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1

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROGRAM TO DEMONSTRATE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR INDOOR RADON: INITIAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives initial results of an EPA program to demonstrate mitigation measures for indoor radon. EPA has installed radon mitigation techniques in 18 concrete block basement homes in the Reading Prong area of eastern Pennsylvania, all designed to demonstrate techniques which...

2

Environmental Protection Agency: Radon (Rn)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Indoor Air Quality division of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) presents this Web page dedicated to information about radon, the colorless and odorless radioactive known to cause lung cancer. In addition to general resources on radon (including a guide to reducing radon levels in the home), visitors will find information on how to obtain a free educational video (Breathing Easy: What Home Buyers and Sellers Should Know About Radon) recently released by the EPA. Geared primarily toward homebuyers and sellers (as well as real estate professionals), this video thoroughly reviews radon science, lung cancer risk, home inspection, how to build a new home radon-resistant, and more.

3

SITE-SPECIFIC MEASUREMENTS OF RESIDENTIAL RADON PROTECTION CATEGORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a series of benchmark measurements of soil radon potential at seven Florida sites and compares the measurements with regional estimates of radon potential from the Florida radon protection map. The measurements and map were developed under the Florida Radon R...

4

American Lung Association`s radon public information program  

SciTech Connect

The American Lung Association (ALA), the nation`s oldest voluntary health organization, is dedicated to the conquest of lung disease and the promotion of lung health. The objective of the ALA Radon Public Information Program is to reduce public exposure to elevated indoor radon levels through implementing grassroots-based radon public awareness campaigns by 22 local ALA groups. The program, which is funded by a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was initiated in December 1989; the first phase will continue until May, 1991. Activities of local Lung Associations include distribution of free or reduced-cost radon kits; presenting programs in elementary and secondary schools; presenting information on TV news series and talk shows, and on radio Public Service Announcements and talk shows; presenting articles and feature stories in the print media; holding conferences, workshops, and displays at fairs and other exhibitions; distributing radon fact sheets through libraries and utility company mailings; and distributing videos through video chains and libraries. The local Lung Associations also serve as promoters for the EPA/Advertising Council Radon Public Service Announcement Campaign. We will highlight the activities of the groups in communicating radon health risks to the public; we will describe the results obtained and will attempt to evaluate the merits of the various approaches on the basis of the initial results.

McCurdy, L.E. [American Lung Association, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-12-31

5

Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program  

SciTech Connect

This reporting period marks the end of Phase 1 Screening and the beginning of Phase 2 Assessment. During Phase 1, radon detectors were shipped to all Department of Navy (DON) sites with family housing areas, child-care centers, schools, hospitals, bachelor quarters, and brigs. 14,350 radon detectors have been returned and analyzed, and 3.4% of the housing and nonhousing results obtained were above the Environmental Protection Agency's action level of 4 pCi/L. Suspect screening results were confirmed. Phase 2 Assessment consists of two categories, Assessment and Phase 2 Screening. All activities with radon in excess of 4 pCi/L are included in Assessment. Phase 2 Screening consists of screening Navy-Owned Reserve Centers, Rescreening (sites with inconclusive data), and screening of Nonhousing Unit Identity Codes ((UICs) activities without Phase 1 test structures). All housing assessment was scheduled to be conducted during 1991 and 1992. Phase 2 housing and nonhousing have been established. In addition, a quality assurance program and technical guidebook have been developed to achieve accurate data during Phase 2. As of July 1, 1991, assessment of housing was 40% complete, nonhousing 4%, reserve centers 100%, and nonhousing UICs were 9% complete.

Not Available

1991-10-01

6

Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2005-2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen. Methods We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms “radon,” “radiation,” or “lung.” Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC program’s most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state. Results Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n = 21), remediation (n = 11), support radon policy activities (n = 13), and policy evaluation (n = 1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n = 21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws. Conclusion Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs. PMID:23928457

Stewart, Sherri L.; Angell, William

2013-01-01

7

STANDARD MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual, in support of the Florida Radon Research Program, contains standard protocols for key measurements where data quality is vital to the program. t contains two sections. he first section, soil measurements, contains field sampling protocols for soil gas permeability and...

8

PROCEEDINGS OF THE INDOOR RADON MODELING WORKSHOP - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents the Florida Radon Research Programs's (FRRP's) indoor radon modeling workshop, held April 16-17, 1991, in Tampa, Florida. he workshop brought together experts in various aspects of modeling the behavior and origin of indoor radon, with the objective of evalua...

9

Radon (Rn)  

MedlinePLUS

... radon office can help | Radon Hotlines Radon Leaders Saving Lives Leaders from The Conference of Radiation Control ... and EPA's Radon program launched the Radon Leaders Saving Lives Campaign in 2008, with the goal of ...

10

ICRP draft publication on 'radiological protection against radon exposure'.  

PubMed

To control the main part of radon exposure, the Main Commission of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends an integrated approach focused as far as possible on the management of the building or location in which radon exposure occurs whatever the purpose of the building and the types of its occupants. This approach is based on the optimisation principle and a graded approach according to the degree of responsibilities at stake, notably in workplace, as well as the level of ambition of the national authorities. The report which is being developed by the Committee 4 is considering the recently consolidated ICRP general recommendations, the new scientific knowledge about the radon risk and the experience gained by many organisations and countries in the control of radon exposure. PMID:24778388

Lecomte, J-F

2014-07-01

11

DEVELOPMENT OF A RADON PROTECTION MAP FOR LARGE BUILDINGS IN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the development of a radon protection map to show from soil and geological features the areas of Florida that require different levels of Radon protection for large building construction. The map was proposed as a basis for implementing radon-protective const...

12

FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM: TECHNICAL SUPPORT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RADON RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the technical direction of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP), its current objectives, and accomplishments to date. he 1988 Florida Legislature mandated the development of standards for the construction of radon resistant buildings. In support of this d...

13

SUPPLEMENT TO: STANDARD MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report supplements earlier published standard protocols for key measurements where data quality is vital to the Florida Radon Research Program. The report adds measurements of small canister radon flux and soil water potential to the section on soil measurements. It adds indo...

14

Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program  

SciTech Connect

During the reporting period, June, 1 1989, through May 30, 1990, radon detectors were sent to all Department of the Navy installations that contained housing areas, childcare centers, schools, hospitals, bachelor quarters, and brigs. This action was part of the screening phase of the Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. Because of detector losses, a few facilities will require rescreening. The length of time the detectors are exposed in the buildings is dependent on the time or year they were placed and the time when the doors and windows are normally closed. A 3-month exposure time is sufficient for facilities that placed detectors in building when they would be closed. Otherwise detectors will be exposed for about 1 year. To date, about 9,000 detectors (out of a total of 27,100 detectors sent to the field) have been returned for a determination of exposure levels. About 2,000 detectors have been analyzed and the information sent to the Navel Facilities Engineering Command Headquarters for forwarding to the installations. Except for the additional installations requiring rescreening, the screening effort results should be available this calendar year. The rescreening results should be available by mid-1991. Assessment will start this calendar year based on the results from screening. Initial emphasis will be on housing, child-care centers, schools, and hospitals. 6 refs., 17 figs., 16 tabs.

Bertini, H.W.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; Wright, T.

1990-12-01

15

[Information and involvement in health risks exemplified by a radon survey program].  

PubMed

As part of a large-scale radon testing program in homes for the region of the Southern Districts of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) planned by the then West German Federal Ministry of the Environment, Natural Conservation and Reactor Safety and carried out by the Institute of Water, Soil and Air Hygiene (WaBoLu) of the West German Federal Health Office (BGA) in cooperation with the West German Federal Office for Environmental Protection (BfS) and the East German State Office for Atomic Safety (SAAS), the author (then employed at WaBoLu) was responsible for conducting the radon testing in the town of Schlema near the Czechoslovakian border in Southern Saxony. During preparatory work in this town in the fall of 1990, the author noted that the local population was very concerned about their potential radon problem. In the months previously, reports in newspapers and television had frequently pointed out the dangers to health of living in this region, often citing examples of particularly high radon levels from the area. Before the "opening" of the GDR to a free press in the fall of 1989, the local population had heard virtually nothing from the authorities about radon--neither of the possible health risk in general, nor of their own personal radon levels at home. This, together with the lack of experience of East Germans generally to evaluate critically and objectively information from the free press, had led to particularly high levels of anxiety and worry among the local population, even before radon concentrations in homes were known. In the light of these circumstances, the author decided to carry out the radon program with the help of the local school children. These children, aged 13 to 17, were entrusted with the task of carrying out the radon testing using a simple method developed by WaBoLu in all homes of the town. In class, they were informed not only about this testing method, but also about radon generally. It was hoped that, while testing in homes, the school children would pass on this knowledge to the homeowners and thus act as informal "multipliers" of correct information about radon. The approach taken is an example of how environmental hygiene and prevention-oriented environmental medicine could better handle environmental health risks that can be influenced by the individual. It is necessary to become more aware of the fact that all information intended to motivate individuals to protect themselves against environmental health risks may cause at the same time high levels of anxiety.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8456258

Hazard, B P

1993-01-01

16

Radon  

MedlinePLUS

... foundations and other openings. Because radon comes from rock and soil, it can be found anywhere. Exposure ... of radon gas indoors is the soil and rock surrounding the building. By sealing your home to ...

17

International intercalibration and intercomparison program radon daughter measurements  

SciTech Connect

The International Intercalibration and Intercomparison Program (IIIP), consisting of several laboratories from four countries, held a radon progeny intercomparison measurement at the U.S. Bureau of Mines experimental Twilight Mine on September 12-14, 1988. Grab samples were taken at four different conditions of low and high radon progeny and condensation nuclei concentrations, respectively. The results show good agreement among all seven participants. The coefficient of variation of all measurements was 4.7 pct: after minor corrections for flows and some systematic biases, it was reduced to 3.2 pct.

Cooper, W.E.; Holub, R.F.

1990-07-01

18

Fire Protection Program Manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

Sharry, J A

2012-05-18

19

U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

1994-12-31

20

AN OVERVIEW OF INDOOR RADON RISK REDUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Radon in the indoor environment is a recognized environmental hazard. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established several programs to develop, demonstrate, and transfer radon mitigation technology. Administration and management of these programs are shared by EPA's ...

21

Human Research Protection Program Plan  

E-print Network

Human Research Protection Program Plan Revised February 27, 2014 #12;Human Research Protection............................................................................................................... 4 Engaged in Human Research...................................................................................... 4 Human Research

Weber, David J.

22

Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. Progress report, June 1990--July 1991  

SciTech Connect

This reporting period marks the end of Phase 1 Screening and the beginning of Phase 2 Assessment. During Phase 1, radon detectors were shipped to all Department of Navy (DON) sites with family housing areas, child-care centers, schools, hospitals, bachelor quarters, and brigs. 14,350 radon detectors have been returned and analyzed, and 3.4% of the housing and nonhousing results obtained were above the Environmental Protection Agency`s action level of 4 pCi/L. Suspect screening results were confirmed. Phase 2 Assessment consists of two categories, Assessment and Phase 2 Screening. All activities with radon in excess of 4 pCi/L are included in Assessment. Phase 2 Screening consists of screening Navy-Owned Reserve Centers, Rescreening (sites with inconclusive data), and screening of Nonhousing Unit Identity Codes [(UICs) activities without Phase 1 test structures]. All housing assessment was scheduled to be conducted during 1991 and 1992. Phase 2 housing and nonhousing have been established. In addition, a quality assurance program and technical guidebook have been developed to achieve accurate data during Phase 2. As of July 1, 1991, assessment of housing was 40% complete, nonhousing 4%, reserve centers 100%, and nonhousing UICs were 9% complete.

Not Available

1991-10-01

23

Home Safety: Radon Gas  

E-print Network

Every home should be tested for radon, an invisible, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally. Radon is estimated to be the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States. However, with proper equipment, radon is easy to detect... poten- tial for radon (Fig. 1), homes in Texas have been found to have radon levels that exceed U.S. Environ- mental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations. Every home is susceptible to a radon gas problem. Health/cancer risks Radon produces...

Shaw, Bryan W.; Denny, Monica L.

1999-11-12

24

Fire Protection Systems Program Program Manual  

E-print Network

Fire Protection Systems Program Program Manual Approved by: (name) Last revised by: (name) Revision ................................................................................................................. 3 7.1.1 Job Plan: Fire Pump Testing/Impairment................................................................................ 3 7.1.4 Job Plan: Weekly/Monthly Fire Pump Runs

Pawlowski, Wojtek

25

Protection in programming languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linguistic mechanisms which can be used to protect one subprogram from another's malfunctioning are described. Function-producing functions and various type-tagging schemes are considered. An attempt is made to distinguish between access limitation and authentication.

James H. Morris Jr.

1973-01-01

26

SOIL RADON POTENTIAL MAPPING OF TWELVE COUNTIES IN NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the approach, methods, and detailed data used to prepare soil radon potential maps of 12 counties in North-Central Florida. he maps were developed under the Florida Radon Research Program to provide a scientific basis for implementing radon-protective buildin...

27

SOIL RADON POTENTIAL MAPPLING OF TWELVE COUNTIES IN NORTH-CENTRAL FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the approach, methods, and detailed data used to prepare soil radon potential maps of 12 counties in North-Central Florida. he maps were developed under the Florida Radon Research Program to provide a scientific basis for implementing radon-protective buildin...

28

First-phase study design for the US Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program (NAVRAMP)  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, the US Navy initiated a worldwide multi-year program for the assessment and mitigation of radon inside buildings under its control. During the first two years of the program, radon levels in residences occupied by Navy personnel and their dependents are being surveyed. Also being surveyed are all schools, child care centers, hospitals, and brigs in addition to a small random sample of bachelor quarters. Passive alpha-track detectors, numbering about 25,000, are being used as monitoring devices. A substantial fraction of the monitors (20%) are being used for quality assurance. Data management programs have been developed to record the chain of custody of the monitors and handle the associated questionnaire data. Program objectives and implementation emphasize quality assurance, records maintenance, and monitor placement and retrieval. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

Wilson, D.L.; Gammage, R.B.; Matthews, T.G.

1990-01-01

29

Protecting Rural Amenities Through Farmland Preservation Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate what farmland preservation programs reveal about the importance of protecting different rural amenities. An extensive content analysis of the enabling legislation of various farmland protection programs suggests wide variation exists in the protection of amenities. An analysis of 27 individual Purchase of Development Rights (PDR) programs' selection criteria suggests these programs favor preserving amenities that are jointly provided

Cynthia J. Nickerson; Daniel Hellerstein

2003-01-01

30

UNIFIED RADON RELATIVE RISK MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Unified Radon Relative Risk Model (UR3M) is a Windows program for PCs. It was developed to fill the need for a comprehensive approach to radon health risks and to allow users or their clients to make informed decisions with respect to radon. The model combines three radon sou...

31

Radiation Protection. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air- radon 222. A proposed ISO standard.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon isotopes (222, 220, 219) are radioactive gases produced by the disintegration of radium isotopes 226, 224 and 223, which are decay products of uranium238, thorium232 and uranium235 respectively. All are found in the earth's crust. Solid elements, also radioactive, are produced by radon disintegration. Radon is classed as a rare gas in the periodic table of elements, along with helium, argon, neon, krypton and xenon. When disintegrating, radon emits alpha particles and generates solid decay products, which are also radioactive (polonium, bismuth, lead etc.). The potential danger of radon lies in its solid decay products rather than the gas itself. Whether or not they are attached aerosols, radon decay products can be inhaled and deposited in the bronchopulmonary tree to varying depths according to their size. Radon today is considered to be the main source of human exposure to natural radiation. At the international level, radon accounts for 52% of global average exposure to natural radiation. Isotope 222 (48%) is far more significant than isotope 220 (4%), whilst isotope 219 is considered as negligible. Exposure to radon varies considerably from one region to another, depending on factors such as weather conditions, and underlying geology. Activity concentration can therefore vary by a factor of 10 or even a 100 from one period of time to the next and from one area to another. There are many ways of measuring the radon 222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products. Measuring techniques fall into three categories: - spot measurement methods; continuous measurement; integrated measurement. The proposed ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) document suggests guidelines for measuring radon222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in a free (environment) and confined (buildings) atmosphere. The target date for availability of this work item is 2011. The ISO document here highlighted is a working draft. ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies. Keywords: radon; international standards; measurement techniques.

Gillmore, G.; Woods, M.

2009-04-01

32

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Strategy for Radon Remediation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper provides an historical summary of the evolution of the U.S. EPA's national strategy for indoor radon remediation, recent developments, and anticipated future directions. A number of studies and demonstrations were undertaken to accurately charac...

T. M. Dyess, S. DeScisciolo

1994-01-01

33

Planetary Protection Bioburden Analysis Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program is a Microsoft Access program that performed statistical analysis of the colony counts from assays performed on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft to determine the bioburden density, 3-sigma biodensity, and the total bioburdens required for the MSL prelaunch reports. It also contains numerous tools that report the data in various ways to simplify the reports required. The program performs all the calculations directly in the MS Access program. Prior to this development, the data was exported to large Excel files that had to be cut and pasted to provide the desired results. The program contains a main menu and a number of submenus. Analyses can be performed by using either all the assays, or only the accountable assays that will be used in the final analysis. There are three options on the first menu: either calculate using (1) the old MER (Mars Exploration Rover) statistics, (2) the MSL statistics for all the assays, or This software implements penetration limit equations for common micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shield configurations, windows, and thermal protection systems. Allowable MMOD risk is formulated in terms of the probability of penetration (PNP) of the spacecraft pressure hull. For calculating the risk, spacecraft geometry models, mission profiles, debris environment models, and penetration limit equations for installed shielding configurations are required. Risk assessment software such as NASA's BUMPERII is used to calculate mission PNP; however, they are unsuitable for use in shield design and preliminary analysis studies. The software defines a single equation for the design and performance evaluation of common MMOD shielding configurations, windows, and thermal protection systems, along with a description of their validity range and guidelines for their application. Recommendations are based on preliminary reviews of fundamental assumptions, and accuracy in predicting experimental impact test results. The software is programmed in Visual Basic for Applications for installation as a simple add-in for Microsoft Excel. The user is directed to a graphical user interface (GUI) that requires user inputs and provides solutions directly in Microsoft Excel workbooks. This work was done by Shannon Ryan of the USRA Lunar and Planetary Institute for Johnson Space Center. Further information is contained in a TSP (see page 1). MSC- 24582-1 Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) Shield Ballistic Limit Analysis Program Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Commercially, because it is so generic, Enigma can be used for almost any project that requires engineering visualization, model building, or animation. Models in Enigma can be exported to many other formats for use in other applications as well. Educationally, Enigma is being used to allow university students to visualize robotic algorithms in a simulation mode before using them with actual hardware. This work was done by David Shores and Sharon P. Goza of Johnson Space Center; Cheyenne McKeegan, Rick Easley, Janet Way, and Shonn Everett of MEI Technologies; Mark Manning of PTI; and Mark Guerra, Ray Kraesig, and William Leu of Tietronix Software, Inc. For further information, contact the JSC Innovation Partnerships Office at (281) 483-3809. MSC-24211-1 Spitzer Telemetry Processing System NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2

Beaudet, Robert A.

2013-01-01

34

Intercomparison of radon and decay product measurements in an underground mine and EPA radon laboratory: A study organized by the IAEA International Radon Metrology Programme  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna and the European Union (EU) in Bruxelles formed the International Radon Metrology Programme. The IRMP is designed to assess and foster the improvement of radon and decay product measurements that are made around the world. Within the framework of the IRMP, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory (EPA) in Las Vegas, Nevada, organized jointly with the U.S. Bureau of Mines an international intercomparison exercise at a former uranium mine (Twilight Mine, Colorado) and the EPA Radon Laboratory. The main objective of this exercise was to compare radon and radon decay product instruments under both well-controlled as well as widely fluctuating exposure conditions. The laboratory exposures occurred under relatively steady radon and decay product conditions, with a moderate equilibrium ratio, while the conditions in the mine fluctuated greatly and the equilibrium ratio was low. An additional purpose of the exercise was to provide a forum for manufacturers and measurement organizations worldwise to exchange information and plan improvements in their operations and calibration programs. Altogether 19 organizations from seven countries intercomparing 32 different radon and radon decay product instruments participated in this exercise. This paper summarizes the results from the analysis of the experimental data obtained in the Bureau of Mines Twilight Mine in July of 1994, as well as the results from the EPA Radon laboratory in August of 1994.

Budd, G.; Hopper, R.; Braganza, E.; Ronca-Battista, M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Radiation and Indoor Environments National Lab.; Steinhaeusler, F. [Univ. of Salzburg (Austria); Stegner, P. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

1998-11-01

35

77 FR 35700 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DHS-2012-0003] Protected Critical Infrastructure Information...AGENCY: National Protection and Programs...Directorate, Office of Infrastructure Protection, Infrastructure Information Collection...Division, Protected Critical...

2012-06-14

36

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

2007-08-09

37

Annual report for Insider Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Insider Protection Program is to study and identify protection strategies and mechanisms to defend the Hanford Site against insider adversaries. Levels of protection required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders are to be met in a cost effective manner. The Insider Protection works in coordination with the Vulnerability Assessment (VA)/Master Safeguards and Security Agreement (MSSA) process to provide this protection. The VA studies are carried out in detail and provide useful information on the vulnerabilities and defense mechanisms identified at the time the study was made. The VA/MSSA results are an essential component of a general approach to defending against the insider.

Eggers, R.F.

1988-09-01

38

LUMPED-PARAMETER MODEL ANALYSES OF DATA FROM THE 1992 NEW HOUSE EVALUATION PROJECT - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents analyses of Phase 2 data from the Florida Radon Research Program's New House Evaluation Project (NHEP) that were performed using a lumped-parameter model. The houses evaluated in Phase 2 were monitored by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) and the Univers...

39

Wildland Fire Protection Program NEBRASKA FOREST SERVICE  

E-print Network

Wildland Fire Protection Program NEBRASKA FOREST SERVICE HOW NEBRASKANS BENEFIT: · improved protection of life and property from wildland fires · improved firefighting capability in rural fire districts · increased firefighter knowledge of wildland fire suppression and prevention · reduced forest

Farritor, Shane

40

Cooperate with Other Land Protection Programs  

E-print Network

to the Internet, contact the Purdue University Cooperative Extension Office, or the Soil and Water Conservation forest land. Permanent Protection with Conservation Easements There may be a need for conservationCooperate with Other Land Protection Programs Forest land is mixed with agricultural land in most

41

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2011-01-01

42

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2010-01-01

43

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2013-01-01

44

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2012-01-01

45

10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

2014-01-01

46

Mars Technology Program: Planetary Protection Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the development of Planetary Protection Technology in the Mars Technology Program. The goal of the program is to develop technologies that will enable NASA to build, launch, and operate a mission that has subsystems with different Planetary Protection (PP) classifications, specifically for operating a Category IVb-equivalent subsystem from a Category IVa platform. The IVa category of planetary protection requires bioburden reduction (i.e., no sterilization is required) The IVb category in addition to IVa requirements: (i.e., terminal sterilization of spacecraft is required). The differences between the categories are further reviewed.

Lin, Ying

2006-01-01

47

OVERVIEW OF INDOOR RADON MITIGATION ALTERNATIVES AND A SUMMARY OF RECENT EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) MITIGATION TEST RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The discussion is specific to single-family homes (detached houses), as opposed to apartment buildings, other multiple family dwellings, or office and other public use buildings. Introductory information covers indoor radon sources, health effects of radon exposure, radon level m...

48

Semiannual report for Insider Protection program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Insider Protection program is to study and identify protection strategies and mechanisms to defend the Hanford Site against cleared persons (authorized insiders), who either were adversaries at the time of joining Westinghouse Hanford or who became adversaries after joining the company. The range of unauthorized, damaging actions that these adversaries could attempt include (1) theft of special nuclear material (SNM), (2) theft of classified materials, (3) theft of government property, (4) sabotage of equipment and facilities, and (5) radiological sabotage. This is the first semiannual report for this program. It covers work accomplished during the first of Fiscal Year 1988. Two insider protection program developments are described. They are the Insider Threat Assessment Computer Program (ITAC), which is now being used at Hanford, and the Nuclear Material Tracking System (NTRAK), a nondestructive assay (NDA) instrument concept for tracking the movement of SNM and determining when its movement becomes unauthorized. 2 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Eggers, R.F.

1988-03-01

49

Real time radon variation indoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time indoor radon measurements have been performed in a controlled laboratory located 36 km from Mexico City at 3000 m altitude where experimental radon chambers exist. Radon was evaluated with an ALPHAGUARD equipment above installed at 2 m height from the floor, during a period of two years. Temperature and relative humidity were also recorded. The measuring time was programmed

A. Chávez; N. Segovia

2002-01-01

50

Policy #3011 Identity Theft Protection Program 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

Policy #3011 ­ Identity Theft Protection Program 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY University Policy Policy #3011 IDENTITY THEFT PROTECTION PROGRAM Responsible Oversight Executive: Vice President of this policy is to develop an Identity Theft Prevention Program (hereinafter referred to as "Program

51

Radon: Counseling patients about risk  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to radon and its decay products has increased as the United States has changed from an outdoor society to a largely indoor society. Radon, which is found primarily in the soil, enters houses and buildings through cracks, holes and pipes in foundation walls and floors. Although radon is suspected of being a significant cause of lung cancer, comparisons with other risk factors cannot yet be made. Radon levels in the home can be measured with commercially available kits. Guidelines for reducing the amount of radon in a home are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.18 references.

Birrer, R.B. (Catholic Medical Center of Brooklyn and Queens, Jamaica, NY (USA))

1990-09-01

52

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2012-01-01

53

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2013-01-01

54

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2014-01-01

55

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2010-01-01

56

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2013-01-01

57

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2012-01-01

58

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2014-01-01

59

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

...Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2014-01-01

60

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2011-01-01

61

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2012-01-01

62

10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20...REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation...

2011-01-01

63

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2011-01-01

64

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2010-01-01

65

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

2010-01-01

66

10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

2013-01-01

67

Chemical properties of radon  

SciTech Connect

Radon is frequently regarded as a totally inert element. It is, however, a ''metalloid'' - an element which lies on the diagonal of the Periodic Table between the true metals and nonmetals and which exhibits some of the characteristics of both. It reacts with fluorine, halogen fluorides, dioxygenyl salts, fluoro-nitrogen salts, and halogen fluoride-metal fluoride complexes to form ionic compounds. Several of the solid reagents can be used to collect radon from air but must be protected from moisture, since they hydrolyze readily. Recently, solutions of nonvolatile, cationic radon have been produced in nonaqueous solvents. Ion-exchange studies have shown that the radon can be quantitatively collected on columns packed with either Nafion resins or complex salts. In its ionic state, radon is able to displace H/sup +/, Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Cs/sup +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Ba/sup 2 +/ ions from a number of solid materials. 27 refs., 6 figs.

Stein, L.

1986-01-01

68

Protection of Computer Programs--A Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer programs, as legitimate original inventions or creative written expressions, are entitled to patent or copyright protection. Understanding the legal implications of this concept is crucial to both computer programmers and their employers in our increasingly computer-oriented way of life. Basically the copyright or patent procedure…

Carnahan, William H.

69

Radon Risks in the Tahoe Region Happy Hour with Jeff Miner (Radon at Tahoe) and  

E-print Network

(California DHS Radon Program) Date: Thursday, January 18, 2007 Time: 5:30 ďż˝ 7:00 p.m. Cost: $5 donation) breakdown of uranium in soil, rock and water and gets into the air you breathe. Radon can be found all over Yourself and Your Family From Radon") Radon is produced by the normal decay of uranium, an element

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

70

Radon evasion rates in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans as determined during the Geosecs program  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Geosecs expedition in the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans, more than 100 stations were occupied for the measurement of surface radon profiles. The radon deficiency in these profiles gives estimates of the gas transfer rate across the sea-air interface. The global mean transfer rate is estimated to be 2.9 m\\/d (at 20° C) which is corresponding to a

T.-H. Peng; W. S. Broecker; G. G. Mathieu; Y.-H. Li; A. E. Bainbridge

1979-01-01

71

Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs  

SciTech Connect

There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.

McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.; Selby, J.M.

1991-10-01

72

Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

none,

2013-04-30

73

The Program of ``EXOMARS'' Mission Planetary Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of “Exomars” interplanetary mission is landing of Descent Module onto the Mars surface and investigation of Martian environment, including implementation of biological experiments on the search for possible life forms by Rover. According to COSP?R classification the Descent Module is related to category IVa and the Rover is related to category IVb. The report contains main provisions of the program on planetary protection of Mars which will be implemented in the process of the mission preparation.

Khamidullina, N.; Novikova, Nataliya; Deshevaya, Elena; Orlov, Oleg; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Kalashnikov, Viktor; Trofimov, Vladislav

74

Mineral dusts and radon in uranium mines  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to assert that radon is a major cause of lung cancer in this country. EPA is fostering a radon program that could entail huge financial and emotional costs while yielding negligible benefits to public health. Justification for the program was the occurrence of lung cancer in men exposed to huge amounts of radon, mineral dusts, and other lung irritants in uranium mines on the Colorado Plateau. Lung cancer has been reported in about 356 cigarette smokers and in about 25 nonsmokers. During the era of high radon levels, monitoring was sporadic. Conditions in only a small fraction of the mines were measured, and that on a few separate occasions. Later, cumulative exposure to radon was calculated on the basis of measurements involving only a tiny fraction of the miners. Some were exposed to more than 15,000 pCi/liter of radon and its products. The level in the average home is about 1.5 pCi/liter. In making extrapolations from mine to home, the assumption is made that residents are in their dwellings most of the time and that miners spend only 170 hours a month in the mine. Two major questionable assumptions are involved in extrapolations from high doses of radon in the mines to low doses in homes. One is that no threshold is involved; that is, that humans have no remediation mechanism for {alpha} particle damages. There is evidence to the contrary. The most unrealistic assumption is that heavy exposure to silica has no effect on inducing lung cancer. Many studies have shown that silica dust causes lung cancer in animals. Exposure of human culture cells to silica has resulted in formation of neoplastic tissue. EPA has no solid evidence that exposures to 4 pCi/liter of radon causes lung cancer in either smokers or nonsmokers. Indeed, there is abundant evidence to the contrary in the fact that in states with high levels of radon, inhabitants have less lung cancer than those in states with low levels.

Abelson, P.H.

1991-11-08

75

Computer program for the sensitivity calculation of a CR-39 detector in a diffusion chamber for radon measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer software for calculation of the sensitivity of a CR-39 detector closed in a diffusion chamber to radon is described in this work. The software consists of two programs, both written in the standard Fortran 90 programming language. The physical background and a numerical example are given. Presented software is intended for numerous researches in radon measurement community. Previously published computer programs TRACK_TEST.F90 and TRACK_VISION.F90 [D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 160 (2006); D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 178, 591 (2008)] are used here as subroutines to calculate the track parameters and to determine whether the track is visible or not, based on the incident angle, impact energy, etching conditions, gray level, and visibility criterion. The results obtained by the software, using five different V functions, were compared with the experimental data found in the literature. Application of two functions in this software reproduced experimental data very well, while other three gave lower sensitivity than experiment.

Nikezic, D.; Yu, K. N.; Stajic, J. M.

2014-02-01

76

Computer program for the sensitivity calculation of a CR-39 detector in a diffusion chamber for radon measurements.  

PubMed

Computer software for calculation of the sensitivity of a CR-39 detector closed in a diffusion chamber to radon is described in this work. The software consists of two programs, both written in the standard Fortran 90 programming language. The physical background and a numerical example are given. Presented software is intended for numerous researches in radon measurement community. Previously published computer programs TRACK_TEST.F90 and TRACK_VISION.F90 [D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 160 (2006); D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 178, 591 (2008)] are used here as subroutines to calculate the track parameters and to determine whether the track is visible or not, based on the incident angle, impact energy, etching conditions, gray level, and visibility criterion. The results obtained by the software, using five different V functions, were compared with the experimental data found in the literature. Application of two functions in this software reproduced experimental data very well, while other three gave lower sensitivity than experiment. PMID:24593338

Nikezic, D; Yu, K N; Stajic, J M

2014-02-01

77

The health risk of radon  

SciTech Connect

Although radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States, second only to cigarette smoking, many members of the public are not aware that radon is one of the most serious environmental cancer risks in the US. Based on extensive data from epidemiological studies of underground miners, radon has been classified as a known human carcinogen. In contrast to most pollutants, the assessment of human risk from radon is based on human occupational exposure data rather than animal data. That radon causes lung cancer has been well established by the scientific community. More is known about radon than most other cancer causing environmental carcinogens. While there are some uncertainties involved when estimating radon risk to the public, it is important to recognize that the risk information is based on human data and that the uncertainties have been addressed in the risk assessment. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that the number of annual US lung cancer deaths due to residential radon exposures is approximately 14,000 with an uncertainty range of 7,000 to 30,000. The abundant information on radon health risks that supports EPA`s risk assessment indicates that recommendations for public action by the federal government and other public health organizations constitute prudent public policy.

Conrath, S.M.; Kolb, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Radiation and Indoor Air

1995-10-01

78

Radiation Protection Program Environmental Health and Safety Department  

E-print Network

Radiation Protection Program 2012 Environmental Health and Safety Department #12;Radiation ................................................................................. 7 2.2. Radiation Emergency Procedures .................................................................................................. 11 3.2. Radiation Safety Officer

79

An application of the NCRP screening techniques to atmospheric radon releases from the former feed materials production center near Fernald, Ohio. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.  

PubMed

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has published a series of screening models for releases of radionuclides to the environment. These models have been used to prioritize radionuclides being considered in environmental dose reconstructions. The NCRP atmospheric models are also accepted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for demonstrating compliance with the constraint on releases of airborne radioactive materials to the environment from licensees other than power reactors. This study tested the NCRP atmospheric techniques by comparing annual average predicted air concentrations of radon with measured radon concentrations at 14 locations 43 m to 598 m downwind of the former U.S. Department of Energy Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) near Fernald, Ohio, for the period 2 July 1985 to 2 July 1986. Predictions were made using five different sets of meteorological data as input: (1) NCRP default values; (2) composite FMPC site data; (3) data from the Greater Cincinnati Airport; (4) data from the Dayton, Ohio, airport; and (5) data collected at Miami University, located near Oxford, Ohio. Following are the respective medians and ranges of the ratio of the predicted to observed annual radon air concentrations for each of these sources of meteorological data: (1) 5.2, 0.9-54; (2) 1.4, 0.1-8.2; (3) 0.7, 0.1-7.2; (4) 0.7, 0.1-8.4; and (5) 0.6, 0.1-10. The stated goal of the NCRP models is to predict doses that do not underpredict actual doses by greater than a factor of 10. In this comparison, all of the meteorological data produced air concentration predictions that meet this criteria. However, to ensure that final doses meet this criterion, one would need to carefully evaluate all assumptions used to calculate dose from each of these air concentrations. PMID:10524509

Miller, C W

1999-11-01

80

Researching Radon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a project in which students examined the physics, chemistry, and geology of radon and used available technology to measure radon concentrations in their homes. Uses the inquiry process, analytical skills, communication skills, content knowledge, and production of authentic products for student assessment. (YDS)

Lucidi, Louis; Mecca, Peter M.

2001-01-01

81

EPRI guide to managing nuclear utility protective clothing programs  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) commissioned a radioactive waste related project (RP2414-34) during the last quarter of 1989 to produce a guide for developing and managing nuclear protective clothing programs. Every nuclear facility must coordinate some type of protective clothing program for its radiation workers to insure proper and safe protection for the wearer and to maintain control over the spread of contamination. Yet, every nuclear facility has developed its own unique program for managing such clothing. Accordingly, a need existed for a reference guide to assist with the standardization of protective clothing programs and to assist in controlling the potentially runaway economics of such programs. This document is the first known effort to formalize the planning and economic factors surrounding a nuclear utility protective clothing program. It is intended to be informative by addressing the various pieces of information necessary to establish and maintain an effective, professionally managed protective clothing program. It also attempts to provide guidance toward tailoring the information and providing examples within the report to fit each utility's specific needs. This report is further intended to address new issues and trends occurring throughout the nuclear industry in late 1989 which can have either a significant positive or negative impact on the operations or economics of nuclear protective clothing programs. 1 ref., 11 tabs.

Kelly, J.J. (Right Angle Industries, Melbourne, FL (USA))

1991-05-01

82

Space shuttle program: Lightning protection criteria document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lightning environment for space shuttle design is defined and requirements that the design must satisfy to insure protection of the vehicle system from direct and indirect effects of lightning are imposed. Specifications, criteria, and guidelines included provide a practical and logical approach to protection problems.

1975-01-01

83

Radon: a bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given.

Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

1981-01-01

84

Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater protection is a national priority that is promulgated in a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the US Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (now under revision) that requires all US Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate groundwater protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Groundwater Protection Management Program for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the Groundwater Protection Management Program cover the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the groundwater regime, (2) design and implementation of a groundwater monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations, (3) a management program for groundwater protection and remediation, (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste, (5) strategies for controlling these sources, (6) a remedial action program, and (7) decontamination and decommissioning and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing groundwater protection activities. Additionally, it describes how information needs are identified and can be incorporated into existing or proposed new programs. The Groundwater Protection Management Program provides the general scope, philosophy, and strategies for groundwater protection/management at the Hanford Site. Subtier documents provide the detailed plans for implementing groundwater-related activities and programs. Related schedule and budget information are provided in the 5-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management at the Hanford Site.

NONE

1993-11-01

85

Penn State Respiratory Protection Program Requirements Summary Scope and Application  

E-print Network

protection equipment. · Coordinate the medical surveillance program. · Maintain records required of any respiratory hazards that they believe are not adequately addressed in the workplace and any other

Maroncelli, Mark

86

Meeting the requirements of the wellhead protection program. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this technical guide (TG) is to provide U.S. Army installations with basic guidance on the steps required to address the Wellhead Protection (WHP) Program established in the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1986.

Spellman, S.

1996-02-14

87

Removal of Radon from Household Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By far, the greatest risk to health from radon occurs when the gas enters the house from underlying soil and is inhaled. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying ways to reduce radon in houses, including methods to remove the gas from water to prevent its release in houses when the water is used. While this research has not…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

88

Radon Measurement in Schools. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other major national and international scientific organizations have concluded that radon is a human carcinogen and a serious environmental health problem. The EPA has conducted extensive research on the presence and measurement of radon in schools. This report provides school administrators and…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

89

Radon Measurements in Schools: An Interim Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radon-222 is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally in soil, rocks, underground water, and air. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other scientific organizations have identified an increased risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes. Schools in many…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation Programs.

90

Human Research Protection Program Plan HRP-101; version dated: June 14, 2013  

E-print Network

Human Research Protection Program Plan HRP-101; version dated: June 14, 2013 1 HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION PROGRAM PLAN Table of Contents HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION PROGRAM PLAN........................................................................................................................................2 Engaged in Human Research

Paulsson, Johan

91

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2010-01-01

92

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2012-01-01

93

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2011-01-01

94

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2014-01-01

95

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

...2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2014-01-01

96

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2011-01-01

97

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

2013-01-01

98

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2013-01-01

99

10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

2012-01-01

100

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RESEARCH PROGRAM GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Annual extramural research program guide for the Office of Research and Development. This report provides information on work being done in each part of ORD, research which EPA is planning for FY 1984, and how much the authors intend to spend on each program area. Some of the are...

101

Yucca Mountain Standards: EPA's Radiation Protection Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Yucca Mountain Home Page furnishes information about the EPA's role in this Nevada-based "underground geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste." The site answers frequently asked questions about the repository and supplies an overview of the various roles of federal agencies. The publications section includes detailed articles (in html or .pdf format) on radioactive waste disposal and the standards and regulations surrounding radioactive waste management. For another Yucca Mountain site, see the October 1, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering.

102

Radon detection  

DOEpatents

A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01

103

Radon detection  

DOEpatents

A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element is described. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding. 3 figures.

MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

1994-01-25

104

Evaluation of the Protection Efficacy of Newcastle Disease Vaccination Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination programs were tested for their protection efficacy. In trial 1, SPF chicks were vaccinated with an attenuated or inactivated ND vaccine at 4-day-old, then boosted again with an attenuated or inactivated ND vaccine at 7 days of age or 14 days of age. All vaccinated groups showed a good protection rate (80-100%) when they were

Hsiang-jung TSA; Dih-Fa LIN

105

Assessment and management of residential radon health risks: a report from the health Canada radon workshop.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies of uranium miners and other underground miners have consistently shown miners exposed to high levels of radon to be at increased risk of lung cancer. More recently, concern has arisen about lung cancer risks among people exposed to lower levels of radon in homes. The current Canadian guideline for residential radon exposure was set in 1988 at 800 Bq/m(3). Because of the accumulation of a considerable body of new scientific evidence on radon lung cancer risks since that time, Health Canada sponsored a workshop to review the current state-of-the-science on radon health risks. The specific objectives of the workshop were (1) to collect and assess scientific information relevant to setting national radon policy in Canada, and (2) to gather information on social, political, and operational considerations in setting national policy. The workshop, held on 3-4 March 2004, was attended by 38 invited scientists, regulators, and other stakeholders from Canada and the United States. The presentations on the first day dealt primarily with scientific issues. The combined analysis of North American residential radon and lung cancer studies was reviewed. The analysis confirmed a small but detectable increase in lung cancer risk at residential exposure levels. Current estimates suggest that radon in homes is responsible for approximately 10% of all lung cancer deaths in Canada, making radon the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. This was followed by a perspective from an UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) working group on radon. There were two presentations on occupational exposures to radon and two presentations considered the possibility of radon as a causative factor for cardiovascular disease and for cancer in other organs besides the lung. The possible contribution of environmental tobacco smoke to lung cancers in nonsmokers was also considered. Areas for future research were identified. The second day was devoted to policy and operational issues. The presentations began with a perspective from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, followed by a history of radon policy development in Canada. Subsequent presentations dealt with the cost-effectiveness of radon mitigation, Canadian building codes and radon, and a summary of radon standards from around the world. Provincial representatives and a private consultant were given opportunities to present their viewpoints. A number of strategies for reducing residential radon exposure in Canada were recognized, including testing and mitigation of existing homes (on either a widespread or targeted basis) and changing the building code to require that radon mitigation devices be installed at the time a new home is constructed. The various elements of a comprehensive national radon policy were set forth. PMID:16608836

Tracy, Bliss L; Krewski, Daniel; Chen, Jing; Zielinski, Jan M; Brand, Kevin P; Meyerhof, Dorothy

2006-04-01

106

Radon Testing in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools may be a significant source of radon exposure for children and staff. Describes radon detection kits and technologies, when to use them, and what action to take given the results of a radon test. (MLF)

Wheeler, Robert

1989-01-01

107

PNNL FY2005 DOE Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Program Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of the FY 2005 PNNL VPP Program Evaluation, which is a self-assessment of the operational and programmatic performance of the Laboratory related to worker safety and health. The report was compiled by a team of worker representatives and safety professionals who evaluated the Laboratory's worker safety and health programs on the basis of DOE-VPP criteria. The principle elements of DOE's VPP program are: Management Leadership, Employee Involvement, Worksite Analysis, Hazard Prevention and Control, and Safety and Health Training.

Wright, Patrick A.; Madson, Vernon J.; Isern, Nancy G.; Haney, Janice M.; Fisher, Julie A.; Goheen, Steven C.; Gulley, Susan E.; Reck, John J.; Collins, Drue A.; Tinker, Mike R.; Walker, Landon A.; Wynn, Clifford L.

2005-01-31

108

SITE-SPECIFIC PROTOCOL FOR MEASURING SOIL RADON POTENTIALS FOR FLORIDA HOUSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a protocol for site-specific measurement of radon potentials for Florida houses that is consistent with existing residential radon protection maps. The protocol gives further guidance on the possible need for radon-protective house construction features. In a...

109

Screening radon risks: a methodology for policymakers.  

PubMed

This paper provides an easy-to-use screening methodology to estimate potential excess lifetime lung cancer risk resulting from indoor radon exposure. The methodology was developed under U.S. EPA Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation sponsorship of the agency's Integrated Environmental Management Projects (IEMP) and State/Regional Comparative Risk Projects. These projects help policymakers understand and use scientific data to develop environmental problem-solving strategies. This research presents the risk assessment methodology, discusses its basis, and identifies appropriate applications. The paper also identifies assumptions built into the methodology and qualitatively addresses methodological uncertainties, the direction in which these uncertainties could bias analyses, and their relative importance. The methodology draws from several sources, including risk assessment formulations developed by the U.S. EPA's Office of Radiation Programs, the EPA's Integrated Environmental Management Project (Denver), the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. When constructed as a spreadsheet program, the methodology easily facilitates analyses and sensitivity studies (the paper includes several sensitivity study options). The methodology will be most helpful to those who need to make decisions concerning radon testing, public education, and exposure prevention and mitigation programs. PMID:1771267

Eisinger, D S; Simmons, R A; Lammering, M; Sotiros, R

1991-12-01

110

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

Radiological Control Managers' Council

2008-06-01

111

Residential Radon Appears to Prevent Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Residential radon has been found to be associated with lung cancer in epidemiological/ecological studies and the researchers have inappropriately concluded that residential radon causes lung cancer. Their conclusion relates to the linear-no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis-based, risk-assessment paradigm; however, the LNT hypothesis has been invalidated in numerous studies. It is shown in this paper that our hormetic relative risk (HRR) model is consistent with lung cancer data where detailed measurements of radon in each home were carried out. Based on the HRR model, low-level radon radioactive progeny is credited for activated natural protection (ANP) against lung cancer including smoking-related lung cancer. The proportion B(x) (benefit function) of ANP beneficiaries increases as the average radon level x increases to near the Environmental Protection Agency’s action level of 4 picocuries/L (approximately 150 Bq m?3). As the average level of radon increases to somewhat above the action level, ANP beneficiaries progressively decrease to zero (B(x) decreases to 0), facilitating the occurrence of smoking-related lung cancers as well as those related to other less important risk factors. Thus, residential radon does not appear to cause lung cancer but rather to protect, in an exposure-level-dependent manner, from its induction by other agents (e.g., cigarette-smoke-related carcinogens). PMID:22461755

Scott, Bobby R.

2011-01-01

112

Human Subjects Protection Program Office of Research Regulatory Affairs  

E-print Network

Human Subjects Protection Program Office of Research Regulatory Affairs Broadcasting a Webinar "Best Practices for Assessing Risk in Social and Behavioral Research" The webinar will cover, 2014 1:00 ­ 2:00 p.m. This webinar can only be viewed at the following location: CoRE Building

113

Evaluation of Food Protection and Defense Outreach Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis documents the outcomes and impacts from a series of food protection and defense educational programs conducted over a 3-y period for private and public sector food system professionals. Several measures were used to determine the professions of participants; their improvements in skills and abilities that resulted from workshops; the…

Shutske, John M.; Pierquet, Jennifer; Michel, Laura; Rasmussen, Ruth; Olson, Debra

2008-01-01

114

U.S. planetary protection program: Implementation highlights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of planetary protection in the United States space program has reflected the trend in policy from an absolute to a probabilistic prohibition of the contamination of the celestial bodies of the solar system. The early emphasis on spacecraft sterilization (e.g. Ranger) was replaced by the imposition of contamination control procedures on later missions such as Pioneer, Viking, and

J. Barengoltz; P. D. Stabekis

1983-01-01

115

QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: THE EPA QA PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Formalized quality assurance (QA) program requirements for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been established for more than ten years. uring this period, the environmental issues and concerns addressed by the EPA have changed. any issues, such as ozone depletion...

116

40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND...

2013-07-01

117

40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND...

2012-07-01

118

40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND...

2011-07-01

119

The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program  

SciTech Connect

The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload.

Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

1994-05-01

120

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Multimedia Program  

SciTech Connect

The Native American multimedia program was developed to facilitate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) partnership with tribes in the delivery of environmental programs on reservation lands and to enhance the EPA`s ability to carry out its trust responsibility to the tribes. By providing the means for each tribe to employ its own environmental specialist, the multimedia program helps provide the foundation necessary to build environmental infrastructure for the protection of Native American lands and people and for the development of more rigorous medium-specific programs. The multimedia program began in 1991 with two pilot projects on the Bad River Chippewa Reservation, Wisconsin, and the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming. Expanded in 1992, Region 5 awarded ten multimedia cooperative agreements. At the time, Region 5 made the commitment to fund all reservations within the region, and by end of fiscal year 1993, 24 agreements brought the program to all 29 tribes. This has been a monumental effort, possible only by coupling fiscal year 1993`s funding from the Office of Federal Activities ($599050) with the region`s own reprogramming efforts ($510000).

Ambutas, K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

121

Indoor radon and decay products: Concentrations, causes, and control strategies  

SciTech Connect

This report is another in the on going technical report series that addresses various aspects of the DOE Radon Research Program. It provides an overview of what is known about the behavior of radon and its decay products in the indoor environment and examines the manner in which several important classes of factors -- structural, geological, and meteorological -- affect indoor radon concentrations. Information on US indoor radon concentrations, currently available monitoring methods and novel radon control strategies are also explored. 238 refs., 22 figs., 9 tabs.

Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

1990-11-01

122

Establishing a regional reference indoor radon level on the basis of radon survey data.  

PubMed

The establishment of national reference levels is a new requirement of the ICRP radiological protection system. For protection against indoor radon exposure measures based on a common national reference level tend to be less effective in regions where the probability of high indoor radon concentrations is relatively low in comparison with the national average. Therefore it makes sense to establish individual indoor radon reference levels for large sub-national regions as well as for urban agglomerations separately. Analysis of indoor radon surveys of the territory, taking into account the type of building, year of construction, building material, floor and other factors influencing indoor radon concentration, provides essential and important data for defining the reference level. For Ekaterinburg, Russia it is suggested to set the reference indoor radon concentration to a level of 70 Bq m(-3) which corresponds to the 90th percentile of radon concentration in a representative group of buildings constructed in the period 1970-89, in which the lowest average indoor radon concentration was observed. PMID:23482403

Yarmoshenko, I; Onishchenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

2013-06-01

123

Ouabain protects against adverse developmental programming of the kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kidney is extraordinarily sensitive to adverse fetal programming. Malnutrition, the most common form of developmental challenge, retards the formation of functional units, the nephrons. The resulting low nephron endowment increases susceptibility to renal injury and disease. Using explanted rat embryonic kidneys, we found that ouabain, the Na,K-ATPase ligand, triggers a calcium-nuclear factor-kappaB signal, which protects kidney development from adverse

Juan Li; Georgiy R. Khodus; Markus Kruusmägi; Padideh Kamali-Zare; Xiao-Li Liu; Ann-Christine Eklöf; Sergey Zelenin; Hjalmar Brismar; Anita Aperia

2010-01-01

124

Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

Not Available

1991-08-27

125

Developing a Respiratory Protection Program. Understanding the written elements.  

PubMed

1. Respirators can be the last defense for the estimated 5 million employees who use them for protection from dusts and fibers, fumes, mists, gases, vapors, and biological hazards. Because of these potentially lethal respiratory hazards, occupational and environmental health nurses need to be able to determine the need for, understand, develop, update, and implement an actionable respiratory protection program (RPP). 2. Regulated per 29 CFR 1910.134, a written RPP becomes the map or guideline process specific to the workplace that needs to be followed to ensure employee protection. 3. The nine required written elements of a RPP include respirator selection; fit testing; respirator use in routine and emergency situations; respirator maintenance and change schedules; ensuring adequate breathing air supply, quantity, and flow for atmosphere supplying respirators; regular evaluation of program effectiveness; medical evaluation; training employees in the respiratory hazards in routine and emergent situations; and training employees in proper use of the respirator. 4. Occupational and environmental health nurses are in a unique position to be a RPP program administrator, its designated licensed health care professional, or an active member of a team implementing the RPP process. PMID:11760528

Ryan, M G

2001-06-01

126

Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines  

SciTech Connect

Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

Droppo, J.G.

1985-04-01

127

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2011-01-01

128

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2013-01-01

129

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2010-01-01

130

10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

2012-01-01

131

Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program.  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) Program. During each such visit, the PSA documents information about the facility's current CIKR protection posture and overall security awareness. The primary goals for ECIP site visits (DHS 2009) are to: (1) inform facility owners and operators of the importance of their facilities as an identified high-priority CIKR and the need to be vigilant in light of the ever-present threat of terrorism; (2) identify protective measures currently in place at these facilities, provide comparisons of CIKR protection postures across like assets, and track the implementation of new protective measures; and (3) enhance existing relationships among facility owners and operators; DHS; and various Federal, State, local tribal, and territorial partners. PSAs conduct ECIP visits to assess overall site security; educate facility owners and operators about security; help owners and operators identify gaps and potential improvements; and promote communication and information sharing among facility owners and operators, DHS, State governments, and other security partners. Information collected during ECIP visits is used to develop metrics; conduct sector-by-sector and cross-sector vulnerability comparisons; identify security gaps and trends across CIKR sectors and subsectors; establish sector baseline security survey results; and track progress toward improving CIKR security through activities, programs, outreach, and training (Snyder 2009). The data being collected are used in a framework consistent with the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) risk criteria (DHS 2009). The NIPP framework incorporates consequence, threat, and vulnerability components and addresses all hazards. The analysis of the vulnerability data needs to be reproducible, support risk analysis, and go beyond protection. It also needs to address important security/vulnerability topics, such as physical security, cyber security, systems analysis, and dependencies and interdependencies. This report provides an overview of the approach being developed to estimate vulnerability and provide vulnerability comparisons for sectors and subsectors. the information will be used to assist DHS in analyzing existing protective measures and vulnerability at facilities, to identify potential ways to reduce vulnerabilities, and to assist in preparing sector risk estimates. The owner/operator receives an analysis of the data collected for a specific asset, showing a comparison between the facility's protection posture/vulnerability index and those of DHS sector/subsector sites visited. This comparison gives the owner/operator an indication of the asset's security strengths and weaknesses that may be contributing factors to its vulnerability and protection posture. The information provided to the owner/operator shows how the asset compares to other similar assets within the asset's sector or subsector. A 'dashboard' display is used to illustrate the results in a convenient format. The dashboard allows the owner/operator to analyze the implementation of additional protective measures and to illustrate how such actions would impact the asset's Protective Measures Index (PMI) or Vulnerability Index (VI).

Fisher, R. E.; Buehring, W. A.; Whitfield, R. G.; Bassett, G. W.; Dickinson, D. C.; Haffenden, R. A.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; LANL

2009-10-14

132

United States Office of EPA-520/1-88-020 Environmental Protection Radiation Program September 1988  

E-print Network

. This report was prepared by the OFFICE OF RADIATION PROGRAMS U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Washington Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 Office of Radiation Programs U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyUnited States Office of EPA-520/1-88-020 Environmental Protection Radiation Program September 1988

133

Controlling the Radon Threat Needn't Be Another Costly Nightmare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a study of 3,000 classrooms in 130 schools in 16 states, the Environmental Protection Agency urged all schools to conduct tests for radon. Explains a 6-step screening test, methods of reducing radon concentrations, and how the risk from radon exposure compares with other risks. (MLF)

Freije, Matthew R.

1989-01-01

134

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

2005-07-01

135

The Iowa radon lung cancer study--phase I: Residential radon gas exposure and lung cancer.  

PubMed

Exposure to high concentrations of radon (222Rn) progeny produces lung cancer in both underground miners and experimentally-exposed laboratory animals. The goal of the study was to determine whether or not residential radon exposure exhibits a statistically significant association with lung cancer in a state with high residential radon concentrations. A population-based, case-control epidemiologic study was conducted examining the relationship between residential radon gas exposure and lung cancer in Iowa females who occupied their current home for at least 20 years. The study included 413 incident lung cancer cases and 614 age-frequency-matched controls. Participant information was obtained by a mailed-out questionnaire with face-to-face follow-up. Radon dosimetry assessment consisted of five components: (1) on-site residential assessment survey; (2) on-site radon measurements; (3) regional outdoor radon measurements; (4) assessment of subjects' exposure when in another building; and (5) linkage of historic subject mobility with residential, outdoor, and other building radon concentrations. Histologic review was performed for 96% of the cases. Approximately 60% of the basement radon concentrations and 30% of the first floor radon concentrations of study participants' homes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency action level of 150 Bq m(-3) (4 pCi l(-1)). Large areas of western Iowa had outdoor radon concentrations comparable to the national average indoor value of 55 Bq m(-3) (1.5 pCi l(-1)). Excess odds of 0.24 (95% CI = -0.05-0.92) and 0.49 (95% CI = 0.03-1.84) per 11 WLM(5-19) were calculated using the continuous radon exposure estimates for all cases and live cases, respectively. Slightly higher excess odds of 0.50 (95% CI = 0.004-1.80) and 0.83 (CI = 0.11-3.34) per 11 WLM(5-19) were noted for the categorical radon exposure estimates for all cases and the live cases. A positive association between cumulative radon gas exposure and lung cancer was demonstrated using both categorical and continuous analyses. The risk estimates obtained in this study indicate that cumulative radon exposure presents an important environmental health hazard. PMID:11379939

Field, R W; Steck, D J; Smith, B J; Brus, C P; Fisher, E F; Neuberger, J S; Lynch, C F

2001-05-14

136

FEASIBILITY AND APPROACH FOR MAPPING RADON POTENTIALS IN FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an analysis of the feasibility and approach for developing statewide maps of radon potentials in Florida. he maps would provide a geographic basis for implementing new radon-protective building construction standards to reduce public health risks from ...

137

Reducing radon exhalation from covered tailings: optimization or cost effectiveness?  

PubMed

Reduction of radon exhalation from uranium tailings as a function of the number of radon diffusion lengths in cover materials is discussed, based on dimensionless mathematical functions. Cost effectiveness is examined to determine the least expensive cover with a preselected number of radon diffusion lengths (i.e., a preselected level of radiation protection), and to find the maximum attainable reduction in radon flux with a predetermined cost (i.e., a fixed amount of money). Cost effectiveness rather than optimization through cost benefit analysis can be used advantageously in these cases. PMID:3936174

Paschoa, A S; Torrey, J A; Wrenn, M E

1985-10-01

138

Radon in private drinking water wells.  

PubMed

At least 10% of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq·l(-1). This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. PMID:24714110

Otahal, P; Merta, J; Burian, I

2014-07-01

139

Environmental Compliance and Protection Program Description Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Environmental Compliance and Protection (EC and P) Program Description (PD) is to establish minimum environmental compliance requirements and natural resources protection goals for the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Oak Ridge Environmental Management Cleanup Contract (EMCC) Contract Number DE-AC05-98OR22700-M198. This PD establishes the work practices necessary to ensure protection of the environment during the performance of EMCC work activities on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by BJC employees and subcontractor personnel. Both BJC and subcontractor personnel are required to implement this PD. A majority of the decontamination and demolition (D and D) activities and media (e.g., soil and groundwater) remediation response actions at DOE sites on the ORR are conducted under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). CERCLA activities are governed by individual CERCLA decision documents (e.g., Record of Decision [ROD] or Action Memorandum) and according to requirements stated in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1992). Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for the selected remedy are the requirements for environmental remediation responses (e.g., removal actions and remedial actions) conducted under CERCLA.

Bechtel Jacobs

2009-02-26

140

Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

2008-06-05

141

A comparative study of the indoor radon level with the radon exhalation rate from soil in Alexandria city.  

PubMed

The assessment of the radiological risk related to the inhalation of radon and radon its progeny is based mainly on the integrated measurement of radon in both indoor and outdoor environments. The exhalation of radon from the earth's crust and building materials forms the main source of radon in the indoor environment. This study has been undertaken for the purpose of health risk assessment. In this comparative study, the indoor radon level, radium content, radon exhalation rate and concentration of soil radon are measured using the Can Technique. Soil samples were collected simultaneously from different geological formations of the same area for laboratory measurement of the radon exhalation rate. The radon exhalation rate was measured in the laboratory using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. The indoor radon concentrations in this study area were found to vary from 44±9 to 132±31 Bq m(-3) with an average of 72±29 Bq m(-3). The seasonal variations of the indoor radon reveal the maximum values in the winter and in summer in different dwellings of Alexandria city. The annual effective dose varies from 0.75 to 2.2 mSv with an average value of 1.34 mSv. The radon exhalation rate was found to vary in the ranges 8.31-233.70×10(-3) Bq kg(-1) h(-1), 0.48-15.37 Bq m(-2) h(-1) with an average 47.97×10(-3) Bq kg(-1) h(-1), (3.14 Bq m(-2) h(-1)). The radium content in soil varies from 3.14 to 39.60 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 11.55 Bq kg(-1). The significance of this study is discussed in details from the point of view of radiation protection. PMID:23070484

Abd El-Zaher, Mohamed

2013-05-01

142

Radon: Detection and treatment  

SciTech Connect

Within the last few years, natural radon exposure in non-industrial settings, primarily homes, has become a health concern. Research has demonstrated that many homes throughout the United States have radon concentrations much higher than the legal federal limits set for miners. Thousands of unsuspecting people are being exposed to high levels of radiation. It is estimated that up to 15 percent of lung cancers are caused from radon. This is a significant health risk. With basic knowledge of the current information on radon, a primary health care provider can address patients' radon concerns and make appropriate referrals.

Loken, S.; Loken, T. (Salt Lake City Veterans Administration Medical Center, UT (USA))

1989-11-01

143

Protecting You/Protecting Me: Effects of an Alcohol Prevention and Vehicle Safety Program on Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (1) their brains (why their brain is…

Bell, Mary Lou; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses; Ringwalt, Christopher

2005-01-01

144

Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

NONE

1996-06-01

145

75 FR 14454 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Infrastructure Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nancy J. Wong, National Protection and Programs Directorate...advice on the security of the critical infrastructure sectors and their information...address issues relevant to the protection of critical infrastructure as directed by the...

2010-03-25

146

75 FR 39266 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Infrastructure Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wong, National Protection and Programs...Wong, National Infrastructure Advisory Council...security of the critical infrastructure sectors and their...relevant to the protection of critical infrastructure as directed...

2010-07-08

147

75 FR 81284 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Infrastructure Advisory Council Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY: National Protection and Programs...The National Infrastructure Advisory Council...security of the critical infrastructure sectors and their...relevant to the protection of critical infrastructure as directed...

2010-12-27

148

77 FR 32397 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program-Genitourinary Losses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 2900-AO20 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program...regulations governing the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection...that expanded the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury...

2012-06-01

149

76 FR 27603 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Civil Rights Protections for SNAP Households  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Civil Rights Protections for SNAP Households AGENCY...SNAP) regulations that secure civil rights protections for SNAP households and applicants...administrative procedures must be exhausted. Civil Rights Impact Analysis This rule will not...

2011-05-12

150

Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer: a re-assessment based on the recent cross-Canada radon survey  

PubMed Central

Exposure to indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer was assessed in 2005 with the radon distribution characteristics determined from a radon survey carried out in the late 1970s in 19 cities. In that survey, a grab sampling method was used to measure radon levels. The observed radon concentration in 14 000 Canadian homes surveyed followed a log–normal distribution with a geometric mean (GM) of 11.2 Bq m–3 and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.9. Based on the information from that survey, it was estimated that ?10 % of lung cancers in Canada resulted from indoor radon exposure. To gain a better understanding of radon concentrations in homes across the country, a national residential radon survey was launched in April 2009. In the recent survey, long-term (3 month or longer) indoor radon measurements were made in roughly 14 000 homes in 121 health regions across Canada. The observed radon concentrations follow, as expected, a log–normal distribution with a GM of 41.9 Bq m–3 and a GSD of 2.8. Based on the more accurate radon distribution characteristics obtained from the recent cross-Canada radon survey, a re-assessment of Canadian population risk for radon induced lung cancer was undertaken. The theoretical estimates show that 16 % of lung cancer deaths among Canadians are attributable to indoor radon exposure. These results strongly suggest the ongoing need for the Canadian National Radon Program. In particular, there is a need for a focus on education and awareness by all levels of government, and in partnership with key stakeholders, to encourage Canadians to take action to reduce the risk from indoor radon exposure. PMID:22874897

Chen, J.; Moir, D.; Whyte, J.

2012-01-01

151

Human Lung Cancer Risks from Radon - Part III - Evidence of Influence of Combined Bystander and Adaptive Response Effects on Radon Case-Control Studies - A Microdose Analysis.  

PubMed

Since the publication of the BEIR VI (1999) report on health risks from radon, a significant amount of new data has been published showing various mechanisms that may affect the ultimate assessment of radon as a carcinogen, in particular the potentially deleterious Bystander Effect (BE) and the potentially beneficial Adaptive Response radio-protection (AR). The case-control radon lung cancer risk data of the pooled 13 European countries radon study (Darby et al 2005, 2006) and the 8 North American pooled study (Krewski et al 2005, 2006) have been evaluated. The large variation in the odds ratios of lung cancer from radon risk is reconciled, based on the large variation in geological and ecological conditions and variation in the degree of adaptive response radio-protection against the bystander effect induced lung damage. The analysis clearly shows Bystander Effect radon lung cancer induction and Adaptive Response reduction in lung cancer in some geographical regions. It is estimated that for radon levels up to about 400 Bq m(-3) there is about a 30% probability that no human lung cancer risk from radon will be experienced and a 20% probability that the risk is below the zero-radon, endogenic spontaneous or perhaps even genetically inheritable lung cancer risk rate. The BEIR VI (1999) and EPA (2003) estimates of human lung cancer deaths from radon are most likely significantly excessive. The assumption of linearity of risk, by the Linear No-Threshold Model, with increasing radon exposure is invalid. PMID:22942874

Leonard, Bobby E; Thompson, Richard E; Beecher, Georgia C

2012-01-01

152

Human Lung Cancer Risks from Radon - Part III - Evidence of Influence of Combined Bystander and Adaptive Response Effects on Radon Case-Control Studies - A Microdose Analysis  

PubMed Central

Since the publication of the BEIR VI (1999) report on health risks from radon, a significant amount of new data has been published showing various mechanisms that may affect the ultimate assessment of radon as a carcinogen, in particular the potentially deleterious Bystander Effect (BE) and the potentially beneficial Adaptive Response radio-protection (AR). The case-control radon lung cancer risk data of the pooled 13 European countries radon study (Darby et al 2005, 2006) and the 8 North American pooled study (Krewski et al 2005, 2006) have been evaluated. The large variation in the odds ratios of lung cancer from radon risk is reconciled, based on the large variation in geological and ecological conditions and variation in the degree of adaptive response radio-protection against the bystander effect induced lung damage. The analysis clearly shows Bystander Effect radon lung cancer induction and Adaptive Response reduction in lung cancer in some geographical regions. It is estimated that for radon levels up to about 400 Bq m?3 there is about a 30% probability that no human lung cancer risk from radon will be experienced and a 20% probability that the risk is below the zero-radon, endogenic spontaneous or perhaps even genetically inheritable lung cancer risk rate. The BEIR VI (1999) and EPA (2003) estimates of human lung cancer deaths from radon are most likely significantly excessive. The assumption of linearity of risk, by the Linear No-Threshold Model, with increasing radon exposure is invalid. PMID:22942874

Leonard, Bobby E.; Thompson, Richard E.; Beecher, Georgia C.

2012-01-01

153

Radon attenuation effectiveness and cost optimization of composite covers for uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer code RAECO (Radon Attenuation Effectiveness and Cost Optimization), developed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, calculates the radon flux and concentrations through tailings and cover materials. The code obtains steady-state analytical solutions using a rapid upper triangulation and backward solving routine. The code also obtains the lowest cost cover subject to radon flux and cover layer

V. C. Rogers; G. M. Sandquist; K. K. Nielson

1981-01-01

154

EVALUATION OF WATERBORNE RADON IMPACT ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program was conducted with two objectives: (1) evaluation of waterborne radon impacts on indoor air quality, and (2) assessment of available control technologies to limit indoor exposures to radon and its decay products. This report contains a review of radon's phys...

155

25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds include? 63...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33...

2010-04-01

156

25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30...

2010-04-01

157

25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32...

2010-04-01

158

[Occurrence of radon 222Rn in curative waters].  

PubMed

Radon is one of the best known human carcinogens. Natural radon (222Rn) is formed by decay of uranium (238U), directly of radium (226Ra). The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentration of radon in curative waters in Poland. The measurements were performed using alpha and beta liquid scintillation method Over 220 water samples from Polish spas have been analyzed. Arithmetic mean of radon concentration for curative waters was found to be 14.51 Bq/m3 within the range between 0.90 Bq/m3 to 193.10 Bq/m3. The average concentrations of radon-222 were ten times higher in water from ?laskie and dolno?laskie voivodeship than other voivodeships. In two sampls: water from intake J-300 in Jedlina Zdrój (116.1 Bq/dm3) and intake Marta in Szczawno Zdrój (193.1 Bq/dm3) the level of radon 74 Bq/dm3 has been reached and those samples could be classified as radon water. There are no limits for the radon concentration levels in curative waters. There are only recommendation of the Commission of the European Communities 2001/928/Euratom on the protection of the public against exposure to radon in drinking water supplies (100 Bq/l). PMID:19803442

Pachocki, Krzysztof A; Wieprzowski, Kamil; Bekas, Marcin; Rózycki, Zdzis?aw

2009-01-01

159

Indoor Radon: The Deadliest Pollutant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the origin, occurrence, and effects of radon gas. Cites studies which attribute 5,000 to 20,000 deaths per year to radon exposure and the synergistic effect between radon and smoking. Explains ways to reduce risks. (RT)

Kerr, Richard A.

1988-01-01

160

EPA Map of Radon Zones  

MedlinePLUS

... Radon Zones assigns each of the 3,141 counties in the U.S. to one of three zones based on radon potential. What do the colors mean? Zone 1 counties have a predicted average indoor radon screening level ...

161

DURABILITY OF SUBSLAB DEPRESSURIZATION RADON MITIGATION SYSTEMPERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a review of the quarterly performance ofsub-slab depressurization (SSD) radon mitigation systems in eighthouses in the New Jersey (NJ) Piedmont study and houses in whichthe NJ Department of Environmental Protection measurements haveindicated operation a...

162

RADON REDUCTION IN A CRAWL SPACE HOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is drawn from the soil into a house when low air pressure exists in the house. This is a commonplace environmental hazard in the United States, Canada, and northern Europe. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing ...

163

24 CFR 5.363 - Housing programs: Protection of the pet.  

...false Housing programs: Protection of the pet. 5.363 Section 5.363 Housing and...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

2014-04-01

164

24 CFR 5.363 - Housing programs: Protection of the pet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Housing programs: Protection of the pet. 5.363 Section 5.363 Housing and...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

2011-04-01

165

24 CFR 5.363 - Housing programs: Protection of the pet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Housing programs: Protection of the pet. 5.363 Section 5.363 Housing and...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

2012-04-01

166

24 CFR 5.363 - Housing programs: Protection of the pet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Housing programs: Protection of the pet. 5.363 Section 5.363 Housing and...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

2010-04-01

167

24 CFR 5.363 - Housing programs: Protection of the pet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Housing programs: Protection of the pet. 5.363 Section 5.363 Housing and...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

2013-04-01

168

Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1990 highlights  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to design and test an earthen cover system(s) that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. The joint PNL/WHC program was initiated in FY 1986. To date, research findings support the initial concepts of barrier designs for the Hanford Site. A fine-soil surface is planned to partition surface water into runoff and temporary storage. Transpiration by vegetation that grows in the fine-soil layer will return stored water to the atmosphere as will surface evaporation. A capillary break created by the interface of the fine-soil layer and coarser textured materials below will further limit the downward migration of surface water, making it available over a longer period of time for cycling to the atmosphere. Should water pass the interface, it will drain laterally through a coarse textured sand/gravel layer. Tested barrier designs appear to work adequately to prevent drainage under current and postulated wetter-climate (added precipitation) conditions. Wind and water erosion tasks are developing data to predict the extent of erosion on barrier surfaces. Data collected during the last year confirm the effectiveness of small burrowing animals in removing surface water. Water infiltrating through burrows of larger mammals was subsequently lost by natural processes. Natural analog and climate change studies are under way to provide credibility for modeling the performance of barrier designs over a long period of time and under shifts in climate. 10 refs., 30 figs.

Cadwell, L.L. (ed.)

1991-09-01

169

Radon diffusion modelling.  

PubMed

A mathematical model has been developed that examines the ingress of radon into houses, through a vertical crack in an otherwise impervious concrete floor. Initially, the model considered the diffusive flow of radon from its soil source and this simulation has highlighted the dependency of the flux of radon into the house on the magnitude of various parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient of radon in soil. A preliminary investigation of the modelling of pressure-driven flow into a building is presented, and the potential of this type of analysis is discussed. PMID:4081719

Wilkinson, P; Dimbylow, P J

1985-10-01

170

Public perceptions of radon risk  

SciTech Connect

Since 1984, a significant amount of media attention has focused on health threats from radon gas exposure. Using a probability telephone survey of adults (n = 685), we studied public perceptions of risk from radon exposure versus other environmental health risks. The results indicated that 92% of those individuals who had heard of radon believe radon to be a health risk, although only 4% believe they are currently exposed to high levels of radon gas. Perception of risk from radon was positively related to other perceptions of environmental risks. Younger and less educated individuals were more likely to perceive radon as a health risk. Women were three-and-one-half times as likely as men to perceive risk from radon. However, there was no significant relationship between perceived risk from radon and cigarette smoking. Media attention has apparently led to public awareness of radon hazards, but further attention is needed to improve smokers' awareness of their special risks from radon.

Mainous, A.G. III; Hagen, M.D. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States))

1993-03-01

171

CONSERVATION AND NATURAL RESOURCES Water Resources: Enact Flint River Drought Protection Act; Create Drought Protection Program; Require the Board of Natural Resources To Establish a Drought Protection Program; Require Cooperation with the Georgia Environmental Facilities Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Act, known as the Flint River Drought Protection Act, adds several sections to the Code to identify the importance of Georgia's water resources, define certain terms, and authorize the Board of Natural Resources and the Director of the Environmental Protection Division (EPD) of the Department of Natural Resources to create and enforce a drought protection program and administer funds.

Laura Windsor

2000-01-01

172

Constructing a resilience index for the enhanced critical in Frastructure Protection Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following recommendations made in Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7, which established a national policy for the identification and increased protection of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) by Federal departments and agencies, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2006 developed the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) program. The ECIP program aimed to provide a closer partnership with state,

R. E. Fisher; G. W. Bassett; W. A. Buehring; M. J. Collins; D. C. Dickinson; L. K. Eaton; R. A. Haffenden; N. E. Hussar; M. S. Klett; M. A. Lawlor; D. J. Millier; F. D. Petit; S. M. Peyton; K. E. Wallace; R. G. Whitfield; J. P. Peerenboom

2010-01-01

173

On the possibility of practically obfuscating programs Towards a unified perspective of code protection  

E-print Network

programs. When developing programs, the intelligible source code philippe.beaucamps_at_loria_dot_fr eric.filiol_at_esat.terre.defense is outputting an intelligible program when fed with an obfuscated program in input), we show but is eventually carried out if no protection measure has been taken. Some technologies are particularly sensitive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

174

New technique for the determination of radon diffusion coefficient in radon-proof membranes.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new device and a method to determine the radon diffusion coefficient in damp-proof membranes developed in the Czech Republic. The main advantage of the device is that it enables tests to be carried out in all the known measuring modes used throughout Europe. Two recently developed computer programs are presented for the numerical modelling of the time-dependent radon transport through damp-proof membranes. According to this method, the radon diffusion coefficient is derived from the process of fitting the numerical solution to the measured curve of radon concentration in a receiver container. Numerical simulation and measured data are also compared. Reasons for disagreements between different methods and specific configurations of the measuring device are also discussed. PMID:18397928

Jiránek, M; Fronka, A

2008-01-01

175

Reconstructing finite radon transforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructing finite Radon transforms is equivalent to inverting incidence matrices, that is, matrices whose entries are zeroes or ones. We describe several methods of reconstructing Radon transforms on combinatorial structures which may be useful in statistical mechanics. Amongst these structures are experimental designs, translates of subsets in finite groups, nearest neighborhoods in grids, geometric lattices, matroids, and modular lattices.

Kung, Joseph P. S.

1988-09-01

176

Zur Entdeckungsgeschichte des Radons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioactivity of the noble gas radon and its short-life daughter products as the essential part of natural radioactivity have gained in topically in the last years. For this reason the history of discovery of radon has been summed up. This history is one part of the early research about radioactivity. From the appearance of induced radioactivity the way leads

W. Schüttmann

1988-01-01

177

THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has directed much attention to watersheds and water quality during its tenure as the United States Federal Agency charged with protection of human health and the environment. Watershed research as a vehicle to understand the interaction ...

178

Making the 'Right' Choices about Child Protection Programs and Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the present state of knowledge on the effectiveness of programs that aim to prevent the abuse and\\/or neglect of children and young people under 18 years of age. More specifically, we review research related to the effectiveness of primary prevention programs (universal programs) and secondary prevention programs (those targeted at people who are 'at

Nick Richardson; Daryl Higgins; Leah Bromfield

179

Status report: Protection fuel testing program, July 1960  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program`s objective is to develop the technical foundation for use of projection fuel elements through an accelerated testing program. Two types of projection fuel elements are being considered (1) Self-supported fuel elements for use in ribless aluminum or zirconium process tubes; and (2) Bumper fuel elements for use in ribbed process tubes. A further objective of the program is

M. A. Clinton; D. W. Peacock

1960-01-01

180

Protecting You/Protecting Me: Evaluation of a Student-Led Alcohol Prevention and Traffic Safety Program for Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pre- and post-surveys of self-protective knowledge and skills in third, fourth, and fifth grade classrooms (n = 24) randomly assigned to a model program for alcohol prevention and traffic safety or to comparison group (n = 24 classrooms) were analyzed to evaluate replicability of immediate positive effects of first-year exposure and to test…

Bell, Mary Lou; Baker, Tara Kelley; Falb, Timothy; Roberts-Gray, Cindy

2005-01-01

181

25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence...30 What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence...tribally-operated programs to protect Indian children and reduce the incidence of family...

2011-04-01

182

25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...true What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence...30 What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence...tribally-operated programs to protect Indian children and reduce the incidence of family...

2012-04-01

183

25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence...30 What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence...tribally-operated programs to protect Indian children and reduce the incidence of family...

2013-04-01

184

THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

A scientifically rigorous determination of the condition of an aquatic resource is fundamental to all subsequent research, modeling, protection, and restoration issues. Environmental risk characterization is predicated on knowledge of condition and the rate at which that conditio...

185

10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to...Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to...This appendix applies to licensed nuclear power electric generating...

2011-01-01

186

10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to...Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to...This appendix applies to licensed nuclear power electric generating...

2013-01-01

187

10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979  

... Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to...Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to...This appendix applies to licensed nuclear power electric generating...

2014-01-01

188

10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to...Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to...This appendix applies to licensed nuclear power electric generating...

2012-01-01

189

10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to...Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to...This appendix applies to licensed nuclear power electric generating...

2010-01-01

190

78 FR 25591 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable Insurance...Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable...

2013-05-02

191

78 FR 75581 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable Insurance...Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable...

2013-12-12

192

An Australian experience with tractor rollover protective structure rebate programs: process, impact and outcome evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the tractor rollover protective structure rebate program carried out by the Victorian Workcover Authority (Vic., Australia) in 1997–1998. The program was described using existing documents and records. Quantitative and qualitative information on tangible and intangible benefits were gathered through interviews with program applicants and other key informants. Information on

Lesley Day; George Rechnitzer; Jonathan Lough

2004-01-01

193

Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program  

Microsoft Academic Search

ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program's inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy-efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open

Marla C. Sanchez; Richard E. Brown; Carrie Webber; Gregory K. Homan

2008-01-01

194

Congress to decide fate of radon standard  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has been attempting for several years to set a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for radon in drinking water. On July 18, 1991, USEPA proposed National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for six radionuclides, including radon. USEPA's proposed MCL of 300 pCi/L for radon in drinking water has received severe criticism. There is widespread agreement among state health and radiation protection agencies, the scientific community, water suppliers, and other federal government agencies that the USEPA has overestimated the incremental benefits associated with the proposed MCL, while it has underestimated the cost of compliance. Following the close of the public comment period in November 1992, USEPA began to evaluate the proposal and prepare a response to the comments in order to develop a final rule. Concern remains regarding the rationality of the proposed MCL for radon. At the time of proposal, USEPA was under a court order to publish the final radionuclides rule no later than April 1993. This article focuses on developments and chronological history since the proposed rule was published.

Pontius, F.W.; Paris, D.B.

1994-01-01

195

ENCOURAGING CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES: THE UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Since 1988, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), has supported a research program to encourage the development, demonstration, and evaluation of production techniques and processes that lead to reduced waste generation. his clean technologies research progra...

196

Local action for the global environment : municipal government participation in a voluntary climate protection program  

E-print Network

The Cities for Climate ProtectionTM (CCP) campaign is a voluntary environmental program for municipalities, which is increasingly being applied around the world by local governments taking action on climate change. This ...

Ravin, Amelia L., 1977-

2004-01-01

197

10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...record of each radiation protection program change made in accordance with § 35.26...procedures; the effective date of the change; and the signature of the licensee management that reviewed and approved the...

2010-01-01

198

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

199

Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation-protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A Practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

1989-04-01

200

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

201

Risk and protective factors related to resilience in adolescents in an alternative education program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a multivariate correlational design, this study was designed to determine the degree to which selected risk and protective factors were related to resilience in an at-risk student population. A total of 12 individual, family and external risk and protective factors were identified and data were collected from 142 6th through 11th grade students in an alternative education program for

Kelly M Crawford

2006-01-01

202

The Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program Developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) was signed into law on 3 August 1996. FQPA amended both laws under which the Environmental Protection Agency manages the regulatory process for pesticide registration and use in the United States. Many new requirements were incorporated into these two laws, including the development of “a screening program, using appropriate validated test systems and other

Penelope A. Fenner-Crisp; Anthony F. Maciorowski; Gary E. Timm

2000-01-01

203

75 FR 52768 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Department of Homeland Security, National Protection and Programs Directorate, Office of Infrastructure Protection, Sector- Specific Agency Executive Management Office (NPPD/SSA EMO), submits the following Information Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C.......

2010-08-27

204

40 CFR 195.30 - Failure to remit fee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS Fees ...participant's listing in the National Radon Measurement Proficiency program, individual...the RMP program, or the National Radon Contractor Proficiency program...

2010-07-01

205

What Is Radon?  

MedlinePLUS

... sources of information and support include*: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Toll-free number: ... or visit www.cancer.org . References Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ToxFAQs for Radon. 2012. ...

206

RADON DIAGNOSTICS FOR SCHOOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a systematic approach to conducting radondiagnostics in schools. t provides those with radon mitigationexperience in houses with an understanding of the major differencesbetween schools and houses and how these differences influenceradon diagnostics in schools...

207

Variations of well water radon in Virginia and Maryland.  

PubMed

In north-central Virginia and south-central Maryland, municipal water supplies obtained from reservoirs provide radon-free potable water. However, about 10 percent of the population consumes well water. Radon in drinking water from some wells exceeds 4,000 pCi/L. Only about 30% of the radon is lost between the well storage tanks and the homes. The average radon concentration is about 2,000 pCi/L, which greatly exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended Maximum Contamination Level of 300 pCi/L. In this study of a geologically diverse area, the well water comes from granite (radon averages about 3,000 pCi,/L), schist and phyllite (about 2,000 pCi/L), sandstone (about 1,500 pCi/L), and quartzite (about 1,100 pCi/L). Aeration experiments on well water in storage tanks indicated that about 60-70% can be removed using a splash box with an exhaust fan on the storage tank, and about 60-70% can be removed using bubble aeration. About 90% of the radon can be removed by the simultaneous use of bubble aeration, splash box, and an exhaust fan. However, this combination does not become less efficient through time. Passing the water through tanks of activated charcoal can remove about 90% of the radon, though the charcoal becomes less efficient over an interval of a few months. PMID:11688681

Mose, D G; Mushrush, G W; Simoni, F V

2001-01-01

208

Residents in a high radon potential geographic area: Their risk perception and attitude toward testing and mitigation  

SciTech Connect

Boone County, Indiana was identified by the EPA as one of the high radon potential geographic areas. Health education campaigns are needed to prevent resident`s unnecessary radon exposure. In order to design suitable programs, a questionnaire mail survey was conducted to measure socio-demographic characteristics of County resident`s knowledge about radon, attitude toward radon testing and mitigation, support of education campaigns, and the best media to deliver radon education campaigns. A stratified random sampling method was applied for a total of 400 samples. The number of samples from each township/city was a proportion of their taxable parcels. The survey return rate was 39.8%. The data were analyzed by Epi Info and SPSS. The statistical significant level was set at {alpha} = 0.05. The results showed that resident`s knowledge about radon was at a relatively superficial level. There was no association identified between the knowledge of radon and gender, age, family income, or education, except that females more frequently believed in false effects caused by radon. A significant correlation between radon knowledge and home radon tests was observed. Also found in this study was that respondents with better knowledge about diseases caused by radon had more confidence in radon mitigation actions. Newspaper was chosen by respondents as the most favorite media to deliver radon health education campaigns. Health education campaigns for the residents of Boone County might be conducted by local governments and/or other organizations.

Ferng, S.F. [Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, IN (United States). Dept. of Health and Safety; Lawson, J.K.

1996-01-01

209

77 FR 6941 - Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: The Natural Resources Conservation Service...Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service...responsibility to the Nation's taxpayers to ensure the program...Corporation and Chief, Natural Resources Conservation...

2012-02-10

210

A Citizen's Guide to Radon. What It Is and What To Do about It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) are concerned about the increased risk of developing lung cancer faced by persons exposed to above-average levels of radon in their homes. The purpose of this pamphlet is to help readers to understand the radon problem and decide if they need to take…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

211

The use of silicon photodiodes for radon and progeny measurements.  

PubMed

Reduced cost, high quantum efficiency and very good detection characteristics of PIN silicon photodiodes made possible their utilization for alpha particles detection. This paper presents different studies and applications of this type of detector for qualification and quantification of radon and its progeny in laboratory and in the field. Since photodiodes are sensitive to environmental electromagnetic fields, protecting cells were adapted for use around the detector. A small three-channel (2-5.5 MeV; 5.5-6.5 MeV; 6.5-8.2 MeV) portable alpha counter was developed that allows the determination of the radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate. Numerous field applications were conducted in different conditions (uranium waste storage, dwellings, etc.) where this simple and inexpensive instrumentation demonstrated very good performance, reliability, and easiness of operation while measuring radon concentrations from 50-100 Bq m(-3) to several MBq m(-3). PMID:11388729

Voytchev, M; Klein, D; Chambaudet, A; Georgiev, G

2001-06-01

212

Radon discrimination for work place air samples  

SciTech Connect

Gross alpha/beta measurement systems are designed solely to identify an incident particle as either an alpha or a beta and register a count accordingly. The tool of choice for radon identification, via decay daughters, is an instrument capable of identifying the energy of incident alpha particles and storing that information separately from detected alpha emissions of different energy. In simpler terms, the desired instrument is an alpha spectroscopy system. K Basins Radiological Control (KBRC) procured an EG&G ORTEC OCTETE PC alpha spectroscopy system to facilitate radon identification on work place air samples. The alpha spectrometer allows for the identification of any alpha emitting isotope based on characteristic alpha emission energies. With this new capability, KBRC will explicitly know whether or not there exists a true airborne concern. Based on historical air quality data, this new information venue will reduce the use of respirators substantially. Situations where an area remains ``on mask`` due solely to the presence of radon daughters on the grab air filter will finally be eliminated. This document serves to introduce a new method for radon daughter detection at the 183KE Health Physics Analytical Laboratory (HPAL). A new work place air sampling analysis program will be described throughout this paper. There is no new technology being introduced, nor any unproven analytical process. The program defined over the expanse of this document simply explains how K Basins Radiological Control will employ their alpha spectrometer.

Bratvold, T.

1994-09-27

213

Abatement and Pollution Control Training and Educational Programs Presented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog is a compilation of training course and educational program descriptions in abatement and pollution control scheduled by the Environmental Protection Agency. Descriptions of programs include prerequisites, class size, and length of time with the content goals. Also given is general information concerning tuition fees, waiver requests,…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

214

RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE rev 12/99 1-1 RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAM  

E-print Network

RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE rev 12/99 1-1 CHAPTER 1 RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAM I. INTRODUCTION In view of increased utilization of ionizing and nonionizing radiation at the University of Florida, a university-wide radiation control program was established in September, l960. The primary responsibilities

Wu, Dapeng Oliver

215

Sun Protection is Fun! A Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Preschools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Sun Protection is Fun! skin cancer prevention program for preschool children that features intervention methods grounded in social cognitive theory and emphasizes symbolic modeling, vicarious learning, enactive mastery experiences, and persuasion. Program components include a curriculum and teacher's guide, videos, newsletters,…

Tripp, Mary K.; Herrmann, Nancy B.; Parcel, Guy S.; Chamberlin, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

2000-01-01

216

Lenfest Ocean Program: Protecting Ocean Life Through Marine Science  

E-print Network

food security program Supermarkets Fresh seafood Middlemen (freezing)Canning plants Steel Purse seiners food web, but instead of describing the flow of energy and nutrients, it describes the flow of fish Guano exporter Rural farmer Domestic distribution canned Freezing plants Local markets Restaurants

Handy, Todd C.

217

Protecting Our Own. Community Child Passenger Safety Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information on implementing a local child passenger safety program. It covers understanding the problems and solutions; deciding what can be done; planning and carrying out a project; providing adequate, accurate, and current technical information; and reaching additional sources of information. Chapter 1 provides community…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

218

Measurements of indoor radon and radon progeny in Mexico City  

SciTech Connect

Indoor radon has been a public concern associated with increased lung cancer risks. Radon decay products interact with indoor aerosols to form progeny with different size distributions, which may influence the lung dosimetry when the progeny are inhaled. Air pollution in Mexico City is a serious problems with high particulate concentrations, but there are few reports of indoor radon measurement. The purposes of this study were to measure the aerosol concentration, radon concentration, and radon activity size distribution in the living area of three houses in Mexico City. The radon concentration was monitored by a RGM-3 radon gas monitor (Eberline, Inc., Santa Fe, NM). A graded diffusion battery was used to determine the progeny concentration and activity size distribution. The concentration and size distribution of the indoor aerosols were monitored by a quartz, crystal microbalance cascade impactor. Our measurements showed high concentrations of indoor aerosols (20-180 gg m{sup -3}). However, the radon concentrations-were low (<1 pCi L{sup -1}), but showed a clear diurnal pattern with peak concentrations from 2-10 AM. The activity size distributions of radon progeny were trimodal, with peaks of 0.6 nm, 4-5 nm, and 100 rim. Most activities were associated with large particle sizes. Our results indicated that indoor radon concentration was not high, due in part to a relatively high air exchange with outdoor air. The high aerosol concentration may also play an important part in the activity size distribution of radon progeny.

Cheng, Y.S. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, G.P. [Univ. of Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

1996-06-01

219

The radon EDM apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) at current experimentally accessible levels would provide clear evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. EDMs violate CP symmetry, making them a possible route to explaining the size of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe. The Radon EDM Experiment aims to search for an EDM in radon isotopes whose sensitivity to CP-odd interactions is enhanced by octupole-deformed nuclei. A prototype apparatus currently installed in the ISAC hall at TRIUMF includes a gas handling system to move radon from a collection foil to a measurement cell and auxiliary equipment for polarization diagnostics and validation. The features and capabilities of the apparatus are described and an overview of the experimental design for a gamma-ray-anisotropy based EDM measurement is provided.

Tardiff, E. R.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G. C.; Chupp, T. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P.; Hayden, M. E.; Kierans, C. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Pearson, M. R.; Schaub, C.; Svensson, C. E.

2014-01-01

220

Radon Monitoring and Early Low Background Counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m{sup 3}, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m{sup 3} based on approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m{sup 3}. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in relevant areas underground.

Thomas, K. J.; Mei, D.-M. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); Heise, J. [Sanford Laboratory at Homestake, Lead, SD 57754 (United States); Durben, D. [Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD 57799 (United States); Salve, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2011-04-27

221

Radon monitoring and early low background counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m{sup 3}, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m{sup 3} based on approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m{sup 3}. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in relevant areas underground.

Thomas, K.J.; Mei, D.M.; Heise, J.; Durben, D.; Salve, R.

2010-09-01

222

Radon programmes and health marketing.  

PubMed

Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. PMID:21498864

Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

2011-05-01

223

What Teachers Should Know about Radon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to clear up misunderstandings about radon and outlines information teachers can convey to their students. Includes a brief history of radon, health threats posed by radon, methods to measure radon quantities, homeowner risks and preventative actions, and a glossary of radon terms. (MDH)

Bettis, Clifford; Throckmorton, Carl

1991-01-01

224

The April 1994 and October 1994 radon intercomparisons at EML  

SciTech Connect

Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) are the backbone of many commercial and research processes and programs. QA/QC research tests the state of a functioning system, be it the production of manufactured goods or the ability to make accurate and precise measurements. The quality of the radon measurements in the US have been tested under controlled conditions in semi-annual radon gas intercomparison exercises sponsored by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) since 1981. The two Calendar Year 1994 radon gas intercomparison exercises were conducted in the EML exposure chamber. Thirty-two groups including US Federal facilities, USDOE contractors, national and state laboratories, universities and foreign institutions participated in these exercises. The majority of the participant`s results were within {+-}10% of the EML value at radon concentrations of 570 and 945 Bq m{sup {minus}3}.

Fisenne, I.M.; George, A.C.; Perry, P.M.; Keller, H.W.

1995-10-01

225

Radon in multi-story residential buildings. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In September 1989, HUD signed an Interagency Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requesting EPA to measure radon levels and distribution patterns in several multi-story residential buildings. This study was conducted in two phases. The Phase 1 included walk-through investigations of each of the four test buildings. These preliminary investigations were focused on identifying site-specific characteristics that might influence radon entry and distribution. The results of these investigations were used to design and implement short-term screening measurements (diffusion barrier charcoal canisters) of each building's radon potential. Phase 2 consisted of long-term radon measurements with alpha track detectors (approximately 6 months) and investigations of the characteristics of each building. These measurements were made to address the possibility that long-term radon levels might be higher on upper floors than indicated by the short-term basement and ground-level screening tests. The report describes the investigations that were conducted, the data that were gathered for each building, and general observations and discussions about patterns of radon distribution in these specific buildings.

Mardis, H.M.; MacWaters, J.; Oswald, J.

1991-12-01

226

Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9±5 to 163±32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49±2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M. S.

2010-07-01

227

Improved radon-flux-measurement system for uranium-tailings pile measurement  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing cover technology for uranium mill tailings that will inhibit the diffusion of radon to the atmosphere. As part of this cover program, an improved radon flux measurement system has been developed. The radon measurement system is a recirculating, pressure-balanced, flow-through system that uses activated carbon at ambient temperatures to collect the radon. With the system, an area of 0.93 m/sup 2/ is sampled for periods ranging from 1 to 12 h. The activated carbon is removed from the radon trap and the collected radon is determined by counting the /sup 214/Bi daughter product. Development of the system included studies to determine the efficiency of activated carbon, relative calibration measurements and field measurements made during 1980 at the inactive tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado. Results of these studies are presented.

Freeman, H.D.

1981-10-01

228

Radon testing in schools in New York State: a 20-year summary.  

PubMed

For nearly 20 years the Department of Health has conducted programs to assist in the measurement and reduction of indoor radon concentrations in 186 schools located primarily in Zone 1 areas of New York State. Although many schools had few or no rooms containing radon above 148 Bq/m(3), some rooms had >740 Bq/m(3) and remediation techniques were utilized to reduce exposure. Short-term radon measurements in the schools showed little correlation to basement and first-floor radon results from single-family homes in the towns. PMID:25117690

Kitto, Michael

2014-11-01

229

Necdin protects embryonic motoneurons from programmed cell death.  

PubMed

NECDIN belongs to the type II Melanoma Associated Antigen Gene Expression gene family and is located in the Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) critical region. Necdin-deficient mice develop symptoms of PWS, including a sensory and motor deficit. However, the mechanisms underlying the motor deficit remain elusive. Here, we show that the genetic ablation of Necdin, whose expression is restricted to post-mitotic neurons in the spinal cord during development, leads to a loss of 31% of specified motoneurons. The increased neuronal loss occurs during the period of naturally-occurring cell death and is not confined to specific pools of motoneurons. To better understand the role of Necdin during the period of programmed cell death of motoneurons we used embryonic spinal cord explants and primary motoneuron cultures from Necdin-deficient mice. Interestingly, while Necdin-deficient motoneurons present the same survival response to neurotrophic factors, we demonstrate that deletion of Necdin leads to an increased susceptibility of motoneurons to neurotrophic factor deprivation. We show that by neutralizing TNF? this increased susceptibility of Necdin-deficient motoneurons to trophic factor deprivation can be reduced to the normal level. We propose that Necdin is implicated through the TNF-receptor 1 pathway in the developmental death of motoneurons. PMID:21912643

Aebischer, Julianne; Sturny, Rachel; Andrieu, David; Rieusset, Anne; Schaller, Fabienne; Geib, Sandrine; Raoul, Cédric; Muscatelli, Françoise

2011-01-01

230

Necdin Protects Embryonic Motoneurons from Programmed Cell Death  

PubMed Central

NECDIN belongs to the type II Melanoma Associated Antigen Gene Expression gene family and is located in the Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) critical region. Necdin-deficient mice develop symptoms of PWS, including a sensory and motor deficit. However, the mechanisms underlying the motor deficit remain elusive. Here, we show that the genetic ablation of Necdin, whose expression is restricted to post-mitotic neurons in the spinal cord during development, leads to a loss of 31% of specified motoneurons. The increased neuronal loss occurs during the period of naturally-occurring cell death and is not confined to specific pools of motoneurons. To better understand the role of Necdin during the period of programmed cell death of motoneurons we used embryonic spinal cord explants and primary motoneuron cultures from Necdin-deficient mice. Interestingly, while Necdin-deficient motoneurons present the same survival response to neurotrophic factors, we demonstrate that deletion of Necdin leads to an increased susceptibility of motoneurons to neurotrophic factor deprivation. We show that by neutralizing TNF? this increased susceptibility of Necdin-deficient motoneurons to trophic factor deprivation can be reduced to the normal level. We propose that Necdin is implicated through the TNF-receptor 1 pathway in the developmental death of motoneurons. PMID:21912643

Aebischer, Julianne; Sturny, Rachel; Andrieu, David; Rieusset, Anne; Schaller, Fabienne; Geib, Sandrine; Raoul, Cedric; Muscatelli, Francoise

2011-01-01

231

RESIDENTIAL RADON RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION FEATURE SELECTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a proposed residential radon resistant construction feature selection system. The features consist of engineered barriers to reduce radon entry and accumulation indoors. The proposed Florida standards require radon resistant features in proportion to regional...

232

A creeping suspicion about radon  

SciTech Connect

Who would expect an odorless, invisible gas that occurs nearly everywhere on earth to cause such trouble Yet radon, the gas emitted by decay of uranium in the earth's crust, is one of America's most significant environmental risks, according to the EPA, which estimates that residential radon levels lead to approximately 13,600 lung cancer deaths each year. A new National Cancer Institute analysis of multiple studies of miners confirms early estimates, putting the number at 15,000. No other risk comes close, not even environmental tobacco smoke, which is estimates to cause some 3,000 deaths each year. Hot debate surrounds the assessment of risk from radon exposure to Americans via indoor air and water supplies. The primary culprit is not radon gas itself, but its decay products, including polonium-214 and polonium-218, which have long half-lives and emit alpha particles - positively charged particles - and lung cancer when inhaled. Radon seeps into homes from the ground or is present in water supplies. Waterborne radon may be inhaled as radon or its progeny during household use - cooking or showering - or it may be ingested. But the EPA estimates that water sources contribute only about 5% of total airborne radon exposure, leaving indoor air as the worst offender. While the EPA estimates that approximately 200 cancer cases per year result from exposure to radon from public groundwater systems, estimates of annual lung cancer deaths from indoor air radon range from 7,000 to 30,000.

Alderson, L.

1994-10-01

233

Constructing a resilience index for the enhanced critical in Frastructure Protection Program.  

SciTech Connect

Following recommendations made in Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7, which established a national policy for the identification and increased protection of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) by Federal departments and agencies, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2006 developed the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) program. The ECIP program aimed to provide a closer partnership with state, regional, territorial, local, and tribal authorities in fulfilling the national objective to improve CIKR protection. The program was specifically designed to identify protective measures currently in place in CIKR and to inform facility owners/operators of the benefits of new protective measures. The ECIP program also sought to enhance existing relationships between DHS and owners/operators of CIKR and to build relationships where none existed (DHS 2008; DHS 2009). In 2009, DHS and its protective security advisors (PSAs) began assessing CIKR assets using the ECIP program and ultimately produced individual protective measure and vulnerability values through the protective measure and vulnerability indices (PMI/VI). The PMI/VI assess the protective measures posture of individual facilities at their 'weakest link,' allowing for a detailed analysis of the most vulnerable aspects of the facilities (Schneier 2003), while maintaining the ability to produce an overall protective measures picture. The PMI has six main components (physical security, security management, security force, information sharing, protective measures assessments, and dependencies) and focuses on actions taken by a facility to prevent or deter the occurrence of an incident (Argonne National Laboratory 2009). As CIKR continue to be assessed using the PMI/VI and owners/operators better understand how they can prevent or deter incidents, academic research, practitioner emphasis, and public policy formation have increasingly focused on resilience as a necessary component of the risk management framework and infrastructure protection. This shift in focus toward resilience complements the analysis of protective measures by taking into account the three other phases of risk management: mitigation, response, and recovery (Figure 1). Thus, the addition of a robust resilience index (RI) to the established PMI/VI provides vital information to owners/operators throughout the risk management process. Combining a pre-incident focus with a better understanding of resilience, as well as potential consequences from damaged CIKR, allows owners/operators to better understand different ways to decrease risk by (1) increasing physical security measures to prevent an incident, (2) supplementing redundancy to mitigate the effects of an incident, and (3) enhancing emergency action and business continuity planning to increase the effectiveness of recovery procedures. Information provided by the RI methodology is also used by facility owners/operators to better understand how their facilities compare to similar sector/subsector sites and to help them make risk-based decisions. This report provides an overview of the RI methodology developed to estimate resilience and provide resilience comparisons for sectors and subsectors. The information will be used to (1) assist DHS in analyzing existing response and recovery methods and programs at facilities and (2) identify potential ways to increase resilience. The RI methodology is based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry, which is 'the coevolutionary search for the best in people, their organizations, and the relevant world around them' (Cooperrider et al. 2005). Appreciative Inquiry identifies the best of 'what is' and helps to envision 'what might be.' The ECIP program and the RI represent a new model (using Appreciative Inquiry principles) for information sharing between government and industry (Fisher and Petit 2010). A 'dashboard' display, which provides an interactive tool - rather than a static report, presents the results of the RI in a convenient format. Additional resilience measures c

Fisher, R. E.; Bassett, G. W.; Buehring, W. A.; Collins, M. J.; Dickinson, D. C.; Eaton, L. K.; Haffenden, R. A.; Hussar, N. E.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Millier, D. J.; Petit, F. D.; Peyton, S. M.; Wallace, K. E.; Whitfield, R. G.; Peerenboom, J. P.; Decision and Information Sciences

2010-10-14

234

THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the SITE Emerging Technology Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is seeking to foster the further development of technol- ogies that have been successfully tested at bench-scale and are now ready for pilot-scale testing, prior to field- or full-scale demonstra...

235

THE U.S. ENVIORNMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the SITE Emerging Technology Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is seeking to foster the further development of technologies that have been successfully tested at bench-scale and are now ready for pilot scale testing, prior to field or full scale demons...

236

Effectiveness of a Parent Training Program "Incredible Years" in a Child Protection Service  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a parent training program in improving parenting practices, parents' feeling of self-efficacy and parents' perception of their child's behavior, implemented in a child protection service, with trained professionals from the agency acting as facilitators. Method: Thirty-five parents…

Letarte, Marie-Josee; Normandeau, Sylvie; Allard, Julie

2010-01-01

237

The H-2A Program. Protections for U.S. Farmworkers. Report to Congressional Requesters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The demand for legal foreign workers for temporary or seasonal agricultural work now permitted under what is known as the H-2A program will likely increase as the employer sanctions in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 limit the use of undocumented foreign workers. To protect U.S. farmworkers, the law requires that they be given first…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Program Evaluation and Methodology Div.

238

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (EMAP) IN THE 21ST CENTURY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agancy's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is improving the tools to assess status and trends in the condition of aquatic ecosystems across the U.S. Within the Office of Research and Development, EMAP has developed an approac...

239

1990 UPDATE OF THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) directed the U.S. Environmental Protection AGency (EPA) to establish an Alternative/Innovative Treatment Technology Research and Demonstration Program. The EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response and the ...

240

OVERVIEW OF THE EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PARTICULATE TECHNOLOGY R AND D PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives an overview of a number of key projects in the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) particulate research and development program having applicability to industry. For electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), it gives results of work on large-diameter discharge ele...

241

77 FR 39748 - Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988; Report of Matching Program: RRB and State...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of...Notice of a renewal of an existing computer matching program due to expire on August...obtained from state agencies in ongoing computer matching programs regarding...

2012-07-05

242

Can an hour or two of sun protection education keep the sunburn away? Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency's Sunwise School Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Melanoma incidence is rising at a rate faster than any other preventable cancer in the United States. Childhood exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light increases risk for skin cancer as an adult, thus starting positive sun protection habits early may be key to reducing the incidence of this disease. METHODS: The Environmental Protection Agency's SunWise School Program, a national environmental

Alan C Geller; Linda Rutsch; Kristin Kenausis; Paula Selzer; Zi Zhang

2003-01-01

243

Cost of radon-barrier systems for uranium mill tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report deals specifically with the cost of three types of radon barrier systems, earthen covers, asphalt emulsion covers, and multilayer covers, which could meet standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency to stabilize uranium mill tailings located primarily in the western US. In addition, the report includes a sensitivity analysis of various factors which significantly effect the overall cost

E. G. Baker; J. N. Hartley

1982-01-01

244

Protecting prosecution: exploring the powers of law in an intervention program for domestic violence.  

PubMed

This article critically analyzes how the criminal justice system centrally situates itself in an intervention program intended to protect victims of domestic abuse and stalking. Based on the first empirical, in-depth study in the Netherlands of an intervention program using electronic technology that is increasingly used in the United States, results indicate how the central role of the criminal justice actors can evoke a shift toward foregrounding prosecutorial interests. Drawing from a critical theoretical understanding of the powers of law and the legal system, the author argues that current tendencies toward criminalization in domestic violence interventions can have an unintended violent impact for victims who are either excluded from the program or are forced into a criminal justice regime that might not be in their primary interest. In this study, women seem to actively navigate the use of the criminal justice system to receive the protection they need. PMID:16382030

Römkens, Renée

2006-02-01

245

Radon exposure in Slovenian spas.  

PubMed

Radon and gamma dose rates were surveyed in five Slovenian spas, at Rogaska Slatina, Radenci, Moravci, Podcetrtek, and Catez. Due to effective ventilation systems, the indoor air radon concentration rarely exceeds 200 Bq x m(-3) and is usually lower. Uncer the present operationsal conditions and working regimes of the spas, there is no basis for concern about elevated exposure of personnel to radon. PMID:11843342

Vaupotic, J; Kobal, I

2001-01-01

246

Map showing radon potential of rocks and soils in Montgomery County, Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes the radon potential of Montgomery County in the context of its geology. Radon is a naturally occurring gas produced by the radioactive decay of uranium. Radon produced by uraniferous rocks and soils may enter a house through porous building materials and through openings in walls and floors. Radon gases has a tendency to move from the higher pressure commonly existing in the soil to the lower pressure commonly existing in the house. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA, 1986a) estimates that elevated levels of indoor radon may be associated with 5,000 to 20,000 of the 130,000 lung cancer deaths per year. They also estimate that 8 to 12 percent of the homes in the United States will have annual average indoor radon levels exceeding 4 picoCuries per liter of air (pCi/L). Above this level, the U.S. EPA recommends homeowners take remedial action. May factors control the amount of radon which may enter a home from the geologic environment. Soil drainage, permeability, and moisture content effect the amount of radon that can be released from rocks and soils (known as the emmanation) and may limit or increase how far it can migrate. Well drained, highly permeable soils facilitate the movement of radon. Soils with water content in the 8 to 15 percent range enhance the emmanation of radon (Lindmark, 1985). Daily and seasonal variations in soil and indoor radon can be caused by meteorologic factors such as barometric pressure, temperature, and wind (Clements and Wilkening, 1974; Schery and other, 1984). Construction practices also inhibit or promote entry of radon into the home (U.S. EPA, 1986b). In general, however, geology controls the source and distribution of radon (Akerblom and Wilson, 1982; Gundersen and others, 1987, 1988; Sextro and others, 1987; U.S. EPA, 1983; Peake, 1988; Peake and Hess, 1988). The following sections describe: 1) the methods used to measure radon and equivalent uranium (eU) in soil; 2) the radon potential ratings that were developed for this study; and 3) the characteristics of the rocks and soils in Montgomery County that give them their radon potential.

Gundersen, L. C.; Reimer, G. M.; Wiggs, C. R.; Rice, C. A.

1988-01-01

247

78 FR 18246 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable...Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable...of the Affordable Care Act.'' 8. On Web...phrase ``for that plan year''....

2013-03-26

248

Impact of a School-Based AIDS Prevention Program on Risk and Protective Behavior for Newly Sexually Active Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the impact of a school-based Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) risk-reduction program on participation and intention to participate in sexual intercourse and on protective behaviors by newly sexually active seventh- and eighth-grade students. Surveys indicated the programs affected certain protective behaviors, frequency of recent…

Levy, Susan R.; And Others

1995-01-01

249

The Renewable Energy and Environmental Protection (REEP) Academy: An international training and educational program  

SciTech Connect

High school and college students are getting a global perspective of photovoltaic systems through a hands-on educational and training program. The Renewable Energy and Environmental Protection (REEP) Academy is a college preparatory program conducted by Texas Southern University (TSU), located in Houston, Texas, in partnership with Port Elizabeth Technikon, located in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. The program is designed to encourage minority high school students to pursue education in science, engineering and technology through a combination of lectures, laboratory activities, field trips and hands-on system installations. Also included in this program is an international exchange between TSU and Port Elizabeth Technikon that enables college students to study abroad and complete internships involving photovoltaics. Assessments show that the students' knowledge of renewable energy and sustainability increases by approximately 40% following their participation in the program. To date, approximately 60% of the participating students who are currently in college are enrolled in technical fields.

Hill, J.; Pichumani, J.; Linde, A. van der

1999-07-01

250

Radon in Irish Show Caves—Personal Monitoring Data From 2001-2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Directive 96/29/EURATOM and its transposition into national legislation demands the application of radiation protection measures if the presence of radon and radon decay products leads to significant increase in exposures of workers. Irish legislation further demands that laboratories carrying out radon measurements operate a high level quality assurance programme. As a result of a reconnaissance survey regular measurements of show cave guides have been made in order to assess exposure to radon in such workplaces and to ascertain that the limits set for radon are not exceeded. In 2000, an action level of 400 Bqm-3, was established. Doses in the range 0.3-12.0 mSv have been estimated for workers for the period 2001-2006.

Currivan, L.; Murray, M.; O'Colmain, M.; Pollard, D.

2008-08-01

251

Deep in the forests: Program works to protect water quality through forestry practices  

E-print Network

20 tx H2O Winter 2011 Story by Kathy Wythe The Texas Forest Service works with forestry professionals to implement best management practices to help protect water quality, which is critical for people and wildlife to survive. Photo courtesy... of Texas Forest Service. Deep in the forests Program works to protect water quality through forestry practices Winter 2011 tx H2O 21 ] Deep in the forests of East Texas and sca#27;ered in pockets of other parts of the state are more than...

Wythe, Kathy

2011-01-01

252

Deep in the Forests: Program works to protect water quality through forestry practices  

E-print Network

20 tx H2O Winter 2011 Story by Kathy Wythe The Texas Forest Service works with forestry professionals to implement best management practices to help protect water quality, which is critical for people and wildlife to survive. Photo courtesy... of Texas Forest Service. Deep in the forests Program works to protect water quality through forestry practices Winter 2011 tx H2O 21 ] Deep in the forests of East Texas and sca#27;ered in pockets of other parts of the state are more than...

Wythe, Kathy

2011-01-01

253

[Radon and internal contamination].  

PubMed

Because of hits everywhere presence in air and in water needful mediums for life, radon is a omnipresent risk for every person. Therefore, in relation to those vital functions, lungs and gastro-enteric tract represent the principal target organs of this noble radioactive gas (and mainly of hits radioactive daughters). International organisms evaluated the effective dose coefficients for both target organs, so it is possible e quantitative assessment of the exposure risk related to this noble gas. PMID:19288807

Stanga, A; Trenta, F

2008-01-01

254

Radon treatment controversy.  

PubMed

In spite of long traditions, treatments utilizing radon-rich air or water have not been unequivocally embraced by modern medicine. The objective of this work is to examine factors that contribute to this continuing controversy. While the exact mechanism of radon's effect on human body is not completely understood, recent advances in radiobiology offer new insights into biochemical processes occurring at low-level exposures to ionizing radiation. Medical evidence and patients' testimonials regarding effectiveness of radon spa treatments of various ailments, most notably rheumatoid arthritis are accumulating worldwide. They challenge the premise of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) theory that the dose-effect response is the same per unit dose regardless of the total dose. Historically, such inference overshadowed scientific inquiries into the low-dose region and lead to a popular belief that no amount of radiation can be good. Fortunately, the LNT theory, which lacks any scientific basis, did not remain unchallenged. As the reviewed literature suggests, a paradigm shift, reflected in the consideration of hormetic effects at low-doses, is gaining momentum in the scientific community worldwide. The impetus comes from significant evidence of adaptive and stimulatory effects of low-levels of radiation on human immune system. PMID:18648641

Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Strzelczyk, Jadwiga Jodi

2006-01-01

255

Moisture content and unsaturated conditions in UMTRA project radon barriers  

SciTech Connect

A typical Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal facility consists of uranium tailings and other contaminated materials covered by a three to six foot thick radon barrier and six inches of filter sand, overlain by one foot of erosion-protection riprap. To comply with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency groundwater protection standards applicable to the UMTRA Project, groundwater concentration limits of hazardous constitutents cannot be exceeded at the point of compliance, which is the downgradient limit of the waste management area. The typical radon barrier has a saturated hydraulic conductivity of approximately 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second (cm/s). Long-term seepage rates from a disposal facility with an unsaturated radon barrier may permit the concentration limits to be met at the point of compliance. Field studies were undertaken to measure the percent saturation and the relation of percent saturation to soil tension, and to predict the hydraulic conductivity as a function of percent saturation in radon barriers at three UMTRA Project disposal facilities that have been completed for up to two years. Presently typical covers have been completed at the Shiprock, Clive, and Burrell sites, and they are planned or under construction at the Ambrosia Lake, Green River, Lakeview, Mexican Hat, Slick Rock, and Tuba City sites. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1988-12-01

256

Using radon risk to motivate smoking reduction: evaluation of written materials and brief telephone counselling  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Radon and cigarette smoking have synergistic effects on lung cancer, even when radon concentrations are relatively low. Working through an electric utility company, we sought to reach smoking households with low radon concentrations and motivate smoking cessation or prohibiting smoking in the home.?DESIGN—Eligible homes (n = 714) were randomised to receive: (1) the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) "A citizen's guide to radon"; (2) a specially developed pamphlet; or (3) that pamphlet plus brief telephone counselling.?PROCEDURE—Utility company "bill stuffers" offered free radon test kits to smoking households. All households received radon test results with an explanatory cover letter. Both the specially developed pamphlet and the telephone counselling emphasised that smoking cessation or prohibiting smoking in the home were the optimal risk reduction strategies. Households were followed up at 3 and 12 months after receiving materials.?RESULTS—The specially developed pamphlet and the EPA guide yielded similar outcomes. There was a non-significant trend for telephone counselling to produce greater sustained quitting than the specially developed pamphlet, and phone counselling led to significantly more new household smoking bans.?CONCLUSIONS—Working through a public utility company is an efficient way to reach smoking households, and brief telephone counselling is a promising method for promoting household smoking bans and cessation in homes alerted to the risk posed by the combination of radon and smoking.???Keywords: radon risk; smoking cessation; smoking bans; telephone counselling PMID:10982577

Lichtenstein, E.; Andrews, J.; Lee, M.; Glasgow, R.; Hampson, S.

2000-01-01

257

Evaluation and equity audit of the domestic radon programme in England.  

PubMed

The U.K. has a radon programme to limit the radon risk to health. This involves advice on protective measures in new buildings, technical guidance on their installation, encouragement of radon measurements and remediation in existing dwellings in high radon areas. We have audited the radon programme at the level of individual homes to identify factors that influence the likelihood of remediation. 49% of the householders responded to our survey and 30% of the respondents stated that they had done some remediation to reduce the indoor radon levels. We found that householders with higher incomes and higher socio-economic status are more likely than others to remediate. Householders are less likely to remediate if they have one of the following: living in a property with a high radon concentration, current smokers in the dwelling, being unemployed or an unskilled worker, long length of time living in that property or elderly (65+ years) living by themselves. Householders appeared to be more likely to remediate if they considered the information on radon and its risk to be very clear and useful. This emphasises the importance of communication with householders. PMID:21030106

Zhang, Wei; Chow, Yimmy; Meara, Jill; Green, Martyn

2011-09-01

258

Suppression of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Radon Inhalation  

PubMed Central

The enhanced release of reactive oxygen species from activated neutrophils plays important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in various organs of mice. In this study, we examined the protective effects of radon inhalation on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS) induced colitis in mice which were subjected to DSS for 7 days. Mice were continuously treated with air only (sham) or radon at a concentration of 2000?Bq/m3 from a day before DSS administration to the end of colitis induction. In the results, radon inhalation suppressed the elevation of the disease activity index score and histological damage score induced by DSS. Based on the changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha in plasma and myeloperoxidase activity in the colon, it was shown that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colonic inflammation. Moreover, radon inhalation suppressed lipid peroxidation of the colon induced by DSS. The antioxidant level (superoxide dismutase and total glutathione) in the colon after DSS administration was significantly higher in mice treated with radon than with the sham. These results suggested that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colitis through the enhancement of antioxidative functions in the colon. PMID:23365486

Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamato, Keiko; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

2012-01-01

259

Radon permeability and radon exhalation of building materials.  

PubMed

High radon concentrations indoors usually depend on the possibilities of radon penetration from the surrounding soil into the buildings. Radon concentrations in dwellings up to 100 kBq/m3 were found in some special regions (i.e. Schneeberg/Saxony, Umhausen/Tyrol), where the soil shows a high uranium content and additionally, a fast radon transport in the soil is possible. To reduce the radon exposure of the inhabitants in these 'radon prone areas' it is necessary to look for building and insulating materials with low radon permeability. We examined several building materials, like cements, concretes and bricks of different constitutions for their diffusion coefficients and their exhalation rates. The insulating materials, like foils and bitumen were tested also on their radon tightness. The measurements were performed with an online radon measuring device, using electrostatic deposition of 218Po ions onto a surface barrier detector and subsequent alpha spectroscopy. The mean diffusion lengths for the investigated building materials range from lower than 0.7 mm (i.e. for plastic foil), up to 1.1 m for gypsum. The diffusion length R was calculated from the diffusion coefficient D with R = square root(D/lambda). If the thickness of the material is more than 3 times the diffusion length, then it is called radon-tight. The mean 222Rn exhalation rates for the building materials varied between 0.05 and 0.4 mBq/m2s. The samples were investigated as stones, plates, blocks, foils, coatings, powders etc., no statement can be made about working at the construction site of a building. Also the fabrication and processing of the materials has to be considered, because the material characteristics may have changed. PMID:11379942

Keller, G; Hoffmann, B; Feigenspan, T

2001-05-14

260

The newest international trend about regulation of indoor radon.  

PubMed

On the basis of recent epidemiological findings, many international and national organisations have revised their recommendations and regulations on radon exposure in dwellings and workplaces, or are in the process to do it. In particular, new recommendations and regulations were recently published (or are going to be) by World Health Organization, Nordic Countries, International Commission on Radiological Protection, International, Atomic Energy Agency (and the other international organisations sponsoring the International Basic Safety Standards), European Commission. Although with some differences, these new documents recommend lower radon concentrations in indoor air, especially in dwellings, compared with previous ones. Moreover, preventive measures in all new buildings are more and more considered as one of the most cost-effective way to reduce the radon-related lung cancers, compared with previous approach restricting preventive measures in radon-prone areas only. A comprehensive national action plan, involving several national and local authorities, is generally considered a necessary tool to deal with the many complex actions needed to reduce the risk from radon exposure in an effective way. PMID:21561948

Bochicchio, Francesco

2011-07-01

261

Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S. [eds.] [eds.

1994-10-01

262

MONITORING BEFORE AND AFTER RADON MITIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a radon reduction demonstration project in 1986 on 10 houses in Clinton, NJ. As part of this effort, radon was measured before and after radon reduction techniques were applied. The purpose of the measurements was to ascertain the effectiveness of the radon co...

263

Review of radon and lung cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon, a long-established cause of lung cancer in uranium and other underground miners, has recently emerged as a potentially important cause of lung cancer in the general population. The evidence for widespread exposure of the population to radon and the well-documented excess of lung cancer among underground miners exposed to radon decay products have raised concern that exposure to radon

Jonathan M. Samet; Richard W. Hornung

1990-01-01

264

Is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency brownfields assessment pilot program environmentally just?  

PubMed

In the early 1990s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) started a grant program to assist communities redevelop brownfields, which are abandoned or underutilized sites that have real or perceived contamination. In addition to determining if the communities receiving the grants were the most distressed cities in the United States, we also evaluate the U.S. EPA program in terms of environmental justice at the macro scale. Using 1990 U.S. Census of Housing and Population data and a matched-cities methodology, we compared the brownfields pilot cities to other communities in the United States. We found that regardless of intent, the U.S. EPA program is environmentally just by disproportionately awarding grants to the most economically distressed cities. We also found that the cities that received funding in the early years of the program were more economically distressed than cities receiving the funding more recently. PMID:11929735

Solitare, Laura; Greenberg, Micheal

2002-04-01

265

APPLICATION OF RADON REDUCTION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The document is intended to aid homeowners and contractors in diagnosing and solving indoor radon problems. It will also be useful to State and Federal regulatory officials and many other persons who provide advice on the selection, design and operation of radon reduction methods...

266

Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia's Health Insurance Program for the Poor  

PubMed Central

Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia’s Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a “fuzzy” regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services – with measurable health gains.

Miller, Grant; Pinto, Diana

2013-01-01

267

The Representative Areas Program for Protecting Biodiversity in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Existing no-take areas within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park reflect a historical focus on coral reefs and remote ‘pristine’ areas. The Representative Areas Program(RAP) aimsto enhance protection of the region’s biodiversityby dev elopinga network of no-take areas that represents the range of ,habitats and communities within the Marine Park. A comprehensive range of ,biological and physical information was

Jon Day; Leanne Fernandes; Ada Mlewis; Glenn De'ath; Suzanne Slegers; Bryonyb Arnett; Dan Breen; James Innes; Jamie Oliver; Trevor Ward; David Lowe

268

The Zero Hunger and Brazil without Extreme Poverty programs: a step forward in Brazilian social protection policy.  

PubMed

Brazilian social protection programs have had consistent effects in reducing poverty and inequality among their respective target-groups: children, adolescents and pregnant and breastfeeding women. In 2011, the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program was launched as a strategy to eradicate extreme poverty by 2014. It makes the promotion of rights the core concept of the official political narrative. This study seeks to provide a systematic description of the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program and its initial results. A review of official documents and academic studies on the social protection programs was conducted. The Brazil without Extreme Poverty program represents an incremental approach to the social protection policies enacted by the previous administration. It advocates a multidimensional and focused approach, funded primarily by the federal government. The strategy subscribes to the international trend of associating social protection with employment and income generation policies. PMID:25351302

Paes-Sousa, Romulo; Vaitsman, Jeni

2014-11-01

269

PROTECTING CHILDREN FROM ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS - A CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR NURSES OF THE AMERICAN NURSES FOUNDATION/ASSOCIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The American Nurses Association/Foundation will develop online, in print and pre conference continuing education (CE) children's environmental health protection programs to meet the objective of the program. The first CE program is on school environments, the second on home and ...

270

Collective dose as a performance measure for occupational radiation protection programs: Issues and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Collective dose is one of the performance measures used at many US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities to quantitatively assess the objectives of the radiation protection program. It can also be used as a management tool to improve the program for keeping worker doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Collective dose is used here to mean the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values for all workers in a specified group over a specified time. It is often used as a surrogate estimate of radiological risk. In principle, improvements in radiation protection programs and procedures will result in reduction of collective dose, all other things being equal. Within the DOE, most frequently, a single collective dose number, which may or may not be adjusted for workload and other factors, is used as a performance measure for a contractor. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the use of collective dose as a performance measure for ALARA programs at DOE sites.

Strom, D.J.; Harty, R.; Hickey, E.E.; Martin, J.B.; Peffers, M.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kathren, R.L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

1998-07-01

271

Fire protection program fiscal year 1997 site support program plan - Hanford fire department  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Hanford Fires Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford Site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. this includes response to surrounding fire department districts under mutual aids agreements and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site. the fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing, and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention and education.

Good, D.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-01

272

RADON: A BIBLIOGRAPHY  

E-print Network

CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION ASSOCIATION. 950-954 ABSTRACT:CONGRESS Of THE INTERNATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION ASSOCIATION. S73-381 ABSTRACT:CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION ASSOCIATION. 932-938 ABSTRACT:

Lepman, S.R.

2010-01-01

273

Evaluation of Exposure to Radon Levels in Relation to Climatic Conditions at a Superfund Site.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Workers at a Superfund site have expressed concern that they may be exposed to elevated levels of radon gas, especially when meteorology is suitable. The site, formally a uranium processing site, stores the world's largest quantity of Ra-226 in two concrete silos. A layer of bentonite foam was placed over the contents of the silos in 1991 as a means to reduce the amount of radon emissions. Hourly real-time outdoor and indoor site radon data covering an entire year was statistically evaluated in relation to meteorological data covering the same time period. The hourly data was found to be lognormally distributed. Radon levels were highest during the early morning hours and during the summer months. Both outdoor and indoor concentrations were found to significantly vary with temporal and climatic factors, namely wind direction and relative humidity. Radon levels in the work areas were not found to be statistically different from off-site levels. Only radon levels in the vicinity of the storage silos, which is an exclusion zone, were significantly higher than levels off-site. Hence, the protective bentonite covering seems to be effective in reducing radon emissions. Two methods were used to calculate a hypothetical dose, based upon the annual average concentrations of radon in the work areas onsite, the BEIR IV method and the NCRP method, respectively. The BEIR IV method, which accounts for the activity ratio of radon and its daughter products, resulted in a slightly higher dose than the NCRP method. As expected, based on the mean concentrations, the hypothetical annual exposures from radon in the work areas of the site were below recommended exposure limits.

Merrill, Elaine Alice

274

Map showing radon potential of rocks and soils in Fairfax County, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1984, indoor radon has gained national attention as a significant health hazard in the United States. Radon is a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas derived from uranium by radioactive decay. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) now projects that 5,000 to 20,000 lung-cancer deaths per year may be attributed to the long-term exposure to indoor radon and its radioactive decay products. Indoor radon has been previously recognized as a health hazard associated with uranium-bearing mill tailings or building materials, but it was not until December 1984 that some natural soils and rocks were found to be sources of indoor radon at levels comparable to those in uranium mines. It is now suspected that elevated indoor radon levels are far more widespread than initially though. The EPA considers 4 picoCuries of radon per liter of air (pCi/L) as the level (in a year-round measurement) at which actions ought to be taken to lower the concentration of indoor radon. All soils and rocks contain measurable amounts of uranium, which generate measurable amounts of radon. Certain soils and rocks, however, have a greater potential to cause indoor radon problems than others because (1) they have a higher uranium content and thus can generate higher levels of radon in soil gas (gas that occupies the pores of the soil), and (2) the permeability of the sol or rack is sufficiently high that radon-bearing soil gas can flow freely and move indoors through the foundation of the structure. This study was designed to demonstrate the correlation between the geologic environment and indoor radon levels and to demonstrate a method of assessment that could be used by other informed workers in areas of their interest. A parallel study by Gundersen and others (1988) of the radon potential of rocks and soils in Montgomery County, Md., used somewhat different methods of assessment because the data available for and assessment of Montgomery County differed.

Otton, James K.; Schumann, R. Randall; Owen, Douglass E.; Thurman, Nelson; Duval, Joseph S.

1988-01-01

275

75 FR 63524 - Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988; Report of Matching Program: RRB and State...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the disclosure through a computer match that RRB plans to share...certain circumstances, the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection...agency participating in a computer matching program to publish...Beneficiaries; (2) Make necessary adjustments required...

2010-10-15

276

SYMPOSIUM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC PROGRAMS FOR MONITORING ECOLOGICAL IMPACT FROM PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Historically, monitoring programs in association with field releases of crops with plant incorporated protectants (PIPs) have been, explicitly or implicitly, called for as a part of risk assessment/management schemes or regulatory agenda. However...

277

Radon measurement and mitigation activity in Finland.  

PubMed

Radon prevention, measurement and mitigation activities have been increasing in Finland during the 2000s. Nowadays, many municipal authorities, especially those located in high-radon areas, require radon prevention measures. This has activated radon measurements. Owners of new houses having radon piping installed under the floor slab are the most active group to measure and reduce the found high-radon values. Their radon awareness is apparently better than on the average, and the existing piping makes it easier and cheaper to reduce the radon levels. Local campaigns involving invitation flyers mailed to the residents have been a cost-effective means to activate measurements of older houses. So far 116,611 dwellings in low-rise residential buildings have been measured. At least 15% of the 16,860 dwellings found to exceed the reference level of 400 Bq m(-3) had their indoor radon level reduced below that. PMID:24729562

Valmari, T; Arvela, H; Reisbacka, H; Holmgren, O

2014-07-01

278

Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) program : implementing physical security to protect large radioactive sources worldwide.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) Program strives to reduce the threat of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD) incident that could affect U.S. interests worldwide. Sandia National Laboratories supports the RTR program on many different levels. Sandia works directly with DOE to develop strategies, including the selection of countries to receive support and the identification of radioactive materials to be protected. Sandia also works with DOE in the development of guidelines and in training DOE project managers in physical protection principles. Other support to DOE includes performing rapid assessments and providing guidance for establishing foreign regulatory and knowledge infrastructure. Sandia works directly with foreign governments to establish cooperative agreements necessary to implement the RTR Program efforts to protect radioactive sources. Once necessary agreements are in place, Sandia works with in-country organizations to implement various security related initiatives, such as installing security systems and searching for (and securing) orphaned radioactive sources. The radioactive materials of interest to the RTR program include Cobalt 60, Cesium 137, Strontium 90, Iridium 192, Radium 226, Plutonium 238, Americium 241, Californium 252, and Others. Security systems are implemented using a standardized approach that provides consistency through out the RTR program efforts at Sandia. The approach incorporates a series of major tasks that overlap in order to provide continuity. The major task sequence is to: Establish in-country contacts - integrators, Obtain material characterizations, Perform site assessments and vulnerability assessments, Develop upgrade plans, Procure and install equipment, Conduct acceptance testing and performance testing, Develop procedures, and Conduct training. Other tasks are incorporated as appropriate and commonly include such as support of reconfiguring infrastructure, and developing security plans, etc. This standardized approach is applied to specific country and regional needs. Recent examples (FY 2003-2004) include foreign missions to Lithuania, Russian Federation Navy, Russia - PNPI, Greece (joint mission with IAEA), Tanzania, Iraq, Chile, Ecuador, and Egypt. Some of the ambitions and results of the RTR program may be characterized by the successes in Lithuania, Greece, and Russia.

Lowe, Daniel L.

2004-11-01

279

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; program integrity: Exchange, SHOP, and eligibility appeals. Final rule.  

PubMed

This final rule implements provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act). Specifically, this final rule outlines Exchange standards with respect to eligibility appeals, agents and brokers, privacy and security, issuer direct enrollment, and the handling of consumer cases. It also sets forth standards with respect to a State's operation of the Exchange and Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP). It generally is finalizing previously proposed policies without change. PMID:23991479

2013-08-30

280

Radiation Protection Considerations at USACE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Projects  

SciTech Connect

The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was initially authorized by Congress in 1974. FUSRAP was enacted to address residual radioactive contamination associated with numerous sites across the U.S. at which radioactive material (primarily Uranium ores and related milling products) had been processed in support of the nation's nuclear weapons program dating back to the Manhattan Project and the period immediately following World War II. In October 1997, Congress transferred the management of this program from the Department of Energy to the United States Corp of Engineers. Through this program, the Corps addresses the environmental remediation of certain sites once used by DOE's predecessor agencies, the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. The waste at FUSRAP sites consists mainly of low levels of uranium, thorium and radium, along with some mixed wastes. Upon completion of remedial activities, these sites are transferred to DOE for long-term stewardship activities. This paper presents and contrasts the radiological conditions and recent monitoring results associated with five large ongoing FUSRAP projects including Maywood, N.J.; the Linde site near Buffalo, N.Y.; Colonie in Albany N.Y. and the St Louis, Mo. airport and downtown sites. The radiological characteristics of soil and debris at each site and respective regulatory clean up criteria is presented and contrasted. Some differences are discussed in the radiological characteristics of material at some sites that result in variations in radiation protection monitoring programs. Additionally, summary data for typical personnel radiation exposure monitoring results are presented. In summary: 1. The FUSRAP projects for which data and observations are reported in this paper are considered typical of the radiological nature of FUSRAP sites in general. 2. These sites are characterized by naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides in soil and debris, at concentrations typically < E4 pCi/ gram total activity. 3. Although external exposure rates are generally low resulting in few exposures above background, occasional 'hot spots' are observed in the 1- 10 mR / hr range or higher. However personnel and general area external exposure monitoring programs consistently demonstrate very low potential for external exposure at theses sites. 4. Potential for airborne exposure is controlled by wetting and misting techniques during excavation and movement of materials. Air sampling and bioassay programs confirm low potential for airborne exposure of workers at these sites. 5. Radiation protection and health physics monitoring programs as implemented at these sites ensure that exposures to personal are maintained ALARA. (authors)

Brown, S.H. [CHP, SHB INC., Centennial, Colorado (United States)

2008-07-01

281

A generic biokinetic model for noble gases with application to radon  

SciTech Connect

The International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently uses a dose conversion coefficient to calculate effective dose per unit exposure to radon and its progeny. The coefficient is derived by dividing the detriment associated with unit exposure to radon, as estimated from epidemiological studies, by the detriment per unit effective dose, as estimated mainly from atomic bomb survivor data and animal studies. In a recent statement the ICRP indicated that future guidance on exposure to radon and its progeny will be developed in the same way as guidance for any other radionuclide. That is, intake of radon and progeny will be limited on the basis of effective dose coefficients derived from biokinetic and dosimetric models. This paper proposes a biokinetic model for systemic (absorbed) radon for use in the calculation of dose coefficients for inhaled or ingested radon. The model is based largely on physical laws governing transfer of a non-reactive and soluble gas between materials. Model predictions are shown to be consistent with results of controlled studies of the fate of internally deposited radon in human subjects.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Marsh, James [Health Protection Agency of Great Britain; Gregoratto, Demetrio [Health Protection Agency of Great Britain; Blanchardon, Eric [IRSN

2013-01-01

282

Effects of residential mobility on individual versus population risk of radon-related lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does not consider the effects of normal patterns of residential mobility in estimating individual radon-related lung cancer risks. As a consequence, the EPA`s population risk estimates may have little hearing on individual risks, and remediation of high-radon homes may have only small health benefits for the individuals who remediate their homes. Through a simulation analysis, we examine the effects of residential mobility on radon exposure and lung cancer risk. Given normal mobility, only 7% of eventual radon-related mortality among current 30 year olds will occur in the 5% currently living in homes above 4 pCi/l (the EPA`s action level for remediation), in contrast with an estimate of 31% of deaths when mobility is ignored. Above 10 pCi/l, the no-mobility assumption implies 10.3% of deaths, compared to only 0.4% when mobility is taken into account. We conclude that knowledge of one`s current radon exposure is not necessarily a useful guide to one`s risk, especially for residents of the high-radon homes targeted for remediation by the EPA. The risk of such individuals is likely to be substantially lower than that implied in the EPA`S risk charts. If people currently living in high-radon homes remediate their houses, the majority of the resulting health benefits will accrue to future occupants of their homes. 25 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Warner, K.E.; Courant, P.N.; Mendez, D. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1995-12-01

283

A review of the indirect protection of younger children and the elderly through a mass influenza vaccination program in Japan.  

PubMed

In the past, Japan's strategy for controlling influenza was to vaccinate schoolchildren based on the theory that this could reduce influenza epidemics in the community, and a special program to vaccinate schoolchildren against influenza was begun in 1962. However, the program was discontinued in 1994 because of lack of evidence that it had limited the spread of influenza in the community. In 2001, it was reported that a clear decrease in excess mortality had coincided with the timing of the schoolchild vaccination program. This decrease could have potentially occurred because elderly people were protected by herd immunity generated by the program. Moreover, the program protected the younger siblings of schoolchildren against influenza-associated encephalopathy. Finally, the program was effective in reducing the number of class cancellations and absenteeism from school. During the period when the program was in effect, Japanese schoolchildren served as a barrier against influenza in the community. PMID:25138431

Sugaya, Norio

2014-12-01

284

Reducing the risks from radon indoors: an IAEA perspective.  

PubMed

The IAEA has a mandate to develop, in collaboration with other relevant international organisations, 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimisation of danger to life and property', and to provide for the application of these standards. The most recent edition of the International Basic Safety Standards includes, for the first time, requirements to protect the public from exposure due to radon indoors. As a result, the IAEA has already developed guidance material in line with accepted best international practice and an international programme to assist its Member States in identifying and addressing high radon concentrations in buildings is being prepared. This paper overviews the current situation around the world and summarises the management approach advocated by the IAEA. A number of important scientific and policy issues are identified and discussed from the point-of-view of how they may impact on national action plans and strategies. Finally, the assistance and support available through the Agency is described. PMID:24743761

Boal, T; Colgan, P A

2014-07-01

285

RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 1: TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of radon reduction and radon-resistant construction demonstrations in New York. The existing house evaluation demonstrated radon mitigation techniques where indoor radon concentrations exceeded 4 pCi/L. Results demonstrated that sealing all accessible fou...

286

Programmed death 1 protects from fatal circulatory failure during systemic virus infection of mice  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory programmed death 1 (PD-1)–programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway contributes to the functional down-regulation of T cell responses during persistent systemic and local virus infections. The blockade of PD-1–PD-L1–mediated inhibition is considered as a therapeutic approach to reinvigorate antiviral T cell responses. Yet previous studies reported that PD-L1–deficient mice develop fatal pathology during early systemic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, suggesting a host protective role of T cell down-regulation. As the exact mechanisms of pathology development remained unclear, we set out to delineate in detail the underlying pathogenesis. Mice deficient in PD-1–PD-L1 signaling or lacking PD-1 signaling in CD8 T cells succumbed to fatal CD8 T cell–mediated immunopathology early after systemic LCMV infection. In the absence of regulation via PD-1, CD8 T cells killed infected vascular endothelial cells via perforin-mediated cytolysis, thereby severely compromising vascular integrity. This resulted in systemic vascular leakage and a consequential collapse of the circulatory system. Our results indicate that the PD-1–PD-L1 pathway protects the vascular system from severe CD8 T cell–mediated damage during early systemic LCMV infection, highlighting a pivotal physiological role of T cell down-regulation and suggesting the potential development of immunopathological side effects when interfering with the PD-1–PD-L1 pathway during systemic virus infections. PMID:23230000

Frebel, Helge; Nindl, Veronika; Schuepbach, Reto A.; Braunschweiler, Thomas; Richter, Kirsten; Vogel, Johannes; Wagner, Carsten A.; Loffing-Cueni, Dominique; Kurrer, Michael; Ludewig, Burkhard

2012-01-01

287

1994 Annual wildlife survey report. Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of wildlife surveys and other wildlife monitoring performed from January through December 1994. These surveys are part of a long-term ecological monitoring program conducted under the Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program (NRPCP). This program is essential in identifying and quantifying fluctuations of wildlife populations, wildlife habitat use, and changes in the species using the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) as year-round or seasonal habitat. Wildlife population densities vary constantly due to natural pressures, and only well-integrated, long-term monitoring can identify which factors influencing wildlife populations are a consequence of natural causes, and which are due to human activities. An integrated monitoring program that gathers data on ecologically interactive species is essential in evaluating population fluctuations. Such data can be an invaluable tool in predicting and avoiding impacts on the ecology of an area due to projected human activities. With 167 species of birds, three big game species, nine species of carnivores, nine species of mid-sized mammals, and 15 small mammal species, the Site provides habitat to a surprising variety of wildlife. Many of these species are sensitive species or indicator organisms that by their presence or, more significantly, by their absence can indicate the ecological health of an area. Their presence at the Site indicates a very healthy ecosystem.

NONE

1995-04-24

288

Calculation of impulse current distributions and magnetic fields in lightning protection structures-a computer program and its laboratory validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circuit model and an ad hoc computer program were set up to evaluate electromagnetic interference in the vicinity of protective structures struck by lightning. This program permits the evaluation of the impulsive magnetic fields by calculating the impulse current distribution in different parts of such structures. It also allows the evaluation of the electromagnetic interference induced on susceptible victim

R. Cortina; A. Porrino

1992-01-01

289

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Research Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Summary of a Peer-Review Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development, a subcommittee of the Board of Scientific Counselors Executive Committee con- ducted an independent and open peer review of the Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Research Program (EDC Research Program) of the U.S. EPA. The subcommittee was charged with reviewing the design, relevance, progress, scientific leadership, and

Anna K. Harding; George P. Daston; Glen R. Boyd; George W. Lucier; Stephen H. Safe; Juarine Stewart; Donald E. Tillitt; Glen Van Der Kraak

2006-01-01

290

78 FR 29786 - Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988; Report of Matching Program: RRB and State...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of...Notice of a renewal of an existing computer matching program due to expire on May...Register of its intent to renew an ongoing computer matching program. In this match,...

2013-05-21

291

The Material Protection, Control and Accounting Sustainability Program Implementation at the Electrochemical Plant  

SciTech Connect

Joint efforts by the Electrochemical Plant (ECP) in Zelenogorsk, Russia, and the United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (US DOE/NNSA) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program to upgrade ECP security systems began in 1996. The commissioning of major MPC&A systems at ECP occurred in December 2004. Since that time, the US Project Team (USPT) and ECP personnel have focused jointly on the development and implementation of an enterprise-wide MPC&A Sustainability Program (SP) that address the seven essential MPC&A Program sustainability elements. This paper describes current operational experience at the ECP with the full implementation of the site SP utilizing an earned-value methodology. In support of this site program, ECP has established a Document Control Program (DCP) for sustainability-related documents; developed a robust master Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) that outlines all ECP MPC&A sustainability activities; and chartered an Enterprise-Wide Sustainability Working Group (ESWG) The earned value methodology uses ECP-completed (and USPT-verified) analyses to assess project performance on a quarterly basis. The MPC&A SP, presently operational through a contract between ECP and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), incorporates the seven essential MPC&A Program sustainability elements and governs all sustainability activities associated with MPC&A systems at ECP. The site SP is designed to ensure over the near term the upgraded MPC&A systems continuous operation at ECP as funding transitions from US-assisted to fully Russian supported and sustained.

Sirotenko, Vladimir; Antonov, Eduard; Sirotenko, Alexei; Kukartsev, Alexander; Krivenko, Vladimir; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Esther M.

2008-06-10

292

{sup 210}Po as a long-term integrating radon indicator in the indoor environment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to radon (Rn-222) decay products in the indoor environment is suspected of being a significant lung cancer agent in many countries. But quantification of the contemporary lung cancer risk (i.e. probability) on an individual basis is not an easy task. Only past exposures are relevant and assessing individual exposures in retrospect is associated with large uncertainties, if possible at all. One way to extend the validity of contemporary measurements to past decades is to measure long-lived decay products of radon, the long-lived radon daughters. After our laboratory had exemplified the correlation between implanted Po-210 and the estimated radon exposures in six different dwellings, the US Department of Energy and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute granted funds for a one-year study, ``{sup 210}Po as a Long-Term Integrating Radon Indicator in the Indoor Environment.`` In this report the work performed under these two contracts is reported.

Not Available

1992-12-31

293

Comparison of urinary excretion of radon from the human body before and after radon bath therapy.  

PubMed

Theoretically, the human body absorbs radon through the lungs and the skin and excretes it through the lungs and the excretory organs during radon bath therapy. To check this theory, the radon concentrations in urine samples were compared before and after radon bath therapy. During the therapy, the geometric mean (GM) and the geometric standard deviation of the radon concentration in air and in the bath water were 979 Bq m(-3), 1.58 and 73.6 Bq dm(-3), 1.1, respectively. Since radon was detected in each urine sample (GM around 3.0 Bq dm(-3)), urinary excretion of radon was confirmed. The results of this study can neither reject nor confirm the hypothesis of radon absorption through the skin. A 15 times higher increment of inhaled radon level did not cause significant changes in radon of urine samples. PMID:21486832

Kávási, Norbert; Kovács, Tibor; Somlai, János; Jobbágy, Viktor; Nagy, Katalin; Deák, Eszter; Berhés, István; Bender, Tamás; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji

2011-07-01

294

Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas (222Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the 222Rn concentrations (Bq/m3) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter's dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (?int) and alpha hit efficiency (?hit). The ?int depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and ?hit depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper explains that how radon concentration from the experimentally obtained etched track density can be obtained. The program based on RAHI method is also given in this paper.

Jamil, Khalid; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid

2014-11-01

295

Exposure to indoor radon and natural gamma radiation in some workplaces at Algiers, Algeria.  

PubMed

Radon activity concentrations have been measured in 34 workplaces throughout Algiers nuclear research centre, in Algeria, during some periods between March 2007 and June 2013 using Electret ion chambers, nuclear tracks detectors and an AlphaGuard system. The indoor radon levels range from 2 to 628 Bq m(-3) with an average indoor concentration equals to 92 Bq m(-3), whereas the estimated outdoor radon concentrations range from 2 to 14 Bq m(-3) with an average value of 6 Bq m(-3). This study also focused on parameters affecting radon concentration levels such as ?oor number, ventilation and atmospheric parameters. Furthermore, the mean gamma rates have been measured in the different investigated locations and have been found to be varying between 33 and 3300 nSv h(-1). The annual effective dose for workers calculated using the appropriate equilibrium and occupancy factors is lower than the value recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection in its Publication 103. PMID:24711531

Aďt Ziane, M; Lounis-Mokrani, Z; Allab, M

2014-07-01

296

Expert systems: A new approach to radon mitigation training and quality assurance  

SciTech Connect

Training radon mitigators and ensuring that they provide high-quality work on the scale necessary to reduce radon to acceptable levels in the large number of homes and schools requiring some mitigation is a challenging problem. The US Environmental Protection Agency and several states have made commendable efforts to train mitigators and ensure that they provide quality services to the public. Expert systems could be used to extend and improve the effectiveness of these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the radon community to this promising new technology. The paper includes a description of a prototype system developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory that illustrates several of the capabilities that expert systems can provide, a brief explanation of how the prototype works, and a discussion of the potential roles and benefits of fully-developed expert systems for radon mitigation. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Brambley, M.R.; Hanlon, R.L.; Parker, G.B.

1990-07-01

297

[Radon exposure and risks for public health].  

PubMed

Radon is a radioactive gas of natural origin. Its principal isotope is radon-222, stemming from uranium-238 present at various concentrations in all soils. Radon is found everywhere in the earth's atmosphere but has low reactivity by itself. Radon particulate daughters are however responsible for alpha irradiation of the bronchial epithelium. Epidemiologic studies on miners have shown long ago that radon exposure causes an increased risk of lung cancer in these workers. More recently, its risk associated with radon exposure was addressed in public dwellings. It is generally agreed that the risk of lung cancer is plausible in this setting. In particular, radon exposure in some dwellings may be comparable to that undergone by several uranium miner populations. However, simple and low-cost steps can be taken to significantly reduce radon exposure in dwellings. PMID:11148372

Bard, D; Tirmarche, M; Pirard, P

2000-12-01

298

RADON GENERATION AND TRANSPORT THROUGH CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an examination of radon generation and transport through Florida residential concretes for their contribution to indoor radon concentrations. Radium concentrations in the 11 concretes tested were all ...

299

SWOT analysis of the Czech Radon programme.  

PubMed

Since the early 1990s, the Czech Republic has been one of the countries that carry out a radon programme on its territory, with the aim of protecting people from unnecessary long-term exposure in their homes. Since that time, many achievements have been registered, and many unexpected difficulties have cropped up. This may be the right moment to take some time out to analyse the state of the programme and to determine the direction for its future development. An extended SWOT analysis can serve as a useful tool for this purpose. Originally, SWOT analyses were used exclusively by for-profit organisations aiming to evaluate their perspectives, develop strategies and make plans in order to achieve their objectives. More recently, it has been used in a wide range of decision-making situations when a desired end-state is to be defined. Here, an extended SWOT analysis is used to formulate possible beneficial strategies for advancing anti-radon policy in the Czech Republic. PMID:24729595

Fojtíková, I

2014-07-01

300

Biochemical Comparison between Radon Effects and Thermal Effects on Humans in Radon Hot Spring Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon therapy\\/Radon effect\\/Thermal effect\\/Antioxidant\\/Immunity. The radioactive and thermal effects of radon hot spring were biochemically compared under a sauna room or hot spring conditions with a similar chemical component, using the parameters that are closely involved in the clinic for radon therapy. The results showed that the radon and thermal therapy enhanced the antioxidation functions, such as the activities of

Kiyonori YAMAOKA; Fumihiro MITSUNOBU; Katsumi HANAMOTO; Koichi SHIBUYA; Shuji MORI; Yoshiro TANIZAKI; Katsuhiko SUGITA

2004-01-01

301

Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0±14.2 Bq/m3, 83.4±6.0 Bq/m3, 61.6±6.4 Bq/m3, 63.7±5.4 Bq/m3 and 87.5±6.Bq/m3 and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m3, 5.5 Bq/m3, 1.1 Bq/m3, 1.0 Bq/m3 and 24 Bq/m3 respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm-3 set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The "within regions" (different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region "1" (p = 0.783) and versus region "5" (P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region "3" ( P = 0.0160) and also versus region "4" (p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other regions are near to the Al-Thuwayrat sands.

Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R.

2011-10-01

302

Evaluating accountability in the Vaccines for Children program: protecting a federal investment.  

PubMed

The Vaccines for Children (VFC) program supplies health-care providers with federally purchased vaccines at no cost for administration to eligible children. Evaluation of vaccine accountability activities ensures appropriate and timely vaccinations are delivered. Program grantees in 50 states, Washington, five large U.S. metropolitan cities, and five U.S. territories and possessions completed a Web-based survey between December 2002 and January 2003 focused on current vaccine accountability operational systems. Most grantees required providers to complete profiles describing the vaccination needs and demographics of their practices. More than half requested providers use benchmarking data, doses-administered reports, and/or claims or encounter data to determine their VFC program-eligible population size; however, > 65% did not have written procedures for investigating and reconciling discrepancies between estimated vaccine needs and actual vaccine-use data. Most grantees had written standard policies requiring providers to report vaccine loss and wastage routinely and to explain why they occurred. Ninety percent of grantees did not have procedures to check providers for fraud and abuse sanctions, and 52% did not have written procedures to address complaints of vaccine fraud and abuse. These results suggested specific areas in which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention should work with grantees to improve vaccine accountability practices. As a result, enhancements to the VFC program are being implemented to address these areas and their impact evaluated for their effectiveness in ensuring the continued success of the VFC program in protecting the nation's most vulnerable children and adolescents. PMID:18051664

Ching, Pamela L Y H

2007-01-01

303

A survey of the 16 Canadian child and youth protection programs: A threadbare patchwork quilt  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Child abuse and neglect (CAN) represents an international public health and societal problem, the extent and nature of which are inadequately understood. Child and youth protection programs (CYPPs), based in 16 Canadian paediatric academic health science centres, identify, manage, treat and prevent cases of CAN. OBJECTIVES To ascertain the structure, resources and functioning of Canadian CYPPs. METHODS Telephone interviews were conducted with the directors of the 16 CYPPs. RESULTS Full-time equivalent staffing ranged from 0.25 to 18.7 people. All programs were staffed with physicians. The majority of programs had social workers (14 of 16) and administrative staff (12 of 16), while fewer programs had a dedicated nurse (nine of 16) or psychologists (six of 16). All CYPPs provided medical examinations and psychosocial assessments, consultation and coordination of CAN cases within the hospital and with community professionals, expert medico-legal opinions and representation in court, and hospital in-service and community outreach education and advocacy. Nine centres participated in regular multi-agency reviews of cases. Fourteen centres had specialized teams for acute sexual assault. Academic activities include lectures to medical students (16 of 16), undergraduate clinical electives (11 of 16), mandatory clinical rotations for paediatric residents (10 of 16) and/or electives (15 of 16), a fellowship (one of 16) and research on CAN-related issues (11 of 16). CAN documentation was inconsistent and limited, underestimating the number of cases assessed within the CYPPs. CONCLUSION CYPPs appear to need further resources to care for maltreated children and their families. A national, standardized database to document CAN cases would aid in the allocation of resources to help develop policies and programs that effectively address the needs of CAN victims and their families, and to prevent CAN. PMID:19030360

Bennett, Susan; Plint, Amy C; MacKay, Morag

2007-01-01

304

Is Your School Safe from Radon?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radon is a natural, chemically inert, radioactive gas that can seep to the surface from underground rocks. As many as 20,000 lung cancer deaths in the U.S. each year may be radon-caused. Screening a school for radon is not difficult and may be done on weekends. It's safer for students and staff to test and be sure. (MLH)

Martin, Paul

1990-01-01

305

Reducing Radon in Schools: A Team Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the process of radon diagnostics and mitigation in schools to help educators determine the best way to reduce elevated radon levels found in a school. The guidebook is designed to guide school leaders through the process of measuring radon levels, selecting the best mitigation strategy, and directing the efforts of a…

Ligman, Bryan K.; Fisher, Eugene J.

306

PRELIMINARY DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES FOR RADON CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes analytical procedures for diagnosing radon entry mechanisms into buildings. These diagnostic methods are generally based on the premise that pressure-driven flow of radon-bearing soil gas into buildings is the most significant source of radon in houses with e...

307

Radon concentrations in a spa in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of indoor radon concentration survey in 201 homes and offices in Niska Banja (the Spa of Nis), a well-known health resort and a spa in the South-East of Serbia. Radon indoor concentrations were determined by active charcoal method, according to standard EPA procedure. The indoor radon concentrations were in the range of up to 200

G. Manic; S. Petrovic; Manic Vesna; Dragana Popovic; Dragana Todorovic

2006-01-01

308

Indoor radon and lung cancer in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon has long been known to contribute to risk of lung cancer, especially in undergound miners who are exposed to large amounts of the carcinogen. Recently, however, lower amounts of radon present in living areas have been suggested as an important cause of lung cancer. In an effort to clarify the relationship of low amounts of radon with lung cancer

W. J. Blot; Z.-Y. Xu; J. D. Jr. Boice; D.-Z. Zhao; B. J. Stone; J. Sun; L.-B. Jing; J. F. Jr. Fraumeni

1990-01-01

309

Radon-hazard potential of Utah  

SciTech Connect

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas formed by decay of uranium, and occurs in nearly all geologic materials. Although radon has been shown to be a significant cause of lung cancer in miners, the health hazard from accumulation of radon gas in buildings has only recently been recognized. Indoor-radon hazards depend on both geologic and non-geologic factors. Although non-geologic factors such as construction type, weather, and lifestyles are difficult to measure, geologic factors such as uranium concentration, soil permeability, and depth to ground water can be quantified. Uranium-enriched geologic materials, such as black shales, marine sandstones, and certain granitic, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks, are generally associated with a high radon-hazard potential. Impermeable soil or shallow ground water impedes radon movement and is generally associated with a low radon-hazard potential. A numerical rating system based on these geologic factors has been developed to map radon-hazard potential in Utah. A statewide map shows that the radon-hazard potential of Utah is generally moderate. Assessments of hazard potential from detailed field investigations correlate well with areas of this map. Central Utah has the highest radon-hazard potential, primarily due to uranium-enriched Tertiary volcanic rocks. The radon-hazard potential of eastern Utah is moderate to high, but is generally restricted by low uranium levels. Western Utah, where valley basins with impermeable soils and shallow ground water are common, has the lowest radon-hazard potential.

Black, B.D.; Solomon, B.J. (Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1993-04-01

310

[Protect employability: effects of prevention programs offered by the german pension scheme].  

PubMed

A pilot study was carried out in 4 medical rehabilitation centers to examine the practicability and effectiveness of preventive life-style interventions for employees with risk factors. The programs were developed in cooperation with the German pension scheme and employers. Selection criteria were risk factors as lack of physical activity, overweight, dorsal pain or job strain. The results demonstrate that preventive programs, which are conducted in addition to the normal working hours on the job, can be implemented successfully in rehabilitation units. The participation in the multimodal prevention program goes along with a stable reduction of risky health behavior: increased physical activity, stress coping, dietary change und weight reduction. The healthier life-style is reflected in an enhanced state of health and has also positive impact on the occupational field scale: The percentage of employees who believed to be able to work until their old-age pension, could be increased significantly (p<0.001) from 47% to 74%. Work-related risk behaviors like excessive demands on oneself were reduced and protective strategies were -developed. PMID:24399282

Kittel, J; Fröhlich, S M; Heilmeyer, P; Olbrich, D; Karoff, M; Greitemann, B

2014-08-01

311

1995 Annual wildlife survey report. Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of wildlife surveys performed at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) from January through December of 1995 as compared with results from previous years. These surveys were performed as part of a long-term ecological monitoring program conducted under the Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program (NRPCP). This program is essential in identifying and describing fluctuations of wildlife populations, wildlife habitat use, and changes in species using RFETS. The NRPCP provides support to the Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as Natural Resource Trustee, and provides data essential to accomplishing the goal of preserving the unique ecological values of RFETS in keeping with the Rocky Flats Vision presented in the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Public Comment Draft. Wildlife population densities vary due to natural pressures and human influences, and only long-term monitoring can verify which factors influencing wildlife populations are the consequence of natural fluctuations, and which are due to human influences. The wildlife monitoring described in this report provides qualitative data that give an indication of the ecological health of RFETS. Monitoring numbers, habitat affinities, and apparent health of the wildlife populations makes it possible to evaluate the overall ecological health of the site. Monitoring and surveys such as those carried out by the NRPCP can indicate trends of this sort, and act as an {open_quotes}early warning system{close_quotes} for impending ecological problems.

NONE

1996-04-25

312

Radiation protection in pediatric interventional cardiology: An IAEA PILOT program in Latin America.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to present a methodology and some initial results for a pilot program on radiation protection (RP) in pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The starting point of the program was a workshop involving several pediatric cardiologists leading this specialty in 11 Latin American countries. The workshop included a pilot RP training course and additional sessions during which the objectives of the program and the methodology to collect and process data on patient and staff radiation doses were discussed. Special attention was dedicated to agree on a common quality control (QC) protocol for the x-ray and imaging systems used in the different catheterization laboratories. The preliminary data showed that only 64% of the cardiologists used their personal dosimeters regularly and that only 36% were aware of their personal dose values. The data on pediatric interventional activity were collected from 10 centers from nine different countries. A total of 2,429 procedures (50% diagnostic and 50% therapeutic) were carried out during 2009 in these centers. Patient dose data were available in only a few centers and were not analyzed on a regular basis in any of the catheterization laboratories involved. Plans were developed for a basic QC protocol of the x-ray systems and construction of a Latin American database on pediatric cardiology with patient and staff dose values with the idea in mind of obtaining distributions of these dose values before promoting several optimization strategies. PMID:21799339

Vano, Eliseo; Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Leyton, Fernando; Durán, Ariel; Nader, Alejandro

2011-09-01

313

77 FR 37060 - Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) Asset Protection Technical Assistance Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DHS-2012-0002] Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources...CIKR) Asset Protection Technical...INFORMATION: The Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources...CIKR) Asset Protection Technical...Infrastructure Protection, Infrastructure Information...Title: Critical...

2012-06-20

314

76 FR 5186 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Agency Information Collection Activities; Office of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...effort to enhance the protection of the Nation's critical infrastructure and key resources...security mission for critical infrastructure protection and resilience is...awareness of the critical infrastructure protection and resilience...

2011-01-28

315

Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes. Part 1; Program Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Icing Technology Branch at NASA Lewis has been involved in an effort to validate two thermal ice protection codes developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. LEWICE/Thermal (electrothermal deicing & anti-icing), and ANTICE (hot-gas & electrothermal anti-icing). The Thermal Code Validation effort was designated as a priority during a 1994 'peer review' of the NASA Lewis Icing program, and was implemented as a cooperative effort with industry. During April 1996, the first of a series of experimental validation tests was conducted in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel(IRT). The purpose of the April 96 test was to validate the electrothermal predictive capabilities of both LEWICE/Thermal, and ANTICE. A heavily instrumented test article was designed and fabricated for this test, with the capability of simulating electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Thermal measurements were then obtained over a range of test conditions, for comparison with analytical predictions. This paper will present an overview of the test, including a detailed description of: (1) the validation process; (2) test article design; (3) test matrix development; and (4) test procedures. Selected experimental results will be presented for de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Finally, the status of the validation effort at this point will be summarized. Detailed comparisons between analytical predictions and experimental results are contained in the following two papers: 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 2- The Validation of LEWICE/Thermal' and 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 3-The Validation of ANTICE'

Miller, Dean; Bond, Thomas; Sheldon, David; Wright, William; Langhals, Tammy; Al-Khalil, Kamel; Broughton, Howard

1996-01-01

316

Hanford protective barriers program: Status of asphalt barrier studies - FY 1989  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Protective Barrier Program is evaluating alternate barriers to provide a means of meeting stringent water infiltration requirements. One type of alternate barrier being considered is an asphalt-based layer, 1.3 to 15 cm thick. Evaluations of these barriers were initiated in FY 1988, and, based on laboratory studies, two asphalt formulations were selected for further testing in small-tube lysimeters: a hot rubberized asphalt and an admixture of cationic asphalt emulsion and concrete sand containing 24 wt% residual asphalt. Eight lysimeters containing asphalt seals were installed as part of the Small Tube Lysimeter Test Facility on the Hanford Site. Two control lysimeters containing Hanford sand with a surface gravel treatment were also installed for comparison. 5 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.

1989-11-01

317

Reassessment of the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation  

SciTech Connect

On July 6, 1993, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Executive Director for Operations established a review team to reassess the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation. The team evaluated the current system, and solicited comments from various NRC offices, other Federal agencies, licensees, former allegers, and the public. This report is subject to agency review. The report summarizes current processes and gives an overview of current problems. It discusses: (1) ways in which licensees can promote a quality-conscious work environment, in which all employees feel free to raise concerns without fear of retaliation; (2) ways to improve the NRC`s overall handling of allegations; (3) the NRC`s involvement in the Department of Labor process; (4) related NRC enforcement practices; and (5) methods other than investigation and enforcement that may be useful in treating allegations of potential or actual discrimination. Recommendations are given in each area.

Not Available

1994-01-01

318

75 FR 23783 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Sector-Specific Agency Executive Management Office...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NPPD, Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Sector-Specific...Nation's 18 Critical Infrastructure and Key Resource...implementing the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP...Commercial Facilities; Critical...

2010-05-04

319

The Environmental Protection Agency's National SunWise School Program: Sun protection education in US schools (1999-2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Melanoma, the most fatal form of skin cancer, is rising at a rate faster than that of all preventable cancers except lung cancer in the United States. Childhood exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light increases the risk for skin cancer as an adult; thus starting positive sun protection habits early may be key to reducing incidence. Methods: We evaluated the

Alan C. Geller; Maura Cantor; Donald R. Miller; Kristin Kenausis; Kevin Rosseel; Linda Rutsch; Daniel R. Brooks; Zi Zhang; Marie France Demierre

2002-01-01

320

Status of U.S. programs for material protection, control & accounting assistance to Ukraine and Kazakstan  

SciTech Connect

The United States is one of several donor states providing technical assistance to the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) for improving their systems for control of nuclear materials. Ukraine and Kazakstan have significant nuclear energy programs. Both countries have committed to nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. They have signed the NPT and have safeguards agreements with the U.S. concerning development of state systems of control, accounting and physical protection of nuclear materials. As directed by the DOE - International Safeguards Division (now the DOE - Russia/NIS Nuclear Materials Security Task Force), technical specialists from several national laboratories, including Argonne, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest and Sandia, as well as representatives of other U.S. Government organizations, such as the NRC, DOD/DNA and the New Brunswick Laboratory, are interacting with government regulatory and facility personnel of Ukraine and Kazakstan. Argonne has program coordination responsibilities for both countries. In support of agreements between the U.S. and Ukraine and the U.S. and Kazakstan, the DOE is responsible for providing technical assistance and training to aid in the evaluation, design, development, and implementation of nuclear material safeguards. This assistance includes: (1) information systems for tracking and reporting the location of nuclear materials, (2) application of nuclear measurement techniques for verifying inventories, (3) material control and accounting (MC&A) systems, and (4) physical protection (PP) systems. Site survey teams, including both MC&A and PP experts from several national labs, have visited Ukraine and Kazakstan. This paper summarizes activities to date and future plans.

Roche, C.T.; Zinneman, T.E.; Rudolph, R.R.

1995-12-01

321

Intellectual Property Right and Its Protection in the Information Industry ; A Criticism to A Theory Characterizing Program as Special Copyrightable Works  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strong interest has been shown to a legal protection of computer program, a typical intellectual property in the information industry. In Japan, there is a strong belief that the scope of copyright protection of program should be restricted and a degree of its protection should be weakened as compared with the protection given to other ordinary works since a program is a specific type of copyrightable work. The purpose of this article is to review such a special copyrightable work theory and to develop a criticism to such a theory from both theoretical and practical aspects, as well as to validate an appropriateness of the copyright protection since we can use an abundant accumulation of precedents under the copyright laws to give a practical solution to specific problems arising in connection with the legal protection of programs. An interface issue and the protection of program's SSO shall be also reviewed from such a viewpoint.

Takaishi, Yoshikazu

322

[Radon transfer and intracorporal deposition of radon decay products under balneotherapeutic conditions].  

PubMed

The intracorporal deposition of radon decay products was determined on four persons after 40 and 30 min respectively in radon water with about 1500 Bq/L by wholebody gamma spectrometry. The measurements started about 2 1/2 h after exposure. In addition, the radon activity concentration of inspiratory and expiratory air was measured on one person during and after exposure and the deposition of radon decay products on the skin was measured on another person. The radon activity leaving the body with the expiratory air during exposure in the water (called "radon transfer") amounts to about 800 Bq. An intracorporal radon activity immediately after therapeutic exposure of about 3000 Bq was obtained as a result of first measurements by extrapolation from measurements starting about 2 1/2 hours later. Additional studies are necessary. There are indications that both the radon transfer and the intracorporal deposition can be increased by exposure in mixed radon-CO2 water. PMID:19678526

Grunewald, Wolfgang A; Just, Günther; Petzold, Jürgen; von Philipsborn, Henning

2009-01-01

323

Validation of a geographic information system for the evaluation of the soil radon exhalation potential in South-Tyrol and Veneto, Italy.  

PubMed

The PERS (soil radon exhalation potential) project was promoted by ANPA (Italian Environmental Protection Agency) together with the Universitŕ Cattolica del Sacro Cuore of Rome: the aim was to produce a geographic information system allowing the discovery of regions with different radon exhalation potential starting from some territorial knowledge. Some environmental measurements were carried out within this project in selected areas in South-Tyrol and Veneto. The measurement of radon in springwater and groundwater as well as in soil gas plays a decisive role for the validation of the algorithm for computing the PERS. Along with technical aspects, a possible use of the PERS method by the Regional Environmental Protection Agencies and by other agencies is discussed with the scope of identifying radon prone areas, as stated in the Italian 'Decreto Legislativo' 26 May 2000, n. 241. Moreover the forecasting power of PERS regarding indoor radon concentration is analysed. PMID:11878411

Bertolo, A; Verdi, L

2001-01-01

324

[Increasing the radon concentration in natural water without the use of radium preparations].  

PubMed

The method of increasing radon concentrations in natural radon water without radon generators is based on radon redistribution between various water volumes, water and air. Radon is extracted from hot radon water with subsequent solution in cold radon water. This method enables the specialists to increase radon concentrations 2-3-fold using a simple enriching unit. PMID:7941465

Andreev, S V

1994-01-01

325

Radon project---Detectors and electronics  

SciTech Connect

We have assembled a set of detectors that allow separate measurements of radon and its first four daughters. Radon is measured directly by detecting its alpha particles in a 6-in diameter spherical ion chamber. The output of the ion chamber can be measured as pulses or as a current. Daughters are collected on various surfaces, including filters, diffusion-battery screens, or cascade impactor surfaces. These are placed in an evacuated chamber between a 600 mm{sup 2} surface-barrier diode to measure the alphas and a 51-mm by 51-mm NaI scintillator to measure the gamma rays. We built eight such chambers to allow simultaneous measurements of all of the components from a diffusion battery. There is also a single vacuum chamber that uses two diodes to measure alpha particles from both sides of a screen simultaneously. Each detector has an associated preamplifier and linear amplifier. Separate bias supplies are used for the ion chamber and diodes, but the scintillators all operate from a single high-voltage supply. Two computer-operated multichannel analyzer systems are used to collect data, one for the ion chamber, and the other for multiplexed signals from the other detectors. Special programs were written to acquire the data. All of these components have performed well during initial measurements. 12 figs.

Thorngate, J.H.

1989-12-01

326

EERF (Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility) standard operating procedures for radon-222 measurement using charcoal canisters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes in detail EPA's office of Radiation Programs Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility's standard operating procedures for radon-222 measurement using charcoal canisters. It lists the materials and equipment that are used and explains their laboratory and survey methods.

Gray, D.J.; Windham, S.T.

1987-06-01

327

Novel approaches in radon and thoron dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents some novel approaches for radon/radon progeny and thoron measurements that can help to resolve some long-lasting problems in dosimetry, but which are not yet part of the common practice. The focus is in two directions: The use of CDs/DVDs as radon and thoron detectors and the employment of grab-sampling and/or integrated radon progeny measurements for diagnostic of the air conditions related to mitigation and indoor ventilation. The potential of these approaches is illustrated by several successful applications: (1) Study of the 222Rn distribution in large buildings and identification of places with radon problem; (2) Radon and thoron monitoring in underground mines; (3) Radon measurements in natural waters, including directly in the water source; (4) Grab sampling 222Rn progeny measurements for the purposes of pre- and post-mitigation diagnostic; (5) Integrated measurements of individual 222Rn short-lived decay products for diagnostic of indoor ventilation conditions.

Pressyanov, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Dimitrova, I.; Georgiev, S.; Mitev, K.

2014-07-01

328

Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor  

DOEpatents

An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

Langner, G.H. Jr.

1993-01-12

329

Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor  

DOEpatents

An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

Langner, Jr., G. Harold (Mack, CO)

1993-01-01

330

CHAP III- CHARRING ABLATOR PROGRAM FOR ADVANCED INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR ENTRY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transient response of a thermal protection material to heat applied to the surface can be calculated using the CHAP III computer program. CHAP III can be used to analyze pyrolysis gas chemical kinetics in detail and examine pyrolysis reactions-indepth. The analysis includes the deposition of solid products produced by chemical reactions in the gas phase. CHAP III uses a modelling technique which can approximate a wide range of ablation problems. The energy equation used in CHAP III incorporates pyrolysis (both solid and gas reactions), convection, conduction, storage, work, kinetic energy, and viscous dissipation. The chemically reacting components of the solid are allowed to vary as a function of position and time. CHAP III employs a finite difference method to approximate the energy equations. Input values include specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermocouple locations, enthalpy, heating rates, and a description of the chemical reactions expected. The output tabulates the temperature at locations throughout the ablator, gas flow within the solid, density of the solid, weight of pyrolysis gases, and rate of carbon deposition. A sample case is included, which analyzes an ablator material containing several pyrolysis reactions subjected to an environment typical of entry at lunar return velocity. CHAP III is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer operating under NOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 102K (octal) of 60 bit words. This program was developed in 1985.

Stroud, C. W.

1994-01-01

331

[A method for preparing air-radon mixtures from radon water by decompression].  

PubMed

The technique has been tested of intensive radon dissolving in water usable for therapeutic procedures. The gas is provided from the soil or ore radon-containing air. The dissolving occurs under artificial growth of radon concentration in gas atmosphere by its compression at the time of mixing with cooled water in accordance with classical laws of gas distribution between liquid and gas phases in closed space. Practical utilization of the above method allows preparation of therapeutic water media without radium preparations and more effective use of radon produced in radon laboratories, thus significantly reducing radon waste and environment pollution. PMID:8017041

Andreev, S V

1994-01-01

332

Study of temporal variation of radon concentrations in public drinking water supplies  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for radon-222 in public drinking water supplies of 300 pCi/L. Proposed monitoring requirements include collecting quarterly grab samples for the first year, then annual samples for the remainder of the compliance cycle provided first year quarterly samples average below the MCL. The focus of this research was to study the temporal variation of groundwater radon concentrations to investigate how reliably one can predict an annual average radon concentration based on the results of grab samples. Using a {open_quotes}slow-flow{close_quotes} collection method and liquid scintillation analysis, biweekly water samples were taken from ten public water supply wells in North Carolina (6 month - 11 month sampling periods). Based on study results, temporal variations exist in groundwater radon concentrations. Statistical analysis performed on the data indicates that grab samples taken from each of the ten wells during the study period would exhibit groundwater radon concentrations within 30% of their average radon concentration.

York, E.L. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering

1995-12-31

333

The Infrastructure Necessary to Support a Sustainable Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program in Russia  

SciTech Connect

The NNSA Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program has been engaged for fifteen years in upgrading the security of nuclear materials in Russia. Part of the effort has been to establish the conditions necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of nuclear security. A sustainable program of nuclear security requires the creation of an indigenous infrastructure, starting with sustained high level government commitment. This includes organizational development, training, maintenance, regulations, inspections, and a strong nuclear security culture. The provision of modern physical protection, control, and accounting equipment to the Russian Federation alone is not sufficient. Comprehensive infrastructure projects support the Russian Federation's ability to maintain the risk reduction achieved through upgrades to the equipment. To illustrate the contributions to security, and challenges of implementation, this paper discusses the history and next steps for an indigenous Tamper Indication Device (TID) program, and a Radiation Portal Monitoring (RPM) program.

Bachner, Katherine M.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

2011-07-20

334

LiMPETS: Scientists Contributions to Coastal Protection Program for Youth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the West Coast National Marine Sanctuaries' LiMPETS (Long-term Monitoring Experiential Training for Students), scientists have partnered with local sanctuaries to develop an educational and scientifically-based monitoring program. With different levels of commitment and interest, scientists have contributed to developing protocols that youth can successfully use to monitor coastal habitats. LiMPETS was developed to address the gap in marine science education for high school students. The team of sanctuary educators together with local scientists collaborate and compromise to develop scientifically accurate and meaningful monitoring projects. By crossing the border between scientists and educators, LiMPETS has become a rich program which provides to teachers professional development, monitoring equipment, an online database, and field support. In the Sandy Beach Monitoring Project, we called on an expert on the sand crab Emerita analoga to help us modify the protocols that she uses to monitor crabs regularly. This scientist brings inspiration to teachers at teacher workshops by explaining how the student monitoring compliments her research. The Rocky Intertidal Monitoring Project was developed by scientists at University of California at Santa Cruz with the intention of passing on this project to an informal learning center. After receiving California Sea Grant funding, the protocols used for over 30 years with undergraduates were modified for middle and high school students. With the help of teachers, classroom activities were developed to train students for fieldwork. The online database was envisioned by the scientists to house the historical data from undergraduate students while growing with new data collected middle and high school students. The support of scientists in this program has been crucial to develop a meaningful program for both youth and resource managers. The hours that a scientist contributes to this program may be minimal, a weeklong workshop or even a part-time job. The framework of resource protection agencies partnering with scientists can be replicated to monitor other natural habitats. Through LiMPETS, scientists are helping to develop scientifically literate youth who are engaged in environmental monitoring.

Saltzman, J.; Osborn, D. A.

2004-12-01

335

CDC's National Asthma Control Program CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People from Health Threats. Saving Money Through Prevention.  

E-print Network

CS229334-V CDC's National Asthma Control Program CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People from. · Nearly 26 million people have asthma. · Asthma is linked to 3,388 deaths a year. · Asthma is the 3rd asthma than any other racial or ethnic group. · Asthma costs the United States an estimated $56 billion

336

Instrumentation for a radon research house  

SciTech Connect

A highly automated monitoring and control system for studying radon and radon-daughter behavior in residences has been designed and built. The system has been installed in a research house, a test space contained in a two-story wood-framed building, which allows us to conduct controlled studies of (1) pollutant transport within and between rooms, (2) the dynamics of radon daughter behavior, and (3) techniques for controlling radon and radon daughters. The system's instrumentation is capable of measuring air-exchange rate, four-point radon concentration, individual radon daughter concentrations, indoor temerature and humidity, and outdoor weather parameters (temperature, humidity, modules, wind speed, and wind direction). It is also equipped with modules that control the injection of radon and tracer gas into the test space, the operation of the forced-air furnace, the mechanical ventilation system, and the mixing fans located in each room. A microcomputer controls the experiments and records the data on magnetic tape and on a printing terminal. The data on tape is transferred to a larger computer system for reduction and analysis. In this paper we describe the essential design and function of the instrumentation system, as a whole, singling out those components that measure ventilation rate, radon concentration, and radon daughter concentrations.

Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.; Robb, A.W.

1981-07-01

337

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document is the third revision of the 'Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan' for groundwater wells associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for: (1) inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12; (2) identifying maintenance needs that extend the life of the well and assure well-head protection is in place, and (3) identifying wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring-well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment. The inspection and maintenance of groundwater monitoring wells is one of the primary management strategies of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Management Plan, 'proactive stewardship of the extensive monitoring well network at Y-12' (BWXT 2004a). Effective stewardship, and a program of routine inspections of the physical condition of each monitoring well, ensures that representative water-quality monitoring and hydrologic data are able to be obtained from the well network. In accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP) for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (BWXT 2006b), the status designation (active or inactive) for each well determines the scope and extent of well inspections and maintenance activities. This plan, in conjunction with the above document, formalizes the GWPP approach to focus available resources on monitoring wells which provide the most useful data. This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management facilities located within the three hydrogeologic regimes: (1) the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime); (2) the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime); and (3) the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) immediately west of Y-12. The East Fork Regime encompasses most of the Y-12 process, operations, and support facilities in BCV east of scarboro Road. The Chestnut Ridge Regime is directly south of Y-12 and encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge that is bound to the west by a surface drainage feature (Dunaway Branch) and by Scarboro Road to the east. The GWPP maintains an extensive database of construction details and related information for the monitoring wells in each hydrogeologic regime in the 'Updated Subsurface Database for Bear Creek Valley, Chestnut Ridge, and parts of Bethel Valley on the US DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (BWXT 2003a). A detailed description of the hydrogeologic framework at Y-12 can be found in the GWPP Management Plan (BWXT 2004a).

None

2006-12-01

338

Burial as a Method of Archaeological Site Protection. Environmental Impact Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Federal and State laws require that archeological sites must be protected from adverse impacts caused by engineering projects. Archaeological excavation has been the most common means of providing site protection. However, it has been proposed that sites ...

C. C. Mathewson, T. Gonzalez, J. S. Eblen

1992-01-01

339

Radon diffusion coefficients in 360 waterproof materials of different chemical composition.  

PubMed

This paper summarises the results of radon diffusion coefficient measurements in 360 common waterproof materials available throughout Europe. The materials were grouped into 26 categories according to their chemical composition. It was found that the diffusion coefficients of materials used for protecting houses against radon vary within eight orders from 10(-15) to 10(-8) m(2) s(-1). The lowest values were obtained for bitumen membranes with an Al carrier film and for ethylene vinyl acetate membranes. The highest radon diffusion coefficient values were discovered for sodium bentonite membranes, rubber membranes made of ethylene propylene diene monomer and polymer cement coatings. The radon diffusion coefficients for waterproofings widely used for protecting houses, i.e. flexible polyvinyl chloride, high-, low-density polyethylene, polypropylene and bitumen membranes, vary in the range from 3 × 10(-12) to 3 × 10(-11) m(2) s(-1). Tests were performed which confirmed that the radon diffusion coefficient is also an effective tool for verifying the air-tightness of joints. PMID:21450700

Jiránek, M; Kotrbatá, M

2011-05-01

340

Establishing a lightning protection evaluation program for distribution and subtransmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Union Electric (UE) began a project in December 1994 to evaluate the performance of existing types of lightning protection, identify deficiencies, and recommend changes that will result in improved performance. UE employs two basic types of lightning protection-static wire and arresters. The authors discuss ground impedance, the National Lightning Detection Network, and the Lightning Protection Design Workstation (LPDW). The LPDW

M. W. Marshall; B. P. Angeli

1998-01-01

341

Radium and radon tracers in aquatic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourth International Ra-Rn Workshop;Narragansett, Rhode Island, 3-8 June 2012 Radium (Ra) and radon (Rn) are widely recognized as important geochemical tracers in the estimation of dispersion in aquatic environments, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean, water mass residence times, and air-sea and water- sediment exchange. More than 50 scientists, including graduate students and early- career scientists from 10 countries, recently participated in a workshop on Ra and Rn in Narragansett, R. I. The workshop was hosted by the University of Rhode Island and sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation Chemical Oceanography Program, ORTEC, Eichrom, and Durridge Company. The workshop provided a forum for presentations and open discussions regarding the latest developments and new directions in the application and measurement of isotopes 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 222Rn, as well as models used in the application of these tracers to a range of environmental problems.

Moran, S. B.

2012-10-01

342

Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software  

SciTech Connect

A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

2009-01-01

343

REVIEW OF SELECTED STATE-OF-THE-ART APPLICATIONS OF DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENTS FOR RADON MITIGATION PLANNING  

EPA Science Inventory

Since late-1984, EPA's AEERL has supported a program to develop and demonstrate radon mitigation techniques for single-family detached dwellings. As part of the program, projects have been started directed at developing and demonstrating the use of diagnostic measurements in all ...

344

Development of Physical Protection Regulations for Rosatom State Corporation Sites under the U.S.-Russian MPC&A Program  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes issues related to upgrading the physical protection regulatory basis for Rosatom State Corporation sites. It is underlined that most of the regulatory and methodological documents for this subject area have been developed under the U.S.-Russian MPC&A Program. According to the joint management plan developed and agreed upon by the parties in 2005, nearly 50 physical protection documents were identified to be developed, approved and implemented at Rosatom sites by 2012. It is also noted that, on the whole, the plans have been fulfilled.

Izmaylov, Alexander; Babkin, Vladimir; Shemigon, Nikolai N.; O'Brien, Patricia; Wright, Troy L.; Hazel, Michael J.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Lane, Melinda; Kovchegin, Dmitry

2012-07-14

345

Assessment of environmental radon hazard using human respiratory tract models.  

PubMed

Radon is a natural radioactive gas derived from geological materials. It has been estimated that about half of the total effective dose received by human beings from all sources of ionizing radiation is attributed to 222Rn and its short-lived progeny. In this paper, the use of human respiratory tract models to assess the health hazard from environmental radon is reviewed. A short history of dosimetric models for the human respiratory tract from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is first presented. The most important features of the newest model published by ICRP in 1994 (as ICRP Publication 66) are then described, including the morphometric model, physiological parameters, radiation biology, deposition of aerosols, clearance model and dose weighting. Comparison between different morphometric models and comparison between different deposition models are then given. Finally, the significance of various parameters in the lung model is discussed, including aerosol parameters, subject related parameters, target and cell related parameters, and parameters that define the absorption of radon from the lungs to blood. Dosimetric calculations gave a dose conversion coefficient of 15 mSv/WLM, which is higher than the value 5 mSv/WLM derived from epidemiological studies. ICRP stated that dosimetric models should only be used for comparison of doses in the human lungs resulted from different exposure conditions. PMID:16427190

Yu, K N; Lau, B M F; Nikezic, D

2006-04-30

346

Collection of radon with solid oxidizing reagents  

SciTech Connect

Although it is generally considered to be inert, radon reacts spontaneously at ambient temperature with a number of fluorine-containing compounds, including dioxygenyl salts, fluoronitrogen salts, and halogen fluoride-metal fluoride complexes. A method for the collection of radon from air, using either dioxygenyl hexafluoroantimonate (O/sub 2//sup +/SbF/sub 6//sup -/) or hexafluoroiodine hexafluoroantimonate (IF/sub 6//sup +/SbF/sub 6//sup -/) reagent, is described. The air is passed though a drying tube and then through a bed of the reagent, which captures radon as a nonvolatile product. In tests with radon-air mixtures containing 45-210000 pCi/L of radon-222, more than 99% of the radon was retained by beds of powders (2.3-3.0 g of compound/cm/sup 2/) and pellets (7.5-10.9 g of compound/cm/sup 2/). The gas mixtures were designed to simulate radon-contaminated atmospheres in underground uranium mines. No dependence of collection efficiency upon radon concentration was observed. The method can be used for the analysis of radon-222 (by measurement of the ..gamma.. emissions of the short-lived daughters, lead-214 and bismuth-214) and the purification of small volumes of air.

Stein, L.; Hohorst, F.A.

1982-07-01

347

Potential health effects of indoor radon exposure.  

PubMed Central

Radon-222 is a ubiquitous noble gas arising from decay of radium-226 normally present in the earth's crust. Alpha radiation from inhaled short-lived daughters of radon readily irradiates human bronchial epithelium, and there is now good evidence of excess risk of lung cancer in underground miners exposed to higher concentrations. In homes, radon levels are highly variable, showing approximately log-normal distributions and often a small fraction of homes with high concentrations of radon and radon daughters. Factors affecting indoor concentrations include type of bedrock under dwellings, house foundation characteristics, radon dissolved in artesian water, and ventilation and degree of air movement in living spaces. Despite much recent work, exposures to radon daughters by the general public are not well defined. From application of risk assessments in miners to home conditions, it appears that about 25% or more of lung cancers among nonsmokers over the age of 60, and about 5% in smokers, may be attributable to exposure to radon daughters at home. It may be necessary to take remedial action to reduce this hazard in those dwellings with elevated levels of radon, and new construction should take account of this problem. PMID:4085431

Radford, E P

1985-01-01

348

Radon Concern in the Hickory Aquifer  

E-print Network

in the Hickory Aquifer's groundwater poses health risks for residents in the area. Radon is a natural, radioactive gas that may be found indoors in air or drinking water. Radon is the decay product of radium, so radon indi- rectly reflects the presence... of radium. Radon in groundwater occurs from the decay of radium both within the aquifer host rock and in the groundwater itself. It does not react chemically with either, however, because it is a noble or inert gas. About 1 percent to 2 percent...

Crawford, Amanda

2005-01-01

349

Radon, lung cancer, and geology in Livingston, Overton County, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

During the fall of 1994 tests defined radon levels of 76 piC/l in the basement level of a home in Overton Heights development in Livingston, Tennessee. Subsequent tests confirmed this elevation and also defined a value of 52 PiC/l in the second home tested in the same area. Subsequent discussions with local residents indicated 10 to 15 probable lung cancer cases in the previous +/-5 years in a population of about 100 households. When this situation was brought to the attention of the Tennessee Program the response was to immediately offer support for additional testing. This consisted of the placement of approximately 40 was to immediately offer support for additional testing. This consisted of the placement of approximately 40 Airchek charcoal packets on a somewhat random basis in February and March of 1995. Each house was tested in the location with potential for greatest radon elevation. The results showed that elevated radon levels were widespread with values as high as 105 piC/l. More significantly, most of the homes tested showed elevations. The next phase of the program involved some retesting of previously defined elevations but the majority of this stage concentrated on repeating those tests which were inconclusive and on the extension of the test area to establish the limits of the elevated values. Retesting verified elevations as previously defined but the values were generally lower due to testing main living levels and warmer which encouraged more ventilation.

Officer, C.; Shimek, S.; Fitzgerald, F.

1995-12-31

350

The effect on the radon diffusion coefficient of long-term exposure of waterproof membranes to various degradation agents.  

PubMed

Waterproofing, usually made of bitumen or polymers with various additives, is used to protect buildings mainly against dampness, but also against radon transported from the soil beneath the building. The radon diffusion coefficient is a material property which is considered to be strongly influenced by the inner structure (chemical composition, crystallinity) of a measured sample. We have used this parameter together with measurements of mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength, elongation at break, etc.) and FTIR spectroscopy has been used in order to describe the changes in material properties induced by long-term degradation. This paper summarizes the results of radon diffusion coefficient measurements of waterproof materials exposed to radon, soil bacteria, high temperature and combinations of these factors. We have discovered changes as high as 83 % have been discovered compared to virgin samples. PMID:24748486

Navrátilová Rovenská, Katerina

2014-07-01

351

Identification of high radon areas with passive methods and geological assessments in some Italian regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internationally the indoor radon exposition as health hazard is widely recognized; so in many countries specific laws and regulations and so-called radon - risk maps have been introduced. Few Italian Regions have started surveys for the identification of 'radon prone areas', with independent standards and protocols and this involves a bigger uncertainty on the definition of a national risk map failing guidelines. In the present work a standardized methodology for indoor radon measurements has been set up by U-Series Srl (Bologna), with attention to the development of a passive measurement technique (solid state nuclear track detectors) on large scale. The developed technique has been validated through an inter-laboratory comparison conducted by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) in 2008 and repeated in 2009. An indoor radon monitoring survey has been conducted in all Italian Regions with the developed methodology and 5425 measurements have been elaborated to obtain the annual average radon concentration in regional scale and the relapse of seasonal fluctuations on radon concentrations were verified. For the survey, the detectors were installed in underground rooms in workplaces and the measurements were performed over one solar year. As a consequence of our developed methodology (measurements only in underground rooms), indoor radon concentrations resulted generally higher than the concentrations obtained in the National Survey; we estimated an annual mean radon concentration of 110 Bqm3 compared to 70 Bq/m3 obtained by the National Survey. Only for the Italian Regions with the largest number of sampling (Lombardia, with the case studies of Milano Province and Milano city, Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Puglia) the data obtained were georeferentiated and we elaborated these data using geostatistical technique in order to produce distribution maps of the annual average indoor radon concentration. We have integrated the elaborated maps with the geological knowledge of the high concentration macro-areas identified in this work in order to better determine them. This study has allowed to point out not negligible radon concentrations also in traditionally no-risk zone; moreover the application of the developed methodology will be useful to give advices in order to fill Italian legislation gaps or to draft urban development plans. In particular, the correlation between radon concentrations and some geological features has been proved in Lombardia and some hypothesis have been formulated to understand the geological origin of the radon source. The high radon concentrations in the North of the Region are related to the high uranium content in different rock types distributed in these areas. For the flat area in correspondence of the Milan Province and the city of Milan, traditionally considered a no-risk zone, we have done some hypothesis of correlation between radon and the geochemical processes occurred in this area and soil permeability and fracturation by means of the existing geological sections. The application of the developed methodology will be useful to give advices to fill legislation gaps or to draft urban development plans.

Rossetti, Marta; Bartolomei, Paolo; Esposito, Massimo; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

2010-05-01

352

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document is a compendium of water quality and hydrologic characterization data obtained through December 2005 from the network of groundwater monitoring wells and surface water sampling stations (including springs and building sumps) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee that have been sampled since January 2003. The primary objectives of this document, hereafter referenced as the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Compendium, are to: (1) Serve as a single-source reference for monitoring data that meet the requirements of the Y-12 GWPP, as defined in the Y-12 GWPP Management Plan (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2004); (2) Maintain a detailed analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data for each applicable well, spring, and surface water sampling station, with a focus on results for the primary inorganic, organic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater and surface water at Y-12; and (3) Ensure retention of ''institutional knowledge'' obtained over the long-term (>20-year) history of groundwater and surface water monitoring at Y-12 and the related sources of groundwater and surface water contamination. To achieve these goals, the Y-12 GWPP Compendium brings together salient hydrologic, geologic, geochemical, water-quality, and environmental compliance information that is otherwise disseminated throughout numerous technical documents and reports prepared in support of completed and ongoing environmental contamination assessment, remediation, and monitoring activities performed at Y-12. The following subsections provide background information regarding the overall scope and format of the Y-12 GWPP Compendium and the planned approach for distribution and revision (i.e., administration) of this ''living'' document.

None

2006-12-01

353

Coseismic radon changes in groundwater  

SciTech Connect

Coseismic changes in the radon concentration of groundwater were consistently observed at a sensitive observation station for all nearby earthquakes (100-130 km away) with magnitudes of 6.0 and over, and for some earthquakes of the same magnitudes occurring up to about 400 km away. A total of 11 coseismic changes, larger than 2{sigma} of the noise level, were observed for 16 earthquakes which occurred during the observation period, between January 1984 and July 1988. A similar change was also found for an M7.9 earthquake at a distance of about 1,000 km. The radon changes lasted a few days in most cases; they may be caused by changes in the earth's stress field.

Wakita, H.; Igarashi, G.; Nakamura, Y.; Sano, Y.; Notsu, K. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

1989-05-01

354

Coseismic radon changes in groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coseismic changes in the radon concentration of groundwater were consistently observed at a sensitive observation station for all nearby earthquakes (100-130 km away) with magnitudes of 6.0 and over, and for some earthquakes of the same magnitudes occurring up to about 400 km away. A total of 11 coseismic changes, larger than 2sigma of the noise level, were observed for

H. Wakita; G. Igarashi; Y. Nakamura; Y. Sano; K. Notsu

1989-01-01

355

MASTER HOME ENVIRONMENTALIST PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Master Home Environmentalist (MHE) program is an innovative approach to address issues of indoor pollution, such as molds and biological contaminants that cause allergies and asthma, dust, indoor air pollution (including asbestos, formaldehyde, radon, combustion sources, tob...

356

Radon in homes of the Portland, Oregon Area: Radon data from local radon testing companies collected by CRM (Continuous Radon Measurement) machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students from the Department of Geology at Portland State University paired up with the Oregon Health Authority to better understand radon gas values in homes of the Portland metropolitan area. This study focuses on radon values collected by continuous radon measurement (CRM) machines, taken by local radon testing companies. The local companies participating in this study include Alpha Environmental Services, Inc., Cascade Radon, Environmental Works, The House Detectives, LLC, and Soil Solutions Environmental Services, Inc. In total, 2491 radon readings spanning across 77 zip codes were collected from local companies in the Portland metropolitan area. The maximum value, average value, percentage of homes greater than 4 pCi/L and total rank sum was calculated and used to determine the overall radon potential for each zip code (Burns et al., 1998). A list and four maps were produced showing the results from each category. Out of the total records, 24 zip codes resulted in high radon potential and the average reading for the entire Portland Metropolitan area was 3.7 pCi/L. High potential zip codes are thought to be a result of sand and gravel (Missoula Flood deposits) and faults present in the subsurface. The CRM data was compared with both long-term and short-term data provided by the Oregon Health Authority to validate radon potentials in each zip code. If a home is located in a zip code with high or moderate radon potential across two types of data sets, it is recommended that those homes be tested for radon gas.

Whitney, H.; Lindsey, K.; Linde, T.; Burns, S. F.

2013-12-01

357

Rotor burst protection program: Statistics on aircraft gas turbine engine failures that occurred in commercial aviation during 1971  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to develop criteria for the design of devices that will be used on aircraft to protect passengers and the aircraft structure from the lethal and devastating fragments generated by the disintegration of a gas turbine engine rotor is discussed. Statistics on gas rotor turbine failures that have occurred in commercial aviation in 1971 are presented. It is shown that 124 rotor failures occurred and 35 of these were uncontained. This figure is considered significantly high to justify continuation of the development program.

Delucia, R. A.; Mangano, G. J.

1973-01-01

358

The Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program: Protection of materials in the space environment subprogram  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three projects are currently underway for the development of new coatings for the protection of materials in the space environment. These coatings are based on vacuum deposition technologies. The projects will go as far as the proof-of-concept stage when the commercial potential for the technology will be demonstrated on pilot-scale fabrication facilities in 1996. These projects are part of a subprogram to develop supporting technologies for automation and robotics technologies being developed under the Canadian Space Agency's STEAR Program, part of the Canadian Space Station Program.

Schmidt, Lorne R.; Francoeur, J.; Aguero, Alina; Wertheimer, Michael R.; Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.; Martinu, L.; Blezius, J. W.; Oliver, M.; Singh, A.

1995-01-01

359

The Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program: Protection of materials in the space environment subprogram  

SciTech Connect

Three projects are currently underway for the development of new coatings for the protection of materials in the space environment. These coatings are based on vacuum deposition technologies. The projects will go as far as the proof-of-concept stage when the commercial potential for the technology will be demonstrated on pilot-scale fabrication facilities in 1996. These projects are part of a subprogram to develop supporting technologies for automation and robotics technologies being developed under the Canadian Space Agency`s STEAR Program, part of the Canadian Space Station Program.

Schmidt, L.R.; Francoeur, J.; Aguero, A.; Wertheimer, M.R.; Klemberg-Sapieha, J.E.; Martinu, L.; Blezius, J.W.; Oliver, M.; Singh, A. [Cametoid Advanced Technologies, Inc., Whitby, Ontario (Canada); [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); [MPB Technologies, Inc., Pointe Claire, Quebec (Canada); [National Optics Inst., Ste-Foy, Quebec (Canada)

1995-02-01

360

DETERMINATION OF PROGRAM PROTECTION FACTORS FOR HALF-MASK RESPIRATORS USED AT A MINERAL SANDS SEPARATION PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted at a mineral sands separation plant to evaluate the workplace performance of half-mask filter cartridge respirators. Inhalation exposure was estimated by measuring the dust and radioactivity concentration inside the respirator while it was worn or hanging around the worker's neck. The program protection factor was determined by simultaneously measuring inside-mask and ambient (outside-mask) concentrations. A total

Gregory S. Hewson; Martin I. Ralph

1992-01-01

361

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; establishment of exchanges and qualified health plans; Small Business Health Options Program. Final rule.  

PubMed

This final rule implements provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act) related to the Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP). Specifically, this final rule amends existing regulations regarding triggering events and special enrollment periods for qualified employees and their dependents and implements a transitional policy regarding employees' choice of qualified health plans (QHPs) in the SHOP. PMID:23734400

2013-06-01

362

Size distribution of radon decay products in the range 0.1-10 nm.  

PubMed

Information about the size distribution of radioactive aerosols in nanometre range is essential for the purposes of air contamination monitoring, dose assessment to respiratory tract and planning of protective measures. The diffusion battery, which allows capturing particles in the size range of 0.1-10 nm, has developed. Interpreting data obtained from diffusion battery is very complex. The method of expectation maximisation by Maher and Laird was chosen for indirect inversion data. The experiments were performed in the box with equivalent equilibrium concentration of radon in the range of 7000-10,000 Bq m(-3). The three modes of size distribution of radon decay products aerosols were obtained: activity median thermodynamic diameter (AMTD) 0.3, 1.5 and 5 nm. These modes can be identified as: AMTD 0.3 nm--atoms of radon progeny (218Po in general); AMTD 1.5 nm--clusters of radon progeny atoms and non-radioactive atoms in the atmosphere; AMTD 5 nm--particles formed by coagulation of previous mode clusters with existing aerosol particles or nucleation of condensation nuclei containing atoms of radon progeny. PMID:24711527

Zhukovsky, Michael; Rogozina, Marina; Suponkina, Anna

2014-07-01

363

Lung cancer risk due to residential radon exposures: estimation and prevention.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies proved that cumulative exposure to radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, the world's most common cancer. The objectives of the present study are (i) to analyse lung cancer risk for chronic, low radon exposures based on the transformation frequency-tissue response (TF-TR) model formulated in terms of alpha particle hits in cell nuclei; (ii) to assess the percentage of attributable lung cancers in six areas of Transylvania where the radon concentration was measured and (iii) to point out the most efficient remediation measures tested on a pilot house in Stei, Romania. Simulations performed with the TF-TR model exhibit a linear dose-effect relationship for chronic, residential radon exposures. The fraction of lung cancer cases attributed to radon ranged from 9 to 28% for the investigated areas. Model predictions may represent a useful tool to complement epidemiological studies on lung cancer risk and to establish reasonable radiation protection regulations for human safety. PMID:24751985

Truta, L A; Hofmann, W; Cosma, C

2014-07-01

364

Radon action level for high-rise buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon and its progeny are the major contributors to the natural radiation dose received by human beings. Many countries and radiological authorities have recommended radon action levels to limit the indoor radon concentrations, and, hence, the annual doses to the general public. Since the sources of indoor radon and the methods for reducing its concentration are different for different types

J. K. C. Leung; M. Y. W. Tso; C. W. Ho

1999-01-01

365

Indoor radon detected by compact discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for a precise retrospective assessment of the indoor radon exposure using commercial compact discs (CDs) is proposed. It is based on the remarkable radon absorption and ? track-etch properties of polycarbonate — the basic material of the CDs. The experimental results indicate that the useful range of this approach is able to cover practically the entire range of

D. Pressyanov; J. Buysse; A. Van Deynse; A. Poffijn; G. Meesen

2001-01-01

366

75 FR 28034 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Agency Information Collection Activities: United...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biometric Data Collection at the Ports of Entry AGENCY: National Protection and...biometric data collection at the ports of entry. DHS previously published this...Highly Trafficked Land Border Ports of Entry'' 73 FR 77473. That rule...

2010-05-19

367

47 CFR 76.101 - Cable syndicated program exclusivity: extent of protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...76.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST...Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.101 Cable syndicated...otherwise provided below. Note: With respect to each syndicated...

2011-10-01

368

47 CFR 76.101 - Cable syndicated program exclusivity: extent of protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...76.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST...Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.101 Cable syndicated...otherwise provided below. Note: With respect to each syndicated...

2012-10-01

369

47 CFR 76.101 - Cable syndicated program exclusivity: extent of protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...76.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST...Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.101 Cable syndicated...otherwise provided below. Note: With respect to each syndicated...

2010-10-01

370

47 CFR 76.101 - Cable syndicated program exclusivity: extent of protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...76.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST...Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.101 Cable syndicated...otherwise provided below. Note: With respect to each syndicated...

2013-10-01

371

Constructing a Resilience Index for the Enhanced Critical in Frastructure Protection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2009, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and its protective security advisors began assessing high-risk critical infrastructure and key resource (CIKR) assets using a targeted questionnaire: the infrastructure survey tool. The survey tool p...

F. D. Petit, G. W. Bassett, J. J. Collins, R. E. Fisher, S. M. Peyton, W. A. Buehring

2010-01-01

372

1993 UPDATE OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Emerging Technology Program (ETP), part of the U.S. EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, is continuing to create an environment where technical innovation can accelerate into field and commercial applications for treatment of hazardous waste sites....

373

Diffusion of radon through concrete block walls: A significant source of indoor radon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Basement modules located in southern Minnesota have been the site of continuous radon and environmental measurements during heating seasons since 1993. Concentrations of radon within the basement modules ranged from 70 Bq.m-3 to over 4000 Bq.m-3 between November to April during the three measurement periods. In the soil gas for the same times, concentrations of radon ranged between 25,000 and 70,000 Bq.m-3. Levels of radon within the basement modules changed by factors of five or more within 24 h, in concert with pressure gradients of 4 to 20 Pa that developed between the basement modules and their surroundings. Diffusion is identified as the principal method by which radon is transferred into and out of the basement modules, and appears to be relatively independent of insulating materials and vapour retarders. The variability of radon and correlations with differential pressure gradients may be related to air currents in the block walls and soil that interrupt radon diffusing inward. This yields a net decrease of radon in the basement modules by decay and outward diffusion. Levels of radon within the basement modules increase when the pressure differential is zero and air flow ceases, allowing diffusion gradients to be re-established. Radon levels in both the soil and the basement modules then increase until an equilibrium is achieved.

Lively, R. S.; Goldberg, L. F.

1999-01-01

374

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program CY2012 Triennial Report Of The Monitoring Well Inspection And Maintenance Program Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document is the triennial report for the Well Inspection and Maintenance Program of the Y- 12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). This report formally documents well inspections completed by the GWPP on active and inactive wells at Y-12 during calendar years (CY) 2010 through 2012. In addition, this report also documents well inspections performed under the Y-12 Water Resources Restoration Program, which is administered by URS|CH2M Oak Ridge (UCOR). This report documents well maintenance activities completed since the last triennial inspection event (CY 2009); and provides summary tables of well inspections and well maintenance activities during the reference time period.

none,

2013-09-01

375

THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION PROGRAM, FY 1976  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the objectives, content, and fiscal year 1976 progress of the research and development program being conducted by the EPA for environmental characterization of the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) process. EPA's FBC program is a contract program, utilizing a va...

376

Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry–sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the health dangers of smoking. The industry has used these programs to fight taxes, clean-indoor-air laws, and marketing restrictions worldwide. There is no evidence that these programs decrease smoking among youths. Conclusions. Tobacco industry youth programs do more harm than good for tobacco control. The tobacco industry should not be allowed to run or directly fund youth smoking prevention programs. PMID:12036777

Landman, Anne; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

2002-01-01

377

Health Effects of High Radon Environments in Central Europe: Another Test for the LNT Hypothesis?  

PubMed

Among the various "natural laboratories" of high natural or technical enhanced natural radiation environments in the world such as Kerala (India), Brazil, Ramsar (Iran), etc., the areas in and around the Central European Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) in the southern parts of former East Germany, but also including parts of Thuringia, northern Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and northeastern Bavaria, are still relatively little known internationally.Although this area played a central role in the history of radioactivity and radiation effects on humans over centuries, most of the valuable earlier results have not been published in English or quotable according to the current rules in the scientific literature and therefore are not generally known internationally. During the years 1945 to 1989, this area was one of the world's most important uranium mining areas, providing the former Soviet Union with 300,000 tons of uranium for its military programs. Most data related to health effects of radon and other carcinogenic agents on miners and residents became available only during the years after German reunification. Many of the studies are still unpublished, or more or less internal reports.By now, substantial studies have been performed on the previously unavailable data about the miners and the population, providing valuable insights that are, to a large degree, in disagreement with the opinion of various international bodies assuming an increase of lung cancer risk in the order of 10% for each 100 Bq/m(3) (or doubling for 1000 Bq/m(3)), even for small residential radon concentrations. At the same time, other studies focusing on never-smokers show little or no effects of residential radon exposures. Experiments in medical clinics using radon on a large scale as a therapeutic against various rheumatic and arthritic disease demonstrated in randomized double-blind studies the effectiveness of such treatments.The main purpose of this review is to critically examine, including some historical references, recent results primarily in three areas, namely the possible effects of the inhalation of very high radon concentrations on miners; the effect of increased residential radon concentrations on the population; and the therapeutic use of radon. With many of the results still evolving and/or under intense discussion among the experts, more evidence is emerging that radon, which has been inhaled at extremely high concentrations in the multimillion Bq/m(3) range by many of older miners (however, with substantial confounders, and large uncertainties in retrospective dosimetry), was perhaps an important but not the dominating factor for an increase in lung cancer rates. Other factors such as smoking, inhalation of quartz and mineral dust, arsenic, nitrous gases, etc. are likely to be more serious contributors to increased miner lung cancer rates. An extrapolation of miner data to indoor radon situations is not feasible.Concerning indoor radon studies, the by far dominating effect of smoking on the lung cancer incidence makes the results of some studies, apparently showing a positive dose-response relationship, questionable. According to recent studies in several countries, there are no, or beneficial, residential radon effects below about 600 to 1000 Bq/m(3) (the extensive studies in the U.S., in particular by B. Cohen, and the discussions about these data, will not be part of this review, because they have already been discussed in detail in the U.S. literature). As a cause of lung cancer, radon seems to rank - behind active and passive smoking, and probably also air pollution in densely populated and/or industrial areas (diesel exhaust soot, etc.) - as a minor contributor in cases of extremely high residential radon levels, combined with heavy smoking of the residents.As demonstrated in an increasing number of randomized double-blind clinical studies for various painful inflammatory joint diseases such as rheumatism, arthritic problems, and Morbus Bechterew, radon treatments are beneficial, with the positive effect lasting until

Becker, Klaus

2003-01-01

378

An assessment of ecological and case-control methods for estimating lung cancer risk due to indoor radon  

SciTech Connect

Studies of underground miners indicate that indoor radon is an important cause of lung cancer. This finding has raised concern that exposure to radon also causes lung cancer in the general population. Epidemiological studies, including both case-control and ecological approaches, have directly addressed the risks of indoor residential radon; many more case-control studies are in progress. Ecological studies that associate lung-cancer rates with typical indoor radon levels in various geographic areas have not consistently shown positive associations. The results of purportedly negative ecological studies have been used as a basis for questioning the hazards of indoor radon exposure. Because of potentially serious methodologic flaws for testing hypotheses, we examined the ecological method as a tool for assessing lung-cancer risk from indoor radon exposure. We developed a simulation approach that utilizes the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radon survey data to assign exposures to individuals within counties. Using the computer-generated data, we compared risk estimates obtained by ecological regression methods with those obtained from other regression methods and with the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} risks used to generate the data. For many of these simulations, the ecological models, while fitting the summary data well, gave risk estimates that differed considerably from the true risks. For some models, the risk estimates were negatively correlated with exposure, although the assumed relationship was positive. Attempts to improve the ecological models by adding smoking variables, including interaction terms, did not always improve the estimates of risk, which are easily affected by model misspecification. Because exposure situations used in the simulations are realistic, our results show that ecological methods may not accurately estimate the lung-cancer risk associated with indoor radon exposure.

Stidley, C.A.; Samet, J.M. [Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-12-31

379

Geologic controls on radon occurrence in Georgia  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom holds that high radon concentrations occur mostly in areas of thin and/or sandy soils underlain by granitic bedrock, that other soil conditions and bedrock lithologies are less prone to high radon concentrations, and that high radon levels in groundwater represent an isolated phenomenon. Through a combination of geologic models and field measurements, each of the four geologic provinces of Georgia can be characterized for radon concentration. The results to date indicate that no area or geologic province should be exempted per se and that a careful study of site/area geology along with field measurement will yield dividends in understanding the occurrence of radon in soil and groundwater. The combinations of bedrock lithology and soil characteristics most likely to exhibit higher radon concentrations in Georgia, and throughout the southeast, are (a) granites, granodiorites, granite gneisses, pegmatites, mylonites, carbonaceous shales, phosphates, and monazite/heavy mineral placers, coupled with (b) high to medium permeability soils such as gravels, sands, and uniformly-graded silts and sandy silts. Saprolite and surficial soil may act as either a conduit or an impediment to radon migration, as may hydrogeologic characteristics and rock structures such as faults and joints/fractures.

Gregg, L.T. (Atlanta Testing and Engineering, Inc., Duluth, GA (USA)); Coker, G. (Environmental Protection Agency, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1990-01-01

380

Cooperative efforts of the materials protection control and accounting program at the electrochemical plant (Krasnoyarsk-45) in Russia-011  

SciTech Connect

The USDOE Material Protection Control and Accountability Program (MPC&A) has established a Project Team with the goal of providing the Russian Electrochemical Plant (ECP) with equipment and training to enable ECP to evaluate, develop, and implement a comprehensive plan and systems for physical protection, material controls, and accountancy upgrades. The MPC&A project will provide for improvements such as risk assessments, access control upgrades, computerized MC&A, communications systems upgrades, building perimeter surveillance and intrusion detection upgrades, vault upgrades, metal and nuclear material detection upgrades, along with mass measurement and non- destructive analysis (NDA) instrumentation. This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A project at the Electrochemical Plant.

Moore, L.

1998-07-22

381

75 FR 5608 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Communications Unit Leader (COML) Prerequisite and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Programs Directorate/Cybersecurity and Communications/Office of Emergency Communications (OEC), has submitted the following...foster the development of interoperable emergency communications capabilities for State,...

2010-02-03

382

Increased radon detection sensitivity: extraction from 200 ml of water and liquid scintillation counting.  

PubMed

To increase detection sensitivity in a radon ground-water monitoring program, radon is extracted and transferred from 200 mL of water to a liquid scintillator by bubbling and circulating air through the two liquids in a closed system using a peristaltic pump. This results in a count rate that is 11 times higher than for samples prepared by the most widely used method, where 10 mL of water are added to 10 mL of scintillator. Preparation of counting samples is simple and takes 4 min. Standard deviation in radon concentration is 5% and minimum detectable activity is 5 mBq L(-1), using a counter with a background of 3 counts per hour and a counting time of 3 h. This method is also suitable for the measurement of radium in water. PMID:14571994

Theodorsson, P; Gudjonsson, G I

2003-11-01

383

Sun Protection and Younger Children: Lessons from the "Living with Sunshine" Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports results from an evaluation of "Living with Sunshine," a resource to help teachers encourage positive sun-related conduct by children ages 6-8. Results indicate that children who used the materials were knowledgeable about the sun's effects and aware of sun protection methods. Both teachers and students responded enthusiastically to the…

Hughes, Andrew S.

1994-01-01

384

50 CFR 300.103 - Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...permit under applicable provisions of the ACA or any superseding legislation. The permit...granted by NSF shall constitute a joint CEMP/ACA Protected Site permit and any person...into force), as implemented under by the ACA and any superseding legislation....

2013-10-01

385

50 CFR 300.103 - Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...permit under applicable provisions of the ACA or any superseding legislation. The permit...granted by NSF shall constitute a joint CEMP/ACA Protected Site permit and any person...into force), as implemented under by the ACA and any superseding legislation....

2011-10-01

386

50 CFR 300.103 - Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...permit under applicable provisions of the ACA or any superseding legislation. The permit...granted by NSF shall constitute a joint CEMP/ACA Protected Site permit and any person...into force), as implemented under by the ACA and any superseding legislation....

2010-10-01

387

50 CFR 300.103 - Procedure for according protection to CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program Sites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...permit under applicable provisions of the ACA or any superseding legislation. The permit...granted by NSF shall constitute a joint CEMP/ACA Protected Site permit and any person...into force), as implemented under by the ACA and any superseding legislation....

2012-10-01

388

Effects of Program Exposure and Engagement With Tailored Prevention Communication on Sun Protection by Young Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few family-based interventions to increase sun safe behavior among adolescents have been evaluated. The present study tested an intervention that included tailored and nontailored print communications delivered by mail to adolescents (age 11 to 15) and their parents who were also participating in an evaluation of an in-school intervention. The use of sunscreen, protective clothing, and avoidance of the sun

Kim D. Reynolds; David B. Buller; Amy L. Yaroch; Julie Maloy; Cristy R. Geno; Gary R. Cutter

2008-01-01

389

Does a voluntary conservation program result in a representative protected area network?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation contracting has attained growing interest worldwide as a tool for protecting biodiversity in privately owned lands. In this policy, landowners receive payments from an environmental agency in exchange for land use practices that contribute to the supply of biodiversity. This approach may result in a conservation network which does not cover all focal ecological characteristics, because landowners determine the

Artti Juutinen; Mikko Mönkkönen; Anna-Liisa Ylisirniö

2009-01-01

390

EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM. OCTOBER 1985-MARCH 1988  

EPA Science Inventory

By Congressional mandate, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency must determine whether individual chemicals, either new or existing, can be manufactured and sold in the United States. The evaluation process for each chemical includes an ecological risk assessment. To improve c...

391

Spatial indoor radon distribution in Mexico City.  

PubMed

We present a spatial analysis of residential radon concentrations in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, which we intend to use to assign radon exposure in an ongoing case-control study. As part of a probabilistic household survey, carried out between May and June 1999, 501 dwellings were selected for indoor placement of solid state nuclear track detectors (LR 115) in a cup array over a period of approximately 90 days. As part of the sampling design, the city was grid partitioned into nine zones and a sample of dwellings was selected in each zone. All zones were simultaneously surveyed. The stratified sampling design allowed us to obtain radon geometric means, adjusted for household characteristics, week of detector placement and number of days of measurement for these zones. Additionally, adjusted geometric means were estimated for the 100 census tracts surveyed and this information was used to obtain a more detailed spatial distribution of residential radon levels through kriging interpolation and surface contouring. Radon levels depended on the room of placement, the floor level and the ventilation habits but not on building materials. Regarding the city zone, the highest adjusted geometric mean was found in the southwest (136 Bqm(-3)), where 46% of the households had an estimated radon level in excess of 200 Bqm(-3). In the rest of the city, the geometric mean concentration ranged between 41 and 98 Bqm(-3). A more detailed spatial distribution showed that, in general, most of the eastern and middle zones of the city had estimated radon geometric means below 74 Bqm(-3), while the western ones had geometric means above this concentration. Very high geometric means, exceeding 111 Bqm(-3) and even reaching 288 Bqm(-3), are estimated for some areas located in the southern and western zones of Mexico City. The obtained spatial distribution shows that the areas with very high estimated residential radon concentrations are close to inactive volcanic mountains. We believe that the geo-statistical techniques, we have used, offer reasonably good estimates of the average spatial residential radon distribution in Mexico City under average ventilation in homes. The use of this indirect approach for radon exposure measurement in epidemiological studies is an inexpensive alternative to direct radon exposure measurement but may be subject to non-differential misclassification error. The effect of such error on the detection of a real increase in lung cancer risk from indoor radon remains to be determined. PMID:14630414

Franco-Marina, Francisco; Villalba-Caloca, Jaime; Segovia, Nuria; Tavera, Leticia

2003-12-30

392

U.S. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) WASTEWATER DISINFECTION RESEARCH PROGRAM EVOLUTION TO A DESIGN MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents the history of the EPA wastewater disinfection research program from the early 1970's until it culminated with the publication of the Process Design Manual in September 1986. The program was elevated to the highest Agency research priority in 1976 with the infu...

393

Radiation protection management program at TMI2 (Three Mile Island): Noteworthy practices and accomplishments: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successful dose reduction program must utilize disparate techniques such as sound technical understanding of contamination processes, through training in ALARA principles, management and worker commitment, and adequate tools. GPU Nuclear Corporation's cleanup program at TMI-2 represents a unique opportunity to test tools and techniques under real plant conditions not readily achieved in a laboratory. The dose reduction tools and

D. E. Owen; D. D. Brady; S. L. Owrutsky

1987-01-01

394

Virus Programs: A Clarification of Ideas and Strategies for Data Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virus programs have become a significant problem in the computer industry. The effects of these programs have been publicized widely. Anyone working with microcomputers cannot have escaped exposure to the term. Yet, there are a large number of people (teachers in particular) who have only vague notions of what viruses are. This paper provides a…

Okinaka, Russell T.

395

HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL RESEARCH: U.S.E.P.A. (UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical areas of landfills, surface...

396

STATUS OF THE EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) SPRAY PAINTING TRANSFER EFFICIENCY RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives the status of a 5-year EPA research program on spray painting transfer efficiency. The objective of the program has been to develop a laboratory transfer efficiency measurement method, with the ultimate goal of a production-line-standardized transfer efficiency me...

397

Regional and Detailed Survey for Radon Activities in Soil-Gas and Groundwater in the Okchon Zone, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Okchon zone in Korea provides a typical example of natural geological materials enriched in potentially toxic elements including uranium which is parent nuclide for radon gas. For the purpose of radon radioactivity risk assessment, making the map of radon risk grade from Okchon zone, regional and detailed field surveys were carried out during 3 years. The study area is located in the central part of Korea, called the Okchon zone (about 5,100 km2), which occur in a 80km wide, northeast-trending belt that extends across the Korean Peninsula. The Okchon zone is underlain by metasedimentary rocks of unknown age that are composed mainly of black slate, phyllite, shale, and limestone. The three research areas (defined as Boeun, Chungju, and Nonsan) for detailed survey were selected from the results of regional survey. Results of detailed radon survey indicated a wide range of radon activities for soil-gases (148-1,843 pCi/L) and ground waters (23-5,540 pCi/L). About 15 percent of soil-gas samples exceeded 1,000 pCi/L and 84 percent of ground water samples exceeded the MCL (maximum contaminant level) of drinking water, 300 pCi/L, which proposed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1999. For detailed survey, radon activities of soil-gas and ground water were classified as bedrock geology, based on 1/50,000 geological map and field research. For soil-gas measurements, mean values of radon activity from black slate-shale (789 pCi/L) were highest among the other base rocks. And for groundwater measurements, mean value of radon activities were decreased in the order of granite (1,345 pCi/L) > black shale-slate (915 pCi/L) > metasediments (617 pCi/L). Result of indoor radon measurement from detailed survey areas showed that about 50% of houses exceeded the indoor guideline, 4 pCi/L. For the radon risk assessment in indoor environment showed that probability of lung cancer risk from the houses located on the granite base rock (3.0×10-2) was highest among the other base rocks. Finally, the maps of radon risk grade from detailed survey areas were developed by the application of field data and statistical simulation.

Je, H.-K.; Chon, H.-T.

2012-04-01

398

Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the {sup 226}Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m{sup ?3} to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m{sup ?3}, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m{sup ?3} to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m{sup ?3}, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m{sup ?3} to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m{sup ?3}, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m{sup ?3} to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m{sup ?3} and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m{sup ?3} to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m{sup ?3}, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m{sup ?3}, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m{sup ?3}, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m{sup ?3} and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m{sup ?3}, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m{sup ?3} proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0.15 kg and 0.25 kg. Whereas, all building material samples have exceeded the radon concentration in concrete and building materials of 3 to 7 Bq m{sup ?3} estimated by ICRP. The annual effective dose, effective dose equivalent, and radon exhalation rates in tin tailings were calculated to be in the range of 2.47 to 11.46 mSv, 5.94 to 1090.56 mSv y{sup ?1}, and 0.23 to 1.18 mBq kg{sup ?1} h{sup ?1}. For building materials, the calculated risk assessment of the annual effective dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk were 0.72 to 10.00 mSv, 1.73 to 24.00 mSv y{sup ?1}, 0.010 to 0.06 mBq kg{sup ?1} h{sup ?1} and 40 to 550 chances of persons will suffer the cancer per million (1 × 10{sup 6}), respectively.

Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

2013-11-27

399

Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of radon gas (222Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the 226Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m-3 to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m-3, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m-3 to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m-3, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m-3 to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m-3, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m-3 to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m-3 and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m-3 to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m-3, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m-3, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m-3, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m-3 and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m-3, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m-3 proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0.15 kg and 0.25 kg. Whereas, all building material samples have exceeded the radon concentration in concrete and building materials of 3 to 7 Bq m-3 estimated by ICRP. The annual effective dose, effective dose equivalent, and radon exhalation rates in tin tailings were calculated to be in the range of 2.47 to 11.46 mSv, 5.94 to 1090.56 mSv y-1, and 0.23 to 1.18 mBq kg-1 h-1. For building materials, the calculated risk assessment of the annual effective dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk were 0.72 to 10.00 mSv, 1.73 to 24.00 mSv y-1, 0.010 to 0.06 mBq kg-1 h-1 and 40 to 550 chances of persons will suffer the cancer per million (1 × 106), respectively.

Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

2013-11-01

400

Small Sample Radon Testing of Homes in East Texas  

E-print Network

measurements and charcoal canislers is 120 to 168 hours. The shorter period could bc used for the instrument so thal it could be moved to a new site once per week with time for set up, stabilization, eC. Additional Research An instrumenled lest program...,~~~~l~, the alpha value of 0.05 looks this value, we- The results of thc additional work would give a better understanding of the would want IO wait about 125-150 hours arkr the sm of (he lest before we dynamics of radon concentration in a home and how...

Crawford, J. G.

1990-01-01

401

3/14/09 10:47 AMIs that granite counter in your home emitting radon? Page 1 of 4http://www.startribune.com/41239912.html?page=4&c=y  

E-print Network

recently announced it will launch a "Home Approved Stone" program to reassure consumers about granite3/14/09 10:47 AMIs that granite counter in your home emitting radon? Page 1 of 4http://www.startribune.com/41239912.html?page=4&c=y Advertisement Is that granite counter in your home emitting radon? Homeowners

Llope, William J.

402

Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map.  

PubMed

This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal-Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal-Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m(3) in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. PMID:24378928

Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard; Poulin, Patrick; Dessau, Jean-Claude

2014-03-01

403

A two-stage stochastic programming model for transportation network protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Network protection against natural and human-caused,hazards has become,a topical research theme in engineering and social sciences. This paper focuses on the problem ofallocating,limited retrofit resources over multiple highway ,bridges to improve ,the resilience and robustness of the entire transportation system in question. The main modeling challenges,in network ,retrofit problems ,are to capture ,the interdependencies among individual transportation facilities and

Changzheng Liu; Yueyue Fan; Fernando Ordóńez

2009-01-01

404

Fire-protection research program for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1975-1981. [PWR; BWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since early 1975, Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting fire-protection research for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Testing has been done on grouped electrical-cable fires including electrical initiation, fire propagation, the effects of fire-retardant coatings and barriers, suppression, and characterization of the damage-ability of electrical cables. In addition, several studies of a more-generic nature such as fire detection, ventilation, and

Dube

1983-01-01

405

Hazardous-waste landfill research, US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Land Pollution Control Division (LPCD), Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab. (HWERL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in Cincinnati, Ohio, has responsibility for research in solid- and hazardous-waste management with respect to land disposal of wastes. To fulfill the responsibility, the LPCD is developing concepts and is documenting the environmental effects of various waste-disposal practices; and is collecting data necessary to

Schomaker

1988-01-01

406

75 FR 4833 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Assessment Questionnaire-Voluntary Chemical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Programs Directorate; Assessment Questionnaire--Voluntary Chemical Assessment Tool...new collection request, Assessment Questionnaire--Voluntary Chemical Assessment Tool...be prompted with the VCAT Assessment questionnaire and will answer various questions...

2010-01-29

407

PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION TESTING OF SOURCE WATER PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES UNDER EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents a brief overview of EPA's ETV program established in 1995 to overcome the numerous impediments to commercialization experienced by developers of innovative environmental technologies. Among those most frequently mentioned is the lack of credible performance da...

408

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL RESEARCH ASSOCIATESHIP PROGRAMS (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, ADA, OKLAHOMA, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the Research Associateship Programs are (1) to provide postdoctoral scientists and engineers of unusual promise and ability opportunities for research on problems, largely of their own choice, that are compatible with the interests of the sponsoring laboratories...

409

75 FR 417 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Statewide Communication Interoperability Plan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Communications/Office of Emergency Communications, has submitted the following...INFORMATION: The Office of Emergency Communications (OEC), formed under...funded by the Interoperable Emergency Communications Grant Program...

2010-01-05

410

75 FR 68325 - Government Programs to Assist Businesses Protect Their Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...To educate and assist all businesses, and SMEs in particular...are additional resources for businesses such as an online IPR tutorial, which is available...Program. The site also allows businesses to file complaints about...

2010-11-05

411

75 FR 60408 - Government Programs To Assist Businesses Protect Their Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...To educate and assist all businesses, and SMEs in particular...are additional resources for businesses such as an online IPR tutorial, which is available...Program. The site also allows businesses to file complaints about...

2010-09-30

412

Pinellas Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. Revision 1: Environmental, safety and health  

SciTech Connect

The GPMP Plan outlines the program in place at the Pinellas Plant to detect and monitor contaminated groundwater which may have become contaminated by materials and waste. Successful implementation of the Pinellas Plant GPMP will result in knowledge of groundwater conditions which will ensure that risks to human health and safety and to the environment posed by the plant`s past, present, and future operations are quickly identified and referred to the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program for remediation.

Weesner, B.E.

1994-09-09

413

PLANNING FOR QUALITY IN RADON MITIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the integration of quality assurance (QA) intoeach phase of radon mitigation: initial problem assessment,premitigation diagnostics, mitigation system specification andinstallation diagnostics, and post-mitigation diagnostics. uringeach phase, the interests and...

414

Radon in the spas of Croatia.  

PubMed

Radon concentrations in air and geothermal water of the spa pools in Croatia were measured and the average values of 40.3 and 4.5 kBq/m3 were obtained, respectively. Great difference between radon concentrations in pool and spring water was considered as a result of mixing normal and geothermal water in the pool as well as the radon decay. Estimation of an effective dose, received by the personnel in the Bizovac spa, gave the value of 0.27 mSv/y. At the location Stubica, the transfer factor of the radon for air and thermal water in the pool was calculated, and the value of 4.9+/-0.7 x 10(-3) was obtained. PMID:15925434

Radoli?, V; Vukovi?, B; Smit, G; Stani?, D; Planini?, J

2005-01-01

415

Radon emanation on San Andreas Fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface radon emanation monitored in shallow dry holes along an active segment of the San Andreas fault in central California shows spatially coherent large temporal variations that seem to be correlated with local seismicity.

Chi-Yu King

1978-01-01

416

Measurement of Radon in Indoor Air.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory experiment to teach the principles of air sampling, gamma ray spectroscopy, nuclear decay, and radioactive equilibrium. Analyzes radon by carbon adsorption and gamma ray counting. Provides methodology and rate of decay equations. (MVL)

Downey, Daniel M.; Simolunas, Glenn

1988-01-01

417

Proposed natural gas protection program for Naval Oil Shale Reserves Nos. 1 and 3, Garfield County, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

As a result of US Department of Energy (DOE) monitoring activities, it was determined in 1983 that the potential existed for natural gas resources underlying the Naval Oil Shales Reserves Nos. 1 and 3 (NOSrs-1 3) to be drained by privately-owned gas wells that were being drilled along the Reserves borders. In 1985, DOE initiated a limited number of projects to protect the Government's interest in the gas resources by drilling its own offset production'' wells just inside the boundaries, and by formally sharing in the production, revenues and costs of private wells that are drilled near the boundaries ( communitize'' the privately-drilled wells). The scope of these protection efforts must be expanded. DOE is therefore proposing a Natural Gas Protection Program for NOSRs-1 3 which would be implemented over a five-year period that would encompass a total of 200 wells (including the wells drilled and/or communitized since 1985). Of these, 111 would be offset wells drilled by DOE on Government land inside the NOSRs' boundaries and would be owned either entirely by the Government or communitized with adjacent private land owners or lessees. The remainder would be wells drilled by private operators in an area one half-mile wide extending around the NOSRs boundaries and communitized with the Government. 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1991-08-01

418

Predictions of lung cancer based on county averages for indoor radon versus the historic incidence of regional lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a decade of effort to determine the health risk associated with indoor radon, the efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency have prevailed in the US, and 4 pCi\\/1 is commonly used as an Action Level. Proposals by other groups supporting lower or higher Action Levels have failed, largely due to paucity of information supporting any particular level of

D. G. Mose; C. E. Chrosniak; G. W. Mushrush

1992-01-01

419

Occupational doses from radon in Spanish spas.  

PubMed

Recent international recommendations have included exposure to natural radiation as one of the sources to monitor in certain occupationally exposed groups. Among those mentioned are workers in thermal spas, who may be exposed to high radiation doses due to the high concentration of radon in the indoor air of the spa. This paper presents the methodology and the results of an evaluation of radiation doses to the staff in different thermal spas in Spain. Different series of samples were collected and measurements made for the radon concentrations in water in 54 spas and in air in 20 spas. In six of the latter group, the air radon concentration was studied in different working areas occupied by the employees. The radon concentrations in water were between <2 and 775 x 10(3) Bq m(-3). The radon concentrations in air were between <10 and 5,200 Bq m(-3). The latter were used to estimate the dose received by each occupational group in the spa by taking into account the radon concentration in their main working area. By means of an exposure-dose conversion factor of 1.43 Sv per J h m(-3), the estimated effective doses were found to lie between 1 and 44 mSv y(-1). This upper limit is higher than the recommended annual limit of 20 mSv y(-1) for an occupational dose. PMID:10086601

Soto, J; Gómez, J

1999-04-01

420

Radon entry control in new house construction.  

PubMed

People exposed to high concentration levels of radon face an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The risk is directly proportional to the length and level of radon exposure. Because of health reasons, it is safer to build new houses with radon mitigation systems installed in slab-on-grade houses. However, the interrelationships between parameters and factors governing radon entry and control are highly complex. A study performed by the University of Florida has examined the effectiveness of different radon entry control approaches. The analysis was based on 47 houses from three research projects conducted by the University of Florida (14 houses), Florida Solar Energy Center (13 houses), and GEOMET Technologies (20 houses). The evaluation of the performance and effectiveness of improved floor slabs, space conditioning, and ventilating systems were analyzed. Statistical analyses of the interrelationship between various parameters were also performed. Study findings such as the important factors in reducing radon entry and the effectiveness of passive construction approach and active subslab depressurization systems are presented in this paper. PMID:7790215

Najafi, F T; Lalwani, L; Li, W G

1995-07-01

421

Radon measurement quality, how accurate is reasonable?  

PubMed

Until 2006, continuous radon monitoring devices, CR, could either be calibrated by reference to known quantities or by internal adjustments and or alignments. In 2007, a policy was advanced by the National Radon Safety Board and the National Environmental Health Association mandating internal adjustment and or alignment. Further, calibrations could only be performed by radon chamber persons authorized by the specific device manufacturer, which was a process that was impossible for many chamber operators to achieve. The paper serves to examine the technical validity for routine internal adjustments to Honeywell and Sun Nuclear (Sun Nuclear Corporation, 425A Pineda Court, Melbourne, FL 32940-7508) devices in contrast to the clear market controlling advantages of the policy. The purpose for making radon measurements is to assess risk. Comparing the uncertainties associated with risk to counting uncertainties of Honeywell and Sun Nuclear CR devices, less than 1% of model 1027 devices would have a calibration error exceeding 25%, and those devices, at this Radon Measurement Proficiency limit, would produce results that were more precise and accurate than the radon risk uncertainty. This was true for CR devices that have not been internally adjusted nor corrected in any way. It was concluded that internal adjustment or alignment better supported business principles than science. PMID:21968821

Distenfeld, Carl

2011-11-01

422

Theoretical calculation of radon emanation fraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emanation fraction of radon atoms created in a granular material was estimated using Monte Carlo method. Two models based on different arrangements of grains were considered: one of them representing simple cubic structure and the other one based on face centered cubic structure. As it was expected, the structure that provided higher density of grain packing (FCCS) gave lower values of radon emanation fraction. Both models showed that the probability of radon embedding in the neighboring grains would approach zero for large values of grain radius. Assuming homogenous distribution of 226Ra within the whole grain volume, radon emanation fraction decreased with increasing grain radius while it showed the opposite behavior in the case of surface distribution of 226Ra. The order of magnitude of radon emanation fraction decreased from 10-2% (for grain radius of few micrometers) to 10-4% (for grain radius larger than few millimeters) when homogenous distribution of 226Ra was considered. If the distribution of 226Ra was assumed only within the surface layer of a grain, emanation increased from less than 1% (obtained for grain size of few micrometers) to almost 25% (for large grain radius). The effect of moisture on the emanation fraction was confirmed by examining the case of water filling the space among the grains. Radon emanation was also considered analytically and the results were compared with Monte Carlo calculations.

Stajic, J. M.; Nikezic, D.

2014-10-01

423

Multiple radon entry modeling in a house with a cellar.  

PubMed

Combining a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and a multi-zonal model, a study was carried out on radon entry through the complex substructure of a house with a cellar. The uniqueness of the radon entry problem in this type of house was due to the involvement of two radon entry routes to two chambers: the cellar and the living area of the house. Soil gas carrying radon was driven through the two routes by two coupled disturbance pressures in the chambers. The effects of temperature differences were considered as another driving force for the radon entry. Examined in this study were the effects of the geometry of the substructure, air permeability of the soil, air-tightness of the cellar shell, and cellar ventilation on radon entry to both the cellar and the living area. The ground floor covering on top of the soil outside a cellar wall increased radon entry through this wall by about 68%, as radon built up to a very high level under the covering. The effect of cellar ventilation was found as follows: the cellar ventilation created a layer of airflow in the soil under the ground floor; the flow passed over a crack in the ground floor, the entry route to the living area, diluting the radon in the area. Hence, the soil gas entering the living area carried less radon. Cellar ventilation seems more effective in reducing radon entry to the living area in a more permeable soil and leaky cellar shell; a moderate cellar ventilation condition achieved 77% reduction in radon entry to the area. When permeability of these two materials was lower and soil radon content remained the same, the chances of radon entry was also lower; hence, the indoor radon level was lower and no radon control was needed. When such soil contains high radon concentration, other mitigation measures must be sought. PMID:10434805

Wang, F; Ward, I C

1999-06-01

424

40 CFR 191.15 - Individual protection requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Individual protection requirements. 191.15 Section 191.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND...

2011-07-01

425

40 CFR 191.15 - Individual protection requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Individual protection requirements. 191.15 Section 191.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND...

2012-07-01

426

40 CFR 191.15 - Individual protection requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Individual protection requirements. 191.15 Section 191.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND...

2013-07-01

427

Carcinogenic and cocarcinogenic effects of radon and radon daughters in rats  

SciTech Connect

It has been previously established that lung cancer could be induced in rats by exposure to radon and radon daughters. Although the oat-cell carcinomas that are common in humans were not found in rats, other histological types of lung carcinomas, especially squamous cell carcinomas and primitive lung adenocarcinomas, were similar to those observed in humans. A dose-effect relationship was established for cumulative doses varying from 25 to 300 working-level-months (WLM), which was similar for medium and high cumulative doses to that observed in uranium miners. This experimental protocol was also used to study the potential cocarcinogenic effects of other environmental or industrial airborne pollutants such as tobacco smoke, mineral fibers, diesel exhausts, or minerals from metallic mine ores that may act synergistically with radon exposure. In rats exposed to radon and tobacco smoke combined, the incidence of malignant thoracic tumors was observed in rats exposed to radon and fibers combined, but synergistic effects resulted in additivity. With diesel exhausts or minerals from metallic ores, a slight, nonsignificant increase in the incidence of lung carcinomas was observed compared with rats exposed to radon alone. These results demonstrated that it is possible to establish the potential cocarcinogenic action, showing either multiplicative, additive, or no effect of various environmental or industrial airborne pollutants combined with radon exposure. This radon model is valid for investigating possible interactions between two occupational exposures. 62 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

Monchaux, G.; Morlier, J.P.; Morin, M.; Lafuma, J.; Masse, R. (Laboratoire de Cancerologie Experimentale, Fontenay aux Roses (France)); Chameaud, J. (Laboratoire de Pathologie Pulmonaire Experimentale, Razes (France))

1994-01-01

428

Radiation protection management program at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island): Noteworthy practices and accomplishments: Final report  

SciTech Connect

A successful dose reduction program must utilize disparate techniques such as sound technical understanding of contamination processes, through training in ALARA principles, management and worker commitment, and adequate tools. GPU Nuclear Corporation's cleanup program at TMI-2 represents a unique opportunity to test tools and techniques under real plant conditions not readily achieved in a laboratory. The dose reduction tools and techniques described herein have proven beneficial in the course of the accident cleanup. Each has potential for operating plant applications. This overview describes the problem that each technique was developed to address, how each tool was implemented, and how the implementation contributed to dose reduction.

Owen, D.E.; Brady, D.D.; Owrutsky, S.L.

1987-08-01

429

Radon measurements at the FEMP  

SciTech Connect

Environmental radon monitoring activities at the DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) have been conducted extensively since the early 1980`s. Monitoring has been conducted at ambient concentration levels (< 1 pCi/L Rn-222), inside buildings, and at significantly elevated levels (hundreds of thousands pCi/L Rn-222) within the K-65 silo that store concentrated radium bearing wastes. The purpose of this paper/presentation is to present and discuss some of the difficulties encountered/solutions (e.g. reliability, detection limits, affects of environmental factors, data transfer, etc.) that have been discovered while taking measurements using both alpha track-etch passive integrating detectors and alpha scintillation real-time detectors. A short summary and conclusion section is provided following each topic presented.

Tomczak, L.M.; Daniels, R.D.; Dennis, C.; Glassey, H.G.; Lohner, W.G.; Ray, E.C.; Selasky, J.A. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project; Spitz, H.B.; Roush, K. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

1993-08-01

430

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2002.  

SciTech Connect

This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2002 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2002 will be in accordance with the following requirements of DOE Order 5400.1: to evaluate and maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2002 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2002 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

None

2001-09-01

431

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2004  

SciTech Connect

This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2004 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2004 will be in accordance with the following requirements of DOE Order 5400.1: (1) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (2) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (3) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (4) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2004 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2004 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

Elvado Environmental LLC for the Environmental Compliance Department ES& H Division, Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

2003-09-30

432

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2005  

SciTech Connect

This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2005 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2005 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (2) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (3) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (4) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2005 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2005 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

None

2004-09-30

433

Leave No Trace! An Outdoor Ethic: A Program To Teach Skills for Protecting the Wilderness Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of two brochures that were developed as part of a land ethics training program for outdoor recreationists. The brochures provide information about techniques that outdoor practitioners can use to help minimize disturbance to backcountry and wilderness areas. Heavy use of popular camping areas can create problems such as…

Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

434

Indoor Air Quality Program California State University, Fullerton has adopted a policy to protect employees and  

E-print Network

, staff, students and general public is the main focus of the program to not subject them to avoidable and are but not limited to: inspection, communication, and correction. II. Authority California Code of Regulations, Title, avoiding, and if necessary, addressing risks. Off-Gassing- Off-gassing occurs when VOC volatilize

de Lijser, Peter

435

PATHOGEN REDUCTION STUDIES IN EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) SLUDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Since about 1976, EPA's Sludge Management Program has devoted a substantial portion of its resources towards evaluating existing and new sludge stabilization processes for their ability to reduce or eliminate pathogens. This presentation reviews the nature and extent of these eff...

436

EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION WITH MULTISTAGE BURNERS) TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives an overview of EPA's Limestone Injection with Multistage Burners (LIMB) program, a progam for research, development, and demonstration of cost-effective emissionscontrol technology for coal fired boilers that can reduce both sulfur oxides(SOx) and nitrogen oxides ...

437

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE FLUID MODELING FACILITY TO EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) COMPLEX TERRAIN MODEL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The contributions of the EPA Fluid Modeling Facility (FMF) to the Complex Terrain Model Development Program (CTMDP) are described. These contributions included a wide range of laboratory studies and a limited amount of numerical modeling of flow and diffusion in neutral and stabl...

438

Sustainability of the Dissemination of an Occupational Sun Protection Program in a Randomized Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sustainability of an occupational sun safety program, Go Sun Smart (GSS), was explored in a randomized trial, testing dissemination strategies at 68 U.S. and Canadian ski areas in 2004-2007. All ski areas received GSS from the National Ski Areas Association through a Basic Dissemination Strategy (BDS) using conference presentations and free…

Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Scott, Michael D.; Dignan, Mark B.; Cutter, Gary R.; Zhang, Xiao; Kane, Ilima L.

2012-01-01

439

OVERVIEW OF EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) PROGRAM FOR RETROFIT SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An overview is given of EPA's research program to develop improved control technologies for emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the combustion of fossil fuels. Analysis indicates that low capital cost technology for retrofit to existing boilers would ...

440

Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure: A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and

Troy L. Wright; Patricia E. OBrien; Michael J. Hazel; John D. Tuttle; Mitchel E. Cunningham; Steven C. Schlegel

2010-01-01

441

40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA...

2013-07-01

442

Human lung cancer risks from radon - part I - influence from bystander effects - a microdose analysis.  

PubMed

Since the publication of the BEIR VI report in 1999 on health risks from radon, a significant amount of new data has been published showing various mechanisms that may affect the ultimate assessment of radon as a carcinogen, at low domestic and workplace radon levels, in particular the Bystander Effect (BE) and the Adaptive Response radio-protection (AR). We analyzed the microbeam and broadbeam alpha particle data of Miller et al. (1995, 1999), Zhou et al. (2001, 2003, 2004), Nagasawa and Little (1999, 2002), Hei et al. (1999), Sawant et al. (2001a) and found that the shape of the cellular response to alphas is relatively independent of cell species and LET of the alphas. The same alpha particle traversal dose response behavior should be true for human lung tissue exposure to radon progeny alpha particles. In the Bystander Damage Region of the alpha particle response, there is a variation of RBE from about 10 to 35. There is a transition region between the Bystander Damage Region and Direct Damage Region of between one and two microdose alpha particle traversals indicating that perhaps two alpha particle "hits" are necessary to produce the direct damage. Extrapolation of underground miners lung cancer risks to human risks at domestic and workplace levels may not be valid. PMID:21731539

Leonard, Bobby E; Thompson, Richard E; Beecher, Georgia C

2011-01-01

443

Comparison of two methods for high purity germanium detector efficiency calibration for charcoal canister radon measurement.  

PubMed

The charcoal canister method of radon measurement according to US Environment Protection Agency protocol 520/5-87-005 is widely used for screening. This method is based on radon adsorption on coal and measurement of gamma radiation of radon daughters. For the purpose of gamma spectrometry, appropriate efficiency calibration of the measuring system must be performed. The most usual method of calibration is using standard canister, a sealed canister with the same matrix and geometry as the canisters used for measurements, but with the known activity of radon. In the absence of standard canister, a different method of efficiency calibration has to be implemented. This study presents the results of efficiency calibration using the EFFTRAN efficiency transfer software. Efficiency was calculated using a soil matrix cylindrical secondary reference material as a starting point. Calculated efficiency is then compared with the one obtained using standard canister and applied to a realistic measurement in order to evaluate the results of the efficiency transfer. PMID:25377751

Nikolic, J; Pantelic, G; Zivanovic, M; Rajacic, M; Todorovic, D

2014-11-01

444

Review of Radon Emanation and Mobilization in Minerals and Rocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Determination of the natural radiation environment should receive high priority during screening, characterization, construction, and operational phases of underground facilities. Radon-222, and Radon-220 (Thoron) occur widely throughout the earth's crust...

C. P. Cameron

1987-01-01

445

TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR REMOVING RADON FROM SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Radon contamination of drinking water primarily affects individual homeowners and communities using groundwater supplies. resently, three types of treatment processes have been used to remove radon: granular activated carbon adsorption (GAG>, diffused bubble aeration, and packed ...

446

On the exhalation rate of radon by man  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes some aspects of the exhalation rate of radon by man which may be relevant to its internal dosimetry and, therefore, to possible radiobiological consequences. Prolonged exposure of a person to radon results in a reservoir or radon dissolved in body fat and fluids. If the person then moves to an environment with a lower radon concentration, there is a net exhalation of radon and the initial exhalation rate depends on the radon concentration in the first environment. This is demonstrated for seven persons whose houses contained radon at concentrations varying from 10 Bq m{sup {minus}3} to almost 1000 Bq m{sup {minus}3}. About one hour after leaving the house, the subjects' average exhalation rate of radon, expressed as the equivalent volume of house air per unit time, was 236 mL min{sup {minus}1}. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Rundo, J.; Markun, F.; Plondke, N.J.

1990-01-01

447

Occupant Protection Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

2010-01-01

448

Material protection, control, and accounting enhancements through the Russian/US cooperative MPC & A program  

SciTech Connect

The cooperative Russian/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC & A) project was initiated in June 1996. Since then, the GKhK has collaborated with Brookhaven, Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories to test, evaluate, and implement MPC & A elements including bar codes, computerized nuclear material accounting software, nondestructive assay technologies, bulk measurement systems, seals, video surveillance systems, radio communication systems, metal detectors, vulnerability assessment tools, personnel access control systems, and pedestrian nuclear material portal monitors. This paper describes the strategy for implementation of these elements at the GKhK and the status of the collaborative efforts. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Scott, S.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sude, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Buckley, W.M. [Lawrence Livremore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1997-11-01

449

Variations of Radon Risk with Changing Mortality Rates  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the variation of radon risks with changing mortality rates. The Canadian age-specific mortality rates averaged over five year periods from 1986 to 1990 and from 1996 to 2000 were used in the risk calculations. Because of the synergistic interaction between smoking and radon, the risk of radon induced lung cancer for Canadian men decreased with the declining lung cancer mortality rates while for Canadian women the radon risks increased with the rising lung cancer mortality rates.

Chen Jing [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)

2008-08-07

450

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2009  

SciTech Connect

This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2009 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2009 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2009 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2009 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2009 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3; sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4; and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information.

Elvado Environmental LLC

2008-12-01

451

Ablation, Thermal Response, and Chemistry Program for Analysis of Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous work, the authors documented the Multicomponent Ablation Thermochemistry (MAT) and Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal response (FIAT) programs. In this work, key features from MAT and FIAT were combined to create the new Fully Implicit Ablation, Thermal response, and Chemistry (FIATC) program. FIATC is fully compatible with FIAT (version 2.5) but has expanded capabilities to compute the multispecies surface chemistry and ablation rate as part of the surface energy balance. This new methodology eliminates B' tables, provides blown species fractions as a function of time, and enables calculations that would otherwise be impractical (e.g. 4+ dimensional tables) such as pyrolysis and ablation with kinetic rates or unequal diffusion coefficients. Equations and solution procedures are presented, then representative calculations of equilibrium and finite-rate ablation in flight and ground-test environments are discussed.

Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih-Kanq

2010-01-01

452

Predictions of lung cancer based on county averages for indoor radon versus the historic incidence of regional lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

After a decade of effort to determine the health risk associated with indoor radon, the efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency have prevailed in the US, and 4 pCi/1 is commonly used as an Action Level. Proposals by other groups supporting lower or higher Action Levels have failed, largely due to paucity of information supporting any particular level of indoor radon. The authors' studies have compared indoor radon for zip code and county size areas with parameters such as geology, precipitation and home construction. Their attempts to verify the relative levels of lung cancer using US-EPA estimates of radon-vs-cancer have not been supportive of the EPA risk estimates. In general, when they compare the number of lung cancer cases in particular geological or geographical areas with the indoor radon levels in that area, they find the EPA predicted number of lung cancer cases to exceed the total number of lung cancer cases from all causes. Comparisons show a correlation between the incidence of lung cancer and indoor radon, but the level of risk is about 1/10 that proposed by the US-EPA. Evidently the assumptions used in their studies are flawed. Even though they find lower risk estimates using many counties in several states, fundamental flaws must be present in this type of investigation. Care must be taken in presenting health risks to the general population in cases, such as in indoor radon, where field data do not support risk estimates obtained by other means.

Mose, D.G.; Chrosniak, C.E.; Mushrush, G.W. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). Center for Basic and Applied Science)

1992-01-01

453

Radon  

MedlinePLUS

... Statement Toxicological Profile ToxGuide ... More Resources Environmental Health Substances Map Select a state: This map displays locations ... one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. It is important you ...

454

Detection of radon decay products in rainwater.  

PubMed

The Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) Environmental Radiation Monitoring System measures and records ambient radiation levels and provides detection capability for radon decay products in rain clouds. These decay products in rainwater tracked into a facility on the shoes of workers can cause false alarms from hand and shoe monitors. The monitors at ANL-E can easily detect the radon decay products, and the 19.6 and 26.8 min half-lives of the beta-particle emitters are long enough in many cases for sufficient activity to still be present to initiate a contamination alarm when the shoes are checked for radioactivity. The Environmental Radiation Monitoring System provides a warning when precipitation contains elevated levels of radon decay products. It is based on a prototype developed at the Super Collider Laboratory. During its first year of operation there were nine alarms from radon decay products with an alarm trigger point set at 30% greater than background. The alarms occurred at both monitoring stations, which are approximately 1,000 m apart, indicating large diameter radon clouds. The increases in background were associated with low atmospheric pressure. There was no correlation with radon released from the coal-burning steam plant on the site. Alarms also occurred when short-lived accelerator-produced radioactivity in the exhaust stack plume passed over the NaI(Tl) detector in one of the stations. The 450 MeV proton accelerator near the station produced 12C, 13N, and 15O by spallation of air nuclei. The gamma-ray spectrum from the plume from the accelerator exhaust stack was dominated by the 511 keV annihilation gamma rays from decay of these radionuclides. These gamma rays were easily distinguished from the 609 keV, 1,120 keV, and 1,764 keV gamma rays emitted by the radon decay products. PMID:10527152

Baker, S I

1999-11-01

455

25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...  

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2014-04-01

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25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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2010-04-01

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2014-04-01

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25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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2011-04-01

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25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?  

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2014-04-01

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25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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2013-04-01

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25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?  

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2014-04-01

462

25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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2010-04-01

463

25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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2012-04-01

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25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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2012-04-01

465

25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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2011-04-01