cancer prevention program for preschool children that features intervention methods grounded in social cognitive theory and emphasizes symbolic modeling, vicarious learning, enactive mastery experiences, and persuasion. Program components include a curriculum and teacher's guide, videos, newsletters,

Tripp, Mary K.; Herrmann, Nancy B.; Parcel, Guy S.; Chamberlin, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

2000-01-01

256

Three Mile Island, Unit 2, radiation protection program: report of the special panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special panel was appointed by the Director of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, NRC, to review the radiation protection program at Three Mile Island Unit 2. The Panel confirmed several management and technical deficiencies in the program. Recent major GPU\\/Met Ed commitments and actions demonstrated a major change in management attitude. The Panel concluded that exposures to personnel can be maintained

C. B. Meinhold; T. D. Murphy; D. R. Neely; R. L. Kathren; B. L. Rich; G. F. Stone; W. R. Casey

1979-01-01

257

US Environmental Protection Agency Radiation Protection Programs for Waste Management and Site Cleanup  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the regulatory authorities of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) as they pertain to radioactive waste management and disposal, and cleanup of radioactively contaminated sites. It also describes several ORIA initiatives and examples of two of EPA's radioactive waste standards. (authors)

2008-01-01

258

Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure

R. E. Fisher; W. A. Buehring; R. G. Whitfield; G. W. Bassett; D. C. Dickinson; R. A. Haffenden; M. S. Klett; M. A. Lawlor

2009-01-01

259

Radon awareness, testing, and remediation survey among New York State residents  

SciTech Connect

Between November 1995 and January 1997, a radon awareness, testing, and remediation survey was conducted to measure general awareness and factual knowledge about radon and prevalence of radon testing and remediation among New York State residents. The survey found that 82% of 1,209 respondents had heard of radon, but only 21% were knowledgeably aware of radon. With regard to radon testing, only 15% of respondents who were aware of radon had their homes tested. The percentage of respondents who were aware or knowledgeably aware of radon increased with increasing education level. The findings from the study suggest that the New York State public awareness programs that targeted high radon areas did show some effect both by increasing public awareness and promoting residential testing. The relatively low percentage of respondents who were knowledgeably aware of radon and the low percentage who had tested their homes strongly suggest that renewed efforts by the public health community are needed to increase knowledge about radon and its health effects and to encourage radon testing and remediation.

Wang, Y.; Ju, C.; Stark, A.D.; Teresi, N.

2000-06-01

260

What Is Radon?  

MedlinePLUS

... uranium, which are found at different levels in soil and rock throughout the world. Radon gas in the soil and rock can move into the air and ... depend on the characteristics of the rock and soil in the area. As a result, radon levels ...

261

Radon in SSC tunnels  

SciTech Connect

Radon activity may be a source of radiation exposure in the SSC main ring tunnel. Typical radon activity concentrations for rock and soil on site are calculated. The effects of mitigation by tunnel sealing, lining and ventilating are discussed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Goss, D.

1989-10-01

262

Radon: The Silent Danger.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the public health dangers associated with radon exposure in homes and schools. In addition, testing and corrective efforts by federal and state agencies are discussed. A map indicating areas in the U.S. with potentially high radon levels is included. (IAH)

Stoffel, Jennifer

1989-01-01

263

Radon in SSC tunnels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radon activity may be a source of radiation exposure in the SSC main ring tunnel. Typical radon activity concentrations for rock and soil on site are calculated. The effects of mitigation by tunnel sealing, lining and ventilating are discussed. 10 refs., ...

D. Goss

1989-01-01

264

LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

265

National Radon Database. Volume 5. The EPA/state residential radon surveys: AR, IL, MD, MT, MS, TX, VA, WA, and the Eastern Cherokee Nation, 1990-1992 (3 1/2 inch, 1. 44mb) (for microcomputers). Data file  

SciTech Connect

The National Radon Database (NRDB) was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to distribute information in two recent radon surveys: the EPA/State Residential Radon Surveys and the National Residential Radon Survey. The National Residential Radon Surveys collected annual average radon measurements on all levels of approximately 5,700 homes nationwide. Information collected during survey includes a detailed questionnaire on house characteristics, as well as radon measurements. The radon survey data for Volume 6 is contained on two diskettes. The data diskettes are accompanied by comprehensive documentation on the design and implementation of the survey, the development and use of sampling weights, a summary of survey results, and information concerning the household questionnaire.

Not Available

1992-01-01

266

National Radon Database. Volume 5. The EPA/state residential radon surveys: AR, IL, MD, MT, MS, TX, VA, WA and the Eastern Cherokee Nation, 1990-1992 (5 1/4 inch 1. 2mb) (for microcomputers). Data file  

SciTech Connect

The National Radon Database (NRDB) was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to distribute information in two recent radon surveys: the EPA/State Residential Radon Surveys and the National Residential Radon Survey. The National Residential Radon Surveys collected annual average radon measurements on all levels of approximately 5,700 homes nationwide. Information collected during survey includes a detailed questionnaire on house characteristics, as well as radon measurements. The radon survey data for Volume 6 is contained on two diskettes. The data diskettes are accompanied by comprehensive documentation on the design and implementation of the survey, the development and use of sampling weights, a summary of survey results, and information concerning the household questionnaire.

Not Available

1992-01-01

267

The general quadratic Radon transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general quadratic Radon transform in two dimensions is investigated. Whereas the classical Radon transform of a smooth function represents the integration over all lines, the general quadratic Radon transform integrates over all conic sections. First, the parabolic isofocal Radon transform, i.e. the restriction of the general quadratic Radon transform to all parabolae with focus in the origin, is defined and illustrated. We show its intense relation to the classical Radon transform, deduce a support theorem, formulate an extension of the support theorem and derive an inversion formula. The natural extension to a more general class of isofocal quadratic Radon transforms is outlined. We show how the general quadratic Radon transform can be derived from the integrals over all parabolae by solving the related Cauchy problem. Finally, we introduce an entirely geometrical definition of a generalized Radon transform, the oriented generalized Radon transform.

Denecker, Koen; Van Overloop, Jeroen; Sommen, Frank

1998-06-01

268

Experimental, statistical, and biological models of radon carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Risk models developed for underground miners have not been consistently validated in studies of populations exposed to indoor radon. Imprecision in risk estimates results principally from differences between exposures in mines as compared to domestic environments and from uncertainties about the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products. Uncertainties in extrapolating miner data to domestic exposures can be reduced by means of a broad-based health effects research program that addresses the interrelated issues of exposure, respiratory tract dose, carcinogenesis (molecular/cellular and animal studies, plus developing biological and statistical models), and the relationship of radon to smoking and other copollutant exposures. This article reviews experimental animal data on radon carcinogenesis observed primarily in rats at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Recent experimental and mechanistic carcinogenesis models of exposures to radon, uranium ore dust, and cigarette smoke are presented with statistical analyses of animal data. 20 refs., 1 fig.

Cross, F.T.

1991-09-01

269

Operating manual for the radon-daughter chamber  

SciTech Connect

A radon-daughter chamber was constructed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility for the purpose of calibrating, testing and evaluating radon and radon-daughter measuring instruments used in support of DOE remedial action programs. The chamber is an environmentally controlled cylindrical vessel through which air containing radon can be circulated. Environmental parameters within the chamber and their respective controllable ranges include radon concentration (1 to 1000 pCi/1), ventilation rate (0.25 to 10 air changes per hour), temperature (0 to 45/sup 0/C), dew point (-10/sup 0/C to saturated), and condensation-nuclei concentration (10 to 10/sup 6//cm/sup 3/).

Langner, G.H. Jr.; Nelson, T.

1985-01-01

270

Protecting Our Own. Community Child Passenger Safety Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information on implementing a local child passenger safety program. It covers understanding the problems and solutions; deciding what can be done; planning and carrying out a project; providing adequate, accurate, and current technical information; and reaching additional sources of information. Chapter 1 provides community

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

271

75 FR 22681 - Supplemental Guidance on Overdraft Protection Programs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...program as a customer service that...association train customer service or...remains in management. effect... Is the relationship between the...Executive Office Building, Washington...poor account management, train...foster good customer relations...including building long term customer relationships,...

2010-04-29

272

Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose rate dependence and the nature of the DNA lesion will be studied, using the thymidine kinase and HPRT loci to measure mutation frequency. A deficiency in DNA repair is shown to lead to a greater proportion of mutants with intergenic lesions. The cytotoxic effects of radon and its daughters are similar in human TK6 lymphoblasts and mouse L5178Y lymphoblasts, the cell line used in previous experiments. The results of molecular analysis of four spontaneous and 25 X-radiation induced HPRT(-) mutants. Eleven radon-induced HPRT(-) mutants have been isolated, and will be analyzed in a similar fashion.

Evans, H. H.

273

Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters  

SciTech Connect

The objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose rate dependence and the nature of the DNA lesion will be studied, using the thymidine kinase and HPRT loci to measure mutation frequency. A deficiency in DNA repair is shown to lead to a greater proportion of mutants with intergenic lesions. The cytotoxic effects of radon and its daughters are similar in human TK6 lymphoblasts and mouse L5178Y lymphoblasts, the cell line used in previous experiments. The results of molecular analysis of four spontaneous and 25 X-radiation induced HPRT{sup {minus}} mutants. Eleven radon-induced HPRT{sup {minus}} mutants have been isolated, and will be analyzed in a similar fashion. 9 figs.

Evans, H.H.

1991-01-01

274

Residents in a high radon potential geographic area: Their risk perception and attitude toward testing and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boone County, Indiana was identified by the EPA as one of the high radon potential geographic areas. Health education campaigns are needed to prevent resident`s unnecessary radon exposure. In order to design suitable programs, a questionnaire mail survey was conducted to measure socio-demographic characteristics of County resident`s knowledge about radon, attitude toward radon testing and mitigation, support of education campaigns,

S. F. Ferng; J. K. Lawson

1996-01-01

275

Radon calibration chamber assembly, detector accuracy, and pertinent operational findings.  

PubMed

Reliable radon laboratory operations motivated the construction of three radon gas calibration chambers. One chamber is used for background calibrations while the other two cover a radon gas concentration range of 110 to >5,550 Bq m(-3) (3-150 pCi L(-1)). The chambers entered commercial service, for tertiary radon calibration chambers, after review and listing by the National Radon Safety Board. The chambers were used since 2003 to calibrate over 500 activated charcoal (AC) detectors, half open face, and the remainder a diffusion barrier type, and >150 continuous radon (CR) monitors. Nearly all the CR devices were Sun Nuclear model 1027. Analysis of the calibration results show the overall AC measurement uncertainties, expressed as standard deviations of the relative percent differences, R%D, were <10% and were about the same as the Sun Nuclear CR devices. The diffusion barrier AC detectors displayed a smaller uncertainty than the CR monitor group. All but one CR monitor satisfied the U.S. EPA Radon Proficiency Program requirement of +/-25%. In view of the similar R%D between CR and AC detectors, good agreement was found for all simultaneous field radon measurements with CR and single AC devices. The U.S. EPA appears to have adopted a position that CR devices are superior to AC detectors. Neither the present results nor U.S. EPA's published detector uncertainties support this presumed position. PMID:17630640

Distenfeld, C H

2007-08-01

276

Distribution of indoor radon concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1990-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results from 548,507 indoor radon tests from a database compiled by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, Radon Division, are evaluated in this report in an effort to determine areas where concentrations of radon are highest. Indoor radon concentrations were aggregated according to geologic unit and hydrogeologic setting for spatial analysis. Indoor radon concentrations greater than or equal to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) action level of 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) were observed for 39 percent of the test results; the highest concentration was 1,866.4 pCi/L. When analyzed according to Pennsylvanias geologic units, 93 of the 188 (49.5 percent) geologic units with indoor radon concentrations had median concentrations greater than the USEPA action level of 4 pCi/L; most of these geologic units are located in the eastern part of the State and include metamorphic rocks, limestones, sandstones, shales, and glacial deposits. When analyzed according to Pennsylvanias hydrogeologic settings, 5 of the 20 (25 percent) settings had median indoor radon concentrations greater than the USEPA action level of 4 pCi/L; these settings are located mostly in the south-central part of the State. Median indoor radon concentrations aggregated according to geologic units and hydrogeologic settings are useful for drawing general conclusions about the occurrence of indoor radon in specific geologic units and hydrogeologic settings, but the associated data and maps have limitations. The aggregated indoor radon data have testing and spatial accuracy limitations due to lack of available information regarding testing conditions and the imprecision of geocoded test locations. In addition, the associated data describing geologic units and hydrogeologic settings have spatial and interpretation accuracy limitations, which are a result of using statewide data to define conditions at test locations and geologic data that represent a broad interpretation of geologic units across the State. As a result, indoor air radon concentration distributions are not proposed for use in predicting individual concentrations at specific sites nor for use as a decision-making tool for property owners to decide whether to test for indoor radon concentrations at specific property locations.

Gross, Eliza L.

2013-01-01

277

78 FR 75581 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MANAGEMENT Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges; Announcement...entitled ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the...

2013-12-12

278

78 FR 25591 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...3206-AM47 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges; Correction...entitled ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the...

2013-05-02

279

LLNL Fire Protection Engineering Standard 5.8 Facility Survey Program  

SciTech Connect

This standard describes the LLNL Fire Protection Facility Survey Program. The purpose of this standard is to describe the type of facility surveys required to fulfill the requirements of DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety. Nothing in this standard is intended to prevent the development of a FHA using alternative approaches. Alternate approaches, including formatting, will be by exception only, and approved by the Fire Marshal/Fire Protection Engineering Subject Matter Expert in advance of their use.

Sharry, J A

2012-01-04

280

Determining readiness for child protective services practice: Development of a testing program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the process of developing a testing program for use in competency-based training for public child welfare employees. The Readiness for Practice in Child Protective Services Model was developed by the authors to assure the job-relatedness of the tests. Readiness for practice includes both the situation type (child protective services) and the employee's background resources (e.g., personal characteristics,

Marilyn A. Biggerstaff; Leanne Wood; Suzanne Fountain

1998-01-01

281

Public communication strategy for NASAs planetary protection program: Expanding the dialogue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Planetary Protection Office, in the Science Mission Directorate, has a long-term initiative under way in communication research and planning. The possibility of extraterrestrial life and efforts to search for evidence of it is one of NASAs key missions and a subject of great interest to the public. Planetary protection plays a key role in the search for signs of life elsewhere, and NASAs Planetary Protection Office has long recognized the importance of communications in accomplishing its goals and objectives. With solar system exploration missions advancing into the era of sample return and with the science of astrobiology changing assumptions about the nature and boundaries of life, the NASA Planetary Protection Office is expanding its communication research efforts. For the past decade, communication research sponsored by the NASA planetary protection program has focused on reaching members of the science community and addressing legal and ethical concerns. In 2003, the program broadened its communication research efforts, initiating the development of a communication strategy based on an interactive model and intended to address the needs of a broad range of external audiences. The NASA Planetary Protection Office aims to ensure that its scientific, bureaucratic, and other constituencies are fully informed about planetary protection policies and procedures and that scientists and officials involved in planetary protection are prepared to communicate with a variety of public audiences about issues relating to planetary protection. This paper describes NASAs ongoing planetary protection communication research, including development of a communication strategy and a risk communication plan.

Billings, Linda

2006-01-01

282

Compendium of federal Financial Assistance Programs: Targeting programs for state and local ground-water protection  

SciTech Connect

Contents: agricultural conservation; agricultural education/technical assistance; agricultural pollution control; agricultural research; community development; drinking water protection; emergency water assistance; environmental protection; farm ownership credit; hazardous waste management; pesticides control; rural development; solid waste management; superfund; toxic substances; underground storage tanks; water pollution control; and water resources development.

Not Available

1990-09-01

283

Radon reduction and radon monitoring in the NEMO experiment  

SciTech Connect

The first data of the NEMO 3 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment have shown that the radon can be a non negligible component of the background. In order to reduce the radon level in the gas mixture, it has been necessary first to cover the NEMO 3 detector with an airtight tent and then to install a radon-free air factory. With the use of sensitive radon detectors, the level of radon at the exit of the factory and inside the tent is continuously controlled. These radon levels are discussed within the NEMO 3 context.

Nachab, A. [Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, BP 120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)

2007-03-28

284

Computer programming for nucleic acid studies. III. Calculated ultraviolet absorption spectra of protected oligodeoxyribonucleotides.  

PubMed

A computer program called UV. FOR was written in FORTRAN. This program primarily utilizes the digitized UV absorption spectra of 8 protected deoxyribonucleosides in 95% ethanol solution to compose the UV spectrum of a oligodeoxynucleotide of any sequence. Both calculated and observed UV spectra of 2 protected oligodeoxynucleotides are carefully compared. The results show that the calculated UV spectrum is virtually identical to the observed spectrum. Thus, the calculated spectra provide rapid confirmation of oligonucleotide compositions during the course of oligonucleotide synthesis by the phosphotriester method. PMID:7318419

Kan, L; Kettell, R W; Miller, P S

1981-01-01

285

Department of Energy nuclear material physical protection program in the Republic of Kazakstan  

SciTech Connect

As part of the joint U.S. and Republic of Kazakstan nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC{ampersand}A) program, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is providing assistance at four nuclear facilities in Kazakstan. These facilities are the Ulba Metallurgical Plant, the National Nuclear Center (NNC) Institute of Atomic Energy at Kurchatov (IAE-K), the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (BN-350) Reactor, and the NNC Institute of Atomic Energy at Almaty (IAE-A). This paper describes the DOE MPC{ampersand}A physical protection program at each of the facilities.

Eras, A.; Berry, R.B.; Case, R.S.

1997-09-01

286

Control of radon in houses  

SciTech Connect

This report, drafted by NCRP Scientific Committee 82 on Control of Radon in Houses, evaluates the techniques available to reduce radon and radon decay product concentrations. It is intended that this report would be useful to home owners, to individuals involved in marketing services to reduce radon and radon decay products in houses, and to the scientific community interested in control techniques for radon and radon decay products. Sections 1 and 2 of the report provide background information on the public health significance of indoor radon and on the sources and behavior of this radionuclide and its airborne decay products inside houses. The reader desiring information primarily on the control of radon may prefer to shift to Section 3 immediately after reading the Introduction. Included in Section 6 of the report are tables comparing the removal effectiveness and estimated costs of various control techniques, and a glossary of terms used in the report is provided.

Not Available

1989-09-01

287

Status of reusable surface insulation thermal protection system technology programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of three low-density rigidized insulation materials for the shuttle TPS application is reported. These materials consist of one high purity silica system and two systems based on mullite, an aluminum silicate. Both systems consist of fibers joined together with appropriate binders to obtain a rigidized insulation composite. Both material systems require the application of a glassy coating to provide a wear resistant, high emittance surface and to prevent the absorption of water by the fiber matrix. The technology program has addressed the development of water impervious coatings, methods of assembling the materials in design concepts while minimizing the thermal stress in the insulation, achieving compatibility between the RSI material and the structural system, and test evaluations to demonstrate the feasibility of the surface insulation concept.

Greenshields, D. H.; Meyer, A. J.; Tillian, D. J.

1972-01-01

288

A reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in Hamadan city, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 (i.e. below the lower limit of detection for the method) to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 108 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration - these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March) with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1993. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable "surficial" deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings.

Gillmore, G. K.; Jabarivasal, N.

2010-04-01

289

Indoor Radon Measurement in Van  

SciTech Connect

In this study, indoor radon concentrations obtained from the radon surveys conducted in the Van. Radon monitoring was performed by applying a passive, time-integrating measuring technique. For this purpose, CR-39 nuclear track detectors were installed in dwellings for 2 months. After the monitoring period, detectors were collected. In order to make the alpha tracks visible, chemical etching was applied to the exposed detectors. Nuclear track numbers and the corresponding indoor radon concentrations were determined. Annual effective dose equivalents and the risk probabilities caused by indoor radon inhalation were calculated, and the found results compared with the indoor radon concentrations' data measured in different provinces of Turkey.

Kam, E.; Osmanlioglu, A. E.; Celebi, N. [TAEK, Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey); Dogan, I. [Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Biochemistry Department, Van (Turkey)

2007-04-23

290

RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR NEW RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION: TECHNICAL GUIDANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is found in varying amounts in nearly all houses. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed and demonstrated methods that have been used to reduce radon levels in existing houses. Many of these methods could be appl...

291

A Citizen's Guide to Radon. What It Is and What To Do about It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) are concerned about the increased risk of developing lung cancer faced by persons exposed to above-average levels of radon in their homes. The purpose of this pamphlet is to help readers to understand the radon problem and decide if they need to take

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

292

DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION MEASURES FOR 10 HOMES IN CLINTON, NEW JERSEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the development and demonstration of indoor radon reduction methods for 10 houses in Clinton, New Jersey, where (in the spring of 1986) the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) located a cluster of houses with extremely high radon levels. T...

293

A REVIEW OF RADON MITIGATION IN LARGE BUILDINGS IN THE US  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency of the US carried out its initial research on radon mitigation in houses, both existing and new. A review of this work is presented in another paper at this workshop. Four years ago, this work was expanded to include the study of radon in schoo...

294

Radon and smoking status  

SciTech Connect

The authors of two letters to the editor regarding an article entitled, Lung cancer mortality among non-smoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters, disagree with the risk analysis regarding nonsmokers and the conclusions drawn by the original authors. In a reply letter, the authors comment on each point raised in the letters, and reaffirm their original conclusion that the common exposure for all miners was radon daughters, which is the most likely explanation for the high observed lung cancer risk.

Roscoe, R.J.; Steenland, K. (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

1989-12-01

295

25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Program § 63.33 What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...responsible for the investigation of reported cases of child abuse and child neglect, the treatment and prevention of...

2013-04-01

296

77 FR 39748 - Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988; Report of Matching Program: RRB and State...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of...Notice of a renewal of an existing computer matching program due to expire on August...obtained from state agencies in ongoing computer matching programs regarding...

2012-07-05

297

Constructing a resilience index for the enhanced critical in Frastructure Protection Program.  

SciTech Connect

Following recommendations made in Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7, which established a national policy for the identification and increased protection of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) by Federal departments and agencies, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2006 developed the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) program. The ECIP program aimed to provide a closer partnership with state, regional, territorial, local, and tribal authorities in fulfilling the national objective to improve CIKR protection. The program was specifically designed to identify protective measures currently in place in CIKR and to inform facility owners/operators of the benefits of new protective measures. The ECIP program also sought to enhance existing relationships between DHS and owners/operators of CIKR and to build relationships where none existed (DHS 2008; DHS 2009). In 2009, DHS and its protective security advisors (PSAs) began assessing CIKR assets using the ECIP program and ultimately produced individual protective measure and vulnerability values through the protective measure and vulnerability indices (PMI/VI). The PMI/VI assess the protective measures posture of individual facilities at their 'weakest link,' allowing for a detailed analysis of the most vulnerable aspects of the facilities (Schneier 2003), while maintaining the ability to produce an overall protective measures picture. The PMI has six main components (physical security, security management, security force, information sharing, protective measures assessments, and dependencies) and focuses on actions taken by a facility to prevent or deter the occurrence of an incident (Argonne National Laboratory 2009). As CIKR continue to be assessed using the PMI/VI and owners/operators better understand how they can prevent or deter incidents, academic research, practitioner emphasis, and public policy formation have increasingly focused on resilience as a necessary component of the risk management framework and infrastructure protection. This shift in focus toward resilience complements the analysis of protective measures by taking into account the three other phases of risk management: mitigation, response, and recovery (Figure 1). Thus, the addition of a robust resilience index (RI) to the established PMI/VI provides vital information to owners/operators throughout the risk management process. Combining a pre-incident focus with a better understanding of resilience, as well as potential consequences from damaged CIKR, allows owners/operators to better understand different ways to decrease risk by (1) increasing physical security measures to prevent an incident, (2) supplementing redundancy to mitigate the effects of an incident, and (3) enhancing emergency action and business continuity planning to increase the effectiveness of recovery procedures. Information provided by the RI methodology is also used by facility owners/operators to better understand how their facilities compare to similar sector/subsector sites and to help them make risk-based decisions. This report provides an overview of the RI methodology developed to estimate resilience and provide resilience comparisons for sectors and subsectors. The information will be used to (1) assist DHS in analyzing existing response and recovery methods and programs at facilities and (2) identify potential ways to increase resilience. The RI methodology is based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry, which is 'the coevolutionary search for the best in people, their organizations, and the relevant world around them' (Cooperrider et al. 2005). Appreciative Inquiry identifies the best of 'what is' and helps to envision 'what might be.' The ECIP program and the RI represent a new model (using Appreciative Inquiry principles) for information sharing between government and industry (Fisher and Petit 2010). A 'dashboard' display, which provides an interactive tool - rather than a static report, presents the results of the RI in a convenient format. Additional resilience measures c

Fisher, R. E.; Bassett, G. W.; Buehring, W. A.; Collins, M. J.; Dickinson, D. C.; Eaton, L. K.; Haffenden, R. A.; Hussar, N. E.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Millier, D. J.; Petit, F. D.; Peyton, S. M.; Wallace, K. E.; Whitfield, R. G.; Peerenboom, J. P.; Decision and Information Sciences

2010-10-14

298

THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the SITE Emerging Technology Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is seeking to foster the further development of technol- ogies that have been successfully tested at bench-scale and are now ready for pilot-scale testing, prior to field- or full-scale demonstra...

299

THE U.S. ENVIORNMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the SITE Emerging Technology Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is seeking to foster the further development of technologies that have been successfully tested at bench-scale and are now ready for pilot scale testing, prior to field or full scale demons...

300

75 FR 5608 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Communications Unit Leader (COML) Prerequisite and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Department of Homeland Security, National Protection and Programs Directorate/Cybersecurity and Communications/Office of Emergency Communications (OEC), has submitted the following Information Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. Chapter...

2010-02-03

301

1990 UPDATE OF THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) directed the U.S. Environmental Protection AGency (EPA) to establish an Alternative/Innovative Treatment Technology Research and Demonstration Program. The EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response and the ...

302

Effectiveness of a Parent Training Program "Incredible Years" in a Child Protection Service  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a parent training program in improving parenting practices, parents' feeling of self-efficacy and parents' perception of their child's behavior, implemented in a child protection service, with trained professionals from the agency acting as facilitators. Method: Thirty-five parents

Letarte, Marie-Josee; Normandeau, Sylvie; Allard, Julie

2010-01-01

303

Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (ECAMP). US Environmental Protection Agency, violations. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of environmental laws and regulations continues to grow in the United States and worldwide, making compliance with regulations increasingly difficult. Environmental assessments became a way to evaluate compliance with current environmental regulations. The Air Force has adopted a compliance program that identifies problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Beginning in

Krooks

1996-01-01

304

1990 UPDATE OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is seeking to foster the further development of technologies that have been successfully tested at bench-scale and are now ready for pilot-scale testing, prior...

305

Ecological impact in ditch mesocosms of simulated spray drift from a crop protection program for potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor aquatic ditch mesocosms were treated with a range of pesticides to simulate various spray drift rates resulting from a typical crop protection program used in the cultivation of potatoes in The Netherlands. The main experimental aims of the present study were to provide information on the fate and ecological effects of drift of the pesticides into surface water and

Gertie HP Arts; Laura L Buijse-Bogdan; J Dick M Belgers; Rhenen-Kersten van C. H; Wijngaarden van R. P. A; Ivo Roessink; Steve J Maund; Brink van den P. J; Theo CM Brock

2006-01-01

306

Effectiveness of a parent training program Incredible Years in a child protection service  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a parent training program in improving parenting practices, parents feeling of self-efficacy and parents perception of their child's behavior, implemented in a child protection service, with trained professionals from the agency acting as facilitators.

Marie-Jose Letarte; Sylvie Normandeau; Julie Allard

2010-01-01

307

The new social marketing challenge to promote radon testing.  

PubMed

As part of a project funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, exploratory qualitative analysis was conducted to gain insight into perceptions of the threat of radon in the Karst geological region (i.e., Northern Alabama, Central Tennessee, Central Kentucky). Based on health practitioner input, it was clear that the tenets of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and the probing afforded by focus group research would provide greatly needed theory-based insight into the public reactions (or lack thereof) to the threat posed by radon. Qualitative research findings of this project are discussed as well as preliminary recommendations are provided to advance the protection motivation theory research agenda for promoting awareness of the threat of radon and to influence appropriate response to that threat. PMID:11727294

DiPofi, J A; LaTour, M S; Henthorne, T L

2001-01-01

308

Analysis of radon reduction and ventilation systems in uranium mines in China.  

PubMed

Mine ventilation is the most important way of reducing radon in uranium mines. At present, the radon and radon progeny levels in Chinese uranium mines where the cut and fill stoping method is used are 3-5 times higher than those in foreign uranium mines, as there is not much difference in the investments for ventilation protection between Chinese uranium mines and international advanced uranium mines with compaction methodology. In this paper, through the analysis of radon reduction and ventilation systems in Chinese uranium mines and the comparison of advantages and disadvantages between a variety of ventilation systems in terms of radon control, the authors try to illustrate the reasons for the higher radon and radon progeny levels in Chinese uranium mines and put forward some problems in three areas, namely the theory of radon control and ventilation systems, radon reduction ventilation measures and ventilation management. For these problems, this paper puts forward some proposals regarding some aspects, such as strengthening scrutiny, verifying and monitoring the practical situation, making clear ventilation plans, strictly following the mining sequence, promoting training of ventilation staff, enhancing ventilation system management, developing radon reduction ventilation technology, purchasing ventilation equipment as soon as possible in the future, and so on. PMID:22809776

Hu, Peng-hua; Li, Xian-jie

2012-09-01

309

Time-dependent response of a charcoal bed to radon and water vapor in flowing air  

SciTech Connect

Extremely high airborne concentrations of radon gas may be encountered during the remediation of uranium mill tailings storage facilities. Radon is also a constituent of the off-gas of mill-tailing vitrification. An effective way to remove radon from either gas is to pass the gas through a packed bed containing activated charcoal. Measurements of radon concentrations in the environment using charcoal canisters were first described by George. Canisters similar to those used by George in his first experiments have become the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standard for measuring environmental radon and were described in the EPA protocol for environmental radon measurement. The dynamic behavior of EPA charcoal canisters has been previously described with a mathematical model for the kinetics of radon gas adsorption in air in the presence of water vapor. This model for charcoal canisters has been extended to large charcoal beds with flowing air containing radon and water vapor. The mathematical model for large charcoal beds can be used to evaluate proposed bed designs or to model existing beds. Parameters that affect the radon distribution within a charcoal bed that can be studied using the mathematical model include carrier gas relative humidity and flow velocity, and input radon concentration. In addition, the relative performances of several different charcoals can be studied, provided sufficient information about their adsorption, desorption, and diffusion constants is known.

Henkel, J.A.; Fentiman, A.W.; Blue, T.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

310

Benchmark and application of the RAETRAD (RAdon Emanation and TRAnsport into Dwellings) model  

SciTech Connect

Field measurements were used to benchmark a simple new predictive correlation between soil has permeability and soil grain size, moisture, and porosity. The correlation was incorporated with a previous diffusion correlation into the new Radon Emanation and Dwellings (RAETRAD) code, that calculates radon generation and two-dimensional transport in soils, and radon entry into structures. RAETRAD generalizes the one-dimensional Radon Emanation and Transport (RAETRAN) model, combining advective and diffusive radon transport with radon emanation, decay, absorption, and adsorption. RAETRAD calculations suggest 0.3 liter/minute normalized radon entry rate for slab-on grade homes on low-permeability soils increasing to 7 liter/minute for sandy soils. Soil or fill properties in the first few feet dominate radon entry efficiency and limiting radium concentrations for prescribed indoor radon levels. For indoor radon concentrations of 2 pCi/liter, sandy soils may contain only 2--3 pCi/g radium compared to 10--20 pCi/g for more clayey soils. This paper has been reviewed in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency's peer and administrative review policies and approved for presentation and publication. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Rogers, V.C.; Nielson, K.K.

1990-01-01

311

Indoor radon measurements in the uranium regions of Poli and Lolodorf, Cameroon.  

PubMed

The objective of this work is to carry out indoor radon measurements in the uranium regions of Poli and Lolodorf in which lie the uranium deposits of Kitongo and Lolodorf, prior to their impending exploitation. The indoor radon concentration was measured in 103 and 50 dwellings located respectively in Poli and Lolodorf using E-PERM electret chamber detectors. Indoor radon distributions in Poli and Lolodorf follow the lognormal law. Radon concentrations range respectively in Poli and Lolodorf between 29 and 2240Bqm(-3) and 24-4390Bqm(-3) with corresponding median values of 165Bqm(-3) and 331Bqm(-3). Corresponding arithmetic and geometric means are respectively 294Bqm(-3) and 200Bqm(-3) for the uranium region of Poli, 687Bqm(-3) and 318Bqm(-3) for the uranium region of Lolodorf. For the uranium region of Poli, 80% of dwellings have radon concentration above the reference level of 100Bqm(-3) and 20% of dwellings show a radon concentration above 300Bqm(-3). For the uranium region of Lolodorf, 80% of dwellings have radon concentration above 100Bqm(-3) and 50% of dwellings show a radon concentration above 300Bqm(-3). Thus radon monitoring and mitigation plan are required to better protect people against harmful effects of radon. PMID:24878718

Sadou; Abdourahimi; Tchuente Siaka, Y F; Bouba, O

2014-10-01

312

Radon flux variability with season and location in Tasmania, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) fluxes were measured in locations in Tasmania and Victoria. Emphasis was on an evaluation of seasonal variability of the\\u000a fluxes. The work is the first part of a program of mapping radon and thoron fluxes in the island of Tasmania on a scale commensurate\\u000a with requirements of modelling the behaviour of environmentally important trace gases

S. Whittlestone; W. Zahorowski; S. D. Schery

1998-01-01

313

Communication Research for NASA's Planetary Protection Program: Science, Risk, Models, Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary protection is the term used to describe policies and practices that are intended to prevent 1) contamination of extraterrestrial environments by microbial Earth life (forward contamination) and 2) contamination of Earth's environment by possible extraterrestrial microbial life (back contamination) in the course of solar system exploration. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the international Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) both have planetary protection policies in place. Because the practice of planetary protection involves many different disciplines and many different national and international and governmental and nongovernmental organizations, communication has always been an important element of the practice. Thus NASA Planetary Protection Office has a long-term communication research initiative under way, addressing legal and ethical issues relating to planetary protection, models and methods of science and risk communication, and communication strategy and planning. With the pace of solar system exploration picking up, the era of solar system sample return under way, and public concerns about biological contamination heightened, communication is an increasingly important concern in the planetary protection community. This paper will describe current activities in communication research for NASA's planetary protection program.

Billings, L.

2004-12-01

314

Integrated Measurement of Radon and Radon Daughter Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The accuracy of devices for integrated measurement of concentration of radon and/or radon daughters, presently in use or under development in Sweden, has been studied. Groups of 10 detectors have been exposed to radon and its decay products during 12 week...

S. O. Ericson H. Schmied

1984-01-01

315

Control of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations  

SciTech Connect

There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air -- restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon progeny. The predominant radon entry process in most residences appears to be pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or other openings in the basement, slab, or subfloor. Sealing these openings or ventilation of the subslab or subfloor space are methods of reducing radon entry rates. Indoor radon concentrations may be reduced by increased ventilation. The use of charcoal filters for removal of radon gas in indoor air by adsorption has also been proposed. Concentrations of radon progeny, which are responsible for most of the health risks associated with radon exposures, can be controlled by use of electrostatic or mechanical filtration. Air circulation can also reduce radon progeny concentrations in certain cases. This paper reviews the application and limitations of each of these control measures and discusses recent experimental results.

Sextro, R.G.

1985-01-01

316

Can an hour or two of sun protection education keep the sunburn away? Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency's Sunwise School Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Melanoma incidence is rising at a rate faster than any other preventable cancer in the United States. Childhood exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light increases risk for skin cancer as an adult, thus starting positive sun protection habits early may be key to reducing the incidence of this disease. METHODS: The Environmental Protection Agency's SunWise School Program, a national environmental

Alan C Geller; Linda Rutsch; Kristin Kenausis; Paula Selzer; Zi Zhang

2003-01-01

317

Radon: Is it a problem  

SciTech Connect

Radon gas is a major source of radiation exposure to the general public. Radon-222 is a product of uranium-238, present in varying concentrations in all soils. Radon enters buildings from soil, water, natural gas, and building materials. Its short-lived breakdown products, termed radon daughters, include alpha-emitting solids that can deposit in the lungs. Firm evidence links lung cancer risk in miners with high exposure to radon daughters. The amount of risk associated with the much lower but chronic doses received in buildings is difficult to establish. By some extrapolations, radon daughters may be responsible for a significant number of lung cancer deaths. The existence or extent of synergism with smoking is unresolved. Local conditions can cause high levels of radon in some buildings, and measures that reduce indoor radon are of potential value. 39 references.

Hart, B.L.; Mettler, F.A.; Harley, N.H. (Univ. of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque (USA))

1989-09-01

318

Radon in dwellings in Finland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For over ten years STUK (The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has performed systematic indoor radon mapping in Finland with health authorities in municipalities. The most efficient means of reducing indoor radon exposure is to locate and mitigate d...

A. Voutilainen I. Maekelaeinen H. Reisbacka O. Castren

1997-01-01

319

Procedure manual for the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentrations using the Radon Progeny Integrating Sampling Unit (RPISU) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the remedial-action measurement needs is the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentration (RDC). One method for accomplishing such estimations in support of DOE remedial action programs is the Radon Progeny Integrating Sampling Unit (RPISU) method. This procedure manual describes how to set up and operate a system for obtaining RPISU measurements, and how to derive average RDC estimates

Langner; G. H. Jr

1986-01-01

320

Recommended Procedures for Measuring Radon Fluxes from Disposal Sites of Residual Radioactive Materials  

SciTech Connect

This report recornmenrls instrumentation and methods suitable for measuring radon fluxes emanating from covered disposal sites of residual radioactive materials such as uranium mill tailings. Problems of spatial and temporal variations in radon flux are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of several instruments are examined. A year-long measurement program and a two rnonth measurement rnethodology are then presented based on the inherent difficulties of measuring average radon flux over a cover using the recommended instrumentation.

Young,, J. A.; Thomas, V. W.; Jackson, P. 0.

1983-03-01

321

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements semiannual technical progress report, March 1989--August 1989  

SciTech Connect

This semiannual technical progress report is for the period 1 March 1989 through 31 August 1989. This National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) program is designed to provide recommendations for radiation protection based on scientific principles. During this period several reports were published covering the topics of occupational radiation exposure, medical exposure, radon control, dosimetry, and radiation protection standards. Accomplishments of various committees are also reported; including the committees on dental x-ray protection, radiation safety in uranium mining and milling, ALARA, instrumentation, records maintenance, occupational exposures of medical personnel, emergency planning, and others. (SM)

Ney, W.R.

1991-01-01

322

Compliance program data management system for The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory/Environmental Protection Agency  

SciTech Connect

The Compliance Program Data Management System (DMS) developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) validates and maintains the integrity of data collected to support the Consent Order and Compliance Agreement (COCA) between the INEL and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The system uses dBase III Plus programs and dBase III Plus in an interactive mode to enter, store, validate, manage, and retrieve analytical information provided on EPA Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) forms and CLP forms modified to accommodate 40 CFR 264 Appendix IX constituent analyses. Data analysis and presentation is performed utilizing SAS, a statistical analysis software program. Archiving of data and results is performed at appropriate stages of data management. The DMS is useful for sampling and analysis programs where adherence to EPA CLP protocol, along with maintenance and retrieval of waste site investigation sampling results is desired or requested. 3 refs.

Hertzler, C.L.; Poloski, J.P.; Bates, R.A.; Van Haaften, D.H.; Shea, J.P.; Fritz, L.L.

1988-01-01

323

The discrete periodic Radon transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this correspondence, a discrete periodic Radon transform and its inversion are developed. The new discrete periodic Radon transform possesses many properties similar to the continuous Radon transform such as the Fourier slice theorem and the convolution property, etc. With the convolution property, a 2-D circular convolution can be decomposed into 1-D circular convolutions, hence improving the computational efficiency. Based

Taichiu Hsung; Daniel P. K. Lun; Wan-Chi Siu

1996-01-01

324

Radon as a Radiation Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following a brief historical introduction, the emission of radon 222 from the ground and from building materials is described theoretically. An expression is given for the radon in air concentration in a mine or a house and in . Radon from ground water in...

E. Stranden

1981-01-01

325

Measurements of indoor radon and radon progeny in Mexico City  

SciTech Connect

Indoor radon has been a public concern associated with increased lung cancer risks. Radon decay products interact with indoor aerosols to form progeny with different size distributions, which may influence the lung dosimetry when the progeny are inhaled. Air pollution in Mexico City is a serious problems with high particulate concentrations, but there are few reports of indoor radon measurement. The purposes of this study were to measure the aerosol concentration, radon concentration, and radon activity size distribution in the living area of three houses in Mexico City. The radon concentration was monitored by a RGM-3 radon gas monitor (Eberline, Inc., Santa Fe, NM). A graded diffusion battery was used to determine the progeny concentration and activity size distribution. The concentration and size distribution of the indoor aerosols were monitored by a quartz, crystal microbalance cascade impactor. Our measurements showed high concentrations of indoor aerosols (20-180 gg m{sup -3}). However, the radon concentrations-were low (<1 pCi L{sup -1}), but showed a clear diurnal pattern with peak concentrations from 2-10 AM. The activity size distributions of radon progeny were trimodal, with peaks of 0.6 nm, 4-5 nm, and 100 rim. Most activities were associated with large particle sizes. Our results indicated that indoor radon concentration was not high, due in part to a relatively high air exchange with outdoor air. The high aerosol concentration may also play an important part in the activity size distribution of radon progeny.

Cheng, Y.S. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, G.P. [Univ. of Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

1996-06-01

326

Transient radon diffusion through radon-proof membranes: A new technique for more precise determination of the radon diffusion coefficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper is focused on the numerical modelling of the transient radon diffusion through radon-proof membranes during the measurement of their radon diffusion coefficient. The major aim of such numerical modelling is to increase the accuracy of radon diffusion coefficients derived from the measured data sets. The developed complex transient numerical model is able to calculate the radon diffusion

Martin Jiranek; Zbynek Svoboda

2009-01-01

327

Towards a Brazilian radon map: consortium radon Brazil.  

PubMed

Recently, the idea of generating radon map of Brazil has emerged. First attempts of coordinating radon surveys-carried out by different groups across the country-and initial discussions on how to proceed on a larger scale were made at the First Brazilian Radon Seminary, Natal, September 2012. Conventionally, it is believed that indoor radon is no major problem in Brazil, because the overall benign climate usually allows high ventilation rates. Nevertheless, scattered measurements have shown that moderately high indoor radon concentrations (up to a few hundred Bq m(-)) do occur regionally. Brazilian geology is very diverse and there are regions where an elevated geogenic radon potential exists or is expected to exist. Therefore, a Brazilian Radon Survey is expected to be a challenge, although it appears an important issue, given the rising concern of the public about the quality of its environment. PMID:24743768

Silva, N C; Bossew, P; Filho, A L Ferreira; Campos, T F C; Pereira, A J S C; Yoshimura, E M; Veiga, L H S; Campos, M P; Rocha, Z; Paschuk, S A; Bonotto, D M

2014-07-01

328

Radon Monitoring and Early Low Background Counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m{sup 3}, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m{sup 3} based on approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m{sup 3}. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in relevant areas underground.

Thomas, K. J.; Mei, D.-M. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); Heise, J. [Sanford Laboratory at Homestake, Lead, SD 57754 (United States); Durben, D. [Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD 57799 (United States); Salve, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2011-04-27

329

Radon Monitoring and Early Low Background Counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m3, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m3 based on approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m3. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in relevant areas underground.

Thomas, K. J.; Mei, D.-M.; Heise, J.; Durben, D.; Salve, R.

2011-04-01

330

Radon Transport Through and Exhalation from Building Materials: A Review and Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was prepared, at the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, for the purpose of reviewing, assessing, and summarizing what is currently known about radon transport through and exhalation from building materials. In four chapters, ...

R. Colle R. J. Rubin L. I. Knab J. M. R. Hutchinson

1981-01-01

331

The April 1994 and October 1994 radon intercomparisons at EML  

SciTech Connect

Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) are the backbone of many commercial and research processes and programs. QA/QC research tests the state of a functioning system, be it the production of manufactured goods or the ability to make accurate and precise measurements. The quality of the radon measurements in the US have been tested under controlled conditions in semi-annual radon gas intercomparison exercises sponsored by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) since 1981. The two Calendar Year 1994 radon gas intercomparison exercises were conducted in the EML exposure chamber. Thirty-two groups including US Federal facilities, USDOE contractors, national and state laboratories, universities and foreign institutions participated in these exercises. The majority of the participant`s results were within {+-}10% of the EML value at radon concentrations of 570 and 945 Bq m{sup {minus}3}.

Fisenne, I.M.; George, A.C.; Perry, P.M.; Keller, H.W.

1995-10-01

332

The radon EDM apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) at current experimentally accessible levels would provide clear evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. EDMs violate CP symmetry, making them a possible route to explaining the size of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe. The Radon EDM Experiment aims to search for an EDM in radon isotopes whose sensitivity to CP-odd interactions is enhanced by octupole-deformed nuclei. A prototype apparatus currently installed in the ISAC hall at TRIUMF includes a gas handling system to move radon from a collection foil to a measurement cell and auxiliary equipment for polarization diagnostics and validation. The features and capabilities of the apparatus are described and an overview of the experimental design for a gamma-ray-anisotropy based EDM measurement is provided.

Tardiff, E. R.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G. C.; Chupp, T. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P.; Hayden, M. E.; Kierans, C. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Pearson, M. R.; Schaub, C.; Svensson, C. E.

2014-01-01

333

Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration

Langner; G. Harold

1993-01-01

334

Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration

Langner; G. H. Jr

1991-01-01

335

What Teachers Should Know about Radon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to clear up misunderstandings about radon and outlines information teachers can convey to their students. Includes a brief history of radon, health threats posed by radon, methods to measure radon quantities, homeowner risks and preventative actions, and a glossary of radon terms. (MDH)

Bettis, Clifford; Throckmorton, Carl

1991-01-01

336

Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9+/-5 to 163+/-32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49+/-2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M. S.

2010-07-01

337

Radon in multi-story residential buildings. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In September 1989, HUD signed an Interagency Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requesting EPA to measure radon levels and distribution patterns in several multi-story residential buildings. This study was conducted in two phases. The Phase 1 included walk-through investigations of each of the four test buildings. These preliminary investigations were focused on identifying site-specific characteristics that might influence radon entry and distribution. The results of these investigations were used to design and implement short-term screening measurements (diffusion barrier charcoal canisters) of each building's radon potential. Phase 2 consisted of long-term radon measurements with alpha track detectors (approximately 6 months) and investigations of the characteristics of each building. These measurements were made to address the possibility that long-term radon levels might be higher on upper floors than indicated by the short-term basement and ground-level screening tests. The report describes the investigations that were conducted, the data that were gathered for each building, and general observations and discussions about patterns of radon distribution in these specific buildings.

Mardis, H.M.; MacWaters, J.; Oswald, J.

1991-12-01

338

Radon concentrations in three underground lignite mines in Turkey.  

PubMed

Monitoring of radon in underground mines is important in order to assess the radiological hazards to occupational workers. Radon concentration levels in three underground lignite mines (Tunbilek, Omerler and Eynez) of Turkey were obtained in this study. For this reason, atmospheric radon level measurements were carried out in mines using CR-39 track detectors. Chemical etching of the detector tracks and subsequent counting were performed at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center. The obtained results were evaluated according to the International Commission of Radiation Protection and the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority whose radon action levels for workplaces are 500-1500 and 1000 Bq(-3), respectively. The radon gas concentrations in the lignite mines were determined to be between 50 +/- 7 and 587 +/- 16 Bq m(-3). The results obtained in these experiments are far under the action levels. The computed radon doses for the mine workers of Tunbilek, Omerler and Eynez lignite mines are 1.23, 2.44 and 1.47 mSv y(-1), respectively. PMID:19770210

Cile, S; Altinsoy, N; Celebi, N

2010-01-01

339

Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9{+-}5 to 163{+-}32 Bqm{sup -3} and an average of 49{+-}2 Bqm{sup -3}. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm{sup -3} set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

Alyami, S. H. [Saudi School in KualaLumpur, Ministry of Education, 55000 KualaLumpur (Malaysia); Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M.S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

2010-07-07

340

Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S. [eds.] [eds.

1994-10-01

341

Material protection control and accounting program activities at the electrochemical plant  

SciTech Connect

The Electrochemical Plant (ECP) is the one of the Russian Federation`s four uranium enrichment plants and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. ECP is located approximately 200 km east of Krasnoyarsk in the closed city of Zelenogorsk (formerly Krasnoyarsk- 45). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with ECP in September of 1996. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with ECP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at ECP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

McAllister, S.

1997-11-14

342

Material protection control and accounting program activities at the Urals electrochemical integrated plant  

SciTech Connect

The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) is the Russian Federation`s largest uranium enrichment plant and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. UEIP is located approximately 70 km north of Yekaterinburg in the closed city of Novouralsk (formerly Sverdlovsk- 44). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with UEIP in June of 1996, however because of some contractual issues the work did not start until September of 1997. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with UEIP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at UEIP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

McAllister, S.

1997-11-14

343

Radon programmes and health marketing.  

PubMed

Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. PMID:21498864

Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

2011-05-01

344

Building the basis for a comprehensive radiation protection program for a multi-program laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An explicit, workplace-specific training has been developed, implemented, and documented for all radiation workers. In addition to the radiation worker personnel located at reactors, accelerators, radiochemical laboratories, and waste treatment areas, we have trained other personnel who work in areas where a lesser potential for radiological/chemical exposure exists. These workforces include construction crews, site restoration crews, contracted special services such as scoping and site characterization teams, and short-term visitors. We are developing a comprehensive, integrated approach to radiation protection training suited for a multi-purpose research laboratory. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Copenhaver, E.D.

1987-01-01

345

RADON reconstruction in longitudinal phase space  

SciTech Connect

Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitoring by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in two dimensional (2-D) phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. A computer program RADON has been developed in C++ to process digitized mountain range data and perform the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Wei, J.

1997-07-01

346

Contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer.  

PubMed Central

This article reviews studies on the contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer and proposes recommendations for further research, particularly a national radon survey. The steady-state outdoor radon concentration averages 200 pCi/m3, and indoor levels are about 4 times higher. The primary source of radon in homes is the underlying soil; entry depends on multiple variables and reduced ventilation for energy conservation increases indoor radon levels. Occupational exposures are expressed in units of radon daughter potential energy concentration or working level (WL). Cumulative exposure is the product of the working level and the time exposed. The unit for cumulative exposure is the working level month (WLM). The occupational standard for radon exposure is 4 WLM/year, and 2 WLM/year has been suggested as a guideline for remedial action in homes. Epidemiologic studies show that miners with cumulative radon daughter exposures somewhat below 100 WLM have excess lung cancer mortality. Some 3% to 8% of miners studied have developed lung cancer attributable to radon daughters. All of the underground mining studies show an increased risk of lung cancer with radon daughter exposure. All cell types of lung cancer increased with radon exposure. If radon and smoking act in a multiplicative manner, then the risk for smokers could be 10 times that for nonsmokers. The potential risk of lung cancer appears to be between 1 and 2 per 10,000/WLM, which yields a significant number of lung cancers as some 220 million persons in the United States are exposed on average to 10 to 20 WLM/lifetime.

Harley, N; Samet, J M; Cross, F T; Hess, T; Muller, J; Thomas, D

1986-01-01

347

Contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer.  

PubMed

This article reviews studies on the contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer and proposes recommendations for further research, particularly a national radon survey. The steady-state outdoor radon concentration averages 200 pCi/m3, and indoor levels are about 4 times higher. The primary source of radon in homes is the underlying soil; entry depends on multiple variables and reduced ventilation for energy conservation increases indoor radon levels. Occupational exposures are expressed in units of radon daughter potential energy concentration or working level (WL). Cumulative exposure is the product of the working level and the time exposed. The unit for cumulative exposure is the working level month (WLM). The occupational standard for radon exposure is 4 WLM/year, and 2 WLM/year has been suggested as a guideline for remedial action in homes. Epidemiologic studies show that miners with cumulative radon daughter exposures somewhat below 100 WLM have excess lung cancer mortality. Some 3% to 8% of miners studied have developed lung cancer attributable to radon daughters. All of the underground mining studies show an increased risk of lung cancer with radon daughter exposure. All cell types of lung cancer increased with radon exposure. If radon and smoking act in a multiplicative manner, then the risk for smokers could be 10 times that for nonsmokers. The potential risk of lung cancer appears to be between 1 and 2 per 10,000/WLM, which yields a significant number of lung cancers as some 220 million persons in the United States are exposed on average to 10 to 20 WLM/lifetime. PMID:3830103

Harley, N; Samet, J M; Cross, F T; Hess, T; Muller, J; Thomas, D

1986-12-01

348

Groundwater, Radon Continuous Monitoring System (alpha-scintillation Counting) for Natural Hazard Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ``quasi continuous mode'' monitoring system to measure the radon concentration within a natural environment (mainly groundwater), was designed, assembled and tested, under collaboration between DINCE and ING, partly within the framework of two EC funded programs.The radon monitor consists of a customised discrete automatic sampler which produces a gas flux circuit, and an economical alpha-scintillation cell, coupled with a

G. Galli; C. Mancini; F. Quattrocchi

2000-01-01

349

A multiyear quality control study of alpha-track radon monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality control exposures of commercial alpha-track radon monitors have been conducted approximately weekly at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office since early 1987 in support of DOE remedial action programs. The results of these exposures provide a historical record of the comparative performances of these radon monitors.

Mark D. Pearson; Dowell E. Martz; Joan L. George; G. H. Jr. Langner

1992-01-01

350

PROTECTING CHILDREN FROM ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS - A CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR NURSES OF THE AMERICAN NURSES FOUNDATION/ASSOCIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The American Nurses Association/Foundation will develop online, in print and pre conference continuing education (CE) children's environmental health protection programs to meet the objective of the program. The first CE program is on school environments, the second on home and ...

351

Risks from Radon: Reconciling Miner and Residential Epidemiology  

SciTech Connect

Everyone is exposed to radon, an inert radioactive gas that occurs naturally and is present everywhere in the atmosphere. The annual dose from radon and its (short-lived) decay products is typically about one-half of the dose received by members of the public from all natural sources of ionizing radiation. Data on exposures and consequent effects have recently been reviewed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Studies of underground miners provides a well-established basis for estimating risks from occupational exposures to radon and for studying factors that may affect the dose response relationship such as the reduction of risk (coefficients) with increasing time since exposure. Miners' studies previously formed the basis for estimating risks to people exposed to radon at home, with downward extrapolation from exposures in mines to residential levels of radon. Presently, the risk estimates from residential studies are adequate to estimate radon risks in homes. Although there are major uncertainties in extrapolating the risks of exposure to radon from the miner studies to assessing risks in the home, there is remarkably good agreement between the average of risk factors derived from miner studies and those from pooled residential case-control studies. There are now over 20 analytical studies of residential radon and lung cancer. These studies typically assess the relative risk from exposure to radon based on estimates of residential exposure over a period of 25 to 30 years prior to diagnosis of lung cancer. Recent pooled analyses of residential case-control studies support a small but detectable lung cancer risk from residential exposure, and this risk increases with increasing concentrations. The excess relative risk of lung cancer from long-term residential exposure is about the same for both smokers and non-smokers; however, because the baseline lung cancer rate for smokers is much higher than for non or never smokers, smokers account for nearly 90% of the population risk from residential exposure to radon. As described in the paper, an excess relative risk (ERR) of 0.12(95% CI: 0.08-0.2)per 100 Bq m{sup -3} (radon gas) can be estimated from combined miner studies. This compares well with the ERR from pooled residential case-control studies (for restricted analysis) for Europe of 0.16(95% CI: 0.05-0.31) and for North America of 0.11(95% CI: 0.0-0.28)

Chambers, Douglas B. [SENES Consultants Limited, 121 Granton Drive, Unit 12 Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3N4 (Canada); Harley, Naomi H. [New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY (United States)

2008-08-07

352

Risks from Radon: Reconciling Miner and Residential Epidemiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Everyone is exposed to radon, an inert radioactive gas that occurs naturally and is present everywhere in the atmosphere. The annual dose from radon and its (short-lived) decay products is typically about one-half of the dose received by members of the public from all natural sources of ionizing radiation. Data on exposures and consequent effects have recently been reviewed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Studies of underground miners provides a well-established basis for estimating risks from occupational exposures to radon and for studying factors that may affect the dose response relationship such as the reduction of risk (coefficients) with increasing time since exposure. Miners' studies previously formed the basis for estimating risks to people exposed to radon at home, with downward extrapolation from exposures in mines to residential levels of radon. Presently, the risk estimates from residential studies are adequate to estimate radon risks in homes. Although there are major uncertainties in extrapolating the risks of exposure to radon from the miner studies to assessing risks in the home, there is remarkably good agreement between the average of risk factors derived from miner studies and those from pooled residential case-control studies. There are now over 20 analytical studies of residential radon and lung cancer. These studies typically assess the relative risk from exposure to radon based on estimates of residential exposure over a period of 25 to 30 years prior to diagnosis of lung cancer. Recent pooled analyses of residential case-control studies support a small but detectable lung cancer risk from residential exposure, and this risk increases with increasing concentrations. The excess relative risk of lung cancer from long-term residential exposure is about the same for both smokers and non-smokers however, because the baseline lung cancer rate for smokers is much higher than for non or never smokers, smokers account for nearly 90% of the population risk from residential exposure to radon. As described in the paper, an excess relative risk (ERR) of 0.12(95% CI: 0.08-0.2)per 100 Bq m-3 (radon gas) can be estimated from combined miner studies. This compares well with the ERR from pooled residential case-control studies (for restricted analysis) for Europe of 0.16(95% CI: 0.05-0.31)[1] and for North America of 0.11(95% CI: 0.0-0.28)[2].

Chambers, Douglas B.; Harley, Naomi H.

2008-08-01

353

Radon-Resistant New Construction (RRNC)  

MedlinePLUS

You are here: EPA Home Air Indoor Air Radon Radon-Resistant New Construction (RRNC) Builders and Contractors Learn ... basics about why you should build homes using radon-resistant new construction techniques. Review the techniques - learn ...

354

Improved thomas formula for radon measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FT 648 type portable absolute radon meter has been developed and the designing principle of this instrument is introduced. The absolute radon meter differs from relative radon meter. By using structure parameters, operating parameters and readout of t...

C. Ji

1991-01-01

355

A creeping suspicion about radon  

SciTech Connect

Who would expect an odorless, invisible gas that occurs nearly everywhere on earth to cause such trouble Yet radon, the gas emitted by decay of uranium in the earth's crust, is one of America's most significant environmental risks, according to the EPA, which estimates that residential radon levels lead to approximately 13,600 lung cancer deaths each year. A new National Cancer Institute analysis of multiple studies of miners confirms early estimates, putting the number at 15,000. No other risk comes close, not even environmental tobacco smoke, which is estimates to cause some 3,000 deaths each year. Hot debate surrounds the assessment of risk from radon exposure to Americans via indoor air and water supplies. The primary culprit is not radon gas itself, but its decay products, including polonium-214 and polonium-218, which have long half-lives and emit alpha particles - positively charged particles - and lung cancer when inhaled. Radon seeps into homes from the ground or is present in water supplies. Waterborne radon may be inhaled as radon or its progeny during household use - cooking or showering - or it may be ingested. But the EPA estimates that water sources contribute only about 5% of total airborne radon exposure, leaving indoor air as the worst offender. While the EPA estimates that approximately 200 cancer cases per year result from exposure to radon from public groundwater systems, estimates of annual lung cancer deaths from indoor air radon range from 7,000 to 30,000.

Alderson, L.

1994-10-01

356

RADON / MOISTURE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Limited field study in three basement houses in Mechanicsburg, Pa. Each house will have a radon mitigation installed and be monitored over the course of a year for moisture entry and control. Followed by a more extensive statistical analysis of the data....

357

Radon gas detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a radon gas detector. It comprises: a housing having an interior chamber, the interior chamber being completely closed to ambient light, the interior chamber being divided into an environment connecting chamber and a radiation ascertaining chamber; radiation sensitive means mounted between the environment connecting chamber and the radiation ascertaining chamber; air movement means mounted in connection with

P. A. Madnick; R. W. Sherwood

1990-01-01

358

Continuous Hourly Radon-222 Gradient Observations at Cabauw  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A program of radon-222 (radon) gradient observations at Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in the Netherlands (51.971oN, 4.927oE) commenced in mid 2006. These observations are part of an effort to characterise turbulent mixing processes throughout the lower atmosphere. They include continuous measurements of near surface radon gradients at a 50m tower at Lucas Heights, New South Wales (34.053S, 150.981E), as well as measurements of radon profiles up to altitudes of 4000m above ground level using light aircraft. Radon is a suitable tracer of boundary layer turbulence and mixing as it does not interact chemically and its half-life is long in comparison with typical turbulent timescales and short enough to result in its concentration in the free troposphere to be typically 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than near the surface. We present a number of examples of diurnal and seasonal variations in the radon signal recorded at two heights (20m and 200m) on the Cabauw tower. We show how the signal is influenced by two atmospheric processes occurring on diurnal and synoptic time scales: the diurnal variability depending on suppression of turbulence by nocturnal temperature stratification and its generation by low level wind shear, and the synoptic variability reflecting the changes in regional fetch. We demonstrate that it is possible to separate these influences and thus to characterize diurnal vertical mixing.

Zahorowski, W.; Williams, A. G.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Chambers, S.; Parkes, S.

2008-12-01

359

Anomalous results with the widely used NRPB/SSI-type passive radon dosemeter.  

PubMed

In an industrial hall, with large variations of radon concentration within minutes, simultaneous measurements were done with two types of passive radon detectors and an active radon measuring device. The widely used passive radon detector of the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) [Health Protection Agency (former NRPB) (HPA)]/Statens strlskyddsinstitut (Swedish Radiation Protection Institute) (SSI) type produced anomalous results, seemingly uncorrelated to the radon concentration which was in the order of hundreds of becquerels per metre, usually underestimating but occasionally overestimating. We tried to reproduce similar exposure characteristics in our laboratory, but failed to reproduce the anomalous readings. We suspected, but could not prove, that the anomalous results were due to the combination of high radon concentration gradients, with pressure-driven air exchange between the inside of the detector holder and the outside atmosphere. Moreover, this theory was at least partly contradicted when we drilled holes in the detector holder. Although of interest, this effect is not likely to have substantially influenced any radon surveys, given the unusual nature of the exposure that caused the effect. PMID:20858675

Paridaens, J

2010-12-01

360

Map showing radon potential of rocks and soils in Montgomery County, Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes the radon potential of Montgomery County in the context of its geology. Radon is a naturally occurring gas produced by the radioactive decay of uranium. Radon produced by uraniferous rocks and soils may enter a house through porous building materials and through openings in walls and floors. Radon gases has a tendency to move from the higher pressure commonly existing in the soil to the lower pressure commonly existing in the house. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA, 1986a) estimates that elevated levels of indoor radon may be associated with 5,000 to 20,000 of the 130,000 lung cancer deaths per year. They also estimate that 8 to 12 percent of the homes in the United States will have annual average indoor radon levels exceeding 4 picoCuries per liter of air (pCi/L). Above this level, the U.S. EPA recommends homeowners take remedial action. May factors control the amount of radon which may enter a home from the geologic environment. Soil drainage, permeability, and moisture content effect the amount of radon that can be released from rocks and soils (known as the emmanation) and may limit or increase how far it can migrate. Well drained, highly permeable soils facilitate the movement of radon. Soils with water content in the 8 to 15 percent range enhance the emmanation of radon (Lindmark, 1985). Daily and seasonal variations in soil and indoor radon can be caused by meteorologic factors such as barometric pressure, temperature, and wind (Clements and Wilkening, 1974; Schery and other, 1984). Construction practices also inhibit or promote entry of radon into the home (U.S. EPA, 1986b). In general, however, geology controls the source and distribution of radon (Akerblom and Wilson, 1982; Gundersen and others, 1987, 1988; Sextro and others, 1987; U.S. EPA, 1983; Peake, 1988; Peake and Hess, 1988). The following sections describe: 1) the methods used to measure radon and equivalent uranium (eU) in soil; 2) the radon potential ratings that were developed for this study; and 3) the characteristics of the rocks and soils in Montgomery County that give them their radon potential.

Gundersen, L. C.; Reimer, G. M.; Wiggs, C. R.; Rice, C. A.

1988-01-01

361

Environmental Technology Verification Program Quarterly Report, October 2003. Water Quality Protection Center Verifies Technologies for Residential Nurient Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program develops testing protocols and verifies the performance of innovative technologies that have the potential to improve protection of human health and the environment. ETV was created to accelerate t...

2003-01-01

362

SYMPOSIUM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC PROGRAMS FOR MONITORING ECOLOGICAL IMPACT FROM PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Historically, monitoring programs in association with field releases of crops with plant incorporated protectants (PIPs) have been, explicitly or implicitly, called for as a part of risk assessment/management schemes or regulatory agenda. However...

363

Fire protection program fiscal year 1995 site support program plan, Hanford Fire Department  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report describes the specific responsibilities and programs that the HFD must support and the estimated cost of this support for FY1995.

Good, D.E.

1994-09-01

364

25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

25 Indians 1 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION...

2009-04-01

365

25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION...

2010-04-01

366

Comparative dosimetry of radon and thoron.  

PubMed

There is a well-known discrepancy between dosimetrically derived dose conversion factor (DCF) and epidemiologically derived DCF for radon. As the latter DCFs, International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends a value of ?6.4 nSv (Bq h m(-3))(-1) and 7.9 nSv (Bq h m(-3))(-1) for radon decay products (RnDP) in dwellings and workplaces, respectively. On the other hand, the dosimetric calculations based on the ICRP-66 respiratory tract model derived a DCF of 13 nSv (Bq h m(-3))(-1) and 17 nSv (Bq h m(-3))(-1) for RnDP in dwellings and workplaces, respectively, and 83 nSv (Bq h m(-3))(-1) for thoron decay products (TnDP) in dwellings. In addition, the DCFs derived from both approaches and UNSCEAR were applied to comparative dosimetry for two thoron-enhanced areas (cave dwellings in China and dwellings at a spa town in Japan), where the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon and equilibrium equivalent concentration of thoron have been measured. In the case of the spa town dwellings, the dose from TnDP was larger than the dose from RnDP. PMID:20829202

Kranrod, C; Ishikawa, T; Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Chanyotha, S; Chankow, N

2010-10-01

367

Radon in Irish Show Caves - Personal Monitoring Data From 2001-2006  

SciTech Connect

The European Directive 96/29/EURATOM and its transposition into national legislation demands the application of radiation protection measures if the presence of radon and radon decay products leads to significant increase in exposures of workers. Irish legislation further demands that laboratories carrying out radon measurements operate a high level quality assurance programme. As a result of a reconnaissance survey regular measurements of show cave guides have been made in order to assess exposure to radon in such workplaces and to ascertain that the limits set for radon are not exceeded. In 2000, an action level of 400 Bqm{sup -3}, was established. Doses in the range 0.3-12.0 mSv have been estimated for workers for the period 2001-2006.

Currivan, L.; Murray, M.; O'Colmain, M.; Pollard, D. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

2008-08-07

368

Corrosion Protection of Launch Infrastructure and Hardware Through the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Corrosion, the environmentally induced degradation of materials, has been a challenging and costly problem that has affected NASA's launch operations since the inception of the Space Program. Corrosion studies began at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966 during the Gemini/Apollo Programs with the evaluation of long-term protective coatings for the atmospheric protection of carbon steel. NASA's KSC Beachside Corrosion Test Site, which has been documented by the American Society of Materials (ASM) as one of the most corrosive, naturally occurring environments in the world, was established at that time. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive natural conditions at the launch pad were rendered even more severe by the acidic exhaust from the solid rocket boosters. In the years that followed, numerous efforts at KSC identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosiye environment at the launch pads. Knowledge on materials degradation, obtained by facing the highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment, as well as limitations imposed by the environmental impact of corrosion control, have led researchers at NASA's Corrosion Technology Laboratory to establish a new technology development capability in the area of corrosion prevention, detection, and mitigation at KSC that is included as one of the "highest priority" technologies identified by NASA's integrated technology roadmap. A historical perspective highlighting the challenges encountered in protecting launch infrastructure and hardware from corrosion during the life of the Space Shuttle program and the new technological advances that have resulted from facing the unique and highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment will be presented.

Calle, L. M.

2011-01-01

369

AUTOMATIC MONITOR AND CONTROL SYSTEM OF RADON CHAMBER  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the reason of radon decay, the radon concentration in the chamber is continuously changing. The supply and control of radon in the chamber is necessary to keep the stability of the radon concentration. In the standard radon chamber of HD-5, dynamic radon replenishment model was adopted according to the law of radon decay, but the effects of temperature and

Fangdong Tang; Zhenji Wang; Shumin Zhou; Bin Tang

2008-01-01

370

Radiation Protection Considerations at USACE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Projects  

SciTech Connect

The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was initially authorized by Congress in 1974. FUSRAP was enacted to address residual radioactive contamination associated with numerous sites across the U.S. at which radioactive material (primarily Uranium ores and related milling products) had been processed in support of the nation's nuclear weapons program dating back to the Manhattan Project and the period immediately following World War II. In October 1997, Congress transferred the management of this program from the Department of Energy to the United States Corp of Engineers. Through this program, the Corps addresses the environmental remediation of certain sites once used by DOE's predecessor agencies, the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. The waste at FUSRAP sites consists mainly of low levels of uranium, thorium and radium, along with some mixed wastes. Upon completion of remedial activities, these sites are transferred to DOE for long-term stewardship activities. This paper presents and contrasts the radiological conditions and recent monitoring results associated with five large ongoing FUSRAP projects including Maywood, N.J.; the Linde site near Buffalo, N.Y.; Colonie in Albany N.Y. and the St Louis, Mo. airport and downtown sites. The radiological characteristics of soil and debris at each site and respective regulatory clean up criteria is presented and contrasted. Some differences are discussed in the radiological characteristics of material at some sites that result in variations in radiation protection monitoring programs. Additionally, summary data for typical personnel radiation exposure monitoring results are presented. In summary: 1. The FUSRAP projects for which data and observations are reported in this paper are considered typical of the radiological nature of FUSRAP sites in general. 2. These sites are characterized by naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides in soil and debris, at concentrations typically < E4 pCi/ gram total activity. 3. Although external exposure rates are generally low resulting in few exposures above background, occasional 'hot spots' are observed in the 1- 10 mR / hr range or higher. However personnel and general area external exposure monitoring programs consistently demonstrate very low potential for external exposure at theses sites. 4. Potential for airborne exposure is controlled by wetting and misting techniques during excavation and movement of materials. Air sampling and bioassay programs confirm low potential for airborne exposure of workers at these sites. 5. Radiation protection and health physics monitoring programs as implemented at these sites ensure that exposures to personal are maintained ALARA. (authors)

Brown, S.H. [CHP, SHB INC., Centennial, Colorado (United States)

2008-07-01

371

Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program--genitourinary losses. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is issuing this final rule that amends the regulations governing the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) program by adding certain genitourinary (GU) system losses to the TSGLI Schedule of Losses and defining terms relevant to these new losses. This amendment is necessary to make qualifying GU losses a basis for paying TSGLI benefits to servicemembers with severe GU injuries. The intended effect is to expand the list of losses for which TSGLI payments can be made. This document adopts as a final rule, without change, the interim final rule published in the Federal Register on December 2, 2011. PMID:22666897

2012-06-01

372

The Russian Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program: Analysis and prospect  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes an analysis of the US-Russian Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) Program, developed on the basis of extensive discussions with US laboratory participants as well as personal experience. Results of the discussions have been organized into three main areas: Technical/MPC and A Progress; Programmatic and Administrative Issues; and Professional Aspects. Implications for MPC and A effectiveness, for MPC and A sustainability, and for future relations and collaboration are derived. Suggested next steps are given.

Kempf, C.R.

1998-11-01

373

Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program - Part IV: Onsite review handbook  

SciTech Connect

Onsite Review Handbook contains criteria to be used in evaluating the management systems required for initial or continued participation in the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP), verifying and calculating rates of injury experience, the Onsite Review report format, and sample questions to be used during onsite interviews. This document should be used in conjunction with the first three DOE-VPP manuals (Part I: Program Elements, Part II: Procedures Manual, and Part III: Application Guidelines). This document is intended to assist Onsite Review team members and DOE contractors in evaluating safety and health programs, and to serve as guidance for DOE-VPP participants in performing their required annual evaluation. Requests for additional information or any questions may be addressed to a DOE-VPP Coordinator in the Office of Occupational Safety and Health Policy. The term contractor used throughout this document refers to an applicant to, or a participant in, the DOE-VPP. The term subcontractor refers to any organization that is contracted by the applicant or participant to do work at the site under review. The DOE-VPP Onsite Review Criteria contained in Appendix A provide guidance for evaluating a site`s implementation of the program requirements given in Part I: Program Elements. The program requirements are in bold italicized type, followed by guidance for ensuring implementation. Part I should be consulted for a complete description of the program requirements. These criteria should be used by team members whenever possible, but are not intended to be all inclusive. Determination of adequate implementation of the DOE-VPP requirements is at the team members` discretion. Guidance for calculating recordable injury and lost workday incidence rates is contained in Appendix B. The OSHA injury/illness records review and the associated calculations should be performed by Onsite Review Team members during the pre-onsite planning visit.

NONE

1995-07-01

374

Reference samples for water-related programs in the US Environmental Protection Agency  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory at Cincinnati provides quality assurance (QA) support for US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water-related programs. Two important segments of this support are the Quality Control Sample Program, which furnishes samples of known concentrations for use as independent checks on intralaboratory QA activities, and the EPA's Repository for Toxic and Hazardous Materials, which provides calibration standards and spiking solutions for trace organic analyses of interest to the Agency. Each series contains one or more analytes, with true or reference values. The samples and standards are prepared as stable concentrated solutions in all-glass ampuls for dilution to volume, and analyses by EPA, its contractors and grantees, and other federal, state, and local agencies. 1 reference, 6 tables.

Winter, J.A.

1985-06-01

375

BLISS: a computer program for the protection of blood donors. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

A BASIC program has been developed for the Hewlett-Packard Model 9845 desk-top computer which allows the creation of blood donor files for subsequent retrieval, update, and correction. A similar modified version was developed for hte HP 9835 Model. This software system has been called BLISS which stands for Blood Information and Security System. In addition to its function as a file management system, BLISS provides warnings before a donation is performed to protect the donor from excessive exposure to radioactivity and DMSO levels, from too frequent of donations of blood, and from adverse reactions. The program can also be used to select donors who have participated in specific studies and to list the experimental details which have been stored in the file. The BLISS system has been actively utilized at the Naval Blood Research Laboratory in Boston and contains the files of over 750 donors.

Catsimpoolas, N.; Cooke, C.; Valeri, C.R.

1982-06-28

376

FOXO3A directs a protective autophagy program in haematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

Blood production is ensured by rare, self-renewing haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). How HSCs accommodate the diverse cellular stresses associated with their life-long activity remains elusive. Here we identify autophagy as an essential mechanism protecting HSCs from metabolic stress. We show that mouse HSCs, in contrast to their short-lived myeloid progeny, robustly induce autophagy after ex vivo cytokine withdrawal and in vivo calorie restriction. We demonstrate that FOXO3A is critical to maintain a gene expression program that poises HSCs for rapid induction of autophagy upon starvation. Notably, we find that old HSCs retain an intact FOXO3A-driven pro-autophagy gene program, and that ongoing autophagy is needed to mitigate an energy crisis and allow their survival. Our results demonstrate that autophagy is essential for the life-long maintenance of the HSC compartment and for supporting an old, failing blood system. PMID:23389440

Warr, Matthew R; Binnewies, Mikhail; Flach, Johanna; Reynaud, Damien; Garg, Trit; Malhotra, Ritu; Debnath, Jayanta; Passegu, Emmanuelle

2013-02-21

377

FoxO3a Directs a Protective Autophagy Program in Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Blood production is ensured by rare self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). How HSCs accommodate the diverse cellular stresses associated with their life-long activity remains elusive. Here, we identify autophagy as an essential mechanism protecting HSCs from metabolic stress. We show that HSCs, in contrast to their short-lived myeloid progeny, robustly induce autophagy following ex vivo cytokine withdrawal and in vivo caloric restriction. We demonstrate that FoxO3a is critical to maintain a gene expression program that poise HSCs for rapid induction of autophagy upon starvation. Notably, we find that old HSCs retain an intact FoxO3a-driven pro-autophagy gene program, and that ongoing autophagy is needed to mitigate an energy crisis and allow their survival. Our results demonstrate that autophagy is essential for the life-long maintenance of the HSC compartment and for supporting an old, failing blood system.

Warr, Matthew R.; Binnewies, Mikhail; Flach, Johanna; Reynaud, Damien; Garg, Trit; Malhotra, Ritu; Debnath, Jayanta; Passegue, Emmanuelle

2013-01-01

378

[Lung cancer after irradiation: the radon problem].  

PubMed

The estimation and limitation of lung cancer risk from inhaled 222Rn-daughters in mines and in the home is one of the most important problems in radiation protection. The results of epidemiological studies are summarized. The radiation-induced increase in the age-specific lung cancer rate can be interpreted in terms of a proportional hazard model. On the basis of this model, the relative fraction of total lung cancer frequency which might be initiated by the radon-daughter exposure in homes is estimated. PMID:3808078

Jacobi, W

1986-11-01

379

Overview of the US DoD Individual Protection Tech Base Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Demonstrate lightweight, self-detoxifying CB protective clothing. Objectives: Minimize mission degradation by reducing the effects of the use of individual protection on the warfighter's performance; Improve protection against current threats; Add protect...

T. Ramey

2003-01-01

380

A method for measuring effective radon diffusion coefficients in radon barriers by using modified Lucas cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon proof barriers are used for lowering of radon transport from the soil into the house and the determination of the radon diffusion coefficient is an important parameter to be determined in order to design the minimal thickness of the radon proof insulation. A method has been developed in our laboratory by using modified Lucas cells connected to a radon

L. S. Quindos Poncela; P. L. Fernandez; J. Gomez Arozamena; C. Sainz Fernandez

2005-01-01

381

Anti-radon coating for mitigating indoor radon concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sufficient data has proven that radon and its decay products are the principal noso-genesis to lung and other related cancers. To reduce and control the effects of radon pollution, standards to limit indoor radon concentration have been issued in China and other countries or regions. To echo this, an anti-radon coating has been studied and developed with partial funding support from the Innovation and Technology Fund of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The coating had been experimented in a newly constructed building where the recorded maximum and average hourly background radon concentrations were recorded at 130,000 Bq m -3 and 100,000 Bq m -3 respectively under a concealed condition. The experimental results from application of the coating have shown an anti-radon efficiency of up to 99.85%, which decreases the indoor radon background concentration down to a safe level in a 72-h measurement. The coating still remains in a good condition currently and effective in anti-radon three years after the application.

Gao, Grace W. W.; Tang, Y. H.; Tam, C. M.; Gao, X. F.

382

[Radon and internal contamination].  

PubMed

Because of hits everywhere presence in air and in water needful mediums for life, radon is a omnipresent risk for every person. Therefore, in relation to those vital functions, lungs and gastro-enteric tract represent the principal target organs of this noble radioactive gas (and mainly of hits radioactive daughters). International organisms evaluated the effective dose coefficients for both target organs, so it is possible e quantitative assessment of the exposure risk related to this noble gas. PMID:19288807

Stanga, A; Trenta, F

2008-01-01

383

Discrete radon transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the discrete Radon transform (DRT) and the exact inversion algorithm for it. Similar to the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), the DRT is defined for periodic vector-sequences and studied as a transform in its own right. Casting the forward transform as a matrix-vector multiplication, the key observation is that the matrix-although very large-has a block-circulant structure. This observation

GREGORY BEYLKIN

1987-01-01

384

Radon Treatment Controversy  

PubMed Central

In spite of long traditions, treatments utilizing radon-rich air or water have not been unequivocally embraced by modern medicine. The objective of this work is to examine factors that contribute to this continuing controversy. While the exact mechanism of radon's effect on human body is not completely understood, recent advances in radiobiology offer new insights into biochemical processes occurring at low-level exposures to ionizing radiation. Medical evidence and patients' testimonials regarding effectiveness of radon spa treatments of various ailments, most notably rheumatoid arthritis are accumulating worldwide. They challenge the premise of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) theory that the dose-effect response is the same per unit dose regardless of the total dose. Historically, such inference overshadowed scientific inquiries into the low-dose region and lead to a popular belief that no amount of radiation can be good. Fortunately, the LNT theory, which lacks any scientific basis, did not remain unchallenged. As the reviewed literature suggests, a paradigm shift, reflected in the consideration of hormetic effects at low-doses, is gaining momentum in the scientific community worldwide. The impetus comes from significant evidence of adaptive and stimulatory effects of low-levels of radiation on human immune system.

Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Strzelczyk, Jadwiga (Jodi)

2006-01-01

385

78 FR 29786 - Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988; Report of Matching Program: RRB and State...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of...Notice of a renewal of an existing computer matching program due to expire on May...Register of its intent to renew an ongoing computer matching program. In this match,...

2013-05-21

386

Calculation of impulse current distributions and magnetic fields in lightning protection structures-a computer program and its laboratory validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circuit model and an ad hoc computer program were set up to evaluate electromagnetic interference in the vicinity of protective structures struck by lightning. This program permits the evaluation of the impulsive magnetic fields by calculating the impulse current distribution in different parts of such structures. It also allows the evaluation of the electromagnetic interference induced on susceptible victim

R. Cortina; A. Porrino

1992-01-01

387

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Research Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Summary of a Peer-Review Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development, a subcommittee of the Board of Scientific Counselors Executive Committee con- ducted an independent and open peer review of the Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Research Program (EDC Research Program) of the U.S. EPA. The subcommittee was charged with reviewing the design, relevance, progress, scientific leadership, and

Anna K. Harding; George P. Daston; Glen R. Boyd; George W. Lucier; Stephen H. Safe; Juarine Stewart; Donald E. Tillitt; Glen Van Der Kraak

2006-01-01

388

US\\/Russian program in materials protection, control and accounting at the RRC Kurchatov Institute: 1997--1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six US Department of Energy Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute to improve nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC and A) at Kurchatov. In 1997--1998 the primary thrust of this program has been directed to Building 106, which houses a number of test reactors and critical facilities. Substantial improvements in

V. Sukhoruchkin; A. Rumyantsev; V. Shmelev

1998-01-01

389

1994 Annual wildlife survey report. Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of wildlife surveys and other wildlife monitoring performed from January through December 1994. These surveys are part of a long-term ecological monitoring program conducted under the Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program (NRPCP). This program is essential in identifying and quantifying fluctuations of wildlife populations, wildlife habitat use, and changes in the species using the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) as year-round or seasonal habitat. Wildlife population densities vary constantly due to natural pressures, and only well-integrated, long-term monitoring can identify which factors influencing wildlife populations are a consequence of natural causes, and which are due to human activities. An integrated monitoring program that gathers data on ecologically interactive species is essential in evaluating population fluctuations. Such data can be an invaluable tool in predicting and avoiding impacts on the ecology of an area due to projected human activities. With 167 species of birds, three big game species, nine species of carnivores, nine species of mid-sized mammals, and 15 small mammal species, the Site provides habitat to a surprising variety of wildlife. Many of these species are sensitive species or indicator organisms that by their presence or, more significantly, by their absence can indicate the ecological health of an area. Their presence at the Site indicates a very healthy ecosystem.

NONE

1995-04-24

390

United States Environmental Protection Agency Municipal-Waste Combustion Residue Solidification/Stabilization Evaluation Program  

SciTech Connect

Vendors of solidification/stabilization (S/S) and other technologies are cooperating with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Office of Research and Development (ORD), Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate and evaluate the performance of the technologies to treat residues from the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). Solidification/Stabilization is being emphasized in the current program. The technology may enhance the environmental performance of the residues when disposed in the land, when used as road bed aggregate, as building blocks, and in the marine environment as reefs or shore erosion control barriers. The program includes four S/S process types: cement, silicate, cement kiln dust and a phosphate based process. Residue types being evaluated are fly ash, bottom ash and combined residues. An array of chemical leaching tests and physical tests are being conducted to characterize the untreated and treated residues. The S/S evaluation program is the first part of ORD's Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) program.

Wiles, C.C.; Kosson, D.S.; Holmes, T.

1990-06-01

391

Radial-interval linear programming for environmental management under varied protection levels.  

PubMed

In this study, a radial-interval linear programming (RILP) approach was developed for supporting waste management under uncertainty. RILP improved interval-parameter linear programming and its extensions in terms of input reasonableness and output robustness. From the perspective of modeling inputs, RILP could tackle highly uncertain information at the bounds of interval parameters through introducing the concept of fluctuation radius. Regarding modeling outputs, RILP allows controlling the degree of conservatism associated with interval solutions and is capable of quantifying corresponding system risks and benefits. This could facilitate the reflection of interactive relationship between the feasibility of system and the uncertainty of parameters. A computationally tractable algorithm was provided to solve RILP. Then, a long-term waste management case was studied to demonstrate the applicability of the developed methodology. A series of interval solutions obtained under varied protection levels were compared, helping gain insights into the interactions among protection level, violation risk, and system cost. Potential waste allocation alternatives could be generated from these interval solutions, which would be screened in real-world practices according to various projected system conditions as well as decision-makers' willingness to pay and risk tolerance levels. Sensitivity analysis further revealed the significant impact of fluctuation radii of interval parameters on the system. The results indicated that RILP is applicable to a wide spectrum of environmental management problems that are subject to compound uncertainties. PMID:20863053

Tan, Qian; Huang, Guo H; Cai, Yanpeng

2010-09-01

392

The Material Protection, Control and Accounting Sustainability Program Implementation at the Electrochemical Plant  

SciTech Connect

Joint efforts by the Electrochemical Plant (ECP) in Zelenogorsk, Russia, and the United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (US DOE/NNSA) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program to upgrade ECP security systems began in 1996. The commissioning of major MPC&A systems at ECP occurred in December 2004. Since that time, the US Project Team (USPT) and ECP personnel have focused jointly on the development and implementation of an enterprise-wide MPC&A Sustainability Program (SP) that address the seven essential MPC&A Program sustainability elements. This paper describes current operational experience at the ECP with the full implementation of the site SP utilizing an earned-value methodology. In support of this site program, ECP has established a Document Control Program (DCP) for sustainability-related documents; developed a robust master Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) that outlines all ECP MPC&A sustainability activities; and chartered an Enterprise-Wide Sustainability Working Group (ESWG) The earned value methodology uses ECP-completed (and USPT-verified) analyses to assess project performance on a quarterly basis. The MPC&A SP, presently operational through a contract between ECP and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), incorporates the seven essential MPC&A Program sustainability elements and governs all sustainability activities associated with MPC&A systems at ECP. The site SP is designed to ensure over the near term the upgraded MPC&A systems continuous operation at ECP as funding transitions from US-assisted to fully Russian supported and sustained.

Sirotenko, Vladimir; Antonov, Eduard; Sirotenko, Alexei; Kukartsev, Alexander; Krivenko, Vladimir; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Esther M.

2008-06-10

393

MONITORING BEFORE AND AFTER RADON MITIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a radon reduction demonstration project in 1986 on 10 houses in Clinton, NJ. As part of this effort, radon was measured before and after radon reduction techniques were applied. The purpose of the measurements was to ascertain the effectiveness of the radon co...

394

Wackenhut Services, Incorporated: Report from the DOE Voluntary Protection Program onsite review, August 10--14, 1998  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) Review Team`s findings from the five-day onsite evaluation of Wackenhut Services, Inc. (WSI) at Savannah River Site (SRS), conducted August 10-14, 1998. The site was evaluated against the program requirements contained in US Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program, Part 1: Program Elements to determine its success in implementing the five DOE-VPP tenets. The Team determined that WSI has met in varying degrees, all the tenets of the DOE-VPP. In every case, WSI programs and procedures exceed the level or degree necessary for compliance with existing standards, DOE Orders, and guidelines. In addition, WSI has systematically integrated their occupational safety and health (OSH) program into management and work practices at all levels. WSI`s efforts toward implementing the five major DOE-VPP tenets are summarized.

NONE

1999-05-01

395

ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION AND NATURAL RADON  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correction is made to Wilkening's analysis of the datly variation of ; eddy diffusivity of radon near tile ground. The term (- lambda N) added to the ; steady-state form of the diffusion equation, showing the phenomonon to be ; transient. In the above term, N (curve cm⁻³ is the radon content and ; lambda (= 2.1 x 10

J. R. Philip

1959-01-01

396

The fast discrete Radon transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

An explicit relationship between the continuous and discrete time Radon transforms is derived. A generalized least-squares solution to the inversion problem is proposed, and a new inverse counterpart to the fast Radon transform (FRT) algorithm (IFRT) is derived. The authors' interest in the FRT algorithm stems from its application to the seismic inversion problem. A method of seismic migration based

Brian T. Kelley; Vijay K. Madisetti

1992-01-01

397

APPLICATION OF RADON REDUCTION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The document is intended to aid homeowners and contractors in diagnosing and solving indoor radon problems. It will also be useful to State and Federal regulatory officials and many other persons who provide advice on the selection, design and operation of radon reduction methods...

398

Uranium Mill Tailings and Radon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is e...

L. A. Hanchey

1981-01-01

399

1st International comparison measurement on assessing the diffusion coefficient of radon.  

PubMed

Radon diffusion coefficient is a material parameter which is usually used in the radon mitigation measures design. There are different approaches used for radon diffusion coefficient measurement and assessment. The International comparison measurement which was jointly organised by National Radiation Protection Institute and Faculty of Civil Engineering CTU Prague in 2009 and 2010 has registered 11 laboratories from all over the world. Three sets of samples of polyethylene damp-proof membranes were sent to these laboratories for measurement. Till today, the organisers received only five sets of results. The results showed a great variability among laboratories involved. PMID:21471130

Rovenska, Katerina; Jirnek, Martin

2011-05-01

400

Radon in Earth, Air, and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Radon in Earth, Air, and Water is an informative and interesting Web site offered by the US Geological Survey. The host of products on the site include a well-designed online publication, the Geology of Radon, which allows users to page through the chapters with titles such as What is Radon?, the Geology of Radon, Radon Potential (in homes for example), and more. The non-technical text and attractive graphics make this document educational and easy to follow. Other publications offered include Radon in Fault and Shear Zones, Eastern United States, Radon in Glacial Deposits of the Upper Midwest, Terrestrial Gamma Radioactivity of the Conterminous United States, and much more. [JAB

401

Protecting People and Families from Radon  

MedlinePLUS

... of active DOD building criteria. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) DOE is conducting a field study on ... are addressed in DOEs Workforce Guidelines for Home Energy Upgrades, released through Vice President Bidens Recovery Through ...

402

The cost effectiveness of radon mitigation in existing German dwellings--a decision theoretic analysis.  

PubMed

Radon is a naturally occurring inert radioactive gas found in soils and rocks that can accumulate in dwellings, and is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. This study aims to analyze the cost effectiveness of different intervention strategies to reduce radon concentrations in existing German dwellings. The cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) was conducted as a scenario analysis, where each scenario represents a specific regulatory regime. A decision theoretic model was developed, which reflects accepted recommendations for radon screening and mitigation and uses most up-to-date data on radon distribution and relative risks. The model was programmed to account for compliance with respect to the single steps of radon intervention, as well as data on the sensitivity/specificity of radon tests. A societal perspective was adopted to calculate costs and effects. All scenarios were calculated for different action levels. Cost effectiveness was measured in costs per averted case of lung cancer, costs per life year gained and costs per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Univariate and multivariate deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (SA) were performed. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were based on Monte Carlo simulations with 5000 model runs. The results show that legal regulations with mandatory screening and mitigation for indoor radon levels >100 Bq/m(3) are most cost effective. Incremental cost effectiveness compared to the no mitigation base case is 25,181 euro (95% CI: 7371 euro-90,593 euro) per QALY gained. Other intervention strategies focussing primarily on the personal responsibility for screening and/or mitigative actions show considerably worse cost effectiveness ratios. However, targeting radon intervention to radon-prone areas is significantly more cost effective. Most of the uncertainty that surrounds the results can be ascribed to the relative risk of radon exposure. It can be concluded that in the light of international experience a legal regulation requiring radon screening and, if necessary, mitigation is justifiable under the terms of CEA. PMID:20619957

Haucke, Florian

2010-11-01

403

Atmospheric radon in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

For the first time in Hong Kong, atmospheric radon concentration was continuously monitored between November 2007 and October 2008. This paper presents the results obtained during the 12-month period. The annual mean atmospheric radon concentration in Hong Kong was found to be 9.3 Bqm(-3) which was close to the level at neighbouring places like Guangdong and Taiwan. An estimation of the dose arising from atmospheric radon to the Hong Kong population was made. The meteorological effects on the variation of atmospheric radon concentration were discussed. It was found that the origin of the airmass and stability of the local atmosphere played vital roles in the seasonal and diurnal variations respectively, whereas precipitation caused abrupt changes in rainy days. An attempt was also made to find out the contribution of atmospheric radon to the ambient gamma dose rate. PMID:20359794

Chan, S W; Lee, C W; Tsui, K C

2010-06-01

404

Evaluating accountability in the Vaccines for Children program: protecting a federal investment.  

PubMed

The Vaccines for Children (VFC) program supplies health-care providers with federally purchased vaccines at no cost for administration to eligible children. Evaluation of vaccine accountability activities ensures appropriate and timely vaccinations are delivered. Program grantees in 50 states, Washington, five large U.S. metropolitan cities, and five U.S. territories and possessions completed a Web-based survey between December 2002 and January 2003 focused on current vaccine accountability operational systems. Most grantees required providers to complete profiles describing the vaccination needs and demographics of their practices. More than half requested providers use benchmarking data, doses-administered reports, and/or claims or encounter data to determine their VFC program-eligible population size; however, > 65% did not have written procedures for investigating and reconciling discrepancies between estimated vaccine needs and actual vaccine-use data. Most grantees had written standard policies requiring providers to report vaccine loss and wastage routinely and to explain why they occurred. Ninety percent of grantees did not have procedures to check providers for fraud and abuse sanctions, and 52% did not have written procedures to address complaints of vaccine fraud and abuse. These results suggested specific areas in which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention should work with grantees to improve vaccine accountability practices. As a result, enhancements to the VFC program are being implemented to address these areas and their impact evaluated for their effectiveness in ensuring the continued success of the VFC program in protecting the nation's most vulnerable children and adolescents. PMID:18051664

Ching, Pamela L Y H

2007-01-01

405

A Study of a Radon Gas Scrubber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon gas and its progeny are critical source of background for low background experimental devices. The required reduction of radon levels in air of the experimental area can typically be achieved with a radon scrubbing system. Various designs and techniques are commonly adopted in building a radon scrubber. For testing purpose, a single column system has been built at USD to study the radon-adsorption properties of activated charcoal. In this paper, we will demonstrate the working principle and test results.

Yang, Xiaoyi; Schmitz, Andrew; Guiseppe, Vincente; Mei, Dongming

2011-04-01

406

Indoor radon dose assessment for Osijek  

Microsoft Academic Search

After ten years investigation of radons seasonal variation at three very different locations, as well as radon concentration measurements in kindergartens, schools, air-raid shelters and cellars, systematic indoor radon measurements were undertaken in dwellings (residential buildings) of Osijek (East Croatia, 130?000 citizens). Indoor radon was measured by means of the LR-115 SSNT detector at 48 town locations that gave an

J. Planinic; Z. Faj; V. Radoli?; G. mit; D. Faj

1999-01-01

407

1995 Annual wildlife survey report. Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of wildlife surveys performed at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) from January through December of 1995 as compared with results from previous years. These surveys were performed as part of a long-term ecological monitoring program conducted under the Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program (NRPCP). This program is essential in identifying and describing fluctuations of wildlife populations, wildlife habitat use, and changes in species using RFETS. The NRPCP provides support to the Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as Natural Resource Trustee, and provides data essential to accomplishing the goal of preserving the unique ecological values of RFETS in keeping with the Rocky Flats Vision presented in the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Public Comment Draft. Wildlife population densities vary due to natural pressures and human influences, and only long-term monitoring can verify which factors influencing wildlife populations are the consequence of natural fluctuations, and which are due to human influences. The wildlife monitoring described in this report provides qualitative data that give an indication of the ecological health of RFETS. Monitoring numbers, habitat affinities, and apparent health of the wildlife populations makes it possible to evaluate the overall ecological health of the site. Monitoring and surveys such as those carried out by the NRPCP can indicate trends of this sort, and act as an {open_quotes}early warning system{close_quotes} for impending ecological problems.

NONE

1996-04-25

408

Assessing radon control options in new energy-efficient homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews an analysis used in an environmental impact statement (EIS) for new energy-efficient homes programs. In the analysis the authors assess several combinations of mitigation and building techniques, which they call pathways, for their effects on indoor air quality. They pay particular attention to the pathways' effects on indoor concentration of radon, and potential health effects that may

J. A. Bamberger; M. C. Baechler; L. O. Foley; W. F. Sandusky; J. Harris

1988-01-01

409

Protocol for the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology established the Technical Measurements Center (TMC) in 1982 at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Projects Office. The TMC mission is to provide standardization, calibration, comparability, verification of data, quality assurance, and cost-effectiveness for the environmental measurement requirements of DOE remedial action programs. One measurement requirement is the measurement of radon-daughter concentration within structures. The Technical Measurements Center has developed a protocol which specifies the procedures to be used for determining indoor radon-daughter concentrations in support of Department of Energy remedial action programs. This document is the central part of the protocol and is to be used in conjunction with the individual procedure manuals. The manuals contain the information and procedures required to implement the proven methods for estimating average indoor radon-daughter concentration. Proven in this case means that these methods have been determined to provide reasonable assurance that the average radon-daughter concentration within a structure is either above, at, or below the standards established for remedial action programs. This document contains description of the generic aspects of methods used for estimating radon-daughter concentration and provides guidance with respect to method selection for a given situation. The methods discussed are: Kodak-Pathe alpha-track film method; radon progeny integrating sampling unit (RPISU) unit; and radon grab method.

Langner, G.H. Jr.; Pacer, J.C.

1986-06-01

410

Radium-226 and radon-222 in southern California groundwaters: Spatial variations and correlations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the radon and helium monitoring program for earthquake prediction studies in Southern California, concentrations of radium-226 in groundwaters have been measured along the major fault zones including the Palmdale area. Radium was measured in order to obtain information on its spatial variation as well as baseline levels. Several measurements were made at selected sites to examine their temporal variations. Radium concentrations are used to define the portion of radium supported radon in the observed groundwater radon. Radium levels vary spatially by 4 orders of magnitude (0.015 to 146 dpm/kg), but temporally by a factor of 2 or less. Similar spatial and temporal variations are observed in groundwater radon (60 to 46,700 dpm/kg). The radon/radium activity ratio ranges from 10 to 105. These values indicate that radon is in large excess over radium in groundwaters because of radon diffusion from the ambient rocks. The spatial variations of radon, radium and the activity ratio are probably due to different chemical and physical properties of the rocks through which groundwaters flow. The dependence of groundwater radium concentrations on the water temperature and conductivity is explored. It appears that radium increases in general with conductivity but not necessarily with temperature. Radium is probably leached more readily into the groundwater when the water is more conductive with more dissolved chemical constituents.

Chung, Yu-Chia

411

A unifying theory of radon generation and transport in porous media  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the activities by Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation during the extension period of the second year of grant DE-FG02-88ER60664. The overall research objectives have been to develop a general, unified theory of radon emanation and transport and to implement it in a computer code for application in routine and specialized field studies and research programs. A theoretical correlation of soil textural properties with radon transport characteristics was predicted by analyses with the unified theory model. This correlation was dominated by soil water contents, but exhibited also some particle-size dependence. Feasibility measurements were completed for partitioning moisture effects on radon emanation into two categories: pore water contents and hydrated (crystalline) water contents. Preliminary radon emanation measurements that control these water categories provide new insight into radon emanation mechanisms and parent radium distributions in the selected mineral samples. The 2-dimensional RAETRAD model for indoor radon entry was further refined to include the complete multiphase aspects of the unified theory as incorporated in the RAETRAN model. The RAETRAD model was applied to various generic and site-specific problems, and was specifically compared with indoor and soil-gas radon measurements for 12 houses in Florida. During these analyses, and as part of other sensitivity analyses with the RAETRAD model, the importance of diffusive radon entry through the concrete floor was observed. Further analyses and measurements of the diffusion and permeability coefficients of residential floor concretes were conducted.

Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

1991-02-01

412

Evaluation of Exposure to Radon Levels in Relation to Climatic Conditions at a Superfund Site.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Workers at a Superfund site have expressed concern that they may be exposed to elevated levels of radon gas, especially when meteorology is suitable. The site, formally a uranium processing site, stores the world's largest quantity of Ra-226 in two concrete silos. A layer of bentonite foam was placed over the contents of the silos in 1991 as a means to reduce the amount of radon emissions. Hourly real-time outdoor and indoor site radon data covering an entire year was statistically evaluated in relation to meteorological data covering the same time period. The hourly data was found to be lognormally distributed. Radon levels were highest during the early morning hours and during the summer months. Both outdoor and indoor concentrations were found to significantly vary with temporal and climatic factors, namely wind direction and relative humidity. Radon levels in the work areas were not found to be statistically different from off-site levels. Only radon levels in the vicinity of the storage silos, which is an exclusion zone, were significantly higher than levels off-site. Hence, the protective bentonite covering seems to be effective in reducing radon emissions. Two methods were used to calculate a hypothetical dose, based upon the annual average concentrations of radon in the work areas onsite, the BEIR IV method and the NCRP method, respectively. The BEIR IV method, which accounts for the activity ratio of radon and its daughter products, resulted in a slightly higher dose than the NCRP method. As expected, based on the mean concentrations, the hypothetical annual exposures from radon in the work areas of the site were below recommended exposure limits.

Merrill, Elaine Alice

413

Monitoring of Radon in Tourist Part of Skocjan Caves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the kocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Park kocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park kocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the yearly dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data, beside the most convenient measuring technique. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. The survey will be described along with education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection. An overview of Slovene legislation with practical example on implementation will be demonstrated in the case of kocjan Caves where the managing authority considers the monitoring of Radon as one of the tools for adaptive management.

Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja; Jovanovic, Peter

2010-05-01

414

Caves, mines and subterranean spaces: hazard and risk from exposure to radon.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas. It is colourless, odourless and chemically inert. The most hazardous isotope is 222Rn. Radon is formed in the natural environment by the radioactive decay of the element uranium (238U) and is a daughter product of daughter product of radium (226Ra). Uranium and radium are found, in differing degrees, in a wide range of rocks, soils (and building materials that are made from these). Radon concentrations in caves, e.g. limestone caves such as the Great Cave of Niah, Borneo, and caves in the Mendips and Peak District in the UK, has been documented and reveal that both (prehistoric) cave-dwellers and other users such as archaeologists are at risk from exposure to radon a naturally occurring radioactive gas. In general, but dependent on cave geometry and ventilation, radon concentration increases with increasing distance from the entrance, implying that the hazard also increases with distance from the entrance. With regard to mines and mining operations, as well as modern extraction of uranium and radium ores, both ores commonly occur alongside other metallic ores, e.g. silver at Schneeberg and Joachimsthal, and tin in Cornwall, and in some instances, waste from earlier metalliferious mining activity has itself been mined' for uranium and/or radium ores. It is not solely the miners and other subterranean workers which are at risk, other workers and local inhabitants are also at risk. Also, that risk is not eliminated by protection against dust/airborne particulates: the risk from inhalation of radon is only reduced by reducing the inhalation of radon, i.e. use of breathing apparatus. Amongst the general population, radon is the second most significant cause of lung cancer behind tobacco smoking. Estimates vary but 6-9% of lung-cancers are attributable to radon and approximately 2% all cancer deaths are attributable to radon. These proportions will increase in higher-radon environments such as caves, mines and mining areas (via spoil heaps, settlement lagoons etc. containing uranium and radium). We here present an overview of the potential hazard presented by radon in subterranean spaces and by metalliferous mining activities. We also present some speculation as to evidence of (pre-) historic exposure to radon which might potentially exist in archaeological remains and oral traditions. Keywords: radon; caves; metalliferous mining; cave-dwellers; archaeologists.

Crockett, R. G. M.; Gillmore, G. K.

2009-04-01

415

Map showing radon potential of rocks and soils in Fairfax County, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1984, indoor radon has gained national attention as a significant health hazard in the United States. Radon is a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas derived from uranium by radioactive decay. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) now projects that 5,000 to 20,000 lung-cancer deaths per year may be attributed to the long-term exposure to indoor radon and its radioactive decay products. Indoor radon has been previously recognized as a health hazard associated with uranium-bearing mill tailings or building materials, but it was not until December 1984 that some natural soils and rocks were found to be sources of indoor radon at levels comparable to those in uranium mines. It is now suspected that elevated indoor radon levels are far more widespread than initially though. The EPA considers 4 picoCuries of radon per liter of air (pCi/L) as the level (in a year-round measurement) at which actions ought to be taken to lower the concentration of indoor radon. All soils and rocks contain measurable amounts of uranium, which generate measurable amounts of radon. Certain soils and rocks, however, have a greater potential to cause indoor radon problems than others because (1) they have a higher uranium content and thus can generate higher levels of radon in soil gas (gas that occupies the pores of the soil), and (2) the permeability of the sol or rack is sufficiently high that radon-bearing soil gas can flow freely and move indoors through the foundation of the structure. This study was designed to demonstrate the correlation between the geologic environment and indoor radon levels and to demonstrate a method of assessment that could be used by other informed workers in areas of their interest. A parallel study by Gundersen and others (1988) of the radon potential of rocks and soils in Montgomery County, Md., used somewhat different methods of assessment because the data available for and assessment of Montgomery County differed.

Otton, James K.; Schumann, R. Randall; Owen, Douglass E.; Thurman, Nelson; Duval, Joseph S.

1988-01-01

416

Deployed Warfighter Protection Research Program: Finding New Methods to Vanquish Old Foes (The United States Army Medical Department Journal, April-June 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Deployed Warfighter Protection research program (DWFP) is an initiative to develop and validate novel methods to protect United States military deployed abroad from threats posed by disease-carrying insects. Vector- borne diseases such as malaria, den...

D. A. Strickman G. B. White K. N. Dunemn S. E. Cope

2008-01-01

417

Nanotechnology applications and implications research supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency STAR grants program.  

PubMed

Since 2002, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been funding research on the environmental aspects of nanotechnology through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program. In total, more than $25 million has been awarded for 86 research projects on the environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology. In the applications area, grantees have produced promising results in green manufacturing, remediation, sensors, and treatment using nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Although there are many potential benefits of nanotechnology, there has also been increasing concern about the environmental and health effects of nanomaterials, and there are significant gaps in the data needed to address these concerns. Research performed by STAR grantees is beginning to address these needs. PMID:17909637

Savage, Nora; Thomas, Treye A; Duncan, Jeremiah S

2007-10-01

418

Assessing the quality of VA Human Research Protection Programs: VA vs. affiliated University Institutional Review Board.  

PubMed

We compared the Human Research Protection Program (HRPP) quality indicator data of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities using their own VA institutional review boards (IRBs) with those using affiliated university IRBs. From a total of 25 performance metrics, 13 did not demonstrate statistically significant differences, while 12 reached statistically significance differences. Among the 12 with statistically significant differences, facilities using their own VA IRBs performed better on four of the metrics, while facilities using affiliate IRBs performed better on eight. However, the absolute difference was small (0.2-2.7%) in all instances, suggesting that they were of no practical significance. We conclude that it is acceptable for facilities to use their own VA IRBs or affiliated university IRBs as their IRBs of record. PMID:23651939

Tsan, Min-Fu; Nguyen, Yen; Brooks, Robert

2013-04-01

419

Reassessment of the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation  

SciTech Connect

On July 6, 1993, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Executive Director for Operations established a review team to reassess the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation. The team evaluated the current system, and solicited comments from various NRC offices, other Federal agencies, licensees, former allegers, and the public. This report is subject to agency review. The report summarizes current processes and gives an overview of current problems. It discusses: (1) ways in which licensees can promote a quality-conscious work environment, in which all employees feel free to raise concerns without fear of retaliation; (2) ways to improve the NRC`s overall handling of allegations; (3) the NRC`s involvement in the Department of Labor process; (4) related NRC enforcement practices; and (5) methods other than investigation and enforcement that may be useful in treating allegations of potential or actual discrimination. Recommendations are given in each area.

Not Available

1994-01-01

420

[Risk/protective factors and prevention programs for drug dependence in Peru].  

PubMed

Risk/ protective factors (RPF) are main elements for the analysis, understanding and formulation of answers for the prevention of drug dependences. The objective of this article is to present a literature review about the RPF and their implications in the design of preventive programs. It will focus on individual (genetic aspects, early experiences and psicosocial skills), family (parental control and monitoring, permissiveness, parenting styles), peer (group pressure and social norms) and communitarian (disorganization) RPF. On the other hand, the need of incorporating a multifactor conceptual framework for the preventive approach to drug dependences, articulating the intervention spaces (school, family and community), assuming and evolving perspective allowing the implementations of sustained actions is evidenced. On top, the implications for future research and public policy formulation are discussed. PMID:22510915

Cabanillas-Rojas, William

2012-03-01

421

Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes. Part 1; Program Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Icing Technology Branch at NASA Lewis has been involved in an effort to validate two thermal ice protection codes developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. LEWICE/Thermal (electrothermal deicing & anti-icing), and ANTICE (hot-gas & electrothermal anti-icing). The Thermal Code Validation effort was designated as a priority during a 1994 'peer review' of the NASA Lewis Icing program, and was implemented as a cooperative effort with industry. During April 1996, the first of a series of experimental validation tests was conducted in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel(IRT). The purpose of the April 96 test was to validate the electrothermal predictive capabilities of both LEWICE/Thermal, and ANTICE. A heavily instrumented test article was designed and fabricated for this test, with the capability of simulating electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Thermal measurements were then obtained over a range of test conditions, for comparison with analytical predictions. This paper will present an overview of the test, including a detailed description of: (1) the validation process; (2) test article design; (3) test matrix development; and (4) test procedures. Selected experimental results will be presented for de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Finally, the status of the validation effort at this point will be summarized. Detailed comparisons between analytical predictions and experimental results are contained in the following two papers: 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 2- The Validation of LEWICE/Thermal' and 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 3-The Validation of ANTICE'

Miller, Dean; Bond, Thomas; Sheldon, David; Wright, William; Langhals, Tammy; Al-Khalil, Kamel; Broughton, Howard

1996-01-01

422

Status of U.S. programs for material protection, control & accounting assistance to Ukraine and Kazakstan  

SciTech Connect

The United States is one of several donor states providing technical assistance to the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) for improving their systems for control of nuclear materials. Ukraine and Kazakstan have significant nuclear energy programs. Both countries have committed to nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. They have signed the NPT and have safeguards agreements with the U.S. concerning development of state systems of control, accounting and physical protection of nuclear materials. As directed by the DOE - International Safeguards Division (now the DOE - Russia/NIS Nuclear Materials Security Task Force), technical specialists from several national laboratories, including Argonne, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest and Sandia, as well as representatives of other U.S. Government organizations, such as the NRC, DOD/DNA and the New Brunswick Laboratory, are interacting with government regulatory and facility personnel of Ukraine and Kazakstan. Argonne has program coordination responsibilities for both countries. In support of agreements between the U.S. and Ukraine and the U.S. and Kazakstan, the DOE is responsible for providing technical assistance and training to aid in the evaluation, design, development, and implementation of nuclear material safeguards. This assistance includes: (1) information systems for tracking and reporting the location of nuclear materials, (2) application of nuclear measurement techniques for verifying inventories, (3) material control and accounting (MC&A) systems, and (4) physical protection (PP) systems. Site survey teams, including both MC&A and PP experts from several national labs, have visited Ukraine and Kazakstan. This paper summarizes activities to date and future plans.

Roche, C.T.; Zinneman, T.E.; Rudolph, R.R.

1995-12-01

423

Optical processing in radon space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radon transform is the mathematical basis of computed tomography. The two-dimensional (2D) Radon transform consists of a series of 1D projections of a 2D function, obtained by integrating the function along lines, while the 3D Radon transform consists of 1D projections of a 3D function, obtained by integrating over planes. In both cases, the transform serves to reduce the dimensionality of a function from 2D or 3D to 1D. For signal-processing applications, this dimensionality reduction is very useful because of the availability of sophisticated processing devices, such as SAW and CCD filters, for 1D time signals. The Radon transform permits the use of these devices with 2D and 3D data sets. The operations that can be performed with the help of the Radon transform include: convolution, correlation, Fourier analysis, bandwidth compression, space-variant filtering, adaptive filtering, calculation of the Wigner distribution and ambiguity function, and calculation of moments of an image. In all of these cases, the operations can be carried out on a 2D or 3D data set by first performing a Radon transform, then doing a sequence of 1D operations, and finally performing an inverse Radon transform.

Barrett, H. H.

1983-10-01

424

Can an hour or two of sun protection education keep the sunburn away? Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency's Sunwise School Program  

PubMed Central

Background Melanoma incidence is rising at a rate faster than any other preventable cancer in the United States. Childhood exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light increases risk for skin cancer as an adult, thus starting positive sun protection habits early may be key to reducing the incidence of this disease. Methods The Environmental Protection Agency's SunWise School Program, a national environmental and health education program for sun safety of children in primary and secondary schools (grades K-8), was evaluated with surveys administered to participating students and faculty. Results Pretests (n = 5,625) and posttests (n = 5,028) were completed by students in 102 schools in 42 states. Significant improvement was noted for the three knowledge variables. Intentions to play in the shade increased from 68% to 75%(p < 0.001) with more modest changes in intentions to use sunscreen. Attitudes regarding healthiness of a tan also decreased significantly. Conclusions Brief, standardized sun protection education can be efficiently interwoven into existing school curricula, and result in improvements in knowledge and positive intentions for sun protection.

Geller, Alan C; Rutsch, Linda; Kenausis, Kristin; Selzer, Paula; Zhang, Zi

2003-01-01

425

Evidence of the Establishment of a Land Acquisition Program. Addendum to Stream Valley Management and Protection Program Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is a general consensus throughout the County that its natural environments are a unique and valuable resource that should be protected. The overall goal of the Natural Resources Protection element of the Plan therefore, is to protect the natural res...

1989-01-01

426

76 FR 72006 - Draft Interim Staff Guidance: Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon Progeny in Air and Demonstrations of Compliance AGENCY...Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon Progeny in Air and Demonstrations of...

2011-11-21

427

Intercomparison of Retrospective Radon Detectors  

SciTech Connect

We performed both a laboratory and field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, Pb-210, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha emission of a Pb-210 decay product, Po-210. The detector's track density generation rate (tracks cm{sup -2} hr{sup -1}) is proportional to the surface alpha activity. In the absence of other strong sources of alpha emission in the glass, the implanted surface alpha activity should be proportional to the accumulated Po-210 and hence, the cumulative radon gas exposure. The goals of the intercomparison were to: (1) perform collocated measurements using two different glass-based retrospective radon detectors in a controlled laboratory environment to compare their relative response to implanted polonium in the absence of environmental variation, (2) perform collocated measurements using two different retrospective radon progeny detectors in a variety of residential settings to compare their detection of glass implanted polonium activities, and (3) examine the correlation between track density rates and contemporary radon gas concentrations. The laboratory results suggested that the materials and methods used by the studies produced similar track densities in detectors exposed to the same implanted Po-210 activity. The field phase of the intercomparison found excellent agreement between the track density rates for the two types of retrospective detectors. The correlation between the track density rates and direct contemporary radon concentration measurements was relatively high, considering that no adjustments were performed to account for either the residential depositional environment or glass surface type.

Field, R W.; Steck, D J.; Parkhurst, Maryann (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Mahaffey, Judith A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Alavanja, M C. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD)

1998-11-01

428

Ecological impact in ditch mesocosms of simulated spray drift from a crop protection program for potatoes.  

PubMed

Outdoor aquatic ditch mesocosms were treated with a range of pesticides to simulate various spray drift rates resulting from a typical crop protection program used in the cultivation of potatoes in The Netherlands. The main experimental aims of the present study were to provide information on the fate and ecological effects of drift of the pesticides into surface water and to evaluate the effectiveness of drift-reduction measures in mitigating risks. The pesticides selected and the dosage, frequency, and timing of application were based on normal agricultural practices in the potato crop. Applications of prosulfocarb, metribuzin (both herbicides), lambda-cyhalothrin (insecticide), chlorothalonil, and fluazinam (both fungicides) were made in the sequence typical of the spray calendar for potatoes. A total of 15 treatments with the various compounds were made by spray application to the water surface at 0.2%, 1%, and 5% of the recommended label rates. Chemical fate and effects on ecosystem function and structure (phytoplankton, zooplankton, chlorophyll-a, macroinvertebrates, macrophytes, breakdown of plant litter) were investigated. To interpret the observed effects, treatment concentrations were also expressed in toxic units (TU), which describe the relative toxicity of the compounds with standard toxicity test organisms (Daphnia and algae). After treatment, each compound disappeared from the water phase within 2 d, with the exception of prosulfocarb, for which 50% dissipation time (DT50) values ranged between 6 and 7 d. At the 5% treatment level, an exposure peak of 0.9 TUalgae was observed, which resulted in short-term responses of pH, oxygen, and phytoplankton. At the 5% treatment level, exposure concentrations also exceeded 0.1 TUDaphnia, and this resulted in long-term effects on zooplankton and macroinvertebrates, some of which did not fully recover by the end of the present study. At the 1% treatment level, only slight transient effects were observed on a limited number of zooplankton and macro-invertebrate species and on pH. At the 0.2% level, no consistent treatment-related effects were observed. Most of the observed effects were consistent with the results from higher-tier and mesocosm studies with the individual compounds. Multi and repeated stress played a small role within the applied pesticide package, because of rapid dissipation of most substances and the absence of many simultaneous applications. This suggests that risk assessments based on the individual compounds would in this case have been sufficiently protective for their uses in a crop protection program. PMID:16646380

Arts, Gertie H P; Buijse-Bogdan, Laura L; Belgers, J Dick M; van Rhenen-Kersten, Caroline H; van Wijngaarden, Rene P A; Roessink, Ivo; Maund, Steve J; van den Brink, Paul J; Brockt, Theo C M

2006-04-01

429

The Environmental Protection Agency's National SunWise School Program: Sun protection education in US schools (1999-2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Melanoma, the most fatal form of skin cancer, is rising at a rate faster than that of all preventable cancers except lung cancer in the United States. Childhood exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light increases the risk for skin cancer as an adult; thus starting positive sun protection habits early may be key to reducing incidence. Methods: We evaluated the

Alan C. Geller; Maura Cantor; Donald R. Miller; Kristin Kenausis; Kevin Rosseel; Linda Rutsch; Daniel R. Brooks; Zi Zhang; Marie France Demierre

2002-01-01

430

Radon measurement and mitigation activity in Finland.  

PubMed

Radon prevention, measurement and mitigation activities have been increasing in Finland during the 2000s. Nowadays, many municipal authorities, especially those located in high-radon areas, require radon prevention measures. This has activated radon measurements. Owners of new houses having radon piping installed under the floor slab are the most active group to measure and reduce the found high-radon values. Their radon awareness is apparently better than on the average, and the existing piping makes it easier and cheaper to reduce the radon levels. Local campaigns involving invitation flyers mailed to the residents have been a cost-effective means to activate measurements of older houses. So far 116 611 dwellings in low-rise residential buildings have been measured. At least 15 % of the 16 860 dwellings found to exceed the reference level of 400 Bq m(-3) had their indoor radon level reduced below that. PMID:24729562

Valmari, T; Arvela, H; Reisbacka, H; Holmgren, O

2014-07-01

431

Final results of the Austrian Radon Project.  

PubMed

The Austrian Radon Project started in 1992 and ended in 2001. The Austrian Radon Project had two aims: firstly, finding areas of enhanced indoor radon concentration for future radon mitigations, and, secondly, defining areas with elevated radon risk where radon safe construction is necessary for new houses. The project was based on systematic indoor measurements in randomly selected houses using different types of detectors. Successful intercomparison tests were made in a radon chamber, but simultaneous measurements by different detectors normally used in homes deviated sometimes up to a factor of two. We have to assume that this results from manipulations of the detectors by the inhabitants. The mean radon concentration in Austrian homes was found to be 99 Bq m(-3). A radon potential was derived from the results of the measurements and the information received from questionnaires. This radon potential was defined as an expected radon concentration in a standard situation and characterizes the radon risk from ground sources with all the influences of different living situations eliminated. A mean radon potential was computed for every municipality and the information is displayed as a map. The uncertainty and the reliability of the classification of municipalities according to the radon potential are discussed in more detail and compared with results from Switzerland. PMID:16155455

Friedmann, Harry

2005-10-01

432

Field-Verification Program: summary of the US Army Corps of Engineers\\/US Environmental Protection Agency Field-Verification Program. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Army Corps of Engineers\\/US Environmental Protection Agency Field-Verification Program was a 6-year, $7.2 million study of upland disposal, wetland creation, and aquatic disposal with dredged material. The program was designed to determine (a) the reproducibility of test methods in the laboratory, (b) the ability of laboratory test methods to predict effects in the field, and (c) the comparative

Peddicord

1988-01-01

433

CHAP III- CHARRING ABLATOR PROGRAM FOR ADVANCED INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR ENTRY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transient response of a thermal protection material to heat applied to the surface can be calculated using the CHAP III computer program. CHAP III can be used to analyze pyrolysis gas chemical kinetics in detail and examine pyrolysis reactions-indepth. The analysis includes the deposition of solid products produced by chemical reactions in the gas phase. CHAP III uses a modelling technique which can approximate a wide range of ablation problems. The energy equation used in CHAP III incorporates pyrolysis (both solid and gas reactions), convection, conduction, storage, work, kinetic energy, and viscous dissipation. The chemically reacting components of the solid are allowed to vary as a function of position and time. CHAP III employs a finite difference method to approximate the energy equations. Input values include specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermocouple locations, enthalpy, heating rates, and a description of the chemical reactions expected. The output tabulates the temperature at locations throughout the ablator, gas flow within the solid, density of the solid, weight of pyrolysis gases, and rate of carbon deposition. A sample case is included, which analyzes an ablator material containing several pyrolysis reactions subjected to an environment typical of entry at lunar return velocity. CHAP III is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer operating under NOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 102K (octal) of 60 bit words. This program was developed in 1985.

Stroud, C. W.

1994-01-01

434

A generic biokinetic model for noble gases with application to radon  

SciTech Connect

The International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently uses a dose conversion coefficient to calculate effective dose per unit exposure to radon and its progeny. The coefficient is derived by dividing the detriment associated with unit exposure to radon, as estimated from epidemiological studies, by the detriment per unit effective dose, as estimated mainly from atomic bomb survivor data and animal studies. In a recent statement the ICRP indicated that future guidance on exposure to radon and its progeny will be developed in the same way as guidance for any other radionuclide. That is, intake of radon and progeny will be limited on the basis of effective dose coefficients derived from biokinetic and dosimetric models. This paper proposes a biokinetic model for systemic (absorbed) radon for use in the calculation of dose coefficients for inhaled or ingested radon. The model is based largely on physical laws governing transfer of a non-reactive and soluble gas between materials. Model predictions are shown to be consistent with results of controlled studies of the fate of internally deposited radon in human subjects.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Marsh, James [Health Protection Agency of Great Britain; Gregoratto, Demetrio [Health Protection Agency of Great Britain; Blanchardon, Eric [IRSN

2013-01-01

435

Radon Policy in Finland, Achievements and Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Finland is a country of high indoor radon concentrations. Since 1980 the authority regulations, guidance, radon mapping and research work supporting decision making have been developed continuously. Clear regulations directed to citizens and authorities form the basis for radon policy. Active mapping work and measurement ordered by private home owners has resulted in 100.000 houses measured. National indoor radon data base forms a good basis for decision making, communication and research. The number of new houses provided with radon preventive constructions has increased remarkably. New radon campaigns has increased measurement and mitigation activity. Furher increasing of public awareness is the key challenge.

Arvela, Hannu; Maekelaeinen, Ilona; Reisbacka, Heikki [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK PO Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland)

2008-08-07

436

Site exploration for radon source potential  

SciTech Connect

Elevated radon in buildings has been recognized as a serious potential public health hazard and indoor radon mitigation has been legislated (EPA, 1992(1), Public Law 100-551, 1988). Substantial research efforts have been devoted to epidemiological studies to assess the effects of radon exposure, indoor radon surveys in various areas in the U.S., study of radon transport mechanisms, and geological mapping (for instance DOE, 1992). The purpose of the report is to propose exploration and test methods for the characterization of the radon source potential of individual building sites and fill materials.

Yokel, F.Y.; Tanner, A.B.

1992-12-01

437

Radon emanation and transport in porous media  

SciTech Connect

A unified model of radon emanation and transport has been developed that combines the RAECOM model for diffusive transport with new mathematical models of advective transport, moisture effects, and radon emanation. The model accounts for advective depletion in radon source regions, and for the effects of varying moistures on radon emanation, diffusion, and advective transport rates. Radon transport in gas- and water-filled pore space is characterized, and exchange between the phases is considered. Correlations are also given for diffusion and permeability coefficients. The model provides a comprehensive assessment of source potentials for indoor radon accumulation based on soil moistures, radium, emanation, and advection of soil gas. 10 refs., 6 figs.

Rogers, V.C.; Nielson, K.K.

1988-01-01

438

Reducing the risks from radon indoors: an IAEA perspective.  

PubMed

The IAEA has a mandate to develop, in collaboration with other relevant international organisations, 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimisation of danger to life and property', and to provide for the application of these standards. The most recent edition of the International Basic Safety Standards includes, for the first time, requirements to protect the public from exposure due to radon indoors. As a result, the IAEA has already developed guidance material in line with accepted best international practice and an international programme to assist its Member States in identifying and addressing high radon concentrations in buildings is being prepared. This paper overviews the current situation around the world and summarises the management approach advocated by the IAEA. A number of important scientific and policy issues are identified and discussed from the point-of-view of how they may impact on national action plans and strategies. Finally, the assistance and support available through the Agency is described. PMID:24743761

Boal, T; Colgan, P A

2014-07-01

439

Passive environmental radon detector study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are three stages at which the ambient air concentrations of radon-222 are monitored around the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites: before, during, and after construction. Pre-remedial-action measurements are taken for approx...

1992-01-01

440

Radon: Clue to earthquake magnitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon's flow within the earth's crust could offer seismologists clues about the magnitude of an impending earthquake, according to a model proposed by Robert L. Fleischer, a General Electric Company physicist, at the AGU Fall Meeting last month. His work suggests that an extensive network of radon monitoring stations would be useful for early warning of potential damage areas of the pending tremors.Small amounts of radon, a gas released by the decay of uranium, tends to move slowly within the earth's crust where rocks are relatively porous. Velocities of a few inches an hour are typical. Shifting stresses in the earth's crust that precede an earthquake can speed up or slow down radon's movements.

Richman, Barbara T.

441

Radon in Finnish apartment buildings.  

PubMed

The 106 866 dwellings measured for radon in Finland so far by Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority include 5560 apartments. The radon concentrations in ground-contact apartments are similar to those in low-rise residential buildings located in the same area. The values in apartments above the first floor do not significantly depend on the floor level, being typically one-third of those in ground-contact apartments. The radon values in new ground-contact apartments are lower than in those built in the 1990s, apparently because of lesser soil gas intake into new buildings. Radon in upper floors originates from building materials, and concentrations there have remained unaltered. PMID:22927660

Valmari, T; Arvela, H; Reisbacka, H

2012-11-01

442

Canadian lung cancer relative risk from radon exposure for short periods in childhood compared to a lifetime.  

PubMed

Long-term exposure to elevated indoor radon concentrations has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer in adults after tobacco smoking. With the establishment of a National Radon Program in Canada in 2007 thousands of homes across the country have been tested for radon. Although the vast majority of people are exposed to low or moderate radon concentrations; from time to time; there are homes found with very high concentrations of radon. Among those living in homes with very high radon concentrations, it is typically parents of young children that demonstrate a great deal of concern. They want to know the equivalent risk in terms of the lifetime relative risk of developing lung cancer when a child has lived in a home with high radon for a few years. An answer to this question of risk equivalency is proposed in this paper. The results demonstrate clearly that the higher the radon concentration; the sooner remedial measures should be undertaken; as recommended by Health Canada in the Canadian radon guideline. PMID:23698696

Chen, Jing

2013-05-01

443

Canadian Lung Cancer Relative Risk from Radon Exposure for Short Periods in Childhood Compared to a Lifetime  

PubMed Central

Long-term exposure to elevated indoor radon concentrations has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer in adults after tobacco smoking. With the establishment of a National Radon Program in Canada in 2007 thousands of homes across the country have been tested for radon. Although the vast majority of people are exposed to low or moderate radon concentrations; from time to time; there are homes found with very high concentrations of radon. Among those living in homes with very high radon concentrations, it is typically parents of young children that demonstrate a great deal of concern. They want to know the equivalent risk in terms of the lifetime relative risk of developing lung cancer when a child has lived in a home with high radon for a few years. An answer to this question of risk equivalency is proposed in this paper. The results demonstrate clearly that the higher the radon concentration; the sooner remedial measures should be undertaken; as recommended by Health Canada in the Canadian radon guideline.

Chen, Jing

2013-01-01

444

Atmospheric radon in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time in Hong Kong, atmospheric radon concentration was continuously monitored between November 2007 and October 2008. This paper presents the results obtained during the 12-month period. The annual mean atmospheric radon concentration in Hong Kong was found to be 9.3Bqm?3 which was close to the level at neighbouring places like Guangdong and Taiwan. An estimation of the

S. W. Chan; C. W. Lee; K. C. Tsui

2010-01-01

445

Model-derived dose rates per unit concentration of radon in air in a generic plant geometry.  

PubMed

A model for the derivation of dose rates per unit radon concentration in plants was developed in line with the activities of a Task Group of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), aimed at developing more realistic dosimetry for non-human biota. The model considers interception of the unattached and attached fractions of the airborne radon daughters by plant stomata, diffusion of radon gas through stomata, permeation through the plant's epidermis and translocation of deposited activity to plant interior. The endpoint of the model is the derivation of dose conversion coefficients relative to radon gas concentration at ground level. The model predicts that the main contributor to dose is deposition of (214)Po ?-activity on the plant surface and that diffusion of radon daughters through the stomata is of relatively minor importance; hence, daily variations have a small effect on total dose. PMID:21739195

Vives i Batlle, J; Smith, A; Vives-Lynch, S; Copplestone, D; Prhl, G; Strand, T

2011-11-01

446

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2004 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2004 will be in accordance with the

2003-01-01

447

RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 1: TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of radon reduction and radon-resistant construction demonstrations in New York. The existing house evaluation demonstrated radon mitigation techniques where indoor radon concentrations exceeded 4 pCi/L. Results demonstrated that sealing all accessible fou...

448

EFFECT OF NATURAL VENTILATION ON RADON AND RADON PROGENY LEVELS IN HOUSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the effect of natural ventilation on radon and radon progeny levels in houses. ontradicting the widely held assumption that ventilation is ineffective in reducing indoor radon concentrations, experiments in a research house have shown that the basement radon l...

449

Exposure to indoor radon and natural gamma radiation in some workplaces at Algiers, Algeria.  

PubMed

Radon activity concentrations have been measured in 34 workplaces throughout Algiers nuclear research centre, in Algeria, during some periods between March 2007 and June 2013 using Electret ion chambers, nuclear tracks detectors and an AlphaGuard system. The indoor radon levels range from 2 to 628 Bq m(-3) with an average indoor concentration equals to 92 Bq m(-) (3), whereas the estimated outdoor radon concentrations range from 2 to 14 Bq m(-3) with an average value of 6 Bq m(-3). This study also focused on parameters affecting radon concentration levels such as ?oor number, ventilation and atmospheric parameters. Furthermore, the mean gamma rates have been measured in the different investigated locations and have been found to be varying between 33 and 3300 nSv h(-1). The annual effective dose for workers calculated using the appropriate equilibrium and occupancy factors is lower than the value recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection in its Publication 103. PMID:24711531

At Ziane, M; Lounis-Mokrani, Z; Allab, M

2014-07-01

450

Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0{+-}14.2 Bq/m{sup 3}, 83.4{+-}6.0 Bq/m{sup 3}, 61.6{+-}6.4 Bq/m{sup 3}, 63.7{+-}5.4 Bq/m{sup 3} and 87.5{+-}6.Bq/m{sup 3} and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m{sup 3}, 5.5 Bq/m{sup 3}, 1.1 Bq/m{sup 3}, 1.0 Bq/m{sup 3} and 24 Bq/m{sup 3} respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm{sup -3} set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The ''within regions''(different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region ''1''(p = 0.783) and versus region ''5''(P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region ''3''(P = 0.0160) and also versus region ''4''(p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other regions are near to the Al-Thuwayrat sands.

Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

2011-10-27

451

SWOT analysis of the Czech Radon programme.  

PubMed

Since the early 1990s, the Czech Republic has been one of the countries that carry out a radon programme on its territory, with the aim of protecting people from unnecessary long-term exposure in their homes. Since that time, many achievements have been registered, and many unexpected difficulties have cropped up. This may be the right moment to take some time out to analyse the state of the programme and to determine the direction for its future development. An extended SWOT analysis can serve as a useful tool for this purpose. Originally, SWOT analyses were used exclusively by for-profit organisations aiming to evaluate their perspectives, develop strategies and make plans in order to achieve their objectives. More recently, it has been used in a wide range of decision-making situations when a desired end-state is to be defined. Here, an extended SWOT analysis is used to formulate possible beneficial strategies for advancing anti-radon policy in the Czech Republic. PMID:24729595

Fojtkov, I

2014-07-01

452

Development of a Portable Radon Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A portable radon monitoring instrument, capable of making on-the-spot measurements of the radon gas content of uranium mine atmospheres, was designed and constructed. The monitor was tested in the laboratory and in operating uranium mines. Good correlatio...

H. L. Gibbs J. H. Bilbrey

1973-01-01

453

Metakaolin as a radon retardant from concrete.  

PubMed

Granite aggregates are known to be the radon source in concrete. Recently, metakaolin has been introduced as a partial substitution of Portland cement to produce high strength concrete. It can effectively reduce the porosity of both the matrix and the aggregate/paste transition zone, which suggests its ability to retard radon emission from concrete aggregates. In the present work, radon exhalation rates from concrete cubes substituted with metakaolin were measured using charcoal canisters and gamma spectroscopy, and were considerably lower than those from normal concrete, by about 30%. The indoor radon concentration reduction is estimated as approximately 9 Bq m(-3) calculated using a room model, causing a 30% reduction in the indoor radon concentration and the corresponding radon dose. Therefore, metakaolin is a simple material to reduce the indoor radon concentration and the radon dose. PMID:12678391

Lau, B M F; Balendran, R V; Yu, K N

2003-01-01

454

Nationwide survey of radon levels in Korea.  

PubMed

A nationwide radon survey was conducted to provide data on the annual average indoor radon concentration in Korean homes. This survey also provided data on the variation of radon concentration with season, house type, and building age. The arithmetic mean (AM) of annual radon concentration in Korean homes was 53.4 +/- 57.5 Bq m(-3). The indoor radon concentration showed a lognormal distribution with a geometric mean (GM) and its standard deviation (GSD) of 43.3 +/- 1.8 Bq m(-3). The radon concentrations in the traditional Korean-style houses were about two times higher than those in apartments and row houses. The average annual outdoor radon concentration was 23.3 Bq m(-3). The average annual effective dose to the general public from radon was 1.63 mSv y(-1). PMID:12645770

Kim, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Chan; Lee, Dong-Myung; Chang, Byung-Uck; Rho, Byung-Hwan; Kang, Hee-Dong

2003-03-01

455

Internal review system for environmental protection programs of the Department of Energy facilities operated by Union Carbide Corporation Nuclear Division  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure satisfactory environmental protection programs for the four Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Union Carbide Corporation Nuclear Division (UCCND), a comprehensive internal review system has been established. This system provides a highly structured mechanism for evaluating and documenting all aspects of the environmental protection programs of the four UCCND operated facilities, and for communicating this information to the appropriate levels of UCCND management. The program establishes a specific team of professionals for conducting the review, a specific process for conducting the review, and a definitive set of measures of performance. Each facility is then reviewed in the same manner and evaluated by the same criteria. The results of the review are discussed with the facility manager and subsequently documented and transmitted to all appropriate levels of management.

Abee, H.H.; Mitchell, M.E.

1982-08-01

456

Establishing a lightning protection evaluation program for distribution and subtransmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Union Electric (UE) began a project in December 1994 to evaluate the performance of existing types of lightning protection, identify deficiencies, and recommend changes that will result in improved performance. UE employs two basic types of lightning protection-static wire and arresters. The authors discuss ground impedance, the National Lightning Detection Network, and the Lightning Protection Design Workstation (LPDW). The LPDW

M. W. Marshall; B. P. Angeli

1998-01-01

457

Estimation of annual effective dose from indoor radon/thoron concentrations and measurement of radon concentrations in soil.  

PubMed

Radon short-lived decay products generated from the earth is one of the serious indoor air and soil pollutants. The RAD-7 Electronic Radon Detector with a special accessory is used for the purpose of measurement. The radon and thoron concentrations in the houses of the study area are found to vary from 350.5 to 315.25.35 Bq m(-3) and 66.12.3 to 1710139.36 Bq m(-3) with the average values of 98.651.9 and 388.1911 Bq m(-3), respectively. From indoor air, the total annual effective dose is calculated and it varies from 0.88 to 7.94 mSv y(-1). The preliminary investigation shows that the thoron concentration is higher than the radon concentration in the houses of the study area. In general, the values of the indoor air are within the recommended action level of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, 2009. PMID:23901137

Mehra, Rohit; Bala, Pankaj

2014-01-01

458

A study of a radon gas scrubber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon gas and its progeny are critical sources of background for low background experimental devices. The required reduction of radon levels in the air of the experimental area can typically be achieved with a radon scrubbing system. For testing purposes, a single column system has been built at USD to study the radon-adsorption properties of activated charcoal under different conditions. In this paper, we will demonstrate the working principle and test results.

Yang, Xiaoyi; Guiseppe, Vincente E.; Mei, Dongming

2012-03-01

459

RADON DOSES BASED ON ALPHA SPECTROMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the railway station in Postojna Cave and at the lowest point of the cave, repeated short- term monitoring in summer and in winter of air concentrations of radon ( CRn) and radon decay products (CRnDP), of the equilibrium factor ( F) and unattached fraction of radon decay products (fun), of barometric pressure ( P), relative air humidity in the

Ivan Kobal

460

Radon-hazard potential of Utah  

SciTech Connect

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas formed by decay of uranium, and occurs in nearly all geologic materials. Although radon has been shown to be a significant cause of lung cancer in miners, the health hazard from accumulation of radon gas in buildings has only recently been recognized. Indoor-radon hazards depend on both geologic and non-geologic factors. Although non-geologic factors such as construction type, weather, and lifestyles are difficult to measure, geologic factors such as uranium concentration, soil permeability, and depth to ground water can be quantified. Uranium-enriched geologic materials, such as black shales, marine sandstones, and certain granitic, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks, are generally associated with a high radon-hazard potential. Impermeable soil or shallow ground water impedes radon movement and is generally associated with a low radon-hazard potential. A numerical rating system based on these geologic factors has been developed to map radon-hazard potential in Utah. A statewide map shows that the radon-hazard potential of Utah is generally moderate. Assessments of hazard potential from detailed field investigations correlate well with areas of this map. Central Utah has the highest radon-hazard potential, primarily due to uranium-enriched Tertiary volcanic rocks. The radon-hazard potential of eastern Utah is moderate to high, but is generally restricted by low uranium levels. Western Utah, where valley basins with impermeable soils and shallow ground water are common, has the lowest radon-hazard potential.

Black, B.D.; Solomon, B.J. (Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1993-04-01

461

Factors influencing radon attenuation by tailing covers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US NRC, in its Generic Environmental Impact Statement on uranium milling has specified that the radon flux escaping a uranium mill tailings pile will be reduced to pCi\\/m² s by application of covering layers of soils and clays. These covers present a radon diffusion barrier, which sufficiently increases the time required for radon passage from the tailings to the

W. B. Silker; V. C. Rogers

1981-01-01

462

REENTRY OF RADON FROM MITIGATION SYSTEM OUTLETS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of the measurement of reentry rates for radon released at roof level and at ground level near a house, to determine whether or not exhaust is necessary above the roof. (NOTE: Some radon mitigation systems draw air with a high radon concentration from under...

463

PRELIMINARY DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES FOR RADON CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes analytical procedures for diagnosing radon entry mechanisms into buildings. These diagnostic methods are generally based on the premise that pressure-driven flow of radon-bearing soil gas into buildings is the most significant source of radon in houses with e...

464

Retrospective determination of radon in houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1970s it was statistically proved that exposure to radon daughter products caused lung cancer in miners1. High concentrations of radon daughters have since been found in houses. Any epidemiological radon study begun today is hampered because relevant exposure data are difficult to obtain owing to the long latency period between exposure and tumour manifestation. Here I present a

Christer Samuelsson

1988-01-01

465

Sampling the 2-D Radon transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radon transform of a bivariate function, which has application in tomographic imaging, has traditionally been viewed as a parametrized univariate function. In this paper, the Radon transform is instead viewed as a bivariate function and two-dimensional sampling theory is used to address sampling and information content issues. It is Shown that the band region of the Radon transform of

P. Rattey; A. Lindgren

1981-01-01

466

Indoor radon and lung cancer in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon has long been known to contribute to risk of lung cancer, especially in undergound miners who are exposed to large amounts of the carcinogen. Recently, however, lower amounts of radon present in living areas have been suggested as an important cause of lung cancer. In an effort to clarify the relationship of low amounts of radon with lung cancer

W. J. Blot; Z.-Y. Xu; J. D. Jr. Boice; D.-Z. Zhao; B. J. Stone; J. Sun; L.-B. Jing; J. F. Jr. Fraumeni

1990-01-01

467

Is Your School Safe from Radon?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radon is a natural, chemically inert, radioactive gas that can seep to the surface from underground rocks. As many as 20,000 lung cancer deaths in the U.S. each year may be radon-caused. Screening a school for radon is not difficult and may be done on weekends. It's safer for students and staff to test and be sure. (MLH)

Martin, Paul

1990-01-01

468

Radon Risk Perception and Testing: Sociodemographic Correlates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using information from the 1990 National Health Interview Survey, examined beliefs regarding radon and radon-testing activities among different sociodemographic groups. Results suggest relatively superficial knowledge regarding radon, and little testing, within the survey population. Significantly less knowledge was observed among female and

Halpern, Michael T.; Warner, Kenneth E.

1994-01-01

469

Reducing Radon in Schools: A Team Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the process of radon diagnostics and mitigation in schools to help educators determine the best way to reduce elevated radon levels found in a school. The guidebook is designed to guide school leaders through the process of measuring radon levels, selecting the best mitigation strategy, and directing the efforts of a

Ligman, Bryan K.; Fisher, Eugene J.

470

Development of Physical Protection Regulations for Rosatom State Corporation Sites under the U.S.-Russian MPC&A Program  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes issues related to upgrading the physical protection regulatory basis for Rosatom State Corporation sites. It is underlined that most of the regulatory and methodological documents for this subject area have been developed under the U.S.-Russian MPC&A Program. According to the joint management plan developed and agreed upon by the parties in 2005, nearly 50 physical protection documents were identified to be developed, approved and implemented at Rosatom sites by 2012. It is also noted that, on the whole, the plans have been fulfilled.

Izmaylov, Alexander; Babkin, Vladimir; Shemigon, Nikolai N.; O'Brien, Patricia; Wright, Troy L.; Hazel, Michael J.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Lane, Melinda; Kovchegin, Dmitry

2012-07-14

471

Sealant tests to control radon emanation in a uranium mine. Open file report sep 79-dec 81  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a field-test program to determine the effectiveness of a polymeric wall sealant to reduce the escape of naturally occurring radioactive gas radon from the walls of an underground uranium mine into the ventilation air.

Lindsay, D.B.; Oberholtzer, J.E.; Summers, C.H.

1981-12-01

472

EERF (Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility) standard operating procedures for radon-222 measurement using charcoal canisters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes in detail EPA's office of Radiation Programs Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility's standard operating procedures for radon-222 measurement using charcoal canisters. It lists the materials and equipment that are used and explains their laboratory and survey methods.

Gray, D.J.; Windham, S.T.

1987-06-01

473

Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters. Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose rate dependence and the nature of the DNA lesion will be studied, using the thymidine kinase and HPRT loci to measure mutation frequency. A deficiency in DNA repair is shown to lead to a greater proportion of mutants with intergenic lesions. The cytotoxic effects of radon and its daughters are similar in human TK6 lymphoblasts and mouse L5178Y lymphoblasts, the cell line used in previous experiments. The results of molecular analysis of four spontaneous and 25 X-radiation induced HPRT{sup {minus}} mutants. Eleven radon-induced HPRT{sup {minus}} mutants have been isolated, and will be analyzed in a similar fashion. 9 figs.

Evans, H.H.

1991-12-01

474

A radon progeny deposition model  

SciTech Connect

The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly {sup 222}Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of {sup 210}Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

Rielage, Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hime, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guiseppe, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Westerdale, S. [MIT

2010-12-01

475

A Radon Progeny Deposition Model  

SciTech Connect

The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly {sup 222}Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of {sup 210}Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

Guiseppe, V.