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1

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROGRAM TO DEMONSTRATE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR INDOOR RADON: INITIAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives initial results of an EPA program to demonstrate mitigation measures for indoor radon. EPA has installed radon mitigation techniques in 18 concrete block basement homes in the Reading Prong area of eastern Pennsylvania, all designed to demonstrate techniques which...

2

Environmental Protection Agency: Radon (Rn)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Indoor Air Quality division of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) presents this Web page dedicated to information about radon, the colorless and odorless radioactive known to cause lung cancer. In addition to general resources on radon (including a guide to reducing radon levels in the home), visitors will find information on how to obtain a free educational video (Breathing Easy: What Home Buyers and Sellers Should Know About Radon) recently released by the EPA. Geared primarily toward homebuyers and sellers (as well as real estate professionals), this video thoroughly reviews radon science, lung cancer risk, home inspection, how to build a new home radon-resistant, and more.

3

30 CFR 57.5046 - Protection against radon gas.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection against radon gas. 57.5046 Section 57.5046 Mineral Resources...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5046 Protection against radon gas. Where radon daughter concentrations exceed 10 WL, respirator...

2014-07-01

4

30 CFR 57.5046 - Protection against radon gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection against radon gas. 57.5046 Section 57.5046 Mineral Resources...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5046 Protection against radon gas. Where radon daughter concentrations exceed 10 WL, respirator...

2010-07-01

5

30 CFR 57.5046 - Protection against radon gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection against radon gas. 57.5046 Section 57.5046 Mineral Resources...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5046 Protection against radon gas. Where radon daughter concentrations exceed 10 WL, respirator...

2012-07-01

6

30 CFR 57.5046 - Protection against radon gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection against radon gas. 57.5046 Section 57.5046 Mineral Resources...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5046 Protection against radon gas. Where radon daughter concentrations exceed 10 WL, respirator...

2011-07-01

7

30 CFR 57.5046 - Protection against radon gas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection against radon gas. 57.5046 Section 57.5046 Mineral Resources...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5046 Protection against radon gas. Where radon daughter concentrations exceed 10 WL, respirator...

2013-07-01

8

American Lung Association`s radon public information program  

SciTech Connect

The American Lung Association (ALA), the nation`s oldest voluntary health organization, is dedicated to the conquest of lung disease and the promotion of lung health. The objective of the ALA Radon Public Information Program is to reduce public exposure to elevated indoor radon levels through implementing grassroots-based radon public awareness campaigns by 22 local ALA groups. The program, which is funded by a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was initiated in December 1989; the first phase will continue until May, 1991. Activities of local Lung Associations include distribution of free or reduced-cost radon kits; presenting programs in elementary and secondary schools; presenting information on TV news series and talk shows, and on radio Public Service Announcements and talk shows; presenting articles and feature stories in the print media; holding conferences, workshops, and displays at fairs and other exhibitions; distributing radon fact sheets through libraries and utility company mailings; and distributing videos through video chains and libraries. The local Lung Associations also serve as promoters for the EPA/Advertising Council Radon Public Service Announcement Campaign. We will highlight the activities of the groups in communicating radon health risks to the public; we will describe the results obtained and will attempt to evaluate the merits of the various approaches on the basis of the initial results.

McCurdy, L.E. [American Lung Association, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-12-31

9

Feasibility and approach for mapping radon potentials in Florida. Florida Radon Research Program. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of an analysis of the feasibility and approach for developing statewide maps of radon potentials in Florida. The maps would provide a geographic basis for implementing new radon-protective building construction standards to reduce public health risks from exposure to radon. In this new mapping approach, variations in indoor radon are partitioned by source, house, and time

K. K. Nielson; V. C. Rogers

1991-01-01

10

Radon program of the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

The Radon Program of the Czech Republic 2010-2019--Action Plan is based on Governmental Decision No. 594/2009 (Radon Program of the Czech Republic 2010-2019--Action Plan, Government of the Czech Republic, Decision No. 594/2009, May 4 2009) and is coordinated by the State Office for Nuclear Safety. It covers both prevention in new house construction and intervention in existing houses with high indoor radon concentration. The Program is aimed at developing an effective public information system. It takes advantage of long-term experience and good scientific and technological background-staff, methods, standards and technologies. PMID:24714113

Petrová, K; Pravdová, E

2014-07-01

11

Environmental Protection Agency 195.2 PART 195--RADON PROFICIENCY  

E-print Network

in a program. Device/measurement device means a unit, component, or system designed to measure radon gas or radon decay products encompassing similar meas- urement devices, sampling techniques, or analysis, whose proficiency program application EPA has accepted. Primary measurement services (primary) refers

12

Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2005–2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen. Methods We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms “radon,” “radiation,” or “lung.” Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC program’s most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state. Results Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n = 21), remediation (n = 11), support radon policy activities (n = 13), and policy evaluation (n = 1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n = 21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws. Conclusion Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs. PMID:23928457

Stewart, Sherri L.; Angell, William

2013-01-01

13

Radon (Rn)  

MedlinePLUS

... Your state radon office can help | Radon Hotlines Radon Leaders Saving Lives Leaders from The Conference of ... the CERTI site) . Protecting People and Families from Radon Protecting People and Families From Radon: A Federal ...

14

STANDARD MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual, in support of the Florida Radon Research Program, contains standard protocols for key measurements where data quality is vital to the program. t contains two sections. he first section, soil measurements, contains field sampling protocols for soil gas permeability and...

15

DEVELOPMENT OF A RADON PROTECTION MAP FOR LARGE BUILDINGS IN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the development of a radon protection map to show from soil and geological features the areas of Florida that require different levels of Radon protection for large building construction. The map was proposed as a basis for implementing radon-protective const...

16

FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM: TECHNICAL SUPPORT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RADON RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the technical direction of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP), its current objectives, and accomplishments to date. he 1988 Florida Legislature mandated the development of standards for the construction of radon resistant buildings. In support of this d...

17

Citizen's Guide to Radon: The Guide to Protecting Yourself and Your Family from Radon  

MedlinePLUS

... may also work in your home. The right system depends on the design of your home and other factors. Ways to ... proficiency programs and more. If you need further information about radon ... Asked Questions system at http://iaq.supportportal.com and select the ...

18

SUPPLEMENT TO: STANDARD MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report supplements earlier published standard protocols for key measurements where data quality is vital to the Florida Radon Research Program. The report adds measurements of small canister radon flux and soil water potential to the section on soil measurements. It adds indo...

19

Radon inhalation protects against transient global cerebral ischemic injury in gerbils.  

PubMed

Although brain disorders are not the main indication for radon therapy, our previous study suggested that radon inhalation therapy might mitigate brain disorders. In this study, we assessed whether radon inhalation protects against transient global cerebral ischemic injury in gerbils. Gerbils were treated with inhaled radon at a concentration of 2,000 Bq/m(3) for 24 h. After radon inhalation, transient global cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery. Results showed that transient global cerebral ischemia induced neuronal damage in hippocampal CA1, and the number of damaged neurons was significantly increased compared with control. However, radon treatment inhibited ischemic damage. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the radon-treated gerbil brain was significantly higher than that in sham-operated gerbils. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activates antioxidative function, especially SOD, thereby inhibiting transient global cerebral ischemic injury in gerbils. PMID:24792782

Kataoka, Takahiro; Etani, Reo; Takata, Yuji; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kawabe, Atsushi; Kumashiro, Masayuki; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

2014-10-01

20

[Information and involvement in health risks exemplified by a radon survey program].  

PubMed

As part of a large-scale radon testing program in homes for the region of the Southern Districts of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) planned by the then West German Federal Ministry of the Environment, Natural Conservation and Reactor Safety and carried out by the Institute of Water, Soil and Air Hygiene (WaBoLu) of the West German Federal Health Office (BGA) in cooperation with the West German Federal Office for Environmental Protection (BfS) and the East German State Office for Atomic Safety (SAAS), the author (then employed at WaBoLu) was responsible for conducting the radon testing in the town of Schlema near the Czechoslovakian border in Southern Saxony. During preparatory work in this town in the fall of 1990, the author noted that the local population was very concerned about their potential radon problem. In the months previously, reports in newspapers and television had frequently pointed out the dangers to health of living in this region, often citing examples of particularly high radon levels from the area. Before the "opening" of the GDR to a free press in the fall of 1989, the local population had heard virtually nothing from the authorities about radon--neither of the possible health risk in general, nor of their own personal radon levels at home. This, together with the lack of experience of East Germans generally to evaluate critically and objectively information from the free press, had led to particularly high levels of anxiety and worry among the local population, even before radon concentrations in homes were known. In the light of these circumstances, the author decided to carry out the radon program with the help of the local school children. These children, aged 13 to 17, were entrusted with the task of carrying out the radon testing using a simple method developed by WaBoLu in all homes of the town. In class, they were informed not only about this testing method, but also about radon generally. It was hoped that, while testing in homes, the school children would pass on this knowledge to the homeowners and thus act as informal "multipliers" of correct information about radon. The approach taken is an example of how environmental hygiene and prevention-oriented environmental medicine could better handle environmental health risks that can be influenced by the individual. It is necessary to become more aware of the fact that all information intended to motivate individuals to protect themselves against environmental health risks may cause at the same time high levels of anxiety.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8456258

Hazard, B P

1993-01-01

21

Radon  

MedlinePLUS

... been raised about the radon released indoors from granite countertops or tiles. However, these sources are rarely ... 2014). [ 2] "What about Radon and Radioactivity in Granite Countertops?" Find Answers (page 1 of 16). http:// ...

22

Radon  

MedlinePLUS

You can't see radon. And you can't smell it or taste it. But it may be a problem in your home. Radon comes from the natural breakdown of uranium in soil, rock, and water. Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer ...

23

SOIL AND FILL LABORATORY SUPPORT - 1991, FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of soil analysis laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). nalyses were performed on soil and fill samples collected during 1991 by the FRRP Research House program and the New House Evaluation pr...

24

Radon.  

PubMed

Radon is a radioactive gas that emanates from uranium-bearing soil and porous rock. Although radon is most highly concentrated in areas of high uranium concentration, the presence of trace amounts of uranium in most ground sources means that all humans are exposed to radon to some degree. Radon migrates out of soil and rock into the surrounding air, resulting in accumulation in poorly ventilated or closed areas. Such areas represent the primary environments in which humans are exposed to radioactivity from radon to experience detrimental health effects. There is no convincing evidence that any cancers other than lung cancer are associated with exposure to radon. There is, on the other hand, consistent evidence of a substantially elevated risk of lung cancer among Canadians exposed to radon in certain occupational settings, particularly uranium mining. While the combined evidence for a positive association between residential radon exposure and lung cancer is less compelling, the inherent methodological difficulties in mounting such studies may render it impossible for any single study to detect the relationship more conclusively. The best available evidence to date from pooled analyses indicates a positive, but weak association between residential radon and lung cancer risk. Residential radon is of critical importance because it is ubiquitous; a small excess risk that may exist in relation to radon exposures encountered in a residential setting translates into the potential for a far greater number of excess cancers in the general population than does exposure of a relatively small number of miners, even though the latter may be exposed to much higher levels of ionizing radiation. Fortunately, a number of techniques are available to homeowners to reduce radon concentrations in their homes. PMID:21199598

Bissett, Randall J; McLaughlin, John R

2010-01-01

25

Fire Protection Program Manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

Sharry, J A

2012-05-18

26

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NEW INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS IN SWISS LEGISLATION ON RADON PROTECTION IN DWELLINGS.  

PubMed

The current revision of the Swiss Radiological Protection Ordinance aims to bring Swiss legislation in line with new international standards. In future, the control of radon exposure in dwellings will be based on a reference level of 300 Bq m(-3). Since this value is exceeded in >10 % of the buildings so far investigated nationwide, the new strategy requires the development of efficient measures to reduce radon-related health risks at an acceptable cost. The minimisation of radon concentrations in new buildings is therefore of great importance. This can be achieved, for example, through the enforcement of building regulations and the education of construction professionals. With regard to radon mitigation in existing buildings, synergies with the ongoing renewal of the building stock should be exploited. In addition, the dissemination of knowledge about radon and its risks needs to be focused on specific target groups, e.g. notaries, who play an important information role in real estate transactions. PMID:25342610

Palacios Gruson, Martha; Barazza, Fabio; Murith, Christophe; Ryf, Salome

2014-10-23

27

Radon  

MedlinePLUS

... in small amounts in most rock, soil, and water. Each atom of uranium or thorium decays or transforms about a dozen times, each time expelling radiation and forming a different element with different radioactive properties. Radium and then radon are formed midway through ...

28

AN OVERVIEW OF INDOOR RADON RISK REDUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Radon in the indoor environment is a recognized environmental hazard. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established several programs to develop, demonstrate, and transfer radon mitigation technology. Administration and management of these programs are shared by EPA's ...

29

Human Research Protection Program Plan  

E-print Network

Human Research Protection Program Plan Revised February 27, 2014 #12;Human Research Protection............................................................................................................... 4 Engaged in Human Research...................................................................................... 4 Human Research

Weber, David J.

30

Home Safety: Radon Gas  

E-print Network

Every home should be tested for radon, an invisible, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally. Radon is estimated to be the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States. However, with proper equipment, radon is easy to detect... poten- tial for radon (Fig. 1), homes in Texas have been found to have radon levels that exceed U.S. Environ- mental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations. Every home is susceptible to a radon gas problem. Health/cancer risks Radon produces...

Shaw, Bryan W.; Denny, Monica L.

1999-11-12

31

Fire Protection Systems Program Program Manual  

E-print Network

Fire Protection Systems Program Program Manual Approved by: (name) Last revised by: (name) Revision ................................................................................................................. 3 7.1.1 Job Plan: Fire Pump Testing/Impairment................................................................................ 3 7.1.4 Job Plan: Weekly/Monthly Fire Pump Runs

Pawlowski, Wojtek

32

Where Can Radon Be Found? Radoncomesfromthenaturalradioactivedecayofradium  

E-print Network

Where Can Radon Be Found? · RadoncomesfromthenaturalradioactivedecayofradiumProtectionAgencywebsite:www.epa. gov/radon/states/virginia.html.Themountainand Piedmontregionsof Effects of Radon? Radonisthesecondleadingcauseoflungcancer

Liskiewicz, Maciej

33

Assessment of the effectiveness of radon screening programs in reducing lung cancer mortality.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at assessing the health consequences of the presence of radon in Quebec homes and the possible impact of various screening programs on lung cancer mortality. Lung cancer risk due to this radioactive gas was estimated according to the cancer risk model developed by the Sixth Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations. Objective data on residential radon exposure, population mobility, and tobacco use in the study population were integrated into a Monte-Carlo-type model. Participation rates to radon screening programs were estimated from published data. According to the model used, approximately 10% of deaths due to lung cancer are attributable to residential radon exposure on a yearly basis in Quebec. In the long term, the promotion of a universal screening program would prevent less than one death/year on a province-wide scale (0.8 case; IC 99%: -3.6 to 5.2 cases/year), for an overall reduction of 0.19% in radon-related mortality. Reductions in mortality due to radon by (1) the implementation of a targeted screening program in the region with the highest concentrations, (2) the promotion of screening on a local basis with financial support, or (3) the realization of systematic investigations in primary and secondary schools would increase to 1%, 14%, and 16.4%, respectively, in the each of the populations targeted by these scenarios. Other than the battle against tobacco use, radon screening in public buildings thus currently appears as the most promising screening policy for reducing radon-related lung cancer. PMID:18761730

Gagnon, Fabien; Courchesne, Mathieu; Lévesque, Benoît; Ayotte, Pierre; Leclerc, Jean-Marc; Belles-Isles, Jean-Claude; Prévost, Claude; Dessau, Jean-Claude

2008-10-01

34

IAEA\\/EPA international climatic test program for integrating radon detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an element of the joint IAEA-EPA International Radon Metrology Evaluation Program, a climatic test of long-term integrating radon detectors was conducted at the US EPA Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory. The objective of this study was to test the performance of commonly used commercially available long-term ²²²Rn detector systems under extreme climatological conditions using filtered polycarbonate CR-39 plastic

R. D. Hopper; F. Steinhaeusler; M. Ronca-Battista

1999-01-01

35

Reducing the risks from radon.  

PubMed

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that residential radon levels in the United States lead to approximately 13,600 lung cancer deaths per year. To address this problem, the Agency has identified three program initiatives that can provide substantial reductions in the public's risks: (1) public information activities that urge the public to test for radon and reduce elevated concentrations in existing homes, (2) new construction standards to reduce radon entry, and (3) radon testing and mitigation during real estate transactions. This paper analyzes the costs and risk reductions that could result from the implementation of these major initiatives, showing how all three elements cost-effectively protect the public's health. PMID:8369111

Marcinowski, F; Napolitano, S

1993-07-01

36

SOIL AND FILL LABORATORY SUPPORT - 1992 RADIOLOGICAL ANALYSES, FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of soil analysis laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). nalyses were performed on soil and fill samples collected during 1992 by the FRRP Research House Program and the New House Evaluation Pr...

37

SOIL AND FILL LABORATORY SUPPORT - 1992 RADIOLOGICAL ANALYSES - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of soil analysis laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Analyses were performed on soil and fill samples collected during 1992 by the FRRP Research House Program and the New House Evaluation P...

38

RECOMMENDED HVAC STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) section of the "Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation." t deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. ts primary intent is to p...

39

RECOMMENDED HVAC STANDARDS OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) section of the "Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation." t deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. ts primary intent is to p...

40

MODELNG RADON ENTRY INTO FLORIDA HOUSES WITH CONCRETE SLABS AND CONCRETE-BLOCK STEM WALLS, FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses results of modeling radon entry into a typical Florida house whose interior is slightly depressurized. he model predicts that the total radon entry rate is relatively low unless the soil or backfill permeability or radium content is high. ost of the factors c...

41

MODELING RADON ENTRY INTO FLORIDA HOUSES WITH CONCRETE SLABS AND CONCRETE-BLOCK STEM WALLS, FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses results of modeling radon entry into a typical Florida house whose interior is slightly depressurized. he model predicts that the total radon entry rate is relatively low unless the soil or backfill permeability or radium content is high. ost of the factors c...

42

Mars Technology Program Planetary Protection Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the NASA Planetary Protection program are to preserve biological and organic conditions of solar-system bodies for future scientific exploration and to protect the Earth from potential hazardous extraterrestrial contamination. As the exploration of solar system continues, NASA remains committed to the implementation of planetary protection policy and regulations. To fulfill this commitment, the Mars Technology Program (MTP) has invested in a portfolio of tasks for developing necessary technologies to meet planetary protection requirements for the next decade missions.

Lin, Ying

2006-01-01

43

Radon Risks in the Tahoe Region Happy Hour with Jeff Miner (Radon at Tahoe) and  

E-print Network

Radon Risks in the Tahoe Region Happy Hour with Jeff Miner (Radon at Tahoe) and George Faggella (California DHS Radon Program) Date: Thursday, January 18, 2007 Time: 5:30 ­ 7:00 p.m. Cost: $5 donation: Radon Risks in the Tahoe Region Radon is a cancer-causing, radioactive gas. You can't see radon. And you

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

44

Planetary Protection Bioburden Analysis Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program is a Microsoft Access program that performed statistical analysis of the colony counts from assays performed on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft to determine the bioburden density, 3-sigma biodensity, and the total bioburdens required for the MSL prelaunch reports. It also contains numerous tools that report the data in various ways to simplify the reports required. The program performs all the calculations directly in the MS Access program. Prior to this development, the data was exported to large Excel files that had to be cut and pasted to provide the desired results. The program contains a main menu and a number of submenus. Analyses can be performed by using either all the assays, or only the accountable assays that will be used in the final analysis. There are three options on the first menu: either calculate using (1) the old MER (Mars Exploration Rover) statistics, (2) the MSL statistics for all the assays, or This software implements penetration limit equations for common micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shield configurations, windows, and thermal protection systems. Allowable MMOD risk is formulated in terms of the probability of penetration (PNP) of the spacecraft pressure hull. For calculating the risk, spacecraft geometry models, mission profiles, debris environment models, and penetration limit equations for installed shielding configurations are required. Risk assessment software such as NASA's BUMPERII is used to calculate mission PNP; however, they are unsuitable for use in shield design and preliminary analysis studies. The software defines a single equation for the design and performance evaluation of common MMOD shielding configurations, windows, and thermal protection systems, along with a description of their validity range and guidelines for their application. Recommendations are based on preliminary reviews of fundamental assumptions, and accuracy in predicting experimental impact test results. The software is programmed in Visual Basic for Applications for installation as a simple add-in for Microsoft Excel. The user is directed to a graphical user interface (GUI) that requires user inputs and provides solutions directly in Microsoft Excel workbooks. This work was done by Shannon Ryan of the USRA Lunar and Planetary Institute for Johnson Space Center. Further information is contained in a TSP (see page 1). MSC- 24582-1 Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) Shield Ballistic Limit Analysis Program Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Commercially, because it is so generic, Enigma can be used for almost any project that requires engineering visualization, model building, or animation. Models in Enigma can be exported to many other formats for use in other applications as well. Educationally, Enigma is being used to allow university students to visualize robotic algorithms in a simulation mode before using them with actual hardware. This work was done by David Shores and Sharon P. Goza of Johnson Space Center; Cheyenne McKeegan, Rick Easley, Janet Way, and Shonn Everett of MEI Technologies; Mark Manning of PTI; and Mark Guerra, Ray Kraesig, and William Leu of Tietronix Software, Inc. For further information, contact the JSC Innovation Partnerships Office at (281) 483-3809. MSC-24211-1 Spitzer Telemetry Processing System NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2

Beaudet, Robert A.

2013-01-01

45

Ground-truthing predicted indoor radon concentrations by using soil-gas radon measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting indoor radon potential has gained in importance even asthe national radon programs began to wane. A cooperative study to produceradon potential maps was conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Department of Energy (DOE), and LawrenceBerkeley Laboratory (LBL) with the latter taking the lead role. They developeda county-wide predictive model based dominantly on the National Uranium

G. M. Reimer

2001-01-01

46

Radiation Protection. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air- radon 222. A proposed ISO standard.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon isotopes (222, 220, 219) are radioactive gases produced by the disintegration of radium isotopes 226, 224 and 223, which are decay products of uranium238, thorium232 and uranium235 respectively. All are found in the earth's crust. Solid elements, also radioactive, are produced by radon disintegration. Radon is classed as a rare gas in the periodic table of elements, along with helium, argon, neon, krypton and xenon. When disintegrating, radon emits alpha particles and generates solid decay products, which are also radioactive (polonium, bismuth, lead etc.). The potential danger of radon lies in its solid decay products rather than the gas itself. Whether or not they are attached aerosols, radon decay products can be inhaled and deposited in the bronchopulmonary tree to varying depths according to their size. Radon today is considered to be the main source of human exposure to natural radiation. At the international level, radon accounts for 52% of global average exposure to natural radiation. Isotope 222 (48%) is far more significant than isotope 220 (4%), whilst isotope 219 is considered as negligible. Exposure to radon varies considerably from one region to another, depending on factors such as weather conditions, and underlying geology. Activity concentration can therefore vary by a factor of 10 or even a 100 from one period of time to the next and from one area to another. There are many ways of measuring the radon 222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products. Measuring techniques fall into three categories: - spot measurement methods; continuous measurement; integrated measurement. The proposed ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) document suggests guidelines for measuring radon222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in a free (environment) and confined (buildings) atmosphere. The target date for availability of this work item is 2011. The ISO document here highlighted is a working draft. ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies. Keywords: radon; international standards; measurement techniques.

Gillmore, G.; Woods, M.

2009-04-01

47

Pinellas Plant groundwater protection management program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Groundwater Protection Management Program (GPMP) Plan outlines the program in place at the Pinellas Plant to detect and monitor contaminated groundwater, which may have become contaminated by materials and waste.

Not Available

1995-10-01

48

UNIFIED RADON RELATIVE RISK MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Unified Radon Relative Risk Model (UR3M) is a Windows program for PCs. It was developed to fill the need for a comprehensive approach to radon health risks and to allow users or their clients to make informed decisions with respect to radon. The model combines three radon sou...

49

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM University of Toronto  

E-print Network

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM University of Toronto April 2009 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS RESPIRATORY .........................................26 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO April 2009 Page 1 #12;1.0 INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE Although elimination or reduction of respiratory hazards through substitution or engineering

Simmons, Craig A.

50

DATA LOGGING SYSTEMS FOR MONITORING LONG-TERM RADON MITIGATION EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS IN SCHOOLS AND OTHER LARGE BUILDINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses data logging systems for monitoring long-term radon mitigation experimental programs in schools and other large buildings. Several mitigation systems have been installed in schools as part of a mitigation research program conducted by the U.S. EPA. ach install...

51

Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation  

MedlinePLUS

... air pollution, pollution from vehicles and engines, radon, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change, and radiation protection. ... It runs market based programs such as the Acid Rain Program and public/private partnership programs such as ...

52

Ground water protection management program plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a ground water protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office was prepared this Ground Water Protection Management Program Plan (ground water protection plan) whose scope and detail reflect the program`s significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter III, for special program planning. This ground water protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor ground water resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA Project ground water protection management program. In addition, the plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA Project sites.

Not Available

1994-02-01

53

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2010-01-01

54

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2011-01-01

55

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2012-01-01

56

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2013-01-01

57

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2014-01-01

58

Cost-effectiveness analysis of public education and incentive programs for controlling radon in the home. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness in Illinois of five radon public education and incentive program options. Programs evaluated included (1) no program, (2) a toll-free hotline and information packet, (3) free short-term monitors, (4) free confirmatory monitors, and (5) low-interest loans. Existing literature and expert opinion were used to estimate program costs and public responses

T. J. Bierma; D. Swartzman

1988-01-01

59

Wildland Fire Protection Program NEBRASKA FOREST SERVICE  

E-print Network

Wildland Fire Protection Program NEBRASKA FOREST SERVICE HOW NEBRASKANS BENEFIT: · improved protection of life and property from wildland fires · improved firefighting capability in rural fire districts · increased firefighter knowledge of wildland fire suppression and prevention · reduced forest

Farritor, Shane

60

LUMPED-PARAMETER MODEL ANALYSES OF DATA FROM THE 1992 NEW HOUSE EVALUATION PROJECT - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents analyses of Phase 2 data from the Florida Radon Research Program's New House Evaluation Project (NHEP) that were performed using a lumped-parameter model. The houses evaluated in Phase 2 were monitored by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) and the Univers...

61

Cost-effectiveness analysis of public education and incentive programs for controlling radon in the home. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness in Illinois of five radon public education and incentive program options. Programs evaluated included (1) no program, (2) a toll-free hotline and information packet, (3) free short-term monitors, (4) free confirmatory monitors, and (5) low-interest loans. Existing literature and expert opinion were used to estimate program costs and public responses under the various programs. Computer simulation, with Monte Carlo sampling, was used for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. The cost-effectiveness model was analyzed based on assumed radon exposures to Illinois citizens. Results for standard conditions indicate that budget levels under approximately $30,000 do not warrant a radon education and incentive program. For budget levels of approximately $30,000 to $1 million, Program 2 was most effective, and Program 3 was most effective above this level. Sensitivity analyses indicate the results are relatively insensitive to input variable assumptions with the exception of public-response estimates. Study results suggest that all of the programs evaluated are likely to be relatively ineffective. Considerable improvement may be possible using more innovative approaches to public education.

Bierma, T.J.; Swartzman, D.

1988-12-01

62

Overview of indoor radon mitigation alternatives and a summary of recent EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) mitigation test results  

SciTech Connect

The discussion is specific to single-family homes (detached houses), as opposed to apartment buildings, other multiple family dwellings, or office and other public use buildings. Introductory information covers indoor radon sources, health effects of radon exposure, radon level monitoring methods, and a discussion on how radon enters and builds up in house air. Covered are nine methods for reducing indoor radon in detached houses: natural and forced-air ventilation, forced-air ventilation with heat recovery, active avoidance of house depressurization, sealing major radon sources, sealing radon entry routes, drain-tile soil ventilation, active ventilation of hollow-block basement walls, and sub-slab ventilation. For each method, information is presented on principles of operation, applicability, how much confidence one can have that the method can achieve radon reduction, and an estimate of installation costs. Where appropriate, drawings depict the details of method installation using terminology familiar to the building trades.

Henschel, D.B.; Craig, A.B.

1986-07-01

63

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2010-01-01

64

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2010-01-01

65

Harvard University Respiratory Protection Program Medical Evaluation Questionnaire  

E-print Network

Harvard University Respiratory Protection Program Medical Evaluation Questionnaire Medical No Instructions: All employees must be medically evaluated prior to use of respiratory protection. Employees may University Respiratory Protection Program Medical Evaluation Questionnaire Medical Evaluation Questionnaire

Heller, Eric

66

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2013-01-01

67

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2011-01-01

68

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2013-01-01

69

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2012-01-01

70

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2011-01-01

71

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2012-01-01

72

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2014-01-01

73

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2014-01-01

74

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2012-01-01

75

OVERVIEW OF INDOOR RADON MITIGATION ALTERNATIVES AND A SUMMARY OF RECENT EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) MITIGATION TEST RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The discussion is specific to single-family homes (detached houses), as opposed to apartment buildings, other multiple family dwellings, or office and other public use buildings. Introductory information covers indoor radon sources, health effects of radon exposure, radon level m...

76

Respiratory Protection Program Environmental Health & Safety  

E-print Network

Respiratory Protection Program Environmental Health & Safety August 2012 #12;Georgia Institute Responsibilities 3 3.1 Environmental Health and Safety 3 3.2 Department Management 3 3.3 Respirator Users 3 4.2 Respirator Selection 4 7.3 Medical Qualification 4 7.4 Training 5 7.5 Refresher Training 5 7.6 Competence 5 7

77

Pinellas Plant groundwater protection management program plan  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Groundwater Protection Management Program (GPMP) are to establish that current operations and transition of the facility are not affecting groundwater in a way that creates unacceptable risks to human health and safety, or to the environment, and that the plant is working to address any such risks previously identified.

Not Available

1996-10-01

78

The effectiveness of mitigation for reducing radon risk in single-family Minnesota homes.  

PubMed

Increased lung cancer incidence has been linked with long-term exposure to elevated residential radon. Experimental studies have shown that soil ventilation can be effective in reducing radon concentrations in single-family homes. Most radon mitigation systems in the U.S. are installed by private contractors. The long-term effectiveness of these systems is not well known, since few state radon programs regulate or independently confirm post-mitigation radon concentrations. The effectiveness of soil ventilation systems in Minnesota was measured for 140 randomly selected clients of six professional mitigators. Homeowners reported pre-mitigation radon screening concentrations that averaged 380 Bq m (10.3 pCi L). Long term post-mitigation radon measurements on the two lowest floors show that, even years after mitigation, 97% of these homes have concentrations below the 150 Bq m U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level. The average post-mitigation radon in the houses was 30 Bq m, an average observed reduction of >90%. If that reduction was maintained over the lifetime of the 1.2 million Minnesotans who currently reside in single-family homes with living space radon above the EPA action level, approximately 50,000 lives could be extended for nearly two decades by preventing radon-related lung cancers. PMID:22850228

Steck, Daniel J

2012-09-01

79

Radon: Counseling patients about risk  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to radon and its decay products has increased as the United States has changed from an outdoor society to a largely indoor society. Radon, which is found primarily in the soil, enters houses and buildings through cracks, holes and pipes in foundation walls and floors. Although radon is suspected of being a significant cause of lung cancer, comparisons with other risk factors cannot yet be made. Radon levels in the home can be measured with commercially available kits. Guidelines for reducing the amount of radon in a home are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.18 references.

Birrer, R.B. (Catholic Medical Center of Brooklyn and Queens, Jamaica, NY (USA))

1990-09-01

80

Environmental radon  

SciTech Connect

This book covers many aspects of environmental radon, including: historical perspectives; occurrence and properties; detection, measurement, and mitigation, radon and health; and political, economic, and legislative impacts.

Majumdar, S.K. (Lafayette College, Easton, PA (US)); Schmalz, R.F. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (US)); Miller, E.W. (College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (US))

1990-01-01

81

Predictors of Home Radon Testing and Implications for Testing Promotion Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of 4 New Jersey studies of 3,329 homeowners found that (1) thinking about radon testing is predicted by general radon knowledge; (2) decision to test is related to perceived likelihood of risk; and (3) actual testing is influenced by situational factors such as locating and choosing test kits. (SK)

Sandman, Peter M.; Weinstein, Neil D.

1993-01-01

82

Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs  

SciTech Connect

There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.

McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.; Selby, J.M.

1991-10-01

83

Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

none,

2013-04-30

84

US Environmental Protection Agency's quality assurance program  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its predecessor organizations historically have devoted considerable time and effort to the standardization of test procedures, the development and use of calibration and performance audit procedures, quality control and reference samples, training, and other quality assurance (QA) activities. However, these QA activities were essentially voluntary, and most of the data generated were reported with no indication of quality, thereby severely reducing their usefulness. Due to questions concerning the quality of EPA's data, Agency policy stipulated on 30 May and 29 June 1979 requires participation in a centrally managed QA program by all organizational units engaged in environmentally related measurements. This policy applies equally to those extramural efforts performed on behalf of EPA. The primary responsibility for program development and direction is assigned to the Office of Research and Development, while other program offices, regions, and laboratories are responsible for its implementation. Essential elements of the program include developing and implementing QA program plans, QA project plans, and standard operating procedures; conducting audits of the capability and performance of measurement systems, and data quality; maintaining a mechanism for corrective actions; QA training; and frequency reports to management on the quality of data, program effectiveness, and problems. The goal of the QA program is to ensure that all data generated are of known, documented, and acceptable quality. 2 references.

Stanley, T.W.; Verner, S.S.

1985-06-01

85

Radon evasion rates in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans as determined during the Geosecs program  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Geosecs expedition in the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans, more than 100 stations were occupied for the measurement of surface radon profiles. The radon deficiency in these profiles gives estimates of the gas transfer rate across the sea-air interface. The global mean transfer rate is estimated to be 2.9 m\\/d (at 20° C) which is corresponding to a

T.-H. Peng; W. S. Broecker; G. G. Mathieu; Y.-H. Li; A. E. Bainbridge

1979-01-01

86

Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To

Droppo

1985-01-01

87

Computer program for the sensitivity calculation of a CR-39 detector in a diffusion chamber for radon measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer software for calculation of the sensitivity of a CR-39 detector closed in a diffusion chamber to radon is described in this work. The software consists of two programs, both written in the standard Fortran 90 programming language. The physical background and a numerical example are given. Presented software is intended for numerous researches in radon measurement community. Previously published computer programs TRACK_TEST.F90 and TRACK_VISION.F90 [D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 160 (2006); D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 178, 591 (2008)] are used here as subroutines to calculate the track parameters and to determine whether the track is visible or not, based on the incident angle, impact energy, etching conditions, gray level, and visibility criterion. The results obtained by the software, using five different V functions, were compared with the experimental data found in the literature. Application of two functions in this software reproduced experimental data very well, while other three gave lower sensitivity than experiment.

Nikezic, D.; Yu, K. N.; Stajic, J. M.

2014-02-01

88

Computer program for the sensitivity calculation of a CR-39 detector in a diffusion chamber for radon measurements  

SciTech Connect

Computer software for calculation of the sensitivity of a CR-39 detector closed in a diffusion chamber to radon is described in this work. The software consists of two programs, both written in the standard Fortran 90 programming language. The physical background and a numerical example are given. Presented software is intended for numerous researches in radon measurement community. Previously published computer programs TRACK-TEST.F90 and TRACK-VISION.F90 [D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 160 (2006); D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 178, 591 (2008)] are used here as subroutines to calculate the track parameters and to determine whether the track is visible or not, based on the incident angle, impact energy, etching conditions, gray level, and visibility criterion. The results obtained by the software, using five different V functions, were compared with the experimental data found in the literature. Application of two functions in this software reproduced experimental data very well, while other three gave lower sensitivity than experiment.

Nikezic, D., E-mail: nikezic@kg.ac.rs; Stajic, J. M. [Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, R. Domanovica 12, Kragujevac 34000 (Serbia)] [Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, R. Domanovica 12, Kragujevac 34000 (Serbia); Yu, K. N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue (Hong Kong)] [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue (Hong Kong)

2014-02-15

89

RECOMMENDED SUB-SLAB DEPRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS DESIGN STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report recommends sub-slab depressurization systems design criteria to the State of Florida's Department of Community Affairs for their building code for radon resistant houses. Numerous details are set forth in the full report. Primary criteria include: (1) the operating soi...

90

Radiation Protection Program Environmental Health and Safety Department  

E-print Network

Radiation Protection Program 2012 Environmental Health and Safety Department #12;Radiation ................................................................................. 7 2.2. Radiation Emergency Procedures .................................................................................................. 11 3.2. Radiation Safety Officer

91

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) GROUND-WATER RESEARCH PROGRAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ground-water research programs are described. The programs focus on protection of ground-water resources by eliminating or controlling sources of contamination; understanding and predicting the movement and attenuation of contaminants in...

92

Respiratory Protection Program medical clearance for respirator use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background on occupational exposure to various inhalents is discussed including on-site hazard control measures, procedures, physiological effects, and interpretation of results for the medical clearance of employee for use of personal respiratory protection devices. The purpose of the Respiratory Protection Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Respiratory Protection at LeRC are discussed.

1993-01-01

93

Radon Quest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this module, students pretend to be an environmental consulting firm that has been hired by the County to investigate two cases involving radon exposure. They will prepare a report addressing: the probable causes of the elevated radon values; the extent of the potential problem; the possible routes and effects of human exposure to radon, and ways to educate the public; and strategies for clean up and reduction of exposure to radon in the area. Students will form field, laboratory, risk and impact investigative teams in order to complete their reports.

94

A statistical evaluation of the influence of housing characteristics and geogenic radon potential on indoor radon concentrations in France.  

PubMed

Radon-222 is a radioactive natural gas produced by the decay of radium-226, known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure. Effective risk management needs to determine the areas in which the density of buildings with high radon levels is likely to be highest. Predicting radon exposure from the location and characteristics of a dwelling could also contribute to epidemiological studies. Beginning in the nineteen-eighties, a national radon survey consisting in more than 10,000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations was conducted in French dwellings by the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). Housing characteristics, which may influence radon accumulation in dwellings, were also collected. More recently, the IRSN generated a French geogenic radon potential map based on the interpretation of geological features. The present study analyzed the two datasets to investigate the factors influencing indoor radon concentrations using statistical modeling and to determine the optimum use of the information on geogenic radon potential that showed the best statistical association with indoor radon concentration. The results showed that the variables associated with indoor radon concentrations were geogenic radon potential, building material, year of construction, foundation type, building type and floor level. The model, which included the surrounding geogenic radon potential (i.e. the average geogenic radon potential within a disc of radius 20 km centered on the indoor radon measurement point) and variables describing house-specific factors and lifestyle explained about 20% of the overall variability of the logarithm of radon concentration. The surrounding geogenic radon potential was fairly closely associated with the local average indoor radon concentration. The prevalence of exposure to radon above specific thresholds and the average exposures to radon clearly increased with increasing classes of geogenic radon potential. Combining the two datasets enabled improved assessment of radon exposure in a given area in France. PMID:24056050

Demoury, C; Ielsch, G; Hemon, D; Laurent, O; Laurier, D; Clavel, J; Guillevic, J

2013-12-01

95

Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater protection is a national priority that is promulgated in a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the US Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (now under revision) that requires all US Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate groundwater protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Groundwater Protection Management Program for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the Groundwater Protection Management Program cover the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the groundwater regime, (2) design and implementation of a groundwater monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations, (3) a management program for groundwater protection and remediation, (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste, (5) strategies for controlling these sources, (6) a remedial action program, and (7) decontamination and decommissioning and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing groundwater protection activities. Additionally, it describes how information needs are identified and can be incorporated into existing or proposed new programs. The Groundwater Protection Management Program provides the general scope, philosophy, and strategies for groundwater protection/management at the Hanford Site. Subtier documents provide the detailed plans for implementing groundwater-related activities and programs. Related schedule and budget information are provided in the 5-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management at the Hanford Site.

NONE

1993-11-01

96

Researching Radon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a project in which students examined the physics, chemistry, and geology of radon and used available technology to measure radon concentrations in their homes. Uses the inquiry process, analytical skills, communication skills, content knowledge, and production of authentic products for student assessment. (YDS)

Lucidi, Louis; Mecca, Peter M.

2001-01-01

97

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2010-01-01

98

Human Research Protection Program Plan HRP-101; version dated: June 14, 2013  

E-print Network

Human Research Protection Program Plan HRP-101; version dated: June 14, 2013 1 HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION PROGRAM PLAN Table of Contents HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION PROGRAM PLAN........................................................................................................................................2 Engaged in Human Research

Paulsson, Johan

99

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2013-01-01

100

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2014-01-01

101

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2011-01-01

102

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2012-01-01

103

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2012-01-01

104

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

...2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2014-01-01

105

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2013-01-01

106

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS...procedures and engineering controls based upon sound radiation protection principles to...

2010-01-01

107

EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) WASTE MINIMIZATION RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Waste minimization is viewed by the Environmental Protection Agency as a desirable and viable alternative to hazardous waste disposal. The Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory, in conjunction with the Office of Solid Waste, is developing a Waste Minimization Program fo...

108

Human Subjects Protection Program Office of Research Regulatory Affairs  

E-print Network

Human Subjects Protection Program Office of Research Regulatory Affairs Broadcasting a Webinar, is the president of HRP Associates, Inc., a firm engaged in training and consulting in human research protections "Best Practices for Assessing Risk in Social and Behavioral Research" The webinar will cover

109

Radon Health Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... EPA Home Air Indoor Air Radon Health Risks Health Risks (September 2009) The United Nation's World Health Organization ( ... page, 26 K) . For More Information on Radon Health Risks Radon Frequently Asked Questions EPA's 2003 Updated Radon ...

110

Radon: a bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given.

Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

1981-01-01

111

Development of Environmental Education Programs for Protected Areas in Madagascar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental education programs for schools in the peripheral zone of protected areas in Madagascar are still needed in numerous locations. My research investigated the status of environmental education and communication (EE&C) programs at Masoala National Park, Madagascar, as well as the attitudes of local residents toward the park and park…

Ormsby, Alison

2007-01-01

112

Radiation Protection: Basic Information  

MedlinePLUS

... informs the public about radiation topics, such as radon in homes, through brochures, public service announcements, hotlines, ... and radiation protection issues testing their homes for radon responsibly handling and disposing of radiation-containing consumer ...

113

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: An ecological status and trends program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is initiating an Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to monitor the status and trends of the Nation's near-coastal waters, forests, freshwater wetlands, surface waters, agroecosystems, deserts, and rangelands. The program is also intended to evaluate the effectiveness of EPA policies in protecting the ecological resources of these systems. The monitoring data collected for

J. F. Paul; A. F. Holland; S. C. Schimmel; J. K. Summers; K. J. Scott

1990-01-01

114

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

SciTech Connect

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L A

1981-01-01

115

Yucca Mountain Standards: EPA's Radiation Protection Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Yucca Mountain Home Page furnishes information about the EPA's role in this Nevada-based "underground geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste." The site answers frequently asked questions about the repository and supplies an overview of the various roles of federal agencies. The publications section includes detailed articles (in html or .pdf format) on radioactive waste disposal and the standards and regulations surrounding radioactive waste management. For another Yucca Mountain site, see the October 1, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering.

116

Radon Measurements in Schools: An Interim Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radon-222 is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally in soil, rocks, underground water, and air. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other scientific organizations have identified an increased risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes. Schools in many…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation Programs.

117

Radon Measurement in Schools. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other major national and international scientific organizations have concluded that radon is a human carcinogen and a serious environmental health problem. The EPA has conducted extensive research on the presence and measurement of radon in schools. This report provides school administrators and…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

118

Radon Reduction Methods: A Homeowner's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying the effectiveness of various ways to reduce high concentrations of radon in houses. This booklet was produced to share what has been learned with those whose radon problems demand immediate action. The booklet describes nine methods that have been tested successfully--by EPA and/or other…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

119

Skin Protection for (SPF) Kids Program.  

PubMed

Skin cancer is increasing faster than any other cancer in the United States. Individuals who have had excessive sun exposure during childhood and adolescence set the stage for the development of skin cancers later in life. In 2009, there were more than 1 million newly diagnosed cases of skin cancer in the United States. This primary prevention program combined the guidelines in the literature resulting in a unique evidence-based program for teachers and informational guidelines for parents. These guidelines were used in classrooms and at home, supporting intervention among school-age children, specifically those in kindergarten through fifth grade. PMID:22525811

Walker, Deborah K

2012-06-01

120

78 FR 65045 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium...0938-AR74 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium...of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education...

2013-10-30

121

78 FR 54069 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, and Eligibility...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP...0938-AR82 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP...of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education...

2013-08-30

122

78 FR 37031 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, Premium...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP...0938-AR82 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP...of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as amended by the Health Care and...

2013-06-19

123

HP replacement program increases efficiency, protection  

SciTech Connect

For more than 50 years, compression equipment along the 2,000-mile Tennessee Gas Pipeline has been helping to supply natural gas needs for the Northeast. But increasing demand and a need for more environmentally safe equipment mean a major replacement program for the compressor stations that make the natural gas transmission possible. Today it is one of the longest gas pipelines in the world, carrying more than 1 Bcf/d of natural gas. New compression equipment is being installed to boost efficiency and meet more stringent environmental standards. In 1993, Tenneco Energy, purchased by El Paso Energy in December 1996, initiated a Horsepower Replacement Program intended to replace older, inefficient technology with more advanced equipment. A major objective was to improve operational effectiveness and to reduce harmful nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions by converting much of the machinery to electric-driven compression equipment.

NONE

1997-10-01

124

Photovoltaic array environmental protection program. [in Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the photovoltaic array environmental protection program, a coating material, application technique, and design approach intended to protect flexible solar array blankets during a nominal fifteen-year operating lifetime were developed. Numerous thin-film coatings for protecting the Kapton polyimide material used in the construction of the Space Station Freedom flexible solar array blanket were evaluated. The critical solar array design features and protection measures are discussed with special emphasis on the effects of solar array fabrication and flexible printed circuit manufacturing processes on coating durability. The results of the mechanical and environmental test evaluation, including oxygen plasma, neutral oxygen beam, and UV/charged-particle combined exposure, are discussed. These results led to the selection of a silicon dioxide thin-film coating to protect the solar array blanket from the low-earth-orbit atomic oxygen environment.

Bilger, Kevin M.; Gjerde, Helen B.; Sater, Bernard L.

1989-01-01

125

PNNL FY2005 DOE Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Program Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of the FY 2005 PNNL VPP Program Evaluation, which is a self-assessment of the operational and programmatic performance of the Laboratory related to worker safety and health. The report was compiled by a team of worker representatives and safety professionals who evaluated the Laboratory's worker safety and health programs on the basis of DOE-VPP criteria. The principle elements of DOE's VPP program are: Management Leadership, Employee Involvement, Worksite Analysis, Hazard Prevention and Control, and Safety and Health Training.

Wright, Patrick A.; Madson, Vernon J.; Isern, Nancy G.; Haney, Janice M.; Fisher, Julie A.; Goheen, Steven C.; Gulley, Susan E.; Reck, John J.; Collins, Drue A.; Tinker, Mike R.; Walker, Landon A.; Wynn, Clifford L.

2005-01-31

126

FY-2007 PNNL Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Program Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of the FY-2007 PNNL VPP Program Evaluation, which is a self-assessment of the operational and programmatic performance of the Laboratory related to worker safety and health. The report was compiled by a team of worker representatives and safety professionals who evaluated the Laboratory's worker safety and health programs on the basis of DOE-VPP criteria. The principle elements of DOE's VPP program are: Management Leadership, Employee Involvement, Worksite Analysis, Hazard Prevention and Control, and Safety and Health Training.

Wright, Patrick A.; Fisher, Julie A.; Goheen, Steven C.; Isern, Nancy G.; Madson, Vernon J.; Meicenheimer, Russell L.; Pugh, Ray; Schneirla, Keri A.; Shockey, Loretta L.; Tinker, Mike R.

2008-08-15

127

Preventing excessive radon exposure in U.K. housing  

SciTech Connect

In the United Kingdom (UK) it has been recognized for some years that some members of the population received excessive radiation exposure in their homes from radon and its decay products. To prevent such exposures, an Action Level of 400 Bq m{sup -3} was adopted in 1987. In January, 1990, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) advised that the Action Level should be reduced to 200 Bq m{sup -3}, and this advice was accepted by the Government. It is estimated that exposures in up to 100,000 UK homes exceed this Action Level; this amounts to about 0.5% of the available housing. The UK authorities have developed a strategy for preventing such exposures: (1) Areas in which it is estimated that >1% of homes exceed the Action Level for radon are being designated as Affected Areas, and a program to map such areas is under way. Households in these areas are advised to have radon measurements made by NRPB under a {open_quotes}free{close_quotes} (Government-funded) scheme. (2) Householders found to have whole-house, whole-year average radon concentrations >200 Bq m{sup -3} are advised to take remedial action and are provided with information on how this can be done. Partial grants toward remedial work are available in cases of financial need. So far, around 3000 such households have been identified. (3) Within Affected Areas, localities are being defined where new homes must incorporate precautions against radon exposure. In addition to this strategy, a joint case-control study of the risks of radon in homes is being undertaken by the Imperial Cancer Research Fund and NRPB, supported by the UK Government and the Commission of the European Communities.

Miles, J.C.H.; Cliff, K.D.; Green, B.M.R.; Dixon, D.W. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Oxon (United Kingdom)

1992-12-31

128

Radon detection  

DOEpatents

A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01

129

Radon detection  

DOEpatents

A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element is described. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding. 3 figures.

MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

1994-01-25

130

Radon in ground water of the Lower Susqehanna and Potomac River basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water samples collected from 267 wells were analyzed for radon as part of a water-quality reconnaissance of subunits of the Lower Susquehanna and Potomac River Basins conducted by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. Radon is a product of the radioactive decay of uranium. Airborne radon has been cited by the Surgeon General of the United States as the second-leading cause of lung cancer and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has identified ground-water supplies as possible contributing sources of indoor radon. Eighty percent of ground-water samples collected for this study were found to contain radon at activities greater than 300 pCi/L (picocuries per liter), the USEPA's proposed Maximum Contaminant Level for radon in drinking water, and 31 percent of samples contained radon at activities greater than 1,000 pCi/L. The 10 subunits where samples were collected were grouped into three classes - median ground-water radon activity less than 300 pCi/L, between 300 pCi/L and 1,000 pCi/L, and greater than 1,000 pCi/L. Subunits underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont Physiographic Province typically have the highest median ground-water radon activities (greater than 1,000 pCi/L); although there is a large variation in radon activities within most of the subunits. Lower median radon activities (between 300 pCi/L and 1,000 pCi/L) were found in ground water in subunits underlain by limestone and dolomite. Of three subunits underlain by sandstone and shale, one fell into each of the three radon-activity classes. The large variability within these subunits may be attributed to the fact that the uranium content of sandstone and shale is related to the uranium content of the sediments from which they formed.

Lindsey, Bruce D.; Ator, Scott W.

1996-01-01

131

NASA's planetary protection program as an astrobiology teaching module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently developing a teaching module on the NASA's Planetary Protection Program for UW-Parkside SENCER courses. SENCER stands for Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibility. It is a national initiative of the National Science Foundation (NSF), now in its fifth year, to improve science education by teaching basic sciences through the complex public issues of the 21st century. The Planetary Protection Program is one such complex public issue. Teaching astrobiology and the NASA's goals via the Planetary Protection module within the SENCER courses seems to be a good formula to reach large number of students in an interesting and innovative way. We shall describe the module that we are developing. It will be launched on our web site titled "Astrobiology at Parkside" (http://oldweb.uwp.edu/academic/chemistry/kolb/organic_chemistry/, or go to Google and then to Vera Kolb Home Page), and thus will be available for teaching to all interested parties.

Kolb, Vera M.

2005-09-01

132

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

Washington TRU Solutions

2002-09-24

133

Evaluation of Food Protection and Defense Outreach Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis documents the outcomes and impacts from a series of food protection and defense educational programs conducted over a 3-y period for private and public sector food system professionals. Several measures were used to determine the professions of participants; their improvements in skills and abilities that resulted from workshops; the…

Shutske, John M.; Pierquet, Jennifer; Michel, Laura; Rasmussen, Ruth; Olson, Debra

2008-01-01

134

QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: THE EPA QA PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Formalized quality assurance (QA) program requirements for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been established for more than ten years. uring this period, the environmental issues and concerns addressed by the EPA have changed. any issues, such as ozone depletion...

135

Radon Training for Professionals  

E-print Network

Radon Training for Professionals 2008-2009 www.cce.umn.edu/radon Regional Radon Training Center of Continuing Education, Kansas State University #12;WHAT IS THE MIDWEST UNIVERSITIES RADON CONSORTIUM (MURC)? MURC is a University-based world leader in radon training for professionals with a focus on North

Netoff, Theoden

136

Radon remediation and prevention status in 23 European countries.  

PubMed

Radon remediation and prevention aim at reducing indoor radon concentrations in the existing and new buildings. This paper gives an estimate of the number of dwellings where remediation or preventive measures have been applied so far in Europe. Questionnaires were sent to contact persons in national radiation protection authorities and radon-related research institutes. Answers from 23 European countries were obtained. Approximately 26 000 dwellings have been remediated in total. Millions of dwellings remain to be remediated and the number is increasing due to the rare use of radon prevention. These facts imply a need for an efficient radon strategy to promote radon remediation. Moreover, the importance of radon prevention in new construction and the regulations concerning radon in the national building codes should be emphasised. PMID:23771958

Holmgren, O; Arvela, H; Collignan, B; Jiránek, M; Ringer, W

2013-12-01

137

PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON RADON POTENTIAL MAPPING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents a workshop on radon potential mapping, in Gainesville, FL, on April 20, 1990. he workshop, part of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP), was designed to identify and discuss in an expert forum the technical issues associated with radon potential characte...

138

40 CFR 700.41 - Radon user fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Radon user fees. 700.41 Section 700.41 ...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Fees § 700.41 Radon user fees. User fees relating to radon proficiency programs authorized under the...

2011-07-01

139

40 CFR 700.41 - Radon user fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radon user fees. 700.41 Section 700.41 ...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Fees § 700.41 Radon user fees. User fees relating to radon proficiency programs authorized under the...

2013-07-01

140

40 CFR 700.41 - Radon user fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Radon user fees. 700.41 Section 700.41 ...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Fees § 700.41 Radon user fees. User fees relating to radon proficiency programs authorized under the...

2012-07-01

141

40 CFR 700.41 - Radon user fees.  

...31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Radon user fees. 700.41 Section 700.41 ...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Fees § 700.41 Radon user fees. User fees relating to radon proficiency programs authorized under the...

2014-07-01

142

40 CFR 700.41 - Radon user fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radon user fees. 700.41 Section 700.41 ...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Fees § 700.41 Radon user fees. User fees relating to radon proficiency programs authorized under the...

2010-07-01

143

Radon in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... are here: EPA Home Air Indoor Air Radon Health Risks Drinking Water Radon in Drinking Water Public Health ... States and community water systems for reducing radon health risks in both drinking water and indoor air quality, ...

144

Radon: The Invisible Invader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief background on indoor radon and the health risks associated with radon exposure, with special emphasis on nonresidential buildings. One school district's experience in radon testing and monitoring is included. (MLF)

School Leader, 1987

1987-01-01

145

Radon Testing in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools may be a significant source of radon exposure for children and staff. Describes radon detection kits and technologies, when to use them, and what action to take given the results of a radon test. (MLF)

Wheeler, Robert

1989-01-01

146

Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia Laboratories. [BWR; PWR  

SciTech Connect

Sandia Laboratories is executing a program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. This paper summarizes the activities of this ongoing program through December 1979. Characterization of electrically initiated fires revealed a margin of safety in the separation criteria of Regulatory Guide 1.75 for such fires in IEEE-383 qualified cable. However, tests confirmed that these guidelines and standards are not sufficient, in themselves, to protect against exposure fires. This paper describes both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness. It also describes full scale tests to determine the effects of walls and ceilings on fire propagation between cable trays.

Klamerus, L.J.

1980-01-01

147

The Distribution of Exposure to Radon: Effects of Population Mobility  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of population exposures to radon, rather than the distribution of indoor radon concentrations, determines the fraction of population exposed to exceptionally high risk from radon exposures. Since this fraction at high risk has prompted the development of public policies on radon, it is important to first determine the magnitude of this fraction, and then how it much would decrease with different implementation program options for radon mitigation. This papers presents an approach to determining the distribution of population exposures to radon from public domain data, and illustrates it with application to the state of Minnesota. During this work, we are led to define a radon entry potential index which appears useful in the search for regions with high radon houses.

Gadgil, A.J.; Rein, S.; Nero, A.V.; Wollenberg Jr., H.A.

1993-01-01

148

Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

Not Available

1991-08-27

149

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Indoor-Air Quality Implementation Plan. A report to Congress under Title IV of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986: radon gas and indoor air-quality research. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The EPA Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan provides information on the direction of EPA's indoor air program, including the Agency's policy on indoor air and priorities for research and information dissemination over the next two years. EPA submitted the report to Congress on July 2, 1987 as required by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. There are five appendices to the report: Appendix A--Preliminary Indoor Air Pollution Information Assessment; Appendix B--FY 87 Indoor Air Research Program; Appendix C--EPA Radon Program; Appendix D--Indoor Air Resource History (Published with Appendix C); Appendix E--Indoor Air Reference Data Base.

Not Available

1987-06-01

150

Radon: implications for the health professional  

SciTech Connect

Radon is a colorless, odorless gas formed by radioactive decay of radium and uranium, which are naturally present in the earth's crust. When concentrated indoors, this invisible gas becomes a potential health hazard. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that up to 20,000 lung cancer deaths annually can be attributed to prolonged radon exposure. Radon is an important health issue that should be understood by all health care professionals. This paper discusses some of the important issues regarding radon, such as the incidences of lung cancer believed to be attributable to radon, the high-risk areas in the United States, federal safety guidelines, and public apathy. These issues and their impact on the health care required by professionals, especially nurse practitioners, are discussed.

Romano, C.A.

1990-01-01

151

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2010-01-01

152

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2014-01-01

153

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2011-01-01

154

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2013-01-01

155

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2012-01-01

156

Geochemistry of atmospheric radon and radon products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following topics are discussed: measurement of the radon-222 flux to the atmosphere; measurement of the lead-210 atmospheric flux; and the mean residence time of aerosols. A total global model is proposed for radon-222 and its daughters.

K. K. Turekian; Y. Nozaki; L. K. Benninger

1977-01-01

157

Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program.  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) Program. During each such visit, the PSA documents information about the facility's current CIKR protection posture and overall security awareness. The primary goals for ECIP site visits (DHS 2009) are to: (1) inform facility owners and operators of the importance of their facilities as an identified high-priority CIKR and the need to be vigilant in light of the ever-present threat of terrorism; (2) identify protective measures currently in place at these facilities, provide comparisons of CIKR protection postures across like assets, and track the implementation of new protective measures; and (3) enhance existing relationships among facility owners and operators; DHS; and various Federal, State, local tribal, and territorial partners. PSAs conduct ECIP visits to assess overall site security; educate facility owners and operators about security; help owners and operators identify gaps and potential improvements; and promote communication and information sharing among facility owners and operators, DHS, State governments, and other security partners. Information collected during ECIP visits is used to develop metrics; conduct sector-by-sector and cross-sector vulnerability comparisons; identify security gaps and trends across CIKR sectors and subsectors; establish sector baseline security survey results; and track progress toward improving CIKR security through activities, programs, outreach, and training (Snyder 2009). The data being collected are used in a framework consistent with the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) risk criteria (DHS 2009). The NIPP framework incorporates consequence, threat, and vulnerability components and addresses all hazards. The analysis of the vulnerability data needs to be reproducible, support risk analysis, and go beyond protection. It also needs to address important security/vulnerability topics, such as physical security, cyber security, systems analysis, and dependencies and interdependencies. This report provides an overview of the approach being developed to estimate vulnerability and provide vulnerability comparisons for sectors and subsectors. the information will be used to assist DHS in analyzing existing protective measures and vulnerability at facilities, to identify potential ways to reduce vulnerabilities, and to assist in preparing sector risk estimates. The owner/operator receives an analysis of the data collected for a specific asset, showing a comparison between the facility's protection posture/vulnerability index and those of DHS sector/subsector sites visited. This comparison gives the owner/operator an indication of the asset's security strengths and weaknesses that may be contributing factors to its vulnerability and protection posture. The information provided to the owner/operator shows how the asset compares to other similar assets within the asset's sector or subsector. A 'dashboard' display is used to illustrate the results in a convenient format. The dashboard allows the owner/operator to analyze the implementation of additional protective measures and to illustrate how such actions would impact the asset's Protective Measures Index (PMI) or Vulnerability Index (VI).

Fisher, R. E.; Buehring, W. A.; Whitfield, R. G.; Bassett, G. W.; Dickinson, D. C.; Haffenden, R. A.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; LANL

2009-10-14

158

RADON DIAGNOSTICS AND MITIGATION IN A DIFFICULT TO MITIGATE SCHOOL  

E-print Network

This paper describes radon diagnostics and mitigation in a school the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency classified "difficult to mitigate! ' The school had a utility tunnel beneath corridors that served as the outside air and return air mixing chamber for the heating and ventilation (HV) system. The HV system depressurized the tunnel, sucked radon from the soil, and distributed it to school rooms. An initial radon reduction effort using block wall depressurization did not reduce radon concentrations below four picocuries per liter. Extensive diagnostics, including continuous measurements of building and environmental variables, were conducted to test mitigation options and to provide design parameters for additional mitigation. The final radon mitigation technique involved pressurizing the utility tunnel. The findings indicate that: active soil depressurization systems can be overpowered by HV operations; in some cases, increased ventilation can increase radon entry and indoor concentrations; and, if properly implemented, additional ventilation can reduce indoor radon concentrations without significant energy penalties.

William J. Angell; Barry B. Bridges; Mike Clarkin; Terry Brennan

159

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

...requirements in § 20.1301 of this part, a constraint on air emissions of radioactive material to the environment, excluding Radon-222 and its daughters, shall be established by licensees other than those subject to § 50.34a, such that the...

2014-01-01

160

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements in § 20.1301 of this part, a constraint on air emissions of radioactive material to the environment, excluding Radon-222 and its daughters, shall be established by licensees other than those subject to § 50.34a, such that the...

2013-01-01

161

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements in § 20.1301 of this part, a constraint on air emissions of radioactive material to the environment, excluding Radon-222 and its daughters, shall be established by licensees other than those subject to § 50.34a, such that the...

2011-01-01

162

Establishing a regional reference indoor radon level on the basis of radon survey data.  

PubMed

The establishment of national reference levels is a new requirement of the ICRP radiological protection system. For protection against indoor radon exposure measures based on a common national reference level tend to be less effective in regions where the probability of high indoor radon concentrations is relatively low in comparison with the national average. Therefore it makes sense to establish individual indoor radon reference levels for large sub-national regions as well as for urban agglomerations separately. Analysis of indoor radon surveys of the territory, taking into account the type of building, year of construction, building material, floor and other factors influencing indoor radon concentration, provides essential and important data for defining the reference level. For Ekaterinburg, Russia it is suggested to set the reference indoor radon concentration to a level of 70 Bq m(-3) which corresponds to the 90th percentile of radon concentration in a representative group of buildings constructed in the period 1970-89, in which the lowest average indoor radon concentration was observed. PMID:23482403

Yarmoshenko, I; Onishchenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

2013-06-01

163

Survey of radon and radon daughter concentrations in selected Rainier Mesa tunnels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of radon and radon daughter concentrations (RDCs) in selected tunnels on Rainier Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was conducted as a part of the underground testing program at NTS. Measurements were taken in three tunnels, N, T, and G. Results of preliminary measurements indicate that N and T Tunnels have low RDCs, i.e., 0.01 WL (working

Fauver

1987-01-01

164

Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

Droppo, J.G.

1985-04-01

165

Environmental Compliance and Protection Program Description Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Environmental Compliance and Protection (EC and P) Program Description (PD) is to establish minimum environmental compliance requirements and natural resources protection goals for the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Oak Ridge Environmental Management Cleanup Contract (EMCC) Contract Number DE-AC05-98OR22700-M198. This PD establishes the work practices necessary to ensure protection of the environment during the performance of EMCC work activities on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by BJC employees and subcontractor personnel. Both BJC and subcontractor personnel are required to implement this PD. A majority of the decontamination and demolition (D and D) activities and media (e.g., soil and groundwater) remediation response actions at DOE sites on the ORR are conducted under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). CERCLA activities are governed by individual CERCLA decision documents (e.g., Record of Decision [ROD] or Action Memorandum) and according to requirements stated in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1992). Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for the selected remedy are the requirements for environmental remediation responses (e.g., removal actions and remedial actions) conducted under CERCLA.

Bechtel Jacobs

2009-02-26

166

Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories is executing a program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. This paper summarizes the activities of this ongoing program through October 1980. Characterization of electrically initiated fires revealed a margin of safety in the separation criteria of Regulatory Guide 1.75 for such fires in IEEE-383 qualified cable. However, tests confirmed that these guidelines and standards are not sufficient, in themselves, to protect against exposure fires. This paper describes both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness. It also describes full scale tests to determine the effects of walls and ceilings on fire propagation between cable trays. Some small-scale scoping tests have been conducted to investigate the effects of varying the furnace pressure on cable penetration performance in the ASTM-E-119 Fire Test. The Sandia Fire Research Facility has been completed and a series of tests have been run to assess the effectiveness of Halon-1301 as a suppression system in extinguishing deep-seated cable-tray fires. It was found that given sufficient soak times Halon systems are effective in extinguishing such fires.

Klamerus, L.J.

1980-01-01

167

Results of a National Survey of State Protective Services Programs: Assessing Risk and Defining Victim Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national survey of state adult protective services programs (APS) was conducted to collect information about the current status of documentation systems, risk assessment protocols, and outcome measures in adult protective services interventions. Fifty responses were received from 48 states, the District of Columbia, and Guam. The results highlight the wide variation in the state protective services programs, not only

Carolyn Stahl Goodrich

1997-01-01

168

Controlling the Radon Threat Needn't Be Another Costly Nightmare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a study of 3,000 classrooms in 130 schools in 16 states, the Environmental Protection Agency urged all schools to conduct tests for radon. Explains a 6-step screening test, methods of reducing radon concentrations, and how the risk from radon exposure compares with other risks. (MLF)

Freije, Matthew R.

1989-01-01

169

Indoor radon concentration data: Its geographic and geologic distribution, an example from the Capital District, NY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of the geographic distribution of indoor radon levels are plotted by county or ZIP code. This method is used for the radon potential maps produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH). The basis for the mapping is the mean or median indoor radon count for all the data

J. J. Thomas; H. M. Overeynder; B. R. Thomas

1995-01-01

170

Radon reduction and radon-resistant construction demonstrations in New York State. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) cosponsored a project in New York State to demonstrate radon migration techniques in existing homes with elevated radon concentrations and to test radon-resistant construction techniques in new houses. The first part of the existing home evaluation demonstrated radon migration techniques in homes where the indoor radon concentrations exceeded the EPA guidance of 4 pCi/L. Results demonstrated that sealing all accessible foundation penetrations in the basement was an effective way to reduce the radon concentration, although not below the EPA guideline, and that sealing aids in the effectiveness of an active depressurization system. Basement pressurization also proved to be an effective method. Water aeration systems were effective at mitigating radon from residential water supplied although the system tested was large and noisy. Activated charcoal filters adsorbed the radon and eventually became an unacceptable source of gamma radiation. The second part of the existing home evaluation involved the inspection of homes where radon mitigation systems were installed in 1984 as part of an earlier NYSERDA/Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) project. It was found that new systems and techniques, such as in- line centrifugal fans, were generally superior to the earlier method using axial computer-type fans. Polyurethane caulk was found to be in good condition; butyl caulk, on the other hand, had deteriorated. In the new house task, a radon-resistant system was developed for integration into a house during construction. This system included sealing foundation floors, sealing concrete block foundation walls, and passive sub-slab ventilation. This integrated system reduced the radon concentration in new test houses below that of control houses, but the reduction was not usually sufficient to meet the EPA guideline.

Not Available

1991-02-01

171

U.S. EPA OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OVERVIEW OF CURRENT RADON RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives as overview of current radon research being conducted by EPA. n 1984, EPA began a research program to develop and demonstrate radon mitigation alternatives. ince then, the program has evolved from an initial focus on houses with severely elevated radon levels in B...

172

Protecting You/Protecting Me: Effects of an Alcohol Prevention and Vehicle Safety Program on Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (1) their brains (why their brain is…

Bell, Mary Lou; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses; Ringwalt, Christopher

2005-01-01

173

77 FR 32397 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program-Genitourinary Losses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 2900-AO20 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program...regulations governing the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection...that expanded the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury...

2012-06-01

174

Radon awareness and mitigation in Vermont: a public health survey.  

PubMed

Radon exposure is associated with an increased incidence of lung cancer, and elevated levels may be found in as many as 1 out of 15 homes. The U.S. EPA recommends testing homes for radon and mitigating over the advisory level of 4 picocuries per liter (4 pCi L(-1), or 148 Bq m(-3)). A sample population from a list of Vermont residents who had tested their residence for radon through the Vermont Department of Health and who had elevated levels were mailed a survey to assess demographic characteristics, knowledge about radon, mitigation rates, types of mitigation, as well as barriers to mitigation. The response rate was 63%. Forty-three percent of respondents mitigated. Roughly half were not completely knowledgeable of radon based upon the ability to associate radon exposure with lung cancer risk. Reasons not to mitigate radon levels in homes were cost and lack of concern over elevated levels. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed factors associated with mitigating: an education level of college or higher (p = 0.02), concern that a high radon level would affect real estate value (p = 0.04), and home age less than 10 y (p = 0.05). In summary, less than half of Vermonters with elevated radon levels participating in the Department of Health program mitigated. We identify factors associated with radon mitigation that may lead to improved radon education and mitigation practice. PMID:17429300

Riesenfeld, Erik P; Marcy, Theodore W; Reinier, Kyndaron; Mongeon, Joan A; Trumbo, Craig W; Wemple, Brian E; Kaminsky, David A

2007-05-01

175

FEASIBILITY AND APPROACH FOR MAPPING RADON POTENTIALS IN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an analysis of the feasibility and approach for developing statewide maps of radon potentials in Florida. he maps would provide a geographic basis for implementing new radon-protective building construction standards to reduce public health risks from ...

176

Environmental Challenges: Radon and Carbon Dioxide in School Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many school buildings with high radon levels also exhibit high carbon dioxide levels that starve the minds of students for oxygen. Administrators must realize that the world's best educator cannot teach minds made dysfunctional by their environment. This article describes Environmental Protection Agency testing results and offers radon monitoring…

Krueger, James

1991-01-01

177

The Iowa radon lung cancer study--phase I: Residential radon gas exposure and lung cancer.  

PubMed

Exposure to high concentrations of radon (222Rn) progeny produces lung cancer in both underground miners and experimentally-exposed laboratory animals. The goal of the study was to determine whether or not residential radon exposure exhibits a statistically significant association with lung cancer in a state with high residential radon concentrations. A population-based, case-control epidemiologic study was conducted examining the relationship between residential radon gas exposure and lung cancer in Iowa females who occupied their current home for at least 20 years. The study included 413 incident lung cancer cases and 614 age-frequency-matched controls. Participant information was obtained by a mailed-out questionnaire with face-to-face follow-up. Radon dosimetry assessment consisted of five components: (1) on-site residential assessment survey; (2) on-site radon measurements; (3) regional outdoor radon measurements; (4) assessment of subjects' exposure when in another building; and (5) linkage of historic subject mobility with residential, outdoor, and other building radon concentrations. Histologic review was performed for 96% of the cases. Approximately 60% of the basement radon concentrations and 30% of the first floor radon concentrations of study participants' homes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency action level of 150 Bq m(-3) (4 pCi l(-1)). Large areas of western Iowa had outdoor radon concentrations comparable to the national average indoor value of 55 Bq m(-3) (1.5 pCi l(-1)). Excess odds of 0.24 (95% CI = -0.05-0.92) and 0.49 (95% CI = 0.03-1.84) per 11 WLM(5-19) were calculated using the continuous radon exposure estimates for all cases and live cases, respectively. Slightly higher excess odds of 0.50 (95% CI = 0.004-1.80) and 0.83 (CI = 0.11-3.34) per 11 WLM(5-19) were noted for the categorical radon exposure estimates for all cases and the live cases. A positive association between cumulative radon gas exposure and lung cancer was demonstrated using both categorical and continuous analyses. The risk estimates obtained in this study indicate that cumulative radon exposure presents an important environmental health hazard. PMID:11379939

Field, R W; Steck, D J; Smith, B J; Brus, C P; Fisher, E F; Neuberger, J S; Lynch, C F

2001-05-14

178

25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30...

2013-04-01

179

25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30...

2011-04-01

180

25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?  

...the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30...

2014-04-01

181

25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30...

2012-04-01

182

25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program? 63.30...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

2010-04-01

183

Radon: A health problem  

SciTech Connect

Nurses can and should function as effective teachers about the potential hazards to health of radon contamination in the home as well as become activists in the development of health care policy on radon.

Pucci, J.; Gaston, S.

1990-01-01

184

Geometric programming prediction of design trends for OMV protective structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global optimization trends of protective honeycomb structural designs for spacecraft subject to hypervelocity meteroid and space debris are presented. This nonlinear problem is first formulated for weight minimization of the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) using a generic monomial predictor. Five problem formulations are considered, each dependent on the selection of independent design variables. Each case is optimized by considering the dual geometric programming problem. The dual variables are solved for in terms of the generic estimated exponents of the monomial predictor. The primal variables are then solved for by conversion. Finally, parametric design trends are developed for ranges of the estimated regression parameters. Results specify nonmonotonic relationships for the optimal first and second sheet mass per unit areas in terms of the estimated exponents.

Mog, R. A.; Horn, J. R.

1990-01-01

185

Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

2008-06-05

186

Radon and lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon, an inert gas released during the decay of uranium-238, is ubiquitous in indoor and outdoor air and contaminates many underground mines. Extensive epidemiologic evidence from studies of underground miners and complementary animal data have documented that radon causes lung cancer in smokers and nonsmokers. Radon must also be considered a potentially important cause of lung cancer for the general

Jm Samet

1989-01-01

187

75 FR 9608 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Technical Assistance Request and Evaluation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security, National Protection and Programs Directorate/Cybersecurity and Communications/Office of Emergency Communications, has submitted the following Information Collection Request...

2010-03-03

188

75 FR 417 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Statewide Communication Interoperability Plan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security, National Protection and Programs Directorate/Cybersecurity and Communications/Office of Emergency Communications, has submitted the following Information Collection Request...

2010-01-05

189

Outdoor radon monitoring at DOE remedial action sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mound Radon Program has performed extensive outdoor radon monitoring near six remedial action sites for the Department of Energy since 1980. The results of these environmental measurements indicate that yearly average background concentrations as low as 0.1 to 0.2 picocuries\\/liter can be determined using Passive Environmental Radon Monitors. This monitoring can also be used to map areas of increased

C. R. Rudy; P. H. Jenkins; G. R. Hagee; J. B. Hall; J. Y. Jarvis

1984-01-01

190

Radon: Detection and treatment  

SciTech Connect

Within the last few years, natural radon exposure in non-industrial settings, primarily homes, has become a health concern. Research has demonstrated that many homes throughout the United States have radon concentrations much higher than the legal federal limits set for miners. Thousands of unsuspecting people are being exposed to high levels of radiation. It is estimated that up to 15 percent of lung cancers are caused from radon. This is a significant health risk. With basic knowledge of the current information on radon, a primary health care provider can address patients' radon concerns and make appropriate referrals.

Loken, S.; Loken, T. (Salt Lake City Veterans Administration Medical Center, UT (USA))

1989-11-01

191

CONSERVATION AND NATURAL RESOURCES Water Resources: Enact Flint River Drought Protection Act; Create Drought Protection Program; Require the Board of Natural Resources To Establish a Drought Protection Program; Require Cooperation with the Georgia Environmental Facilities Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Act, known as the Flint River Drought Protection Act, adds several sections to the Code to identify the importance of Georgia's water resources, define certain terms, and authorize the Board of Natural Resources and the Director of the Environmental Protection Division (EPD) of the Department of Natural Resources to create and enforce a drought protection program and administer funds.

Laura Windsor

2000-01-01

192

Interlaboratory comparisons for passive radon measuring devices at BfS.  

PubMed

Since 2003, the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) has conducted annual interlaboratory comparisons for passive radon measuring devices in order to ensure the quality of these measurements. Passive radon devices which use solid state nuclear track detectors, electrets or activated charcoal can be tested. The exposures of radon devices are carried out in the radon calibration laboratory at BfS. Radon activity concentrations are traced back to the national standard, being established at the National Institute of Physics and Metrology (PTB). According to the national guideline, radon services which offer radon monitoring at workplaces have to participate in the intercomparisons and prove the suitability of their radon devices for the measurements. PMID:17562644

Beck, T R; Buchröder, H; Foerster, E; Schmidt, V

2007-01-01

193

Constructing a resilience index for the enhanced critical in Frastructure Protection Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following recommendations made in Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7, which established a national policy for the identification and increased protection of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) by Federal departments and agencies, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2006 developed the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) program. The ECIP program aimed to provide a closer partnership with state,

R. E. Fisher; G. W. Bassett; W. A. Buehring; M. J. Collins; D. C. Dickinson; L. K. Eaton; R. A. Haffenden; N. E. Hussar; M. S. Klett; M. A. Lawlor; D. J. Millier; F. D. Petit; S. M. Peyton; K. E. Wallace; R. G. Whitfield; J. P. Peerenboom

2010-01-01

194

HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION PROGRAM Office of the Vice President for Research and Graduate Studies  

E-print Network

of ethics, individual responsibility, and institutional policy. Research with human subjects by agentsHUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION PROGRAM Office of the Vice President for Research and Graduate Studies and evaluation of our human research protection program, in pursuit of its research, teaching, and service

195

Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1990 highlights  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to design and test an earthen cover system(s) that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. The joint PNL/WHC program was initiated in FY 1986. To date, research findings support the initial concepts of barrier designs for the Hanford Site. A fine-soil surface is planned to partition surface water into runoff and temporary storage. Transpiration by vegetation that grows in the fine-soil layer will return stored water to the atmosphere as will surface evaporation. A capillary break created by the interface of the fine-soil layer and coarser textured materials below will further limit the downward migration of surface water, making it available over a longer period of time for cycling to the atmosphere. Should water pass the interface, it will drain laterally through a coarse textured sand/gravel layer. Tested barrier designs appear to work adequately to prevent drainage under current and postulated wetter-climate (added precipitation) conditions. Wind and water erosion tasks are developing data to predict the extent of erosion on barrier surfaces. Data collected during the last year confirm the effectiveness of small burrowing animals in removing surface water. Water infiltrating through burrows of larger mammals was subsequently lost by natural processes. Natural analog and climate change studies are under way to provide credibility for modeling the performance of barrier designs over a long period of time and under shifts in climate. 10 refs., 30 figs.

Cadwell, L.L. (ed.)

1991-09-01

196

Human Lung Cancer Risks from Radon – Part III - Evidence of Influence of Combined Bystander and Adaptive Response Effects on Radon Case-Control Studies - A Microdose Analysis  

PubMed Central

Since the publication of the BEIR VI (1999) report on health risks from radon, a significant amount of new data has been published showing various mechanisms that may affect the ultimate assessment of radon as a carcinogen, in particular the potentially deleterious Bystander Effect (BE) and the potentially beneficial Adaptive Response radio-protection (AR). The case-control radon lung cancer risk data of the pooled 13 European countries radon study (Darby et al 2005, 2006) and the 8 North American pooled study (Krewski et al 2005, 2006) have been evaluated. The large variation in the odds ratios of lung cancer from radon risk is reconciled, based on the large variation in geological and ecological conditions and variation in the degree of adaptive response radio-protection against the bystander effect induced lung damage. The analysis clearly shows Bystander Effect radon lung cancer induction and Adaptive Response reduction in lung cancer in some geographical regions. It is estimated that for radon levels up to about 400 Bq m?3 there is about a 30% probability that no human lung cancer risk from radon will be experienced and a 20% probability that the risk is below the zero-radon, endogenic spontaneous or perhaps even genetically inheritable lung cancer risk rate. The BEIR VI (1999) and EPA (2003) estimates of human lung cancer deaths from radon are most likely significantly excessive. The assumption of linearity of risk, by the Linear No-Threshold Model, with increasing radon exposure is invalid. PMID:22942874

Leonard, Bobby E.; Thompson, Richard E.; Beecher, Georgia C.

2012-01-01

197

EVALUATION OF WATERBORNE RADON IMPACT ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program was conducted with two objectives: (1) evaluation of waterborne radon impacts on indoor air quality, and (2) assessment of available control technologies to limit indoor exposures to radon and its decay products. This report contains a review of radon's phys...

198

The Environmental Protection Agency’s Brownfields Pilot Program  

PubMed Central

Objective. We studied the diffusion of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s national brownfields pilot innovation to more than 300 local governments between 1993 through 2002 to determine why some local governments received grants very early in the process while other awardees received funding later. Methods. We did an ordinal regression analysis of the characteristics of all local government award recipients, and we conducted interviews with early-award recipients. Results. The first set of local government awardees had lost much of their manufacturing base, had large concentrations of economically disadvantaged minority residents, and had local capacity to compete for funding. Federal and state officials catalyzed the diffusion of the innovation by working with local governments. Conclusions. The widely praised program was diffused selectively at first and then more widely later on the basis of local need, local capacity to compete, and networks of contacts among entrepreneurs and local governments. The economic, social, political, and public health impacts must be monitored and reviewed. PMID:16380572

Greenberg, Michael R.; Hollander, Justin

2006-01-01

199

Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

Not Available

1988-01-31

200

Impact of the deeper geological basement on soil gas and indoor radon concentrations in areas of Quaternary fluvial sediments (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of soil gas radon Rn222 and indoor radon was studied within the Quaternary fluvial sediments of the Czech Republic. The processing of data selection\\u000a from the radon database of the Czech Geological Survey and indoor radon data (database of the National Radiation Protection\\u000a institute) has proved the concentration dependence of radon in Quaternary fluvial sediments on deeper bedrock.

Ivan BarnetPetra; Petra Pacherová

2011-01-01

201

Radon-hazard potential the Beaver basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Indoor-radon levels in the Beaver basin of southwestern Utah are the highest recorded to date in Utah, ranging from 17.5 to 495 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Because the U.S. Environment Protection Agency considers indoor-radon levels above 4 pCi/L to represent a risk of lung cancer from long-term exposure, the Utah Geological Survey is preparing a radon-hazard-potential map for the area to help prioritize indoor testing and evaluate the need for radon-resistant construction. Radon is a chemically inert radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium-238, which is commonly found in rocks and soils. Soil permeability, depth to ground water, and uranium/thorium content of source materials control the mobility and concentration of radon in the soil. Once formed, radon diffuses into the pore space of the soil and then to the atmosphere or into buildings by pressure-driven flow of air or additional diffusion. The Beaver basin has been a topographic and structural depression since late Miocene time. Paleocene to Miocene volcanic and igneous rocks border the basin. Uraniferous alluvial-fan, piedmont-slope, flood-plain, and lacustrine sediments derived from the surrounding volcanic rocks fill the basin. A soil-gas radon and ground radioactivity survey in the Beaver basin shows that soils have high levels of radon gas. In this survey, uranium concentrations range from 3 to 13 parts per million (ppm) and thorium concentrations range from 10 to 48 ppm. Radon concentrations in the soil gas ranged from 85 to 3,500 pCi/L. The highest concentrations of uranium, thorium, and radon gas and the highest radon-hazard-potential are in the well-drained permeable soils in the lower flood- plain deposits that underlie the city of Beaver.

Bishop, C.E. [Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1995-06-01

202

Indoor Radon: The Deadliest Pollutant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the origin, occurrence, and effects of radon gas. Cites studies which attribute 5,000 to 20,000 deaths per year to radon exposure and the synergistic effect between radon and smoking. Explains ways to reduce risks. (RT)

Kerr, Richard A.

1988-01-01

203

DURABILITY OF SUBSLAB DEPRESSURIZATION RADON MITIGATION SYSTEMPERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a review of the quarterly performance ofsub-slab depressurization (SSD) radon mitigation systems in eighthouses in the New Jersey (NJ) Piedmont study and houses in whichthe NJ Department of Environmental Protection measurements haveindicated operation a...

204

Radon assay and purification techniques  

SciTech Connect

Radon is a source of background in many astroparticle physics experiments searching for rare low energy events. In this paper an overview about radon in the field is given including radon detection techniques, radon sources and material screening with respect to radon emanation. Finally, also the problem of long-lived radioactive {sup 222}Rn-daughters and the question of gas purification from radon is addressed.

Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-08-08

205

Determination of radon prone areas by probabilistic analysis of indoor survey results and geological prognostic maps in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of radon prone areas is usually based on indoor radon surveys and prognoses of occurrence of houses above action level [CRP Publication 65, Protection against Radon at Home and at Work]. The sample of houses in the survey must be representative and large enough, if accurate results are to be obtained. However, even if such condition are fulfilled,

Josef Thomas; Ji??? H?lka; Ladislav Tomášek; Ivana Fojt??ková; Ivan Barnet

2002-01-01

206

Steady-state response of a charcoal bed to radon in flowing air with water vapor  

SciTech Connect

Previously we have developed a mathematical model of radon adsorption in active air with water vapor on small U.S. Environmental Protection Agency charcoal canisters that are used for environmental measurements of radon. The purpose of this paper is to extend this mathematical model to describe the adsorption of radon by large charcoal beds with radon-laden air flowing through them. The resulting model equations are solved analytically to predict the steady-state adsorption of radon by such beds. 14 refs., 3 figs.

Blue, T.E.; Jarzemba, M.S.; Fentiman, A.W. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-06-01

207

The Environmental protection agency industrial technology transfer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today TAC consists of a full service information center and five programs, which are: (1) our industrial program; (2) the energy information center; (3) the business and industry extension program; (4) the remote sensing program; and (5) the center for environmental research and development.

Suter, K. H.

1974-01-01

208

Determination of radon level and radon effective dose rate using SSNTD in dwellings in the Bathinda district of Punjab, India.  

PubMed

The problem of indoor radon has attracted a great deal of attention worldwide as radon is the largest contributor to the total natural radiation dose. The dwellings belonging to the Bathinda district of Punjab, India, are investigated for the yearly average of indoor radon concentrations using solid-state nuclear track detectors. The annual average indoor radon values in the study area vary from 122.30 to 147.10 Bq m(-3), which is well within the recommended action level given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The calculated lifetime fatality risk values vary from 1.61 to 1.94. The seasonal variations and the contribution of building materials and ventilation conditions to the indoor radon in dwellings are also discussed. PMID:22927649

Mehra, R; Badhan, K

2012-11-01

209

Radon reduction and radon monitoring in the NEMO experiment  

E-print Network

1 Radon reduction and radon monitoring in the NEMO experiment A. NACHAB a and NEMO collaboration) Abstract: The first data of the NEMO 3 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment have shown that the radon can be a non negligible component of the background. In order to reduce the radon level in the gas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

210

RADON REDUCTION AND RADON RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The report covers three tasks related to indoor radon: (1) the demonstration of radon reduction techniques in 8 houses in each of two uniquely different radon prone areas of the State of New York; (2) the evaluation and repair of 14 radon mitigation systems in houses mitigated 4 ...

211

RADON REDUCTIONAND RADON RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The report covers three tasks related to indoor radon: (1) the demonstration of radon reduction techniques in 8 houses in each of two uniquely different radon prone areas of the State of New York; (2) the evaluation and repair of 14 radon mitigation systems in houses mitigated 4 ...

212

Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.  

PubMed

This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). PMID:22280793

Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

2012-07-01

213

47 CFR 76.101 - Cable syndicated program exclusivity: extent of protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection...program, the syndicated exclusivity rights to which are held by a commercial television station licensed by the Commission, shall...

2010-10-01

214

STATUS OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENCODRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Status of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Susan Laws. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC. In response to emergi...

215

ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Protective Liner Systems, Inc., Epoxy Mastic, PLS-614  

EPA Science Inventory

The Protective Liner Systems International, Inc. Epoxy Mastic PLS-614 coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and T...

216

THERMAL PROCESSES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE: THE EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting an extensive research program to study the practice of destroying hazardous waste in high temperature industrial processes. These studies have encompassed processes such as hazardous waste incineration, and processes c...

217

Local action for the global environment : municipal government participation in a voluntary climate protection program  

E-print Network

The Cities for Climate ProtectionTM (CCP) campaign is a voluntary environmental program for municipalities, which is increasingly being applied around the world by local governments taking action on climate change. This ...

Ravin, Amelia L., 1977-

2004-01-01

218

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...individual before allowing that individual to work as an authorized user, authorized nuclear pharmacist, or authorized medical physicist; and (3) Radiation protection program changes that do not require a license amendment and are permitted under §...

2011-01-01

219

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individual before allowing that individual to work as an authorized user, authorized nuclear pharmacist, or authorized medical physicist; and (3) Radiation protection program changes that do not require a license amendment and are permitted under §...

2010-01-01

220

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This technology ...

221

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: WET-WEATHER FLOW/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program which was established to overcome the numerous impediments to commercialization experienced by developers of innovative environmental technologies. ...

222

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation-protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A Practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

223

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

224

76 FR 2700 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS)/National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD)/Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C)/Office of Emergency Communications (OEC) will submit the following Information...

2011-01-14

225

LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

226

Radon: The Silent Danger.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the public health dangers associated with radon exposure in homes and schools. In addition, testing and corrective efforts by federal and state agencies are discussed. A map indicating areas in the U.S. with potentially high radon levels is included. (IAH)

Stoffel, Jennifer

1989-01-01

227

Czech residential radon study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiological evidence of lung cancer risk from radon is based mainly on studies of men working underground in mines, where exposures are relatively high in comparison to indoor exposure. Risk from residential radon can be estimated from occupational studies. Nevertheless, as such extrapolations depend on a number of assumptions, direct estimation of the risk is needed. Methods: The study

Ladislav Tomášek; TomᚠMüller; Emil Kunz; Alena Heribanová; Jan Matzner; Václav Pla?ek; Ivo Burian; Josef Hole?ek

2002-01-01

228

76 FR 68160 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Models To Advance Voluntary Corporate Notification...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute...110829543-1654-02] National Protection and Programs...Notification to Consumers Regarding the...Department of Commerce; Department...may be sent to Consumer_Notice_RFI...Department of Commerce and U.S...Secretary, National Protection and...

2011-11-03

229

Evaluation of a Stress Management Program in a Child Protection Agency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High stress levels experienced by child protection workers have been well documented. This study examined the effectiveness of a stress management program in a child protection agency. Subjects were case workers, immediate supervisors, and clerical staff; 320 subjects participated in pretesting and 279 subjects participated in posttesting.…

Cahill, Janet; Feldman, Lenard H.

230

76 FR 4027 - Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...identifying very few differences between the agreements...entity's acquisition, management, and enforcement...conservation easement management purposes. Response...overall program management and implementation leadership for FRPP;...

2011-01-24

231

Radon awareness, testing, and remediation survey among New York State residents  

SciTech Connect

Between November 1995 and January 1997, a radon awareness, testing, and remediation survey was conducted to measure general awareness and factual knowledge about radon and prevalence of radon testing and remediation among New York State residents. The survey found that 82% of 1,209 respondents had heard of radon, but only 21% were knowledgeably aware of radon. With regard to radon testing, only 15% of respondents who were aware of radon had their homes tested. The percentage of respondents who were aware or knowledgeably aware of radon increased with increasing education level. The findings from the study suggest that the New York State public awareness programs that targeted high radon areas did show some effect both by increasing public awareness and promoting residential testing. The relatively low percentage of respondents who were knowledgeably aware of radon and the low percentage who had tested their homes strongly suggest that renewed efforts by the public health community are needed to increase knowledge about radon and its health effects and to encourage radon testing and remediation.

Wang, Y.; Ju, C.; Stark, A.D.; Teresi, N.

2000-06-01

232

Summary of fire protection programs of the United States Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

This edition of the Annual Summary of DOE Fire Protection Programs continues the series started in 1972. Since May 1950, an annual report has been required from each field organization. The content has varied through the years and most of the accident data reporting requirements have been superseded by the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System administered by EG G, Idaho. However, this report is the sole source of information relating to fire protection programs, and to the actions of the field offices and to headquarters that are of general fire protection interest.

Not Available

1991-10-01

233

National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection  

SciTech Connect

This paper will describe the NREL program for addressing lightning protection for wind turbines. A test program will begin this summer at the Central and South West Services Inc. (CSW) wind farm near Fort Davis, Texas, to assess lightning risk, the frequency of lightning strikes on wind turbines compared to risk assessment predictions, and the effectiveness of some protection techniques. A Web page will be assembled to provide resources for designers and operators and feedback for issues as they arise. Also, a database of lightning events (and corresponding damage) will be collected to assist in maturing the understanding of wind turbine lightning protection.

Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)] [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

1997-09-01

234

Space radiation protection: Human support thrust exploration technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on space radiation protection are presented. For crew and practical missions, exploration requires effective, low-mass shielding and accurate estimates of space radiation exposure for lunar and Mars habitat shielding, manned space transfer vehicle, and strategies for minimizing exposure during extravehicular activity (EVA) and rover operations.

Conway, Edmund J.

1991-01-01

235

Experimental, statistical, and biological models of radon carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Risk models developed for underground miners have not been consistently validated in studies of populations exposed to indoor radon. Imprecision in risk estimates results principally from differences between exposures in mines as compared to domestic environments and from uncertainties about the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products. Uncertainties in extrapolating miner data to domestic exposures can be reduced by means of a broad-based health effects research program that addresses the interrelated issues of exposure, respiratory tract dose, carcinogenesis (molecular/cellular and animal studies, plus developing biological and statistical models), and the relationship of radon to smoking and other copollutant exposures. This article reviews experimental animal data on radon carcinogenesis observed primarily in rats at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Recent experimental and mechanistic carcinogenesis models of exposures to radon, uranium ore dust, and cigarette smoke are presented with statistical analyses of animal data. 20 refs., 1 fig.

Cross, F.T.

1991-09-01

236

Outdoor radon monitoring at DOE remedial action sites  

SciTech Connect

The Mound Radon Program has performed extensive outdoor radon monitoring near six remedial action sites for the Department of Energy since 1980. The results of these environmental measurements indicate that yearly average background concentrations as low as 0.1 to 0.2 picocuries/liter can be determined using Passive Environmental Radon Monitors. This monitoring can also be used to map areas of increased radon concentrations and can be used to provide confirmation of the success of remedial action. Environmental monitoring can provide data that can be used for decision-making by government officials and the general public by replacing uncertainty with knowledge about radon concentrations in the vicinity of remedial action sites. 2 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

Rudy, C.R.; Jenkins, P.H.; Hagee, G.R.; Hall, J.B.; Jarvis, J.Y.

1984-11-07

237

OVERVIEW OF EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) LIMB TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives an overview of EPA's Limestone Injection with Multistage Burners (LIMB) program, a program for research, development, and demonstration of cost-effective emissions control technology for coal-fired boilers that can reduce both sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxid...

238

Comparison of radon and radon-daughter grab samples obtained during the winter and summer. [UMTRA  

SciTech Connect

The Technical Measurements Center (TMC), under the auspices of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program, is investigating short-term methods for estimating annual average indoor radon-daughter concentrations (RDC). A field study at 40 sample locations in 26 residential structures in Grand Junction, Colorado, was conducted once in the winter and once in the summer. The short-term methods investigated as part of this study include ten-minute radon and radon-daughter grab sampling and hourly RDC measurements. The results of the field study indicate that ten-minute radon grab samples from basement locations are reproducible over different seasons during controlled sampling conditions. Nonbasement radon and RDC grab samples are highly variable even when the use of the location by the occupant is controlled and the ventilation rate is restricted. The grab sampling was performed under controlled occupied conditions. These results confirm that a short-term radon or RDC measurement in a nonbasement location in a house is not a standardized measurement that can be used to infer an annual average concentration. The hourly RDC measurements were performed under three sets of conditions over a 72-hour period. The three sets of conditions were uncontrolled occupied, controlled occupied, and controlled unoccupied. These results indicate that it is not necessary to relocate the occupants during the time of grab sampling. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

Karp, K.E.

1987-08-01

239

Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure

R. E. Fisher; W. A. Buehring; R. G. Whitfield; G. W. Bassett; D. C. Dickinson; R. A. Haffenden; M. S. Klett; M. A. Lawlor

2009-01-01

240

A record-retention program can protect group practices.  

PubMed

Group practices can benefit from having a systematic record-retention program that includes a formal record-retention policy. While state and Federal laws require the retention of some types of business records, many other records should be retained in the event of an audit or litigation. Having a record-retention program in place can help group practices respond cost-effectively and efficiently when called upon to produce documentation. The record-retention program should include a policy that stipulates not only which records should be kept but also for how long. Group practices should retain records relating to patient care, taxes, payroll, and contracts. PMID:10557981

Stewart, E E

1999-04-01

241

Radon concentrations in different types of dwellings in Israel.  

PubMed

The average radon concentration in Israeli dwellings was assessed by combining the results of a 2006 radon survey in single-family houses with the results of a 2011 radon survey in apartments of multistorey buildings. Both surveys were based on long-term measurements using CR-39 detectors. The survey in multistorey buildings was intended to assess the influence of recent practices in the local building industry on the radon concentrations. These practices include the use of building materials with higher concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the last 20 y than before, as well as the improvement in sealing techniques over that period. Another practice in place since the early 1990 s is the building of a shielded area in every apartment that is known as an RSS (residential secure space). The RSS is a room built from massive concrete walls, floor and ceiling that can be hermetically sealed and is intended to protect its residents from a missile attack. The influence of the above-mentioned features on radon concentrations was estimated by dividing the participating apartments into two groups: apartments in buildings >20 y, built using building materials with low concentrations of the natural radionuclides, regular sealing and without an RSS and apartments in buildings newer than 10 y, built using building materials with higher concentrations of the natural radionuclides, improved sealing and including an RSS. It was found that the average radon concentration in apartments in new buildings was significantly higher than in old buildings and the average radon concentration in single-family houses was significantly higher than in apartments in multistorey buildings. Doses due to indoor radon were estimated on the basis of the updated information included in the 2009 International Commission on Radiological Protection statement on radon. PMID:24381204

Epstein, L; Koch, J; Riemer, T; Orion, I; Haquin, G

2014-12-01

242

Distribution of indoor radon concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1990-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results from 548,507 indoor radon tests from a database compiled by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, Radon Division, are evaluated in this report in an effort to determine areas where concentrations of radon are highest. Indoor radon concentrations were aggregated according to geologic unit and hydrogeologic setting for spatial analysis. Indoor radon concentrations greater than or equal to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) action level of 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) were observed for 39 percent of the test results; the highest concentration was 1,866.4 pCi/L. When analyzed according to Pennsylvania’s geologic units, 93 of the 188 (49.5 percent) geologic units with indoor radon concentrations had median concentrations greater than the USEPA action level of 4 pCi/L; most of these geologic units are located in the eastern part of the State and include metamorphic rocks, limestones, sandstones, shales, and glacial deposits. When analyzed according to Pennsylvania’s hydrogeologic settings, 5 of the 20 (25 percent) settings had median indoor radon concentrations greater than the USEPA action level of 4 pCi/L; these settings are located mostly in the south-central part of the State. Median indoor radon concentrations aggregated according to geologic units and hydrogeologic settings are useful for drawing general conclusions about the occurrence of indoor radon in specific geologic units and hydrogeologic settings, but the associated data and maps have limitations. The aggregated indoor radon data have testing and spatial accuracy limitations due to lack of available information regarding testing conditions and the imprecision of geocoded test locations. In addition, the associated data describing geologic units and hydrogeologic settings have spatial and interpretation accuracy limitations, which are a result of using statewide data to define conditions at test locations and geologic data that represent a broad interpretation of geologic units across the State. As a result, indoor air radon concentration distributions are not proposed for use in predicting individual concentrations at specific sites nor for use as a decision-making tool for property owners to decide whether to test for indoor radon concentrations at specific property locations.

Gross, Eliza L.

2013-01-01

243

SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION - US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY SUPERFUND PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation outlines the Superfund program approach to site cleanup, then provides information from actual insitu and exsitu solidification/stabilization remediations to illustrate technology, equipment, field implementation, performance evaluation, cleanup specifications, ...

244

Planetary protection program for Mars 94/96 mission.  

PubMed

Mars surface in-situ exploration started in 1975 with the American VIKING mission. Two probes landed on the northern hemisphere and provided, for the first time, detailed information on the martian terrain, atmosphere and meteorology. The current goal is to undertake larger surface investigations and many projects are being planned by the major Space Agencies with this objective. Among these projects, the Mars 94/96 mission will make a major contributor toward generating significant information about the martian surface on a large scale. Since the beginning of the Solar System exploration, planets where life could exist have been subject to planetary protection requirements. Those requirements accord with the COSPAR Policy and have two main goals: the protection of the planetary environment from influence or contamination by terrestrial microorganisms, the protection of life science, and particularly of life detection experiments searching extra-terrestrial life, and not life carried by probes and spacecrafts. As the conditions for life and survival for terrestrial microorganisms in the Mars environment became known, COSPAR recommendations were updated. This paper will describe the decontamination requirements which will be applied for the MARS 94/96 mission, the techniques and the procedures which are and will be used to realize and control the decontamination of probes and spacecrafts. PMID:11538980

Rogovski, G; Bogomolov, V; Ivanov, M; Runavot, J; Debus, A; Victorov, A; Darbord, J C

1996-01-01

245

Radon reduction and radon monitoring in the NEMO experiment  

SciTech Connect

The first data of the NEMO 3 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment have shown that the radon can be a non negligible component of the background. In order to reduce the radon level in the gas mixture, it has been necessary first to cover the NEMO 3 detector with an airtight tent and then to install a radon-free air factory. With the use of sensitive radon detectors, the level of radon at the exit of the factory and inside the tent is continuously controlled. These radon levels are discussed within the NEMO 3 context.

Nachab, A. [Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, BP 120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)

2007-03-28

246

CAT scan and Radon/X-ray transform Relations with the Fourier transform. Dual Radon  

E-print Network

CAT scan and Radon/X-ray transform Relations with the Fourier transform. Dual Radon Radon transform of Tomographic Type #12;CAT scan and Radon/X-ray transform Relations with the Fourier transform. Dual Radon Radon one may want to ask 2 Tomography 3 CAT scan and Radon/X-ray transform 4 Relations with Fourier

247

Indoor Radon Measurement in Van  

SciTech Connect

In this study, indoor radon concentrations obtained from the radon surveys conducted in the Van. Radon monitoring was performed by applying a passive, time-integrating measuring technique. For this purpose, CR-39 nuclear track detectors were installed in dwellings for 2 months. After the monitoring period, detectors were collected. In order to make the alpha tracks visible, chemical etching was applied to the exposed detectors. Nuclear track numbers and the corresponding indoor radon concentrations were determined. Annual effective dose equivalents and the risk probabilities caused by indoor radon inhalation were calculated, and the found results compared with the indoor radon concentrations' data measured in different provinces of Turkey.

Kam, E.; Osmanlioglu, A. E.; Celebi, N. [TAEK, Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey); Dogan, I. [Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Biochemistry Department, Van (Turkey)

2007-04-23

248

A reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in Hamadan city, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 (i.e. below the lower limit of detection for the method) to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 108 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration - these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March) with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1993. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable "surficial" deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings.

Gillmore, G. K.; Jabarivasal, N.

2010-04-01

249

LLNL Fire Protection Engineering Standard 5.8 Facility Survey Program  

SciTech Connect

This standard describes the LLNL Fire Protection Facility Survey Program. The purpose of this standard is to describe the type of facility surveys required to fulfill the requirements of DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety. Nothing in this standard is intended to prevent the development of a FHA using alternative approaches. Alternate approaches, including formatting, will be by exception only, and approved by the Fire Marshal/Fire Protection Engineering Subject Matter Expert in advance of their use.

Sharry, J A

2012-01-04

250

Procedure manual for the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentrations using the radon grab-sampling method  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology established the Technical Measurements Center to provide standardization, calibration, comparability, verification of data, quality assurance, and cost-effectiveness for the measurement requirements of DOE remedial action programs. One of the remedial-action measurement needs is the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentration. One method for accomplishing such estimations in support of DOE remedial action programs is the radon grab-sampling method. This manual describes procedures for radon grab sampling, with the application specifically directed to the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentration (RDC) in highly ventilated structures. This particular application of the measurement method is for cases where RDC estimates derived from long-term integrated measurements under occupied conditions are below the standard and where the structure being evaluated is considered to be highly ventilated. The radon grab-sampling method requires that sampling be conducted under standard maximized conditions. Briefly, the procedure for radon grab sampling involves the following steps: selection of sampling and counting equipment; sample acquisition and processing, including data reduction; calibration of equipment, including provisions to correct for pressure effects when sampling at various elevations; and incorporation of quality-control and assurance measures. This manual describes each of the above steps in detail and presents an example of a step-by-step radon grab-sampling procedure using a scintillation cell.

George, J.L.

1986-04-01

251

The cost effectiveness of radon reduction programmes in domestic housing in England and Wales: the impact of improved radon mapping and housing trends.  

PubMed

In the UK, excessive levels of radon gas have been detected in domestic housing. Areas where 1% of existing homes were found to be over the Action Level of 200Bq·m(-3) were declared to be Radon Affected Areas. Building Regulations have been introduced which require that, for areas where between 3% and 10% of existing houses are above the Action Level, new homes should be built with basic radon protection using a membrane, and that, where 10% or more of existing homes exceed this level, new homes should be built with full radon protection. Initially these affected areas followed administrative boundaries, known as Counties. However, with increasing numbers of measurements of radon levels in domestic homes recorded in the national database, these areas have been successively refined into smaller units - 5km grid squares in 1999, down to 1km grid squares in 2007. One result is the identification of small areas with raised radon levels within regions where previously no problem had been identified. In addition, some parts of areas that were previously considered radon affected are now considered low, or no, risk. Our analysis suggests that the net result of improved mapping is to increase the number of affected houses. Further, the process is more complex for local builders, and inspectors, who need to work out whether radon protection in new homes is appropriate. Our group has assessed the cost-effectiveness of radon remediation programmes, and has applied this analysis to consider the cost-effectiveness of providing radon protection in both new and existing homes. This includes modelling the potential failure rate of membranes, and whether testing radon levels in new homes is appropriate. The analysis concludes that it is more cost effective to provide targeted radon protection in high radon areas, although this introduces more complexity. The paper also considers the trend in housing to a greater proportion of apartments, the regional variations in types of housing and the decreasing average number of occupants in each dwelling, and concludes that data and methods are now available to respond to the health risks of radon at a local level, in keeping with a general initiative to prioritise responses to health and social welfare issues at a more local level. PMID:23792416

Denman, A R; Sinclair, J; Phillips, P S; Crockett, R G M; Groves-Kirkby, C J

2013-09-01

252

DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION MEASURES FOR 10 HOMES IN CLINTON, NEW JERSEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the development and demonstration of indoor radon reduction methods for 10 houses in Clinton, New Jersey, where (in the spring of 1986) the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) located a cluster of houses with extremely high radon levels. T...

253

A REVIEW OF RADON MITIGATION IN LARGE BUILDINGS IN THE US  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency of the US carried out its initial research on radon mitigation in houses, both existing and new. A review of this work is presented in another paper at this workshop. Four years ago, this work was expanded to include the study of radon in schoo...

254

A Citizen's Guide to Radon. What It Is and What To Do about It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) are concerned about the increased risk of developing lung cancer faced by persons exposed to above-average levels of radon in their homes. The purpose of this pamphlet is to help readers to understand the radon problem and decide if they need to take…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

255

RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR NEW RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION: TECHNICAL GUIDANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is found in varying amounts in nearly all houses. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed and demonstrated methods that have been used to reduce radon levels in existing houses. Many of these methods could be appl...

256

Natural gamma radiation map (MARNA) and indoor radon levels in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, the Department of Applied and Medical Physics has been involved in the development of a radiation protection programme. In the framework of this programme, measurements of indoor radon, principally, have been carried out nationwide. Geometric mean radon concentrations of 45 Bq m?3 in the whole country and 130 Bq m?3 in the high natural radiation area

L. S. Quindós Poncela; P. L. Fernández; J. Gómez Arozamena; C. Sainz; J. A. Fernández; E. Suarez Mahou; J. L. Martin Matarranz; M. C. Cascón

2004-01-01

257

Measurements of radon concentrations in waters and soil gas of Zonguldak, Turkey.  

PubMed

The radon concentrations in soil-gas and water samples (in the form of springs, catchment, tap, thermal) used as drinking water or thermal were measured using a professional radon monitor AlphaGUARD PQ 2000PRO. The measured radon concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.32 to 88.22 Bq l(-1). Most of radon levels in potable water samples are below the maximum contaminant level of 11 Bq l(-1) recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The calculated annual effective doses due to radon intake through water consumption varied from 0.07 to 18.53 µSv y(-1). The radon concentrations in soil gas varied from 295.67 to 70 852.92 Bq m(-3). The radon level in soil gas was found to be higher in the area close to the formation boundary thrust and faults. No correlation was observed between radon concentrations in groundwater and soil gas. Also, no significant correlation was observed between soil-gas radon and temperature, pressure and humidity. The emanation of radon from groundwater and soil gas is controlled by the geological formation and by the tectonic structure of the area. PMID:24287600

Koray, Abdullah; Akkaya, Gizem; Kahraman, Ay?egül; Kaynak, Gökay

2014-12-01

258

Indoor radon measurements in the uranium regions of Poli and Lolodorf, Cameroon.  

PubMed

The objective of this work is to carry out indoor radon measurements in the uranium regions of Poli and Lolodorf in which lie the uranium deposits of Kitongo and Lolodorf, prior to their impending exploitation. The indoor radon concentration was measured in 103 and 50 dwellings located respectively in Poli and Lolodorf using E-PERM electret chamber detectors. Indoor radon distributions in Poli and Lolodorf follow the lognormal law. Radon concentrations range respectively in Poli and Lolodorf between 29 and 2240 Bq m(-3) and 24-4390 Bq m(-3) with corresponding median values of 165 Bq m(-3) and 331 Bq m(-3). Corresponding arithmetic and geometric means are respectively 294 Bq m(-3) and 200 Bq m(-3) for the uranium region of Poli, 687 Bq m(-3) and 318 Bq m(-3) for the uranium region of Lolodorf. For the uranium region of Poli, 80% of dwellings have radon concentration above the reference level of 100 Bq m(-3) and 20% of dwellings show a radon concentration above 300 Bq m(-3). For the uranium region of Lolodorf, 80% of dwellings have radon concentration above 100 Bq m(-3) and 50% of dwellings show a radon concentration above 300 Bq m(-3). Thus radon monitoring and mitigation plan are required to better protect people against harmful effects of radon. PMID:24878718

Saïdou; Abdourahimi; Tchuente Siaka, Y F; Bouba, O

2014-10-01

259

Time-dependent response of a charcoal bed to radon and water vapor in flowing air  

SciTech Connect

Extremely high airborne concentrations of radon gas may be encountered during the remediation of uranium mill tailings storage facilities. Radon is also a constituent of the off-gas of mill-tailing vitrification. An effective way to remove radon from either gas is to pass the gas through a packed bed containing activated charcoal. Measurements of radon concentrations in the environment using charcoal canisters were first described by George. Canisters similar to those used by George in his first experiments have become the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standard for measuring environmental radon and were described in the EPA protocol for environmental radon measurement. The dynamic behavior of EPA charcoal canisters has been previously described with a mathematical model for the kinetics of radon gas adsorption in air in the presence of water vapor. This model for charcoal canisters has been extended to large charcoal beds with flowing air containing radon and water vapor. The mathematical model for large charcoal beds can be used to evaluate proposed bed designs or to model existing beds. Parameters that affect the radon distribution within a charcoal bed that can be studied using the mathematical model include carrier gas relative humidity and flow velocity, and input radon concentration. In addition, the relative performances of several different charcoals can be studied, provided sufficient information about their adsorption, desorption, and diffusion constants is known.

Henkel, J.A.; Fentiman, A.W.; Blue, T.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

260

High radon areas in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norway is considered to be one of the most radon-affected areas in Europe. Based on results of nationwide surveys, the mean radon concentration in Norwegian dwellings has been estimated to be 89 Bq\\/m3, and 9% of houses have an annual mean radon concentration exceeding the recommended action level of 200 Bq\\/m3. Very high radon concentrations (50,000 Bq\\/m3) have been recorded

Terje Strand; Camilla Lunder Jensen; Katrine Ånestad; Line Ruden; Gro Beate Ramberg

2005-01-01

261

Radon properties in offices.  

PubMed

The radon concentration (RC), total potential alpha energy concentration of radon decay products (PAEC), equilibrium factor (F), and the fraction of unattached radon decay products (fp) were measured for 94 offices in Hong Kong. The mean values for RC, PAEC, F, and fp were 51 Bq m(-3), 1.19x10(-7) J m(-3) (5.7 mWL), 0.43, and 0.13, respectively. The first three are much higher than the corresponding values for dwellings. The radon properties vary significantly for different sites. The time for measurements, cumulative time since the air conditioning system was turned on, and whether smoking is allowed in the office have been identified from the available data as possible factors affecting the radon characteristics in offices. The mean contribution of the lung exposure to the annual effective dose equivalent due to radon in offices has been calculated to be 0.35 mSv y(-1). Considering other sources of natural radiation, a rough estimate of the total annual equivalent dose of about 2.7 mSv for a person living in Hong Kong is obtained. Two simple methods are proposed to mitigate the radon hazard in offices: (1) the provision of smoke-free environments and (2) switching on the air conditioners earlier. The first method reduces the equivalent dose by about 0.13 mSv y(-1) while the second reduces by about 0.1 mSv y(-1), which can be regarded as significant. PMID:9685069

Yu, K N; Young, E C; Stokes, M J; Tang, K K

1998-08-01

262

Radon recording of Uttarkashi earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal distribution of radon is recorded in both soil-gas and groundwater using two different techniques, viz. track etch method and emanometry. Radon recording stations have been set up at one site in Amritsar and four sites in the Kangra valley (Himachal Pradesh) under the Himalayan seismicity project. The track-etch method gives integrated measurement of radon over a week

H. S. Virk; Baljinder Singh

1994-01-01

263

RADON REDUCTION STRATEGIES AND APPROACHES  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter is for inclusion in a textbook, Environmental Radon, for graduate students. It gives a flavor of what radon mitigation entails, rather than being a detailed handbook treatment of the subject. It emphasizes the removal or reduction of soil-gas-borne radon (the major so...

264

Deep in the forests: Program works to protect water quality through forestry practices  

E-print Network

source water pollution in the forests. ?We target a wide range of forestry professionals to encourage and promote forestry BMPs,? said Hughes Simpson, program coordinator. ?We believe it?s everyone?s responsibility to protect water quality, so we... of the federal Clean Water Act shi#30;ed more a#27;ention to nonpoint source pollution programs, Simpson said. Nonpoint source pollution is caused by water moving over the ground, picking up natural and manmade pollutants and depositing them in lakes, rivers...

Wythe, Kathy

2011-01-01

265

78 FR 29786 - Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988; Report of Matching Program: RRB and State...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act...Notice of a renewal of an existing computer matching program due to expire on...of its intent to renew an ongoing computer matching program. In this...

2013-05-21

266

Towards a Brazilian radon map: consortium radon Brazil.  

PubMed

Recently, the idea of generating radon map of Brazil has emerged. First attempts of coordinating radon surveys--carried out by different groups across the country--and initial discussions on how to proceed on a larger scale were made at the First Brazilian Radon Seminary, Natal, September 2012. Conventionally, it is believed that indoor radon is no major problem in Brazil, because the overall benign climate usually allows high ventilation rates. Nevertheless, scattered measurements have shown that moderately high indoor radon concentrations (up to a few hundred Bq m?³) do occur regionally. Brazilian geology is very diverse and there are regions where an elevated geogenic radon potential exists or is expected to exist. Therefore, a Brazilian Radon Survey is expected to be a challenge, although it appears an important issue, given the rising concern of the public about the quality of its environment. PMID:24743768

Silva, N C; Bossew, P; Ferreira Filho, A L; Campos, T F C; Pereira, A J S C; Yoshimura, E M; Veiga, L H S; Campos, M P; Rocha, Z; Paschuk, S A; Bonotto, D M

2014-07-01

267

Constructing a resilience index for the enhanced critical in Frastructure Protection Program.  

SciTech Connect

Following recommendations made in Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7, which established a national policy for the identification and increased protection of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) by Federal departments and agencies, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2006 developed the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) program. The ECIP program aimed to provide a closer partnership with state, regional, territorial, local, and tribal authorities in fulfilling the national objective to improve CIKR protection. The program was specifically designed to identify protective measures currently in place in CIKR and to inform facility owners/operators of the benefits of new protective measures. The ECIP program also sought to enhance existing relationships between DHS and owners/operators of CIKR and to build relationships where none existed (DHS 2008; DHS 2009). In 2009, DHS and its protective security advisors (PSAs) began assessing CIKR assets using the ECIP program and ultimately produced individual protective measure and vulnerability values through the protective measure and vulnerability indices (PMI/VI). The PMI/VI assess the protective measures posture of individual facilities at their 'weakest link,' allowing for a detailed analysis of the most vulnerable aspects of the facilities (Schneier 2003), while maintaining the ability to produce an overall protective measures picture. The PMI has six main components (physical security, security management, security force, information sharing, protective measures assessments, and dependencies) and focuses on actions taken by a facility to prevent or deter the occurrence of an incident (Argonne National Laboratory 2009). As CIKR continue to be assessed using the PMI/VI and owners/operators better understand how they can prevent or deter incidents, academic research, practitioner emphasis, and public policy formation have increasingly focused on resilience as a necessary component of the risk management framework and infrastructure protection. This shift in focus toward resilience complements the analysis of protective measures by taking into account the three other phases of risk management: mitigation, response, and recovery (Figure 1). Thus, the addition of a robust resilience index (RI) to the established PMI/VI provides vital information to owners/operators throughout the risk management process. Combining a pre-incident focus with a better understanding of resilience, as well as potential consequences from damaged CIKR, allows owners/operators to better understand different ways to decrease risk by (1) increasing physical security measures to prevent an incident, (2) supplementing redundancy to mitigate the effects of an incident, and (3) enhancing emergency action and business continuity planning to increase the effectiveness of recovery procedures. Information provided by the RI methodology is also used by facility owners/operators to better understand how their facilities compare to similar sector/subsector sites and to help them make risk-based decisions. This report provides an overview of the RI methodology developed to estimate resilience and provide resilience comparisons for sectors and subsectors. The information will be used to (1) assist DHS in analyzing existing response and recovery methods and programs at facilities and (2) identify potential ways to increase resilience. The RI methodology is based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry, which is 'the coevolutionary search for the best in people, their organizations, and the relevant world around them' (Cooperrider et al. 2005). Appreciative Inquiry identifies the best of 'what is' and helps to envision 'what might be.' The ECIP program and the RI represent a new model (using Appreciative Inquiry principles) for information sharing between government and industry (Fisher and Petit 2010). A 'dashboard' display, which provides an interactive tool - rather than a static report, presents the results of the RI in a convenient format. Additional resilience measures c

Fisher, R. E.; Bassett, G. W.; Buehring, W. A.; Collins, M. J.; Dickinson, D. C.; Eaton, L. K.; Haffenden, R. A.; Hussar, N. E.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Millier, D. J.; Petit, F. D.; Peyton, S. M.; Wallace, K. E.; Whitfield, R. G.; Peerenboom, J. P.; Decision and Information Sciences

2010-10-14

268

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (EMAP) IN THE 21ST CENTURY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agancy's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is improving the tools to assess status and trends in the condition of aquatic ecosystems across the U.S. Within the Office of Research and Development, EMAP has developed an approac...

269

Descriptions of new varieties recently distributed from the Citrus Clonal Protection Program  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP) is operated through the Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology at University of California (UC) Riverside and is funded in large part by The California Citrus Research Board (CRB). The CCPP processes citrus propagative material in two phases. First...

270

75 FR 5608 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Communications Unit Leader (COML) Prerequisite and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Department of Homeland Security, National Protection and Programs Directorate/Cybersecurity and Communications/Office of Emergency Communications (OEC), has submitted the following Information Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. Chapter...

2010-02-03

271

1990 UPDATE OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is seeking to foster the further development of technologies that have been successfully tested at bench-scale and are now ready for pilot-scale testing, prior...

272

Ecological impact in ditch mesocosms of simulated spray drift from a crop protection program for potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor aquatic ditch mesocosms were treated with a range of pesticides to simulate various spray drift rates resulting from a typical crop protection program used in the cultivation of potatoes in The Netherlands. The main experimental aims of the present study were to provide information on the fate and ecological effects of drift of the pesticides into surface water and

Gertie HP Arts; Laura L Buijse-Bogdan; J Dick M Belgers; Rhenen-Kersten van C. H; Wijngaarden van R. P. A; Ivo Roessink; Steve J Maund; Brink van den P. J; Theo CM Brock

2006-01-01

273

Evaluation of Minnesota and Illinois hospital respiratory protection programs and health care worker respirator use.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess respiratory protection programs for aerosol-transmissible diseases in acute care hospitals for conformance with regulatory requirements and public health guidelines. Twenty-eight representative hospitals were selected by size, location, and ownership in Minnesota and Illinois. Interviews were conducted with 363 health care workers and 171 managers from high-risk departments. Written programs from each hospital were reviewed for required elements. Seventy-seven health care workers were observed donning and doffing a FFR. The most serious deficiency in many written programs was failure to identify a program administrator. Most written programs lacked adequate details about medical evaluation, fit-testing, and training and did not include a comprehensive risk assessment for aerosol transmissible diseases; tuberculosis was often the only pathogen addressed. Employees with the highest probability of tuberculosis exposure were most likely to pick a respirator for close contact, but higher levels of respiratory protection were rarely selected for aerosol-generating procedures. Surgical masks were most commonly selected for close contact with droplet disease- or influenza-infected patients; better protection (e.g., respirator) was rarely selected for higher-risk exposures. Most of the observed health care workers had access to a NIOSH-certified N95 FFR, properly positioned the facepiece, and formed the nose clip. The most frequent deficiencies were failure to correctly place straps, perform a user seal check, and remove the respirator using straps. PMID:24918755

Brosseau, Lisa M; Conroy, Lorraine M; Sietsema, Margaret; Cline, Kari; Durski, Kara

2015-01-01

274

Radon monitoring and early low background counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m{sup 3}, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m{sup 3} based on approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m{sup 3}. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in relevant areas underground.

Thomas, K.J.; Mei, D.M.; Heise, J.; Durben, D.; Salve, R.

2010-09-01

275

Radon Monitoring and Early Low Background Counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m{sup 3}, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m{sup 3} based on approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m{sup 3}. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in relevant areas underground.

Thomas, K. J.; Mei, D.-M. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); Heise, J. [Sanford Laboratory at Homestake, Lead, SD 57754 (United States); Durben, D. [Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD 57799 (United States); Salve, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2011-04-27

276

What Teachers Should Know about Radon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to clear up misunderstandings about radon and outlines information teachers can convey to their students. Includes a brief history of radon, health threats posed by radon, methods to measure radon quantities, homeowner risks and preventative actions, and a glossary of radon terms. (MDH)

Bettis, Clifford; Throckmorton, Carl

1991-01-01

277

The April 1994 and October 1994 radon intercomparisons at EML  

SciTech Connect

Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) are the backbone of many commercial and research processes and programs. QA/QC research tests the state of a functioning system, be it the production of manufactured goods or the ability to make accurate and precise measurements. The quality of the radon measurements in the US have been tested under controlled conditions in semi-annual radon gas intercomparison exercises sponsored by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) since 1981. The two Calendar Year 1994 radon gas intercomparison exercises were conducted in the EML exposure chamber. Thirty-two groups including US Federal facilities, USDOE contractors, national and state laboratories, universities and foreign institutions participated in these exercises. The majority of the participant`s results were within {+-}10% of the EML value at radon concentrations of 570 and 945 Bq m{sup {minus}3}.

Fisenne, I.M.; George, A.C.; Perry, P.M.; Keller, H.W.

1995-10-01

278

Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9±5 to 163±32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49±2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M. S.

2010-07-01

279

Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9{+-}5 to 163{+-}32 Bqm{sup -3} and an average of 49{+-}2 Bqm{sup -3}. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm{sup -3} set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

Alyami, S. H. [Saudi School in KualaLumpur, Ministry of Education, 55000 KualaLumpur (Malaysia); Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M.S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

2010-07-07

280

Radon action level for high-rise buildings.  

PubMed

Radon and its progeny are the major contributors to the natural radiation dose received by human beings. Many countries and radiological authorities have recommended radon action levels to limit the indoor radon concentrations and, hence, the annual doses to the general public. Since the sources of indoor radon and the methods for reducing its concentration are different for different types of buildings, social and economic factors have to be considered when setting the action level. But so far no action levels are specifically recommended for cities that have dwellings and offices all housed in high-rise buildings. In this study, an optimization approach was used to determine an action level for high-rise buildings based on data obtained through previous territory-wide radon surveys. A protection cost of HK$0.044 per unit fresh air change rate per unit volume and a detriment cost of HK$120,000 per person-Sv were used, which gave a minimum total cost at an action level of 200 Bq m(-3). The optimization analyses were repeated for different simulated radon distributions and living environment, which resulted in quite significantly different action levels. Finally, an action level of 200 Bq m(-3) was recommended for existing buildings and 150 Bq m(-3) for newly built buildings. PMID:10201568

Leung, J K; Tso, M Y; Ho, C W

1999-05-01

281

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory search and property protection programs -- March 22, 1984  

SciTech Connect

On November 30, 1983, the LLNL Directorate met to discuss Laboratory policy regarding searches. An advance package (dated November 16, 1983) discussing background issues and DOE`s property protection and safeguards concerns was distributed to the Director and Associate Directors. A number of Associate Directors expressed concern about the nature of the theft problem at the Laboratory. There was also discussion about many employees` perception that Laboratory Management (including the Security Department) really did not care. The Director endorsed the need to establish searches in the SNM areas. The property protection type of searches were perceived as being very sensitive from a labor relations perspective. Nevertheless, the Directorate was sufficiently concerned about the safeguards and property protection issues to request the Security Department to develop a search plan for their review. A draft Search Program was prepared by the Security Department and reviewed individually with the Directorate for their comments. On March 19, 1984, the Directorate met collectively to consider a summary of these individual comments and to finalize a Search Program. Decisions made during that meeting have been incorporated into this document. This plan describes the search procedures that will be implemented at SNM areas and a two point program concerning property protection. Procedures are also set forth that will allow for expanded searches during periods of heightened security concern.

Leary, D.A.

1984-03-22

282

Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1-4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)- presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

Villagomez Casimiro, Mariana; Ruiz Trejo, Cesar; Espejo Fonseca, Ruby

2014-11-01

283

The Renewable Energy and Environmental Protection (REEP) Academy: An international training and educational program  

SciTech Connect

High school and college students are getting a global perspective of photovoltaic systems through a hands-on educational and training program. The Renewable Energy and Environmental Protection (REEP) Academy is a college preparatory program conducted by Texas Southern University (TSU), located in Houston, Texas, in partnership with Port Elizabeth Technikon, located in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. The program is designed to encourage minority high school students to pursue education in science, engineering and technology through a combination of lectures, laboratory activities, field trips and hands-on system installations. Also included in this program is an international exchange between TSU and Port Elizabeth Technikon that enables college students to study abroad and complete internships involving photovoltaics. Assessments show that the students' knowledge of renewable energy and sustainability increases by approximately 40% following their participation in the program. To date, approximately 60% of the participating students who are currently in college are enrolled in technical fields.

Hill, J.; Pichumani, J.; Linde, A. van der

1999-07-01

284

Integrated Worker Health Protection and Promotion Programs: Overview and Perspectives on Health and Economic Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe integrated worker health protection and promotion (IWHPP) program characteristics, to discuss the rationale for integration of OSH and WHP programs, and to summarize what is known about the impact of these programs on health and economic outcomes. Methods A descriptive assessment of the current state of the IWHPP field and a review of studies on the effectiveness of IWHPP programs on health and economic outcomes. Results Sufficient evidence of effectiveness was found for IWHPP programs when health outcomes are considered. Impact on productivity-related outcomes is considered promising, but inconclusive, whereas insufficient evidence was found for health care expenditures. Conclusions Existing evidence supports an integrated approach in terms of health outcomes but will benefit significantly from research designed to support the business case for employers of various company sizes and industry types. PMID:24284747

Pronk, Nicolaas P.

2014-01-01

285

RADON reconstruction in longitudinal phase space  

SciTech Connect

Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitoring by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in two dimensional (2-D) phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. A computer program RADON has been developed in C++ to process digitized mountain range data and perform the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Wei, J.

1997-07-01

286

Radon testing in schools in New York State: a 20-year summary.  

PubMed

For nearly 20 years the Department of Health has conducted programs to assist in the measurement and reduction of indoor radon concentrations in 186 schools located primarily in Zone 1 areas of New York State. Although many schools had few or no rooms containing radon above 148 Bq/m(3), some rooms had >740 Bq/m(3) and remediation techniques were utilized to reduce exposure. Short-term radon measurements in the schools showed little correlation to basement and first-floor radon results from single-family homes in the towns. PMID:25117690

Kitto, Michael

2014-11-01

287

Improved radon-flux-measurement system for uranium-tailings pile measurement  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing cover technology for uranium mill tailings that will inhibit the diffusion of radon to the atmosphere. As part of this cover program, an improved radon flux measurement system has been developed. The radon measurement system is a recirculating, pressure-balanced, flow-through system that uses activated carbon at ambient temperatures to collect the radon. With the system, an area of 0.93 m/sup 2/ is sampled for periods ranging from 1 to 12 h. The activated carbon is removed from the radon trap and the collected radon is determined by counting the /sup 214/Bi daughter product. Development of the system included studies to determine the efficiency of activated carbon, relative calibration measurements and field measurements made during 1980 at the inactive tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado. Results of these studies are presented.

Freeman, H.D.

1981-10-01

288

Livestock Risk Protection-Lamb: New Insurance Program to Help Ranchers Manage Lamb Price Risk  

E-print Network

1 Livestock Risk Protection-Lamb: New Insurance Program to Help Ranchers Manage Lamb Price Risk Risk Management E-470 RM4-14.0 09-08 *Professor and Extension Economist?Management, Assistant Professor and Extension Economist...?Management, Professor and Extension Economist?Management, and Professor and Extension Economist?Livestock and Food Product Marketing,The Texas A&M System. USDA?s Risk Management Agency (RMA) is offering a new federally subsidized Livestock Risk Protection-Lamb (LRP...

Pena, Jose G.; Thompson, Bill; Bevers, Stan; Anderson, David P.

2008-10-07

289

Deep in the Forests: Program works to protect water quality through forestry practices  

E-print Network

20 tx H2O Winter 2011 Story by Kathy Wythe The Texas Forest Service works with forestry professionals to implement best management practices to help protect water quality, which is critical for people and wildlife to survive. Photo courtesy... of Texas Forest Service. Deep in the forests Program works to protect water quality through forestry practices Winter 2011 tx H2O 21 ] Deep in the forests of East Texas and sca#27;ered in pockets of other parts of the state are more than...

Wythe, Kathy

2011-01-01

290

Risks from Radon: Reconciling Miner and Residential Epidemiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Everyone is exposed to radon, an inert radioactive gas that occurs naturally and is present everywhere in the atmosphere. The annual dose from radon and its (short-lived) decay products is typically about one-half of the dose received by members of the public from all natural sources of ionizing radiation. Data on exposures and consequent effects have recently been reviewed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Studies of underground miners provides a well-established basis for estimating risks from occupational exposures to radon and for studying factors that may affect the dose response relationship such as the reduction of risk (coefficients) with increasing time since exposure. Miners' studies previously formed the basis for estimating risks to people exposed to radon at home, with downward extrapolation from exposures in mines to residential levels of radon. Presently, the risk estimates from residential studies are adequate to estimate radon risks in homes. Although there are major uncertainties in extrapolating the risks of exposure to radon from the miner studies to assessing risks in the home, there is remarkably good agreement between the average of risk factors derived from miner studies and those from pooled residential case-control studies. There are now over 20 analytical studies of residential radon and lung cancer. These studies typically assess the relative risk from exposure to radon based on estimates of residential exposure over a period of 25 to 30 years prior to diagnosis of lung cancer. Recent pooled analyses of residential case-control studies support a small but detectable lung cancer risk from residential exposure, and this risk increases with increasing concentrations. The excess relative risk of lung cancer from long-term residential exposure is about the same for both smokers and non-smokers; however, because the baseline lung cancer rate for smokers is much higher than for non or never smokers, smokers account for nearly 90% of the population risk from residential exposure to radon. As described in the paper, an excess relative risk (ERR) of 0.12(95% CI: 0.08-0.2)per 100 Bq m-3 (radon gas) can be estimated from combined miner studies. This compares well with the ERR from pooled residential case-control studies (for restricted analysis) for Europe of 0.16(95% CI: 0.05-0.31)[1] and for North America of 0.11(95% CI: 0.0-0.28)[2].

Chambers, Douglas B.; Harley, Naomi H.

2008-08-01

291

Risks from Radon: Reconciling Miner and Residential Epidemiology  

SciTech Connect

Everyone is exposed to radon, an inert radioactive gas that occurs naturally and is present everywhere in the atmosphere. The annual dose from radon and its (short-lived) decay products is typically about one-half of the dose received by members of the public from all natural sources of ionizing radiation. Data on exposures and consequent effects have recently been reviewed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Studies of underground miners provides a well-established basis for estimating risks from occupational exposures to radon and for studying factors that may affect the dose response relationship such as the reduction of risk (coefficients) with increasing time since exposure. Miners' studies previously formed the basis for estimating risks to people exposed to radon at home, with downward extrapolation from exposures in mines to residential levels of radon. Presently, the risk estimates from residential studies are adequate to estimate radon risks in homes. Although there are major uncertainties in extrapolating the risks of exposure to radon from the miner studies to assessing risks in the home, there is remarkably good agreement between the average of risk factors derived from miner studies and those from pooled residential case-control studies. There are now over 20 analytical studies of residential radon and lung cancer. These studies typically assess the relative risk from exposure to radon based on estimates of residential exposure over a period of 25 to 30 years prior to diagnosis of lung cancer. Recent pooled analyses of residential case-control studies support a small but detectable lung cancer risk from residential exposure, and this risk increases with increasing concentrations. The excess relative risk of lung cancer from long-term residential exposure is about the same for both smokers and non-smokers; however, because the baseline lung cancer rate for smokers is much higher than for non or never smokers, smokers account for nearly 90% of the population risk from residential exposure to radon. As described in the paper, an excess relative risk (ERR) of 0.12(95% CI: 0.08-0.2)per 100 Bq m{sup -3} (radon gas) can be estimated from combined miner studies. This compares well with the ERR from pooled residential case-control studies (for restricted analysis) for Europe of 0.16(95% CI: 0.05-0.31) and for North America of 0.11(95% CI: 0.0-0.28)

Chambers, Douglas B. [SENES Consultants Limited, 121 Granton Drive, Unit 12 Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3N4 (Canada); Harley, Naomi H. [New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY (United States)

2008-08-07

292

A creeping suspicion about radon  

SciTech Connect

Who would expect an odorless, invisible gas that occurs nearly everywhere on earth to cause such trouble Yet radon, the gas emitted by decay of uranium in the earth's crust, is one of America's most significant environmental risks, according to the EPA, which estimates that residential radon levels lead to approximately 13,600 lung cancer deaths each year. A new National Cancer Institute analysis of multiple studies of miners confirms early estimates, putting the number at 15,000. No other risk comes close, not even environmental tobacco smoke, which is estimates to cause some 3,000 deaths each year. Hot debate surrounds the assessment of risk from radon exposure to Americans via indoor air and water supplies. The primary culprit is not radon gas itself, but its decay products, including polonium-214 and polonium-218, which have long half-lives and emit alpha particles - positively charged particles - and lung cancer when inhaled. Radon seeps into homes from the ground or is present in water supplies. Waterborne radon may be inhaled as radon or its progeny during household use - cooking or showering - or it may be ingested. But the EPA estimates that water sources contribute only about 5% of total airborne radon exposure, leaving indoor air as the worst offender. While the EPA estimates that approximately 200 cancer cases per year result from exposure to radon from public groundwater systems, estimates of annual lung cancer deaths from indoor air radon range from 7,000 to 30,000.

Alderson, L.

1994-10-01

293

Environmental radon studies in Mexico.  

PubMed

Radon has been determined in soil, groundwater, and air in Mexico, both indoors and outdoors, as part of geophysical studies and to estimate effective doses as a result of radon exposure. Detection of radon has mainly been performed with solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and, occasionally, with active detection devices based on silicon detectors or ionization chambers. The liquid scintillation technique, also, has been used for determination of radon in groundwater. The adjusted geometric mean indoor radon concentration (74 Bq m-3) in urban developments, for example Mexico City, is higher than the worldwide median concentration of radon in dwellings. In some regions, particularly hilly regions of Mexico where air pollution is high, radon concentrations are higher than action levels and the effective dose for the general population has increased. Higher soil radon levels have been found in the uranium mining areas in the northern part of the country. Groundwater radon levels are, in general, low. Soil-air radon contributing to indoor atmospheres and air pollution is the main source of increased exposure of the population. PMID:17288007

Segovia, N; Gaso, M I; Armienta, M A

2007-04-01

294

RESIDENTIAL RADON RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION FEATURE SELECTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a proposed residential radon resistant construction feature selection system. The features consist of engineered barriers to reduce radon entry and accumulation indoors. The proposed Florida standards require radon resistant features in proportion to regional...

295

Radon-Resistant New Construction (RRNC)  

MedlinePLUS

... EPA Home Air Indoor Air Radon Radon-Resistant New Construction (RRNC) Builders and Contractors Learn the basics ... why you should build homes using radon-resistant new construction techniques. Review the techniques - learn five basic ...

296

Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S. [eds.] [eds.

1994-10-01

297

Is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency brownfields assessment pilot program environmentally just?  

PubMed Central

In the early 1990s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) started a grant program to assist communities redevelop brownfields, which are abandoned or underutilized sites that have real or perceived contamination. In addition to determining if the communities receiving the grants were the most distressed cities in the United States, we also evaluate the U.S. EPA program in terms of environmental justice at the macro scale. Using 1990 U.S. Census of Housing and Population data and a matched-cities methodology, we compared the brownfields pilot cities to other communities in the United States. We found that regardless of intent, the U.S. EPA program is environmentally just by disproportionately awarding grants to the most economically distressed cities. We also found that the cities that received funding in the early years of the program were more economically distressed than cities receiving the funding more recently. PMID:11929735

Solitare, Laura; Greenberg, Micheal

2002-01-01

298

Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia's Health Insurance Program for the Poor.  

PubMed

Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia's Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a "fuzzy" regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services - with measurable health gains. PMID:25346799

Miller, Grant; Pinto, Diana; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

2013-10-01

299

The Representative Areas Program for Protecting Biodiversity in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Existing no-take areas within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park reflect a historical focus on coral reefs and remote ‘pristine’ areas. The Representative Areas Program(RAP) aimsto enhance protection of the region’s biodiversityby dev elopinga network of no-take areas that represents the range of ,habitats and communities within the Marine Park. A comprehensive range of ,biological and physical information was

Jon Day; Leanne Fernandes; Ada Mlewis; Glenn De'ath; Suzanne Slegers; Bryonyb Arnett; Dan Breen; James Innes; Jamie Oliver; Trevor Ward; David Lowe

300

Environmental radon studies in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon has been determined in soil, groundwater, and air in Mexico, both indoors and outdoors, as part of geophysical studies\\u000a and to estimate effective doses as a result of radon exposure. Detection of radon has mainly been performed with solid-state\\u000a nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and, occasionally, with active detection devices based on silicon detectors or ionization\\u000a chambers. The liquid scintillation

N. Segovia; M. I. Gaso; M. A. Armienta

2007-01-01

301

The Zero Hunger and Brazil without Extreme Poverty programs: a step forward in Brazilian social protection policy.  

PubMed

Brazilian social protection programs have had consistent effects in reducing poverty and inequality among their respective target-groups: children, adolescents and pregnant and breastfeeding women. In 2011, the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program was launched as a strategy to eradicate extreme poverty by 2014. It makes the promotion of rights the core concept of the official political narrative. This study seeks to provide a systematic description of the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program and its initial results. A review of official documents and academic studies on the social protection programs was conducted. The Brazil without Extreme Poverty program represents an incremental approach to the social protection policies enacted by the previous administration. It advocates a multidimensional and focused approach, funded primarily by the federal government. The strategy subscribes to the international trend of associating social protection with employment and income generation policies. PMID:25351302

Paes-Sousa, Romulo; Vaitsman, Jeni

2014-11-01

302

Map showing radon potential of rocks and soils in Montgomery County, Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes the radon potential of Montgomery County in the context of its geology. Radon is a naturally occurring gas produced by the radioactive decay of uranium. Radon produced by uraniferous rocks and soils may enter a house through porous building materials and through openings in walls and floors. Radon gases has a tendency to move from the higher pressure commonly existing in the soil to the lower pressure commonly existing in the house. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA, 1986a) estimates that elevated levels of indoor radon may be associated with 5,000 to 20,000 of the 130,000 lung cancer deaths per year. They also estimate that 8 to 12 percent of the homes in the United States will have annual average indoor radon levels exceeding 4 picoCuries per liter of air (pCi/L). Above this level, the U.S. EPA recommends homeowners take remedial action. May factors control the amount of radon which may enter a home from the geologic environment. Soil drainage, permeability, and moisture content effect the amount of radon that can be released from rocks and soils (known as the emmanation) and may limit or increase how far it can migrate. Well drained, highly permeable soils facilitate the movement of radon. Soils with water content in the 8 to 15 percent range enhance the emmanation of radon (Lindmark, 1985). Daily and seasonal variations in soil and indoor radon can be caused by meteorologic factors such as barometric pressure, temperature, and wind (Clements and Wilkening, 1974; Schery and other, 1984). Construction practices also inhibit or promote entry of radon into the home (U.S. EPA, 1986b). In general, however, geology controls the source and distribution of radon (Akerblom and Wilson, 1982; Gundersen and others, 1987, 1988; Sextro and others, 1987; U.S. EPA, 1983; Peake, 1988; Peake and Hess, 1988). The following sections describe: 1) the methods used to measure radon and equivalent uranium (eU) in soil; 2) the radon potential ratings that were developed for this study; and 3) the characteristics of the rocks and soils in Montgomery County that give them their radon potential.

Gundersen, L.C.; Reimer, G.M.; Wiggs, C.R.; Rice, C.A.

1988-01-01

303

PROTECTING CHILDREN FROM ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS - A CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR NURSES OF THE AMERICAN NURSES FOUNDATION/ASSOCIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The American Nurses Association/Foundation will develop online, in print and pre conference continuing education (CE) children's environmental health protection programs to meet the objective of the program. The first CE program is on school environments, the second on home and ...

304

Radon in Irish Show Caves - Personal Monitoring Data From 2001-2006  

SciTech Connect

The European Directive 96/29/EURATOM and its transposition into national legislation demands the application of radiation protection measures if the presence of radon and radon decay products leads to significant increase in exposures of workers. Irish legislation further demands that laboratories carrying out radon measurements operate a high level quality assurance programme. As a result of a reconnaissance survey regular measurements of show cave guides have been made in order to assess exposure to radon in such workplaces and to ascertain that the limits set for radon are not exceeded. In 2000, an action level of 400 Bqm{sup -3}, was established. Doses in the range 0.3-12.0 mSv have been estimated for workers for the period 2001-2006.

Currivan, L.; Murray, M.; O'Colmain, M.; Pollard, D. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

2008-08-07

305

Building the basis for a comprehensive radiation protection program for a multi-program laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An explicit, workplace-specific training has been developed, implemented, and documented for all radiation workers. In addition to the radiation worker personnel located at reactors, accelerators, radiochemical laboratories, and waste treatment areas, we have trained other personnel who work in areas where a lesser potential for radiological/chemical exposure exists. These workforces include construction crews, site restoration crews, contracted special services such as scoping and site characterization teams, and short-term visitors. We are developing a comprehensive, integrated approach to radiation protection training suited for a multi-purpose research laboratory. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Copenhaver, E.D.

1987-01-01

306

[Radon and internal contamination].  

PubMed

Because of hits everywhere presence in air and in water needful mediums for life, radon is a omnipresent risk for every person. Therefore, in relation to those vital functions, lungs and gastro-enteric tract represent the principal target organs of this noble radioactive gas (and mainly of hits radioactive daughters). International organisms evaluated the effective dose coefficients for both target organs, so it is possible e quantitative assessment of the exposure risk related to this noble gas. PMID:19288807

Stanga, A; Trenta, F

2008-01-01

307

Discrete radon transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the discrete Radon transform (DRT) and the exact inversion algorithm for it. Similar to the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), the DRT is defined for periodic vector-sequences and studied as a transform in its own right. Casting the forward transform as a matrix-vector multiplication, the key observation is that the matrix-although very large-has a block-circulant structure. This observation

GREGORY BEYLKIN

1987-01-01

308

Radon Treatment Controversy  

PubMed Central

In spite of long traditions, treatments utilizing radon-rich air or water have not been unequivocally embraced by modern medicine. The objective of this work is to examine factors that contribute to this continuing controversy. While the exact mechanism of radon's effect on human body is not completely understood, recent advances in radiobiology offer new insights into biochemical processes occurring at low-level exposures to ionizing radiation. Medical evidence and patients' testimonials regarding effectiveness of radon spa treatments of various ailments, most notably rheumatoid arthritis are accumulating worldwide. They challenge the premise of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) theory that the dose-effect response is the same per unit dose regardless of the total dose. Historically, such inference overshadowed scientific inquiries into the low-dose region and lead to a popular belief that no amount of radiation can be good. Fortunately, the LNT theory, which lacks any scientific basis, did not remain unchallenged. As the reviewed literature suggests, a paradigm shift, reflected in the consideration of hormetic effects at low-doses, is gaining momentum in the scientific community worldwide. The impetus comes from significant evidence of adaptive and stimulatory effects of low-levels of radiation on human immune system. PMID:18648641

Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Strzelczyk, Jadwiga (Jodi)

2006-01-01

309

The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Sustainability Program of Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades  

SciTech Connect

UEIP has been working on a comprehensive sustainability program that includes establishing a site sustainability working group, information gathering, planning, organizing, developing schedule and estimated costs, trhough joint UEIP-US DOE/NNSA National Laboratory sustainability contracts. Considerable efforts have been necessary in the sustainability planning, monitoring, and control of the scope of work using tools such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Project and SAP R/3. While information interchanges within the sustainability program provides adequate US assurances that US funds are well spent through its quarterly reporting methodology, proper information security and protection measures are taken throughout the process. Decommissioning of outdated equipment has also become part of determining sustainability requirements and processes. The site’s sustainability program has facilitated the development of a transition plan toward eventual full Russian funding of sustaining nuclear security upgrades.

Vakhonin, Alexander; Yuldashev, Rashid; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Eshter M.

2009-09-30

310

The Full-Scale Radon Filter The successful radon reduction obtained with the prototype radon filter described in chap-  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 The Full-Scale Radon Filter The successful radon reduction obtained with the prototype radon filter described in chap- ter 4 provided the basic experimental information needed to engineer of operation of vacuum swing adsorption towards radon removal is given in said chapter. The main goals were

311

The Dual Horospherical Radon Transform as a Limit of Spherical Radon Transforms  

E-print Network

The Dual Horospherical Radon Transform as a Limit of Spherical Radon Transforms J. Hilgert, A of G. The horospherical Radon transform maps functions on X to functions on HorX by integrating over the dual horospherical Radon transform as a limit of dual spherical Radon transforms. 1. Introduction

Pasquale, Angela

312

Radiological protection guidelines for the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Remote Surplus Facilities Management Program  

SciTech Connect

The need for a definitive basis for radiological guidelines and criteria for FUSRAP became apparent by 1981 and led ORO to sponsor a joint ANL/BNI/LANL/ORO effort under the chairmanship of Wayne Hansen (LANL) that resulted in a final FUSRAP radiological guidelines document in March 1983. A separate effort to develop guidelines for remedial action criteria for SFMP was in progress at PNL. The need to coordinate both efforts with impending revisions of DOE Radiological Protection Standards and impending new developments in EPA and NRC Radiological Protection Standards led to convening of the first DOE Workshop on Remedial Action Criteria in Gaithersburg, Maryland, in February 1984, followed by a second workshop in June 1984 at ANL. The major decisions were to base the criteria on dosimetry models and basic limits currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, to emphasize the development and use of site-specific rather than generic guidelines and criteria for residual radionuclide concentrations in the ground, and to prepare a manual to accompany the guidelines that would present procedures and tables for deriving site-specific soil guidelines and criteria for the remedial action programs. A joint ANL/LANL/ORNL/PNL effort to prepare a definitive set of guidelines and a manual has been initiated. The scope, status, and current plans for this effort, and some of the key issues, are presented. 10 references, 1 table.

Gilbert, T.L.

1984-01-01

313

National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection  

SciTech Connect

In the early development of wind turbine generators (WTG) in the United States, wind farms were primarily located in California where lightning activity is the lowest in the United States. As such, lightning protection for wind turbines was not considered to be a major issue for designers or wind farm operators. However, wind turbine installations are expanding into the Midwest, Southwest and other regions of the United States where lightning activity is significantly more intense and lightning damage to wind turbines is more common. There is a growing need, therefore, to better understand lightning activity on wind farms and to improve wind turbine lightning protection systems. In support of the U.S. Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) Utility Wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently begun to take steps to determine the extent of damage due to lightning and the effectiveness of various lightning protection techniques for wind power plants. Working through the TVP program, NREL will also perform outreach and education to (1) help manufacturers to provide equipment that is adequately designed to survive lightning, (2) make sure that operators are aware of effective safety procedures, and (3) help site designers and wind farm developers take the risk of lightning into account as effectively as possible.

Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

1997-12-31

314

SYMPOSIUM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC PROGRAMS FOR MONITORING ECOLOGICAL IMPACT FROM PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Historically, monitoring programs in association with field releases of crops with plant incorporated protectants (PIPs) have been, explicitly or implicitly, called for as a part of risk assessment/management schemes or regulatory agenda. However...

315

Fire Protection Program fiscal year 1996, site support program plan Hanford Fire Department. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report gives a program overview, technical program baselines, and cost and schedule baseline.

Good, D.E.

1995-09-01

316

Results of the Nest Protection Program for Blanding's Turtle in Kejimkujik National Park, Canada: 1987-1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the nesting ecology of Blanding's turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, from 1987 to 1997, as part of the Park's annual nest protection program. We identified 36 individual females nesting in this II-year period and recorded 124 nests of which we protected 101 with screened predator exclosures. Clutch size ranged from 4 to 16

K. LORRAINE STANDING; THOMAS B. HERMAN; MARIA SHALLOW; IAN P. MORRISON

317

Evaluation of radon emissions and potential control requirements  

SciTech Connect

This report provides estimates of radon release rates at the Weldon Spring Quarry (WSQ) for existing conditions and conditions which are expected to exist as the bulk waste is excavated. It also estimates radon release rates for the Temporary Storage Area (TSA). In 1989, Rn-222 concentrations at the fence line exceeded DOE guidelines. Data on working level concentrations at one monitoring station indicate an effective whole body dose rate of 0.75 mrem/hr for radon daughters and 0.74 mrem/hr for thoron daughters at one meter above the quarry waste. Since some of the calculations are based on assumptions, they show only the relative difference in radon release between present conditions and either of two excavation scenarios. They can be used in calculations of public exposure and potential health effects to evaluate the relative merits of each excavation scenario in comparison with present release conditions. The model used to make the estimates in this report is useful for estimating the radon release rate for the entire period of excavation, but it is not suitable for estimating worker exposure over short periods of time. Therefore, worker exposure and appropriate requirements for personal protective equipment will be determined as the excavation proceeds. 19 refs., 13 tabs.

Not Available

1989-08-01

318

Evaluation and equity audit of the domestic radon programme in England.  

PubMed

The U.K. has a radon programme to limit the radon risk to health. This involves advice on protective measures in new buildings, technical guidance on their installation, encouragement of radon measurements and remediation in existing dwellings in high radon areas. We have audited the radon programme at the level of individual homes to identify factors that influence the likelihood of remediation. 49% of the householders responded to our survey and 30% of the respondents stated that they had done some remediation to reduce the indoor radon levels. We found that householders with higher incomes and higher socio-economic status are more likely than others to remediate. Householders are less likely to remediate if they have one of the following: living in a property with a high radon concentration, current smokers in the dwelling, being unemployed or an unskilled worker, long length of time living in that property or elderly (65+ years) living by themselves. Householders appeared to be more likely to remediate if they considered the information on radon and its risk to be very clear and useful. This emphasises the importance of communication with householders. PMID:21030106

Zhang, Wei; Chow, Yimmy; Meara, Jill; Green, Martyn

2011-09-01

319

Protecting People and Families from Radon  

MedlinePLUS

... www.expectmore.gov. Veteran Affairs. VA Home Loans. Information available at: ... national initiative through Cooperative Extension Systems to assist states with the measurement and mitigation ...

320

APPLICATION OF RADON REDUCTION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The document is intended to aid homeowners and contractors in diagnosing and solving indoor radon problems. It will also be useful to State and Federal regulatory officials and many other persons who provide advice on the selection, design and operation of radon reduction methods...

321

Programmed Protection of Foreign DNA from Restriction Allows Pathogenicity Island Exchange during Pneumococcal Transformation  

PubMed Central

In bacteria, transformation and restriction-modification (R-M) systems play potentially antagonistic roles. While the former, proposed as a form of sexuality, relies on internalized foreign DNA to create genetic diversity, the latter degrade foreign DNA to protect from bacteriophage attack. The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is transformable and possesses either of two R-M systems, DpnI and DpnII, which respectively restrict methylated or unmethylated double-stranded (ds) DNA. S. pneumoniae DpnII strains possess DpnM, which methylates dsDNA to protect it from DpnII restriction, and a second methylase, DpnA, which is induced during competence for genetic transformation and is unusual in that it methylates single-stranded (ss) DNA. DpnA was tentatively ascribed the role of protecting internalized plasmids from DpnII restriction, but this seems unlikely in light of recent results establishing that pneumococcal transformation was not evolved to favor plasmid exchange. Here we validate an alternative hypothesis, showing that DpnA plays a crucial role in the protection of internalized foreign DNA, enabling exchange of pathogenicity islands and more generally of variable regions between pneumococcal isolates. We show that transformation of a 21.7 kb heterologous region is reduced by more than 4 logs in dpnA mutant cells and provide evidence that the specific induction of dpnA during competence is critical for full protection. We suggest that the integration of a restrictase/ssDNA-methylase couplet into the competence regulon maintains protection from bacteriophage attack whilst simultaneously enabling exchange of pathogenicicy islands. This protective role of DpnA is likely to be of particular importance for pneumococcal virulence by allowing free variation of capsule serotype in DpnII strains via integration of DpnI capsule loci, contributing to the documented escape of pneumococci from capsule-based vaccines. Generally, this finding is the first evidence for a mechanism that actively promotes genetic diversity of S. pneumoniae through programmed protection and incorporation of foreign DNA. PMID:23459610

Johnston, Calum; Martin, Bernard; Granadel, Chantal; Polard, Patrice; Claverys, Jean-Pierre

2013-01-01

322

MONITORING BEFORE AND AFTER RADON MITIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a radon reduction demonstration project in 1986 on 10 houses in Clinton, NJ. As part of this effort, radon was measured before and after radon reduction techniques were applied. The purpose of the measurements was to ascertain the effectiveness of the radon co...

323

Radon in Earth, Air, and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Radon in Earth, Air, and Water is an informative and interesting Web site offered by the US Geological Survey. The host of products on the site include a well-designed online publication, the Geology of Radon, which allows users to page through the chapters with titles such as What is Radon?, the Geology of Radon, Radon Potential (in homes for example), and more. The non-technical text and attractive graphics make this document educational and easy to follow. Other publications offered include Radon in Fault and Shear Zones, Eastern United States, Radon in Glacial Deposits of the Upper Midwest, Terrestrial Gamma Radioactivity of the Conterminous United States, and much more. [JAB

324

Corrosion Protection of Launch Infrastructure and Hardware Through the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Corrosion, the environmentally induced degradation of materials, has been a challenging and costly problem that has affected NASA's launch operations since the inception of the Space Program. Corrosion studies began at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966 during the Gemini/Apollo Programs with the evaluation of long-term protective coatings for the atmospheric protection of carbon steel. NASA's KSC Beachside Corrosion Test Site, which has been documented by the American Society of Materials (ASM) as one of the most corrosive, naturally occurring environments in the world, was established at that time. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive natural conditions at the launch pad were rendered even more severe by the acidic exhaust from the solid rocket boosters. In the years that followed, numerous efforts at KSC identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosiye environment at the launch pads. Knowledge on materials degradation, obtained by facing the highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment, as well as limitations imposed by the environmental impact of corrosion control, have led researchers at NASA's Corrosion Technology Laboratory to establish a new technology development capability in the area of corrosion prevention, detection, and mitigation at KSC that is included as one of the "highest priority" technologies identified by NASA's integrated technology roadmap. A historical perspective highlighting the challenges encountered in protecting launch infrastructure and hardware from corrosion during the life of the Space Shuttle program and the new technological advances that have resulted from facing the unique and highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment will be presented.

Calle, L. M.

2011-01-01

325

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; program integrity: Exchange, SHOP, and eligibility appeals. Final rule.  

PubMed

This final rule implements provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act). Specifically, this final rule outlines Exchange standards with respect to eligibility appeals, agents and brokers, privacy and security, issuer direct enrollment, and the handling of consumer cases. It also sets forth standards with respect to a State's operation of the Exchange and Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP). It generally is finalizing previously proposed policies without change. PMID:23991479

2013-08-30

326

LoneSTAR Program: Maximizing Energy Efficiency while Protecting the Envrionment  

E-print Network

-11-31 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 http://www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us/funding/ ESL-KT-14-11-31 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 ? Eddy Trevino, P.E. CEM ? eddy...Maximiz ing Energy Eff ic iency whi le Protect ing the Envi ronment LoanSTAR PROGRAM ESL-KT-14-11-31 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 ? Executed 240 loans totaling $407,923,762.32 ? 93 loans to publ...

Trevino, E.

2014-01-01

327

Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection program--genitourinary losses. Interim final rule.  

PubMed

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is issuing this interim final rule that amends the regulations governing the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) program by adding certain genitourinary (GU) system losses to the TSGLI Schedule of Losses and defining terms relevant to these new losses. This amendment is necessary to make qualifying GU losses a basis for paying GU-injured Servicemembers TSGLI benefits. The intended effect is to expand the list of losses for which TSGLI payments can be made. PMID:22145191

2011-12-01

328

Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program--genitourinary losses. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is issuing this final rule that amends the regulations governing the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) program by adding certain genitourinary (GU) system losses to the TSGLI Schedule of Losses and defining terms relevant to these new losses. This amendment is necessary to make qualifying GU losses a basis for paying TSGLI benefits to servicemembers with severe GU injuries. The intended effect is to expand the list of losses for which TSGLI payments can be made. This document adopts as a final rule, without change, the interim final rule published in the Federal Register on December 2, 2011. PMID:22666897

2012-06-01

329

Radiation Protection Considerations at USACE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Projects  

SciTech Connect

The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was initially authorized by Congress in 1974. FUSRAP was enacted to address residual radioactive contamination associated with numerous sites across the U.S. at which radioactive material (primarily Uranium ores and related milling products) had been processed in support of the nation's nuclear weapons program dating back to the Manhattan Project and the period immediately following World War II. In October 1997, Congress transferred the management of this program from the Department of Energy to the United States Corp of Engineers. Through this program, the Corps addresses the environmental remediation of certain sites once used by DOE's predecessor agencies, the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. The waste at FUSRAP sites consists mainly of low levels of uranium, thorium and radium, along with some mixed wastes. Upon completion of remedial activities, these sites are transferred to DOE for long-term stewardship activities. This paper presents and contrasts the radiological conditions and recent monitoring results associated with five large ongoing FUSRAP projects including Maywood, N.J.; the Linde site near Buffalo, N.Y.; Colonie in Albany N.Y. and the St Louis, Mo. airport and downtown sites. The radiological characteristics of soil and debris at each site and respective regulatory clean up criteria is presented and contrasted. Some differences are discussed in the radiological characteristics of material at some sites that result in variations in radiation protection monitoring programs. Additionally, summary data for typical personnel radiation exposure monitoring results are presented. In summary: 1. The FUSRAP projects for which data and observations are reported in this paper are considered typical of the radiological nature of FUSRAP sites in general. 2. These sites are characterized by naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides in soil and debris, at concentrations typically < E4 pCi/ gram total activity. 3. Although external exposure rates are generally low resulting in few exposures above background, occasional 'hot spots' are observed in the 1- 10 mR / hr range or higher. However personnel and general area external exposure monitoring programs consistently demonstrate very low potential for external exposure at theses sites. 4. Potential for airborne exposure is controlled by wetting and misting techniques during excavation and movement of materials. Air sampling and bioassay programs confirm low potential for airborne exposure of workers at these sites. 5. Radiation protection and health physics monitoring programs as implemented at these sites ensure that exposures to personal are maintained ALARA. (authors)

Brown, S.H. [CHP, SHB INC., Centennial, Colorado (United States)

2008-07-01

330

Indoor radon dose assessment for Osijek  

Microsoft Academic Search

After ten years’ investigation of radon’s seasonal variation at three very different locations, as well as radon concentration measurements in kindergartens, schools, air-raid shelters and cellars, systematic indoor radon measurements were undertaken in dwellings (residential buildings) of Osijek (East Croatia, 130?000 citizens). Indoor radon was measured by means of the LR-115 SSNT detector at 48 town locations that gave an

J. Planinic; Z. Faj; V. Radoli?; G. Šmit; D. Faj

1999-01-01

331

Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program - Part IV: Onsite review handbook  

SciTech Connect

Onsite Review Handbook contains criteria to be used in evaluating the management systems required for initial or continued participation in the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP), verifying and calculating rates of injury experience, the Onsite Review report format, and sample questions to be used during onsite interviews. This document should be used in conjunction with the first three DOE-VPP manuals (Part I: Program Elements, Part II: Procedures Manual, and Part III: Application Guidelines). This document is intended to assist Onsite Review team members and DOE contractors in evaluating safety and health programs, and to serve as guidance for DOE-VPP participants in performing their required annual evaluation. Requests for additional information or any questions may be addressed to a DOE-VPP Coordinator in the Office of Occupational Safety and Health Policy. The term contractor used throughout this document refers to an applicant to, or a participant in, the DOE-VPP. The term subcontractor refers to any organization that is contracted by the applicant or participant to do work at the site under review. The DOE-VPP Onsite Review Criteria contained in Appendix A provide guidance for evaluating a site`s implementation of the program requirements given in Part I: Program Elements. The program requirements are in bold italicized type, followed by guidance for ensuring implementation. Part I should be consulted for a complete description of the program requirements. These criteria should be used by team members whenever possible, but are not intended to be all inclusive. Determination of adequate implementation of the DOE-VPP requirements is at the team members` discretion. Guidance for calculating recordable injury and lost workday incidence rates is contained in Appendix B. The OSHA injury/illness records review and the associated calculations should be performed by Onsite Review Team members during the pre-onsite planning visit.

NONE

1995-07-01

332

FoxO3a Directs a Protective Autophagy Program in Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Blood production is ensured by rare self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). How HSCs accommodate the diverse cellular stresses associated with their life-long activity remains elusive. Here, we identify autophagy as an essential mechanism protecting HSCs from metabolic stress. We show that HSCs, in contrast to their short-lived myeloid progeny, robustly induce autophagy following ex vivo cytokine withdrawal and in vivo caloric restriction. We demonstrate that FoxO3a is critical to maintain a gene expression program that poise HSCs for rapid induction of autophagy upon starvation. Notably, we find that old HSCs retain an intact FoxO3a-driven pro-autophagy gene program, and that ongoing autophagy is needed to mitigate an energy crisis and allow their survival. Our results demonstrate that autophagy is essential for the life-long maintenance of the HSC compartment and for supporting an old, failing blood system. PMID:23389440

Warr, Matthew R.; Binnewies, Mikhail; Flach, Johanna; Reynaud, Damien; Garg, Trit; Malhotra, Ritu; Debnath, Jayanta; Passegué, Emmanuelle

2013-01-01

333

Radon measurements in the Catalagzi Thermal Power Plant, Turkey.  

PubMed

The Catala?zi Thermal Power Plant (CTPP) (41(0)30'48.4('')N and 0.31(0)53'41.5('')E) is located at nearly 13 km North-east of Zonguldak city, which is located at the West Black Sea coast in Turkey. The middling products with high ash content of bituminous coals are used in this plant. Seasonal radon concentration measurements have been carried out by using CR-39 plastic track detectors in and around the CTPP. The annual average radon concentration has been found to vary from a minimum of 39.8 +/- 28.9 Bq m(-3) in the ash area to a maximum of approximately 75.0 +/- 15.7 Bq m(-3) in the service building of the power plant. The annual average radon concentration in the dwellings of the thermal power plant colony of the plant is 71.0 +/- 33.4 Bq m(-3). The effective dose has been found to vary from 0.38 to 0.71 mSv y(-1) with a mean value of 0.56 mSv y(-1), which is lower than the effective dose values 3-10 mSv given as the range of action levels recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection: Protection against radon-222 at home and at work, ICRP Publication 65 (1993). PMID:17616544

Aytekin, H; Bayata, S; Baldik, R; Celebi, N

2008-01-01

334

Monitoring of Radon in Tourist Part of Skocjan Caves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the yearly dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data, beside the most convenient measuring technique. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. The survey will be described along with education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection. An overview of Slovene legislation with practical example on implementation will be demonstrated in the case of Škocjan Caves where the managing authority considers the monitoring of Radon as one of the tools for adaptive management.

Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja; Jovanovic, Peter

2010-05-01

335

Calculation of impulse current distributions and magnetic fields in lightning protection structures-a computer program and its laboratory validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circuit model and an ad hoc computer program were set up to evaluate electromagnetic interference in the vicinity of protective structures struck by lightning. This program permits the evaluation of the impulsive magnetic fields by calculating the impulse current distribution in different parts of such structures. It also allows the evaluation of the electromagnetic interference induced on susceptible victim

R. Cortina; A. Porrino

1992-01-01

336

Effects of Program Exposure and Engagement with Tailored Prevention Communication on Sun Protection by Young Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Few family-based interventions to increase sun safe behavior among adolescents have been evaluated. The present study tested an intervention that included tailored and nontailored print communications delivered by mail to adolescents (age 11 to 15) and their parents who were also participating in an evaluation of an in-school intervention. The use of sunscreen, protective clothing, and avoidance of the sun were promoted, and family communication and environmental change strategies were fostered. Adolescents and their parents were pretested in May of 2002 and posttested from August to October. Adolescents (N=599) were stratified on experimental condition in the in-school study (in-school intervention vs control) and randomly were assigned from within strata to receive (N=288) or not receive (N=311) the summer intervention materials. No statistically significant effects were found for adolescents between the randomized experimental conditions. Parents’ had increased knowledge (F = 5.52, p <. 05) and propensity to have their child wear sunglasses (F = 4.07, p <. 05). Greater program exposure/engagement led to enhanced sun protection behavior (e.g., fewer sunburns) and psychosocial factors among adolescents and parents. Greater exposure/engagement led to improvements in family interaction and home environment (e.g., shade audit completed). Future research is needed on exposure/engagement with family-based health messaging and on family-based sun safety programs for adolescents. PMID:18958776

Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Maloy, Julie; Geno, Cristy R.; Cutter, Gary R.

2013-01-01

337

Programmed death 1 protects from fatal circulatory failure during systemic virus infection of mice  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory programmed death 1 (PD-1)–programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway contributes to the functional down-regulation of T cell responses during persistent systemic and local virus infections. The blockade of PD-1–PD-L1–mediated inhibition is considered as a therapeutic approach to reinvigorate antiviral T cell responses. Yet previous studies reported that PD-L1–deficient mice develop fatal pathology during early systemic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, suggesting a host protective role of T cell down-regulation. As the exact mechanisms of pathology development remained unclear, we set out to delineate in detail the underlying pathogenesis. Mice deficient in PD-1–PD-L1 signaling or lacking PD-1 signaling in CD8 T cells succumbed to fatal CD8 T cell–mediated immunopathology early after systemic LCMV infection. In the absence of regulation via PD-1, CD8 T cells killed infected vascular endothelial cells via perforin-mediated cytolysis, thereby severely compromising vascular integrity. This resulted in systemic vascular leakage and a consequential collapse of the circulatory system. Our results indicate that the PD-1–PD-L1 pathway protects the vascular system from severe CD8 T cell–mediated damage during early systemic LCMV infection, highlighting a pivotal physiological role of T cell down-regulation and suggesting the potential development of immunopathological side effects when interfering with the PD-1–PD-L1 pathway during systemic virus infections. PMID:23230000

Frebel, Helge; Nindl, Veronika; Schuepbach, Reto A.; Braunschweiler, Thomas; Richter, Kirsten; Vogel, Johannes; Wagner, Carsten A.; Loffing-Cueni, Dominique; Kurrer, Michael; Ludewig, Burkhard

2012-01-01

338

Intercomparison of Retrospective Radon Detectors  

SciTech Connect

We performed both a laboratory and field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, Pb-210, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha emission of a Pb-210 decay product, Po-210. The detector's track density generation rate (tracks cm{sup -2} hr{sup -1}) is proportional to the surface alpha activity. In the absence of other strong sources of alpha emission in the glass, the implanted surface alpha activity should be proportional to the accumulated Po-210 and hence, the cumulative radon gas exposure. The goals of the intercomparison were to: (1) perform collocated measurements using two different glass-based retrospective radon detectors in a controlled laboratory environment to compare their relative response to implanted polonium in the absence of environmental variation, (2) perform collocated measurements using two different retrospective radon progeny detectors in a variety of residential settings to compare their detection of glass implanted polonium activities, and (3) examine the correlation between track density rates and contemporary radon gas concentrations. The laboratory results suggested that the materials and methods used by the studies produced similar track densities in detectors exposed to the same implanted Po-210 activity. The field phase of the intercomparison found excellent agreement between the track density rates for the two types of retrospective detectors. The correlation between the track density rates and direct contemporary radon concentration measurements was relatively high, considering that no adjustments were performed to account for either the residential depositional environment or glass surface type.

Field, R W.; Steck, D J.; Parkhurst, Maryann (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Mahaffey, Judith A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Alavanja, M C. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD)

1998-11-01

339

Map showing radon potential of rocks and soils in Fairfax County, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1984, indoor radon has gained national attention as a significant health hazard in the United States. Radon is a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas derived from uranium by radioactive decay. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) now projects that 5,000 to 20,000 lung-cancer deaths per year may be attributed to the long-term exposure to indoor radon and its radioactive decay products. Indoor radon has been previously recognized as a health hazard associated with uranium-bearing mill tailings or building materials, but it was not until December 1984 that some natural soils and rocks were found to be sources of indoor radon at levels comparable to those in uranium mines. It is now suspected that elevated indoor radon levels are far more widespread than initially though. The EPA considers 4 picoCuries of radon per liter of air (pCi/L) as the level (in a year-round measurement) at which actions ought to be taken to lower the concentration of indoor radon. All soils and rocks contain measurable amounts of uranium, which generate measurable amounts of radon. Certain soils and rocks, however, have a greater potential to cause indoor radon problems than others because (1) they have a higher uranium content and thus can generate higher levels of radon in soil gas (gas that occupies the pores of the soil), and (2) the permeability of the sol or rack is sufficiently high that radon-bearing soil gas can flow freely and move indoors through the foundation of the structure. This study was designed to demonstrate the correlation between the geologic environment and indoor radon levels and to demonstrate a method of assessment that could be used by other informed workers in areas of their interest. A parallel study by Gundersen and others (1988) of the radon potential of rocks and soils in Montgomery County, Md., used somewhat different methods of assessment because the data available for and assessment of Montgomery County differed.

Otton, James K.; Schumann, R. Randall; Owen, Douglass E.; Thurman, Nelson; Duval, Joseph S.

1988-01-01

340

Caves, mines and subterranean spaces: hazard and risk from exposure to radon.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas. It is colourless, odourless and chemically inert. The most hazardous isotope is 222Rn. Radon is formed in the natural environment by the radioactive decay of the element uranium (238U) and is a daughter product of daughter product of radium (226Ra). Uranium and radium are found, in differing degrees, in a wide range of rocks, soils (and building materials that are made from these). Radon concentrations in caves, e.g. limestone caves such as the Great Cave of Niah, Borneo, and caves in the Mendips and Peak District in the UK, has been documented and reveal that both (prehistoric) cave-dwellers and other users such as archaeologists are at risk from exposure to radon a naturally occurring radioactive gas. In general, but dependent on cave geometry and ventilation, radon concentration increases with increasing distance from the entrance, implying that the hazard also increases with distance from the entrance. With regard to mines and mining operations, as well as modern extraction of uranium and radium ores, both ores commonly occur alongside other metallic ores, e.g. silver at Schneeberg and Joachimsthal, and tin in Cornwall, and in some instances, waste from earlier metalliferious mining activity has itself been ‘mined' for uranium and/or radium ores. It is not solely the miners and other subterranean workers which are at risk, other workers and local inhabitants are also at risk. Also, that risk is not eliminated by protection against dust/airborne particulates: the risk from inhalation of radon is only reduced by reducing the inhalation of radon, i.e. use of breathing apparatus. Amongst the general population, radon is the second most significant cause of lung cancer behind tobacco smoking. Estimates vary but 6-9% of lung-cancers are attributable to radon and approximately 2% all cancer deaths are attributable to radon. These proportions will increase in higher-radon environments such as caves, mines and mining areas (via spoil heaps, settlement lagoons etc. containing uranium and radium). We here present an overview of the potential hazard presented by radon in subterranean spaces and by metalliferous mining activities. We also present some speculation as to evidence of (pre-) historic exposure to radon which might potentially exist in archaeological remains and oral traditions. Keywords: radon; caves; metalliferous mining; cave-dwellers; archaeologists.

Crockett, R. G. M.; Gillmore, G. K.

2009-04-01

341

THE MEASURING PROGRAM \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Since 2005 the Saxon state laboratories for environmental radioactivity (UBG) run a measuring program in order to consolidate the map of radon activity concentration in soil gas. The resulting new map is to make an improved classification of radon prone areas in Saxony possible. The focus of the measuring program is mainly directed to municipalities where no soil gas

W. Preuße; H. Busch; S. Seidel; M. Hempel; M. Ditze

342

Energy deposition and radiation quality of radon and radon daughters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This program was aimed at creating a quantitative physical description, at the micrometer and nanometer levels, of the physical interactions of the alpha particles from radon and its daughters with cells at risk in the bronchial epithelium. The authors calculated alpha-particle energy spectra incident upon the cells and also energy deposition spectra in micrometer- and nanometer-sized sites as a function of cell depth, site size, airway diameter, activities of {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po, and other parameters. These data are now being applied, using biophysical models of radiation effects, to predict cell killing, mutations, and cell transformation. The model predictions are then compared to experimental biophysical, biochemical, and biological information. These studies contribute to a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the biological effectiveness of the radiations emitted by radon and its progeny.

Karam, L.R.; Caswell, R.S.

1996-09-09

343

Quality assurance program for PLZT ceramic lenses and associated helmet hardware used with thermal\\/flash protect device (TFPD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia Laboratories was authorized by the USERDA on 6 February 1975 to initiate work on a reimbursable program with the USAF Life Support System Program Office, ASD\\/AELS, located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The purpose of the program is to develop PLZT thermal\\/flash protective devices (TFPD), with primary emphasis on the establishment of a production capability for goggles. In

Balthaser

1979-01-01

344

Radon measurement and mitigation activity in Finland.  

PubMed

Radon prevention, measurement and mitigation activities have been increasing in Finland during the 2000s. Nowadays, many municipal authorities, especially those located in high-radon areas, require radon prevention measures. This has activated radon measurements. Owners of new houses having radon piping installed under the floor slab are the most active group to measure and reduce the found high-radon values. Their radon awareness is apparently better than on the average, and the existing piping makes it easier and cheaper to reduce the radon levels. Local campaigns involving invitation flyers mailed to the residents have been a cost-effective means to activate measurements of older houses. So far 116,611 dwellings in low-rise residential buildings have been measured. At least 15% of the 16,860 dwellings found to exceed the reference level of 400 Bq m(-3) had their indoor radon level reduced below that. PMID:24729562

Valmari, T; Arvela, H; Reisbacka, H; Holmgren, O

2014-07-01

345

Classification and mapping of radon-affected areas in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geology-based approach has proven to be a powerful tool for predicting radon prone areas in Germany. Soil-gas radon measurements in conjunction with geological and soil investigations in representative test areas are the basis for classification and regionalization of the geologically induced risk of high indoor radon values. Radon production and radon supply are the essential criteria for the radon

J. Kemski; R. Klingel; A. Siehl

1996-01-01

346

Evaluating accountability in the Vaccines for Children program: protecting a federal investment.  

PubMed

The Vaccines for Children (VFC) program supplies health-care providers with federally purchased vaccines at no cost for administration to eligible children. Evaluation of vaccine accountability activities ensures appropriate and timely vaccinations are delivered. Program grantees in 50 states, Washington, five large U.S. metropolitan cities, and five U.S. territories and possessions completed a Web-based survey between December 2002 and January 2003 focused on current vaccine accountability operational systems. Most grantees required providers to complete profiles describing the vaccination needs and demographics of their practices. More than half requested providers use benchmarking data, doses-administered reports, and/or claims or encounter data to determine their VFC program-eligible population size; however, > 65% did not have written procedures for investigating and reconciling discrepancies between estimated vaccine needs and actual vaccine-use data. Most grantees had written standard policies requiring providers to report vaccine loss and wastage routinely and to explain why they occurred. Ninety percent of grantees did not have procedures to check providers for fraud and abuse sanctions, and 52% did not have written procedures to address complaints of vaccine fraud and abuse. These results suggested specific areas in which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention should work with grantees to improve vaccine accountability practices. As a result, enhancements to the VFC program are being implemented to address these areas and their impact evaluated for their effectiveness in ensuring the continued success of the VFC program in protecting the nation's most vulnerable children and adolescents. PMID:18051664

Ching, Pamela L Y H

2007-01-01

347

[Protect employability: effects of prevention programs offered by the german pension scheme].  

PubMed

A pilot study was carried out in 4 medical rehabilitation centers to examine the practicability and effectiveness of preventive life-style interventions for employees with risk factors. The programs were developed in cooperation with the German pension scheme and employers. Selection criteria were risk factors as lack of physical activity, overweight, dorsal pain or job strain. The results demonstrate that preventive programs, which are conducted in addition to the normal working hours on the job, can be implemented successfully in rehabilitation units. The participation in the multimodal prevention program goes along with a stable reduction of risky health behavior: increased physical activity, stress coping, dietary change und weight reduction. The healthier life-style is reflected in an enhanced state of health and has also positive impact on the occupational field scale: The percentage of employees who believed to be able to work until their old-age pension, could be increased significantly (p<0.001) from 47% to 74%. Work-related risk behaviors like excessive demands on oneself were reduced and protective strategies were -developed. PMID:24399282

Kittel, J; Fröhlich, S M; Heilmeyer, P; Olbrich, D; Karoff, M; Greitemann, B

2014-08-01

348

Radon Policy in Finland, Achievements and Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Finland is a country of high indoor radon concentrations. Since 1980 the authority regulations, guidance, radon mapping and research work supporting decision making have been developed continuously. Clear regulations directed to citizens and authorities form the basis for radon policy. Active mapping work and measurement ordered by private home owners has resulted in 100.000 houses measured. National indoor radon data base forms a good basis for decision making, communication and research. The number of new houses provided with radon preventive constructions has increased remarkably. New radon campaigns has increased measurement and mitigation activity. Furher increasing of public awareness is the key challenge.

Arvela, Hannu; Maekelaeinen, Ilona; Reisbacka, Heikki [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK PO Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland)

2008-08-07

349

Radon Policy in Finland, Achievements and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finland is a country of high indoor radon concentrations. Since 1980 the authority regulations, guidance, radon mapping and research work supporting decision making have been developed continuously. Clear regulations directed to citizens and authorities form the basis for radon policy. Active mapping work and measurement ordered by private home owners has resulted in 100.000 houses measured. National indoor radon data base forms a good basis for decision making, communication and research. The number of new houses provided with radon preventive constructions has increased remarkably. New radon campaigns has increased measurement and mitigation activity. Furher increasing of public awareness is the key challenge.

Arvela, Hannu; Mäkeläinen, Ilona; Reisbacka, Heikki

2008-08-01

350

Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project: Report from the DOE voluntary protection program onsite review, November 17--21, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) Review Team`s findings from the five-day onsite evaluation of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), conducted November 17--21, 1997. The site was evaluated against the program requirements contained in ``US Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program, Part 1: Program Elements`` to determine its success in implementing the five tenets of DOE-VPP. DOE-VPP consists of three programs, with names and functions similar to those in OSHA`s VPP. These programs are STAR, MERIT, and DEMONSTRATION. The STAR program is the core of DOE-VPP. The program is aimed at truly outstanding protectors of employee safety and health. The MERIT program is a steppingstone for contractors and subcontractors that have good safety and health programs but need time and DOE guidance to achieve STAR status. The DEMONSTRATION program is rarely used; it allows DOE to recognize achievements in unusual situations about which DOE needs to learn more before determining approval requirements for the STAR status.

NONE

1998-01-28

351

Reducing the risks from radon indoors: an IAEA perspective.  

PubMed

The IAEA has a mandate to develop, in collaboration with other relevant international organisations, 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimisation of danger to life and property', and to provide for the application of these standards. The most recent edition of the International Basic Safety Standards includes, for the first time, requirements to protect the public from exposure due to radon indoors. As a result, the IAEA has already developed guidance material in line with accepted best international practice and an international programme to assist its Member States in identifying and addressing high radon concentrations in buildings is being prepared. This paper overviews the current situation around the world and summarises the management approach advocated by the IAEA. A number of important scientific and policy issues are identified and discussed from the point-of-view of how they may impact on national action plans and strategies. Finally, the assistance and support available through the Agency is described. PMID:24743761

Boal, T; Colgan, P A

2014-07-01

352

A study of Monitoring and Mapping for Radon-Concentration Distribution in Gyeongju - 12201  

SciTech Connect

Radon is one of the most important contributors to the radiation exposure in humans. This study measured the indoor radon concentrations at the 17 elementary school auditoriums that were sampled from those in the city of Gyeongju, Korea. The reason that an elementary school was selected as a measurement object is that many students and teachers stay for a long time in a day and it's easy to identify the characteristics of the auditorium building such as the essential building. The measurement shows that most of the indoor radon concentrations at the 17 elementary school auditoriums did not exceed 148 Bq/m{sup 3} that is the action level recommended by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This study measured the indoor radon concentrations at the elementary school auditoriums in Gyeongju. The measurements were analyzed according to the bedrock type and the time intervals per day. In this study, it was found that the indoor radon concentrations over off-duty hours were generally higher that those over on-duty hours, and the indoor radon concentration in the area whose bedrock is volcanic rock was higher than those in the area of the other types of bedrock. As mentioned above, attention has to be paid to an elementary school since many young students and teachers stay for more 6 hours a day at it. Hence, it is necessary to continuously monitor and properly manage the indoor radon concentrations in the elementary schools. (authors)

Park, Chan Hee; Lee, Jung Min; Jang, So Young; Kim, Shin Jae; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk University, 707, Seokjang-Dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01

353

A generic biokinetic model for noble gases with application to radon  

SciTech Connect

The International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently uses a dose conversion coefficient to calculate effective dose per unit exposure to radon and its progeny. The coefficient is derived by dividing the detriment associated with unit exposure to radon, as estimated from epidemiological studies, by the detriment per unit effective dose, as estimated mainly from atomic bomb survivor data and animal studies. In a recent statement the ICRP indicated that future guidance on exposure to radon and its progeny will be developed in the same way as guidance for any other radionuclide. That is, intake of radon and progeny will be limited on the basis of effective dose coefficients derived from biokinetic and dosimetric models. This paper proposes a biokinetic model for systemic (absorbed) radon for use in the calculation of dose coefficients for inhaled or ingested radon. The model is based largely on physical laws governing transfer of a non-reactive and soluble gas between materials. Model predictions are shown to be consistent with results of controlled studies of the fate of internally deposited radon in human subjects.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Marsh, James [Health Protection Agency of Great Britain; Gregoratto, Demetrio [Health Protection Agency of Great Britain; Blanchardon, Eric [IRSN

2013-01-01

354

78 FR 79619 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...October 30, 2013 entitled, ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care...final rule entitled ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care...implements provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care...111-148) and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of...

2013-12-31

355

Radon emanation in Saskatchewan soils.  

PubMed

Saskatchewan prairie soils in central Canada were studied from areas where many homes are known to exceed the Health Canada indoor radon guideline of 200 Bq m. This study sampled 32 soils from 11 sites, which varied in clay content and presence of bedrock materials. Soils were analyzed for (238)U, (226)Ra, (222)Rn in soil gas, bulk density, moisture, and particle size. Radon emanation from the soil samples varied from 10% to 43% and increased significantly with clay content with radon concentrations in soil gas of 18-38 kBq m(-3). Total uranium in soils was 2.1-4 ppm and 26-51 Bq kg(-1) dry weight for (238)U, (234)Th, and (226)Ra. Homes built on soils with high clay content may be at greater risk of high radon levels, particularly when the soils are dry and cracked, enhancing their permeability to gases such as radon. One sample of coal bedrock, originating from Tertiary marine shales, was particularly high for total uranium (53 ppm), (238)U, (234)Th, and (226)Ra activities (68-1,303 Bq kg(-1)) with radon emanation up to 1,363 kBq m(-3). PMID:22004926

Thomas, Patricia A; Anderson, Darwin W; Zhang, Weihua; Baweja, Anar S; Tracy, Bliss L

2011-06-01

356

Radon recording of Uttarkashi earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial and temporal distribution of radon is recorded in both soil-gas and groundwater using two different techniques, viz. track etch method and emanometry. Radon recording stations have been set up at one site in Amritsar and four sites in the Kangra valley (Himachal Pradesh) under the Himalayan seismicity project. The track-etch method gives integrated measurement of radon over a week or a fortnight whereas emanometry is used for daily recording of radon activity in soil-gas and groundwater. The Uttarkashi earthquake m(sub b) = 6.5, M(sub S) = 7.0) occurred on October 20, 1991 (Oct. 19 U.T.) in the Garhwal Himalayas (30.78 deg N, 78.77 deg E) about 330 km from our recording stations in the Kangra valley and about 450 km from Amritsar, respectively. Radon anomalies were recorded at all sites in Kangra valley and Amritsar about a week before the Uttarkashi earthquke, which clearly establishes that radon changes can be effective for forecasting some earthquakes.

Virk, H. S.; Singh, Baljinder

1994-04-01

357

Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes. Part 1; Program Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Icing Technology Branch at NASA Lewis has been involved in an effort to validate two thermal ice protection codes developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. LEWICE/Thermal (electrothermal deicing & anti-icing), and ANTICE (hot-gas & electrothermal anti-icing). The Thermal Code Validation effort was designated as a priority during a 1994 'peer review' of the NASA Lewis Icing program, and was implemented as a cooperative effort with industry. During April 1996, the first of a series of experimental validation tests was conducted in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel(IRT). The purpose of the April 96 test was to validate the electrothermal predictive capabilities of both LEWICE/Thermal, and ANTICE. A heavily instrumented test article was designed and fabricated for this test, with the capability of simulating electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Thermal measurements were then obtained over a range of test conditions, for comparison with analytical predictions. This paper will present an overview of the test, including a detailed description of: (1) the validation process; (2) test article design; (3) test matrix development; and (4) test procedures. Selected experimental results will be presented for de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Finally, the status of the validation effort at this point will be summarized. Detailed comparisons between analytical predictions and experimental results are contained in the following two papers: 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 2- The Validation of LEWICE/Thermal' and 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 3-The Validation of ANTICE'

Miller, Dean; Bond, Thomas; Sheldon, David; Wright, William; Langhals, Tammy; Al-Khalil, Kamel; Broughton, Howard

1996-01-01

358

Urban storm-induced discharge impacts: US Environmental Protection Agency research program review  

SciTech Connect

Fecal coliform bacteria (and pathogens), high flow rates, sediment, toxic heavy metals, and organic pollutants are most commonly associated with urban receiving-water problems. Most beneficial uses have been shown to be adversely affected by urban runoff, including shell-fish harvesting, fish and aquatic-life propagation, drinking-water supplies, aesthetics and recreation. Most of the problems occur over long periods of time and are not associated with individual runoff events, making cause-and-effect relationships difficult to study. The storm and Combined Sewer Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has sponsored several long-term research projects to investigate these problems, along with data reviews to identify urban-runoff problems from available information. Current research efforts are stressing sources and controls for toxicants in urban runoff.

Field, R.; Pitt, R.E.

1989-01-01

359

Reassessment of the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation  

SciTech Connect

On July 6, 1993, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Executive Director for Operations established a review team to reassess the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation. The team evaluated the current system, and solicited comments from various NRC offices, other Federal agencies, licensees, former allegers, and the public. This report is subject to agency review. The report summarizes current processes and gives an overview of current problems. It discusses: (1) ways in which licensees can promote a quality-conscious work environment, in which all employees feel free to raise concerns without fear of retaliation; (2) ways to improve the NRC`s overall handling of allegations; (3) the NRC`s involvement in the Department of Labor process; (4) related NRC enforcement practices; and (5) methods other than investigation and enforcement that may be useful in treating allegations of potential or actual discrimination. Recommendations are given in each area.

Not Available

1994-01-01

360

Soil radon measurements in the Canadian cities.  

PubMed

Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Information on indoor radon concentrations is required to assess the lung cancer burden due to radon exposure. Since radon in soil is believed to be the main source of radon in homes, measurements of soil gas radon concentrations can be used to estimate variations in radon potential of indoor environments. This study reports surveys of natural background variation in soil radon levels in four cities, Montreal, Gatineau, Kingston and the largest Canadian city of Toronto. A total of 212 sites were surveyed. The average soil gas radon concentrations varied significantly from site to site, and ranged from below detection limit to 157 kBq m(-3). For each site, the soil radon potential (SRP) index was determined with the average soil radon concentration and average soil permeability measured. The average SRP indexes are 20±16, 12±11, 8±9 and 12±10 for Montreal, Gatineau, Kingston and Toronto, respectively. The results provide additional data for the validation of an association between indoor and soil radon potentials and for the development of radon potential map of Canada. PMID:22128363

Chen, J; Moir, D; MacLellan, K; Leigh, E; Nunez, D; Murphy, S; Ford, K

2012-08-01

361

EFFECT OF NATURAL VENTILATION ON RADON AND RADON PROGENY LEVELS IN HOUSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the effect of natural ventilation on radon and radon progeny levels in houses. ontradicting the widely held assumption that ventilation is ineffective in reducing indoor radon concentrations, experiments in a research house have shown that the basement radon l...

362

Childhood leukaemia and indoor radon concentration 1 Ecological Association between Indoor Radon Concentration and  

E-print Network

Childhood leukaemia and indoor radon concentration 1 Ecological Association between Indoor Radon, published in "Eur J Cancer Prev 2005;14(2):147-57" #12;Childhood leukaemia and indoor radon concentration 2 Abstract Objective ­ Evaluating the ecological association between indoor radon concentration and acute

Boyer, Edmond

363

RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 1: TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of radon reduction and radon-resistant construction demonstrations in New York. The existing house evaluation demonstrated radon mitigation techniques where indoor radon concentrations exceeded 4 pCi/L. Results demonstrated that sealing all accessible fou...

364

SWOT analysis of the Czech Radon programme.  

PubMed

Since the early 1990s, the Czech Republic has been one of the countries that carry out a radon programme on its territory, with the aim of protecting people from unnecessary long-term exposure in their homes. Since that time, many achievements have been registered, and many unexpected difficulties have cropped up. This may be the right moment to take some time out to analyse the state of the programme and to determine the direction for its future development. An extended SWOT analysis can serve as a useful tool for this purpose. Originally, SWOT analyses were used exclusively by for-profit organisations aiming to evaluate their perspectives, develop strategies and make plans in order to achieve their objectives. More recently, it has been used in a wide range of decision-making situations when a desired end-state is to be defined. Here, an extended SWOT analysis is used to formulate possible beneficial strategies for advancing anti-radon policy in the Czech Republic. PMID:24729595

Fojtíková, I

2014-07-01

365

{sup 210}Po as a long-term integrating radon indicator in the indoor environment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to radon (Rn-222) decay products in the indoor environment is suspected of being a significant lung cancer agent in many countries. But quantification of the contemporary lung cancer risk (i.e. probability) on an individual basis is not an easy task. Only past exposures are relevant and assessing individual exposures in retrospect is associated with large uncertainties, if possible at all. One way to extend the validity of contemporary measurements to past decades is to measure long-lived decay products of radon, the long-lived radon daughters. After our laboratory had exemplified the correlation between implanted Po-210 and the estimated radon exposures in six different dwellings, the US Department of Energy and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute granted funds for a one-year study, ``{sup 210}Po as a Long-Term Integrating Radon Indicator in the Indoor Environment.`` In this report the work performed under these two contracts is reported.

Not Available

1992-12-31

366

Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas (222Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the 222Rn concentrations (Bq/m3) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter's dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (?int) and alpha hit efficiency (?hit). The ?int depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and ?hit depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper explains that how radon concentration from the experimentally obtained etched track density can be obtained. The program based on RAHI method is also given in this paper.

Jamil, Khalid; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid

2014-11-01

367

Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0{+-}14.2 Bq/m{sup 3}, 83.4{+-}6.0 Bq/m{sup 3}, 61.6{+-}6.4 Bq/m{sup 3}, 63.7{+-}5.4 Bq/m{sup 3} and 87.5{+-}6.Bq/m{sup 3} and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m{sup 3}, 5.5 Bq/m{sup 3}, 1.1 Bq/m{sup 3}, 1.0 Bq/m{sup 3} and 24 Bq/m{sup 3} respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm{sup -3} set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The ''within regions''(different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region ''1''(p = 0.783) and versus region ''5''(P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region ''3''(P = 0.0160) and also versus region ''4''(p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other regions are near to the Al-Thuwayrat sands.

Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

2011-10-27

368

Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0±14.2 Bq/m3, 83.4±6.0 Bq/m3, 61.6±6.4 Bq/m3, 63.7±5.4 Bq/m3 and 87.5±6.Bq/m3 and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m3, 5.5 Bq/m3, 1.1 Bq/m3, 1.0 Bq/m3 and 24 Bq/m3 respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm-3 set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The "within regions" (different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region "1" (p = 0.783) and versus region "5" (P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region "3" ( P = 0.0160) and also versus region "4" (p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other regions are near to the Al-Thuwayrat sands.

Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R.

2011-10-01

369

RADON GENERATION AND TRANSPORT THROUGH CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an examination of radon generation and transport through Florida residential concretes for their contribution to indoor radon concentrations. Radium concentrations in the 11 concretes tested were all ...

370

CHAP III- CHARRING ABLATOR PROGRAM FOR ADVANCED INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR ENTRY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transient response of a thermal protection material to heat applied to the surface can be calculated using the CHAP III computer program. CHAP III can be used to analyze pyrolysis gas chemical kinetics in detail and examine pyrolysis reactions-indepth. The analysis includes the deposition of solid products produced by chemical reactions in the gas phase. CHAP III uses a modelling technique which can approximate a wide range of ablation problems. The energy equation used in CHAP III incorporates pyrolysis (both solid and gas reactions), convection, conduction, storage, work, kinetic energy, and viscous dissipation. The chemically reacting components of the solid are allowed to vary as a function of position and time. CHAP III employs a finite difference method to approximate the energy equations. Input values include specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermocouple locations, enthalpy, heating rates, and a description of the chemical reactions expected. The output tabulates the temperature at locations throughout the ablator, gas flow within the solid, density of the solid, weight of pyrolysis gases, and rate of carbon deposition. A sample case is included, which analyzes an ablator material containing several pyrolysis reactions subjected to an environment typical of entry at lunar return velocity. CHAP III is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer operating under NOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 102K (octal) of 60 bit words. This program was developed in 1985.

Stroud, C. W.

1994-01-01

371

The Infrastructure Necessary to Support a Sustainable Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program in Russia  

SciTech Connect

The NNSA Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program has been engaged for fifteen years in upgrading the security of nuclear materials in Russia. Part of the effort has been to establish the conditions necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of nuclear security. A sustainable program of nuclear security requires the creation of an indigenous infrastructure, starting with sustained high level government commitment. This includes organizational development, training, maintenance, regulations, inspections, and a strong nuclear security culture. The provision of modern physical protection, control, and accounting equipment to the Russian Federation alone is not sufficient. Comprehensive infrastructure projects support the Russian Federation's ability to maintain the risk reduction achieved through upgrades to the equipment. To illustrate the contributions to security, and challenges of implementation, this paper discusses the history and next steps for an indigenous Tamper Indication Device (TID) program, and a Radiation Portal Monitoring (RPM) program.

Bachner, Katherine M.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

2011-07-20

372

Radon i danske boliger Kortlgning af lands-,  

E-print Network

Radon i danske boliger Kortlægning af lands-, amts- og kommuneværdier #12;Radon i danske boliger en kortlægning af radonforholdene i danske boliger. Kon- centrationen af radon-222 er m°alt i 3019 mod radon. For landet som helhed har 4.6 % af enfamiliehusene værdier over 200 Bq/m3. Det svarer til

373

Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations.  

PubMed

This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the radon concentration at a particular home, or outdoor location, was a poor predictor of the radon concentration at a nearby workplace. Overall, 9.6 and 9.9 % of homes and workplace, respectively, exhibited radon concentrations of ?148 Bq m(-3). Because of the percentage of workplace with elevated radon concentrations, the results suggest that additional surveys of workplace radon concentrations are needed, especially in areas of high radon potential, to assess the contribution of workplace radon exposure to an individual's overall radon exposure. PMID:24936021

Barros, Nirmalla; Field, Dan W; Steck, Daniel J; Field, R William

2015-02-01

374

REENTRY OF RADON FROM MITIGATION SYSTEM OUTLETS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of the measurement of reentry rates for radon released at roof level and at ground level near a house, to determine whether or not exhaust is necessary above the roof. (NOTE: Some radon mitigation systems draw air with a high radon concentration from under...

375

PRELIMINARY DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES FOR RADON CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes analytical procedures for diagnosing radon entry mechanisms into buildings. These diagnostic methods are generally based on the premise that pressure-driven flow of radon-bearing soil gas into buildings is the most significant source of radon in houses with e...

376

Convex Corson compacta and Radon measures  

E-print Network

Convex Corson compacta and Radon measures Grzegorz Plebanek Abstract Assuming the continuum hypothesis, we show that (i) there is a compact convex subset L of \\Sigma(R ! 1 ), and a proba­ bility Radon \\Lambda -- compact set M of probability Radon measures on K, which has no G ffi --points. 1 Introduction

Plebanek, Grzegorz

377

Multilinear generalized Radon transforms and point configurations  

E-print Network

Multilinear generalized Radon transforms and point configurations Loukas Grafakos, Allan Greenleaf, Alex Iosevich and Eyvindur Palsson Abstract. We study multilinear generalized Radon transforms using for the results in [7]. 1. Introduction Linear generalized Radon transforms are operators of the form (1.1) Rf

Grafakos, Loukas

378

Is Your School Safe from Radon?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radon is a natural, chemically inert, radioactive gas that can seep to the surface from underground rocks. As many as 20,000 lung cancer deaths in the U.S. each year may be radon-caused. Screening a school for radon is not difficult and may be done on weekends. It's safer for students and staff to test and be sure. (MLH)

Martin, Paul

1990-01-01

379

Radon Transform Inversion using the Shearlet Representation  

E-print Network

Radon Transform Inversion using the Shearlet Representation Flavia Colonna Department The inversion of the Radon transform is a classical ill-posed inverse problem where some method-optimal rate of convergence in estimating a large class of images from noisy Radon data. This is achieved

Labate, Demetrio

380

Large families of mutually singular Radon measures  

E-print Network

Large families of mutually singular Radon measures David H. Fremlin & Grzegorz Plebanek \\Lambda mutually singular Radon probability measures. 1. Introduction. We present here a partial answer with a family (¯ s ) s2S of mu­ tually singular Radon measures on X such that #(S) ? #(X)? In section 2 we

Plebanek, Grzegorz

381

4, 15191548, 2007 Radon in lakes  

E-print Network

HESSD 4, 1519­1548, 2007 Radon in lakes T. Kluge et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction into lakes using radon-222 T. Kluge, J. Ilmberger, C. von Rohden, and W. Aeschbach-Hertig Institute.kluge@iup.uni-heidelberg.de) 1519 #12;HESSD 4, 1519­1548, 2007 Radon in lakes T. Kluge et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

Retrospective determination of radon in houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1970s it was statistically proved that exposure to radon daughter products caused lung cancer in miners1. High concentrations of radon daughters have since been found in houses. Any epidemiological radon study begun today is hampered because relevant exposure data are difficult to obtain owing to the long latency period between exposure and tumour manifestation. Here I present a

Christer Samuelsson

1988-01-01

383

Reducing Radon in Schools: A Team Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the process of radon diagnostics and mitigation in schools to help educators determine the best way to reduce elevated radon levels found in a school. The guidebook is designed to guide school leaders through the process of measuring radon levels, selecting the best mitigation strategy, and directing the efforts of a…

Ligman, Bryan K.; Fisher, Eugene J.

384

8, 20852127, 2008 Evaluation of radon  

E-print Network

ACPD 8, 2085­2127, 2008 Evaluation of radon transport in a GCM K. Zhang et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Evaluation of the atmospheric transport in a GCM using radon measurements: sensitivity to cumulus.zhang@zmaw.de) 2085 #12;ACPD 8, 2085­2127, 2008 Evaluation of radon transport in a GCM K. Zhang et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

385

Indoor radon and lung cancer in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon has long been known to contribute to risk of lung cancer, especially in undergound miners who are exposed to large amounts of the carcinogen. Recently, however, lower amounts of radon present in living areas have been suggested as an important cause of lung cancer. In an effort to clarify the relationship of low amounts of radon with lung cancer

W. J. Blot; Z.-Y. Xu; J. D. Jr. Boice; D.-Z. Zhao; B. J. Stone; J. Sun; L.-B. Jing; J. F. Jr. Fraumeni

1990-01-01

386

RADON TRANSFORMINVERSIONVIA WIENER FILTERINGOVER THE EUCLIDEAN MOTIONGROUP  

E-print Network

RADON TRANSFORMINVERSIONVIA WIENER FILTERINGOVER THE EUCLIDEAN MOTIONGROUP Can Evren Yarman Drexel formulatethe Radon transform asa wn- volution integral over the Euclidean motion group (SE(2)) and provideaminimummeansquare error(MMSE) stochas- tic deconvolution method for the Radon transform inver- sion. Proposed

Yazici, Birsen

387

Sampling the 2-D Radon transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radon transform of a bivariate function, which has application in tomographic imaging, has traditionally been viewed as a parametrized univariate function. In this paper, the Radon transform is instead viewed as a bivariate function and two-dimensional sampling theory is used to address sampling and information content issues. It is Shown that the band region of the Radon transform of

P. Rattey; A. Lindgren

1981-01-01

388

ON RADON TRANSFORMS AND THE KAPPA OPERATOR  

E-print Network

ON RADON TRANSFORMS AND THE KAPPA OPERATOR François Rouvière (Université de Nice) Bruxelles, November 24, 2006 1. Introduction In 1917 Johann Radon solved the following problem : ...nd a function f called the Radon transform. Apart from an important contribution by Fritz John (1938) the problem fell

Rouvière, François

389

Radon Risk Perception and Testing: Sociodemographic Correlates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using information from the 1990 National Health Interview Survey, examined beliefs regarding radon and radon-testing activities among different sociodemographic groups. Results suggest relatively superficial knowledge regarding radon, and little testing, within the survey population. Significantly less knowledge was observed among female and…

Halpern, Michael T.; Warner, Kenneth E.

1994-01-01

390

RADON MITIGATION EFFECTIVENESS IN NEW HOME CONSTRUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the radon mitigation methods outlined in the EPA's Model Standards and Techniques for Control of Radon in New Residential Buildings. Forty seven homes were constructed and monitored. Forty two were located in counties designated as Zone 1 by the EPA's Map of Radon Zones. All homes contained passive vent pipes to

Robert Dewey; Mark Nowak; David Muraine

391

LiMPETS: Scientists Contributions to Coastal Protection Program for Youth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the West Coast National Marine Sanctuaries' LiMPETS (Long-term Monitoring Experiential Training for Students), scientists have partnered with local sanctuaries to develop an educational and scientifically-based monitoring program. With different levels of commitment and interest, scientists have contributed to developing protocols that youth can successfully use to monitor coastal habitats. LiMPETS was developed to address the gap in marine science education for high school students. The team of sanctuary educators together with local scientists collaborate and compromise to develop scientifically accurate and meaningful monitoring projects. By crossing the border between scientists and educators, LiMPETS has become a rich program which provides to teachers professional development, monitoring equipment, an online database, and field support. In the Sandy Beach Monitoring Project, we called on an expert on the sand crab Emerita analoga to help us modify the protocols that she uses to monitor crabs regularly. This scientist brings inspiration to teachers at teacher workshops by explaining how the student monitoring compliments her research. The Rocky Intertidal Monitoring Project was developed by scientists at University of California at Santa Cruz with the intention of passing on this project to an informal learning center. After receiving California Sea Grant funding, the protocols used for over 30 years with undergraduates were modified for middle and high school students. With the help of teachers, classroom activities were developed to train students for fieldwork. The online database was envisioned by the scientists to house the historical data from undergraduate students while growing with new data collected middle and high school students. The support of scientists in this program has been crucial to develop a meaningful program for both youth and resource managers. The hours that a scientist contributes to this program may be minimal, a weeklong workshop or even a part-time job. The framework of resource protection agencies partnering with scientists can be replicated to monitor other natural habitats. Through LiMPETS, scientists are helping to develop scientifically literate youth who are engaged in environmental monitoring.

Saltzman, J.; Osborn, D. A.

2004-12-01

392

Predicted indoor radon concentrations from a Monte Carlo simulation of 1,000,000 granite countertop purchases.  

PubMed

Previous research examining radon exposure from granite countertops relied on using a limited number of exposure scenarios. We expanded upon this analysis and determined the probability that installing a granite countertop in a residential home would lead to a meaningful radon exposure by performing a Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a distribution of potential indoor radon concentrations attributable to granite. The Monte Carlo analysis included estimates of the probability that a particular type of granite would be purchased, the radon flux associated with that type, the size of the countertop purchased, the volume of the home where it would be installed and the air exchange rate of that home. One million countertop purchases were simulated and 99.99% of the resulting radon concentrations were lower than the average outdoor radon concentrations in the US (14.8 Bq m(-3); 0.4  pCi l(-1)). The median predicted indoor concentration from granite countertops was 0.06 Bq m(-3) (1.59 × 10(-3) pCi l(-1)), which is over 2000 times lower than the US Environmental Protection Agency's action level for indoor radon (148 Bq m(-3); 4 pCi l(-1)). The results show that there is a low probability of a granite countertop causing elevated levels of radon in a home. PMID:23295242

Allen, J G; Zwack, L M; MacIntosh, D L; Minegishi, T; Stewart, J H; McCarthy, J F

2013-03-01

393

The long-term climate change assessment task of the Hanford Site, Washington, protective barrier development program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a study plan is under way to guide a multiyear program of long-term climate change assessment of the protective barriers alternative being considered for the disposal of some radioactive defense waste stored near the surface at the Hanford Site, Washington. These barriers are being designed to limit movement of radionuclides and other contaminants to the accessible environment for

1989-01-01

394

A radon progeny deposition model  

SciTech Connect

The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly {sup 222}Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of {sup 210}Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

Rielage, Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hime, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guiseppe, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Westerdale, S. [MIT

2010-12-01

395

A Radon Progeny Deposition Model  

SciTech Connect

The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly {sup 222}Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of {sup 210}Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

Guiseppe, V. E. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States); Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Rielage, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Westerdale, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2011-04-27

396

A Radon Progeny Deposition Model  

E-print Network

The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly Rn-222) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of Pb-210 on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

V. E. Guiseppe; S. R. Elliott; A. Hime; K. Rielage; S. Westerdale

2010-12-30

397

76 FR 16000 - Voluntary Protection Programs Information; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...information). Safety and health management program information (i.e...applicant's safety and health management programs including how the programs successfully address management leadership and employee involvement,...

2011-03-22

398

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document is the third revision of the 'Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan' for groundwater wells associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for: (1) inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12; (2) identifying maintenance needs that extend the life of the well and assure well-head protection is in place, and (3) identifying wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring-well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment. The inspection and maintenance of groundwater monitoring wells is one of the primary management strategies of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Management Plan, 'proactive stewardship of the extensive monitoring well network at Y-12' (BWXT 2004a). Effective stewardship, and a program of routine inspections of the physical condition of each monitoring well, ensures that representative water-quality monitoring and hydrologic data are able to be obtained from the well network. In accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP) for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (BWXT 2006b), the status designation (active or inactive) for each well determines the scope and extent of well inspections and maintenance activities. This plan, in conjunction with the above document, formalizes the GWPP approach to focus available resources on monitoring wells which provide the most useful data. This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management facilities located within the three hydrogeologic regimes: (1) the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime); (2) the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime); and (3) the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) immediately west of Y-12. The East Fork Regime encompasses most of the Y-12 process, operations, and support facilities in BCV east of scarboro Road. The Chestnut Ridge Regime is directly south of Y-12 and encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge that is bound to the west by a surface drainage feature (Dunaway Branch) and by Scarboro Road to the east. The GWPP maintains an extensive database of construction details and related information for the monitoring wells in each hydrogeologic regime in the 'Updated Subsurface Database for Bear Creek Valley, Chestnut Ridge, and parts of Bethel Valley on the US DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (BWXT 2003a). A detailed description of the hydrogeologic framework at Y-12 can be found in the GWPP Management Plan (BWXT 2004a).

None

2006-12-01

399

INDOOR RADON MEASUREMENTS IN TURKEY DWELLINGS.  

PubMed

In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m(-3); the geometric mean was 57 Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. PMID:25389360

Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Task?n, H; Bingoldag, N Albayrak

2014-11-11

400

34 CFR 381.1 - What is the Protection and Advocacy of Individual Rights program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS General § 381...protect the legal and human rights of...

2010-07-01

401

Correlation of soil radon and permeability with indoor radon potential in Ottawa.  

PubMed

Soil gas radon and soil gas permeability measurements were conducted at 32 sites across the five most populated communities in the city of Ottawa where indoor radon measurements were available for 167 houses. A soil radon index (SRI) determined from the soil radon concentration and the soil gas permeability was used to characterise radon availability from soil to air. This study demonstrated that the average SRI in a community area correlates with the indoor radon potential (the percentage of homes above 200 Bq m(-3)) in that community. Soil gas radon concentrations together with soil gas permeability measurements can be a useful tool for the prediction of the indoor radon potential in the development of a Canadian radon risk map. PMID:19617242

Chen, Jing; Falcomer, Renato; Bergman, Lauren; Wierdsma, Jessica; Ly, Jim

2009-08-01

402

Establishing a lightning protection evaluation program for distribution and subtransmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Union Electric (UE) began a project in December 1994 to evaluate the performance of existing types of lightning protection, identify deficiencies, and recommend changes that will result in improved performance. UE employs two basic types of lightning protection-static wire and arresters. The authors discuss ground impedance, the National Lightning Detection Network, and the Lightning Protection Design Workstation (LPDW). The LPDW

M. W. Marshall; B. P. Angeli

1998-01-01

403

Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor  

DOEpatents

An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

Langner, G.H. Jr.

1993-01-12

404

Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor  

DOEpatents

An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

Langner, Jr., G. Harold (Mack, CO)

1993-01-01

405

Novel approaches in radon and thoron dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents some novel approaches for radon/radon progeny and thoron measurements that can help to resolve some long-lasting problems in dosimetry, but which are not yet part of the common practice. The focus is in two directions: The use of CDs/DVDs as radon and thoron detectors and the employment of grab-sampling and/or integrated radon progeny measurements for diagnostic of the air conditions related to mitigation and indoor ventilation. The potential of these approaches is illustrated by several successful applications: (1) Study of the 222Rn distribution in large buildings and identification of places with radon problem; (2) Radon and thoron monitoring in underground mines; (3) Radon measurements in natural waters, including directly in the water source; (4) Grab sampling 222Rn progeny measurements for the purposes of pre- and post-mitigation diagnostic; (5) Integrated measurements of individual 222Rn short-lived decay products for diagnostic of indoor ventilation conditions.

Pressyanov, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Dimitrova, I.; Georgiev, S.; Mitev, K.

2014-07-01

406

Characterizing the source of radon indoors  

SciTech Connect

Average indoor radon concentrations range over more than two orders of magnitude, largely because of variability in the rate at which radon enters from building materials, soil, and water supplies. Determining the indoor source magnitude requires knowledge of the generation of radon in source materials, its movement within materials by diffusion and convection, and the means of its entry into buildings. This paper reviews the state of understanding of indoor radon sources and transport. Our understanding of generation rates in and movement through building materials is relatively complete and indicates that, except for materials with unusually high radionuclide contents, these sources can account for observed indoor radon concentrations only at the low end of the range observed. Our understanding of how radon enters buildings from surrounding soil is poorer, however recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that soil may be the predominant source in many cases where the indoor radon concentration is high. 73 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Nero, A.V.; Nazaroff, W.W.

1983-09-01

407

Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software  

SciTech Connect

A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

2009-01-01

408

'Radon Concentration Survey in Inner Rooms from Deputy Chamber and National Congress-Brasilia/DF'  

SciTech Connect

Radon gas has been monitored in many environments such as rural and urban houses, high natural radioactivity areas and underground mining regions. Nevertheless few data are reported in literature about studies in state buildings. So we get in touch with these buildings managers, where work the Deputy Chamber and the National Congress in Brasilia--DF, in order to obtain radon data in these state buildings, so representative for brazilian people. In order to make a preliminary scanning of radon concentration in these buildings, it was put in selected points, radon nuclear track passive detectors type SSNTD, specifically polycarbonate Lexan, which were exposed for periods from two to five months. Afterwards they were sent to Nuclear Engineering Institute in Rio de Janeiro for analysis of {sup 222}Rn contents. Derived values, whose average value was about 73 Bq/m{sup 3}, were all under maximum permissible limits for radon 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, established by International Comission on Radiological Protection--ICRP 65, for inner environments of houses and state buildings. This work has been coordinated by CNEN Office in Braselia with effective participation of Nuclear Engineering Institute from CNEN--RJ, that has worked since beginning of april 2004, supplying and analysing radon detectors.

Nicoli, Ieda Gomes [Escritorio de Brasilia-CNEN Quadra 4 Bl. B Sala 1002 A Setor Comercial Norte CEP 70714-900 Brasilia-DF (Brazil); Cardozo, Katia Maria [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear-CNEN Rua Helio de Almeida, 75--Cidade Universitaria-Ilha do Fundao CEP 21941-906-Caixa Postal 68550 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Azevedo Gouvea, Vandir de [Divisao de Materias Primas e Minerais-DIMAP-CNEN Rua General Severiano, 90-Botafogo CEP 22290-901 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)

2008-08-07

409

Radon and remedial action in Spokane River Valley residences: an interim report  

SciTech Connect

Fifty-six percent of 46 residences monitored in the Spokane River Valley in eastern Washington/northern Idaho have indoor radon concentrations above the National Council for Radiation Protection (NCRP) guidelines of 8 pCi/1. Indoor levels were over 20 pCi/1 in eight homes, and ranged up to 132 pCi/1 in one house. Radon concentrations declined by factors of 4 to 38 during summer months. Measurements of soil emanation rates, domestic water supply concentrations, and building material flux rates indicate that diffusion of radon does not significantly contribute to the high concentrations observed. Rather, radon entry is dominated by pressure-driven bulk soil gas transport, aggravated by the local subsurface soil composition and structure. A variety of radon control strategies are being evaluated in 14 of these homes. Sub-surface ventilation by depressurization and overpressurization, basement overpressurization, and crawlspace ventilation are capable of successfully reducing radon levels below 5 pCi/1 in these homes. House ventilation is appropriate in buildings with low-moderate concentrations, while sealing of cracks has been relatively ineffective.

Turk, B.H.; Prill, R.J.; Fisk, W.J.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Moed, B.A.; Sextro, R.G.

1986-03-01

410

Development of Physical Protection Regulations for Rosatom State Corporation Sites under the U.S.-Russian MPC&A Program  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes issues related to upgrading the physical protection regulatory basis for Rosatom State Corporation sites. It is underlined that most of the regulatory and methodological documents for this subject area have been developed under the U.S.-Russian MPC&A Program. According to the joint management plan developed and agreed upon by the parties in 2005, nearly 50 physical protection documents were identified to be developed, approved and implemented at Rosatom sites by 2012. It is also noted that, on the whole, the plans have been fulfilled.

Izmaylov, Alexander; Babkin, Vladimir; Shemigon, Nikolai N.; O'Brien, Patricia; Wright, Troy L.; Hazel, Michael J.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Lane, Melinda; Kovchegin, Dmitry

2012-07-14

411

Indoor radon concentration measurement in the dwellings of district Poonch (Azad Kashmir), Pakistan.  

PubMed

The present study deals with measurement of indoor radon concentrations in dwellings of the district Poonch of the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. In this context, CR-39-based box-type radon detectors were installed in drawing rooms and bedrooms of 80 selected houses and were exposed to indoor radon for 3 months. After exposure, the CR-39 detectors were etched for 9 h in 6 mol NaOH at 70 degrees C and the observed track densities were related to radon concentrations. Measured indoor radon concentrations in the studied area ranged from 27 +/- 6 to 169 +/- 4, 29 +/- 6 to 196 +/- 4 and 31 +/- 5 to 142 +/- 2 Bq m(-3) in the drawing rooms and 74 +/- 5 to 172 +/- 3, 32 +/- 6 to 191 +/- 4 and 27 +/- 5 to 155 +/- 2 Bq m(-3) in bedrooms of the Abbaspur, Hajira and Rawalakot regions of the district Poonch, respectively; whereas weighted average radon concentration ranged from 93 +/- 6 to 159 +/- 4, 33 +/- 5 to 118 +/- 3 and 31 +/- 6 to 155 +/- 5 Bq m(-3) in the dwellings of Abbaspur, Hajira and Rawalakot, respectively. Estimated doses due to the indoor radon ranged from 2.35 +/- 0.15 to 4.00 +/- 0.10, 0.83 +/- 0.08 to 2.98 +/- 0.08 and 0.78 +/- 0.15 to 3.91 +/- 0.13 mSv y(-1) for Abbaspur, Rawalakot and Hajira, respectively. Comparing the current indoor radon results with those of the Health Protection Agency UK and US EPA (i.e. 200 and 148 Bq m(-3)) limits, majority of the houses surveyed in the present study are within the safe limits. PMID:19828719

Rafique, Muhammad; Rahman, Said; Rahman, S U; Jabeen, Shahida; Shahzad, M Ikram; Rathore, Mumtaz H; Matiullah

2010-02-01

412

Radon mitigation survey among New York State residents living in high radon homes  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of New York State Department of Health's efforts to increase public awareness about radon risk and to promote radon testing and mitigation in compliance with EPA's guideline, a statewide radon mitigation survey was conducted between September 1995 and January 1996 among New York State residents whose homes had radon levels equal to or greater than 148 Bq m{sup {minus}3} on the first floor (or above) living areas. The survey found that about 60% of 1,113 participants had taken actions for radon mitigation. The percentage of respondents who took actions to reduce radon levels in their homes increased with increasing education level as well as household income level. The method of installing a powered system to provide more ventilation was a more effective mitigation method than opening windows/doors or sealing cracks/openings in the basement. Mitigation performed by contractors was more effective in reducing radon levels than mitigation performed by residents. The reasons for performing radon mitigation given by the majority of respondents were those strongly related to radon health risk. High home radon level was an important motivational factor to stimulate radon mitigation. On the other hand, the cost of radon mitigation was a major barrier in decision making for performing radon mitigation and for selecting mitigation measures.

Wang, Y.; Ju, C.; Stark, A.D.; Teresi, N.

1999-10-01

413

40 CFR 195.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS General Provisions...for each location from which it provides radon measurement services. After the application...component, or system designed to measure radon gas or radon decay products. EPA...

2013-07-01

414

40 CFR 195.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS General Provisions...for each location from which it provides radon measurement services. After the application...component, or system designed to measure radon gas or radon decay products. EPA...

2012-07-01

415

40 CFR 195.2 - Definitions.  

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS General Provisions...for each location from which it provides radon measurement services. After the application...component, or system designed to measure radon gas or radon decay products. EPA...

2014-07-01

416

40 CFR 195.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS General Provisions...for each location from which it provides radon measurement services. After the application...component, or system designed to measure radon gas or radon decay products. EPA...

2010-07-01

417

40 CFR 195.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS General Provisions...for each location from which it provides radon measurement services. After the application...component, or system designed to measure radon gas or radon decay products. EPA...

2011-07-01

418

Estimation of past radon exposure to indoor radon from embedded (210)Po in household glass.  

PubMed

In the present investigation, the surface-deposited polonium activities were measured in houses in the Ukhimath region of Garhwal Himalaya, India. The surface-deposited (210)Po activity concentrations were found to vary from 0.7 to 15.40 Bq m(-2) with an average of 5.95 Bq m(-2). The radon concentration estimated on the basis of (210)Po activity was found to vary from 0.29 to 700 Bq m(-3) with an average value 242 Bq m(-3). The contemporary radon concentration in the area was found to vary from 13 to 181 Bq m(-3) with an average of 46 Bq m(-3). The annual effective dose due to (210)Po activity in houses in the Garhwal Himalaya region was found to vary from 0.61 to 13.33 mSv with an average of 5.15 mSv. Some worldwide studies have shown the relation between the increased risk of lung cancer and smoking habits. Data on smoking have also been collected from the same dwellings. The significance of this work is also discussed in detail from a radiation protection point of view. PMID:22887116

Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Ramola, R C

2012-11-01

419

Low Radon Cleanroom at the University of Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cleanroom laboratory designed to create and maintain a low concentration of radon in the air has been designed and is now under construction. We describe the clean room, the radon stripping system, and various radon monitoring tools.

Grant, Darren; Hallin, Aksel; Hanchurak, Stephen; Krauss, Carsten; Liu, Shengli; Soluk, Richard

2011-04-01

420

40 CFR 61.203 - Radon monitoring and compliance procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radon monitoring and compliance procedures. ...POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.203 Radon monitoring and compliance...

2013-07-01

421

30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5037 Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a...person to determine if concentrations of radon daughters are present....

2010-07-01

422

40 CFR 61.203 - Radon monitoring and compliance procedures.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Radon monitoring and compliance procedures. ...POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.203 Radon monitoring and compliance...

2014-07-01

423

40 CFR 61.203 - Radon monitoring and compliance procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radon monitoring and compliance procedures. ...POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.203 Radon monitoring and compliance...

2010-07-01

424

40 CFR 61.203 - Radon monitoring and compliance procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Radon monitoring and compliance procedures. ...POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.203 Radon monitoring and compliance...

2012-07-01

425

30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5037 Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a...person to determine if concentrations of radon daughters are present....

2013-07-01

426

40 CFR 61.203 - Radon monitoring and compliance procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Radon monitoring and compliance procedures. ...POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.203 Radon monitoring and compliance...

2011-07-01

427

30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5037 Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a...person to determine if concentrations of radon daughters are present....

2012-07-01

428

30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5037 Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a...person to determine if concentrations of radon daughters are present....

2014-07-01

429

30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5037 Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a...person to determine if concentrations of radon daughters are present....

2011-07-01

430

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program CY 2009 Triennial Report Of The Monitoring Well Inspection And Maintenance Program, Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document is the triennial report for the Well Inspection and Maintenance Program of the Y- 12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). This report formally documents well inspection events conducted on active and inactive wells at Y-12 during calendar years (CY) 2007 through 2009; it documents well maintenance and plugging and abandonment activities completed since the last triennial inspection event (CY 2006); and provides summary tables of well inspection events, well maintenance events, and well plugging and abandonment events during the reference time period.

none,

2013-06-01

431

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document is a compendium of water quality and hydrologic characterization data obtained through December 2005 from the network of groundwater monitoring wells and surface water sampling stations (including springs and building sumps) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee that have been sampled since January 2003. The primary objectives of this document, hereafter referenced as the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Compendium, are to: (1) Serve as a single-source reference for monitoring data that meet the requirements of the Y-12 GWPP, as defined in the Y-12 GWPP Management Plan (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2004); (2) Maintain a detailed analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data for each applicable well, spring, and surface water sampling station, with a focus on results for the primary inorganic, organic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater and surface water at Y-12; and (3) Ensure retention of ''institutional knowledge'' obtained over the long-term (>20-year) history of groundwater and surface water monitoring at Y-12 and the related sources of groundwater and surface water contamination. To achieve these goals, the Y-12 GWPP Compendium brings together salient hydrologic, geologic, geochemical, water-quality, and environmental compliance information that is otherwise disseminated throughout numerous technical documents and reports prepared in support of completed and ongoing environmental contamination assessment, remediation, and monitoring activities performed at Y-12. The following subsections provide background information regarding the overall scope and format of the Y-12 GWPP Compendium and the planned approach for distribution and revision (i.e., administration) of this ''living'' document.

None

2006-12-01

432

Radon/radon daughter environmental chamber located in the northwest end of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Radon/radon daughter environmental chamber located in the northwest end of building. VIEW LOOKING WEST - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, Building No. 32, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

433

Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia’s Health Insurance Program for the Poor  

PubMed Central

Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia’s Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a “fuzzy” regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services – with measurable health gains. PMID:25346799

Miller, Grant; Pinto, Diana

2013-01-01

434

The Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program: Protection of materials in the space environment subprogram  

SciTech Connect

Three projects are currently underway for the development of new coatings for the protection of materials in the space environment. These coatings are based on vacuum deposition technologies. The projects will go as far as the proof-of-concept stage when the commercial potential for the technology will be demonstrated on pilot-scale fabrication facilities in 1996. These projects are part of a subprogram to develop supporting technologies for automation and robotics technologies being developed under the Canadian Space Agency`s STEAR Program, part of the Canadian Space Station Program.

Schmidt, L.R.; Francoeur, J.; Aguero, A.; Wertheimer, M.R.; Klemberg-Sapieha, J.E.; Martinu, L.; Blezius, J.W.; Oliver, M.; Singh, A. [Cametoid Advanced Technologies, Inc., Whitby, Ontario (Canada); [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); [MPB Technologies, Inc., Pointe Claire, Quebec (Canada); [National Optics Inst., Ste-Foy, Quebec (Canada)

1995-02-01

435

Department of Energy Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program at the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex, Aktau, Republic of Kazakhstan  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program, the US Department of Energy and Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (MAEC), Aktau, Republic of Kazakstan have cooperated to enhance existing MAEC MPC and A features at the BN-350 liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor. This paper describes the methodology of the enhancement activities and provides representative examples of the MPC and A augmentation implemented at the MAEC.

Case, R.; Berry, R.B.; Eras, A. [and others

1998-08-01

436

Environmental protection programs and conservation practices of hotels in Ankara, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the general nature of environmental protection, waste management, purchasing, energy use, and conservation practices of hotels in Ankara, Turkey. It explored the extent of environmental protection practices so the hotel industry could evaluate its position on environmental issues and so that other interested parties, including academics, can obtain fresh information for a distinctive part

Nazmiye Erdogan; Emin Baris

2007-01-01

437

US/Russian laboratory-to-laboratory program in materials protection, control and accounting at the RRC Kurchatov Institute  

SciTech Connect

Six US Department of Energy Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute to improve nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC and A) at the Institute. In 1995 the primary emphasis of this program was the implementation of improved physical protection at a demonstration building at Kurchatov, and the upgrading the computerized materials accounting system, measurement instrumentation, and physical inventory procedures for a critical assembly within this building. Work continues in 1996 at this building but now also have begun at the two Kurchatov buildings which constitute the Central Storage Facility. At this facility, there will be upgrades in the physical inventory taking procedures, a test and evaluation of gamma-ray isotopic measurements, and evaluations of nuclear material portal monitors and neutron-based measurement equipment. There will also be implementation of an improved computerized materials accounting system which will include bar code printing and reading equipment, development of a tamper indicating device program, and substantial improvements in physical protection. Finally, vulnerability assessments begun in 1995 are being extended to additional high priority facilities at Kurchatov.

Sukhoruchkin, V.; Roumiantsev, A.; Shmelev, V. [RRC Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1996-09-01

438

US/Russian laboratory-to-laboratory program in materials protection, control and accounting at the RRC Kurchatov Institute  

SciTech Connect

Six US DOE Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute (RRC KI) to improve the capabilities and facilities in nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). In 1995, the primary emphasis of this program was the implementation of improved physical protection at a demonstration building at RRC KI, and the upgrading of the computerized MC&A system, diagnostic instrumentation, and physical inventory procedures at a critical assembly within this building. Work continues in 1996 at the demonstration building but now also has begun at the two Kurchatov buildings which constitute the Central Storage Facility (CSF). At this facility, there will be upgrades in the physical inventory taking procedures, a test and evaluation of gamma-ray isotopic measurements, evaluations of nuclear material portal monitors and neutron-based measurement equipment as well as development of an improved computerized materials accounting system, implementation of bar code printing and reading equipment, development of tamper indicating device program, and substantial improvements in physical protection. Also, vulnerability assessments begun in 1995 are being extended to additional high priority facilities at Kurchatov.

Sukhoruchkin, V.; Roumiansev, A.; Shmelev, V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1996-06-01

439

Search for radon sources in buildings--kindergartens.  

PubMed

In ten high radon level kindergartens, radon sources were sought by applying a combination of several radon measuring techniques: etched track detectors to obtain average indoor air radon concentration, continuous devices to record radon concentration and see its diurnal variation, and alpha scintillation cells to determine radon concentration in the air entering a room from cracks, holes and sinks in the floor and from under-floor channels. In three cases, a strong local radon source was identified while, in the others, the bad quality of the basic concrete slab was responsible for the high indoor radon concentration. PMID:14689998

Vaupotic, J

2002-01-01

440

The use of volunteer radon measurements for radon mapping purposes: an examination of sampling bias issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

National and regional radon surveys are used in many nations to produce maps detailing the spatial variation of indoor radon concentrations. National surveys which are designed to be representative use either a geographically-weighted or a population-weighted sampling scheme. Additionally, many countries collect a large number of data on indoor radon concentrations from volunteers who have chosen to have the indoor

Órlaith Burke; Patrick Murphy

2011-01-01

441

Enhancing Industry-based Dissemination of an Occupational Sun Protection Program with Theory-based Strategies Employing Personal Contact  

PubMed Central

Purpose Industry-based strategies for dissemination of an evidence-based occupational sun protection program, Go Sun Smart (GSS), were tested. Design Two dissemination strategies were compared in a randomized trial in 2004 – 2007. Setting The North American ski industry. Subjects Ski areas in the United States and Canada (n=69) and their senior managers (n=469). Intervention Employers received GSS through a Basic Dissemination Strategy (BDS) from the industry’s professional association which included conference presentations and free starter kits. Half of the areas also received the Enhanced Dissemination Strategy (EDS), in which project staff met face-to-face with managers and made ongoing contacts to support program use. Measures Observation of program materials in use and managers’ reports on communication about sun protection. Analysis The effects of two alternative dissemination strategies were compared on program use using PROC MIXED in SAS, adjusted for covariates using 1-tailed p-values. Results Ski areas receiving the EDS used more GSS materials (M=7.36) than those receiving the BDS (M=5.17; F=7.82, p<.01). Managers from more areas receiving the EDS reported communicating about sun protection in employee newsletters/flyers (M=0.97, p=.04), in guest email messages (M=0.75, p=.02), and on ski area websites (M=0.38, p=.02) than those receiving the BDS (M=0.84, 0.50, 0.15, respectively). Conclusion Industry professional associations play an important role in disseminating prevention programs; however, active personal communication may be essential to ensure increased implementation fidelity. PMID:22747318

Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.; Kane, Ilima L.; Zhang, Xiao

2012-01-01

442

Indoor radon in the region of Brussels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indoor radon (²²²Rn) concentration has been measured by charcoal detectors in 278 buildings in the region of Brussels, Belgium. The correlation with the nature of the subsoil can be studied in detail thanks to the available geotechnical map. With a geometrical mean indoor radon concentration of 19 Bq m⁻³, Brussels can be considered as generally unaffected by the radon

F. Tondeur; I. Gerardy; D. Christiaens; S. Hallez; J. M. Flemal

1999-01-01

443

Concentrations of dissolved radon-222 in water from selected wells and springs in Idaho, 1989-91  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations of dissolved radon-222, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, are found in water in Idaho. The U.S. Geological Survey collected water samples for radon-222 analyses from 338 Idaho wells and springs during 1989-91. These water samples were collected as part of ongoing monitoring programs with the Idaho Department of Water Resources and the U.S. Department of Energy. Concentrations of dissolved radon-222 in 372 of the water samples ranged from -58{+-}30 to 5,715{+-}66 picocuries per liter; the mean and median concentrations were 446{+-}35 and 242{+-}25 picocuries per liter, respectively.

Cecil, L.D.; Parliman, D.J.; Edwards, D.D.; Young, H.W.

1994-11-01

444

Radon: Chemical and physical processes associated with its distribution  

SciTech Connect

Assessing the mechanisms which govern the distribution, fate, and pathways of entry into biological systems, as well as the ultimate hazards associated with the radon progeny and their secondary reaction products, depends on knowledge of their chemistry. Our studies are directed toward developing fundamental information which will provide a basis for modeling studies that are requisite in obtaining a complete picture of growth, attachment to aerosols, and transport to the bioreceptor and ultimate incorporation within. Our program is divided into three major areas of research. These include measurement of the determination of their mobilities, study of the role of radon progeny ions in affecting reactions, including study of the influence of the degree of solvation (clustering), and examination of the important secondary reaction products, with particular attention to processes leading to chemical conversion of either the core ions or the ligands as a function of the degree of clustering.

Castleman, A.W. Jr.

1992-01-01

445

The Japanese Radon and Thoron Reference Chambers  

SciTech Connect

Passive detectors used for large-scale and long-term surveys are generally calibrated in a well-controlled environment such as a radon chamber. It has been also pointed out that some of them are sensitive to thoron. Thus it is necessary to check the thoron contribution to the detector response with the proposed or similar test before practical use. The NIRS accommodates radon/aerosol and thoron chambers for quality assurance and quality control of radon measurements. Thus both chambers work so well that they can supply us with the calibration technique and consequently, a good level of knowledge of the radon and thoron issue.

Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Miyahara, Nobuyuki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

2008-08-07

446

US/Russian program in materials protection, control and accounting at the RRC Kurchatov Institute: 1997--1998  

SciTech Connect

Six US Department of Energy Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute to improve nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC and A) at Kurchatov. In 1997--1998 the primary thrust of this program has been directed to Building 106, which houses a number of test reactors and critical facilities. Substantial improvements in physical protection, upgrades in the physical inventory taking procedures, installation of equipment for the computerized materials accounting system, and installation of nuclear material portal monitors and neutron-based measurement equipment are being carried out at this facility. Software for the computerized accounting system, named KI-MACS, has been developed at Kurchatov and the system has been fully integrated with the bar code printing and reading equipment, electronic scales, and nondestructive assay equipment provided under this program. Additional 1997--1998 activities at Kurchatov include continuation of a tamper indicating device program, vulnerability assessments of several facilities, hosting of a Russian-American Workshop on Fissile Material Control and Accountability at Critical Facilities, and the development of accounting procedures for transfers of nuclear materials between material balance areas.

Sukhoruchkin, V.; Rumyantsev, A.; Shmelev, V. [RRC Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1998-12-31

447

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program CY2012 Triennial Report Of The Monitoring Well Inspection And Maintenance Program Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document is the triennial report for the Well Inspection and Maintenance Program of the Y- 12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). This report formally documents well inspections completed by the GWPP on active and inactive wells at Y-12 during calendar years (CY) 2010 through 2012. In addition, this report also documents well inspections performed under the Y-12 Water Resources Restoration Program, which is administered by URS|CH2M Oak Ridge (UCOR). This report documents well maintenance activities completed since the last triennial inspection event (CY 2009); and provides summary tables of well inspections and well maintenance activities during the reference time period.

none,

2013-09-01

448

40 CFR 195.20 - Fee payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS Fees § 195.20...is not a listed participant in EPA's radon proficiency programs on the effective...and the RCP Program shall be sent to: Radon Proficiency Programs User Fees,...

2013-07-01

449

40 CFR 195.30 - Failure to remit fee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS Fees § 195.30...participant's listing in the National Radon Measurement Proficiency program, individual...component of the RMP program, or the National Radon Contractor Proficiency program until...

2013-07-01

450

40 CFR 195.1 - Purpose and applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS General Provisions...operating the following programs: The National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program...component of the RMP Program, and the National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP)...

2010-07-01

451

40 CFR 195.20 - Fee payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS Fees § 195.20...is not a listed participant in EPA's radon proficiency programs on the effective...and the RCP Program shall be sent to: Radon Proficiency Programs User Fees,...

2012-07-01

452

40 CFR 195.20 - Fee payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS Fees § 195.20...is not a listed participant in EPA's radon proficiency programs on the effective...and the RCP Program shall be sent to: Radon Proficiency Programs User Fees,...

2010-07-01

453

40 CFR 195.1 - Purpose and applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS General Provisions...operating the following programs: The National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program...component of the RMP Program, and the National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP)...

2012-07-01

454

40 CFR 195.20 - Fee payments.  

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS Fees § 195.20...is not a listed participant in EPA's radon proficiency programs on the effective...and the RCP Program shall be sent to: Radon Proficiency Programs User Fees,...

2014-07-01

455

40 CFR 195.30 - Failure to remit fee.  

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS Fees § 195.30...participant's listing in the National Radon Measurement Proficiency program, individual...component of the RMP program, or the National Radon Contractor Proficiency program until...

2014-07-01

456

40 CFR 195.30 - Failure to remit fee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS Fees § 195.30...participant's listing in the National Radon Measurement Proficiency program, individual...component of the RMP program, or the National Radon Contractor Proficiency program until...

2010-07-01

457

40 CFR 195.1 - Purpose and applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS General Provisions...operating the following programs: The National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program...component of the RMP Program, and the National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP)...

2013-07-01

458

40 CFR 195.30 - Failure to remit fee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS Fees § 195.30...participant's listing in the National Radon Measurement Proficiency program, individual...component of the RMP program, or the National Radon Contractor Proficiency program until...

2012-07-01

459

40 CFR 195.1 - Purpose and applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS General Provisions...operating the following programs: The National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program...component of the RMP Program, and the National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP)...

2011-07-01

460

40 CFR 195.1 - Purpose and applicability.  

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS General Provisions...operating the following programs: The National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program...component of the RMP Program, and the National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP)...

2014-07-01

461

40 CFR 195.20 - Fee payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS Fees § 195.20...is not a listed participant in EPA's radon proficiency programs on the effective...and the RCP Program shall be sent to: Radon Proficiency Programs User Fees,...

2011-07-01

462

40 CFR 195.30 - Failure to remit fee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS Fees § 195.30...participant's listing in the National Radon Measurement Proficiency program, individual...component of the RMP program, or the National Radon Contractor Proficiency program until...

2011-07-01

463

77 FR 37060 - Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) Asset Protection Technical Assistance Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Key Resources (CIKR) Asset Protection Technical Assistance...and the Federal Emergency Management Agency's National Preparedness...to the Automated Critical Asset Management System (ACAMS) tools for using CIKR asset data, prevention and...

2012-06-20

464

76 FR 5186 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Agency Information Collection Activities; Office of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to improve the security of the nation's...efforts by IP, sector-specific agencies...event, threat or service- specific activities...Department of Homeland Security, National Protection...Affected Public: Private sector and...

2011-01-28

465

MASTER HOME ENVIRONMENTALIST PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Master Home Environmentalist (MHE) program is an innovative approach to address issues of indoor pollution, such as molds and biological contaminants that cause allergies and asthma, dust, indoor air pollution (including asbestos, formaldehyde, radon, combustion sources, tob...

466

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluates new technologies to assess their effectiveness. This bulletin summarizes results from the 1993 SITE demonstration of the Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) Pentachlorophenol (PCP) Method to determine P...

467

1993 UPDATE OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Emerging Technology Program (ETP), part of the U.S. EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, is continuing to create an environment where technical innovation can accelerate into field and commercial applications for treatment of hazardous waste sites....

468

Measurement of Indoor Radon-222 and Radon-220 Concentrations in Central Japan  

SciTech Connect

A passive-type radon/thoron detector was used for measuring indoor radon and thoron concentrations at 90 dwellings in Aichi and Gifu prefectures in central Japan during 90 days from December, 2006 to March, 2007. The radon and thoron concentrations were 21.1 Bq/m3 and 25.1 Bq/m3, respectively. The dose due to radon and thoron in dwellings was roughly evaluated as 0.7 mSv/y and 2.4 mSv/y, respectively. The examination of the geological factor and house condition having an effect on indoor radon concentration was performed.

Oka, Mitsuaki; Shimo, Michikuni [Graduate School of Health Science, Fujita Health University 1-98, Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake, Tyoake, Aichi, 470-1192 (Japan); Tokonami, Shinji; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

2008-08-07

469

Identification of high radon areas with passive methods and geological assessments in some Italian regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internationally the indoor radon exposition as health hazard is widely recognized; so in many countries specific laws and regulations and so-called radon - risk maps have been introduced. Few Italian Regions have started surveys for the identification of 'radon prone areas', with independent standards and protocols and this involves a bigger uncertainty on the definition of a national risk map failing guidelines. In the present work a standardized methodology for indoor radon measurements has been set up by U-Series Srl (Bologna), with attention to the development of a passive measurement technique (solid state nuclear track detectors) on large scale. The developed technique has been validated through an inter-laboratory comparison conducted by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) in 2008 and repeated in 2009. An indoor radon monitoring survey has been conducted in all Italian Regions with the developed methodology and 5425 measurements have been elaborated to obtain the annual average radon concentration in regional scale and the relapse of seasonal fluctuations on radon concentrations were verified. For the survey, the detectors were installed in underground rooms in workplaces and the measurements were performed over one solar year. As a consequence of our developed methodology (measurements only in underground rooms), indoor radon concentrations resulted generally higher than the concentrations obtained in the National Survey; we estimated an annual mean radon concentration of 110 Bqm3 compared to 70 Bq/m3 obtained by the National Survey. Only for the Italian Regions with the largest number of sampling (Lombardia, with the case studies of Milano Province and Milano city, Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Puglia) the data obtained were georeferentiated and we elaborated these data using geostatistical technique in order to produce distribution maps of the annual average indoor radon concentration. We have integrated the elaborated maps with the geological knowledge of the high concentration macro-areas identified in this work in order to better determine them. This study has allowed to point out not negligible radon concentrations also in traditionally no-risk zone; moreover the application of the developed methodology will be useful to give advices in order to fill Italian legislation gaps or to draft urban development plans. In particular, the correlation between radon concentrations and some geological features has been proved in Lombardia and some hypothesis have been formulated to understand the geological origin of the radon source. The high radon concentrations in the North of the Region are related to the high uranium content in different rock types distributed in these areas. For the flat area in correspondence of the Milan Province and the city of Milan, traditionally considered a no-risk zone, we have done some hypothesis of correlation between radon and the geochemical processes occurred in this area and soil permeability and fracturation by means of the existing geological sections. The application of the developed methodology will be useful to give advices to fill legislation gaps or to draft urban development plans.

Rossetti, Marta; Bartolomei, Paolo; Esposito, Massimo; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

2010-05-01

470

ARE RADON GAS MEASUREMENTS ADEQUATE FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES AND CASE CONTROL  

E-print Network

ARE RADON GAS MEASUREMENTS ADEQUATE FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES AND CASE CONTROL STUDIES OF RADON 2004 The lung dose derived from radon is not attributed to the radon gas itself, but instead to its of the radon risk, the excess number of cancers are related to the radon gas exposure, and not to the radon

Yu, K.N.

471

Exposure assessment of radon in the drinking water supplies: a descriptive study in Palestine  

PubMed Central

Background Radon gas is considered as a main risk factor for lung cancer and found naturally in rock, soil, and water. The objective of this study was to determine the radon level in the drinking water sources in Nablus city in order to set up a sound policy on water management in Palestine. Methods This was a descriptive study carried out in two phases with a random sampling technique in the second phase. Primarily, samples were taken from 4 wells and 5 springs that supplied Nablus city residents. For each source, 3 samples were taken and each was analyzed in 4 cycles by RAD 7 device manufactured by Durridge Company. Secondly, from the seven regions of the Nablus city, three samples were taken from the residential tap water of each region. Regarding the old city, ten samples were taken. Finally, the mean radon concentration value for each source was calculated. Results The mean (range) concentration of radon in the main sources were 6.9 (1.5-23.4) Becquerel/liter (Bq/L). Separately, springs and wells' means were 4.6 Bq/L and 9.5 Bq/L; respectively. For the residential tap water in the 7 regions, the results of the mean (range) concentration values were found to be 1.0 (0.9-1.3) Bq/L. For the old city, the mean (range) concentration values were 2.3 (0.9-3.9) Bq/L. Conclusions Except for Al-Badan well, radon concentrations in the wells and springs were below the United State Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminated level (U.S EPA MCL). The level was much lower for tap water. Although the concentration of radon in the tap water of old city were below the MCL, it was higher than other regions in the city. Preventive measures and population awareness on radon's exposure are recommended. PMID:22243625

2012-01-01

472

The long-term climate change assessmenet task of the protective barrier developoment program for low-level waste site remediation at the Hanford Site, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study plan is being developed to guide a multiyear program to assess long-term climate change and optimize the design of protective barriers. A protective barrier alternative is being considered for the disposal of some low-level radioactive defense waste stored near the surface at the Hanford Site, Washington. These barriers are being designed to limit movement of radionuclides and other

1990-01-01

473

Stanford Geothermal Program Stanford University  

E-print Network

s Stanford Geothermal Program Stanford University Stanford, California RADON MEASUEMENTS I N GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS ? d by * ** Alan K. Stoker and Paul Kruger SGP-TR-4 January 1975 :: raw at Lcs Alams S c i and water, o i l and n a t u r a l gas wells. with radon i n geothermal reservoirs. Its presence i n

Stanford University

474

Effects of residential mobility on individual versus population risk of radon-related lung cancer.  

PubMed

The U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) does not consider the effects of normal patterns of residential mobility in estimating individual radon-related lung cancer risks. As a consequence, the EPA's population risk estimates may have little bearing on individual risks, and remediation of high-radon homes may have only small health benefits for the individual who remediate their homes. Through a stimulation analysis, we examine the effects of residential mobility on random exposure and lung cancer risk. Given normal mobility, only 7% of eventual radon-related mortality among current 30 year old will occur in the 5% currently living in homes above pCi/l (the EPA's action level for remediation) in contrast with you estimate of 31% of deaths when mobility's ignored. About 10 pCi/l the no-mobility assumption implies 10.3% of deaths, compared to only 0.4% when mobility taken into account. We conclude that knowledge of one's current random exposure not necessarily a useful guide to one's risk, especially for residents of the high-radon homes targeted for remediation by the EPA. The risk of such individuals is like to be substantially lower than that implied in the EPA's risk charts. If people currently living in high radon homes remediate their houses, the majority of the resulting health benefits will accrue to future occupants of their homes. PMID:8747021

Warner, K E; Courant, P N; Mendez, D

1995-12-01

475

Lung cancer risk due to residential radon exposures: estimation and prevention.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies proved that cumulative exposure to radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, the world's most common cancer. The objectives of the present study are (i) to analyse lung cancer risk for chronic, low radon exposures based on the transformation frequency-tissue response (TF-TR) model formulated in terms of alpha particle hits in cell nuclei; (ii) to assess the percentage of attributable lung cancers in six areas of Transylvania where the radon concentration was measured and (iii) to point out the most efficient remediation measures tested on a pilot house in Stei, Romania. Simulations performed with the TF-TR model exhibit a linear dose-effect relationship for chronic, residential radon exposures. The fraction of lung cancer cases attributed to radon ranged from 9 to 28% for the investigated areas. Model predictions may represent a useful tool to complement epidemiological studies on lung cancer risk and to establish reasonable radiation protection regulations for human safety. PMID:24751985

Truta, L A; Hofmann, W; Cosma, C

2014-07-01

476

Uranium exploration by radon measurement in inclusions  

SciTech Connect

Exploration for uranium by measuring radon in the inclusions of minerals is a survey technique developed in recent years. Two methods exists: radon measurement in inclusions in bedrock and in the sediments of water systems. The former method is used at the stage of uranium survey and exploration and its principle may be described as follows: The inclusion halo of uraniferous secondary inclusions is formed on a large scale in the rocks adjoining hydrothermal U-deposits. If samples are selected from bedrock at a given range and then heated, the inclusions will decrepitate and, as a result, give off radon. After the measurement of the relative content of radon with radon-meters, one can outline the anomalous areas of radon, which will be the indicators of the location of blind U-ore-bodies. As for the second method, its principle lies in that the diffusion haloes may be distributed in the sedimentary sands of water system as a result of the weathering, disintegration and transportation of bedrock containing U-deposits. Therefore, the anomalous areas can be determined by measurement of radon in the inclusions in sedimentary sands, which will be conducive to U-ore-formation. Field and laboratory work done in recent years using the radon measurement method has yielded successful and promising results, showing some advantages of this method over the commonly used gamma, eman, hydrochemical and other methods.

Shan, L.; Liu, X.D.; Wu, W.J.

1985-01-01

477

Home Buyer's and Seller's Guide to Radon  

MedlinePLUS

... may also work in your home. The right system depends on the design of your home and other factors. Techniques for ... proposal on how radon levels will be lowered; Design a radon-reduction system; Install the system according to EPA's recommended standard, ...

478

TEST CELL STUDIES OF RADON ENTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to contrast the effectiveness of slab-in-stem wall (SSW) with floating slab (FS) construction practices, to measure radon transport and entry for model testing, to develop protocols relevant to depressurized radon measurements, and to determine...

479

Hough Transform from the Radon Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

An appropriate special case of a transform developed by J. Radon in 1917 is shown to have the major properties of the Hough transform which is useful for finding line segments in digital pictures. Such an observation may be useful in further efforts to generalize the Hough transform. Techniques for applying the Radon transform to lines and pixels are developed

Stanley R. Deans

1981-01-01

480

Latest views of the sparse Radon transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radon transform (RT) suffers from the typical problems of loss of resolution and aliasing that arise as a consequence of incomplete information, including limited aperture and discretization. Sparseness in the Radon domain is a valid and useful criterion for sup- plying this missing information, equivalent somehow to assuming smooth amplitude variation in the transition between known and unknown (missing)

Daniel Trad; Tadeusz Ulrych; Mauricio Sacchi

2003-01-01

481

Image Representation Via a Finite Radon Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model of finite Radon transforms composed of Radonprojections. The model generalizes to finite groups projections in the classical Radontransform theory. The Radon projector averages a function on a group over cosets ofa subgroup. Reconstruction formulae formally similar to the convolved backprojectionones are derived and an iterative reconstruction technique is found to converge after finitenumber of steps.

Frantisek Matús; Jan Flusser

1993-01-01

482

Radon im Grundwasser des Mühlviertels (Oberösterreich)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the occurrence areas of selected crystalline rocks—mainly granites—the Radon-222 content of groundwater has been investigated. The results show a significant correlation with the Uranium concentrations in the rocks. The Uranium concentrations were between 1 and 15 ppm, while the Radon-222 concentrations were between 0.2 and 719.5 Bq/l. To identify Radon-decreasing effects like degasification and admixture of surface water, CO2 partial pressures and Oxygen-18 in water samples were determined and the local hydrological situation has been taken under consideration. Samples which showed clear evidence of Radon-decreasing effects were excluded from further evaluation because they would not represent the full empiric potential of Radon emanation in the aquifer. In combination with geological maps, petrologic information and airborne radiometry, Radon-222 analyses in groundwater can provide important data for Radon potential mapping. The significance of the groundwater Radon analyses can be improved by supplementary hydrochemical and hydrological isotope investigations.

Schubert, Gerhard; Alletsgruber, Irene; Finger, Friedrich; Gasser, Veronika; Hobiger, Gerhard; Lettner, Herbert

2010-03-01

483

Mapping the geogenic radon potential in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mapping the geogenic radon potential in Germany is a research project initiated by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation and Reactor Safety. The project was aimed to develop a standard methodology for the estimation of a geogenic radon potential and to apply this method to map the region of Germany as an overview for planning purposes. The regionalisation

J Kemski; A Siehl; R Stegemann; M Valdivia-Manchego

2001-01-01

484

Characterization of radon levels in indoor air  

SciTech Connect

The purpose is to describe the different types of monitoring and sampling techniques that can determine the radiation burden of the general public from radon and its decay products. This is accomplished by measuring the range and distribution of radon and radon decay products through broad surveys using simple and convenient integrating monitoring instruments. For in-depth studies of the behavior of radon decay products and calculation of the radiation dose to the lung, fewer and more intensive and complex measurements of the particle size distribution and respiratory deposition of the radon decay products are required. For diagnostic purposes, the paper describes measurement techniques of the sources and exhalation rate of radon and the air exchange inside buildings. Measurement results form several studies conducted in ordinary buildings in different geographical areas of the United States, using the described monitoring techniques, indicate that the occupants of these buildings are exposed to radon and radon decay product concentrations, varying by as much as a factor of 20.

George, A.C.

1982-01-01

485

When tensor products of AC charges and Radon  

E-print Network

When tensor products of AC #3; charges and Radon measures are AC #3; charges Zolt#19;an Buczolich and Radon measures. We show that if F is a charge in R m which is AC#3; in a locally BV set E and #22; is an absolutely continuous Radon measure on R n with locally bounded Radon-Nikodym derivative then the charge F

Buczolich, Zoltán

486

Hidden Hazards of Radon: Scanning the Country for Problem Locations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the geology of the radon problem in the United States and suggests how homeowners can cope with the radio active gas. Vignettes illustrate how and where radon is produced beneath the earth's surface, testing sites and procedures for radon in houses, and locations for potential radon problems across the United States. (MCO)

Gundersen, Linda C. S.

1992-01-01

487

RADON TRANSFORM ON THE TORUS AHMED ABOUELAZ AND FRANOIS ROUVIRE  

E-print Network

RADON TRANSFORM ON THE TORUS AHMED ABOUELAZ AND FRANÃ?OIS ROUVIÃ?RE Abstract. We consider the Radon-Ricci spaces etc. We consider here the n-dimensional (at) torus Tn = Rn=Zn and the Radon transform de will thus enter the picture, as in the case of Radon transforms on Zn already studied by the ...rst author

Rouvière, François

488

A FAST AND ACCURATE MULTILEVEL INVERSION OF THE RADON TRANSFORM  

E-print Network

A FAST AND ACCURATE MULTILEVEL INVERSION OF THE RADON TRANSFORM ACHI BRANDT, JORDAN MANN, MATVEI its Radon pro- jection using the convolution backprojection method. The convolution is an O(N2 log N of the classical backprojection technique. Key words. Radon transform, inversion of the Radon transform, computed

489

RADON CONTAMINATION OF RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES: MITIGATION STRATEGIES AND \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This discussion details two important and largely unappreciated meteorological factors bearing upon rates of radon infiltration. Rainfall and changes in barometric pressure have a significant effect on indoor radon levels. Under certain seasonal, soil, and general weather conditions, radon levels inversely track changes in barometric pressure and directly track rainfall intervals. Conclusions are based on a yearlong database of radon

Richard L. Hoffinann

490

How serious is the indoor radon health hazard  

SciTech Connect

While cure seekers apparently skeptical of legitimate medicine pay up to $4 per hour to partake of the putative benefits of radon gas in played-out uranium mines in the west, many Americans on the eastern seaboard and elsewhere, also with good health in mind, spend thousands of dollars to rid their own homes of the very same effusion. Last month, the US Senate passed a bill that will help states set up programs to survey and monitor radon concentration in homes and schools. It calls for spending $31.5 million over three years. A similar bill is pending in the House. concern focuses on the fact that up to 20,000 cases of lung cancer annually in this country have been attributed to this inchoate enemy. The trouble is that the assertion, which sounds so reasonable, cannot - so far - be proved. Scientists in various countries at different times have attributed indoor radon to building materials, tap water, and/or soil emissions. The latter view prevails at present.

Not Available

1987-08-07

491

Reentry of radon from mitigation system outlets  

SciTech Connect

Some radon mitigation systems draw air with a high radon concentration from under the basement floors of houses and exhaust it outdoors. The objective of this project was to measure the reentry rates of radon released at roof level and at ground level near a house to determine whether exhaust above the roof is necessary. This was done by using a portable mockup of a radon mitigation system exhaust, with sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) as a tracer gas. The roof-level exhaust produced maximum indoor sulfur hexafluoride concentrations that were significantly lower than those from the ground-level exhaust. This suggests that the better radon discharge location is on the roof of a house.

Yuill, G.K.; Coughlin, R.J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Architectural Engineering

1994-12-31

492

Indoor radon risk potential of Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A comprehensive evaluation of radon risk potential in the State of Hawaii indicates that the potential for Hawaii is low. Using a combination of factors including geology, soils, source-rock type, soil-gas radon concentrations, and indoor measurements throughout the state, a general model was developed that permits prediction for various regions in Hawaii. For the nearly 3,100 counties in the coterminous U.S., National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) aerorad data was the primary input factor. However, NURE aerorad data was not collected in Hawaii, therefore, this study used geology and soil type as the primary and secondary components of potential prediction. Although the radon potential of some Hawaiian soils suggests moderate risk, most houses are built above ground level and the radon soil potential is effectively decoupled from the house. Only underground facilities or those with closed or recirculating ventilation systems might have elevated radon potential. ?? 2005 Akade??miai Kiado??.

Reimer, G.M.; Szarzi, S.L.

2005-01-01

493

High radon activity in northeast Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A seismologically active geological overthrust zone produces enhanced CO2, H2S, CH4 and Rn exhalation in a village of the Mátra mountain. This recently discovered phenomenon results in a radon activity density above 1 kBq/m3 in the air of living rooms of several houses. The rocks are not rich in uranium, the soil exhalation is still intensive, but it varies in space and time, therefore a rather detailed radon mapping of the village in different seasons is reported here, not so much to clarify the geophysical situation but to know the doses affecting the population. Radon insulation is not yet common in this region. Expensive insulation methods seem to work, but more economical ways of satisfying the needs of the population must be found. Radon awareness of the population helps in avoiding panic, and with appropriate life style it enables them to suppress radon concentration in their environment.

Tóth, Esther; Boros, Dezsö; Samuelsson, Lennart; Deák, Ferenc; Marx, George; Sükösd, Csaba

1994-12-01

494

The Montana Radon Study: Social Marketing via Digital Signage Technology for Reaching Families in the Waiting Room.  

PubMed

Objectives. I tested a social marketing intervention delivered in health department waiting rooms via digital signage technology for increasing radon program participation among priority groups. Methods. I conducted a tricounty, community-based study over a 3-year period (2010-2013) in a high-radon state by using a quasi-experimental design. We collected survey data for eligible participants at the time of radon test kit purchase. Results. Radon program participation increased at the intervention site (t38?=?3.74; P?=?.001; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?4.8, 16.0) with an increase in renters (?(2)1,228?=?4.3; P?=?.039), Special Supplementary Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children families (?(2)1,166?=?3.13; P?=?.077) and first-time testers (?(2)1,228?=?10.93; P?=?.001). Approximately one third (30.3%; n?=?30) attributed participation in the radon program to viewing the intervention message. The intervention crossover was also successful with increased monthly kit sales (t37?=?2.69; P?=?.01; 95% CI?=?1.20, 8.47) and increased households participating (t23?=?4.76; P?radon program participation. The results prompted policy changes for Montana radon programming and adoption of digital signage technology by 2 health departments. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print August 14, 2014: e1-e7. 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302060). PMID:25121816

Larsson, Laura S

2014-08-14

495

UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION RESIDUE SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION EVALUATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Vendors of solidification/stabilization (S/S) and other technologies are cooperating with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Office of Research and Development (ORD), Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate and evaluate the performance of the tec...

496

THE US EPA'S DERMAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH PROGRAM IN SUPPORT OF THE FOOD QUALITY PROTECTION ACT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA) requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessments to be conducted for all pesticides sources, not just food sources. It also requires tha...

497

JAXA has established a planetary protection safety review board for JAXA deep space program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2003, the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, ISAS, launched Hayabusa, i.e., the explorer to an asteroid. The final object of Hayabusa mission was to bring back sample materials from the asteroid surface. In the same year of 2003, ISAS grew up big organization as Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA, with ex National Aerospace Development Agency of Japan, NASDA, and with ex National Aeronautical Laboratory, NAL. The Hayabusa project team explained the scenario of sample return from the asteroid at the COSPAR science assembly in 2004, and got the PPP resolution. In 2010, after the success of Hayabusa sample return mission, JAXA pushed the Hayabusa 2 project to launch in 2014. In such atmosphere, ISAS safety and quality assurance office proposed to JAXA HQ to set up the JAXA planetary protection review board for JAXA future deep space activities. Then, JAXA set up a planetary protection safety review board after two years discussion. JAXA had the safety review panel as top-level decision maker. The safety review panel had two safety review boards. One was safety review board for rocket payload safety, and the other was safety review board for manned mission safety. Today, due to the demands of deep space exploration JAXA safety review panel is enlarged to three safety review boards, adding the planetary protection safety review board. In near future, JAXA planetary protection review board will be busy for various deep space missions, hopefully.

Shimizu, Yukio

498

Geothermal prospecting by ground radon measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon-222 was measured using Kodak LR-115 film in the soils of 2500 locations near the Ngawha hot springs region, New Zealand, which is being exploited for geothermal power; the object was to determine its usefulness for predicting good drill sites. Unlike other surveys, which have shown large areas with consistent high radon values, anomalies here were scattered, and corresponded mainly with fault lineaments. The results suggested a major previously unnoticed fault. The sampling distance was 50 m. There was a strong seasonal effect on ground radon levels, with summer levels about ten times higher than winter levels. Swamps usually had measured radon levels of near zero because of the slow diffusion of radon in stagnant water, and even thermal areas (mainly in the swamps) usually had low measured values. However, where a fault crossed swamp it was sometimes detected, and with high signal/noise ratio, so swamps should be surveyed. Arguments from the radon levels found on different geologies show that at Ngawha radon has a maximum half value diffusion thickness of 7 m for lacustrine sediment and 25 m for basalt unless a permeable area is present (e.g., a fault). There was a weak correlation of radon levels with the temperatures found on drilling deep bores. Comparisons with the ROAC system and Alphacard system for measuring radon showed no statistical inter-correlations, but some qualitative correspondence of radon contours. The main strength of the method in regions with impermeable soils (such as at Ngawha), seems to be in detecting or confirming the presence of faults, and possibly (through them) indicating geological structure as deep as 300 m.

Whitehead, N. E.

1984-04-01

499

Promoting Protective Factors for Young Adolescents: ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the efficacy of a program for parents of young adolescents combining behavioral family intervention with acceptance-based strategies. 180 parents were randomly allocated to a 6-session group ABCD Parenting Young Adolescent Program or wait-list condition. Completer analysis indicated parents in the intervention reported…

Burke, Kylie; Brennan, Leah; Cann, Warren