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1

Implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency's radon action program  

SciTech Connect

In December 1984, very high radon levels were discovered in a house in the Reading Prong, a geologic region extending from eastern Pennsylvania into New Jersey and New York. The authors discuss how this discovery of extremely high residential radon levels was the catalyst for focusing the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) attention on the problem. Measurements taken in the house found radon concentrations as high as 130 times the federal occupational exposure standard for underground uranium mines. Subsequently, thousands of other houses in the area were also found to be contaminated by naturally occurring radon. High levels have now been found in nearly every state.

Chites, B.; Rinck, R.T.; Wagner, D. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (US))

1988-01-01

2

STATUS OF EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RADON MITIGATION DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the portion of EPA's radon reduction technology development/demonstration program dealing with the study of reduction methods for existing and new construction houses. The EPA program has as its objective the development and demonstration of cost-effective rad...

3

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROGRAM TO DEMONSTRATE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR INDOOR RADON: INITIAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives initial results of an EPA program to demonstrate mitigation measures for indoor radon. EPA has installed radon mitigation techniques in 18 concrete block basement homes in the Reading Prong area of eastern Pennsylvania, all designed to demonstrate techniques which...

4

Environmental Protection Agency: Radon (Rn)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Indoor Air Quality division of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) presents this Web page dedicated to information about radon, the colorless and odorless radioactive known to cause lung cancer. In addition to general resources on radon (including a guide to reducing radon levels in the home), visitors will find information on how to obtain a free educational video (Breathing Easy: What Home Buyers and Sellers Should Know About Radon) recently released by the EPA. Geared primarily toward homebuyers and sellers (as well as real estate professionals), this video thoroughly reviews radon science, lung cancer risk, home inspection, how to build a new home radon-resistant, and more.

5

National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program. Proficiency report, June 1991  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in periodic RCP Proficiency Reports.

Not Available

1991-06-01

6

National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) program. Proficiency report, July 1992  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving this objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide this information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. This program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under this voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report.

Not Available

1992-07-01

7

National radon contractor proficiency (RCP) program. Proficiency report, January 1993  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report.

Not Available

1993-01-01

8

National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) program. Proficiency report, September 1991  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving this objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide this information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under this voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report.

Not Available

1991-09-01

9

National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program. Proficiency report, January 1992  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report.

Not Available

1992-01-01

10

Radon Research Program, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny as well as to provide information useful in radon control strategies. Results generated under the Program were highlighted in a National Research Council report on radon dosimetry. The study concluded that the risk of radon exposure is 30% less in homes than in mines. This program summary of book describes the OHER FY-1991 Radon Research Program. It is the fifth in an annual series of program books designed to provide scientific and research information to the public and to other government agencies on the DOE Radon Research Program.

Not Available

1992-03-01

11

Radon Research Program, FY-1987  

SciTech Connect

This program summary documents the radon-related research activities supported by the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) during FY-1987. It includes scientific background, research program goals, and summaries in the availability and transport of radon in the environment, and into and within homes. Also included are summaries of physical-chemical interactions of radon progeny in ambient air and the lung cancer risk to the public from exposure to radon progeny. The main goal is to reduce uncertainties in evaluating health risks to people from inhaling radon and its progeny in indoor air. (CS)

Not Available

1987-11-01

12

Radon Research Program, FY 1992  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research (DOE/OHER) is the principal federal agency conducting basic research related to indoor radon. The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. There still remains a significant number of uncertainties in the currently available knowledge that is used to estimate lung cancer risk from exposure to environmental levels of radon and its progeny. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny and to identify and understand biological mechanisms of lung cancer development and required copollutants at low levels of exposure. Information useful in radon control strategies is also provided by the basic science undertaken in this program.

Not Available

1993-04-01

13

Federal programs on indoor radon  

SciTech Connect

The CIRRPC Science Panel Report No. 4, ``Radon Protection and Health Effects,`` identified five major issues and made specific recommendations in regard to each issue. These issues and recommendations involved: Needs for research on the effects of radon exposure; the need for guidance on remedial actions; the need for methods to predict high risk locations; the need for a national survey of population exposures; and the need for adequate remedial and mitigation measures. Reviews of each of these, in terms of the extent that the needs are being addressed by the various Federal agencies, follow. Each review is preceded by excerpts from Report No. 4 on the issue and related recommendation.

NONE

1988-04-01

14

National radon measurement proficiency (RMP) program: Individual proficiency report  

SciTech Connect

In February 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program to assist the public in identifying organizations capable of providing reliable radon measurement services. Until recently, the RMP Program measured the proficiency of organizations only and listed them according to their measurement service capabilities. Organizations listed in the report are called Listed RMP Program Participants. In December 1991, EPA announced the new individual proficiency listing category in the RMP Program. Individuals applying for the new listing status must demonstrate knowledge of radon measurement fundamentals by passing a written proficiency examination, maintain affiliation with an RMP listed organization, and meet other program requirements. The Measurement Exam adds to the RMP Program by evaluating the knowledge of individual radon measurement service providers. The addition of the component is appropriate since the quality and reliability of radon measurement services depend on the ability of individual measurement contractors. The RMP Program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon measurement contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report.

Not Available

1993-01-01

15

National radon measurement-proficiency program: Individual proficiency report  

SciTech Connect

In February 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program to assist the public in identifying organizations capable of providing reliable radon measurement services. In December 1991, EPA announced the new individual proficiency listing category in the RMP Program. Individuals applying for this new listing status must demonstrate knowledge of radon measurement fundamentals by passing a written proficiency examination, maintain affiliation with an RMP listed organization, and meet other program requirements. This report lists those individuals who have met the requirements of the RMP Program as of April 30, 1992. These requirements are designed to provide minimum proficiency criteria for individuals who provide radon measurement services on-site in a residential environment.

Not Available

1992-05-01

16

30 CFR 57.5046 - Protection against radon gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection against radon gas. 57.5046 Section 57.5046 Mineral Resources...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5046 Protection against radon gas. Where radon daughter concentrations exceed 10 WL, respirator...

2010-07-01

17

30 CFR 57.5046 - Protection against radon gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Protection against radon gas. 57.5046 Section 57.5046 Mineral Resources...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5046 Protection against radon gas. Where radon daughter concentrations exceed 10 WL, respirator...

2009-07-01

18

National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program. Proficiency Report, June 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon miti...

1991-01-01

19

Feasibility and approach for mapping radon potentials in Florida. Florida Radon Research Program. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of an analysis of the feasibility and approach for developing statewide maps of radon potentials in Florida. The maps would provide a geographic basis for implementing new radon-protective building construction standards to reduce public health risks from exposure to radon. In this new mapping approach, variations in indoor radon are partitioned by source, house, and time

K. K. Nielson; V. C. Rogers

1991-01-01

20

Feasibility and approach for mapping radon potentials in Florida. Florida Radon Research Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of an analysis of the feasibility and approach for developing statewide maps of radon potentials in Florida. The maps would provide a geographic basis for implementing new radon-protective building construction standards to reduce public health risks from exposure to radon. In this new mapping approach, variations in indoor radon are partitioned by source, house, and time variations. Source variations are partitioned from house variations by compiling radon entry rates for a reference house that is modeled as though located on varying layered soils that represent the source ariations throughout the state. House variations are represented from existing indoor radon data after normalizing to the source potential at each location. Time variations are minimized by using invariant or long-term parameters. Two kinds of maps would result from this approach's radon source maps and radon probability maps. The expected indoor radon concentrations could be computed from a particular source datum and nominal house characteristics.

Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

1991-07-01

21

A summary of EPA radon chamber tests and results for rounds 3 and 4 of the National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency`s Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) established the National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program in 1986. Through this voluntary program, participants can demonstrate their ability to measure radon and/or radon decay products by submitting their detection devices to a blind test in a designated radon chamber. In this report, two EPA radon and radon decay products test chambers (chambers A and C) located at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory in Montgomery, Alabama are described. These chambers were used to expose detectors submitted for testing in Round 4 of the National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program and are used routinely for calibration purposes. Also described are the measurement and calibration procedures which were used to establish the official target values for radon and radon decay products concentrations during RMP Round 4 testing. The results for RMP Round 3 (conducted at the US DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory radon chamber in New York) and RMP Round 4 (conducted in the two NAREL chambers) are discussed and compared. Following Round 4, the NAREL staff analyzed the collective performance for each measurement method tested in these rounds and found that all methods agreed with the target values within expected limits except for RPISU`s and charcoal adsorbers. After analyzing the RMP4 results, NAREL staff spent several months evaluating the difference in charcoal adsorber response between Round 3 and 4 by performing radon chamber tests using EPA 4-inch, open-faced charcoal adsorbers.

Smith, J.M.; Sensintaffar, E.L.

1993-02-01

22

The rationale and experiences in implementing New Jersey's radon program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss how radon data from domestic modeling, mining studies, and animal studies provided a strong basis for New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) to support MJDEP's recommendation to establish a state radon program. The program, described in this report, focuses on promoting intensive testing by state residents followed by prompt remediation for residences with radon levels greater than

J. Bynum; J. Klotz; M. Cahill; G. Nicholls

1988-01-01

23

Radon  

MedlinePLUS

... Home > Healthy Air > At Home > In-depth Resources Radon What Is Radon? Radon is a colorless, tasteless and odorless gas ... annually in the United States. [ 1 ] Where Does Radon Indoors Come From? Radon is emitted from the ...

24

DEVELOPMENT OF A RADON PROTECTION MAP FOR LARGE BUILDINGS IN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the development of a radon protection map to show from soil and geological features the areas of Florida that require different levels of Radon protection for large building construction. The map was proposed as a basis for implementing radon-protective const...

25

FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM: TECHNICAL SUPPORT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RADON RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the technical direction of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP), its current objectives, and accomplishments to date. he 1988 Florida Legislature mandated the development of standards for the construction of radon resistant buildings. In support of this d...

26

The rationale and experiences in implementing New Jersey's radon program  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss how radon data from domestic modeling, mining studies, and animal studies provided a strong basis for New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) to support MJDEP's recommendation to establish a state radon program. The program, described in this report, focuses on promoting intensive testing by state residents followed by prompt remediation for residences with radon levels greater than or equal to four pico curies per liter. NJDOH believes a threshold for radiation carcinogens does not exist. Even at low levels, exposure to radiation is associated with some health risk. Hence, with consideration given to the length of exposure in the home prompt action is warranted until more definitive data suggest otherwise.

Bynum, J.; Klotz, J. (New Jersey State Dept. of Health, Trenton, NJ (US)); Cahill, M.; Nicholls, G. (New Jersey Dept. of Environmental Projection, Trenton, NJ (US))

1988-01-01

27

Radon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND Radon-222 is a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas that forms from the decay of naturally occurring uranium-238. Since U-238 occurs in soil and rock throughout the world, radon exposure is universal; radon is present not only indoors but outdoors. Radon exposure in homes is largely a result of radon-contaminated gas rising from the soil. This makes it an unusual indoor

Howard Frumkin; Jonathan M. Samet

1949-01-01

28

Citizen's Guide to Radon: The Guide to Protecting Yourself and Your Family from Radon  

MedlinePLUS

... third floor for radon. EPA also recommends testing in schools . Testing is inexpensive and easy it should only ... to test. Radon can also be a problem in schools and workplaces. Ask your state radon office about ...

29

[Information and involvement in health risks exemplified by a radon survey program].  

PubMed

As part of a large-scale radon testing program in homes for the region of the Southern Districts of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) planned by the then West German Federal Ministry of the Environment, Natural Conservation and Reactor Safety and carried out by the Institute of Water, Soil and Air Hygiene (WaBoLu) of the West German Federal Health Office (BGA) in cooperation with the West German Federal Office for Environmental Protection (BfS) and the East German State Office for Atomic Safety (SAAS), the author (then employed at WaBoLu) was responsible for conducting the radon testing in the town of Schlema near the Czechoslovakian border in Southern Saxony. During preparatory work in this town in the fall of 1990, the author noted that the local population was very concerned about their potential radon problem. In the months previously, reports in newspapers and television had frequently pointed out the dangers to health of living in this region, often citing examples of particularly high radon levels from the area. Before the "opening" of the GDR to a free press in the fall of 1989, the local population had heard virtually nothing from the authorities about radon--neither of the possible health risk in general, nor of their own personal radon levels at home. This, together with the lack of experience of East Germans generally to evaluate critically and objectively information from the free press, had led to particularly high levels of anxiety and worry among the local population, even before radon concentrations in homes were known. In the light of these circumstances, the author decided to carry out the radon program with the help of the local school children. These children, aged 13 to 17, were entrusted with the task of carrying out the radon testing using a simple method developed by WaBoLu in all homes of the town. In class, they were informed not only about this testing method, but also about radon generally. It was hoped that, while testing in homes, the school children would pass on this knowledge to the homeowners and thus act as informal "multipliers" of correct information about radon. The approach taken is an example of how environmental hygiene and prevention-oriented environmental medicine could better handle environmental health risks that can be influenced by the individual. It is necessary to become more aware of the fact that all information intended to motivate individuals to protect themselves against environmental health risks may cause at the same time high levels of anxiety.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8456258

Hazard, B P

1993-01-01

30

Radon  

MedlinePLUS

You can't see radon. And you can't smell it or taste it. But it may be a problem in your home. Radon comes from the natural breakdown of uranium in soil, rock, and water. Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer ...

31

A critical evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of radon protection methods in new homes in a radon Affected Area of England  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the UK, building new homes in areas prone to radon gas is currently subject to regulations that require installation of radon-proof membranes. These membranes are not, however, the only way to protect residents of new homes against radon's potential to cause lung cancer. Alternative regulatory regimes can be constructed that would achieve the same end.The purpose of this paper

Thomas Coskeran; Antony Denman; Paul Phillips; Roger Tornberg

2009-01-01

32

Radon protection for new buildings: a practical solution from the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

If indoor radon levels are to be significantly reduced across Europe it is essential to ensure that all new buildings built in areas affected by radon are protected. In the United Kingdom the Building Research Establishment Ltd (BRE) has been carrying out research on behalf of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) to develop protective measures

C. R Scivyer

2001-01-01

33

Radon.  

PubMed

Radon is a radioactive gas that emanates from uranium-bearing soil and porous rock. Although radon is most highly concentrated in areas of high uranium concentration, the presence of trace amounts of uranium in most ground sources means that all humans are exposed to radon to some degree. Radon migrates out of soil and rock into the surrounding air, resulting in accumulation in poorly ventilated or closed areas. Such areas represent the primary environments in which humans are exposed to radioactivity from radon to experience detrimental health effects. There is no convincing evidence that any cancers other than lung cancer are associated with exposure to radon. There is, on the other hand, consistent evidence of a substantially elevated risk of lung cancer among Canadians exposed to radon in certain occupational settings, particularly uranium mining. While the combined evidence for a positive association between residential radon exposure and lung cancer is less compelling, the inherent methodological difficulties in mounting such studies may render it impossible for any single study to detect the relationship more conclusively. The best available evidence to date from pooled analyses indicates a positive, but weak association between residential radon and lung cancer risk. Residential radon is of critical importance because it is ubiquitous; a small excess risk that may exist in relation to radon exposures encountered in a residential setting translates into the potential for a far greater number of excess cancers in the general population than does exposure of a relatively small number of miners, even though the latter may be exposed to much higher levels of ionizing radiation. Fortunately, a number of techniques are available to homeowners to reduce radon concentrations in their homes. PMID:21199598

Bissett, Randall J; McLaughlin, John R

2010-01-01

34

Mineral dusts and radon in uranium mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to assert that radon is a major cause of lung cancer in this country. EPA is fostering a radon program that could entail huge financial and emotional costs while yielding negligible benefits to public health. Justification for the program was the occurrence of lung cancer in men exposed to huge amounts of radon, mineral

P. Abelson

1991-01-01

35

International intercalibration and intercomparison program radon daughter measurements  

SciTech Connect

The International Intercalibration and Intercomparison Program (IIIP), consisting of several laboratories from four countries, held a radon progeny intercomparison measurement at the U.S. Bureau of Mines experimental Twilight Mine on September 12-14, 1988. Grab samples were taken at four different conditions of low and high radon progeny and condensation nuclei concentrations, respectively. The results show good agreement among all seven participants. The coefficient of variation of all measurements was 4.7 pct: after minor corrections for flows and some systematic biases, it was reduced to 3.2 pct.

Cooper, W.E.; Holub, R.F.

1990-07-01

36

U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

1994-12-31

37

Hanford Protective Barriers Program asphalt barrier studies -- FY 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanford Protective Barrier (HPB) Program is evaluating alternative barriers to provide a means of meeting stringent water infiltration requirements. One type of alternative barrier being considered is an asphalt-based layer, 1.3 to 15 cm thick, which has been shown to be very effective as a barrier for radon gas and, hence, should be equally effective as a barrier for

H. D. Freeman; G. W. Gee

1989-01-01

38

AN OVERVIEW OF INDOOR RADON RISK REDUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Radon in the indoor environment is a recognized environmental hazard. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established several programs to develop, demonstrate, and transfer radon mitigation technology. Administration and management of these programs are shared by EPA's ...

39

Results of the 2010 National Radiation Protection Institute intercomparison of radon and its short-lived decay product continuous monitors.  

PubMed

During the Sixth European Conference on Protection Against Radon at Home and at Work held in autumn 2010 in Prague, the first intercomparison of continuous radon and its short-lived decay product monitors was organised and held by the Natural Radiation Division of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in Prague. Eight laboratories submitted eight continuous radon monitors, two electronic monitors, three passive integral systems based on charcoal and three continuous radon short-lived decay product monitors. The intercomparison included exposures to both the radon gas concentration and equivalent equilibrium radon concentration (EEC) under different ambient conditions similar to the ones in dwellings. In particular, the influence of the equilibrium factor F, unattached fraction of EEC f(p) and absolute air humidity were investigated. The results of the radon gas measurements were performed on a calibration level of about 8 kBq m(-3). The results of all monitors were compared with the reference NRPI monitor. PMID:21471124

Jlek, K; Maruiakov, M

2011-04-06

40

Continuous, environmental radon monitoring program at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

A continuous, environmental radon monitoring program has been established in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The monitoring program is to characterize the natural radon emissions at the YMP site, to understand the existing radon concentrations in the environmental background, and to assess and control the potential work exposure. Based upon a study of the monitoring results, this paper presents a preliminary understanding of the magnitudes, characteristics, and exposure levels of radon at the YMP site.

Liu, N.; Sorensen, C.D.; Tung, C.H.; Orchard, C.R.

1995-05-01

41

Predictors of home radon testing and implications for testing promotion programs.  

PubMed

Four data sets (total N = 3,329) are examined to identify the predictors of home radon testing. The data, interpreted in terms of a stage model of radon testing behavior, reveal that the variables predicting transitions between stages change as people move from one stage to the next. Thinking about radon testing (vs. never having even considered testing) is best predicted by general radon knowledge and by knowing other people who are concerned or have tested. Once contemplating testing, the decision to test is most closely related to the perceived likelihood of a home radon problem. Finally, there are few differences between people who say they have decided to test and those who have already tested. Instead situational factors--including difficulties in locating and choosing among test kits--appear to constitute the final barrier to testing. The ways in which these findings might assist the design of radon outreach programs are discussed, and specific outreach recommendations are advanced. PMID:8307767

Sandman, P M; Weinstein, N D

1993-01-01

42

Guidance for research house studies of the Florida Radon Research Program. Volume 2. Model-backed experimental protocol for determining radon resistance of buildings. Final report,Nov 89-Apr 91  

SciTech Connect

One of the main objectives guiding future research in the framework of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP) and of the Radon Mitigation Branch of U.S. EPA, is the need to ensure the availability of technically defensible and cost effective building standards for radon protection. The document describes the preliminary methodology of a study initiated in order to develop a model-backed experimental protocol capable of: (1) identifying and then quantifying the relative importance of different radon entry pathways into a house and of the movement of radon inside the house, and (2) evaluating the effectiveness of certain radon resistant measures which may include changes in house construction as well as the manner in which certain equipment is operated. The rationale of the particular approach as opposed to using mathematical computer codes is also discussed. The macroscopic model is described at length, while the development of the corresponding experimental protocol will be a future research project. The validity of the approach will be evaluated shortly with respect to data from a research house in the Princeton, New Jersey area.

Reddy, T.A.; Gadsby, K.J.; Cavallo, A.

1992-09-01

43

Radon reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi\\/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than

1990-01-01

44

Perceived susceptibility and self-protective behavior: a field experiment to encourage home radon testing  

SciTech Connect

Tested in a field experiment (N = 647) the hypothesis that perceptions of personal susceptibility are important in decisions to test one's home for radioactive radon gas. Experimental group subjects received a personal telephone call to tell them they lived in a high-risk area and a personal letter to reinforce the telephone message. After the intervention, experimental subjects were significantly more likely than minimal-treatment subjects to acknowledge the possibility of high radon levels in their homes. Perceptions of susceptibility and illness severity were significantly correlated with orders of radon test kits and with testing intentions. Nevertheless, there were no differences between groups in test orders or intentions. Results are discussed in terms of the difficulty of getting people to acknowledge susceptibility and the factors other than risk perceptions that influence self-protective behavior.

Weinstein, N.D.; Sandman, P.M.; Roberts, N.E. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA))

1991-01-01

45

A critical evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of radon protection methods in new homes in a radon affected area of England.  

PubMed

In the UK, building new homes in areas prone to radon gas is currently subject to regulations that require installation of radon-proof membranes. These membranes are not, however, the only way to protect residents of new homes against radon's potential to cause lung cancer. Alternative regulatory regimes can be constructed that would achieve the same end. The purpose of this paper is to examine the cost-effectiveness of four alternative regimes and so determine if building regulations for new homes could be altered to protect residents from the effects of radon more cost-effectively than at present. In addressing this question, the paper also contributes to the wider debate on how best to reduce the effect on public health of exposure to radon. The measure of cost-effectiveness used, cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained, is determined from radon test results obtained in properties in Brixworth, England, UK, a radon Affected Area. Confidence intervals for the cost-effectiveness estimates are also derived using bootstrap techniques. The central estimates of cost-effectiveness range from 2870 pounds per quality-adjusted life-year gained for the most cost-effective of the alternative regimes to 6182 pounds for the current regime. These results suggest that alternative regimes may be more cost-effective in tackling the radon problem. A definitive assessment of the most suitable to adopt will require extensive negotiation between government departments, the construction industry, and other interested parties to ensure acceptance of any new regime. The paper offers suggestions for future research that should help in the process of identifying the key features of a new regulatory approach. PMID:19439356

Coskeran, Thomas; Denman, Antony; Phillips, Paul; Tornberg, Roger

2009-05-13

46

Assessment of the effectiveness of radon screening programs in reducing lung cancer mortality.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at assessing the health consequences of the presence of radon in Quebec homes and the possible impact of various screening programs on lung cancer mortality. Lung cancer risk due to this radioactive gas was estimated according to the cancer risk model developed by the Sixth Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations. Objective data on residential radon exposure, population mobility, and tobacco use in the study population were integrated into a Monte-Carlo-type model. Participation rates to radon screening programs were estimated from published data. According to the model used, approximately 10% of deaths due to lung cancer are attributable to residential radon exposure on a yearly basis in Quebec. In the long term, the promotion of a universal screening program would prevent less than one death/year on a province-wide scale (0.8 case; IC 99%: -3.6 to 5.2 cases/year), for an overall reduction of 0.19% in radon-related mortality. Reductions in mortality due to radon by (1) the implementation of a targeted screening program in the region with the highest concentrations, (2) the promotion of screening on a local basis with financial support, or (3) the realization of systematic investigations in primary and secondary schools would increase to 1%, 14%, and 16.4%, respectively, in the each of the populations targeted by these scenarios. Other than the battle against tobacco use, radon screening in public buildings thus currently appears as the most promising screening policy for reducing radon-related lung cancer. PMID:18761730

Gagnon, Fabien; Courchesne, Mathieu; Lvesque, Benot; Ayotte, Pierre; Leclerc, Jean-Marc; Belles-Isles, Jean-Claude; Prvost, Claude; Dessau, Jean-Claude

2008-08-21

47

Protection against radon-222 at home and at work. A report of a task group of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.  

PubMed

The Commission has used an epidemiological basis for the assessment and control of radon exposure in this report. Since all the available epidemiological studies use the quantity inhaled potential alpha energy, this has been used as the primary quantity in this report. The Commission does not recommend the use of the dosimetric human respiratory model (ICRP, 1994) for the assessment and control of radon exposures. The Commission sees practical advantages in the delineation of radon-prone areas where more buildings than usual have elevated radon levels. For dwellings, it is suggested that areas with more than 1% of buildings with radon concentrations exceeding ten times the national average concentration might be designated as radon-prone, but the choice will depend on local conditions. A similar approach might be adopted in non-residential areas. Action against radon should be focused on such radon-prone areas. The imperatives of intervention against adventitious exposure to radon in buildings are clear. Above appropriate action levels, intervention is practicable and usually more cost-effective than other investments in radiological protection. Two types of building need to be considered, dwellings and workplaces. In both cases, radon concentrations are most likely to be elevated by the ingress of soil gas from the subjacent ground. Preventive and remedial measures to avoid this circumstance are recommended. The action levels adopted should fall within the recommended range of values given in Table 7. Proven measures against radon are readily available. For remedial work, the technical procedure that is most likely to maintain the radon level to a value well below the action level should be adopted from the outset. Intervention should take place soon after the discovery of elevated levels, especially if the concentrations are substantially above the action levels adopted by the competent authority. For preventive work, construction codes and building guides should be devised that will consistently achieve low concentrations of radon in the completed buildings. In workplaces, both in buildings and underground, where the radon concentrations remain above the recommended action level after any appropriate remedial measures have been taken, the Commission's system of protection should be applied and radon should be treated in the same way as any other radioactive material at work. The relevant data on conversion coefficients are given in Table 6 and the main quantitative recommendations are summarised in Table 7. Corresponding values in historical units are given in Table 8. PMID:8179237

1993-01-01

48

Reducing the Risks from Radon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that residential radon levels in the United States lead to approximately 13,600 lung cancer deaths per year. To address this problem, the Agency has identified three program initiatives that can provide substantial reductions in the publics risks: (1) public information activities that urge the public to test for radon and reduce elevated concentrations in

Frank Marcinowski; Sam Napolitano

1993-01-01

49

CEBAF - environmental protection program plan  

SciTech Connect

An important objective in the successful operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is to ensure protection of the public and the environment. To meet this objective, the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc., (SURA) is committed to working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop, implement, and manage a sound and workable environmental protection program at CEBAF. This environmental protection plan includes information on environmental monitoring, long-range monitoring, groundwater protection, waste minimization, and pollution prevention awareness program plan.

NONE

1995-10-01

50

Reducing the risks from radon  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that residential radon levels in the United States lead to approximately 13,600 lung cancer deaths per year. To address this problem, the Agency has identified three program initiatives that can provide substantial reductions in the public's risks: (1) public information activities that urge the public to test for radon and reduce elevated concentrations in existing homes, (2) new construction standards to reduce radon entry, and (3) radon testing and mitigation during real estate transactions. This paper analyzes the costs and risk reductions that could result from the implementation of these major initiatives, showing how all three elements cost-effectively protect the public's health.

Marcinowski, F.; Napolitano, S. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-07-01

51

RECOMMENDED HVAC STANDARDS OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) section of the "Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation." t deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. ts primary intent is to p...

52

RECOMMENDED HVAC STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) section of the "Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation." t deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. ts primary intent is to p...

53

Develop a Wellhead Protection Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will develop a wellhead protection program for a hypothetical community. Students assume various roles in the community such as gas station owner, photo lab owner or employee, beauty salon owner, restaurant owner, resident, or environmentalist so that each student can bring the perspective of his or her role to the discussion. Students will discover that the relationships between businesses, environmentalists, and community leaders can be, but need not be, adversarial. As they progress through this activity students learn about the tools communities may use to develop a wellhead protection program. They will also recognize that developing a community wellhead protection program is not easy and that, while it is important to protect drinking water supplies, it can be very difficult to develop a program that will gain support from the overall community.

54

Personal computer programs for use in radon/thoron progeny measurements  

SciTech Connect

Source listings and program notes are given for five programs for reducing data from measurements on radon and thoron progeny. Three of these programs provide for calculating radon and thoron progeny concentrations from gross alpha counting of deposits on filters, by three different methods. The remaining two programs are for calculating aerosol particle size (or diffusion coefficient) distributions from diffusion battery (or graded screen) apparatus. One program is written in GW BASIC and the remainder are written in Borland's Turbo Pascal. The target machine for these programs is the IBM (or compatible) personal computer (PC). Portable versions of the PC also make it feasible to run these programs in the field. 13 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Knutson, E.O.

1989-03-01

55

Measurement of radon and radon daughters in air: Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements  

SciTech Connect

All of the radon isotopes are noble gases and are inert with no large sinks in the environment. Radon is relatively soluble in water and, for this reason, water transport has been a significant mechanism for bringing radon into some underground mines and into some homes where ground water (well water) is used instead of surface water. Radon does not readily form chemical compounds. However, several compounds have been produced and used for experimental purposes. The short-lived daughter products of radon, /sup 218/Po, /sup 214/Pb, /sup 214/Bi, and /sup 214/Po, are of most significance for human exposure since it is these products which are inhaled and deliver the bronchial radiation dose that is implicated in bronchogenic carcinoma. The two polonium isotopes, /sup 218/Po and /sup 214/Po, are the alpha emitters, and these are the daughters of dosimetric interest. The overall effective half-life for the sequence of the four daughters is about 30 minutes. The majority of /sup 218/Po is formed as positively charged ions which rapidly change charge and size. The diffusion coefficient of the daughter is of fundamental importance since it controls the movement of the species in the environment. The measurements of radon and thoron in air are separated into three categories, instantaneous, continuous or time-averaged methods. Ionization chambers and scintillation cells are utilized primarily for instantaneous or grab samples, but may be modified to accommodate continuous measurements. Passive methods to detect radon are popular since large-scale environmental surveys require that a detector be located in a suitable location for extended periods of time in order to assess annual exposure.

Not Available

1988-11-15

56

Protective Coating Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program consists of two primary segments: (1) installing an environmental monitoring station at the Toyota marshalling yard at Georgetown, Kentucky, and (2) conducting laboratory and field tests of paint and wax-coated painted specimens to assess the...

J. E. Funk T. Hopwood D. G. Hartman C. M. Oberst R. D. Saylor A. R. Sethuraman

1991-01-01

57

GUIDANCE FOR RESEARCH HOUSE STUDIES OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM, VOLUME 1: RESEARCH PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides guidance and a readily available reference to groups involved with the Florida Radon Research Program's (FRRP's) research house studies. t includes: 1): Lists of Parameters for continuous and periodic high and low resolution measurements; (2) Protocols for cha...

58

Protective Effects of Radon Inhalation on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Paw Edema in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed whether radon inhalation inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice. Carrageenan (1% v\\/v) was injected subcutaneously into paws of mice that had or had not inhaled approximately 2,000Bq\\/m3 of radon for 24h. Radon inhalation significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities and significantly\\u000a decreased lipid peroxide levels in mouse paws, indicating that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions. Carrageenan\\u000a administration

Takahiro Kataoka; Junichi Teraoka; Akihiro Sakoda; Yuichi Nishiyama; Keiko Yamato; Mayuko Monden; Yuu Ishimori; Takaharu Nomura; Takehito Taguchi; Kiyonori Yamaoka

59

Overview of current radon and radon daughter research at LBL  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a brief summary of radon and radon daughter research at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The radon and radon daughter research program has two broad goals: (1) the study of sources of radon and its subsequent transport into houses, and (2) research on the behavior of radon daughters in indoor environments. Additional research effort is directed to several auxiliary areas, including development of instrumentation and monitoring techniques, studies of indoor air movement, and measurement and control of indoor particulate concentrations.

Not Available

1983-01-01

60

Model computations of radon, and radon decay product, concentrations in an open system; the Hewlett-Packard 41C program RNSS, version 02  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressions for the time dependence of the nuclide concentrations of a decay series in an open system are presented. These expressions simplify considerably in the steady state situation. For the computation of steady state concentrations of radon and its short-lived decay products, an HP-41C computer program is described. The potential alpha energy concentration and the equilibrium factor are also calculated.

W. F. Passchier

1983-01-01

61

GUIDANCE FOR RESEARCH HOUSE STUDIES OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM, VOLUME 2: MODEL-BACKED EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINING RADON RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS.  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides guidance and a readily available reference to groups involved with the Florida Radon Research Program's (FRRP's) research house studies. t includes: 1): Lists of Parameters for continuous and periodic high and low resolution measurements; (2) Protocols for cha...

62

GUIDANCE FOR RESEARCH HOUSE STUDIES OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM, VOLUME 2: MODEL-BACKED EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINING RADON  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides guidance and a readily available reference to groups involved with the Florida Radon Research Program's (FRRP's) research house studies. It includes: 1): Lists of Parameters for continuous and periodic high and low resolution measurements; (2) Protocols for c...

63

Cancer Risk From Radon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Environmental Protection Agency intends to establish a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for radon in public drinking water supplies. This article reviews the information on concentrations of radon in US water supplies and the associated risks. It concludes that 1 pCi\\/L of radon in drinking water produces an average lifetime risk (over 70 years) equal to 4 10??

Douglas John Crawford-Brown

1992-01-01

64

UNIFIED RADON RELATIVE RISK MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Unified Radon Relative Risk Model (UR3M) is a Windows program for PCs. It was developed to fill the need for a comprehensive approach to radon health risks and to allow users or their clients to make informed decisions with respect to radon. The model combines three radon sou...

65

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR RADON REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper provides an historical summary of the evolution of the U.S. EPA's national strategy for indoor radon remediation, recent developments, and anticipated future directions. uring the past 10 years, EPA has pursued a national strategy to address radon remediation in buildin...

66

Radiation Protection. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air- radon 222. A proposed ISO standard.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon isotopes (222, 220, 219) are radioactive gases produced by the disintegration of radium isotopes 226, 224 and 223, which are decay products of uranium238, thorium232 and uranium235 respectively. All are found in the earth's crust. Solid elements, also radioactive, are produced by radon disintegration. Radon is classed as a rare gas in the periodic table of elements, along with helium, argon, neon, krypton and xenon. When disintegrating, radon emits alpha particles and generates solid decay products, which are also radioactive (polonium, bismuth, lead etc.). The potential danger of radon lies in its solid decay products rather than the gas itself. Whether or not they are attached aerosols, radon decay products can be inhaled and deposited in the bronchopulmonary tree to varying depths according to their size. Radon today is considered to be the main source of human exposure to natural radiation. At the international level, radon accounts for 52% of global average exposure to natural radiation. Isotope 222 (48%) is far more significant than isotope 220 (4%), whilst isotope 219 is considered as negligible. Exposure to radon varies considerably from one region to another, depending on factors such as weather conditions, and underlying geology. Activity concentration can therefore vary by a factor of 10 or even a 100 from one period of time to the next and from one area to another. There are many ways of measuring the radon 222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products. Measuring techniques fall into three categories: - spot measurement methods; continuous measurement; integrated measurement. The proposed ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) document suggests guidelines for measuring radon222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in a free (environment) and confined (buildings) atmosphere. The target date for availability of this work item is 2011. The ISO document here highlighted is a working draft. ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies. Keywords: radon; international standards; measurement techniques.

Gillmore, G.; Woods, M.

2009-04-01

67

DATA LOGGING SYSTEMS FOR MONITORING LONG-TERM RADON MITIGATION EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS IN SCHOOLS AND OTHER LARGE BUILDINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses data logging systems for monitoring long-term radon mitigation experimental programs in schools and other large buildings. Several mitigation systems have been installed in schools as part of a mitigation research program conducted by the U.S. EPA. ach install...

68

Intercomparison of radon and decay product measurements in an underground mine and EPA radon laboratory: A study organized by the IAEA International Radon Metrology Programme  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna and the European Union (EU) in Bruxelles formed the International Radon Metrology Programme. The IRMP is designed to assess and foster the improvement of radon and decay product measurements that are made around the world. Within the framework of the IRMP, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory (EPA) in Las Vegas, Nevada, organized jointly with the U.S. Bureau of Mines an international intercomparison exercise at a former uranium mine (Twilight Mine, Colorado) and the EPA Radon Laboratory. The main objective of this exercise was to compare radon and radon decay product instruments under both well-controlled as well as widely fluctuating exposure conditions. The laboratory exposures occurred under relatively steady radon and decay product conditions, with a moderate equilibrium ratio, while the conditions in the mine fluctuated greatly and the equilibrium ratio was low. An additional purpose of the exercise was to provide a forum for manufacturers and measurement organizations worldwise to exchange information and plan improvements in their operations and calibration programs. Altogether 19 organizations from seven countries intercomparing 32 different radon and radon decay product instruments participated in this exercise. This paper summarizes the results from the analysis of the experimental data obtained in the Bureau of Mines Twilight Mine in July of 1994, as well as the results from the EPA Radon laboratory in August of 1994.

Budd, G.; Hopper, R.; Braganza, E.; Ronca-Battista, M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Radiation and Indoor Environments National Lab.; Steinhaeusler, F. [Univ. of Salzburg (Austria); Stegner, P. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

1998-11-01

69

Simple Techniques of Radiation Protection for Radon Monitoring in Air and Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simple techniques for 'in situ' radon concentration measurements in air and water using a scintillation chamber are discussed. The chamber was constructed with a comercial 'Pyrex' erlenmeyer flask by uniformely coating with powdered ZnS:Ag all the flask's...

C. M. Napolitano E. Palacios M. H. Oliveira Sampa

1978-01-01

70

Assessment of the multimedia mitigation of radon in New York.  

PubMed

Although not yet implemented, the 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act instructed the states (or local water suppliers) to address radon concentrations in community water systems (CWS). As an alternative to reducing waterborne radon concentrations in the CWS to the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 11 Bq L(-1), states (or individual CWS) would be permitted to develop a multimedia mitigation (MMM) program, which allowed a greater concentration (148 Bq L(-1)) of waterborne radon in the CWS, if it could be shown that an equivalent health risk reduction could be achieved by reducing indoor radon concentrations. For a MMM program to be acceptable, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency required the health-risk reduction attained through mitigations and radon-resistant new construction (RRNC) to offset the increased health risk due to radon in community water systems above the MCL of 11 Bq L(-1). A quantitative assessment indicates that the reduction in health risk currently achieved in New York State through radon mitigations and RRNC exceeded the increase in risk associated with an alternative MCL of 148 Bq L(-1). The implementation of a MMM program in New York would result in an overall reduction in the health risk associated with exposure to radon. PMID:17429303

Kitto, Michael E

2007-05-01

71

Geologic controls on radon  

SciTech Connect

This text provides a review of recent research on geological controls of [sup 222]Rn concentrations in soil gas in relation to the problem of high indoor radon concentrations in houses. The importance of the subject matter is highlighted in the preface by the observation that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that 15,000 to 25,000 deaths result from radon-induced lung cancer each year in the United States. The text contains 8 Chapters: (1) Geology of radon in the United States; (2) Sensitivity of soil radon to geology and the distribution of radon and uranium in the Hylas Zone Area, Virginia; (3) Geologic and environmental implications of high soil-gas radon concentrations in The Great Valley, Jefferson and Berkeley Counties, West Virginia; (4) Soil radon distribution in glaciated areas: an example from the New Jersey Highlands; (5) Radon in the coastal plain of Texas, Alabama, and New Jersey; (6) Effects of weather and soil characteristics on temporal variations in soil-gas radon concentrations; (7) A theoretical model for the flux of radon from rock to ground water; (8) The influence of season, bedrock, overburden, and house construction on airborne levels of radon in Maine homes. The individual chapters are written by different authors in the form of self-contained research papers, each of which is followed by a comprehensive list of references.

Gates, A.E.; Gundersen, L.C.S. (eds.)

1992-01-01

72

Predictors of Home Radon Testing and Implications for Testing Promotion Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four data sets (total N = 3,329) are examined to identify the predictors of home radon testing. The data, interpreted in terms of a stage model of radon testing behavior, reveal that the variables predicting transitions between stages change as people move from one stage to the next. Thinking about radon testing (vs. never having even considered testing) is best

Peter M. Sandman; Neil D. Weinstein

1993-01-01

73

LUMPED-PARAMETER MODEL ANALYSES OF DATA FROM THE 1992 NEW HOUSE EVALUATION PROJECT - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents analyses of Phase 2 data from the Florida Radon Research Program's New House Evaluation Project (NHEP) that were performed using a lumped-parameter model. The houses evaluated in Phase 2 were monitored by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) and the Univers...

74

TA6 - Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment Radon gas monitoring survey for the determination of Radon Prone Areas in Lombardia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Region Lombardia has carried out a radon gas monitoring survey on its territory to localize radon prone areas as by law 241\\/00 enacted. To plan the survey, the Lombardia's territory has been divided into two different types according to the morphology as well as the presence of a substratum of rock. The area with hills and mountains has been investigated

S. Arrigoni; D. de Bartolo; A. Alberici; P. Cazzaniga; A. Cugini; G. Gallinari; R. Gallini; T. Maggioni; A. Mondini; F. Olivieri; M. Romanelli; E. Zini

75

Perceived Susceptibility and Self-Protective Behavior: A Field Experiment to Encourage Home Radon Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested in a field experiment (N = 647) the hypothesis that perceptions of personal susceptibility are important in decisions to test ones home for radioactive radon gas. Experimental group subjects received a personal telephone call to tell them they lived in a high-risk area and a personal letter to reinforce the telephone message. After the intervention, experimental subjects were significantly

Neil D. Weinstein; Peter M. Sandman; Nancy E. Roberts

1991-01-01

76

Perceived susceptibility and self-protective behavior: a field experiment to encourage home radon testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested in a field experiment (N = 647) the hypothesis that perceptions of personal susceptibility are important in decisions to test one's home for radioactive radon gas. Experimental group subjects received a personal telephone call to tell them they lived in a high-risk area and a personal letter to reinforce the telephone message. After the intervention, experimental subjects were significantly

Neil D. Weinstein; Peter M. Sandman; Nancy E. Roberts

1991-01-01

77

Case Studies in Wellhead Protection: Ten Examples of Innovative Wellhead Protection Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Carroll County, Maryland-Water Resource Management Program; Descanso, California-Community Water District Wellhead Protection Program; Eastern Shore of Virginia-Wellhead Protection Program; El Paso, Texas-Wellhead Protection Program; Enid, Oklah...

1992-01-01

78

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

2007-08-09

79

Annual report for Insider Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Insider Protection Program is to study and identify protection strategies and mechanisms to defend the Hanford Site against insider adversaries. Levels of protection required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders are to be met in a cost effective manner. The Insider Protection works in coordination with the Vulnerability Assessment (VA)/Master Safeguards and Security Agreement (MSSA) process to provide this protection. The VA studies are carried out in detail and provide useful information on the vulnerabilities and defense mechanisms identified at the time the study was made. The VA/MSSA results are an essential component of a general approach to defending against the insider.

Eggers, R.F.

1988-09-01

80

Radiation Protection Technologist Training and Certification Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this program is to establish training requirements and methods for certifying the technical competence of Radiation Protection Technologists. This manual delineates general requirements as well as academic training, on-the-job training, are...

1982-01-01

81

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2013-01-01

82

Measurements of size distributions of radon progeny for improved quantification of the lung cancer risk emanating from exposure to radon decay products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major issue in radiation protection is to protect the population from the harmful effects of exposure to radon and radon progeny. Quantification of the lung cancer risk emanating from exposure to radon decay products in residential and working environme...

T. Haninger

1997-01-01

83

OVERVIEW OF INDOOR RADON MITIGATION ALTERNATIVES AND A SUMMARY OF RECENT EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) MITIGATION TEST RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The discussion is specific to single-family homes (detached houses), as opposed to apartment buildings, other multiple family dwellings, or office and other public use buildings. Introductory information covers indoor radon sources, health effects of radon exposure, radon level m...

84

Radon (Rn)  

MedlinePLUS

... 13.4 M) ( Transcript , 7 K) Managing Radon in Schools ( PDF , 3 pp., 391 K) As part of ... control indoor radon levels. Technical Webinar: Reducing Radon in Schools ( July 18, 2012) A to Z Subject Index ...

85

Semiannual report for Insider Protection program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Insider Protection program is to study and identify protection strategies and mechanisms to defend the Hanford Site against cleared persons (authorized insiders), who either were adversaries at the time of joining Westinghouse Hanford or who became adversaries after joining the company. The range of unauthorized, damaging actions that these adversaries could attempt include (1) theft of special nuclear material (SNM), (2) theft of classified materials, (3) theft of government property, (4) sabotage of equipment and facilities, and (5) radiological sabotage. This is the first semiannual report for this program. It covers work accomplished during the first of Fiscal Year 1988. Two insider protection program developments are described. They are the Insider Threat Assessment Computer Program (ITAC), which is now being used at Hanford, and the Nuclear Material Tracking System (NTRAK), a nondestructive assay (NDA) instrument concept for tracking the movement of SNM and determining when its movement becomes unauthorized. 2 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Eggers, R.F.

1988-03-01

86

Chemical properties of radon  

SciTech Connect

Radon is frequently regarded as a totally inert element. It is, however, a ''metalloid'' - an element which lies on the diagonal of the Periodic Table between the true metals and nonmetals and which exhibits some of the characteristics of both. It reacts with fluorine, halogen fluorides, dioxygenyl salts, fluoro-nitrogen salts, and halogen fluoride-metal fluoride complexes to form ionic compounds. Several of the solid reagents can be used to collect radon from air but must be protected from moisture, since they hydrolyze readily. Recently, solutions of nonvolatile, cationic radon have been produced in nonaqueous solvents. Ion-exchange studies have shown that the radon can be quantitatively collected on columns packed with either Nafion resins or complex salts. In its ionic state, radon is able to displace H/sup +/, Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Cs/sup +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Ba/sup 2 +/ ions from a number of solid materials. 27 refs., 6 figs.

Stein, L.

1986-01-01

87

Hanford Protective Barriers Program asphalt barrier studies -- FY 1988  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Protective Barrier (HPB) Program is evaluating alternative barriers to provide a means of meeting stringent water infiltration requirements. One type of alternative barrier being considered is an asphalt-based layer, 1.3 to 15 cm thick, which has been shown to be very effective as a barrier for radon gas and, hence, should be equally effective as a barrier for the larger molecules of water. Fiscal Year 1988 studies focused on the selection and formulation of the most promising asphalt materials for further testing in small-tube lysimeters. Results of laboratory-scale formulation and hydraulic conductivity tests led to the selection of a rubberized asphalt material and an admixture of 24 wt% asphalt emulsion and concrete sand as the two barriers for lysimeter testing. Eight lysimeters, four each containing the two asphalt treatments, were installed in the Small Tube Lysimeter Facility on the Hanford Site. The lysimeter tests allow the performance of these barrier formulations to be evaluated under more natural environmental conditions.

Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.

1989-05-01

88

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2013-01-01

89

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2013-01-01

90

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2013-01-01

91

S. 2844: A Bill to provide for radon testing. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, September 29, 1988  

SciTech Connect

Bill S. 2844 provides for radon testing and is cited as the Department of Housing and Urban Development Policy Act. The bill provides the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) with a mandate to establish a departmental radon policy and program. The department will be required to use its programs to assist the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) address radon contamination. The bill also requires HUD, in coordination with the EPA, to develop a radon assessment and mitigation program which utilizes EPA recommended guidelines and standards to ensure that occupants of housing covered under this act are not exposed to elevated levels of radon. The entire contents of the bill are presented in eight sections entitled: Short Title, findings, Purpose, Definitions, Program, Information, Cooperation with Environmental Protection Agency, and Authorization. The bill was referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs.

Not Available

1988-01-01

92

Radon evasion rates in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans as determined during the Geosecs program  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Geosecs expedition in the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans, more than 100 stations were occupied for the measurement of surface radon profiles. The radon deficiency in these profiles gives estimates of the gas transfer rate across the sea-air interface. The global mean transfer rate is estimated to be 2.9 m\\/d (at 20° C) which is corresponding to a

T.-H. Peng; W. S. Broecker; G. G. Mathieu; Y.-H. Li; A. E. Bainbridge

1979-01-01

93

Standardization of radon measurements  

SciTech Connect

Radon escaping from soil into homes appears to present the single greatest source of radiation exposure that most people will ever face. Measurement protocols for the relatively inert gas inextricably link the method of collection with the counting of the specimen. The most commonly used methods depend on the measurement of dislocation sites on plastic {alpha}-track detectors or on the adsorption of radon onto activated charcoal for subsequent counting of the {gamma}-rays produced by decay of the radon progeny. The uncertainties inherent to the radon-measurement methods used commercially in the United States are far greater than those for measurements of other environmental radionuclides. The results of this preliminary study raise doubts as to whether existing proficiency-testing programs can provide assurance that radon-measurement methods are representative of actual conditions in any dwelling. 17 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs.

Matuszek, J.M.; Hutchinson, J.A.; Lance, B.H.; Virgil, M.G.; Mahoney, R.J. (New York State Department of Health, Albany (USA))

1988-01-01

94

Protection of Computer Programs--A Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer programs, as legitimate original inventions or creative written expressions, are entitled to patent or copyright protection. Understanding the legal implications of this concept is crucial to both computer programmers and their employers in our increasingly computer-oriented way of life. Basically the copyright or patent procedure

Carnahan, William H.

95

Geologic controls on radon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text provides a review of recent research on geological controls of [sup 222]Rn concentrations in soil gas in relation to the problem of high indoor radon concentrations in houses. The importance of the subject matter is highlighted in the preface by the observation that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that 15,000 to 25,000 deaths result from radon-induced

A. E. Gates; L. C. S. Gundersen

1992-01-01

96

A PROPOSED UNIFIED NATIONAL CALIBRATION AND LABORATORY INTERCOMPARISON SYSTEM FOR RADONfRADON DECAY PRODUCT MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, no formal, written, consensus calibration standards exist for radon\\/radon decay product measurement instrumentation. Furthermore, the majority of radon measurement firms or laboratories depend heavily on the EPA's Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program for establishing the \\

John Sykes

97

Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To

Droppo

1985-01-01

98

Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Galway and Mayo.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the final phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Galway and Mayo. The average radon concentrations for the houses meas...

A. T. McGarry S. G. Fennell G. M. Mackin J. S. Madden M. O'Colmain

1999-01-01

99

Radon levels in New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection began to assess the potential for a natural indoor radon problem in the state following the discovery in December 1984 of high radon levels in homes in northeastern Pennsylvania. A geologic feature commonly known as the Reading Prong underlying the affected homes was identified by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources as the

C. Ranney; R. Machever

1988-01-01

100

[Radon risk and prevention].  

PubMed

The chemical element Radon is the strongest source of natural ionizing radiations for men and it is responsible of some patologies, such as lungs cancer. The concentration of this gas in houses is in Italy on average 70-75 Bq/m3. Apart from a regulative first step, represented by the 2002 Radon National Plan, at the moment there are no specified rules regarding the risks of exposition to radon in general population. On the contrary, safeguarding workers exposed to natural sources of radiation, working places are regulated by legislative decrees. In order to carry out corrective actions in case of high rates, it is necessary to correctly measure the expositional levels both with active and passive instruments. The topical knowledge about radon and its effects urge us to take preventive and reductive measures, protecting the well-being if population. PMID:21438271

Caciari, T; Tomei, F; Fiaschetti, M; Giubilati, R; Ponticiello, B G; De Sio, S; Naro, F; Tomei, G; Sancini, A

101

The Discrete Radon Transform and Its Approximate Inversion Via Linear Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let S be a finite subset of a lattice and let vs(L), the number of points of S ? L for each line L, denote the discrete Radon transform of S. The problem is to reconstruct S from a knowledge (possibly noisy) of the restriction of vs to a subset L of the set of all lines in any of

Peter C. Fishburn; Peter Schwander; Larry A. Shepp; Robert J. Vanderbei

1997-01-01

102

River Protection Project (RPP) Environmental Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Program Plan was developed in support of the Integrated Environment, Safety, and Health Management System Plan (ISMS) (RPP-MP-003), which establishes a single, defined environmental, safety, and health management system that integrates requirements into the work planning and execution processes to protect workers, the public, and the environment. The ISMS also provides mechanisms for increasing worker involvement in work planning, including hazard and environmental impact identification, analysis, and control; work execution; and feedback/improvement processes. The ISMS plan consists of six core functions. Each section of this plan describes the activities of the River Protection Project (RPP) (formerly known as the Tank Waste Remediation System) Environmental organization according to the following core functions: Establish Environmental Policy; Define the Scope of Work; Identify Hazards, Environmental Impacts, and Requirements; Analyze Hazards and Environmental Impacts and Implement Controls; Perform Work within Controls; and Provide Feedback and Continuous Improvement.

POWELL, P.A.

2000-03-29

103

Two EPA approaches to radon surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to characterize radon distribution in residential settings, the USEPA initiated two distinct survey programs, the National Residential Radon Survey (NRRS) and the State\\/EPA Residential Radon Survey (SRRS). Each survey is different in their level of analysis, with the NRRS concentrating on a national sample, and the SRRS concentrating on individual statewide samples. Both surveys are random and

J. Phillips; F. Marcinowski; K. Maconaughey

1992-01-01

104

An overview of Ireland's National Radon Policy.  

PubMed

In Ireland radon is a significant public health issue and is linked to 150-200 lung cancer deaths each year. Irish National Radon Policy aims to reduce individual risk by identifying and remediating buildings with high radon concentrations and also to reduce collective dose through radon prevention as required by revised building regulations. Achievements to date are significant and include the completion of the National Radon Survey, the testing of every school in Ireland, the on-going testing of social housing, collaboration between the public health and radiation protection authorities and the inclusion of radon in inspections of workplaces. However, this work now needs to be drawn together centrally to comprehensively address the radon problem. The RPII and the relevant central governing department, the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government are currently working to constitute a group of key experts from relevant public authorities to drive the development of a National Radon Control Strategy. PMID:21459876

Long, S; Fenton, D

2011-04-01

105

The health risk of radon  

SciTech Connect

Although radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States, second only to cigarette smoking, many members of the public are not aware that radon is one of the most serious environmental cancer risks in the US. Based on extensive data from epidemiological studies of underground miners, radon has been classified as a known human carcinogen. In contrast to most pollutants, the assessment of human risk from radon is based on human occupational exposure data rather than animal data. That radon causes lung cancer has been well established by the scientific community. More is known about radon than most other cancer causing environmental carcinogens. While there are some uncertainties involved when estimating radon risk to the public, it is important to recognize that the risk information is based on human data and that the uncertainties have been addressed in the risk assessment. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that the number of annual US lung cancer deaths due to residential radon exposures is approximately 14,000 with an uncertainty range of 7,000 to 30,000. The abundant information on radon health risks that supports EPA`s risk assessment indicates that recommendations for public action by the federal government and other public health organizations constitute prudent public policy.

Conrath, S.M.; Kolb, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Radiation and Indoor Air

1995-10-01

106

Indoor radon.  

PubMed

The naturally radioactive but chemically inert gas, radon, is formed from the radioactive decay of radium which is part of the uranium series. Radon gas, which has a half life of 3.8 days, must escape from soil particles through air-filled pores in order to enter the atmosphere following the decay of radium. The concentration of radon in the atmosphere varies, depending on the place, time, height above the ground and meteorological conditions. It is thus an inescapable source of radiation exposure, both at home and at work. The potential hazards posed by exposure to radiation from indoor radon gas and its daughter products are of great concern worldwide. Noting of an excessive lung cancer risk among several groups of underground miners exposed to radon and its daughter products, studies on radon concentrations in the workplace and in dwellings have been conducted in many countries. The results have shown that the distribution of radon concentrations are approximately lognormal from which population weighted; the arithmetic mean of radon concentration of 40 Bq.m-3 has been adopted worldwide for dwellings and workplaces. The principal methods for reducing a high indoor radon concentration are: reducing the radon supply by reversing the pressure difference between the building and the soil; raising the resistance of the foundations to soil gas entry; removing the radon sources such as water or underlying soil; diluting the concentration by increasing the ventilation rate; and reducing the concentration of radon progeny by filtering and increasing the circulation of indoor air. Buildings which have a radon concentration higher than 200 Bq.m-3 should be investigated by the national authorities concerned; meanwhile, householders should be advised to take simple temporary precautions, such as increasing ventilation, until a permanent remedy can be effected. PMID:9470322

Polpong, P; Bovornkitti, S

1998-01-01

107

Radon Quest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this module, students pretend to be an environmental consulting firm that has been hired by the County to investigate two cases involving radon exposure. They will prepare a report addressing: the probable causes of the elevated radon values; the extent of the potential problem; the possible routes and effects of human exposure to radon, and ways to educate the public; and strategies for clean up and reduction of exposure to radon in the area. Students will form field, laboratory, risk and impact investigative teams in order to complete their reports.

108

Acceptable respiratory protection program and LASL respirator research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short history is presented on the LASL Respiratory Protection Training Programs. Then a discussion is given on the major points of an acceptable respiratory protection program utilizing the points required by the Occupational, Safety, and Health Administration (OSHA) Regulation 29 CFR 1910.134. Contributions to respirator research are reviewed. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: program administration; respirator

Skaggs

1979-01-01

109

Researching Radon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a project in which students examined the physics, chemistry, and geology of radon and used available technology to measure radon concentrations in their homes. Uses the inquiry process, analytical skills, communication skills, content knowledge, and production of authentic products for student assessment. (YDS)

Lucidi, Louis; Mecca, Peter M.

2001-01-01

110

Radon Monitoring and Control of Radon Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typically over 50% of the worldwide collective dose from ionising radiation is due to radon-222 (radon), a decay product of uranium-238. Because it is a gas, radon can move through soils and can accumulate in buildings such as houses, schools and workplaces. This paper describes the mechanisms by which radon can enter buildings and summarises the epidemiological evidence linking radon

P. A. Colgan; A. T. McGarry

111

Blind testing of commercially available short-term radon detectors.  

PubMed

A sample of commercially available, charcoal adsorption type, short-term radon detectors was blind tested under controlled laboratory conditions in order to obtain a "snapshot" of the accuracy and precision of the detectors. The results of the controlled exposures were then compared to a previous field study of the same type of commercially available radon detectors. Radon detectors, purchased from seven different commercial vendors, were exposed to a reference (222)Rn gas concentration at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Radon Chamber located at the Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. EPA Test 1 was performed under a controlled simulated field exposure paralleling, to the extent possible, the previous actual field exposure conditions. A second controlled exposure, EPA Test 2, was performed under a relatively steady state of (222)Rn gas concentration, at the same temperature, but a more moderate relative humidity. In the previous field setting evaluation of detectors, five out of six companies tested did not pass the accuracy guideline (all individual relative errors < or =25%) established during the EPA's former Radon Measurement Proficiency Program (EPA-RMPP). As compared to the field test, the detectors in this study generally exhibited better accuracy and precision. Not surprisingly, it appeared temporal fluctuations in radon concentrations and increased humidity had a negative influence on the accuracy and precision of detectors for some companies. The inability of three out of seven companies to meet former EPA-RMPP guidelines for accuracy, even under ideal exposure conditions (constant temperature, humidity, and radon concentration), highlights the importance of blind testing commercially available radon detectors. Furthermore, the consistent over-reporting or under-reporting trends in the overall results for all three tests suggest a potentially widespread systematic bias for the individual companies that merits further investigation. It is unknown if this one-time "snapshot" represents the overall reliability of commercially available charcoal-based radon detectors. Nonetheless, the findings suggest the need for improved vigilance to assure that the public can rely on commercially available radon detectors to make an informed decision whether or not to perform additional testing or to mitigate. PMID:18469588

Sun, Kainan; Budd, Gregory; McLemore, Steven; Field, R William

2008-06-01

112

Transport of radon from soil into residences  

SciTech Connect

To develop effective monitoring and control programs for indoor radon it is important to understand the causes of the broad range of concentrations that has been observed. Measurements of indoor radon concentration and air-exchange rate in dwellings in several countries indicate that this variability arises largely from differences among structures in the rate of radon entry. Recent evidence further suggests that the major source of indoor radon in many circumstances is the soil adjacent to the building foundation and that pressure-driven flow, rather than molecular diffusion, is the dominant transport process by which radon enters the buildings. Key factors affecting radon transport from soil are radon production in soil, flow-inducing mechanisms, soil permeability, and building substructure type. 24 references, 1 figure.

Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.

1984-02-01

113

Measurement and distribution of radon and radon progeny: An overview of indoor-radon risk reduction in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents an overview of indoor radon risk reduction in the U.S. EPA currently estimates that 15,000-20,000 Americans die each year from radon-induced lung cancer. The estimate is based on epidemiological data which establish the link between radon and lung cancer, and surveys which provide estimates of radon exposure to the American public. EPA and state cosponsored radon surveys conducted in 34 states have indicated that houses with elevated radon levels exist in all parts of the U.S. These surveys have also indicated that radon levels in individual houses cannot be predicted with any degree of accuracy with existing methods. Individual houses must be tested. Based on these surveys, the EPA estimates that up to 8 million houses have annual average radon levels in the living area which exceed EPA's action guideline of 150 Bq/cu m. Responding to the great health risk posed by indoor radon, EPA, through its comprehensive Radon Action Program, has focused on many activities designed to reduce risk to the public from indoor radon. Key activities in the effort include the research and development of risk-reduction technology and the transfer of the technology to state and local governments, private sector industry, and the public.

Osborne, M.; Harrison, J.

1992-01-01

114

EPRI guide to managing nuclear utility protective clothing programs  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) commissioned a radioactive waste related project (RP2414-34) during the last quarter of 1989 to produce a guide for developing and managing nuclear protective clothing programs. Every nuclear facility must coordinate some type of protective clothing program for its radiation workers to insure proper and safe protection for the wearer and to maintain control over the spread of contamination. Yet, every nuclear facility has developed its own unique program for managing such clothing. Accordingly, a need existed for a reference guide to assist with the standardization of protective clothing programs and to assist in controlling the potentially runaway economics of such programs. This document is the first known effort to formalize the planning and economic factors surrounding a nuclear utility protective clothing program. It is intended to be informative by addressing the various pieces of information necessary to establish and maintain an effective, professionally managed protective clothing program. It also attempts to provide guidance toward tailoring the information and providing examples within the report to fit each utility's specific needs. This report is further intended to address new issues and trends occurring throughout the nuclear industry in late 1989 which can have either a significant positive or negative impact on the operations or economics of nuclear protective clothing programs. 1 ref., 11 tabs.

Kelly, J.J. (Right Angle Industries, Melbourne, FL (USA))

1991-05-01

115

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

SciTech Connect

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L.A.

1981-01-01

116

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

SciTech Connect

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L.A.

1981-04-01

117

Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

Not Available

1991-12-31

118

Fact Sheet National Infrastructure Protection Program Sector ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Please contact the DHS NIPP program office via the web at www ... The program office will facilitate your involvement by contacting your respective ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/fooddefense

119

Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater protection is a national priority that is promulgated in a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the US Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (now under revision) that requires all US Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate groundwater protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Groundwater Protection Management Program for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the Groundwater Protection Management Program cover the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the groundwater regime, (2) design and implementation of a groundwater monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations, (3) a management program for groundwater protection and remediation, (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste, (5) strategies for controlling these sources, (6) a remedial action program, and (7) decontamination and decommissioning and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing groundwater protection activities. Additionally, it describes how information needs are identified and can be incorporated into existing or proposed new programs. The Groundwater Protection Management Program provides the general scope, philosophy, and strategies for groundwater protection/management at the Hanford Site. Subtier documents provide the detailed plans for implementing groundwater-related activities and programs. Related schedule and budget information are provided in the 5-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management at the Hanford Site.

NONE

1993-11-01

120

Radon levels in New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection began to assess the potential for a natural indoor radon problem in the state following the discovery in December 1984 of high radon levels in homes in northeastern Pennsylvania. A geologic feature commonly known as the Reading Prong underlying the affected homes was identified by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources as the source of elevated indoor radon levels. The Reading Prong, which contains bands of rock bodies associated with high uranium concentrations runs in a northeasterly direction out of Pennsylvania through northern New Jersey and into New York. A review of available geologic and aeroradiometric data conducted by the New Jersey Geological Survey demonstrated that New Jersey had significant potential for a radon problem and it was likely that the problem would not be confined to the Reading Prong region, but would include areas to the north and south as well. To determine the magnitude and extent of the indoor radon problem, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection commissioned a statewide radon study. A major component of this study and the primary subject of this paper is a survey of approximately 6,000 dwellings. Objectives of the survey are outlined and the results are presented.

Cahill, M.K.: Nicholls, G.P. (New Jersey Dept. of Environmental Protection, Trenton, NJ (USA)); Ranney, C.; Machever, R. (Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Edison, NJ (USA))

1988-01-01

121

Radon Measurement in Schools. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other major national and international scientific organizations have concluded that radon is a human carcinogen and a serious environmental health problem. The EPA has conducted extensive research on the presence and measurement of radon in schools. This report provides school administrators and

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

122

Radon Reduction Methods: A Homeowner's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying the effectiveness of various ways to reduce high concentrations of radon in houses. This booklet was produced to share what has been learned with those whose radon problems demand immediate action. The booklet describes nine methods that have been tested successfully--by EPA and/or other

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

123

Radon Measurements in Schools: An Interim Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radon-222 is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally in soil, rocks, underground water, and air. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other scientific organizations have identified an increased risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes. Schools in many

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation Programs.

124

Radon Measurements in Schools: An Interim Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Radon-222 is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally in soil, rocks, underground water, and air. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other scientific organizations have identified an increased risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes. Schools in many

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation Programs.

125

Operating instructions for LBL radon measurement facilities  

SciTech Connect

This manual is intended for users of the radon-measuring facilities of the Radon Project of the Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The manual comprises three parts. Part 1 sets out the steps involved in collecting, transferring, and counting radon. Part 2 describes the calibration of the transfer system and of the Lucas cells in the counting system. Part 3 outlines the maintenance procedures for the facility.

Ingersoll, J.G.

1980-06-01

126

Emergency Watershed Protection Program. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Emergency Watershed Protection (EWP) Program helps remove threats to life and property that remain in the nation's watersheds in the aftermath of natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and wildfires. This Programmatic Environmental I...

2004-01-01

127

Meeting the requirements of the wellhead protection program. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this technical guide (TG) is to provide U.S. Army installations with basic guidance on the steps required to address the Wellhead Protection (WHP) Program established in the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1986.

Spellman, S.

1996-02-14

128

EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) WASTE MINIMIZATION RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Waste minimization is viewed by the Environmental Protection Agency as a desirable and viable alternative to hazardous waste disposal. The Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory, in conjunction with the Office of Solid Waste, is developing a Waste Minimization Program fo...

129

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2013-01-01

130

Resource Guide to Occupant Protection Programs and Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article lists public and private sector associations and organizations concerned with occupant protection. Many of these organizations will provide catalogues and other public information materials on occupant protection. Some have operational programs designed to influence their members in the health professions or the general public. All of the organizations have printed material available. Some provide additional resources on occupant

Kathryn Hollenbach; David A. Sleet

1984-01-01

131

A land exchange program to protect biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

Wilderness area boundries have often been set by absence of commercial reserves such as timber, ores, oil, and gas. However, to help further the goal of conserving biological diversity, wilderness areas should be explicity managed to maintain thier species richness over time. The author presents a land exchange approach in which each addition to the public domain for wilderness and biodiversity-conservation purposes could be matched by the simultaneous deletion of land of comparable market value with species already well protected. Discussed are how the four US federal land management agencies can implement the proposal, the benefits of protecting the ecological health of the National Wilderness Preservation System, the lack of guidance from leaders, the pressures facing the wilderness, and how partnerships can be built to protect biodiversity and primative recreational opportunities while reinvigorating the wilderness-conservation movement.

Cutler, M.R. (Explore Park, Roanoke, VA (United States))

1993-02-01

132

Y-12 Site environmental protection program implementation plan (EPPIP)  

SciTech Connect

The Y-12 Plant Environmental Protection Program is conducted to: (1) protect public health and the environment from chemical and radiological releases occurring from current plant operations and past waste management and operational practices; (2) ensure compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations and DOE directives; (3) identify potential environmental problems; (4) evaluate existing environmental contamination and determine the need for remedial actions and mitigative measures; (5) monitor the progress of ongoing remedial actions and cleanup measures; and (6) inform the public of environmental issues relating to DOE operations. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, defines the general requirements for environmental protection programs at DOE facilities. This Environmental Protection Program Implementation Plan (EPPIP) defines the methods by which the Y-12 Plant staff will comply with the order by: (1) referencing environmental protection goals and objectives and identifying strategies and timetables for attaining them; (2) providing the overall framework for the design and implementation of the Y-12 Environmental Protection Program; and (3) assigning responsibilities for complying with the requirements of the order. The EPPIP is revised and updated annually.

NONE

1996-11-01

133

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RESEARCH PROGRAM GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Annual extramural research program guide for the Office of Research and Development. This report provides information on work being done in each part of ORD, research which EPA is planning for FY 1984, and how much the authors intend to spend on each program area. Some of the are...

134

Radon in ground water of the Lower Susqehanna and Potomac River basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water samples collected from 267 wells were analyzed for radon as part of a water-quality reconnaissance of subunits of the Lower Susquehanna and Potomac River Basins conducted by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. Radon is a product of the radioactive decay of uranium. Airborne radon has been cited by the Surgeon General of the United States as the second-leading cause of lung cancer and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has identified ground-water supplies as possible contributing sources of indoor radon. Eighty percent of ground-water samples collected for this study were found to contain radon at activities greater than 300 pCi/L (picocuries per liter), the USEPA's proposed Maximum Contaminant Level for radon in drinking water, and 31 percent of samples contained radon at activities greater than 1,000 pCi/L. The 10 subunits where samples were collected were grouped into three classes - median ground-water radon activity less than 300 pCi/L, between 300 pCi/L and 1,000 pCi/L, and greater than 1,000 pCi/L. Subunits underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont Physiographic Province typically have the highest median ground-water radon activities (greater than 1,000 pCi/L); although there is a large variation in radon activities within most of the subunits. Lower median radon activities (between 300 pCi/L and 1,000 pCi/L) were found in ground water in subunits underlain by limestone and dolomite. Of three subunits underlain by sandstone and shale, one fell into each of the three radon-activity classes. The large variability within these subunits may be attributed to the fact that the uranium content of sandstone and shale is related to the uranium content of the sediments from which they formed.

Lindsey, Bruce D.; Ator, Scott W.

1996-01-01

135

OSHA's Voluntary Protection Programs: Improved Oversight and Controls Would Better Ensure Program Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is responsible for ensuring workplace safety. OSHA has established a number of programs, including the Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP), that take a cooperative approach to ...

2009-01-01

136

Radon detection  

DOEpatents

A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01

137

Radon Glossary of Terms  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Radon: A colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive, inert, gaseous element formed by radioactive decay of radium (Ra) atoms. The atomic number is 86. Although other isotopes of radon occur in nature, radon in indoor air is almost exclusively Rn-222. From Radon Glossary of Terms - Search all glossaries for terms containing radon

2011-04-13

138

Radon contamination in dwellings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon contamination of dwellings has only recently been recognized as a significant problem in the United States. This paper describes the geographical distribution of radon gas, along with a discussion of its fundamental health effects. Various methods to measure radon and radon daughter concentration levels are presented. Recommended action levels for radon gas exposure in dwellings are summarized, and factors

Michael J. Ganas; John R. Schuring; Dorairaja Raghu

1989-01-01

139

75 FR 41213 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are no further updates. This correction notice is issued as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Thomas Chase Garwood, III, Chief Information Officer, National Protection and Programs Directorate, Department of Homeland Security. [FR...

2010-07-15

140

[Radon in workplaces, a review].  

PubMed

Radon is a chemical radioactive element. It occurs naturally as the decay product of radium; it's responsible for the majority of the mean public exposure to ionizing radiation. It is often the single largest contributor to an individual's background radiation dose, and is the most variable from location to location. Radon gas from natural sources can accumulate in buildings, especially in confined areas such as attics, and basements. Breathing in radon is a cause of lung cancer. In Italy, high levels of radon should be found in underground spaces such as wineries, historical buildings, hot springs or mushrooms farms, and it's a hazard all this workplaces. To ensure the health and safety of employees and others who have access to their work environment, the occupational physician can program inexpensive surveys (with dosemeters) and develop an information plan. PMID:21438274

Di Loreto, G; Sacco, A; Felicioli, G

141

40 CFR 700.41 - Radon user fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radon user fees. 700.41 Section 700.41 ...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Fees § 700.41 Radon user fees. User fees relating to radon proficiency programs authorized under the...

2010-07-01

142

40 CFR 700.41 - Radon user fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...30 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Radon user fees. 700.41 Section 700.41 ...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Fees § 700.41 Radon user fees. User fees relating to radon proficiency programs authorized under the...

2009-07-01

143

The USGS/EPA radon potential of the U. S. '' project: A case study in the application of geoscience information to public policy  

SciTech Connect

As part of an interagency agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared a series of maps and reports, by state, describing and assessing the geologic radon potential of the United States. The documents were prepared with multiple uses in mind, including guidance for targeted radon sampling or information programs, to aid in the application of radon-resistant building codes, and as a starting point for more detailed investigations. The USGS and EPA were assisted in the planning and review stages by the Association of American State Geologists, and the draft reports were also reviewed by the state radon contact agencies (typically health departments or departments of environmental protection) and other state and federal agencies. A relative radon potential ranking scheme was developed by USGS to provide consistency and accountability. The scheme consists of a Radon Index, the sum of 5 individually-scored factors (geology, soil permeability, aerial radioactivity, architecture, and screening indoor radon data), and an associated Confidence Index, an expression of the quality and quantity of the data used to evaluate each factor. The assessments are presented on a scale that is useful for state- or regional-scale planning, but inapplicable to areas smaller than counties. The most common problems cited by the reviewers are: (1) the conflict of natural geologic boundaries and political boundaries; (2) the use of the NURE aerial radiometric data; (3) the use of short-term charcoal canister data as opposed to long-term annual average data; (4) the definition of high'' radon and the cost of dealing with the radon problem if high'' is 4 pCi/L; and (5) the potential misuse of geologic assessments by the public, the radon industry, and governments. The use of geological common sense in concert with policy decisions can alleviate many of the above problems.

Schumann, R.R.; Gundersen, L.C.S. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-03-01

144

Development of Environmental Education Programs for Protected Areas in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental education programs for schools in the peripheral zone of protected areas in Madagascar are still needed in numerous locations. My research investigated the status of environmental education and communication (EE&C) programs at Masoala National Park, Madagascar, as well as the attitudes of local residents toward the park and park staff. The multi-year qualitative research methods included individual and focus

Alison Ormsby

2008-01-01

145

Development of Environmental Education Programs for Protected Areas in Madagascar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Environmental education programs for schools in the peripheral zone of protected areas in Madagascar are still needed in numerous locations. My research investigated the status of environmental education and communication (EE&C) programs at Masoala National Park, Madagascar, as well as the attitudes of local residents toward the park and park

Ormsby, Alison

2007-01-01

146

Radon barrier field-test monitoring at Grand Junction tailings pile  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) technology development program, has conducted three large-scale field tests of radon covers at the uranium mill tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado. The barrier systems, monitored for radon flux for over two years, include earthen, multilayer, and asphalt emulsion covers. Results of the monitoring have shown that a variety of cover systems can meet the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The most effective covers tested were asphalt emulsion and earthen (mancos shale). 10 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

1983-11-01

147

High Resolution Parabolic Radon Transform by Frequency Domain Method for Eliminating Multiple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parabolic Radon transform (PRT) is one of the most effective methods to eliminate multiple. Based on model study and programming, the article shows the physical signification of FPRT firstly, then presents the theories and implementation processes about the forward and inverse parabolic Radon transform infrequency domain. It also discusses the aliasing in radon domain, the stability of radon transform, the

Junhua Zhang; Cun Yang; Hui Xu; Haicheng Yu; Lianyu Shan

2008-01-01

148

Radiation doses from radon in buildings.  

PubMed

Not until about 1970 was it possible to estimate the magnitude of the correlation between additional lung cancer frequency and radon daughter exposure in miners. In addition, it has been realised that high levels of radon daughters in homes may be found in all countries and therefore the interest in radon in buildings has rapidly increased during the last 10 years. Radon gas enters the house from underground, from building materials and in some cases from tap water. Indoor radon daughter concentrations vary between countries and regions. The absorbed dose in the basal cells of the bronchial epithelium based on an average of the population in Canada, U.S.A. and West Germany can be estimated to be about 1 mGy a-1 (average radon daughter concentration about 25 Bq m-3) for Great Britain about half of that value and for the Nordic countries about double this value. 300-3000 lung cancer cases (most probable 1100) may occur in the future in the Swedish population of 8.4 million from radon daughter exposure indoors today. This estimation is made by the National Institute of Radiation Protection. A lower estimate of 100-1000 lung cancer cases is made by the Swedish Cancer Committee. Efforts to decrease the exposure from radon daughters indoors have been made in some countries by establishing limits or recommendations for the radon or radon daughter concentration indoors. Measuring methods for finding houses with high radon daughter concentrations and effective building techniques in order to decrease the radon daughter concentrations in both existing and for planned buildings are available. PMID:2831438

Swedjemark, G A

1987-01-01

149

Radon in Schools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., HVAC system design and operation) that influence radon entry and mitigation system design. It also discusses mitigation systems instal...

K. W. Leovic

1989-01-01

150

LRAD radon test results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel recently tested Long-Range Alpha Detection (LRAD) technology for radon and radon daughter response in the calibration chamber at DOE Grand Junction Project Office (GJPO), Colorado. Radon concentrations range...

J. P. Johnson R. D. Bolton S. E. Garner K. L. Benham G. L. Langer

1994-01-01

151

Radiation safety and protection in US dental hygiene programs  

SciTech Connect

A survey of radiation safety and protection measures used by programs teaching dental hygiene indicated some areas for concern. No barriers or radiation shieldings were used between operator and patient in four programs. Radiation monitoring devices were not worn by faculty operators in 16% of the programs. Fewer than half of the programs used thyroid shields for patients on a routine basis. Insufficient filtration for the kilovolt peak employed was used by 14% of the programs, and for 19% more the filtration was unknown or unspecified. Three programs used closed cones. Rectangular collimation was not used at all by 63% of the programs, and only 20% used E speed film routinely. Quality assurance for equipment maintenance and for film processing were in place at only 54% and 49% of the programs, respectively.

Farman, A.G.; Hunter, N.; Grammer, S.

1986-07-01

152

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements semiannual technical progress report, March 1989August 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This semiannual technical progress report is for the period 1 March 1989 through 31 August 1989. This National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) program is designed to provide recommendations for radiation protection based on scientific principles. During this period several reports were published covering the topics of occupational radiation exposure, medical exposure, radon control, dosimetry, and radiation protection

Ney

1991-01-01

153

Mineralogy and aeroradioactivity as indicators of radon hazard zones  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations of indoor radon in the basements of homes located in southern Maryland average 1.3 times the first-floor radon concentrations. Particular geological units tend to be associated with higher indoor radon. In the study area, homes underlain by phyllite are generally above 4 pCi/L (the US Environmental Protection Agency action level). Comparative studies between indoor radon and total-gamma aeroradioactivity show that aeroradioactivity can be accurately used to estimate community radon hazards. When combined, geology and aeroradioactivity can be used to identify problem homes.

Sullivan, K.T. [Marymount Univ., Arlington, VA (United States). Health Promotion Management; Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-08-01

154

Screening radon risks: a methodology for policymakers.  

PubMed

This paper provides an easy-to-use screening methodology to estimate potential excess lifetime lung cancer risk resulting from indoor radon exposure. The methodology was developed under U.S. EPA Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation sponsorship of the agency's Integrated Environmental Management Projects (IEMP) and State/Regional Comparative Risk Projects. These projects help policymakers understand and use scientific data to develop environmental problem-solving strategies. This research presents the risk assessment methodology, discusses its basis, and identifies appropriate applications. The paper also identifies assumptions built into the methodology and qualitatively addresses methodological uncertainties, the direction in which these uncertainties could bias analyses, and their relative importance. The methodology draws from several sources, including risk assessment formulations developed by the U.S. EPA's Office of Radiation Programs, the EPA's Integrated Environmental Management Project (Denver), the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. When constructed as a spreadsheet program, the methodology easily facilitates analyses and sensitivity studies (the paper includes several sensitivity study options). The methodology will be most helpful to those who need to make decisions concerning radon testing, public education, and exposure prevention and mitigation programs. PMID:1771267

Eisinger, D S; Simmons, R A; Lammering, M; Sotiros, R

1991-12-01

155

Screening radon risks: A methodology for policymakers  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an easy-to-use screening methodology to estimate potential excess lifetime lung cancer risk resulting from indoor radon exposure. The methodology was developed under U.S. EPA Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation sponsorship of the agency's Integrated Environmental Management Projects (IEMP) and State/Regional Comparative Risk Projects. These projects help policymakers understand and use scientific data to develop environmental problem-solving strategies. This research presents the risk assessment methodology, discusses its basis, and identifies appropriate applications. The paper also identifies assumptions built into the methodology and qualitatively addresses methodological uncertainties, the direction in which these uncertainties could bias analyses, and their relative importance. The methodology draws from several sources, including risk assessment formulations developed by the U.S. EPA's Office of Radiation Programs, the EPA's Integrated Environmental Management Project (Denver), the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. When constructed as a spreadsheet program, the methodology easily facilitates analyses and sensitivity studies (the paper includes several sensitivity study options). The methodology will be most helpful to those who need to make decisions concerning radon testing, public education, and exposure prevention and mitigation programs.26 references.

Eisinger, D.S.; Simmons, R.A.; Lammering, M.; Sotiros, R. (Policy and Planning Group, Systems Applications International, San Rafael, CA (United States))

1991-12-01

156

FY-2007 PNNL Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Program Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of the FY-2007 PNNL VPP Program Evaluation, which is a self-assessment of the operational and programmatic performance of the Laboratory related to worker safety and health. The report was compiled by a team of worker representatives and safety professionals who evaluated the Laboratory's worker safety and health programs on the basis of DOE-VPP criteria. The principle elements of DOE's VPP program are: Management Leadership, Employee Involvement, Worksite Analysis, Hazard Prevention and Control, and Safety and Health Training.

Wright, Patrick A.; Fisher, Julie A.; Goheen, Steven C.; Isern, Nancy G.; Madson, Vernon J.; Meicenheimer, Russell L.; Pugh, Ray; Schneirla, Keri A.; Shockey, Loretta L.; Tinker, Mike R.

2008-08-15

157

PNNL FY2005 DOE Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Program Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of the FY 2005 PNNL VPP Program Evaluation, which is a self-assessment of the operational and programmatic performance of the Laboratory related to worker safety and health. The report was compiled by a team of worker representatives and safety professionals who evaluated the Laboratory's worker safety and health programs on the basis of DOE-VPP criteria. The principle elements of DOE's VPP program are: Management Leadership, Employee Involvement, Worksite Analysis, Hazard Prevention and Control, and Safety and Health Training.

Wright, Patrick A.; Madson, Vernon J.; Isern, Nancy G.; Haney, Janice M.; Fisher, Julie A.; Goheen, Steven C.; Gulley, Susan E.; Reck, John J.; Collins, Drue A.; Tinker, Mike R.; Walker, Landon A.; Wynn, Clifford L.

2005-01-31

158

The Distribution of Exposure to Radon: Effects of Population Mobility  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of population exposures to radon, rather than the distribution of indoor radon concentrations, determines the fraction of population exposed to exceptionally high risk from radon exposures. Since this fraction at high risk has prompted the development of public policies on radon, it is important to first determine the magnitude of this fraction, and then how it much would decrease with different implementation program options for radon mitigation. This papers presents an approach to determining the distribution of population exposures to radon from public domain data, and illustrates it with application to the state of Minnesota. During this work, we are led to define a radon entry potential index which appears useful in the search for regions with high radon houses.

Gadgil, A.J.; Rein, S.; Nero, A.V.; Wollenberg Jr., H.A.

1993-01-01

159

78 FR 65045 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium...0938-AR74 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium...of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education...

2013-10-30

160

78 FR 54069 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, and Eligibility...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP...0938-AR82 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP...of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education...

2013-08-30

161

78 FR 37031 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, Premium...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP...0938-AR82 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP...of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as amended by the Health Care and...

2013-06-19

162

Protection system representation in the electromagnetic transients program  

SciTech Connect

This paper concerns the addition of the few critical elements of a protection system to the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP), which is one of the most widely used programs for the simulation of transients in power systems. It contains models for almost every major power system component. A protection system consists of instrument transformers, relays, and circuit breakers. Models for current transformers (CTs) and capacitor voltage transformers (CVTs) are developed, validated, and incorporated in the EPRI/DCG EMTP Version 2.0. The user can define the values of the CT and CVT parameters. Total FORTRAN capability has been added to the EMTP; new subroutines and an inbuilt structure to allow the linking of user-defined FORTRAN subroutines with the main EMTP are explained. This capability is necessary to simulate computer relay algorithms. The outputs of the algorithms can be passed to the EMTP, which enables the study of the dynamic interaction between the power system and the protection system. The FORTRAN capability can also be used to develop models for relays. Models of specific relays, such as those for line protection (CEY51A and SLY12C) and transformer differential protection (D202 and BDD15B), are also available. The relay models can be used with different settings. These new features in the EMTP together constitute the critical elements of a protection system. Thus, it is now possible to simulate the dynamic interactions between a power system and a protection system.

Chaudhary, A.K.S. (Sargent Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States)); Tam, K.S.; Phadke, A.G. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Bradley Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

1994-04-01

163

Resolving the radon problem in Clinton, New Jersey, houses  

SciTech Connect

Significantly elevated radon concentrations were found in several adjacent houses in Clinton, New Jersey. The United States Environmental Protection Agency Screened 56 of the houses and selected 10 for demonstration of radon-reduction techniques. Each of the 10 houses received an intensive radon diagnostic evaluation before a house-specific radon reduction plan was developed. Depressurization effects caused by temperature differentials and the operation of mechanical equipment were quantified. Before and after radon reduction plans were implemented, radon concentrations were determined by charcoal canisters and continuous radon monitors. A variety of sealing and subslab depressurization techniques were applied to the 10 houses. Radon concentrations were reduced by over 95% in all 10 houses. The cost of applying radon reduction techniques ranged from $1500 to $8500 per house. House construction characteristics were described which contributed to the high cost of radon reduction. In summary, the 10-house radon reduction demonstration in Clinton, New Jersey was successful in showing homeowners with similar house types some effective ways of reducing radon concentrations.

Osborne, M.C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1989-01-01

164

Geochemistry of atmospheric radon and radon products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following topics are discussed: measurement of the radon-222 flux to the atmosphere; measurement of the lead-210 atmospheric flux; and the mean residence time of aerosols. A total global model is proposed for radon-222 and its daughters.

K. K. Turekian; Y. Nozaki; L. K. Benninger

1977-01-01

165

EPA`s occupational radiation safety and health protection program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to describe EPA`s Occupational Radiation, Safety, and Health Protection Program ({open_quotes}Program{close_quotes}), from its inception to the present day, emphasizing problems encountered and solutions derived in developing and implementing a centrally administered national health physics program. The Program uses written policies, guidance, practices, and methods, as well as a Radiation Safety Information Management System (RADSIMS) to manage and oversee individual Program components and trends. These components include (1) training and education, (2) monitoring and dosimetry, (3) medical/health physics guidance, and (4) quality assurance/control/improvement. The Program, which is currently operational in all ten EPA Regions, is unique in that it incorporates a national database (consistent among all Regions), tied by telecommunications into a VAX computer at Headquarters, into a health physics monitoring system for the purpose of ensuring that EPA workers occupational exposure to ionizing radiation is maintained at levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Development and implementation of the Program has evolved into four distinct phases starting in FY92: (1) EPA Region IV developed a pilot-program with Headquarters, and quality action teams were formed to develop Program components and policies; phases (2) and (3) the Program was expanded into EPA Regions V, VII, and VIII (FY93) and then the remaining six regions (FY94). Phase (4) continued the implementation of the Program as needed agency-wide so as to include EPA applicable program offices and possibly some laboratories during FY96.

Colwell, S.C.; Matusewicz, N.M. [SC& A, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Boyd, M.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-06-01

166

Radon programme: presence and future.  

PubMed

An overview of radon programme experience is presented. The paper summarises broad topics concerning radon issue: philosophy of radon policy, radon measurements strategies with respect to indoor radon variation, progress in radon measurement of an individual house (radon diagnosis), national programmes, the role of preventive measures and interventions with respect to existing and future exposure and knowledge of radon risk, problems of remediation strategies, radon mapping process and sense of delineation of radon prone areas, public awareness on radon issue and publicity campaign. Some research activities are proposed aiming at effective solutions for radon issues in the future. PMID:18420575

Hulka, J

2008-04-16

167

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

Radiological Control Managers' Council

2008-06-01

168

RADON FLUORIDE FURTHER TRACER EXPERIMENTS WITH RADON  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was shown in tracer experiments that radon fluoride cam be prepared ; by heating mixtures of radon and fluorine to 400 deg C. The compound is very ; stable and distills at 230 to 250 deg at a pressure of approximately 10⁻⁶ ; mm Hg. It can be reduced with hydrogen at 500 deg to recover elemental radon. ;

P. R. Fields; L. Stein; M. H. Zirin

1962-01-01

169

USE OF MODELS IN MANAGING GROUND-WATER PROTECTION PROGRAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mathematical models can be helpful tools to managers of ground-water protection programs. They may be used for testing hypotheses about conceptualizations and to gather a fuller understanding of important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect ground-water resou...

170

77 FR 35700 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information...accordance with 5 CFR 1320.1. ADDRESSES: Written comments and questions...be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP/IICD, 245 Murray Lane, SW...PCII Program, IICD, and NPPD/IP use only.OMB is...

2012-06-14

171

Evaluation of Food Protection and Defense Outreach Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis documents the outcomes and impacts from a series of food protection and defense educational programs conducted over a 3-y period for private and public sector food system professionals. Several measures were used to determine the professions of participants; their improvements in skills and abilities that resulted from workshops; the

Shutske, John M.; Pierquet, Jennifer; Michel, Laura; Rasmussen, Ruth; Olson, Debra

2008-01-01

172

QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: THE EPA QA PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Formalized quality assurance (QA) program requirements for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been established for more than ten years. uring this period, the environmental issues and concerns addressed by the EPA have changed. any issues, such as ozone depletion...

173

Evaluation of Food Protection and Defense Outreach Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This analysis documents the outcomes and impacts from a series of food protection and defense educational programs conducted over a 3-y period for private and public sector food system professionals. Several measures were used to determine the professions of participants; their improvements in skills and abilities that resulted from workshops;

Shutske, John M.; Pierquet, Jennifer; Michel, Laura; Rasmussen, Ruth; Olson, Debra

2008-01-01

174

NASA's planetary protection program as an astrobiology teaching module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently developing a teaching module on the NASA's Planetary Protection Program for UW-Parkside SENCER courses. SENCER stands for Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibility. It is a national initiative of the National Science Foundation (NSF), now in its fifth year, to improve science education by teaching basic sciences through the complex public issues of the 21st century. The Planetary Protection Program is one such complex public issue. Teaching astrobiology and the NASA's goals via the Planetary Protection module within the SENCER courses seems to be a good formula to reach large number of students in an interesting and innovative way. We shall describe the module that we are developing. It will be launched on our web site titled "Astrobiology at Parkside" (http://oldweb.uwp.edu/academic/chemistry/kolb/organic_chemistry/, or go to Google and then to Vera Kolb Home Page), and thus will be available for teaching to all interested parties.

Kolb, Vera M.

2005-09-01

175

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

Washington TRU Solutions

2002-09-24

176

Radon levels can be predicted  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists doing a yearlong study of radon levels in houses have identified several major factors that affect concentrations and have developed a method for predicting indoor radon levels before a house is built. Douglas Mose and George Mushrush (George Mason University, Fairfax, Va.) studied 1500 homes in northern Virginia and central Maryland near Washington, D.C.Radon is a radioactive decay product of uranium that occurs in many rock types. The gas can accumulate in buildings and pose a serious health hazard. Results from the Washington-area study show that 35% of the houses had average yearly radon concentrations above 4 pico-Curies per liter (pCi/L), the level at which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests that a homeowner should take steps to reduce radon concentrations. At a level of 4-10 pCi/L an estimated 13-120 lung cancer deaths would be expected for every 1000 people exposed. Such a risk is comparable to having 200 chest X rays per year, according to EPA statistics.

Wainger, Lisa A.

177

Exposure to atmospheric radon.  

PubMed Central

We measured radon (222Rn) concentrations in Iowa and Minnesota and found that unusually high annual average radon concentrations occur outdoors in portions of central North America. In some areas, outdoor concentrations exceed the national average indoor radon concentration. The general spatial patterns of outdoor radon and indoor radon are similar to the spatial distribution of radon progeny in the soil. Outdoor radon exposure in this region can be a substantial fraction of an individual's total radon exposure and is highly variable across the population. Estimated lifetime effective dose equivalents for the women participants in a radon-related lung cancer study varied by a factor of two at the median dose, 8 mSv, and ranged up to 60 mSv (6 rem). Failure to include these doses can reduce the statistical power of epidemiologic studies that examine the lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Steck, D J; Field, R W; Lynch, C F

1999-01-01

178

PROCEEDINGS: THE 1988 SYMPOSIUM ON RADON AND RADON REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY--VOLUME 1. SYMPOSIUM ORAL PAPERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume proceedings document the 1988 symposium on Radon and Radon Reduction Technology, jointly sponsored by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) and Office of Radiation Programs (ORP), in Denver, CO, October 17-21, 1988. The objective of the sympo...

179

PROCEEDINGS: THE 1988 SYMPOSIUM ON RADON AND RADON REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY. VOLUME 2. SYMPOSIUM POSTER PAPERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume proceedings document the 1988 symposium on Radon and Radon Reduction Technology, jointly sponsored by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) and Office of Radiation Programs (ORP), in Denver, CO, October 17-21, 1988. The objective of the sympo...

180

The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program  

SciTech Connect

The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload.

Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

1994-05-01

181

Comparisons between soil radon and indoor radon  

SciTech Connect

Several thousand indoor radon measurements have been obtained for homes in northern Virginia. Compilations of these data according to the geologic units under the homes show that some units have relatively high or relatively low medium indoor radon levels, and that these differences persist through all four seasons. An attempt to determine if soil radon and soil permeability could yield similar results, in terms of relative indoor radon, was not successful. Care should be taken in using such measurements to characterize the potential for radon problems in established communities and in areas of as-yet undeveloped property.

Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). Chemistry Dept.

1999-10-01

182

Accreditation of human research protection program: An Indian perspective  

PubMed Central

With the increasing number of clinical trials being placed in India, it is the collective responsibility of the Investigator sites, Government, Ethics Committees, and Sponsors to ensure that the trial subjects are protected from risks these studies can have, that subjects are duly compensated, and credible data generated. Most importantly, each institution/hospital should have a strong Human Research Protection Program to safe guard the trial subjects. In order to look at research with a comprehensive objective approach, there is a need for a formal auditing and review system by a recognized body. As of now, only the sponsors are monitoring/auditing their respective trials; however, there is an increasing need to perform a more detailed review and assessment of processes of the institution and the Ethics Committee. This challenge can be addressed by going for accreditation by a reputed association that encompasses-the institutions, the ethics committees, and researcher/research staff. Starting their journey for the accreditation process in late 2010, Kasturba Medical College and Hospital [KMC], Manipal, and Manipal Hospital Bangalore [MHB] received full Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs (AAHRPP) accreditation in Dec 2011a first in India. This article delves into the steps involved in applying for AAHRPP accreditation from an Indian Perspective, the challenges, advantages, and testimonials from the two hospitals on the application experience and how the accreditation has improved the Human Research Protection Program at these hospitals.

Bairy, K. L.; Pereira, Pratibha

2012-01-01

183

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Multimedia Program  

SciTech Connect

The Native American multimedia program was developed to facilitate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) partnership with tribes in the delivery of environmental programs on reservation lands and to enhance the EPA`s ability to carry out its trust responsibility to the tribes. By providing the means for each tribe to employ its own environmental specialist, the multimedia program helps provide the foundation necessary to build environmental infrastructure for the protection of Native American lands and people and for the development of more rigorous medium-specific programs. The multimedia program began in 1991 with two pilot projects on the Bad River Chippewa Reservation, Wisconsin, and the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming. Expanded in 1992, Region 5 awarded ten multimedia cooperative agreements. At the time, Region 5 made the commitment to fund all reservations within the region, and by end of fiscal year 1993, 24 agreements brought the program to all 29 tribes. This has been a monumental effort, possible only by coupling fiscal year 1993`s funding from the Office of Federal Activities ($599050) with the region`s own reprogramming efforts ($510000).

Ambutas, K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

184

Control of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air -- restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon progeny. The predominant radon entry process in most residences appears to be pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or

Sextro

1985-01-01

185

Control of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air - restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon progeny. The predominant radon entry process in most residences appears to be pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or

Sextro

1985-01-01

186

Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

Droppo, J.G.

1985-04-01

187

Radon Pollution Control Act of 1987. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Tourism, and Hazardous Materials of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, April 23, 1987  

SciTech Connect

Ten witnesses from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), state and local environmental agencies, teachers, health providers, and others testified on the risks and possible control measures of radon gas emissions in homes. Home tests are finding as many as 40% to have unacceptable levels, but EPA and other government agencies have waited for the media to alert the population. The witnesses were asked to suggest ways in which EPA can initiate assistance in this area in order to protect public health. EPA spokesmen reviewed their programs, including the Radon Action Program, which began operating in 1985. Material submitted for the record by EPA follows the testimony.

Not Available

1987-01-01

188

Application of the advanced radon diagnosis methods in the indoor building environment.  

PubMed

The health risk and dose calculations from exposure to indoor radon and its decay products are generally based on long-term integral measurements and standard ICRP recommendations. In this context, the results of assessments predicate more about human activities inside the building instead of a quality and an effectiveness of applied measures against the radon. The present paper is focused on a set of different measuring techniques and methods practically used for a classification of buildings regarding to the radon protection requirements. The fundamental quantitative and qualitative procedures of radon transport pathways and radon sources analysis, commonly named as radon diagnostic methods are performed in detail. PMID:18390535

Fronka, Ales; Moucka, Ladislav; Cechk, Toms

2008-04-03

189

National radon database documentation. Volume 6. The national residential radon survey. Final report, 1986-1992  

SciTech Connect

The National Radon Database has been developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to distribute information collected in two recently completed radon surveys: the EPA/State Residential Radon Surveys, Years 1 to 6; and The National Residential Radon Survey. This is a national survey of the annual radon levels in all residences across the U.S. This survey is statistically valid at a national and federal region level. The NRRS survey was conducted in 1989-1990 in two phases. Phase I of the survey concentrated on survey design and implementation, identifying households to be sampled, interviewing residences of those households, and placement of the detectors. Phase II involved three rounds of panel maintenance, final detector collection, data analysis, and the production of a final report in three volumes.

Not Available

1993-01-01

190

Developing a model lifeline protection program for DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

A National Lifeline Standard Development Program is currently being conducted by FEMA and NIST. The Department of Energy is following these developments and supplementing them to meet Life-Safety and mission requirements for all DOE facilities as part of the Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation Plan. The task will be overseen by a DOE management team with technical guidance provided by a Steering Group of management and operating contractor representatives. The DOE will participate in the federal program by conducting a workshop on lifeline protection issues, developing an overall plan, organizing a Steering Group, and conducting a pilot study at a DOE facility.

Lowing, A.N.

1996-11-01

191

Groundwater Protection Program Science and Technology Summary Description  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Program, formerly the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project, was established in 1997 to develop the integrated approach, technical capability, and scientific information needed to perform site-wide assessments of the potential effects of Hanford Site soil and groundwater contaminants on people and the ecology. To complete this mission, gaps in scientific understanding and technologies were identified, and research to close those gaps was initiated.

Freshley, Mark D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Bunn, Amoret L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Gee, Glendon W. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Gilmore, Tyler J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Kincaid, Charles T. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Peterson, Robert E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Ward, Anderson L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Yabusaki, Steven B. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zachara, John M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-11-20

192

Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

Not Available

1991-08-27

193

Developing a Respiratory Protection Program. Understanding the written elements.  

PubMed

1. Respirators can be the last defense for the estimated 5 million employees who use them for protection from dusts and fibers, fumes, mists, gases, vapors, and biological hazards. Because of these potentially lethal respiratory hazards, occupational and environmental health nurses need to be able to determine the need for, understand, develop, update, and implement an actionable respiratory protection program (RPP). 2. Regulated per 29 CFR 1910.134, a written RPP becomes the map or guideline process specific to the workplace that needs to be followed to ensure employee protection. 3. The nine required written elements of a RPP include respirator selection; fit testing; respirator use in routine and emergency situations; respirator maintenance and change schedules; ensuring adequate breathing air supply, quantity, and flow for atmosphere supplying respirators; regular evaluation of program effectiveness; medical evaluation; training employees in the respiratory hazards in routine and emergent situations; and training employees in proper use of the respirator. 4. Occupational and environmental health nurses are in a unique position to be a RPP program administrator, its designated licensed health care professional, or an active member of a team implementing the RPP process. PMID:11760528

Ryan, M G

2001-06-01

194

Radon reduction and radon-resistant construction demonstrations in New York State  

SciTech Connect

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) cosponsored a project in New York State to demonstrate radon migration techniques in existing homes with elevated radon concentrations and to test radon-resistant construction techniques in new houses. The first part of the existing home evaluation demonstrated radon migration techniques in homes where the indoor radon concentrations exceeded the EPA guidance of 4 pCi/L. Results demonstrated that sealing all accessible foundation penetrations in the basement was an effective way to reduce the radon concentration, although not below the EPA guideline, and that sealing aids in the effectiveness of an active depressurization system. Basement pressurization also proved to be an effective method. Water aeration systems were effective at mitigating radon from residential water supplied although the system tested was large and noisy. Activated charcoal filters adsorbed the radon and eventually became an unacceptable source of gamma radiation. The second part of the existing home evaluation involved the inspection of homes where radon mitigation systems were installed in 1984 as part of an earlier NYSERDA/Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) project. It was found that new systems and techniques, such as in- line centrifugal fans, were generally superior to the earlier method using axial computer-type fans. Polyurethane caulk was found to be in good condition; butyl caulk, on the other hand, had deteriorated. In the new house task, a radon-resistant system was developed for integration into a house during construction. This system included sealing foundation floors, sealing concrete block foundation walls, and passive sub-slab ventilation. This integrated system reduced the radon concentration in new test houses below that of control houses, but the reduction was not usually sufficient to meet the EPA guideline.

Not Available

1991-02-01

195

Radon reduction and radon-resistant construction demonstrations in New York State. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) cosponsored a project in New York State to demonstrate radon migration techniques in existing homes with elevated radon concentrations and to test radon-resistant construction techniques in new houses. The first part of the existing home evaluation demonstrated radon migration techniques in homes where the indoor radon concentrations exceeded the EPA guidance of 4 pCi/L. Results demonstrated that sealing all accessible foundation penetrations in the basement was an effective way to reduce the radon concentration, although not below the EPA guideline, and that sealing aids in the effectiveness of an active depressurization system. Basement pressurization also proved to be an effective method. Water aeration systems were effective at mitigating radon from residential water supplied although the system tested was large and noisy. Activated charcoal filters adsorbed the radon and eventually became an unacceptable source of gamma radiation. The second part of the existing home evaluation involved the inspection of homes where radon mitigation systems were installed in 1984 as part of an earlier NYSERDA/Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) project. It was found that new systems and techniques, such as in- line centrifugal fans, were generally superior to the earlier method using axial computer-type fans. Polyurethane caulk was found to be in good condition; butyl caulk, on the other hand, had deteriorated. In the new house task, a radon-resistant system was developed for integration into a house during construction. This system included sealing foundation floors, sealing concrete block foundation walls, and passive sub-slab ventilation. This integrated system reduced the radon concentration in new test houses below that of control houses, but the reduction was not usually sufficient to meet the EPA guideline.

Not Available

1991-02-01

196

Current status of programmes to measure and reduce radon exposure in Irish workplaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

National legislation, which implements European Council Directive 96\\/29\\/EURATOM in Ireland, sets a reference level of 400 Bq m-3 averaged over any 3 month period for radon exposure in the workplace and also empowers the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland to direct employers to have radon measurements carried out. This legislation came into effect in May 2000. Radon measurements have already

P. A. Colgan; J. S. Madden; H. Synnott; S. Fennell; D. Pollard; D. Fenton

2004-01-01

197

Review of long term radon studies at the gran sasso underground laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper are presented the measurements of radon concentration taken in the period 1991 May 1994 in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory, Assergi (L'Aquila), Italy. The radon level was reduced to acceptable values from the point of view of radiation protection and low background radiation to the experiments. The radon concentration depends strongly on the ventilation of the

A. Bassignani; B. B. Bam; G. Colombo; H. Dekhissi; R. Fresca Fantoni; G. Giacomelli; G. Maltoni Giacomelli; C. Sartorio

1995-01-01

198

Clinton, New Jersey, radon mitigation follow-up and long-term monitoring. Project summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency demonstrated radon reduction techniques in 10 houses in Clinton, New Jersey. Since January 1987 the radon levels in the 10 houses have been monitored with alpha track detectors. Results of the comparison between the radon concentration measured during the first and second quarters of 1987 showed that most of the houses had slightly

Carvitti

1988-01-01

199

Controlling the Radon Threat Needn't Be Another Costly Nightmare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After a study of 3,000 classrooms in 130 schools in 16 states, the Environmental Protection Agency urged all schools to conduct tests for radon. Explains a 6-step screening test, methods of reducing radon concentrations, and how the risk from radon exposure compares with other risks. (MLF)|

Freije, Matthew R.

1989-01-01

200

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2013-01-01

201

Unlicensed residential programs: the next challenge in protecting youth.  

PubMed

Over the past decade in the United States, the number of private residential facilities for youth has grown exponentially, and many are neither licensed as mental health programs by states, nor accredited by respected national accrediting organizations. The Alliance for the Safe, Therapeutic and Appropriate use of Residential Treatment (A START) is a multi-disciplinary group of mental health professionals and advocates that formed in response to rising concerns about reports from youth, families and journalists describing mistreatment in a number of the unregulated programs. This article summarizes the information gathered by A START regarding unregulated facilities. It provides an overview of common program features, marketing strategies and transportation options. It describes the range of mistreatment and abuse experienced by youth and families, including harsh discipline, inappropriate seclusion and restraint, substandard psychotherapeutic interventions, medical and nutritional neglect, rights violations and death. It reviews the licensing, regulatory and accrediting mechanisms associated with the protection of youth in residential programs, or the lack thereof. Finally, it outlines policy implications and provides recommendations for the protection of youth and families who pursue residential treatment. PMID:16981808

Friedman, Robert M; Pinto, Allison; Behar, Lenore; Bush, Nicki; Chirolla, Amberly; Epstein, Monica; Green, Amy; Hawkins, Pamela; Huff, Barbara; Huffine, Charles; Mohr, Wanda; Seltzer, Tammy; Vaughn, Christine; Whitehead, Kathryn; Young, Christina Kloker

2006-07-01

202

Environmental Assessment for moving the Pacific Northwest Laboratory radon generators from Life Sciences Laboratory II, Richland North Area, to Life Sciences Laboratory I, 300 Area, and their continued use in physical and biological research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) radon generators are a core resource of the overall U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Radon Research Program and are administratively controlled within the ''Radon Hazards in Homes'' project. This project primarily ...

I. C. Nelson

1993-01-01

203

Durability of subslab depressurization radon-mitigation-system performance  

SciTech Connect

The paper gives results of a review of the quarterly performance of subslab depressurization (SSD) radon mitigation systems in eight houses in the New Jersey (NJ) Piedmont study and houses in which the NJ Department of Environmental Protection measurements have indicated operation at above the U.S. EPA guideline of 4 pCi/L. Quarterly radon levels, mitigation system noise levels and flow rates, exhaust radon level, moisture problems, and other pertinent operating parameters are evaluated. Homeowner influence on the operation of the mitigation systems has been documented and was shown to be the major cause of above-guideline levels of radon in mitigated houses.

Gadsby, J.J.; Harrje, D.T.

1990-01-01

204

RADON MITIGATION IN CRAWL SPACE HOUSES IN NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE  

EPA Science Inventory

Approximately 15 percent of existing U.S. houses are built over dirt crawl spaces, and little or no data exist relative to radon mitigation techniques for this style of house construction. The paper discusses and Environmental Protection Agency radon mitigation demonstration. A v...

205

FEASIBILITY AND APPROACH FOR MAPPING RADON POTENTIALS IN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an analysis of the feasibility and approach for developing statewide maps of radon potentials in Florida. he maps would provide a geographic basis for implementing new radon-protective building construction standards to reduce public health risks from ...

206

Lung cancer and exposure to radon in women - New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1985, the New Jersey State Department of Health (NJDOH) initiated an epidemiologic study of lung cancer and exposure to radon in New Jersey women. In collaboration with the New Jersey State Department of Environmental Protection and the National Cancer Institute, NJDOH examined whether exposure to radon in homes is associated with increased lung cancer risk. This study was based

J. B. Schoenberg; J. B. Klotz; H. B. Wilcox; M. Gel-del-Real; A. Stemhagen; G. P. Nicholls

1989-01-01

207

Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

2008-06-05

208

Radon Detection and Counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the daughter products of the naturally occuring U 238 decay chain is the colorless, odorless, inert gas radon. The daughter products of the radon, from Po 218 through Po 214, can remain in the lungs after breathing radon that has diffused into the atmosphere. Radon testing of homes before sale or purchase is necessary in many parts of the U.S. Testing can be accomplished by the simple procedure of exposing a canister of activated charcoal to the ambient air. Radon atoms in the air are adsorbed onto the surface of the charcoal, which is then sealed in the canister. Gamma rays of the daughter products of the radon, in particular Pb 214 and Bi 214, can then be detected in low background counting system. Radon remediation procedures are encouraged for radon activities in the air greater than 4 pCi/L.

Peterson, David

2004-11-01

209

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's ground-water classification system and wellhead protection program; Description, status and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the need to protect ground water has become recognized, a wide array of programs and requirements have emerged at all levels of government to address a variety of different potential sources of contamination and to clean up already contaminated ground water. EPA, states and others have sought ways to accommodate this variability in designing and implementing programs to protect

M. Mlay; J. J. Valdes

1987-01-01

210

Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program.  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) Program. During each such visit, the PSA documents information about the facility's current CIKR protection posture and overall security awareness. The primary goals for ECIP site visits (DHS 2009) are to: (1) inform facility owners and operators of the importance of their facilities as an identified high-priority CIKR and the need to be vigilant in light of the ever-present threat of terrorism; (2) identify protective measures currently in place at these facilities, provide comparisons of CIKR protection postures across like assets, and track the implementation of new protective measures; and (3) enhance existing relationships among facility owners and operators; DHS; and various Federal, State, local tribal, and territorial partners. PSAs conduct ECIP visits to assess overall site security; educate facility owners and operators about security; help owners and operators identify gaps and potential improvements; and promote communication and information sharing among facility owners and operators, DHS, State governments, and other security partners. Information collected during ECIP visits is used to develop metrics; conduct sector-by-sector and cross-sector vulnerability comparisons; identify security gaps and trends across CIKR sectors and subsectors; establish sector baseline security survey results; and track progress toward improving CIKR security through activities, programs, outreach, and training (Snyder 2009). The data being collected are used in a framework consistent with the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) risk criteria (DHS 2009). The NIPP framework incorporates consequence, threat, and vulnerability components and addresses all hazards. The analysis of the vulnerability data needs to be reproducible, support risk analysis, and go beyond protection. It also needs to address important security/vulnerability topics, such as physical security, cyber security, systems analysis, and dependencies and interdependencies. This report provides an overview of the approach being developed to estimate vulnerability and provide vulnerability comparisons for sectors and subsectors. the information will be used to assist DHS in analyzing existing protective measures and vulnerability at facilities, to identify potential ways to reduce vulnerabilities, and to assist in preparing sector risk estimates. The owner/operator receives an analysis of the data collected for a specific asset, showing a comparison between the facility's protection posture/vulnerability index and those of DHS sector/subsector sites visited. This comparison gives the owner/operator an indication of the asset's security strengths and weaknesses that may be contributing factors to its vulnerability and protection posture. The information provided to the owner/operator shows how the asset compares to other similar assets within the asset's sector or subsector. A 'dashboard' display is used to illustrate the results in a convenient format. The dashboard allows the owner/operator to analyze the implementation of additional protective measures and to illustrate how such actions would impact the asset's Protective Measures Index (PMI) or Vulnerability Index (VI).

Fisher, R. E.; Buehring, W. A.; Whitfield, R. G.; Bassett, G. W.; Dickinson, D. C.; Haffenden, R. A.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; LANL

2009-10-14

211

Indoor radon pollution: Control and mitigation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the control and mitigation of radon pollution in homes and commercial buildings. Citations cover radon transport studies in buildings and soils, remedial action proposals on contaminated buildings, soil venting, building ventilation, sealants, filtration systems, water degassing, reduction of radon sources in building materials, and evaluation of existing radon mitigation programs, including their cost effectiveness. Analysis and detection of radon and radon toxicity are covered in separate published bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-04-01

212

Radon in buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide is intended to inform designers, householders and other building owners about the radon problem and to help in deciding if there is need to take any action to reduce radon levels in their homes or other buildings.It explains what radon is, how ...

J. J. Connell

1991-01-01

213

Radon mitigation in schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on radon mitigation in school buildings. Subslab depressurization (SSD) has been the most successful and widely used radon reduction method in houses. Thus far, it has also substantially reduced radon levels in a number of schools. Schools often have interior footings or thickened slabs that may create barriers for subslab air flow if a SSD system is

K. W. Leovic; A. B. Craig; D. W. Saum

1990-01-01

214

Radon and lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon, an inert gas released during the decay of uranium-238, is ubiquitous in indoor and outdoor air and contaminates many underground mines. Extensive epidemiologic evidence from studies of underground miners and complementary animal data have documented that radon causes lung cancer in smokers and nonsmokers. Radon must also be considered a potentially important cause of lung cancer for the general

Jm Samet

1989-01-01

215

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR 264.90 through 264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] 6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

2005-07-01

216

Mapping the geogenic radon potential in Germany.  

PubMed

Mapping the geogenic radon potential in Germany is a research project initiated by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation and Reactor Safety. The project was aimed to develop a standard methodology for the estimation of a geogenic radon potential and to apply this method to map the region of Germany as an overview for planning purposes. The regionalisation results from a distance-weighted interpolation of the site-specific values of radon concentration in soil gas and in situ gas permeability of soils on a regular grid considering the corresponding geological units. The map of Germany in a scale of 1:2 million is based on the radon concentration in soil gas as an estimator of the geogenic radon potential assuming the 'worst case' of uniform highest permeability. The distribution is subdivided into categories of low (< 10 kBq/m3), medium (10-100 kBq/m3), increased (100-500 kBq/m3) and high (> 500 kBq/m3) radon concentration. High values occur especially in regions with granites and basement rocks of Paleozoic age, and are proven by measurements in 0.03% of the total area. Many of these regions are also known for their enhanced indoor values. The class with increased values takes a portion of 7.86% and likewise occurs mainly in regions with outcrops of folded and metamorphic basement, but also of some Meso- and Cenozoic sediments with increased uranium contents and/or higher emanation coefficients. For 67.3% of the country, the radon concentration is classified as 'medium', and an assignment to specific geological units cannot be made at the map scale considered. Low radon contents, where protective measures against radon are usually not considered, are found in the geologically rather homogeneous part of northern Germany with unconsolidated Cenozoic sediments, covering approximately 25% of the total country. It is of course not possible to predict the indoor radon concentration of single houses from these maps, because construction type and structural fabric of houses are essentially governing the extent to which subsoil radon potential affects the indoor concentration. Besides this, in places with site-specific geochemical, structural and soil-physical properties, local radon anomalies may occur which were not recorded in the course of the wide-meshed screening study. PMID:11379913

Kemski, J; Siehl, A; Stegemann, R; Valdivia-Manchego, M

2001-05-14

217

Ouabain protects against adverse developmental programming of the kidney  

PubMed Central

The kidney is extraordinarily sensitive to adverse fetal programming. Malnutrition, the most common form of developmental challenge, retards the formation of functional units, the nephrons. The resulting low nephron endowment increases susceptibility to renal injury and disease. Using explanted rat embryonic kidneys, we found that ouabain, the Na,K-ATPase ligand, triggers a calciumnuclear factor-?B signal, which protects kidney development from adverse effects of malnutrition. To mimic malnutrition, kidneys were serum deprived for 24 h. This resulted in severe retardation of nephron formation and a robust increase in apoptosis. In ouabain-exposed kidneys, no adverse effects of serum deprivation were observed. Proof of principle that ouabain rescues development of embryonic kidneys exposed to malnutrition was obtained from studies on pregnant rats given a low-protein diet and treated with ouabain or vehicle throughout pregnancy. Thus, we have identified a survival signal and a feasible therapeutic tool to prevent adverse programming of kidney development.

Li, Juan; Khodus, Georgiy R.; Kruusmagi, Markus; Kamali-Zare, Padideh; Liu, Xiao-Li; Eklof, Ann-Christine; Zelenin, Sergey; Brismar, Hjalmar; Aperia, Anita

2010-01-01

218

Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer: a re-assessment based on the recent cross-Canada radon survey.  

PubMed

Exposure to indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer was assessed in 2005 with the radon distribution characteristics determined from a radon survey carried out in the late 1970s in 19 cities. In that survey, a grab sampling method was used to measure radon levels. The observed radon concentration in 14,000 Canadian homes surveyed followed a log-normal distribution with a geometric mean (GM) of 11.2 Bq m(-3) and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.9. Based on the information from that survey, it was estimated that ?10 % of lung cancers in Canada resulted from indoor radon exposure. To gain a better understanding of radon concentrations in homes across the country, a national residential radon survey was launched in April 2009. In the recent survey, long-term (3 month or longer) indoor radon measurements were made in roughly 14 000 homes in 121 health regions across Canada. The observed radon concentrations follow, as expected, a log-normal distribution with a GM of 41.9 Bq m(-3) and a GSD of 2.8. Based on the more accurate radon distribution characteristics obtained from the recent cross-Canada radon survey, a re-assessment of Canadian population risk for radon induced lung cancer was undertaken. The theoretical estimates show that 16 % of lung cancer deaths among Canadians are attributable to indoor radon exposure. These results strongly suggest the ongoing need for the Canadian National Radon Program. In particular, there is a need for a focus on education and awareness by all levels of government, and in partnership with key stakeholders, to encourage Canadians to take action to reduce the risk from indoor radon exposure. PMID:22874897

Chen, J; Moir, D; Whyte, J

2012-08-08

219

EVALUATION OF WATERBORNE RADON IMPACT ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program was conducted with two objectives: (1) evaluation of waterborne radon impacts on indoor air quality, and (2) assessment of available control technologies to limit indoor exposures to radon and its decay products. This report contains a review of radon's phys...

220

Radon Reduction in the Design and Construction of New Schools and Other Large Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses radon reduction in the design and construction of new schools and other large buildings, an area of major emphasis in the U.S. EPA's radon mitigation research and development program in recent years, in which radon levels are as low in...

A. B. Craig M. Thorburn

1996-01-01

221

Field comparison of several commercially available radon detectors.  

PubMed Central

To determine the accuracy and precision of commercially available radon detectors in a field setting, 15 detectors from six companies were exposed to radon and compared to a reference radon level. The detectors from companies that had already passed National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program testing had better precision and accuracy than those detectors awaiting proficiency testing. Charcoal adsorption detectors and diffusion barrier charcoal adsorption detectors performed very well, and the latter detectors displayed excellent time averaging ability. Alternatively, charcoal liquid scintillation detectors exhibited acceptable accuracy but poor precision, and bare alpha registration detectors showed both poor accuracy and precision. The mean radon level reported by the bare alpha registration detectors was 68 percent lower than the radon reference level.

Field, R W; Kross, B C

1990-01-01

222

Durability of Subslab Depressurization Radon Mitigation System Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper gives results of a review of the quarterly performance of subslab depressurization (SSD) radon mitigation systems in eight houses in the New Jersey (NJ) Piedmont study and houses in which the NJ Department of Environmental Protection measurement...

J. J. Gadsby D. T. Harrje

1990-01-01

223

Atmosphere purification of radon and radon daughter elements  

DOEpatents

A method of removing radon and radon daughter elements from an atmosphere containing these elements by passing the atmosphere through a bed of fluorinating compound whereby the radon and radon daughters are oxidized to their respective fluorides is discussed. These fluorides adhere to the fluorinating compound and are thus removed from the atmosphere which may then be recirculated. A method for recovering radon and separating radon from its daughter elements is also described. (Official Gazette)

Stein, L.

1974-01-01

224

Seismic and Radon Monitoring of Algocen Site at Elliot Lake.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Remedial works to reduce radon/radon daughters to acceptable levels in houses in Elliot Lake have been going on for the last three years under the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) remedial action program. In December 1978, a routine inspection of treate...

1981-01-01

225

Excess bottom radon 222 distribution in deep ocean passages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon 222 and STD profiles were obtained as part of the Geosecs program in the Vema Channel in the southwest Atlantic Ocean and in the Samoan, Clarion, and Wake Island passages in the Pacific Ocean. The standing crop of excess radon 222 is higher in the passages than at other nearby locations. The most likely explanation for this is that

J. L. Sarmiento; W. S. Broecker; P. E. Biscaye

1978-01-01

226

Radon-hazard potential the Beaver basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Indoor-radon levels in the Beaver basin of southwestern Utah are the highest recorded to date in Utah, ranging from 17.5 to 495 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Because the U.S. Environment Protection Agency considers indoor-radon levels above 4 pCi/L to represent a risk of lung cancer from long-term exposure, the Utah Geological Survey is preparing a radon-hazard-potential map for the area to help prioritize indoor testing and evaluate the need for radon-resistant construction. Radon is a chemically inert radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium-238, which is commonly found in rocks and soils. Soil permeability, depth to ground water, and uranium/thorium content of source materials control the mobility and concentration of radon in the soil. Once formed, radon diffuses into the pore space of the soil and then to the atmosphere or into buildings by pressure-driven flow of air or additional diffusion. The Beaver basin has been a topographic and structural depression since late Miocene time. Paleocene to Miocene volcanic and igneous rocks border the basin. Uraniferous alluvial-fan, piedmont-slope, flood-plain, and lacustrine sediments derived from the surrounding volcanic rocks fill the basin. A soil-gas radon and ground radioactivity survey in the Beaver basin shows that soils have high levels of radon gas. In this survey, uranium concentrations range from 3 to 13 parts per million (ppm) and thorium concentrations range from 10 to 48 ppm. Radon concentrations in the soil gas ranged from 85 to 3,500 pCi/L. The highest concentrations of uranium, thorium, and radon gas and the highest radon-hazard-potential are in the well-drained permeable soils in the lower flood- plain deposits that underlie the city of Beaver.

Bishop, C.E. [Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1995-06-01

227

Indoor Radon: The Deadliest Pollutant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the origin, occurrence, and effects of radon gas. Cites studies which attribute 5,000 to 20,000 deaths per year to radon exposure and the synergistic effect between radon and smoking. Explains ways to reduce risks. (RT)|

Kerr, Richard A.

1988-01-01

228

Radon Measurements in Geothermal Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is concerned with radon in geothermal reservoirs. Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas produced by the decay of radium. Radon release from geothermal reservoirs depends on the concentration and distribution of radium, the emanation pr...

A. K. Stoker P. Kruger

1975-01-01

229

EPA'S strategy to reduce risk of radon  

SciTech Connect

The Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988 (IRAA) directed EPA to undertake a variety of activities to address the growing public concern over dangers posed by exposure to indoor radon. Among other requirements, the law directed the Agency to study radon levels, evaluate mitigation methods, establish proficiency programs, assist states with program development, develop training centers, and provide public information. EPA has developed and implemented programs to address each of the key provisions of this statute. This paper presents EPA's broad national strategy to reduce radon risks. It combines and reinforces EPA's basic foundation, including its guiding policies and cooperative partnerships, with an overall management approach and focus for the future. The paper starts with an overview that introduces the strategy's four key elements: underlying policies and scientific principles, a decentralized system of states and other partners for targeting the public, multiple strategies for achieving radon risk reduction, and a strong focus on five key program priorities. This paper then discusses each of these elements in more detail and describes how they interact to guide future efforts and directions of the Agency.

Page, S.

1993-12-01

230

Guidance for Applicants for State Wellhead Protection Program Assistance Funds under the Safe Drinking Water Act.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) establish a new Wellhead Protection (WHP) Program to protect ground waters that supply wells and wellfields contributing drinking water to public water supply systems. The Guidance outlines procedu...

1987-01-01

231

Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Radiation Protection Program: Report of the Special Panel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Special Panel was appointed by the Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation to review the Radiation Protection Program at Three Mile Island Unit 2. The Panel confirmed several management and technical deficiencies in the radiation protection...

C. B. Meinhold T. D. Murphy D. R. Neely R. L. Kathren B. L. Rich

1979-01-01

232

Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

NONE

1996-06-01

233

Hanford Protective Barriers Program water-erosion studies, FY 1989  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting the water-erosion control task of the Hanford Protective Barriers Program to assess barrier stability against soil erosion and slumping. The purpose of the barriers is to protect shallow-burial waste sites at the Hanford Site from water infiltration, biointrusion, and surficial erosion for up to 10,000 years. These aboveground, mounded structures will consist of layered, fine-grained sediment and rock designed to direct surface- and ground-water pathways away from the buried waste. The fine-grained sediment for the barrier will be obtained from the McGee Ranch on the Hanford Site. The purpose of the FY 1989 field work was to test two hypotheses concerning the behavior of McGee Ranch soil: runoff may occur on very dry, fine-grained sediment prior to complete saturation and rainsplash is an important erosional process for this type of sediment. This report describes plot construction, sediment sampling, and calibration testing of the rainfall simulator. Baseline stratigraphic and sedimentologic data include bulk density and textural properties of sediment in the test plots. Baseline precipitation data consist of predetermined raindrop sizes, rainfall intensities, plot coverage, and operational data for the simulator. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Hoover, K.A.; Cadwell, L.L.; Walters, W.H.

1990-06-01

234

Protecting You/Protecting Me: Effects of an Alcohol Prevention and Vehicle Safety Program on Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (1) their brains (why their brain is

Bell, Mary Lou; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses; Ringwalt, Christopher

2005-01-01

235

25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program? 63.30...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

2013-04-01

236

Radon mitigation in schools  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on radon mitigation in school buildings. Subslab depressurization (SSD) has been the most successful and widely used radon reduction method in houses. Thus far, it has also substantially reduced radon levels in a number of schools. Schools often have interior footings or thickened slabs that may create barriers for subslab air flow if a SSD system is the mitigation option. Review of foundation plans and subslab air flow testing will help to determine the presence and effect of such barriers. HVAC systems in schools vary considerable and tend to have a greater influence on pressure differentials (and consequently radon levels) than do heating and air-conditioning systems encountered in the radon mitigation of houses. As part of any radon mitigation method, ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 should be consulted to determine if the installed HVAC system is designed and operated to achieve minimum ventilation standards for indoor air quality.

Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B. (EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab., Triangle Park, NC (US)); Saum, D.W. (Infiltec, Falls Church, VA (US))

1990-01-01

237

RADON REDUCTION IN A CRAWL SPACE HOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is drawn from the soil into a house when low air pressure exists in the house. This is a commonplace environmental hazard in the United States, Canada, and northern Europe. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing ...

238

DURABILITY OF SUBSLAB DEPRESSURIZATION RADON MITIGATION SYSTEMPERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a review of the quarterly performance ofsub-slab depressurization (SSD) radon mitigation systems in eighthouses in the New Jersey (NJ) Piedmont study and houses in whichthe NJ Department of Environmental Protection measurements haveindicated operation a...

239

Medicaid program: computer matching and privacy protection for Medicaid eligibility--HCFA. Final rule.  

PubMed

This final rule revises regulations concerning the income and eligibility verification system (IEVS) under the Medicaid program. It implements provisions of the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 and the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Amendments of 1990. These laws improve the oversight and procedures governing the disclosure of personal information used in computer matching programs and protect the privacy and due process rights of individuals whose records are exchanged by these programs. PMID:10133065

1994-01-31

240

Personnel dosimetry of radon and radon daughters  

Microsoft Academic Search

From symposium on noble gases; Las Vegas, Nevada, USA (24 Sep 1973). ;\\u000a During the past five years of increased interest in monitoring the individual ;\\u000a exposure of persons to radon and, more importantly, radon progeny attached to ;\\u000a aerosol particles, several devices have been proposed. These include the ;\\u000a following: (a) passive detectors based on nuclear track emulsions and

1973-01-01

241

Public perceptions of radon risk  

SciTech Connect

Since 1984, a significant amount of media attention has focused on health threats from radon gas exposure. Using a probability telephone survey of adults (n = 685), we studied public perceptions of risk from radon exposure versus other environmental health risks. The results indicated that 92% of those individuals who had heard of radon believe radon to be a health risk, although only 4% believe they are currently exposed to high levels of radon gas. Perception of risk from radon was positively related to other perceptions of environmental risks. Younger and less educated individuals were more likely to perceive radon as a health risk. Women were three-and-one-half times as likely as men to perceive risk from radon. However, there was no significant relationship between perceived risk from radon and cigarette smoking. Media attention has apparently led to public awareness of radon hazards, but further attention is needed to improve smokers' awareness of their special risks from radon.

Mainous, A.G. III; Hagen, M.D. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States))

1993-03-01

242

Savings Estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR Voluntary Product Labeling Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading ...

C. Webber M. C. Sanchez O. Homan R. Brown

2008-01-01

243

34 CFR 381.1 - What is the Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Individual Rights program? This program is designed to support a system in each State to protect the legal and human rights of eligible individuals with disabilities. (Authority: Sec. 509(a) of the Act; 29 U.S.C....

2009-07-01

244

24 CFR 5.363 - Housing programs: Protection of the pet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Housing programs: Protection of the pet. 5.363 Section 5.363 Housing and...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

2010-04-01

245

Atmosphere purification of radon and radon daughter elements  

DOEpatents

A method for purifying an atmosphere of radon and radon daughter elements which may be contained therein by contacting the atmosphere with a fluorinating solution, whereby the radon and radon daughters are oxidized to their respective fluorides is discussed. The fluorides dissolve in the fluorinating solutlon and are removed from the atmosphere, which may then be recirculated. (Official Gazette)

Stein, L.

1973-12-11

246

Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1990 highlights  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to design and test an earthen cover system(s) that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. The joint PNL/WHC program was initiated in FY 1986. To date, research findings support the initial concepts of barrier designs for the Hanford Site. A fine-soil surface is planned to partition surface water into runoff and temporary storage. Transpiration by vegetation that grows in the fine-soil layer will return stored water to the atmosphere as will surface evaporation. A capillary break created by the interface of the fine-soil layer and coarser textured materials below will further limit the downward migration of surface water, making it available over a longer period of time for cycling to the atmosphere. Should water pass the interface, it will drain laterally through a coarse textured sand/gravel layer. Tested barrier designs appear to work adequately to prevent drainage under current and postulated wetter-climate (added precipitation) conditions. Wind and water erosion tasks are developing data to predict the extent of erosion on barrier surfaces. Data collected during the last year confirm the effectiveness of small burrowing animals in removing surface water. Water infiltrating through burrows of larger mammals was subsequently lost by natural processes. Natural analog and climate change studies are under way to provide credibility for modeling the performance of barrier designs over a long period of time and under shifts in climate. 10 refs., 30 figs.

Cadwell, L.L. (ed.)

1991-09-01

247

Contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews studies on the contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer and proposes recommendations for further research, particularly a national radon survey. The steady-state outdoor radon concentration averages 200 pCi\\/m3, and indoor levels are about 4 times higher. The primary source of radon in homes is the underlying soil; entry depends on multiple variables and reduced

N. Harley; J. M. Samet; F. T. Cross; T. Hess; J. Muller; D. Thomas

1986-01-01

248

Dry Radon Gas Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A radon gas standard with a source strength of 120037 pCi capable of delivering 121 pCi of radon gas successively to a large number of cells has been developed. The absolute source strength has been calibrated against two radium solution standards and is ...

G. Vandrish

1979-01-01

249

Radon awareness, testing, and remediation survey among New York State residents  

SciTech Connect

Between November 1995 and January 1997, a radon awareness, testing, and remediation survey was conducted to measure general awareness and factual knowledge about radon and prevalence of radon testing and remediation among New York State residents. The survey found that 82% of 1,209 respondents had heard of radon, but only 21% were knowledgeably aware of radon. With regard to radon testing, only 15% of respondents who were aware of radon had their homes tested. The percentage of respondents who were aware or knowledgeably aware of radon increased with increasing education level. The findings from the study suggest that the New York State public awareness programs that targeted high radon areas did show some effect both by increasing public awareness and promoting residential testing. The relatively low percentage of respondents who were knowledgeably aware of radon and the low percentage who had tested their homes strongly suggest that renewed efforts by the public health community are needed to increase knowledge about radon and its health effects and to encourage radon testing and remediation.

Wang, Y.; Ju, C.; Stark, A.D.; Teresi, N.

2000-06-01

250

Radon mapping strategy in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1986, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK, Finland) has performed systematic indoor radon mapping with municipal health authorities. STUK has made radon measurement plans and radon risk maps to identify radon-prone areas. In the most radon-prone area, there are about 260,000 low-rise dwellings. In this area, it is expected that in 37,000 homes, the action level of 400

Anne Weltner; Ilona Mkelinen; Hannu Arvela

2002-01-01

251

Experimental, statistical, and biological models of radon carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Risk models developed for underground miners have not been consistently validated in studies of populations exposed to indoor radon. Imprecision in risk estimates results principally from differences between exposures in mines as compared to domestic environments and from uncertainties about the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products. Uncertainties in extrapolating miner data to domestic exposures can be reduced by means of a broad-based health effects research program that addresses the interrelated issues of exposure, respiratory tract dose, carcinogenesis (molecular/cellular and animal studies, plus developing biological and statistical models), and the relationship of radon to smoking and other copollutant exposures. This article reviews experimental animal data on radon carcinogenesis observed primarily in rats at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Recent experimental and mechanistic carcinogenesis models of exposures to radon, uranium ore dust, and cigarette smoke are presented with statistical analyses of animal data. 20 refs., 1 fig.

Cross, F.T.

1991-09-01

252

Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

Not Available

1988-01-31

253

U. S. EPA Office of Research and Development overview of current radon research  

SciTech Connect

The paper gives an overview of current radon research being conducted by EPA. In 1984, EPA began a research program to develop and demonstrate radon mitigation alternatives. Since then, the program has evolved from an initially focus on houses with severely elevated radon levels in Boyertown (Pennsylvania) and Clinton (New Jersey) to the multi-faceted program currently concerned with reducing radon to near-ambient levels in existing houses, new houses, schools, and other large buildings. The program direction recognizes successes achieved by EPA and others in demonstrating mitigation options capable of reducing radon levels to below 4 pCi/L in most houses. However, these options: (1) fail to achieve the ambient radon goal established by the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988; (2) are too expensive for general homeowner acceptance; and (3) have only limited development and demonstration for schools and other large complex structures. To address these needs, emphasis is being placed on research of low-radon-level houses, directed at low-cost solutions for lower radon level houses in order to have significant impact on the estimated 16,000 to 20,000 radon-induced lung cancer deaths each year.

Dyess, T.M.; Osborne, M.C.

1991-08-01

254

Residents in a high radon potential geographic area: Their risk perception and attitude toward testing and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boone County, Indiana was identified by the EPA as one of the high radon potential geographic areas. Health education campaigns are needed to prevent resident`s unnecessary radon exposure. In order to design suitable programs, a questionnaire mail survey was conducted to measure socio-demographic characteristics of County resident`s knowledge about radon, attitude toward radon testing and mitigation, support of education campaigns,

S. F. Ferng; J. K. Lawson

1996-01-01

255

Durability of subslab depressurization radon-mitigation-system performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives results of a review of the quarterly performance of subslab depressurization (SSD) radon mitigation systems in eight houses in the New Jersey (NJ) Piedmont study and houses in which the NJ Department of Environmental Protection measurements have indicated operation at above the U.S. EPA guideline of 4 pCi\\/L. Quarterly radon levels, mitigation system noise levels and flow

J. J. Gadsby; D. T. Harrje

1990-01-01

256

Monitoring radon reduction in Clinton, New Jersey houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, a preliminary survey of houses in Clinton, New Jersey, conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), identified more than 50 houses with indoor radon concentrations greater than 100 pCi\\/l in the subdivision of Clinton Knolls. Many of these houses had radon concentrations of 600 pCi\\/l or higher. At the request of the New Jersey DEP,

M. C. Osborne; T. Brennan; D. Michaels

1987-01-01

257

Radon levels in Cyprus.  

PubMed

Radon levels in atmospheric and aquatic systems in Cyprus have recently been measured using the radon monitor Alpha Guard. Indoor and outdoor radon levels were obtained in situ, whereas analysis of radon concentrations in water was performed using tap and ground water samples collected from several areas of the island. The average value for outdoor and indoor radon concentration is 11+/-10 and 7+/-6 Bq m(-3), respectively, and for tap and ground water 0.4 Bq l(-1) and 1.4 Bq l(-1), respectively. From these data the annual dose equivalent of airborne radon to the Cypriot population is about 0.19 mSv y(-1), which is quite low compared to the total dose equivalent of natural and man-made ionising radiation in Cyprus. Radon levels in aquatic systems are relatively low due to an exhaustive utilisation of ground water resources and also to the increased input of desalinated sea water in the water distribution network and eventually into the ground water reservoirs. PMID:12782477

Sarrou, I; Pashalidis, I

2003-01-01

258

Comment on ICRP recommendations on radon and revised background doses from radon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publication 65 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (1993) presents recommendations on the limitation of exposure to 222Rn and progeny at home and at work. The ICRP bases its recommendations on a risk estimate for exposure to radon progeny that is derived from published epidemiological analyses of seven selected miner cohorts. However, if the experience from more of

Leo M. Lowe; Douglas B. Chambers

1996-01-01

259

Clinton, New Jersey, radon mitigation follow-up and long-term monitoring. Project summary  

SciTech Connect

During 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency demonstrated radon reduction techniques in 10 houses in Clinton, New Jersey. Since January 1987 the radon levels in the 10 houses have been monitored with alpha track detectors. Results of the comparison between the radon concentration measured during the first and second quarters of 1987 showed that most of the houses had slightly higher concentrations during the second quarter. These results are contrary to expected trends.

Carvitti, J.

1988-05-01

260

A program of computer-aided coordination analysis for an undergraduate course in protective relaying  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a program used as a practicing tool for the protective relaying course of undergraduate level. This progress allows students to practice protective devices coordination in power systems on a personal computer by representing the time-current curve with dynamic computer graphics. The program is also provided with a debugging system that is designed to inform the user of any problem found in his protection scheme. In order to make students fully understand the dynamic performance of protective devices coordination, the program allows students to assign the location of a fault and it will display the operating time of the protective devices according to the tripping sequence. The program also has the function of automatic coordination analysis, the results of which can be compared with the user's scheme and can also help the user to have a better understanding of what are actually used in the industry today.

Chu, W.C.; Liu, M.C. (Tatung Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China))

1992-11-01

261

Distribution of indoor radon concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1990-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results from 548,507 indoor radon tests from a database compiled by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, Radon Division, are evaluated in this report in an effort to determine areas where concentrations of radon are highest. Indoor radon concentrations were aggregated according to geologic unit and hydrogeologic setting for spatial analysis. Indoor radon concentrations greater than or equal to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) action level of 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) were observed for 39 percent of the test results; the highest concentration was 1,866.4 pCi/L. When analyzed according to Pennsylvanias geologic units, 93 of the 188 (49.5 percent) geologic units with indoor radon concentrations had median concentrations greater than the USEPA action level of 4 pCi/L; most of these geologic units are located in the eastern part of the State and include metamorphic rocks, limestones, sandstones, shales, and glacial deposits. When analyzed according to Pennsylvanias hydrogeologic settings, 5 of the 20 (25 percent) settings had median indoor radon concentrations greater than the USEPA action level of 4 pCi/L; these settings are located mostly in the south-central part of the State. Median indoor radon concentrations aggregated according to geologic units and hydrogeologic settings are useful for drawing general conclusions about the occurrence of indoor radon in specific geologic units and hydrogeologic settings, but the associated data and maps have limitations. The aggregated indoor radon data have testing and spatial accuracy limitations due to lack of available information regarding testing conditions and the imprecision of geocoded test locations. In addition, the associated data describing geologic units and hydrogeologic settings have spatial and interpretation accuracy limitations, which are a result of using statewide data to define conditions at test locations and geologic data that represent a broad interpretation of geologic units across the State. As a result, indoor air radon concentration distributions are not proposed for use in predicting individual concentrations at specific sites nor for use as a decision-making tool for property owners to decide whether to test for indoor radon concentrations at specific property locations.

Gross, Eliza L.

2013-01-01

262

CRC handbook of management of radiation protection programs  

SciTech Connect

This guidebook organizes the profusion of rules and regulations surrounding radiation protection into a single-volume reference. Employee and public protection, accident prevention, and emergency preparedness are included in this comprehensive coverage. Whenever possible, information is presented in convenient checklists, tables, or outlines that enable you to locate information quickly.

Miller, K.L.; Weidner, A.

1986-01-01

263

THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has directed much attention to watersheds and water quality during its tenure as the United States Federal Agency charged with protection of human health and the environment. Watershed research as a vehicle to understand the interaction ...

264

Radon reduction and radon monitoring in the NEMO experiment  

SciTech Connect

The first data of the NEMO 3 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment have shown that the radon can be a non negligible component of the background. In order to reduce the radon level in the gas mixture, it has been necessary first to cover the NEMO 3 detector with an airtight tent and then to install a radon-free air factory. With the use of sensitive radon detectors, the level of radon at the exit of the factory and inside the tent is continuously controlled. These radon levels are discussed within the NEMO 3 context.

Nachab, A. [Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, BP 120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)

2007-03-28

265

Control of radon in houses  

SciTech Connect

This report, drafted by NCRP Scientific Committee 82 on Control of Radon in Houses, evaluates the techniques available to reduce radon and radon decay product concentrations. It is intended that this report would be useful to home owners, to individuals involved in marketing services to reduce radon and radon decay products in houses, and to the scientific community interested in control techniques for radon and radon decay products. Sections 1 and 2 of the report provide background information on the public health significance of indoor radon and on the sources and behavior of this radionuclide and its airborne decay products inside houses. The reader desiring information primarily on the control of radon may prefer to shift to Section 3 immediately after reading the Introduction. Included in Section 6 of the report are tables comparing the removal effectiveness and estimated costs of various control techniques, and a glossary of terms used in the report is provided.

Not Available

1989-09-01

266

History and Description of the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the history of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) fuel economy program from the early 1970's up to and including the 1984 model year. (Beginning with the 1985 model year program significant changes were made to the program t...

C. D. Tyree

1982-01-01

267

Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program  

Microsoft Academic Search

ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program's inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy-efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open

Marla C. Sanchez; Richard E. Brown; Carrie Webber; Gregory K. Homan

2008-01-01

268

Protecting You/Protecting Me: Evaluation of a Student-Led Alcohol Prevention and Traffic Safety Program for Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pre- and post-surveys of self-protective knowledge and skills in third, fourth, and fifth grade classrooms (n = 24) randomly assigned to a model program for alcohol prevention and traffic safety or to comparison group (n = 24 classrooms) were analyzed to evaluate replicability of immediate positive effects of first-year exposure and to test

Bell, Mary Lou; Baker, Tara Kelley; Falb, Timothy; Roberts-Gray, Cindy

2005-01-01

269

Protecting You/Protecting Me: Evaluation of a Student-Led Alcohol Prevention and Traffic Safety Program for Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pre- and post-surveys of self-protective knowledge and skills in third, fourth, and fifth grade classrooms (n = 24) randomly assigned to a model program for alcohol prevention and traffic safety or to comparison group (n = 24 classrooms) were analyzed to evaluate replicability of immediate positive effects of first-year exposure and to test

Bell, Mary Lou; Baker, Tara Kelley; Falb, Timothy; Roberts-Gray, Cindy

2005-01-01

270

Indoor Radon Measurement in Van  

SciTech Connect

In this study, indoor radon concentrations obtained from the radon surveys conducted in the Van. Radon monitoring was performed by applying a passive, time-integrating measuring technique. For this purpose, CR-39 nuclear track detectors were installed in dwellings for 2 months. After the monitoring period, detectors were collected. In order to make the alpha tracks visible, chemical etching was applied to the exposed detectors. Nuclear track numbers and the corresponding indoor radon concentrations were determined. Annual effective dose equivalents and the risk probabilities caused by indoor radon inhalation were calculated, and the found results compared with the indoor radon concentrations' data measured in different provinces of Turkey.

Kam, E.; Osmanlioglu, A. E.; Celebi, N. [TAEK, Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey); Dogan, I. [Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Biochemistry Department, Van (Turkey)

2007-04-23

271

REDUCTION OF CARBON EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH DEFORESTATION IN BRAZIL: THE ROLE OF THE AMAZON REGION PROTECTED AREAS PROGRAM (ARPA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

,ABSTRACT The creation of protected,areas in the Brazilian Amazon has been playing an important role in biological diversity conservation in the region and in the protection of extensive tropical forest areas. Approximately 50% of the remaining Amazon forests are protected areas. In light of this scenario, the most ambitious biodiversity conservation program is currently the Amazon Region Protected Areas Program

Britaldo Silveira; Soares Filho; Paulo Moutinho; Hermann Rodrigues; Erika Pinto; Cludio C. Maretti; Carlos Alberto de Mattos; Fernando Vasconcelos de Arajo

272

Preliminary assessment of radon potential of the Pacific coast states  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey has recently released preliminary assessments of the radon potential in Washington, Oregon, and California. These assessments, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, are based on geology, soils, aeroradiometric data, indoor radon data, and housing characteristics. Coastal mountain areas with low-uranium basaltic rocks and high soil moisture, and drier inland areas of low-uranium basaltic rocks in the northern part of the three-stage area have low round potential (<10 percent of homes with >4 pCi/L). Areas with highly permeable, uraniferous glacial outwash deposits in central and northeastern Washington; local areas with uraniferous marine shales in southern and south-central California; areas of granites, acidic volcanic rocks and alluvium derived from then in southeastern Oregon and central California; and steep soils developed on volcanic rocks in the Columbia River Gorge all have moderate (10-25 percent of homes with >4 pCi/L) radon potential. Extreme levels of indoor radon are possible in the northern Spokane, Wash. suburbs where homes may be sited on uranium occurrences. the radon potential of Mojave-Desert areas with high-uranium soils and rocks seems to be lowered by low radon entry rates, probably caused by slab-on-grade construction, use of evaporative coolers, and lifestyle factors. With the uranium-rich soils and rocks present, however, high indoor radon levels are possible where unusual housing conditions are present.

Otton, J.K. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-04-01

273

Monitoring radon reduction in Clinton, New Jersey houses  

SciTech Connect

In 1986, a preliminary survey of houses in Clinton, New Jersey, conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), identified more than 50 houses with indoor radon concentrations greater than 100 pCi/l in the subdivision of Clinton Knolls. Many of these houses had radon concentrations of 600 pCi/l or higher. At the request of the New Jersey DEP, EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory, AEERL, initiated a project to develop and demonstrate cost-effective radon reduction techniques in 10 representative Clinton Knolls houses. Radon reduction was to be completed before the beginning of the 1986-1987 heating season to keep the exposure of residents to a minimum. Additional data were collected to add to the general body of information on radon transport and its control in houses; however, the data collected in this study were secondary to the pressing need of demonstrating effective radon reduction techniques. The authors describe these techniques and discuss the data on radon transport and control in this project.

Osborne, M.C. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (US)); Brennan, T. (Camroden Associates, Rome, NY (USA)); Michaels, D. (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (US))

1987-01-01

274

Radon in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... for reducing radon health risks in both drinking water and indoor air quality, a unique multimedia framework authorized in the 1996 Amendments to the Safewater Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Information about the proposed rule and ...

275

RADON DIAGNOSTICS FOR SCHOOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a systematic approach to conducting radondiagnostics in schools. t provides those with radon mitigationexperience in houses with an understanding of the major differencesbetween schools and houses and how these differences influenceradon diagnostics in schools...

276

THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

A scientifically rigorous determination of the condition of an aquatic resource is fundamental to all subsequent research, modeling, protection, and restoration issues. Environmental risk characterization is predicated on knowledge of condition and the rate at which that conditio...

277

Food Protection Plan and Third Party Certification Programs ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... FDA encourages interested persons to submit written comments on the Food Protection Plan to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305 ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/newsevents/constituentupdates

278

75 FR 9607 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Guidance Document Request and Evaluation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...startup): $0. Total Burden Cost (operating/maintaining): $40,708.14. Signed: February 19, 2010. Thomas Chase Garwood, III, Chief Information Officer, National Protection and Programs Directorate, Department of Homeland Security. [FR...

2010-03-03

279

75 FR 9608 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Technical Assistance Request and Evaluation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...startup): $0. Total Burden Cost (operating/maintaining): $4,273.50. Signed: February 12, 2010. Thomas Chase Garwood, III, Chief Information Officer, National Protection and Programs Directorate, Department of Homeland Security. [FR...

2010-03-03

280

ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Protective Liner Systems, Inc., Epoxy Mastic, PLS-614  

EPA Science Inventory

The Protective Liner Systems International, Inc. Epoxy Mastic PLS-614 coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and T...

281

Way to Operationalize the DOD's Critical Infrastructure Protection Program Using Information Assurance Policies and Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Critical Infrastructure Protection Program has recently reorganized under the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense under the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy. Requirements have been...

A. R. Friedman

2005-01-01

282

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation-protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A Practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

283

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

284

The Drilling Fluid Hazard Assessment Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Drilling Fluids Hazard Assessment Program carried out by the Office of Research and Development of the Environmental Protection Agency is presented, from its initiation in 1976 to the planned tasks for Fiscal Year 1982. This synopsis includes discussi...

1982-01-01

285

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This technology ...

286

The cost effectiveness of radon reduction programmes in domestic housing in England and Wales: The impact of improved radon mapping and housing trends.  

PubMed

In the UK, excessive levels of radon gas have been detected in domestic housing. Areas where 1% of existing homes were found to be over the Action Level of 200Bqm(-3) were declared to be Radon Affected Areas. Building Regulations have been introduced which require that, for areas where between 3% and 10% of existing houses are above the Action Level, new homes should be built with basic radon protection using a membrane, and that, where 10% or more of existing homes exceed this level, new homes should be built with full radon protection. Initially these affected areas followed administrative boundaries, known as Counties. However, with increasing numbers of measurements of radon levels in domestic homes recorded in the national database, these areas have been successively refined into smaller units - 5km grid squares in 1999, down to 1km grid squares in 2007. One result is the identification of small areas with raised radon levels within regions where previously no problem had been identified. In addition, some parts of areas that were previously considered radon affected are now considered low, or no, risk. Our analysis suggests that the net result of improved mapping is to increase the number of affected houses. Further, the process is more complex for local builders, and inspectors, who need to work out whether radon protection in new homes is appropriate. Our group has assessed the cost-effectiveness of radon remediation programmes, and has applied this analysis to consider the cost-effectiveness of providing radon protection in both new and existing homes. This includes modelling the potential failure rate of membranes, and whether testing radon levels in new homes is appropriate. The analysis concludes that it is more cost effective to provide targeted radon protection in high radon areas, although this introduces more complexity. The paper also considers the trend in housing to a greater proportion of apartments, the regional variations in types of housing and the decreasing average number of occupants in each dwelling, and concludes that data and methods are now available to respond to the health risks of radon at a local level, in keeping with a general initiative to prioritise responses to health and social welfare issues at a more local level. PMID:23792416

Denman, A R; Sinclair, J; Phillips, P S; Crockett, R G M; Groves-Kirkby, C J

2013-06-19

287

Control of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations  

SciTech Connect

There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air - restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon progeny. The predominant radon entry process in most residences appears to be pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or other openings in the basement, slab, or subfloor. Sealing these openings or ventilation of the subslab or subfloor space are methods of reducing radon entry rates. Indoor radon concentrations may be reduced by increased ventilation. The use of charcoal filters for removal of radon gas in the indoor air by adsorption has also been proposed. Concentrations of radon progeny, which are responsible for most of the health risks associated with radon exposures, can be controlled by use of electrostatic or mechanical filtration. Air circulation can also reduce radon progeny concentrations in certain cases. This paper reviews the application and limitations of each of these control measures and discusses recent experimental results.

Sextro, R.G.

1985-05-01

288

Radon and Radon Progeny in the Carlsbad Caverns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements were made in July 1994 to determine air exchange rate, aerosol characteristics, radon concentrations, and radon progeny activity size distributions in the Carlsbad Caverns. The measured radon concentrations were stable at a level of 1821 55 Bq m (mean SD). Using a SF6 trace gas method, it was determined that stagnant air in the Caverns was exchanged once

Yung-Sung Cheng; Tou-Rong Chen; Piotr T. Wasiolek; Amelia Van Engen

1997-01-01

289

A Citizen's Guide to Radon. What It Is and What To Do about It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) are concerned about the increased risk of developing lung cancer faced by persons exposed to above-average levels of radon in their homes. The purpose of this pamphlet is to help readers to understand the radon problem and decide if they need to take

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

290

A health risk assessment model for homeowners with multiple pathway radon exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of Connecticut Department of Public Health and Department of Environmental Protection have conducted statewide measurements of radon exposure in Connecticut homes since 1985. Radon exposure data on over 5000 homes and 700 wells were measured, digitized, and entered into the statewide geographic information system (GIS) database. These data were compared with information on Connecticut bedrock geology, surficial materials,

Stanford Rydell

1996-01-01

291

DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION MEASURES FOR 10 HOMES IN CLINTON, NEW JERSEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the development and demonstration of indoor radon reduction methods for 10 houses in Clinton, New Jersey, where (in the spring of 1986) the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) located a cluster of houses with extremely high radon levels. T...

292

Clinton, New Jersey, Radon Mitigation Follow-Up and Long-Term Monitoring. Project Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency demonstrated radon reduction techniques in 10 houses in Clinton, New Jersey. Since January 1987 the radon levels in the 10 houses have been monitored with alpha track detectors. Results of the comparis...

J. Carvitti

1988-01-01

293

RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR NEW RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION: TECHNICAL GUIDANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is found in varying amounts in nearly all houses. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed and demonstrated methods that have been used to reduce radon levels in existing houses. Many of these methods could be appl...

294

Evaluation of a Stress Management Program in a Child Protection Agency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High stress levels experienced by child protection workers have been well documented. This study examined the effectiveness of a stress management program in a child protection agency. Subjects were case workers, immediate supervisors, and clerical staff; 320 subjects participated in pretesting and 279 subjects participated in posttesting.

Cahill, Janet; Feldman, Lenard H.

295

Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Groundwater Protection Program at the Savannah River Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major goals of the groundwater protection program are to evaluate the impact on groundwater quality as a result of Savannah River Plant operations, to take corrective measures as required to restore or protect groundwater quality, and to ensure that f...

D. E. Gordon

1984-01-01

296

Freeze protection problems and experiences in the HUD solar residential demonstration program  

SciTech Connect

The different kinds of freeze-up problems in solar energy systems are outlined, and methods of providing freeze protection are briefly discussed. These problems are illustrated by a few selected examples from the HUD Solar Residential Demonstration Program, which show the consequences and cost of freeze-up problems and the importance of protecting solar systems against them.

Sparkes, H.R.; Raman, K.; Trivedi, J.

1983-01-01

297

Risk and protective factors related to resilience in adolescents in an alternative education program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a multivariate correlational design, this study was designed to determine the degree to which selected risk and protective factors were related to resilience in an at-risk student population. A total of 12 individual, family and external risk and protective factors were identified and data were collected from 142 6th through 11th grade students in an alternative education program for

Kelly M Crawford

2006-01-01

298

Radon: Is it a problem  

SciTech Connect

Radon gas is a major source of radiation exposure to the general public. Radon-222 is a product of uranium-238, present in varying concentrations in all soils. Radon enters buildings from soil, water, natural gas, and building materials. Its short-lived breakdown products, termed radon daughters, include alpha-emitting solids that can deposit in the lungs. Firm evidence links lung cancer risk in miners with high exposure to radon daughters. The amount of risk associated with the much lower but chronic doses received in buildings is difficult to establish. By some extrapolations, radon daughters may be responsible for a significant number of lung cancer deaths. The existence or extent of synergism with smoking is unresolved. Local conditions can cause high levels of radon in some buildings, and measures that reduce indoor radon are of potential value. 39 references.

Hart, B.L.; Mettler, F.A.; Harley, N.H. (Univ. of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque (USA))

1989-09-01

299

Continuous measurement of the radon concentration in water using electret ion chamber method  

SciTech Connect

A radon concentration of 300 pCi/L has been proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency as a limit for radon dissolved in municipal drinking water supplies. There is therefore a need for a continuous monitor to insure that the daily average concentration does not exceed this limit. In order to calibrate the system, varying concentrations of radon in water have been generated by bubbling radon laden air through a dynamic flowthrough water system. The value of steady state concentration of radon in water from this system depends on the concentration of radon in air, the air bubbling rate, and the water flow rate. The measurement system has been designed and tested using a 1 L volume electret ion chamber to determine the radon in water. In this dynamic method, water flows directly through the electret ion chamber. Radon is released to the air and measured with the electret. A flow of air is maintained through the chamber to prevent the build-up of high radon concentrations and too rapid discharge of the electret. It was found that the system worked well when the air flow was induced by the application of suction. The concentration in the water was calculated from the measured concentration in air and water and air flow rates. Preliminary results suggest that the method has sufficient sensitivity to measure concentrations of radon in water with acceptable accuracy and precision.

Dua, S.K.; Hopke, P.K. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Kotrappa, P. (Rad Elec Inc., Frederick, MD (United States))

1992-10-01

300

Analysis of radon reduction and ventilation systems in uranium mines in China.  

PubMed

Mine ventilation is the most important way of reducing radon in uranium mines. At present, the radon and radon progeny levels in Chinese uranium mines where the cut and fill stoping method is used are 3-5 times higher than those in foreign uranium mines, as there is not much difference in the investments for ventilation protection between Chinese uranium mines and international advanced uranium mines with compaction methodology. In this paper, through the analysis of radon reduction and ventilation systems in Chinese uranium mines and the comparison of advantages and disadvantages between a variety of ventilation systems in terms of radon control, the authors try to illustrate the reasons for the higher radon and radon progeny levels in Chinese uranium mines and put forward some problems in three areas, namely the theory of radon control and ventilation systems, radon reduction ventilation measures and ventilation management. For these problems, this paper puts forward some proposals regarding some aspects, such as strengthening scrutiny, verifying and monitoring the practical situation, making clear ventilation plans, strictly following the mining sequence, promoting training of ventilation staff, enhancing ventilation system management, developing radon reduction ventilation technology, purchasing ventilation equipment as soon as possible in the future, and so on. PMID:22809776

Hu, Peng-hua; Li, Xian-jie

2012-07-19

301

Constructing Vulnerabilty and Protective Measures Indices for the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resour...

G. W. Bassett R. A. Haffenden R. E. Fisher R. G. Whitfield W. A. Buehring

2009-01-01

302

Laser protective eyewear program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The proliferation of lasers at Los Alamos focused considerable attention on providing adequate eye protection for experimenters involved in the use of a wide variety of nonionizing radiation. Experiments with fast-pulsed lasers (Nd:YAG, HF, and CO/sub 2/) were performed to gain biological threshold data on ocular damage. In parallel, eye protection devices were evaluated, which resulted in the development of lightweight, comfortable spectacles of colored glass filters that can be ground to prescription specifications. Goggle styles are employed in specific applications.

Winburn, D.C.

1980-01-01

303

The new social marketing challenge to promote radon testing.  

PubMed

As part of a project funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, exploratory qualitative analysis was conducted to gain insight into perceptions of the threat of radon in the Karst geological region (i.e., Northern Alabama, Central Tennessee, Central Kentucky). Based on health practitioner input, it was clear that the tenets of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and the probing afforded by focus group research would provide greatly needed theory-based insight into the public reactions (or lack thereof) to the threat posed by radon. Qualitative research findings of this project are discussed as well as preliminary recommendations are provided to advance the protection motivation theory research agenda for promoting awareness of the threat of radon and to influence appropriate response to that threat. PMID:11727294

DiPofi, J A; LaTour, M S; Henthorne, T L

2001-01-01

304

An Approach of Program Analysis Prevention for Information Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of mobile technologies will enable us to realize the ubiquitous computing environment. In such environment, a user's mobile terminal manages his sensitive information and assists in his activities. At the same time, information leakage will become more serious social problems. In this paper, we propose a framework which protects user's sensitive information according to a way the user

Kenichi Takahashi; Zhaoyu Liu; Kouichi Sakurai

2007-01-01

305

Procedure manual for the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentrations using the Radon Progeny Integrating Sampling Unit (RPISU) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the remedial-action measurement needs is the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentration (RDC). One method for accomplishing such estimations in support of DOE remedial action programs is the Radon Progeny Integrating Sampling Unit (RPISU) method. This procedure manual describes how to set up and operate a system for obtaining RPISU measurements, and how to derive average RDC estimates

Langner; G. H. Jr

1986-01-01

306

Establishing a human research protection program in a combatant command.  

PubMed

Extensive United States combat operations commenced for the first time in over decade in 2003. Early in 2004 there was no human research protection regulatory review and approval mechanism based in a deployed military combatant command. The absence of such a system presented a critical impediment to implementation of the time-honored tradition of a robust combat casualty care research effort. A coalition of concerned military medical personnel from the US Army proposed a novel mechanism to meet Department of Defense (DOD) requirements for the human research protection oversight of studies conducted in the combat theater of operations. In 2005, the Commander of Task Force 44 Medical Command (44th MEDCOM), who was serving as the Multi-National Corps Iraq (MNC-I) Surgeon, was charged with negotiating a DOD Assurance and implementing a new system of research review and protections. He deployed an Army Medical Department Medical Corps officer to assist in this endeavor and operationalize the plan. On March 19, 2005, the Multi-National Corps Iraq Commander signed a historic agreement with the US Army Surgeon General who developed a regulatory support and oversight mechanism to conduct research in theater. This innovative system not only honored the Army's commitment to human research protections, but also provided much needed support in the form of scientific and ethical review and compliance oversight to those deployed medical personnel with the vision to conduct healthcare studies in the combat environment. On July 20, 2005, the first DOD Assurance of Compliance for the Protection of Human Research Subjects was approved for MNC-I. This assurance allows the conduct of human subjects research in full compliance with all Federal, DOD, and Army regulatory requirements. This article describes that unique process. PMID:18376178

Brosch, Laura R; Holcomb, John B; Thompson, Jennifer C; Cordts, Paul R

2008-02-01

307

A Radon Progeny Deposition Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in

V. E. Guiseppe; S. R. Elliott; A. Hime; K. Rielage; S. Westerdale

2011-01-01

308

The discrete periodic Radon transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this correspondence, a discrete periodic Radon transform and its inversion are developed. The new discrete periodic Radon transform possesses many properties similar to the continuous Radon transform such as the Fourier slice theorem and the convolution property, etc. With the convolution property, a 2-D circular convolution can be decomposed into 1-D circular convolutions, hence improving the computational efficiency. Based

Taichiu Hsung; Daniel P. K. Lun; Wan-Chi Siu

1996-01-01

309

Radon testing in Arkansas homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on 262 homes in Arkansas tested for radon concentrations during 1989. The sub-group drawn from areas thought to have elevated levels of radon gas in the soil consisted of 199 homes. The remaining 63 residences were drawn from counties where the levels of radon within the soil gas are not believed to be high. Also included within

Metzger

1990-01-01

310

RADON REDUCTION STRATEGIES AND APPROACHES  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter is for inclusion in a textbook, Environmental Radon, for graduate students. It gives a flavor of what radon mitigation entails, rather than being a detailed handbook treatment of the subject. It emphasizes the removal or reduction of soil-gas-borne radon (the major so...

311

Summary of fire protection programs of the United States Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

This edition of the Annual Summary of DOE Fire Protection Programs continues the series started in 1972. Since May 1950, an annual report has been required from each field organization. The content has varied through the years and most of the accident data reporting requirements have been superseded by the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System administered by EG G, Idaho. However, this report is the sole source of information relating to fire protection programs, and to the actions of the field offices and to headquarters that are of general fire protection interest.

Not Available

1991-10-01

312

SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION - US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY SUPERFUND PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation outlines the Superfund program approach to site cleanup, then provides information from actual insitu and exsitu solidification/stabilization remediations to illustrate technology, equipment, field implementation, performance evaluation, cleanup specifications, ...

313

EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) INTEGRATED AIR CANCER PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP) is an interdisciplinary research program designed to develop the scientific methods and data sets needed to identify the major carcinogenic chemicals in the atmosphere; to characterize the emission sources and chemical precursors which giv...

314

Measurements of indoor radon and radon progeny in Mexico City  

SciTech Connect

Indoor radon has been a public concern associated with increased lung cancer risks. Radon decay products interact with indoor aerosols to form progeny with different size distributions, which may influence the lung dosimetry when the progeny are inhaled. Air pollution in Mexico City is a serious problems with high particulate concentrations, but there are few reports of indoor radon measurement. The purposes of this study were to measure the aerosol concentration, radon concentration, and radon activity size distribution in the living area of three houses in Mexico City. The radon concentration was monitored by a RGM-3 radon gas monitor (Eberline, Inc., Santa Fe, NM). A graded diffusion battery was used to determine the progeny concentration and activity size distribution. The concentration and size distribution of the indoor aerosols were monitored by a quartz, crystal microbalance cascade impactor. Our measurements showed high concentrations of indoor aerosols (20-180 gg m{sup -3}). However, the radon concentrations-were low (<1 pCi L{sup -1}), but showed a clear diurnal pattern with peak concentrations from 2-10 AM. The activity size distributions of radon progeny were trimodal, with peaks of 0.6 nm, 4-5 nm, and 100 rim. Most activities were associated with large particle sizes. Our results indicated that indoor radon concentration was not high, due in part to a relatively high air exchange with outdoor air. The high aerosol concentration may also play an important part in the activity size distribution of radon progeny.

Cheng, Y.S. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, G.P. [Univ. of Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

1996-06-01

315

Effects of a Sun Protection Program Targeting Elementary School Children and Their Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Excessive sun exposure in childhood is considered a risk factor for later development of skin cancer, so sun awareness\\u000a programs targeting children have been developed. Objective: To assess the benefits of involving parents at home in the sun\\u000a protection program received by their children at school. Method: The existing \\

Benjamin Barankin; Kimberly Liu; John Howard; Lyn Guenther

2001-01-01

316

Nuclear Technology Series. Radiation Protection Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary radiation protection technician program is designed for use with courses 17-22 of thirty-five included in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians, and operators; and to assist planners,

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

317

Sun Protection is Fun! A Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Preschools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Sun Protection is Fun! skin cancer prevention program for preschool children that features intervention methods grounded in social cognitive theory and emphasizes symbolic modeling, vicarious learning, enactive mastery experiences, and persuasion. Program components include a curriculum and teacher's guide, videos, newsletters,

Tripp, Mary K.; Herrmann, Nancy B.; Parcel, Guy S.; Chamberlin, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

2000-01-01

318

Protecting prosecution: Exploring the powers of law in an intervention program for domestic violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article critically analyzes how the criminal justice system centrally situates itself in an intervention program intended to protect victims of domestic abuse and stalking. Based on the first empirical, in-depth study in the Netherlands of an intervention program using electronic technology that is increasingly used in the United States, results indicate how the central role of the criminal justice

R. Rmkens

2006-01-01

319

Abatement and Pollution Control Training and Educational Programs Presented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog is a compilation of training course and educational program descriptions in abatement and pollution control scheduled by the Environmental Protection Agency. Descriptions of programs include prerequisites, class size, and length of time with the content goals. Also given is general information concerning tuition fees, waiver requests,

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

320

Planetary protection program for Mars 94/96 mission.  

PubMed

Mars surface in-situ exploration started in 1975 with the American VIKING mission. Two probes landed on the northern hemisphere and provided, for the first time, detailed information on the martian terrain, atmosphere and meteorology. The current goal is to undertake larger surface investigations and many projects are being planned by the major Space Agencies with this objective. Among these projects, the Mars 94/96 mission will make a major contributor toward generating significant information about the martian surface on a large scale. Since the beginning of the Solar System exploration, planets where life could exist have been subject to planetary protection requirements. Those requirements accord with the COSPAR Policy and have two main goals: the protection of the planetary environment from influence or contamination by terrestrial microorganisms, the protection of life science, and particularly of life detection experiments searching extra-terrestrial life, and not life carried by probes and spacecrafts. As the conditions for life and survival for terrestrial microorganisms in the Mars environment became known, COSPAR recommendations were updated. This paper will describe the decontamination requirements which will be applied for the MARS 94/96 mission, the techniques and the procedures which are and will be used to realize and control the decontamination of probes and spacecrafts. PMID:11538980

Rogovski, G; Bogomolov, V; Ivanov, M; Runavot, J; Debus, A; Victorov, A; Darbord, J C

1996-01-01

321

Stimulating radon safe building in radon prone areas by detailed scale radon hazard mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon is responsible for more than thirty percent of the radiation exposure of the Belgian population. In order to reduce the exposure to radon, the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) has developed a radon action plan. The objectives of the action plan are to eliminate the high existing exposure situations in public buildings, workplaces and dwellings, and to limit

Andr Poffijn; Boris Dehandschutter; Etienne Noel; Stphane Ppin; Michel Sonck

322

Radon monitoring and early low background counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m{sup 3}, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m{sup 3} based on approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m{sup 3}. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in relevant areas underground.

Thomas, K.J.; Mei, D.M.; Heise, J.; Durben, D.; Salve, R.

2010-09-01

323

Radon Monitoring and Early Low Background Counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m{sup 3}, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m{sup 3} based on approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m{sup 3}. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in relevant areas underground.

Thomas, K. J.; Mei, D.-M. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); Heise, J. [Sanford Laboratory at Homestake, Lead, SD 57754 (United States); Durben, D. [Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD 57799 (United States); Salve, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2011-04-27

324

Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan. Volume 2, Protection programs  

SciTech Connect

Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period.

Not Available

1989-08-01

325

The April 1994 and October 1994 radon intercomparisons at EML  

SciTech Connect

Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) are the backbone of many commercial and research processes and programs. QA/QC research tests the state of a functioning system, be it the production of manufactured goods or the ability to make accurate and precise measurements. The quality of the radon measurements in the US have been tested under controlled conditions in semi-annual radon gas intercomparison exercises sponsored by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) since 1981. The two Calendar Year 1994 radon gas intercomparison exercises were conducted in the EML exposure chamber. Thirty-two groups including US Federal facilities, USDOE contractors, national and state laboratories, universities and foreign institutions participated in these exercises. The majority of the participant`s results were within {+-}10% of the EML value at radon concentrations of 570 and 945 Bq m{sup {minus}3}.

Fisenne, I.M.; George, A.C.; Perry, P.M.; Keller, H.W.

1995-10-01

326

BLISS: A Computer Program for the Protection of Blood Donors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A BASIC program has been developed for the Hewlett-Packard Model 9845 desk-top computer which allows the creation of blood donor files for subsequent retrieval, update, and correction. A similar modified version was developed for hte HP 9835 Model. This s...

N. Catsimpoolas C. Cooke C. R. Valeri

1982-01-01

327

75 FR 22681 - Supplemental Guidance on Overdraft Protection Programs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Consumer Communications Avoid promoting...Practices and the emergence of controversial...strategies raise the risk that overdraft...program. See FDIC Study of Bank Overdraft...and Consumer Communications The Overdraft...and compliance risks to the savings...FDIC Overdraft Study at page 5...

2010-04-29

328

Improved radon-flux-measurement system for uranium-tailings pile measurement  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing cover technology for uranium mill tailings that will inhibit the diffusion of radon to the atmosphere. As part of this cover program, an improved radon flux measurement system has been developed. The radon measurement system is a recirculating, pressure-balanced, flow-through system that uses activated carbon at ambient temperatures to collect the radon. With the system, an area of 0.93 m/sup 2/ is sampled for periods ranging from 1 to 12 h. The activated carbon is removed from the radon trap and the collected radon is determined by counting the /sup 214/Bi daughter product. Development of the system included studies to determine the efficiency of activated carbon, relative calibration measurements and field measurements made during 1980 at the inactive tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado. Results of these studies are presented.

Freeman, H.D.

1981-10-01

329

Radon concentrations in three underground lignite mines in Turkey.  

PubMed

Monitoring of radon in underground mines is important in order to assess the radiological hazards to occupational workers. Radon concentration levels in three underground lignite mines (Tunbilek, Omerler and Eynez) of Turkey were obtained in this study. For this reason, atmospheric radon level measurements were carried out in mines using CR-39 track detectors. Chemical etching of the detector tracks and subsequent counting were performed at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center. The obtained results were evaluated according to the International Commission of Radiation Protection and the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority whose radon action levels for workplaces are 500-1500 and 1000 Bq(-3), respectively. The radon gas concentrations in the lignite mines were determined to be between 50 +/- 7 and 587 +/- 16 Bq m(-3). The results obtained in these experiments are far under the action levels. The computed radon doses for the mine workers of Tunbilek, Omerler and Eynez lignite mines are 1.23, 2.44 and 1.47 mSv y(-1), respectively. PMID:19770210

Cile, S; Altinsoy, N; Celebi, N

2009-09-21

330

Radon in multi-story residential buildings. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In September 1989, HUD signed an Interagency Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requesting EPA to measure radon levels and distribution patterns in several multi-story residential buildings. This study was conducted in two phases. The Phase 1 included walk-through investigations of each of the four test buildings. These preliminary investigations were focused on identifying site-specific characteristics that might influence radon entry and distribution. The results of these investigations were used to design and implement short-term screening measurements (diffusion barrier charcoal canisters) of each building's radon potential. Phase 2 consisted of long-term radon measurements with alpha track detectors (approximately 6 months) and investigations of the characteristics of each building. These measurements were made to address the possibility that long-term radon levels might be higher on upper floors than indicated by the short-term basement and ground-level screening tests. The report describes the investigations that were conducted, the data that were gathered for each building, and general observations and discussions about patterns of radon distribution in these specific buildings.

Mardis, H.M.; MacWaters, J.; Oswald, J.

1991-12-01

331

Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9{+-}5 to 163{+-}32 Bqm{sup -3} and an average of 49{+-}2 Bqm{sup -3}. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm{sup -3} set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

Alyami, S. H. [Saudi School in KualaLumpur, Ministry of Education, 55000 KualaLumpur (Malaysia); Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M.S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

2010-07-07

332

A reconnaissance study of radon concentration in Hamadan city, Iran.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 107.87 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration - these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March) with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this reconnaissance study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1993, although further work is required to confirm these results. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable 'surficial' deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats to distribute water underground, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings. Keywords: Radon; health; dwellings; clay floors; alluvial fan; surficial geology; Hamadan; Iran

Gillmore, G. K.; Jabari Vasal, Naghi

2009-04-01

333

Development and Demonstration of Indoor Radon Reduction Measures for 10 Homes in Clinton, New Jersey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the development and demonstration of indoor radon reduction methods for 10 houses in Clinton, New Jersey, where (in the spring of 1986) the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) located a cluster of houses with extre...

L. D. Michaels T. Brennan A. S. Viner A. Mattes W. Turner

1987-01-01

334

Removal of radon gas liberated by aeration columns in fish hatcheries  

SciTech Connect

Radon gas, a radioactive by-product of uranium decay, is found in groundwater in some areas of the country. Aeration of this water can cause radon gas to be released into the atmosphere. Exposure to radon gas by-products is a health concern because of the increased risk of lung cancer. High levels of radon gas have been measured in fish hatchery buildings, and in some cases, are due to the water flowing through the aeration columns. The authors developed a simple inexpensive method to reduce the radon problem at Ennis (Montana) National Fish Hatchery. Radon levels in the hatchery building were measured at 200-250 picocuries radon/L air (pCi/L). The US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines recommend remedial action when radon levels exceed 4 pCi/L. Because air is drawn down through aeration columns, the authors were able to put a collector at the base of the column to collect the off-gas coming out of solution. Off-gas collectors were installed on 38 packed columns at a cost of US$600. Since installation of the collectors, radon gas levels have decreased from 250 pCi/L to 25-40 pCi/L. The off-gas collector is a simple inexpensive method to reduce the magnitude of a dangerous health problem. 2 refs., 1 fig.

Dwyer, W.P. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Bozeman, MT (United States)); Orr, W.H. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Ennis, MT (United States))

1992-01-01

335

Reconnaissance techniques for determining soil-gas radon concentrations: An example from Prince Georges County, Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary field measurements of soil-gas radon (Rn) concentrations can provide an initial assessment of the Rn potential in any location and aid in designing a larger or more detailed sampling program. Radon reconnaissance requires some special considerations because a large area must be covered in a short period of time and analyses must be made soon after collection because of

G. M. Reimer

1990-01-01

336

Radon barrier field-test monitoring at Grand Junction tailings pile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) technology development program, has conducted three large-scale field tests of radon covers at the uranium mill tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado. The barrier systems, monitored for radon flux for over two years, include earthen, multilayer, and asphalt emulsion covers. Results

H. D. Freeman; J. N. Hartley; G. W. Gee

1983-01-01

337

Developing a state wellhead protection program: a user's guide to assist state agencies under the Safe Drinking Water Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act established a new Wellhead Protection (WHP) Program to protect ground water that supplies drinking water wells from sources of contamination. Under Section 1428 of the Act, each State must prepare a WHP program and submit it to EPA by June 19, 1989. Although the law requires that every State WHP program

Roy

1988-01-01

338

78 FR 25591 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 800 RIN 3206-AM47 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the...Plan Program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges...2013, entitled ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of...

2013-05-02

339

78 FR 18246 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 800 RIN 3206-AM47 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the...Plan Program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges...2013, entitled ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of...

2013-03-26

340

LLNL Fire Protection Engineering Standard 5.8 Facility Survey Program  

SciTech Connect

This standard describes the LLNL Fire Protection Facility Survey Program. The purpose of this standard is to describe the type of facility surveys required to fulfill the requirements of DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety. Nothing in this standard is intended to prevent the development of a FHA using alternative approaches. Alternate approaches, including formatting, will be by exception only, and approved by the Fire Marshal/Fire Protection Engineering Subject Matter Expert in advance of their use.

Sharry, J A

2012-01-04

341

Determining readiness for child protective services practice: Development of a testing program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the process of developing a testing program for use in competency-based training for public child welfare employees. The Readiness for Practice in Child Protective Services Model was developed by the authors to assure the job-relatedness of the tests. Readiness for practice includes both the situation type (child protective services) and the employee's background resources (e.g., personal characteristics,

Marilyn A. Biggerstaff; Leanne Wood; Suzanne Fountain

1998-01-01

342

Residential Radon Resistant Construction Feature Selection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a proposed residential radon resistant construction feature selection system. The features consist of engineered barriers to reduce radon entry and accumulation indoors. The effectiveness of different radon control features was estima...

K. K. Nielson R. B. Holt V. C. Rogers

1996-01-01

343

Risks from Radon: Reconciling Miner and Residential Epidemiology  

SciTech Connect

Everyone is exposed to radon, an inert radioactive gas that occurs naturally and is present everywhere in the atmosphere. The annual dose from radon and its (short-lived) decay products is typically about one-half of the dose received by members of the public from all natural sources of ionizing radiation. Data on exposures and consequent effects have recently been reviewed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Studies of underground miners provides a well-established basis for estimating risks from occupational exposures to radon and for studying factors that may affect the dose response relationship such as the reduction of risk (coefficients) with increasing time since exposure. Miners' studies previously formed the basis for estimating risks to people exposed to radon at home, with downward extrapolation from exposures in mines to residential levels of radon. Presently, the risk estimates from residential studies are adequate to estimate radon risks in homes. Although there are major uncertainties in extrapolating the risks of exposure to radon from the miner studies to assessing risks in the home, there is remarkably good agreement between the average of risk factors derived from miner studies and those from pooled residential case-control studies. There are now over 20 analytical studies of residential radon and lung cancer. These studies typically assess the relative risk from exposure to radon based on estimates of residential exposure over a period of 25 to 30 years prior to diagnosis of lung cancer. Recent pooled analyses of residential case-control studies support a small but detectable lung cancer risk from residential exposure, and this risk increases with increasing concentrations. The excess relative risk of lung cancer from long-term residential exposure is about the same for both smokers and non-smokers; however, because the baseline lung cancer rate for smokers is much higher than for non or never smokers, smokers account for nearly 90% of the population risk from residential exposure to radon. As described in the paper, an excess relative risk (ERR) of 0.12(95% CI: 0.08-0.2)per 100 Bq m{sup -3} (radon gas) can be estimated from combined miner studies. This compares well with the ERR from pooled residential case-control studies (for restricted analysis) for Europe of 0.16(95% CI: 0.05-0.31) and for North America of 0.11(95% CI: 0.0-0.28)

Chambers, Douglas B. [SENES Consultants Limited, 121 Granton Drive, Unit 12 Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3N4 (Canada); Harley, Naomi H. [New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY (United States)

2008-08-07

344

Risks from Radon: Reconciling Miner and Residential Epidemiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Everyone is exposed to radon, an inert radioactive gas that occurs naturally and is present everywhere in the atmosphere. The annual dose from radon and its (short-lived) decay products is typically about one-half of the dose received by members of the public from all natural sources of ionizing radiation. Data on exposures and consequent effects have recently been reviewed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Studies of underground miners provides a well-established basis for estimating risks from occupational exposures to radon and for studying factors that may affect the dose response relationship such as the reduction of risk (coefficients) with increasing time since exposure. Miners' studies previously formed the basis for estimating risks to people exposed to radon at home, with downward extrapolation from exposures in mines to residential levels of radon. Presently, the risk estimates from residential studies are adequate to estimate radon risks in homes. Although there are major uncertainties in extrapolating the risks of exposure to radon from the miner studies to assessing risks in the home, there is remarkably good agreement between the average of risk factors derived from miner studies and those from pooled residential case-control studies. There are now over 20 analytical studies of residential radon and lung cancer. These studies typically assess the relative risk from exposure to radon based on estimates of residential exposure over a period of 25 to 30 years prior to diagnosis of lung cancer. Recent pooled analyses of residential case-control studies support a small but detectable lung cancer risk from residential exposure, and this risk increases with increasing concentrations. The excess relative risk of lung cancer from long-term residential exposure is about the same for both smokers and non-smokers however, because the baseline lung cancer rate for smokers is much higher than for non or never smokers, smokers account for nearly 90% of the population risk from residential exposure to radon. As described in the paper, an excess relative risk (ERR) of 0.12(95% CI: 0.08-0.2)per 100 Bq m-3 (radon gas) can be estimated from combined miner studies. This compares well with the ERR from pooled residential case-control studies (for restricted analysis) for Europe of 0.16(95% CI: 0.05-0.31)[1] and for North America of 0.11(95% CI: 0.0-0.28)[2].

Chambers, Douglas B.; Harley, Naomi H.

2008-08-01

345

Environmental radon studies in Mexico.  

PubMed

Radon has been determined in soil, groundwater, and air in Mexico, both indoors and outdoors, as part of geophysical studies and to estimate effective doses as a result of radon exposure. Detection of radon has mainly been performed with solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and, occasionally, with active detection devices based on silicon detectors or ionization chambers. The liquid scintillation technique, also, has been used for determination of radon in groundwater. The adjusted geometric mean indoor radon concentration (74 Bq m-3) in urban developments, for example Mexico City, is higher than the worldwide median concentration of radon in dwellings. In some regions, particularly hilly regions of Mexico where air pollution is high, radon concentrations are higher than action levels and the effective dose for the general population has increased. Higher soil radon levels have been found in the uranium mining areas in the northern part of the country. Groundwater radon levels are, in general, low. Soil-air radon contributing to indoor atmospheres and air pollution is the main source of increased exposure of the population. PMID:17288007

Segovia, N; Gaso, M I; Armienta, M A

2007-04-01

346

Department of Energy nuclear material physical protection program in the Republic of Kazakstan  

SciTech Connect

As part of the joint U.S. and Republic of Kazakstan nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC{ampersand}A) program, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is providing assistance at four nuclear facilities in Kazakstan. These facilities are the Ulba Metallurgical Plant, the National Nuclear Center (NNC) Institute of Atomic Energy at Kurchatov (IAE-K), the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (BN-350) Reactor, and the NNC Institute of Atomic Energy at Almaty (IAE-A). This paper describes the DOE MPC{ampersand}A physical protection program at each of the facilities.

Eras, A.; Berry, R.B.; Case, R.S.

1997-09-01

347

Radon-daughter exposures in energy-efficient buildings  

SciTech Connect

A radon concentration of 1 pCi/1 (37 Bq/m/sup 3/) appears to lie in the range that is typical for air inside US residential buildings. Moreover, some US residences have concentrations higher than 1 pCi/1, sometimes by an order of magnitude, implying significant individual risk to occupants. For typical radon daughter equilibrium ratios, this concentration corresponds to a radon daughter exposure rate of 0.2 working level months (WLM) per year. This exposure rate may account for a significant lung cancer incidence if data on lung cancers per unit exposure in miners are applicable to such low exposures. Reductions in air exchange rates may rise the typical exposure rate and even increase it to unacceptable levels in some cases. Measures that reduce energy use by reducing natural infiltration or mechanical ventilation in new or retrofit buildings are therefore undergoing severe scrutiny. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has performed measurements in buildings specifically designed to use energy efficiently or utilize solar heating. In many of these buildings radon concentrations appear to arise primarily from soil underlying the buildings. Measures to control higher levels, e.g., by mechanical ventilation with heat recuperation, appear to be economical. However, to evaluate energy-saving programs adequately requires a much more comprehensive characterization of radon sources (for example, by geographical area) and a much fuller understanding of the dynamics of radon and its daughters indoors than now exist.

Nero, A.V.; Berk, J.V.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.; Ingersoll, J.G.; Nazaroff, W.W.

1981-10-01

348

Annual Statistical Report, 1988. Client Assistance Program, Protection & Advocacy System for Persons with Mental Illness, Protection & Advocacy System for Persons with Developmental Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report summarizes: (1) 1988 program data for state Protection and Advocacy Systems for persons with developmental disabilities and persons with mental illness, and (2) 1988 program data for Client Assistance Programs. The data are derived from reports from 56 states and territories. In addition to nationwide data totals, each state's

National Association of Protection and Advocacy Systems, Washington, DC.

349

Cost of radon-barrier systems for uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report deals specifically with the cost of three types of radon barrier systems, earthen covers, asphalt emulsion covers, and multilayer covers, which could meet standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency to stabilize uranium mill tailings located primarily in the western US. In addition, the report includes a sensitivity analysis of various factors which significantly effect the overall cost

E. G. Baker; J. N. Hartley

1982-01-01

350

A radon progeny deposition model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly ²²²Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in

Keith Rielage; Steven R Elliott; Andrew Hime; Vincent E Guiseppe; S. Westerdale

2010-01-01

351

25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Program § 63.33 What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...responsible for the investigation of reported cases of child abuse and child neglect, the treatment and prevention of...

2011-04-01

352

25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Program § 63.33 What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...responsible for the investigation of reported cases of child abuse and child neglect, the treatment and prevention of...

2013-04-01

353

Activity-Based Cost Management Part II: Applied to a Respiratory Protection Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

To demonstrate the relevance of activity-based cost management (ABCM) for the occupational and environmental health community, the investigators used data generated by an ABCM model of a respiratory protection program (RPP) to develop options for solving a business problem. The RPP manager in this hypothetical but realistic business scenario is faced with a 25% budget cut and a 10% increase

Michael T. Brandt; Steven P. Levine; Dean G. Smith; Harry J. Ettinger; Bradford F. Gallimore

1998-01-01

354

Effectiveness of a Parent Training Program "Incredible Years" in a Child Protection Service  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a parent training program in improving parenting practices, parents' feeling of self-efficacy and parents' perception of their child's behavior, implemented in a child protection service, with trained professionals from the agency acting as facilitators. Method: Thirty-five parents

Letarte, Marie-Josee; Normandeau, Sylvie; Allard, Julie

2010-01-01

355

Is the Public Being Protected? Prevention of Suboptimal Medical Practice through Training Programs and Credentialing Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assumptions implicit in the current use of licensing and certification examinations are identified, relevant evidence for these assumptions are reviewed, and implications for current methods of measurement are discussed. To ensure the protection of public health, it is critical to determine whether training and credentialing programs serve their

Tamblyn, Robyn

1994-01-01

356

Ecological impact in ditch mesocosms of simulated spray drift from a crop protection program for potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor aquatic ditch mesocosms were treated with a range of pesticides to simulate various spray drift rates resulting from a typical crop protection program used in the cultivation of potatoes in The Netherlands. The main experimental aims of the present study were to provide information on the fate and ecological effects of drift of the pesticides into surface water and

Gertie HP Arts; Laura L Buijse-Bogdan; J Dick M Belgers; Rhenen-Kersten van C. H; Wijngaarden van R. P. A; Ivo Roessink; Steve J Maund; Brink van den P. J; Theo CM Brock

2006-01-01

357

OVERVIEW OF THE EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PARTICULATE TECHNOLOGY R AND D PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives an overview of a number of key projects in the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) particulate research and development program having applicability to industry. For electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), it gives results of work on large-diameter discharge ele...

358

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's SITE (Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation) Emerging Technology Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the SITE Emerging Technology Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is seeking to foster the further development of technologies that have been successfully tested at bench-scale and are now ready for pilot-scale testing, prior to field- ...

E. R. Bates J. G. Herrmann D. E. Sanning

1989-01-01

359

Descriptions of new varieties recently distributed from the Citrus Clonal Protection Program  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP) is operated through the Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology at University of California (UC) Riverside and is funded in large part by The California Citrus Research Board (CRB). The CCPP processes citrus propagative material in two phases. First...

360

1990 UPDATE OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is seeking to foster the further development of technologies that have been successfully tested at bench-scale and are now ready for pilot-scale testing, prior...

361

Radon in Irish Show Caves - Personal Monitoring Data From 2001-2006  

SciTech Connect

The European Directive 96/29/EURATOM and its transposition into national legislation demands the application of radiation protection measures if the presence of radon and radon decay products leads to significant increase in exposures of workers. Irish legislation further demands that laboratories carrying out radon measurements operate a high level quality assurance programme. As a result of a reconnaissance survey regular measurements of show cave guides have been made in order to assess exposure to radon in such workplaces and to ascertain that the limits set for radon are not exceeded. In 2000, an action level of 400 Bqm{sup -3}, was established. Doses in the range 0.3-12.0 mSv have been estimated for workers for the period 2001-2006.

Currivan, L.; Murray, M.; O'Colmain, M.; Pollard, D. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

2008-08-07

362

Radon in Irish Show Caves-Personal Monitoring Data From 2001-2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Directive 96/29/EURATOM and its transposition into national legislation demands the application of radiation protection measures if the presence of radon and radon decay products leads to significant increase in exposures of workers. Irish legislation further demands that laboratories carrying out radon measurements operate a high level quality assurance programme. As a result of a reconnaissance survey regular measurements of show cave guides have been made in order to assess exposure to radon in such workplaces and to ascertain that the limits set for radon are not exceeded. In 2000, an action level of 400 Bqm-3, was established. Doses in the range 0.3-12.0 mSv have been estimated for workers for the period 2001-2006.

Currivan, L.; Murray, M.; O'Colmain, M.; Pollard, D.

2008-08-01

363

Experimental Evidence for Stages of Health Behavior Change: The Precaution Adoption Process Model Applied to Home Radon Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypotheses generated by the precaution adoption process model, a stage model of health behavior, were tested in the context of home radon testing. The specific idea tested was that the barriers impeding progress toward protective action change from stage to stage. An intervention describing a high risk of radon problems in study area homes was designed to encourage homeowners in

Neil D. Weinstein; Judith E. Lyon; Peter M. Sandman; Cara L. Cuite

1998-01-01

364

Attributable mortality to radon exposure in Galicia, Spain. Is it necessary to act in the face of this health problem?  

PubMed Central

Background Radon is the second risk factor for lung cancer after tobacco consumption and therefore it is necessary to know the burden of disease due to its exposure. The objective of this study is to estimate radon-attributable lung cancer mortality in Galicia, a high emission area located at the Northwest Spain. Methods A prevalence-based attribution method was applied. Prevalence of tobacco use and radon exposure were obtained from a previously published study of the same area. Attributable mortality was calculated for each of six possible risk categories, based on radon exposure and smoking status. Two scenarios were used, with 37 Bq/m3 and 148 Bq/m3 as the respective radon exposure thresholds. As the observed mortality we used lung cancer mortality for 2001 from the Galician mortality registry. Results Mortality exclusively attributable to radon exposure ranged from 3% to 5% for both exposure thresholds, respectively. Attributable mortality to combined exposure to radon and smoking stood at around 22% for exposures above 148 Bq/m3. Applying the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) action level, radon has a role in 25% of all lung cancers. Conclusions Although the estimates have been derived from a study with a relatively limited sample size, these results highlight the importance of radon exposure as a cause of lung cancer and its effect in terms of disease burden. Radon mitigation activities in the study area must therefore be enforced.

2010-01-01

365

Lung cancer and exposure to radon in women - New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

In 1985, the New Jersey State Department of Health (NJDOH) initiated an epidemiologic study of lung cancer and exposure to radon in New Jersey women. In collaboration with the New Jersey State Department of Environmental Protection and the National Cancer Institute, NJDOH examined whether exposure to radon in homes is associated with increased lung cancer risk. This study was based on a previous statewide case-control study of risk for lung cancer. The data indicated that year-round exposures in living areas were two to five times lower than basement measurements taken during heating season. The difference increased with higher concentrations.

Schoenberg, J.B.; Klotz, J.B.; Wilcox, H.B.; Gel-del-Real, M.; Stemhagen, A. (New Jersey State Dept of Health (USA)); Nicholls, G.P. (New Jersey State Dept of Environmental Protection (USA))

1989-11-17

366

Radon exposure estimates.  

PubMed

Chronic inhalation of radon and its alpha-emitting progeny has long been identified with increased incidence of respiratory tract carcinoma in uranium miners of the Colorado Plateau and in Europe. This disease has been regarded as an occupational hazard from the sixteenth century until the mid-1970s, with exposure (and subsequent risk estimates) measured in units of Working Level Months. However, since the reporting during the last several years of elevated radon levels in homes in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and several New England states, attention has centered on continuous exposure to families and to individuals of all ages and degrees of susceptibility to carcinogenic risk from this ubiquitous radioactive air contaminant. This paper addresses current estimates of risk to the members of the general population and the validity of recently promulgated action levels. PMID:2690409

Stuart, B O

1989-12-01

367

Radon exposure estimates  

SciTech Connect

Chronic inhalation of radon and its alpha-emitting progeny has long been identified with increased incidence of respiratory tract carcinoma in uranium miners of the Colorado Plateau and in Europe. This disease has been regarded as an occupational hazard from the sixteenth century until the mid-1970s, with exposure (and subsequent risk estimates) measured in units of Working Level Months. However, since the reporting during the last several years of elevated radon levels in homes in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and several New England states, attention has centered on continuous exposure to families and to individuals of all ages and degrees of susceptibility to carcinogenic risk from this ubiquitous radioactive air contaminant. This paper addresses current estimates of risk to the members of the general population and the validity of recently promulgated action levels.

Stuart, B.O.

1990-07-01

368

Communication Research for NASA's Planetary Protection Program: Science, Risk, Models, Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary protection is the term used to describe policies and practices that are intended to prevent 1) contamination of extraterrestrial environments by microbial Earth life (forward contamination) and 2) contamination of Earth's environment by possible extraterrestrial microbial life (back contamination) in the course of solar system exploration. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the international Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) both have planetary protection policies in place. Because the practice of planetary protection involves many different disciplines and many different national and international and governmental and nongovernmental organizations, communication has always been an important element of the practice. Thus NASA Planetary Protection Office has a long-term communication research initiative under way, addressing legal and ethical issues relating to planetary protection, models and methods of science and risk communication, and communication strategy and planning. With the pace of solar system exploration picking up, the era of solar system sample return under way, and public concerns about biological contamination heightened, communication is an increasingly important concern in the planetary protection community. This paper will describe current activities in communication research for NASA's planetary protection program.

Billings, L.

2004-12-01

369

Radon and radon progeny in the Carlsbad Caverns  

SciTech Connect

Measurements were made in July 1994 to determine air exchange rate, aerosol characteristics, radon concentrations, and radon progeny activity size distributions in the Carlsbad Caverns. The measured radon concentrations were stable at a level of 1821{+-}55 Bq m{sup -3}(mean {+-}SD). Using a SF{sub 6} trace gas method, it was determined that stagnant air in the Caverns was exchanged once every 18 days. The stagnant air was a key factor in maintaining stable environmental conditions and radon concentration. The low air exchange and few aerosol sources inside the Caverns also contributed to the low aerosol concentrations of between 200 and 400 cm{sup -3} - orders of magnitude lower than mining, indoor, and outdoor environments. The alpha spectrum showed radon progeny but no thoron progeny. The activity size distribution of radon progeny showed typical bimodal distributions with higher unattached fractions than other natural environments. The high unattached fraction was attributed to the extremely low aerosol concentration. Considering the seasonal variation in radon concentration, the estimated cumulative exposure of 1.65 working level months (WLMs) for a worker spending 2000 h in the Carlsbad Caverns with the observed radon concentration seems high, but it is still below the recommended occupational exposure limit for underground uranium miners. 43 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Cheng, Y.S. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chen, T.R. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China); Wasiolek, P.T; Van Engen, A. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

1997-01-01

370

The effect of desiccation on UMTRA Project radon barrier materials  

SciTech Connect

The proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards (40 CFR 192) require that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project remedial action designs meet low numerical limits for contaminants contained in water or vapors exiting the disposal cell embankments. To meet the standards, a cover of compacted, fine-grained soil is placed over UMTRA Project embankments. One of the functions of this cover is to limit infiltration into the disposal cell . The hydraulic conductivity of this infiltration barrier must be low in order to reduce the resultant seepage from the base of the cell to the extent necessary to comply with the proposed EPA groundwater standards. Another function of this cover is to limit the emission of radon gas. The air permeability of the cover must be low in order to reduce radon emissions to comply with EPA standards. Fine-grained soils exposed to evaporation will dry. Continued exposure will cause shrinking that, if allowed to continue, will eventually result in the development of cracks. The results of the cracking could be an increase in the hydraulic conductivity and an increase in the air permeability. This could then allow additional infiltration and increased radon emissions. Cracking of the radon barrier has been noted at one UMTRA Project location. The potential for cracking of the radon barrier during construction has been addressed by requiring moistening of previously compacted surfaces prior to placing additional lifts. The efficacy of these treatments has not been verified. The potential for cracking after construction of the cover is completed has also not been examined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential for cracking of the radon barrier both during construction and after completion of the cover. The effect of shrinkage cracking on the performance of the radon barrier will also be examined.

Not Available

1990-11-01

371

Discrete radon transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the discrete Radon transform (DRT) and the exact inversion algorithm for it. Similar to the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), the DRT is defined for periodic vector-sequences and studied as a transform in its own right. Casting the forward transform as a matrix-vector multiplication, the key observation is that the matrix-although very large-has a block-circulant structure. This observation

GREGORY BEYLKIN

1987-01-01

372

Hazardous materials management and control program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory - environmental protection  

SciTech Connect

In the Federal Register of May 19, 1980, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated final hazardous waste regulations according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976. The major substantive portions of these regulations went into effect on November 19, 1980, and established a federal program to provide comprehensive regulation of hazardous waste from its generation to its disposal. In an effort to comply with these regulations, a Hazardous Materials Management and Control Program was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program is administered by two Hazardous Materials Coordinators, who together with various support groups, ensure that all hazardous materials and wastes are handled in such a manner that all personnel, the general public, and the environment are adequately protected.

Eisenhower, B.M.; Oakes, T.W.

1982-01-01

373

Radon Treatment Controversy  

PubMed Central

In spite of long traditions, treatments utilizing radon-rich air or water have not been unequivocally embraced by modern medicine. The objective of this work is to examine factors that contribute to this continuing controversy. While the exact mechanism of radon's effect on human body is not completely understood, recent advances in radiobiology offer new insights into biochemical processes occurring at low-level exposures to ionizing radiation. Medical evidence and patients' testimonials regarding effectiveness of radon spa treatments of various ailments, most notably rheumatoid arthritis are accumulating worldwide. They challenge the premise of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) theory that the dose-effect response is the same per unit dose regardless of the total dose. Historically, such inference overshadowed scientific inquiries into the low-dose region and lead to a popular belief that no amount of radiation can be good. Fortunately, the LNT theory, which lacks any scientific basis, did not remain unchallenged. As the reviewed literature suggests, a paradigm shift, reflected in the consideration of hormetic effects at low-doses, is gaining momentum in the scientific community worldwide. The impetus comes from significant evidence of adaptive and stimulatory effects of low-levels of radiation on human immune system.

Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Strzelczyk, Jadwiga (Jodi)

2006-01-01

374

PNNL DOE-Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) FY2003 Program Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Program Evaluation report is an updated revision to the annual assessment of PNNL's VPP Program performance with respect to DOE-VPP criteria. It contains a summary of results and a data sheet for each of the VPP Elements, including strengths, weaknesses, recent\\/anticipated changes that will affect each Element, and a rating for each Element. Recommendations are also offered for continuous

Patrick A. Wright; Harold N. Bowers; Vernon J. Madson; Nancy G. Isern; Drue A. Collins; Janice M. Haney; Russell L. Meicenheimer; Mike R. Tinker; Susan C. Williams

2003-01-01

375

An Evaluation of the Economic Performance of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Shore Protection Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' (USACE) shore protection program was undertaken as a result of a request from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The investigation disclosed that the USACE shoreline protection program covers 8 percent of the nation's 2,700 miles of critically eroding shoreline and consists of 82 specifically authorized projects. Total actual expenditures,

T. M. Hillyer; E. Z. Stakhiv; R. A. Sudar

1997-01-01

376

Radon monitoring in water sources of Balakot and Mansehra cities lying on a geological fault line.  

PubMed

This paper relates to a series of systematic studies regarding measurement of radon concentration in the earthquake-affected areas of northern Pakistan. Radon is a radioactive alpha-particle-emitting gas originating from the decay series of uranium and thorium and is found anywhere in soil, air and water. The nature of water does not matter with regard to the presence of radon, however, the level of radon concentration varies in different types of water. The present survey is carried out in water samples from the fault zone of Balakot and Mansehra regions, North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, which is important for geological consideration and protection from radiation hazards. The measurements were made on a Pylon system that is based on the radon gas measurement with a Lucas cell. In 72 water samples in the equilibrium state between radon and its progeny, the concentration level of radon is measured. The results show that the radon concentrations are in the range of 4.99-24.52 kBq/m(3), with an average value of 15.52 kBq/m(3) for all types of water taken in this survey. PMID:19841014

Khan, F; Ali, N; Khan, E U; Khattak, N U; Khan, K

2009-10-19

377

Evaluation and equity audit of the domestic radon programme in England.  

PubMed

The U.K. has a radon programme to limit the radon risk to health. This involves advice on protective measures in new buildings, technical guidance on their installation, encouragement of radon measurements and remediation in existing dwellings in high radon areas. We have audited the radon programme at the level of individual homes to identify factors that influence the likelihood of remediation. 49% of the householders responded to our survey and 30% of the respondents stated that they had done some remediation to reduce the indoor radon levels. We found that householders with higher incomes and higher socio-economic status are more likely than others to remediate. Householders are less likely to remediate if they have one of the following: living in a property with a high radon concentration, current smokers in the dwelling, being unemployed or an unskilled worker, long length of time living in that property or elderly (65+ years) living by themselves. Householders appeared to be more likely to remediate if they considered the information on radon and its risk to be very clear and useful. This emphasises the importance of communication with householders. PMID:21030106

Zhang, Wei; Chow, Yimmy; Meara, Jill; Green, Martyn

2010-10-27

378

Toxin or medicine? Explanatory models of radon in Montana health mines.  

PubMed

Environmental protection and public health agencies in the United States and elsewhere label radioactive radon gas a toxic environmental hazard and a major cause of lung cancer. Paradoxically, in Europe and Japan radon gas is also used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory, as one choice in the spectrum of conventional medical care. Although it is possible to find radon therapy in the United States, it exists only as an unconventional practice in Montana "radon health mines." In this article, I examine the use of radon therapy by Americans despite intensive public health education media campaigns. Using the notion of explanatory models as an analytical framework, I argue that American health mine clients adjust or replace "toxic models" of radon with new kinds of explanatory models that allow radon to be redefined as a healing substance. The manner of this adjustment varies according to peoples' individual needs, their own preexisting cultural models and experiences, and their individual personalities; the source of authoritative knowledge accepted by each person is a strong influence. Through these altered explanatory models, mine clients are able to view their use of radon therapy as a rational course of action. PMID:17405695

Erickson, Barbra E

2007-03-01

379

Using radon risk to motivate smoking reduction: evaluation of written materials and brief telephone counselling  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVERadon and cigarette smoking have synergistic effects on lung cancer, even when radon concentrations are relatively low. Working through an electric utility company, we sought to reach smoking households with low radon concentrations and motivate smoking cessation or prohibiting smoking in the home.?DESIGNEligible homes (n=714) were randomised to receive: (1) the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) "A citizen's guide to radon"; (2) a specially developed pamphlet; or (3) that pamphlet plus brief telephone counselling.?PROCEDUREUtility company "bill stuffers" offered free radon test kits to smoking households. All households received radon test results with an explanatory cover letter. Both the specially developed pamphlet and the telephone counselling emphasised that smoking cessation or prohibiting smoking in the home were the optimal risk reduction strategies. Households were followed up at 3and 12months after receiving materials.?RESULTSThe specially developed pamphlet and the EPA guide yielded similar outcomes. There was a non-significant trend for telephone counselling to produce greater sustained quitting than the specially developed pamphlet, and phone counselling led to significantly more new household smoking bans.?CONCLUSIONSWorking through a public utility company is an efficient way to reach smoking households, and brief telephone counselling is a promising method for promoting household smoking bans and cessation in homes alerted to the risk posed by the combination of radon and smoking.???Keywords: radon risk; smoking cessation; smoking bans; telephone counselling

Lichtenstein, E.; Andrews, J.; Lee, M.; Glasgow, R.; Hampson, S.

2000-01-01

380

Suppression of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Radon Inhalation  

PubMed Central

The enhanced release of reactive oxygen species from activated neutrophils plays important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in various organs of mice. In this study, we examined the protective effects of radon inhalation on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS) induced colitis in mice which were subjected to DSS for 7 days. Mice were continuously treated with air only (sham) or radon at a concentration of 2000?Bq/m3 from a day before DSS administration to the end of colitis induction. In the results, radon inhalation suppressed the elevation of the disease activity index score and histological damage score induced by DSS. Based on the changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha in plasma and myeloperoxidase activity in the colon, it was shown that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colonic inflammation. Moreover, radon inhalation suppressed lipid peroxidation of the colon induced by DSS. The antioxidant level (superoxide dismutase and total glutathione) in the colon after DSS administration was significantly higher in mice treated with radon than with the sham. These results suggested that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colitis through the enhancement of antioxidative functions in the colon.

Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamato, Keiko; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

2012-01-01

381

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory search and property protection programs -- March 22, 1984  

SciTech Connect

On November 30, 1983, the LLNL Directorate met to discuss Laboratory policy regarding searches. An advance package (dated November 16, 1983) discussing background issues and DOE`s property protection and safeguards concerns was distributed to the Director and Associate Directors. A number of Associate Directors expressed concern about the nature of the theft problem at the Laboratory. There was also discussion about many employees` perception that Laboratory Management (including the Security Department) really did not care. The Director endorsed the need to establish searches in the SNM areas. The property protection type of searches were perceived as being very sensitive from a labor relations perspective. Nevertheless, the Directorate was sufficiently concerned about the safeguards and property protection issues to request the Security Department to develop a search plan for their review. A draft Search Program was prepared by the Security Department and reviewed individually with the Directorate for their comments. On March 19, 1984, the Directorate met collectively to consider a summary of these individual comments and to finalize a Search Program. Decisions made during that meeting have been incorporated into this document. This plan describes the search procedures that will be implemented at SNM areas and a two point program concerning property protection. Procedures are also set forth that will allow for expanded searches during periods of heightened security concern.

Leary, D.A.

1984-03-22

382

The NRPB radon personal dosimetry service  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radon personal dosemeter has been developed. The dosemeter is simple, cheap, robust, disposable and indelibly numbered. The operation principle is that of a radon diffusion chamber, which principle has been established both experimentally and theoretically. The dosemeter is an enclosure which excludes radon progeny and detritus whilst allowing access of radon gas. The alpha particles from the decay of

D. T. Bartlett; P. J. Gilvin; R. Still; D. W. Dixon; J. C. H. Miles

1988-01-01

383

Radon entry control in new house construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

People exposed to high concentration levels of radon face an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The risk is directly proportional to the length and level of radon exposure. Because of health reasons, it is safer to build new houses with radon mitigation systems installed in slab-on-grade houses. However, the interrelationships between parameters and factors governing radon entry and control

Fazil T. Najafi; Lalit Lalwani; Win G. Li

1995-01-01

384

The newest international trend about regulation of indoor radon.  

PubMed

On the basis of recent epidemiological findings, many international and national organisations have revised their recommendations and regulations on radon exposure in dwellings and workplaces, or are in the process to do it. In particular, new recommendations and regulations were recently published (or are going to be) by World Health Organization, Nordic Countries, International Commission on Radiological Protection, International, Atomic Energy Agency (and the other international organisations sponsoring the International Basic Safety Standards), European Commission. Although with some differences, these new documents recommend lower radon concentrations in indoor air, especially in dwellings, compared with previous ones. Moreover, preventive measures in all new buildings are more and more considered as one of the most cost-effective way to reduce the radon-related lung cancers, compared with previous approach restricting preventive measures in radon-prone areas only. A comprehensive national action plan, involving several national and local authorities, is generally considered a necessary tool to deal with the many complex actions needed to reduce the risk from radon exposure in an effective way. PMID:21561948

Bochicchio, Francesco

2011-05-11

385

Evaluation of radon emissions and potential control requirements  

SciTech Connect

This report provides estimates of radon release rates at the Weldon Spring Quarry (WSQ) for existing conditions and conditions which are expected to exist as the bulk waste is excavated. It also estimates radon release rates for the Temporary Storage Area (TSA). In 1989, Rn-222 concentrations at the fence line exceeded DOE guidelines. Data on working level concentrations at one monitoring station indicate an effective whole body dose rate of 0.75 mrem/hr for radon daughters and 0.74 mrem/hr for thoron daughters at one meter above the quarry waste. Since some of the calculations are based on assumptions, they show only the relative difference in radon release between present conditions and either of two excavation scenarios. They can be used in calculations of public exposure and potential health effects to evaluate the relative merits of each excavation scenario in comparison with present release conditions. The model used to make the estimates in this report is useful for estimating the radon release rate for the entire period of excavation, but it is not suitable for estimating worker exposure over short periods of time. Therefore, worker exposure and appropriate requirements for personal protective equipment will be determined as the excavation proceeds. 19 refs., 13 tabs.

Not Available

1989-08-01

386

Measurement and distribution of radon and radon progeny: An overview of indoor-radon risk reduction in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an overview of indoor radon risk reduction in the U.S. EPA currently estimates that 15,000-20,000 Americans die each year from radon-induced lung cancer. The estimate is based on epidemiological data which establish the link between radon and lung cancer, and surveys which provide estimates of radon exposure to the American public. EPA and state cosponsored radon surveys

M. Osborne; J. Harrison

1992-01-01

387

Radon emanation from soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil or bedrock beneath a building is one of the sources of radon gas in the indoor air. The 238U content of samples of the soil or the bedrock can be measured by gamma ray spectrometry and is of interest because the uranium content in the soil is a precursor of the presence of the radon gas in the

C Baixeras; B Erlandsson; G Jnsson

2001-01-01

388

The fast discrete Radon transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

An explicit relationship between the continuous and discrete time Radon transforms is derived. A generalized least-squares solution to the inversion problem is proposed, and a new inverse counterpart to the fast Radon transform (FRT) algorithm (IFRT) is derived. The authors' interest in the FRT algorithm stems from its application to the seismic inversion problem. A method of seismic migration based

Brian T. Kelley; Vijay K. Madisetti

1992-01-01

389

APPLICATION OF RADON REDUCTION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The document is intended to aid homeowners and contractors in diagnosing and solving indoor radon problems. It will also be useful to State and Federal regulatory officials and many other persons who provide advice on the selection, design and operation of radon reduction methods...

390

Radon in ground water supplies  

SciTech Connect

In September 1986, the System Water Quality Department of the American Water Works Service Co. began conducting a radon survey that was designed to determine the levels of radon in American ground water supplies, and to assess the radon removal efficiency of existing treatment processes such as filtration through granular activated carbon (GAC) and various forms of aeration. The survey found that companies in the northeastern part of the country experienced the highest levels of radon in ground water supplies. The highest concentrations were in individual wells in New Hampshire, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and California. The analytical results from the occurrence phase of the survey seemed to correlate well with the known geology of the aquifer materials from which samples of ground water were drawn. The highest levels were associated with formations of uranium-bearing granitic rocks. GAC can effectively reduce radon concentrations in drinking water supplies to very low levels. However, the amount of contact time within the carbon bed required to do so would be prohibitive to many water utilities from an operational and economic standpoint. Further, disposal of the spent GAC as a low-level radioactive waste may be required. Aeration is very effective in the removal of radon from drinking water. Packed tower aerators achieved > 95% reduction in radon concentrations and conventional cascading tray aerators achieved > 75% reduction in radon concentrations. 7 refs., 6 tabs.

Dixon, K.L.; Lee, R.G.

1989-06-01

391

Radon in Earth, Air, and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Radon in Earth, Air, and Water is an informative and interesting Web site offered by the US Geological Survey. The host of products on the site include a well-designed online publication, the Geology of Radon, which allows users to page through the chapters with titles such as What is Radon?, the Geology of Radon, Radon Potential (in homes for example), and more. The non-technical text and attractive graphics make this document educational and easy to follow. Other publications offered include Radon in Fault and Shear Zones, Eastern United States, Radon in Glacial Deposits of the Upper Midwest, Terrestrial Gamma Radioactivity of the Conterminous United States, and much more. [JAB

392

Measurements of radon flux and soil-gas radon concentration along the Main Central Thrust, Garhwal Himalaya, using SRM and RAD7 detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon in the Earth's crust or soil matrix is free to move only if its atoms find their way into pores or capillaries of the matrix. 222Rn atoms from solid mineral grains get into air, filling pores through emanation process. Then 222Rn enters into the atmosphere from air-filled pores by exhalation process. The estimation of radon flux from soil surface is an important parameter for determining the source term for radon concentration modeling. In the present investigation, radon fluxes and soil-gas radon concentration have been measured along and around the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in Uttarkashi district of Garhwal Himalaya, India, by using Scintillation Radon Monitor (SRM) and RAD7 devices, respectively. The soil radon gas concentration measured by RAD7 with soil probe at the constant depth was found to vary from 12 3 to 2330 48 Bqm-3 with geometrical mean value of 302 84 Bqm-3. Th significance of this work is its usefulness from radiation protection point of view.

Bourai, Abhay Anand; Aswal, Sunita; Dangwal, Anoop; Rawat, Mukesh; Prasad, Mukesh; Naithani, Nagendra Prasad; Joshi, Veena; Ramola, Rakesh Chand

2013-08-01

393

The cost effectiveness of radon mitigation in existing German dwellings--a decision theoretic analysis.  

PubMed

Radon is a naturally occurring inert radioactive gas found in soils and rocks that can accumulate in dwellings, and is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. This study aims to analyze the cost effectiveness of different intervention strategies to reduce radon concentrations in existing German dwellings. The cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) was conducted as a scenario analysis, where each scenario represents a specific regulatory regime. A decision theoretic model was developed, which reflects accepted recommendations for radon screening and mitigation and uses most up-to-date data on radon distribution and relative risks. The model was programmed to account for compliance with respect to the single steps of radon intervention, as well as data on the sensitivity/specificity of radon tests. A societal perspective was adopted to calculate costs and effects. All scenarios were calculated for different action levels. Cost effectiveness was measured in costs per averted case of lung cancer, costs per life year gained and costs per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Univariate and multivariate deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (SA) were performed. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were based on Monte Carlo simulations with 5000 model runs. The results show that legal regulations with mandatory screening and mitigation for indoor radon levels >100 Bq/m(3) are most cost effective. Incremental cost effectiveness compared to the no mitigation base case is 25,181 euro (95% CI: 7371 euro-90,593 euro) per QALY gained. Other intervention strategies focussing primarily on the personal responsibility for screening and/or mitigative actions show considerably worse cost effectiveness ratios. However, targeting radon intervention to radon-prone areas is significantly more cost effective. Most of the uncertainty that surrounds the results can be ascribed to the relative risk of radon exposure. It can be concluded that in the light of international experience a legal regulation requiring radon screening and, if necessary, mitigation is justifiable under the terms of CEA. PMID:20619957

Haucke, Florian

2010-11-01

394

Development of radon calibration chamber at KRISS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon calibration chamber has been constructed to test and calibrate radon and radon progeny detectors at various environmental conditions and to study the characteristic behavior of radon decay products. The size of main room in the chamber is 3.2m3.3m2.4m (25.3m3) and the total volume of the chamber is 39.1m3. The maximum concentration of radon in the chamber can be maintained

Jong-Man Lee; Kil Hoon Ahn; Ha Seok Chai; Tae Soon Park

2004-01-01

395

THE MEASURING PROGRAM \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Since 2005 the Saxon state laboratories for environmental radioactivity (UBG) run a measuring program in order to consolidate the map of radon activity concentration in soil gas. The resulting new map is to make an improved classification of radon prone areas in Saxony possible. The focus of the measuring program is mainly directed to municipalities where no soil gas

W. Preue; H. Busch; S. Seidel; M. Hempel; M. Ditze

396

Is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency brownfields assessment pilot program environmentally just?  

PubMed Central

In the early 1990s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) started a grant program to assist communities redevelop brownfields, which are abandoned or underutilized sites that have real or perceived contamination. In addition to determining if the communities receiving the grants were the most distressed cities in the United States, we also evaluate the U.S. EPA program in terms of environmental justice at the macro scale. Using 1990 U.S. Census of Housing and Population data and a matched-cities methodology, we compared the brownfields pilot cities to other communities in the United States. We found that regardless of intent, the U.S. EPA program is environmentally just by disproportionately awarding grants to the most economically distressed cities. We also found that the cities that received funding in the early years of the program were more economically distressed than cities receiving the funding more recently.

Solitare, Laura; Greenberg, Micheal

2002-01-01

397

Evaluation of the impact of the natural forest protection program on rural household livelihoods.  

PubMed

In this study, we estimated the impact on local household livelihoods of the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP), which is the largest logging-ban program in the world, which aims to protect watersheds and conserve natural forests. In doing so, we used a series of microeconometric policy-evaluation techniques to assess the impacts of the NFPP on two interrelated facets of household livelihoods: income and off-farm labor supply. We found that the NFPP has had a negative impact on incomes from timber harvesting but has actually had a positive impact on total household incomes from all sources. Furthermore, we found that off-farm labor supply outside the village has increased more rapidly in NFPP than in non-NFPP areas. Based on these results, policy implications for household livelihoods were drawn and are presented herein. PMID:19387724

Mullan, Katrina; Kontoleon, Andreas; Swanson, Timothy M; Zhang, Shiqiu

2009-04-23

398

Evaluation of the Impact of the Natural Forest Protection Program on Rural Household Livelihoods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we estimated the impact on local household livelihoods of the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP), which is the largest logging-ban program in the world, which aims to protect watersheds and conserve natural forests. In doing so, we used a series of microeconometric policy-evaluation techniques to assess the impacts of the NFPP on two interrelated facets of household livelihoods: income and off-farm labor supply. We found that the NFPP has had a negative impact on incomes from timber harvesting but has actually had a positive impact on total household incomes from all sources. Furthermore, we found that off-farm labor supply outside the village has increased more rapidly in NFPP than in non-NFPP areas. Based on these results, policy implications for household livelihoods were drawn and are presented herein.

Mullan, Katrina; Kontoleon, Andreas; Swanson, Timothy M.; Zhang, Shiqiu

2010-03-01

399

Assessing radon control options in new energy-efficient homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews an analysis used in an environmental impact statement (EIS) for new energy-efficient homes programs. In the analysis the authors assess several combinations of mitigation and building techniques, which they call pathways, for their effects on indoor air quality. They pay particular attention to the pathways' effects on indoor concentration of radon, and potential health effects that may

J. A. Bamberger; M. C. Baechler; L. O. Foley; W. F. Sandusky; J. Harris

1988-01-01

400

Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Activity Concentration Measurements at PSI.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Active or passive radon gas measuring instruments are exposed during intercomparison exercises in the radon chamber of the Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Concentration Measurements at Paul Scherrer Institut: The traceability of radon gas measurements ...

C. Schuler

1998-01-01

401

Intercomparison of radon gas detectors 1997 at PSI.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between Nov 14 and Nov 20, 1997, the Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Activity Concentration Measurements at Paul Scherrer Institut performed the 1997 Radon Intercomparison Exercise. Radon gas detectors and instruments were exposed in the PSI Radon Cham...

C. Schuler G. Butterweck-Dempewolf

1998-01-01

402

The Representative Areas Program for Protecting Biodiversity in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Existing no-take areas within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park reflect a historical focus on coral reefs and remote pristine areas. The Representative Areas Program(RAP) aimsto enhance protection of the regions biodiversityby dev elopinga network of no-take areas that represents the range of ,habitats and communities within the Marine Park. A comprehensive range of ,biological and physical information was

Jon Day; Leanne Fernandes; Ada Mlewis; Glenn De'ath; Suzanne Slegers; Bryonyb Arnett; Dan Breen; James Innes; Jamie Oliver; Trevor Ward; David Lowe

403

Hanford protective barriers program: Status of asphalt barrier studies - FY 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanford Protective Barrier Program is evaluating alternate barriers to provide a means of meeting stringent water infiltration requirements. One type of alternate barrier being considered is an asphalt-based layer, 1.3 to 15 cm thick. Evaluations of these barriers were initiated in FY 1988, and, based on laboratory studies, two asphalt formulations were selected for further testing in small-tube lysimeters:

H. D. Freeman; G. W. Gee

1989-01-01

404

Development of effluent guidelines and Environmental Protection Agency research and development program for edible oils industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the statutory basis for the establishment of effluent limitations guidelines and standards of performance\\u000a for this industry including remarks on water quality standards. The Environmental Protection Agencys research, development,\\u000a and demonstration program is presented. The specific objectives, solution required, activities, and best available treatment,\\u000a zero discharge concept, and total elimination of discharges (elimination of multi-media pollution discharges)

William J. Lacy; George Keeler; George R. Webster

1975-01-01

405

Standardization of radon measurements. 2. Accuracy and proficiency testing  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy of in situ environmental radon measurement techniques is reviewed and new data for charcoal canister, alpha-track (track-etch) and electret detectors are presented. Deficiencies reported at the 1987 meeting in Wurenlingen, Federal Republic of Germany, for measurements using charcoal detectors are confirmed by the new results. Accuracy and precision of the alpha-track measurements laboratory were better than in 1987. Electret detectors appear to provide a convenient, accurate, and precise system for the measurement of radon concentration. The need for a comprehensive, blind proficiency-testing programs is discussed.

Matuszek, J.M.

1990-01-01

406

Radon in soil gas and its relationship with some major faults of SW England  

Microsoft Academic Search

The south-west of England was designated by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) as the first Radon Affected\\u000a Area, as over 1% of the housing stock is estimated to have an indoor radon concentration in excess of the 200 Bq m?3 Action Level. The situation is even worse for houses situated above uraniferous granite intrusions, where over 30% are thought

N. R. Varley; A. G. Flowers

1993-01-01

407

Current status of programmes to measure and reduce radon exposure in Irish workplaces.  

PubMed

National legislation, which implements European Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM in Ireland, sets a reference level of 400 Bq m(-3) averaged over any 3 month period for radon exposure in the workplace and also empowers the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland to direct employers to have radon measurements carried out. This legislation came into effect in May 2000. Radon measurements have already been completed in show caves and other underground workplaces. Between 1998 and 2001, over 33 800 individual radon measurements were carried out in all ground floor offices and classrooms in 3444 schools nationwide as part of a programme undertaken jointly with the Department of Education and Science. Where the average indoor radon concentration in one or more rooms exceeded 200 Bq m(-3), remedial measures were implemented. For concentrations up to 400 Bq m(-3) this involved increased ventilation while for higher concentrations an active sump was normally installed. The results of the survey, as well as the effectiveness of the different remedial strategies, are discussed. In the case of other above ground workplaces, different approaches have been adopted. As a first step, workplaces in two known high radon areas were directed to have radon measurements carried out. This programme had limited success because of problems in obtaining accurate workplace databases and a general lack of awareness on the part of employers of the issues involved. From a sample of 2610 employers directed to measure radon, only 408 actually completed measurements and 37 workplaces were identified as having average 3 month average radon concentrations above 400 Bq m(-3). A total of 1356 employers ignored all correspondence, some of which was sent by registered post and signed for on receipt. Current initiatives are focused on the provision of information and include newspaper advertising as well as publications aimed specifically at both employer and employee representative groups. The ability to provide accurate information that encourages both measurement and remediation is seen as central to an effective radon workplace programme. PMID:15296256

Colgan, P A; Madden, J S; Synnott, H; Fennell, S; Pollard, D; Fenton, D

2004-06-01

408

Evaluation of Exposure to Radon Levels in Relation to Climatic Conditions at a Superfund Site.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Workers at a Superfund site have expressed concern that they may be exposed to elevated levels of radon gas, especially when meteorology is suitable. The site, formally a uranium processing site, stores the world's largest quantity of Ra-226 in two concrete silos. A layer of bentonite foam was placed over the contents of the silos in 1991 as a means to reduce the amount of radon emissions. Hourly real-time outdoor and indoor site radon data covering an entire year was statistically evaluated in relation to meteorological data covering the same time period. The hourly data was found to be lognormally distributed. Radon levels were highest during the early morning hours and during the summer months. Both outdoor and indoor concentrations were found to significantly vary with temporal and climatic factors, namely wind direction and relative humidity. Radon levels in the work areas were not found to be statistically different from off-site levels. Only radon levels in the vicinity of the storage silos, which is an exclusion zone, were significantly higher than levels off-site. Hence, the protective bentonite covering seems to be effective in reducing radon emissions. Two methods were used to calculate a hypothetical dose, based upon the annual average concentrations of radon in the work areas onsite, the BEIR IV method and the NCRP method, respectively. The BEIR IV method, which accounts for the activity ratio of radon and its daughter products, resulted in a slightly higher dose than the NCRP method. As expected, based on the mean concentrations, the hypothetical annual exposures from radon in the work areas of the site were below recommended exposure limits.

Merrill, Elaine Alice

409

Passive environmental radon detector study  

SciTech Connect

There are three stages at which the ambient air concentrations of radon-222 are monitored around the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites: before, during, and after construction. Pre-remedial-action measurements are taken for approximately 1 year. Monitoring is conducted during the entire duration of construction, and post-remedial-action monitoring is performed for approximately 1 year. Currently, the UMTRA Project uses Radtrak[reg sign] brand alpha-track radon detectors for these environmental measurements. The purposes of radon monitoring around the UMTRA sites are (1) to determine background values around the site and pre-remedial-action conditions, (2) to control construction activities and monitor off-site releases, and (3) to compare post-remedial-action concentrations with pre-remedial-action values to demonstrate that radon concentrations have been reduced to approximately background levels. The Technical Assistance Contractor to the DOE for the UMTRA Project evaluated the performance of four different types of passive environmental radon detectors under both controlled laboratory conditions and field conditions at an unremediated UMTRA site. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy and precision of four different passive, timeintegrating, environmental radon detectors in an effort to determine which brand of detector is best suited to measure environmental outdoor radon concentrations for the UMTRA Project. Voluntary manufacturer participation in the study was solicited by placing an advertisement in the Commerce Business Daily. All manufacturers participating in the study supplied the detectors and analysis free of charge.

Not Available

1992-03-01

410

Passive environmental radon detector study  

SciTech Connect

There are three stages at which the ambient air concentrations of radon-222 are monitored around the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites: before, during, and after construction. Pre-remedial-action measurements are taken for approximately 1 year. Monitoring is conducted during the entire duration of construction, and post-remedial-action monitoring is performed for approximately 1 year. Currently, the UMTRA Project uses Radtrak{reg_sign} brand alpha-track radon detectors for these environmental measurements. The purposes of radon monitoring around the UMTRA sites are (1) to determine background values around the site and pre-remedial-action conditions, (2) to control construction activities and monitor off-site releases, and (3) to compare post-remedial-action concentrations with pre-remedial-action values to demonstrate that radon concentrations have been reduced to approximately background levels. The Technical Assistance Contractor to the DOE for the UMTRA Project evaluated the performance of four different types of passive environmental radon detectors under both controlled laboratory conditions and field conditions at an unremediated UMTRA site. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy and precision of four different passive, timeintegrating, environmental radon detectors in an effort to determine which brand of detector is best suited to measure environmental outdoor radon concentrations for the UMTRA Project. Voluntary manufacturer participation in the study was solicited by placing an advertisement in the Commerce Business Daily. All manufacturers participating in the study supplied the detectors and analysis free of charge.

Not Available

1992-03-01

411

76 FR 72006 - Draft Interim Staff Guidance: Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon Progeny in Air and Demonstrations of Compliance AGENCY...Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon Progeny in Air and Demonstrations of...

2011-11-21

412

Monitoring of Radon in Tourist Part of Skocjan Caves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the kocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Park kocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park kocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the yearly dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data, beside the most convenient measuring technique. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. The survey will be described along with education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection. An overview of Slovene legislation with practical example on implementation will be demonstrated in the case of kocjan Caves where the managing authority considers the monitoring of Radon as one of the tools for adaptive management.

Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja; Jovanovic, Peter

2010-05-01

413

Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program  

Microsoft Academic Search

ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an

Marla Christine Sanchez; Richard Brown; Gregory Homan; Carrie Webber

2008-01-01

414

Fire Protection Program fiscal year 1996, site support program plan Hanford Fire Department. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report gives a program overview, technical program baselines, and cost and schedule baseline.

Good, D.E.

1995-09-01

415

Energy deposition and radiation quality of radon and radon daughters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This program was aimed at creating a quantitative physical description, at the micrometer and nanometer levels, of the physical interactions of the alpha particles from radon and its daughters with cells at risk in the bronchial epithelium. The authors calculated alpha-particle energy spectra incident upon the cells and also energy deposition spectra in micrometer- and nanometer-sized sites as a function of cell depth, site size, airway diameter, activities of {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po, and other parameters. These data are now being applied, using biophysical models of radiation effects, to predict cell killing, mutations, and cell transformation. The model predictions are then compared to experimental biophysical, biochemical, and biological information. These studies contribute to a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the biological effectiveness of the radiations emitted by radon and its progeny.

Karam, L.R.; Caswell, R.S.

1996-09-09

416

Fire protection program fiscal year 1997 site support program plan - Hanford fire department  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Hanford Fires Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford Site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. this includes response to surrounding fire department districts under mutual aids agreements and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site. the fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing, and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention and education.

Good, D.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-01

417

Intercomparison of retrospective radon detectors.  

PubMed Central

We performed both a laboratory and a field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, (210)Pb, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha-emission of a (210)Pb-decay product, (210)Po. The detector's track density generation rate (tracks per square centimeter per hour) is proportional to the surface alpha-activity. In the absence of other strong sources of alpha-emission in the glass, the implanted surface alpha-activity should be proportional to the accumulated (210)Po, and hence to the cumulative radon gas exposure. The goals of the intercomparison were to a) perform collocated measurements using two different glass-based retrospective radon detectors in a controlled laboratory environment to compare their relative response to implanted polonium in the absence of environmental variation, b) perform collocated measurements using two different retrospective radon progeny detectors in a variety of residential settings to compare their detection of glass-implanted polonium activities, and c) examine the correlation between track density rates and contemporary radon gas concentrations. The laboratory results suggested that the materials and methods used by the studies produced similar track densities in detectors exposed to the same implanted (210)Po activity. The field phase of the intercomparison found excellent agreement between the track density rates for the two types of retrospective detectors. The correlation between the track density rates and direct contemporary radon concentration measurements was relatively high, considering that no adjustments were performed to account for either the residential depositional environment or glass surface type. Preliminary comparisons of the models used to translate track rate densities to average long-term radon concentrations differ between the two studies. Further calibration of the retrospective detectors' models for interpretation of track rate density may allow the pooling of studies that use glass-based retrospective radon detectors to determine historic residential radon exposures. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5

Field, R W; Steck, D J; Parkhurst, M A; Mahaffey, J A; Alavanja, M C

1999-01-01

418

Collective dose as a performance measure for occupational radiation protection programs: Issues and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Collective dose is one of the performance measures used at many US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities to quantitatively assess the objectives of the radiation protection program. It can also be used as a management tool to improve the program for keeping worker doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Collective dose is used here to mean the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values for all workers in a specified group over a specified time. It is often used as a surrogate estimate of radiological risk. In principle, improvements in radiation protection programs and procedures will result in reduction of collective dose, all other things being equal. Within the DOE, most frequently, a single collective dose number, which may or may not be adjusted for workload and other factors, is used as a performance measure for a contractor. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the use of collective dose as a performance measure for ALARA programs at DOE sites.

Strom, D.J.; Harty, R.; Hickey, E.E.; Martin, J.B.; Peffers, M.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kathren, R.L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

1998-07-01

419

The Effects of Exposure of the Human Body to RADON. Integrated Measurements Performed in Alba County, Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In many countries, radon is the second most important cause of lung cancer after smoking. The proportion of lung cancers attributable\\u000a to radon is estimated to range from 3 to 14% . The hygiene requirements, the peoples health and environment protection should\\u000a be observed according to the regulations in force. In such a context, is included the protection against radioactive

L. E. Muntean; D. L. Manea; C. Cosma

420

H. R. 1794: This Act may be cited as the Radon Testing for Safe Schools Act of 1991, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, April 16, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Studies by the Environmental Protection Agency indicate that 54% of schools tested have at least one room with elevated levels of radon and that over 20% of all school rooms tested have elevated levels of radon. This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on April 16, 1991 to provide for the testing and remediation of radon contamination in school buildings. Key features of this legislation revolve around the following: requirements for radon testing in schools; and radon in schools remediation grant assistance.

Not Available

1991-01-01

421

Radon measurements in schools: an interim report  

SciTech Connect

The report provides school officials, groups such as Parent-Teacher Associations, and other interested person with interim information on how to measure radon in schools and what to do if elevated levels are found. The first sections of the document contain facts about radon and the health risks associated with radon exposure. The next sections summarize what is known about radon in schools and provide guidance for conducting radon measurements. The last sections describe how to interpret the measurement results and suggest techniques that can be used to reduce radon concentrations if elevated levels are found.

Not Available

1989-03-01

422

Radon Policy in Finland, Achievements and Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Finland is a country of high indoor radon concentrations. Since 1980 the authority regulations, guidance, radon mapping and research work supporting decision making have been developed continuously. Clear regulations directed to citizens and authorities form the basis for radon policy. Active mapping work and measurement ordered by private home owners has resulted in 100.000 houses measured. National indoor radon data base forms a good basis for decision making, communication and research. The number of new houses provided with radon preventive constructions has increased remarkably. New radon campaigns has increased measurement and mitigation activity. Furher increasing of public awareness is the key challenge.

Arvela, Hannu; Maekelaeinen, Ilona; Reisbacka, Heikki [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK PO Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland)

2008-08-07

423

Suppression of streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetes in mice by radon inhalation.  

PubMed

We examined the protective effect of radon inhalation on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type-1 diabetes in mice. Mice inhaled radon at concentrations of 1000, 2500, and 5500 Bq/m3 for 24 hours before STZ administration. STZ administration induced characteristics of type-1 diabetes such as hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia; however, radon inhalation at doses of 1000 and 5500 Bq/m3 significantly suppressed the elevation of blood glucose in diabetic mice. Serum insulin was significantly higher in mice pre-treated with radon at a dose of 1000 Bq/m3 than in mice treated with a sham. In addition, superoxide dismutase activities and total glutathione contents were significantly higher and lipid peroxide was significantly lower in mice pre-treated with radon at doses of 1000 and 5500 Bq/m3 than in mice treated with a sham. These results were consistent with the result that radon inhalation at 1000 and 5500 Bq/m3 suppressed hyperglycemia. These findings suggested that radon inhalation suppressed STZ-induced type-1 diabetes through the enhancement of antioxidative functions in the pancreas. PMID:23173687

Nishiyama, Y; Kataoka, T; Teraoka, J; Sakoda, A; Tanaka, H; Ishimori, Y; Mitsunobu, F; Taguchi, T; Yamaoka, K

2012-11-22

424

A generic biokinetic model for noble gases with application to radon  

SciTech Connect

The International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently uses a dose conversion coefficient to calculate effective dose per unit exposure to radon and its progeny. The coefficient is derived by dividing the detriment associated with unit exposure to radon, as estimated from epidemiological studies, by the detriment per unit effective dose, as estimated mainly from atomic bomb survivor data and animal studies. In a recent statement the ICRP indicated that future guidance on exposure to radon and its progeny will be developed in the same way as guidance for any other radionuclide. That is, intake of radon and progeny will be limited on the basis of effective dose coefficients derived from biokinetic and dosimetric models. This paper proposes a biokinetic model for systemic (absorbed) radon for use in the calculation of dose coefficients for inhaled or ingested radon. The model is based largely on physical laws governing transfer of a non-reactive and soluble gas between materials. Model predictions are shown to be consistent with results of controlled studies of the fate of internally deposited radon in human subjects.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Marsh, James [Health Protection Agency of Great Britain; Gregoratto, Demetrio [Health Protection Agency of Great Britain; Blanchardon, Eric [IRSN

2013-01-01

425

25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds include? In addition...for the investigation of reported cases of child abuse and child neglect, the treatment and prevention of incidents of family violence, and...

2010-04-01

426

25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contribute to and promote prevention of child abuse, child neglect, and family...protection and family violence prevention programs may be retained and used to promote prevention of child abuse, child neglect, and...

2010-04-01

427

25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds include? In addition...for the investigation of reported cases of child abuse and child neglect, the treatment and prevention of incidents of family violence, and...

2009-04-01

428

25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contribute to and promote prevention of child abuse, child neglect, and family...protection and family violence prevention programs may be retained and used to promote prevention of child abuse, child neglect, and...

2009-04-01

429

Bibliometric Analysis for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Research and Development's Drinking Water Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a bibliometric analysis of the papers prepared by intramural and extramural researchers of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Drinking Water Research Program. For this analysis, 910 papers were reviewed, and they were published from ...

2007-01-01

430

Canadian Lung Cancer Relative Risk from Radon Exposure for Short Periods in Childhood Compared to a Lifetime  

PubMed Central

Long-term exposure to elevated indoor radon concentrations has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer in adults after tobacco smoking. With the establishment of a National Radon Program in Canada in 2007 thousands of homes across the country have been tested for radon. Although the vast majority of people are exposed to low or moderate radon concentrations; from time to time; there are homes found with very high concentrations of radon. Among those living in homes with very high radon concentrations, it is typically parents of young children that demonstrate a great deal of concern. They want to know the equivalent risk in terms of the lifetime relative risk of developing lung cancer when a child has lived in a home with high radon for a few years. An answer to this question of risk equivalency is proposed in this paper. The results demonstrate clearly that the higher the radon concentration; the sooner remedial measures should be undertaken; as recommended by Health Canada in the Canadian radon guideline.

Chen, Jing

2013-01-01

431

Radon emanation in Saskatchewan soils.  

PubMed

Saskatchewan prairie soils in central Canada were studied from areas where many homes are known to exceed the Health Canada indoor radon guideline of 200 Bq m. This study sampled 32 soils from 11 sites, which varied in clay content and presence of bedrock materials. Soils were analyzed for (238)U, (226)Ra, (222)Rn in soil gas, bulk density, moisture, and particle size. Radon emanation from the soil samples varied from 10% to 43% and increased significantly with clay content with radon concentrations in soil gas of 18-38 kBq m(-3). Total uranium in soils was 2.1-4 ppm and 26-51 Bq kg(-1) dry weight for (238)U, (234)Th, and (226)Ra. Homes built on soils with high clay content may be at greater risk of high radon levels, particularly when the soils are dry and cracked, enhancing their permeability to gases such as radon. One sample of coal bedrock, originating from Tertiary marine shales, was particularly high for total uranium (53 ppm), (238)U, (234)Th, and (226)Ra activities (68-1,303 Bq kg(-1)) with radon emanation up to 1,363 kBq m(-3). PMID:22004926

Thomas, Patricia A; Anderson, Darwin W; Zhang, Weihua; Baweja, Anar S; Tracy, Bliss L

2011-06-01

432

Soil radon measurements in the Canadian cities.  

PubMed

Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Information on indoor radon concentrations is required to assess the lung cancer burden due to radon exposure. Since radon in soil is believed to be the main source of radon in homes, measurements of soil gas radon concentrations can be used to estimate variations in radon potential of indoor environments. This study reports surveys of natural background variation in soil radon levels in four cities, Montreal, Gatineau, Kingston and the largest Canadian city of Toronto. A total of 212 sites were surveyed. The average soil gas radon concentrations varied significantly from site to site, and ranged from below detection limit to 157 kBq m(-3). For each site, the soil radon potential (SRP) index was determined with the average soil radon concentration and average soil permeability measured. The average SRP indexes are 2016, 1211, 89 and 1210 for Montreal, Gatineau, Kingston and Toronto, respectively. The results provide additional data for the validation of an association between indoor and soil radon potentials and for the development of radon potential map of Canada. PMID:22128363

Chen, J; Moir, D; MacLellan, K; Leigh, E; Nunez, D; Murphy, S; Ford, K

2011-11-28

433

Application of the can technique and radon gas analyzer for radon exhalation measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passive can technique and an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container were applied for radon exhalation rate measurements from different construction materials, viz. five marble seven ceramic and 100 granite tiles used in Saudi Arabia. The marble and ceramic tiles did not show detectable radon exhalation using the active radon gas analyzer system. However the granite tiles

M. I. Al-Jarallah; M. S. Musazay; F. Abu-Jarad

2003-01-01

434

Radon mitigation survey among New York State residents living in high radon homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of New York State Department of Health's efforts to increase public awareness about radon risk and to promote radon testing and mitigation in compliance with EPA's guideline, a statewide radon mitigation survey was conducted between September 1995 and January 1996 among New York State residents whose homes had radon levels equal to or greater

Ying Wang; Carole Ju; Alice D. Stark; Nick Teresi

1999-01-01

435

EFFECT OF NATURAL VENTILATION ON RADON AND RADON PROGENY LEVELS IN HOUSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the effect of natural ventilation on radon and radon progeny levels in houses. ontradicting the widely held assumption that ventilation is ineffective in reducing indoor radon concentrations, experiments in a research house have shown that the basement radon l...

436

Programmed Protection of Foreign DNA from Restriction Allows Pathogenicity Island Exchange during Pneumococcal Transformation  

PubMed Central

In bacteria, transformation and restriction-modification (R-M) systems play potentially antagonistic roles. While the former, proposed as a form of sexuality, relies on internalized foreign DNA to create genetic diversity, the latter degrade foreign DNA to protect from bacteriophage attack. The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is transformable and possesses either of two R-M systems, DpnI and DpnII, which respectively restrict methylated or unmethylated double-stranded (ds) DNA. S. pneumoniae DpnII strains possess DpnM, which methylates dsDNA to protect it from DpnII restriction, and a second methylase, DpnA, which is induced during competence for genetic transformation and is unusual in that it methylates single-stranded (ss) DNA. DpnA was tentatively ascribed the role of protecting internalized plasmids from DpnII restriction, but this seems unlikely in light of recent results establishing that pneumococcal transformation was not evolved to favor plasmid exchange. Here we validate an alternative hypothesis, showing that DpnA plays a crucial role in the protection of internalized foreign DNA, enabling exchange of pathogenicity islands and more generally of variable regions between pneumococcal isolates. We show that transformation of a 21.7 kb heterologous region is reduced by more than 4 logs in dpnA mutant cells and provide evidence that the specific induction of dpnA during competence is critical for full protection. We suggest that the integration of a restrictase/ssDNA-methylase couplet into the competence regulon maintains protection from bacteriophage attack whilst simultaneously enabling exchange of pathogenicicy islands. This protective role of DpnA is likely to be of particular importance for pneumococcal virulence by allowing free variation of capsule serotype in DpnII strains via integration of DpnI capsule loci, contributing to the documented escape of pneumococci from capsule-based vaccines. Generally, this finding is the first evidence for a mechanism that actively promotes genetic diversity of S. pneumoniae through programmed protection and incorporation of foreign DNA.

Johnston, Calum; Martin, Bernard; Granadel, Chantal; Polard, Patrice; Claverys, Jean-Pierre

2013-01-01

437

Programmed protection of foreign DNA from restriction allows pathogenicity island exchange during pneumococcal transformation.  

PubMed

In bacteria, transformation and restriction-modification (R-M) systems play potentially antagonistic roles. While the former, proposed as a form of sexuality, relies on internalized foreign DNA to create genetic diversity, the latter degrade foreign DNA to protect from bacteriophage attack. The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is transformable and possesses either of two R-M systems, DpnI and DpnII, which respectively restrict methylated or unmethylated double-stranded (ds) DNA. S. pneumoniae DpnII strains possess DpnM, which methylates dsDNA to protect it from DpnII restriction, and a second methylase, DpnA, which is induced during competence for genetic transformation and is unusual in that it methylates single-stranded (ss) DNA. DpnA was tentatively ascribed the role of protecting internalized plasmids from DpnII restriction, but this seems unlikely in light of recent results establishing that pneumococcal transformation was not evolved to favor plasmid exchange. Here we validate an alternative hypothesis, showing that DpnA plays a crucial role in the protection of internalized foreign DNA, enabling exchange of pathogenicity islands and more generally of variable regions between pneumococcal isolates. We show that transformation of a 21.7 kb heterologous region is reduced by more than 4 logs in dpnA mutant cells and provide evidence that the specific induction of dpnA during competence is critical for full protection. We suggest that the integration of a restrictase/ssDNA-methylase couplet into the competence regulon maintains protection from bacteriophage attack whilst simultaneously enabling exchange of pathogenicicy islands. This protective role of DpnA is likely to be of particular importance for pneumococcal virulence by allowing free variation of capsule serotype in DpnII strains via integration of DpnI capsule loci, contributing to the documented escape of pneumococci from capsule-based vaccines. Generally, this finding is the first evidence for a mechanism that actively promotes genetic diversity of S. pneumoniae through programmed protection and incorporation of foreign DNA. PMID:23459610

Johnston, Calum; Martin, Bernard; Granadel, Chantal; Polard, Patrice; Claverys, Jean-Pierre

2013-02-14

438

Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) program : implementing physical security to protect large radioactive sources worldwide.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) Program strives to reduce the threat of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD) incident that could affect U.S. interests worldwide. Sandia National Laboratories supports the RTR program on many different levels. Sandia works directly with DOE to develop strategies, including the selection of countries to receive support and the identification of radioactive materials to be protected. Sandia also works with DOE in the development of guidelines and in training DOE project managers in physical protection principles. Other support to DOE includes performing rapid assessments and providing guidance for establishing foreign regulatory and knowledge infrastructure. Sandia works directly with foreign governments to establish cooperative agreements necessary to implement the RTR Program efforts to protect radioactive sources. Once necessary agreements are in place, Sandia works with in-country organizations to implement various security related initiatives, such as installing security systems and searching for (and securing) orphaned radioactive sources. The radioactive materials of interest to the RTR program include Cobalt 60, Cesium 137, Strontium 90, Iridium 192, Radium 226, Plutonium 238, Americium 241, Californium 252, and Others. Security systems are implemented using a standardized approach that provides consistency through out the RTR program efforts at Sandia. The approach incorporates a series of major tasks that overlap in order to provide continuity. The major task sequence is to: Establish in-country contacts - integrators, Obtain material characterizations, Perform site assessments and vulnerability assessments, Develop upgrade plans, Procure and install equipment, Conduct acceptance testing and performance testing, Develop procedures, and Conduct training. Other tasks are incorporated as appropriate and commonly include such as support of reconfiguring infrastructure, and developing security plans, etc. This standardized approach is applied to specific country and regional needs. Recent examples (FY 2003-2004) include foreign missions to Lithuania, Russian Federation Navy, Russia - PNPI, Greece (joint mission with IAEA), Tanzania, Iraq, Chile, Ecuador, and Egypt. Some of the ambitions and results of the RTR program may be characterized by the successes in Lithuania, Greece, and Russia.

Lowe, Daniel L.

2004-11-01

439

Radiation Protection Considerations at USACE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Projects  

SciTech Connect

The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was initially authorized by Congress in 1974. FUSRAP was enacted to address residual radioactive contamination associated with numerous sites across the U.S. at which radioactive material (primarily Uranium ores and related milling products) had been processed in support of the nation's nuclear weapons program dating back to the Manhattan Project and the period immediately following World War II. In October 1997, Congress transferred the management of this program from the Department of Energy to the United States Corp of Engineers. Through this program, the Corps addresses the environmental remediation of certain sites once used by DOE's predecessor agencies, the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. The waste at FUSRAP sites consists mainly of low levels of uranium, thorium and radium, along with some mixed wastes. Upon completion of remedial activities, these sites are transferred to DOE for long-term stewardship activities. This paper presents and contrasts the radiological conditions and recent monitoring results associated with five large ongoing FUSRAP projects including Maywood, N.J.; the Linde site near Buffalo, N.Y.; Colonie in Albany N.Y. and the St Louis, Mo. airport and downtown sites. The radiological characteristics of soil and debris at each site and respective regulatory clean up criteria is presented and contrasted. Some differences are discussed in the radiological characteristics of material at some sites that result in variations in radiation protection monitoring programs. Additionally, summary data for typical personnel radiation exposure monitoring results are presented. In summary: 1. The FUSRAP projects for which data and observations are reported in this paper are considered typical of the radiological nature of FUSRAP sites in general. 2. These sites are characterized by naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides in soil and debris, at concentrations typically < E4 pCi/ gram total activity. 3. Although external exposure rates are generally low resulting in few exposures above background, occasional 'hot spots' are observed in the 1- 10 mR / hr range or higher. However personnel and general area external exposure monitoring programs consistently demonstrate very low potential for external exposure at theses sites. 4. Potential for airborne exposure is controlled by wetting and misting techniques during excavation and movement of materials. Air sampling and bioassay programs confirm low potential for airborne exposure of workers at these sites. 5. Radiation protection and health physics monitoring programs as implemented at these sites ensure that exposures to personal are maintained ALARA. (authors)

Brown, S.H. [CHP, SHB INC., Centennial, Colorado (United States)

2008-07-01

440

Model-derived dose rates per unit concentration of radon in air in a generic plant geometry.  

PubMed

A model for the derivation of dose rates per unit radon concentration in plants was developed in line with the activities of a Task Group of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), aimed at developing more realistic dosimetry for non-human biota. The model considers interception of the unattached and attached fractions of the airborne radon daughters by plant stomata, diffusion of radon gas through stomata, permeation through the plant's epidermis and translocation of deposited activity to plant interior. The endpoint of the model is the derivation of dose conversion coefficients relative to radon gas concentration at ground level. The model predicts that the main contributor to dose is deposition of (214)Po ?-activity on the plant surface and that diffusion of radon daughters through the stomata is of relatively minor importance; hence, daily variations have a small effect on total dose. PMID:21739195

Vives i Batlle, J; Smith, A; Vives-Lynch, S; Copplestone, D; Prhl, G; Strand, T

2011-07-08

441

{sup 210}Po as a long-term integrating radon indicator in the indoor environment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to radon (Rn-222) decay products in the indoor environment is suspected of being a significant lung cancer agent in many countries. But quantification of the contemporary lung cancer risk (i.e. probability) on an individual basis is not an easy task. Only past exposures are relevant and assessing individual exposures in retrospect is associated with large uncertainties, if possible at all. One way to extend the validity of contemporary measurements to past decades is to measure long-lived decay products of radon, the long-lived radon daughters. After our laboratory had exemplified the correlation between implanted Po-210 and the estimated radon exposures in six different dwellings, the US Department of Energy and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute granted funds for a one-year study, ``{sup 210}Po as a Long-Term Integrating Radon Indicator in the Indoor Environment.`` In this report the work performed under these two contracts is reported.

Not Available

1992-12-31

442

Development and demonstration of indoor radon-reduction measures for 10 homes in Clinton, New Jersey. Final report, April 1986January 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the development and demonstration of indoor radon reduction methods for 10 houses in Clinton, New Jersey, where (in the spring of 1986) the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) located a cluster of houses with extremely high radon levels. The work was to be completed before the 1986-87 winter heating season began. The demonstration houses were

L. D. Michaels; T. Brennan; A. S. Viner; A. Mattes; W. Turner

1987-01-01

443

Radon monitoring technique with electret collecting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The integrating radon monitoring technique with electret collecting is a method which collects the (sup 218)Po(sup +) positive ions by electrostatic field produced by electret. It has greatly improved the sensitivity of radon measurement. The response fac...

Z. Tian F. Zuo D. Xiao X. Zhao

1991-01-01

444

Monitoring before and after radon mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses a radon reduction demonstration project in 1986 on 10 houses in Clinton, NJ. As part of this effort, radon was measured before and after radon-reduction techniques were applied. The purpose of the measurements was to ascertain the effectiveness of the radon-control methods being used. Since radon concentrations are normally highest in a depressurized house (commonly observed during cold winter months), efforts were made to emulate winter depressurization. Before radon-reduction techniques were applied, four houses were tested using a common window fan to induce 7 Pa of negative pressure. Results of these tests showed that fan-induced negative pressure has a dramatic impact on radon concentrations. For some houses, this technique was shown to adequately emulate winter-time radon entry rates during warm summer months. Potential problems that may cause this technique to fail in some houses were identified.

Brennan, T.; Osborne, M.C.

1987-03-01

445

Air change rates by temporal radon measurements-application and evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Protection Agency report 629/5-87/019 (Ref. 1) states that the most effective means by which a homeowner can reduce radon levels is to increase the ventilation rate, and the report specifies the measurement of house ventilation rate as a worthwhile diagnostic test to aid in the selection and design of remedial action. A method was previously proposed for determining air change rates (ACHRs) directly by measuring temporal radon behavior. We report extensive additional measurements made by the radon method and simultaneously by the conventional tracer gas decay method (using SF[sub 6]): three measurements in a test room containing a constant radon source [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)-calibrated [sup 226]Ra] and natural building ventilation rates seventeen measurements in four single-family, detached houses with basements.

Leonard, B.E. (International Academy of Hi-Tech Services, Arnold, MD (United States))

1993-01-01

446

Expert systems: A new approach to radon mitigation training and quality assurance  

SciTech Connect

Training radon mitigators and ensuring that they provide high-quality work on the scale necessary to reduce radon to acceptable levels in the large number of homes and schools requiring some mitigation is a challenging problem. The US Environmental Protection Agency and several states have made commendable efforts to train mitigators and ensure that they provide quality services to the public. Expert systems could be used to extend and improve the effectiveness of these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the radon community to this promising new technology. The paper includes a description of a prototype system developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory that illustrates several of the capabilities that expert systems can provide, a brief explanation of how the prototype works, and a discussion of the potential roles and benefits of fully-developed expert systems for radon mitigation. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Brambley, M.R.; Hanlon, R.L.; Parker, G.B.

1990-07-01

447

Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program - Part IV: Onsite review handbook  

SciTech Connect

Onsite Review Handbook contains criteria to be used in evaluating the management systems required for initial or continued participation in the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP), verifying and calculating rates of injury experience, the Onsite Review report format, and sample questions to be used during onsite interviews. This document should be used in conjunction with the first three DOE-VPP manuals (Part I: Program Elements, Part II: Procedures Manual, and Part III: Application Guidelines). This document is intended to assist Onsite Review team members and DOE contractors in evaluating safety and health programs, and to serve as guidance for DOE-VPP participants in performing their required annual evaluation. Requests for additional information or any questions may be addressed to a DOE-VPP Coordinator in the Office of Occupational Safety and Health Policy. The term contractor used throughout this document refers to an applicant to, or a participant in, the DOE-VPP. The term subcontractor refers to any organization that is contracted by the applicant or participant to do work at the site under review. The DOE-VPP Onsite Review Criteria contained in Appendix A provide guidance for evaluating a site`s implementation of the program requirements given in Part I: Program Elements. The program requirements are in bold italicized type, followed by guidance for ensuring implementation. Part I should be consulted for a complete description of the program requirements. These criteria should be used by team members whenever possible, but are not intended to be all inclusive. Determination of adequate implementation of the DOE-VPP requirements is at the team members` discretion. Guidance for calculating recordable injury and lost workday incidence rates is contained in Appendix B. The OSHA injury/illness records review and the associated calculations should be performed by Onsite Review Team members during the pre-onsite planning visit.

NONE

1995-07-01

448

Radon adsorption on an aerogel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon is an important radioactive gas, responsible for environmental exposures and subsequent impact on human health. It is a Noble gas and under most circumstances is not chemically reactive. Its physical properties and resultant behavior, however, may not be simple in all cases, especially where barriers to free diffusion are present, or when encountering materials with special properties. The importance of radon comes from its radioactivity, by imparting energy in material after decay, with resulting damage to living tissue. Transport in the environment is controlled by its physical properties, since it is chemically inert. Aerogels made of silica glass are a relatively new material with the unique property of having a very large surface area, on the order of hundreds of m2 per gram, compared to the exterior surface of the bulk volume of typical solid materials. Insight may be gained into the behavior of both radon and unique materials by observing how radon interacts with such materials. Silica aerogel monoliths with bulk densities of approximately 0.25 g cm-3 were manufactured and exposed to radon gas diffusing freely into the gel using a closed chamber. Measurements were taken while allowing the gas to diffuse out of the gel. Radon is found to diffuse out of the sample chamber at about the same rate when a gel material is present as from an empty chamber. Long-term measurements show radioactivity (from progeny) remains present leading to the conclusion that, the radon may have penetrated some distance into the gel. This leaves open the possibility of applying aerogels as a radon detector. The aerogel manufactured in this study did not preferentially absorb radon. Some evidence suggests that radon may have penetrated the surface however, based on increased long-term radioactivity. Doping the gel with cerium salts, known to cause glass produced by melting processes to scintillate when exposed to ionizing radiation did not produce observable light signal distinguishable from Cerenkov radiation, thereby excluding the hypothesis that the cerium will scintillate in the current arrangement.

Schopfer, Carl J.

449

Uranium mining industry views on ICRP statement on radon.  

PubMed

In 2009, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on radon which stated that the dose conversion factor for radon progeny would likely double, and the calculation of risk from radon should move to a dosimetric approach, rather than the longstanding epidemiological approach. Through the World Nuclear Association, whose members represent over 90% of the world's uranium production, industry has been examining this issue with a goal of offering expertise and knowledge to assist with the practical implementation of these evolutionary changes to evaluating the risk from radon progeny. Industry supports the continuing use of the most current epidemiological data as a basis for risk calculation, but believes that further examination of these results is needed to better understand the level of conservatism in the potential epidemiological-based risk models. With regard to adoption of the dosimetric approach, industry believes that further work is needed before this is a practical option. In particular, this work should include a clear demonstration of the validation of the dosimetric model which includes how smoking is handled, the establishment of a practical measurement protocol, and the collection of relevant data for modern workplaces. Industry is actively working to address the latter two items. PMID:23089039

Takala, J

2012-08-22

450

Radon removal from flowing air by a water scrubber  

SciTech Connect

As part of a process that is being developed to vitrify tailings from Belgian Congo ore that is stored in large silos at a former U.S. Department of Energy uranium-processing facility in southwestern Ohio, process off-gas is produced that contains large concentrations of radon gas (on the order of hundreds of thousands of picocuries per litre). To meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency restrictions, the process off-gas must be stripped of its radon content before it is vented to the atmosphere. It is appropriate to consider a charcoal bed as part of an off-gas treatment system for the removal of radon at the vitrification facility. However, a difficulty arises in incorporating a charcoal bed into an off-gas treatment system at a vitrification facility. That difficulty is that the capability of the charcoal bed to capture and retain radon gas decreases with increasing bed temperature. Thus, it may be necessary to include a water scrubber in the off-gas treatment system to cool the process off-gas before it is passed through the charcoal bed.

Blue, T.E.; Jarzemba, M.S.; Fentiman, A.W.; Denison, J.E.

1994-12-31

451

Radon Update: Facts concerning environmental radon: Levels, mitigation strategies, dosimetry, effects and guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk from environmental radon levels is not higher now than in the past, when residential exposures were not considered to be a significant health hazard. The majority of the radon dose is not from radon itself, but from short-lived alpha-emitting radon daughters, most notably ²¹⁸Po (T{sub ½}3min) and ²¹⁴Po(T{sub ½}19.7 min). Radon gas can penetrate homes from many sources

A. B. Brill; D. V. Becker; K. Donahoe

1994-01-01

452

Do radon-proof membranes reduce radon levels adequately in new houses?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current UK Building Regulations specify the installation of radon-proofing, typically by means of an impermeable membrane, in new homes constructed in Radon Affected Areas. Radon levels were measured in 64 recently-constructed dwellings in the village of Brixworth, Northamptonshire, an area designated as a Radon Affected Area in 1992, all of which were known to have had radon-proof membranes installed during

P. S. Phillips

453

Radon and radon daughters in homes utilizing deep well water supplies, Halifax County, Nova Scotia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of radon in tap water supplies varied from 47 nCi\\/1 to 370 nCi\\/1. Indoor air concentrations varied from <0.5 pCi\\/1 to 19.1 pCi\\/1 and 0.001 WL to 0.025 WL for radon and radon daughters, respectively. The transfer of radon from tap water raised the radon concentration in the bathroom air during operation of the shower. Transfer efficiencies of

R. G. McGregor; L. A. Gourgon

1980-01-01

454

Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0+/-14.2 Bq/m3, 83.4+/-6.0 Bq/m3, 61.6+/-6.4 Bq/m3, 63.7+/-5.4 Bq/m3 and 87.5+/-6.Bq/m3 and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m3, 5.5 Bq/m3, 1.1 Bq/m3, 1.0 Bq/m3 and 24 Bq/m3 respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm-3 set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The ``within regions'' (different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region ``1'' (p = 0.783) and versus region ``5'' (P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region ``3'' ( P = 0.0160) and also versus region ``4'' (p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other regions are near to the Al-Thuwayrat sands.

Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R.

2011-10-01

455

Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0{+-}14.2 Bq/m{sup 3}, 83.4{+-}6.0 Bq/m{sup 3}, 61.6{+-}6.4 Bq/m{sup 3}, 63.7{+-}5.4 Bq/m{sup 3} and 87.5{+-}6.Bq/m{sup 3} and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m{sup 3}, 5.5 Bq/m{sup 3}, 1.1 Bq/m{sup 3}, 1.0 Bq/m{sup 3} and 24 Bq/m{sup 3} respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm{sup -3} set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The ''within regions''(different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region ''1''(p = 0.783) and versus region ''5''(P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region ''3''(P = 0.0160) and also versus region ''4''(p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other regions are near to the Al-Thuwayrat sands.

Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

2011-10-27

456

FoxO3a Directs a Protective Autophagy Program in Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Blood production is ensured by rare self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). How HSCs accommodate the diverse cellular stresses associated with their life-long activity remains elusive. Here, we identify autophagy as an essential mechanism protecting HSCs from metabolic stress. We show that HSCs, in contrast to their short-lived myeloid progeny, robustly induce autophagy following ex vivo cytokine withdrawal and in vivo caloric restriction. We demonstrate that FoxO3a is critical to maintain a gene expression program that poise HSCs for rapid induction of autophagy upon starvation. Notably, we find that old HSCs retain an intact FoxO3a-driven pro-autophagy gene program, and that ongoing autophagy is needed to mitigate an energy crisis and allow their survival. Our results demonstrate that autophagy is essential for the life-long maintenance of the HSC compartment and for supporting an old, failing blood system.

Warr, Matthew R.; Binnewies, Mikhail; Flach, Johanna; Reynaud, Damien; Garg, Trit; Malhotra, Ritu; Debnath, Jayanta; Passegue, Emmanuelle

2013-01-01

457

BLISS: a computer program for the protection of blood donors. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

A BASIC program has been developed for the Hewlett-Packard Model 9845 desk-top computer which allows the creation of blood donor files for subsequent retrieval, update, and correction. A similar modified version was developed for hte HP 9835 Model. This software system has been called BLISS which stands for Blood Information and Security System. In addition to its function as a file management system, BLISS provides warnings before a donation is performed to protect the donor from excessive exposure to radioactivity and DMSO levels, from too frequent of donations of blood, and from adverse reactions. The program can also be used to select donors who have participated in specific studies and to list the experimental details which have been stored in the file. The BLISS system has been actively utilized at the Naval Blood Research Laboratory in Boston and contains the files of over 750 donors.

Catsimpoolas, N.; Cooke, C.; Valeri, C.R.

1982-06-28

458

1993 radon intercomparison exercise at PSI.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of a radon intercomparison exercise conducted at the PSI radon chamber from November 8 to November 26, 1993. Three-day exposure intervals with mean radon gas concentration levels of 240, 830 and 2200 Bqm(sup -3) as well a...

C. Schuler

1994-01-01

459

PRELIMINARY DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES FOR RADON CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes analytical procedures for diagnosing radon entry mechanisms into buildings. These diagnostic methods are generally based on the premise that pressure-driven flow of radon-bearing soil gas into buildings is the most significant source of radon in houses with e...

460

REENTRY OF RADON FROM MITIGATION SYSTEM OUTLETS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of the measurement of reentry rates for radon released at roof level and at ground level near a house, to determine whether or not exhaust is necessary above the roof. (NOTE: Some radon mitigation systems draw air with a high radon concentration from under...

461

Radon-hazard potential of Utah  

SciTech Connect

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas formed by decay of uranium, and occurs in nearly all geologic materials. Although radon has been shown to be a significant cause of lung cancer in miners, the health hazard from accumulation of radon gas in buildings has only recently been recognized. Indoor-radon hazards depend on both geologic and non-geologic factors. Although non-geologic factors such as construction type, weather, and lifestyles are difficult to measure, geologic factors such as uranium concentration, soil permeability, and depth to ground water can be quantified. Uranium-enriched geologic materials, such as black shales, marine sandstones, and certain granitic, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks, are generally associated with a high radon-hazard potential. Impermeable soil or shallow ground water impedes radon movement and is generally associated with a low radon-hazard potential. A numerical rating system based on these geologic factors has been developed to map radon-hazard potential in Utah. A statewide map shows that the radon-hazard potential of Utah is generally moderate. Assessments of hazard potential from detailed field investigations correlate well with areas of this map. Central Utah has the highest radon-hazard potential, primarily due to uranium-enriched Tertiary volcanic rocks. The radon-hazard potential of eastern Utah is moderate to high, but is generally restricted by low uranium levels. Western Utah, where valley basins with impermeable soils and shallow ground water are common, has the lowest radon-hazard potential.

Black, B.D.; Solomon, B.J. (Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1993-04-01

462

Reducing Radon in Schools: A Team Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents the process of radon diagnostics and mitigation in schools to help educators determine the best way to reduce elevated radon levels found in a school. The guidebook is designed to guide school leaders through the process of measuring radon levels, selecting the best mitigation strategy, and directing the efforts of a

Ligman, Bryan K.; Fisher, Eugene J.

463

Is Your School Safe from Radon?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Radon is a natural, chemically inert, radioactive gas that can seep to the surface from underground rocks. As many as 20,000 lung cancer deaths in the U.S. each year may be radon-caused. Screening a school for radon is not difficult and may be done on weekends. It's safer for students and staff to test and be sure. (MLH)|

Martin, Paul

1990-01-01

464

Retrospective determination of radon in houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1970s it was statistically proved that exposure to radon daughter products caused lung cancer in miners1. High concentrations of radon daughters have since been found in houses. Any epidemiological radon study begun today is hampered because relevant exposure data are difficult to obtain owing to the long latency period between exposure and tumour manifestation. Here I present a

Christer Samuelsson

1988-01-01

465

Sampling the 2-D Radon transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radon transform of a bivariate function, which has application in tomographic imaging, has traditionally been viewed as a parametrized univariate function. In this paper, the Radon transform is instead viewed as a bivariate function and two-dimensional sampling theory is used to address sampling and information content issues. It is Shown that the band region of the Radon transform of

P. Rattey; A. Lindgren

1981-01-01

466

Indoor radon and lung cancer in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon has long been known to contribute to risk of lung cancer, especially in undergound miners who are exposed to large amounts of the carcinogen. Recently, however, lower amounts of radon present in living areas have been suggested as an important cause of lung cancer. In an effort to clarify the relationship of low amounts of radon with lung cancer

W. J. Blot; Z.-Y. Xu; J. D. Jr. Boice; D.-Z. Zhao; B. J. Stone; J. Sun; L.-B. Jing; J. F. Jr. Fraumeni

1990-01-01

467

Reentry of Radon from Mitigation System Outlets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some radon mitigation systems draw air with a high radon concentration from under the basement floors of houses and exhaust it outdoors. The objective of the project was to measure reentry rates for radon released at roof level and at ground level near a ...