Sample records for protection programs radon

  1. Environmental Protection Agency: Radon (Rn)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Indoor Air Quality division of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) presents this Web page dedicated to information about radon, the colorless and odorless radioactive known to cause lung cancer. In addition to general resources on radon (including a guide to reducing radon levels in the home), visitors will find information on how to obtain a free educational video (Breathing Easy: What Home Buyers and Sellers Should Know About Radon) recently released by the EPA. Geared primarily toward homebuyers and sellers (as well as real estate professionals), this video thoroughly reviews radon science, lung cancer risk, home inspection, how to build a new home radon-resistant, and more.

  2. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROGRAM TO DEMONSTRATE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR INDOOR RADON: INITIAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives initial results of an EPA program to demonstrate mitigation measures for indoor radon. EPA has installed radon mitigation techniques in 18 concrete block basement homes in the Reading Prong area of eastern Pennsylvania, all designed to demonstrate techniques which...

  3. SITE-SPECIFIC MEASUREMENTS OF RESIDENTIAL RADON PROTECTION CATEGORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a series of benchmark measurements of soil radon potential at seven Florida sites and compares the measurements with regional estimates of radon potential from the Florida radon protection map. The measurements and map were developed under the Florida Radon R...

  4. American Lung Association`s radon public information program

    SciTech Connect

    McCurdy, L.E. [American Lung Association, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The American Lung Association (ALA), the nation`s oldest voluntary health organization, is dedicated to the conquest of lung disease and the promotion of lung health. The objective of the ALA Radon Public Information Program is to reduce public exposure to elevated indoor radon levels through implementing grassroots-based radon public awareness campaigns by 22 local ALA groups. The program, which is funded by a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was initiated in December 1989; the first phase will continue until May, 1991. Activities of local Lung Associations include distribution of free or reduced-cost radon kits; presenting programs in elementary and secondary schools; presenting information on TV news series and talk shows, and on radio Public Service Announcements and talk shows; presenting articles and feature stories in the print media; holding conferences, workshops, and displays at fairs and other exhibitions; distributing radon fact sheets through libraries and utility company mailings; and distributing videos through video chains and libraries. The local Lung Associations also serve as promoters for the EPA/Advertising Council Radon Public Service Announcement Campaign. We will highlight the activities of the groups in communicating radon health risks to the public; we will describe the results obtained and will attempt to evaluate the merits of the various approaches on the basis of the initial results.

  5. Protecting People and Families from Radon

    MedlinePLUS

    ... standard practice in green building, real estate and construction industries; and deliver financing and other incentives to help ... for certified radon testing, mitigation and radon-resistant ... the radon mitigation industry, help save jobs for the estimated 3,000 ...

  6. Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2005–2011

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Angell, William

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen. Methods We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms “radon,” “radiation,” or “lung.” Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC program’s most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state. Results Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n = 21), remediation (n = 11), support radon policy activities (n = 13), and policy evaluation (n = 1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n = 21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws. Conclusion Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs. PMID:23928457

  7. STANDARD MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual, in support of the Florida Radon Research Program, contains standard protocols for key measurements where data quality is vital to the program. t contains two sections. he first section, soil measurements, contains field sampling protocols for soil gas permeability and...

  8. PROCEEDINGS OF THE INDOOR RADON MODELING WORKSHOP - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the Florida Radon Research Programs's (FRRP's) indoor radon modeling workshop, held April 16-17, 1991, in Tampa, Florida. he workshop brought together experts in various aspects of modeling the behavior and origin of indoor radon, with the objective of evalua...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A RADON PROTECTION MAP FOR LARGE BUILDINGS IN FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of a radon protection map to show from soil and geological features the areas of Florida that require different levels of Radon protection for large building construction. The map was proposed as a basis for implementing radon-protective const...

  10. Lumped-parameter model analyses of data from the 1992 new house evaluation project, Florida Radon Research Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, K.K.; Holt, R.B.; Rogers, V.C.

    1995-07-01

    The report documents analyses of Phase 2 data from the Florida Radon Research Program`s (FRRP`s) New House Evaluation Project (NHEP) that were performed using a lumped-parameter model. Based on experience from Phase 1 of the NHEP, Phase 2 monitoring was aimed at better isolating the effects of specified radon-resistant construction features. The FSEC data included 15 houses, and the UF data included 14 houses. The lumped-parameter analyses focused primarily on empirically characterizing the radon resistance of the house/soil interface for different foundation designs. The analyses were also aimed at comparing the effectiveness of active and passive radon protection features.

  11. Citizen's Guide to Radon: The Guide to Protecting Yourself and Your Family from Radon

    MedlinePLUS

    ... radon entry. When installed properly and completely, these simple and inexpensive techniques can help reduce indoor radon ... problems can't be fixed. FACT: There are simple solutions to radon problems in homes. Hundreds of ...

  12. SOIL AND FILL LABORATORY SUPPORT - 1991, FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of soil analysis laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). nalyses were performed on soil and fill samples collected during 1991 by the FRRP Research House program and the New House Evaluation pr...

  13. Radon

    Cancer.gov

    Radon is a radioactive gas that is released from the normal decay of the elements uranium, thorium, and radium in rocks and soil. The invisible, odorless gas seeps up through the ground and diffuses into the air. In a few areas, depending on local geology, radon dissolves into ground water and can be released into the air when the water is used.

  14. Radon

    MedlinePLUS

    ... amounts in most rock, soil, and water. Each atom of uranium or thorium decays or transforms about ... progeny is the term given to those radioactive atoms with short half-lives into which radon quickly ...

  15. Fire Protection Program Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  16. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

  17. AN OVERVIEW OF INDOOR RADON RISK REDUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radon in the indoor environment is a recognized environmental hazard. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established several programs to develop, demonstrate, and transfer radon mitigation technology. Administration and management of these programs are shared by EPA's ...

  18. American Battlefield Protection Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Working under the aegis of the National Park Service's Heritage Preservation program, the goals of the American Battlefield Protection Program are "to protect battlefields and sites associated with armed conflicts that influenced the course of our history" and "to raise awareness of the importance of preserving battlefields." To that end, the NPS developed this site which collects a host of information about historically significant battlefields ranging from the Revolutionary War to the Civil War. Persons looking to learn more about ongoing and current developments in the field will want to be sure to read the group's publication, "Battlefield News," which is available here for the years 1998 to 2002. As might be expected, the online publications area is quite strong. Here visitors can read publications that tell about the importance of protecting these sites, along with various studies that have detailed the existing conditions of battlegrounds such as those in the Shenandoah Valley. [KMG

  19. Food Protection Management Program

    E-print Network

    Food Protection Management Program http://foodsafety.tamu.edu Relevance The Centers for Disease illnesses are attributed to improper handling of food prepared away from home. Because almost half of our food dollars is spent on food prepared outside the home, food safety is a top concern among consumers

  20. Human Research Protection Program Plan

    E-print Network

    Weber, David J.

    Human Research Protection Program Plan Revised February 27, 2014 #12;Human Research Protection............................................................................................................... 4 Engaged in Human Research...................................................................................... 4 Human Research

  1. Radon

    MedlinePLUS

    ... smartphone. Top Stories More about Healthy Air New Ozone Standards Will Save Lives, Protect Health Huffington Post March 9, 2015 Understanding the Obama Administration’s Ozone Pollution Standards November 26, 2014 » More American ...

  2. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    SciTech Connect

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  3. SOIL RADON POTENTIAL MAPPLING OF TWELVE COUNTIES IN NORTH-CENTRAL FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the approach, methods, and detailed data used to prepare soil radon potential maps of 12 counties in North-Central Florida. he maps were developed under the Florida Radon Research Program to provide a scientific basis for implementing radon-protective buildin...

  4. SOIL RADON POTENTIAL MAPPING OF TWELVE COUNTIES IN NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the approach, methods, and detailed data used to prepare soil radon potential maps of 12 counties in North-Central Florida. he maps were developed under the Florida Radon Research Program to provide a scientific basis for implementing radon-protective buildin...

  5. Protection in programming languages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Morris Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Linguistic mechanisms which can be used to protect one subprogram from another's malfunctioning are described. Function-producing functions and various type-tagging schemes are considered. An attempt is made to distinguish between access limitation and authentication.

  6. Develop a Wellhead Protection Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students will develop a wellhead protection program for a hypothetical community. Students assume various roles in the community such as gas station owner, photo lab owner or employee, beauty salon owner, restaurant owner, resident, or environmentalist so that each student can bring the perspective of his or her role to the discussion. Students will discover that the relationships between businesses, environmentalists, and community leaders can be, but need not be, adversarial. As they progress through this activity students learn about the tools communities may use to develop a wellhead protection program. They will also recognize that developing a community wellhead protection program is not easy and that, while it is important to protect drinking water supplies, it can be very difficult to develop a program that will gain support from the overall community.

  7. SOIL AND FILL LABORATORY SUPPORT - 1992 RADIOLOGICAL ANALYSES - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of soil analysis laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). Analyses were performed on soil and fill samples collected during 1992 by the FRRP Research House Program and the New House Evaluation P...

  8. SOIL AND FILL LABORATORY SUPPORT - 1992 RADIOLOGICAL ANALYSES, FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of soil analysis laboratory work by the University of Florida in support of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). nalyses were performed on soil and fill samples collected during 1992 by the FRRP Research House Program and the New House Evaluation Pr...

  9. MODELING RADON ENTRY INTO FLORIDA HOUSES WITH CONCRETE SLABS AND CONCRETE-BLOCK STEM WALLS, FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses results of modeling radon entry into a typical Florida house whose interior is slightly depressurized. he model predicts that the total radon entry rate is relatively low unless the soil or backfill permeability or radium content is high. ost of the factors c...

  10. MODELNG RADON ENTRY INTO FLORIDA HOUSES WITH CONCRETE SLABS AND CONCRETE-BLOCK STEM WALLS, FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses results of modeling radon entry into a typical Florida house whose interior is slightly depressurized. he model predicts that the total radon entry rate is relatively low unless the soil or backfill permeability or radium content is high. ost of the factors c...

  11. Radiation Protection. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air- radon 222. A proposed ISO standard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G.; Woods, M.

    2009-04-01

    Radon isotopes (222, 220, 219) are radioactive gases produced by the disintegration of radium isotopes 226, 224 and 223, which are decay products of uranium238, thorium232 and uranium235 respectively. All are found in the earth's crust. Solid elements, also radioactive, are produced by radon disintegration. Radon is classed as a rare gas in the periodic table of elements, along with helium, argon, neon, krypton and xenon. When disintegrating, radon emits alpha particles and generates solid decay products, which are also radioactive (polonium, bismuth, lead etc.). The potential danger of radon lies in its solid decay products rather than the gas itself. Whether or not they are attached aerosols, radon decay products can be inhaled and deposited in the bronchopulmonary tree to varying depths according to their size. Radon today is considered to be the main source of human exposure to natural radiation. At the international level, radon accounts for 52% of global average exposure to natural radiation. Isotope 222 (48%) is far more significant than isotope 220 (4%), whilst isotope 219 is considered as negligible. Exposure to radon varies considerably from one region to another, depending on factors such as weather conditions, and underlying geology. Activity concentration can therefore vary by a factor of 10 or even a 100 from one period of time to the next and from one area to another. There are many ways of measuring the radon 222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products. Measuring techniques fall into three categories: - spot measurement methods; continuous measurement; integrated measurement. The proposed ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) document suggests guidelines for measuring radon222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in a free (environment) and confined (buildings) atmosphere. The target date for availability of this work item is 2011. The ISO document here highlighted is a working draft. ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies. Keywords: radon; international standards; measurement techniques.

  12. UNIFIED RADON RELATIVE RISK MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Unified Radon Relative Risk Model (UR3M) is a Windows program for PCs. It was developed to fill the need for a comprehensive approach to radon health risks and to allow users or their clients to make informed decisions with respect to radon. The model combines three radon sou...

  13. Planetary Protection Bioburden Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudet, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    This program is a Microsoft Access program that performed statistical analysis of the colony counts from assays performed on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft to determine the bioburden density, 3-sigma biodensity, and the total bioburdens required for the MSL prelaunch reports. It also contains numerous tools that report the data in various ways to simplify the reports required. The program performs all the calculations directly in the MS Access program. Prior to this development, the data was exported to large Excel files that had to be cut and pasted to provide the desired results. The program contains a main menu and a number of submenus. Analyses can be performed by using either all the assays, or only the accountable assays that will be used in the final analysis. There are three options on the first menu: either calculate using (1) the old MER (Mars Exploration Rover) statistics, (2) the MSL statistics for all the assays, or This software implements penetration limit equations for common micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shield configurations, windows, and thermal protection systems. Allowable MMOD risk is formulated in terms of the probability of penetration (PNP) of the spacecraft pressure hull. For calculating the risk, spacecraft geometry models, mission profiles, debris environment models, and penetration limit equations for installed shielding configurations are required. Risk assessment software such as NASA's BUMPERII is used to calculate mission PNP; however, they are unsuitable for use in shield design and preliminary analysis studies. The software defines a single equation for the design and performance evaluation of common MMOD shielding configurations, windows, and thermal protection systems, along with a description of their validity range and guidelines for their application. Recommendations are based on preliminary reviews of fundamental assumptions, and accuracy in predicting experimental impact test results. The software is programmed in Visual Basic for Applications for installation as a simple add-in for Microsoft Excel. The user is directed to a graphical user interface (GUI) that requires user inputs and provides solutions directly in Microsoft Excel workbooks. This work was done by Shannon Ryan of the USRA Lunar and Planetary Institute for Johnson Space Center. Further information is contained in a TSP (see page 1). MSC- 24582-1 Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) Shield Ballistic Limit Analysis Program Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Commercially, because it is so generic, Enigma can be used for almost any project that requires engineering visualization, model building, or animation. Models in Enigma can be exported to many other formats for use in other applications as well. Educationally, Enigma is being used to allow university students to visualize robotic algorithms in a simulation mode before using them with actual hardware. This work was done by David Shores and Sharon P. Goza of Johnson Space Center; Cheyenne McKeegan, Rick Easley, Janet Way, and Shonn Everett of MEI Technologies; Mark Manning of PTI; and Mark Guerra, Ray Kraesig, and William Leu of Tietronix Software, Inc. For further information, contact the JSC Innovation Partnerships Office at (281) 483-3809. MSC-24211-1 Spitzer Telemetry Processing System NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2

  14. Pinellas Plant groundwater protection management program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-10-01

    The Groundwater Protection Management Program (GPMP) Plan outlines the program in place at the Pinellas Plant to detect and monitor contaminated groundwater, which may have become contaminated by materials and waste.

  15. DATA LOGGING SYSTEMS FOR MONITORING LONG-TERM RADON MITIGATION EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS IN SCHOOLS AND OTHER LARGE BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses data logging systems for monitoring long-term radon mitigation experimental programs in schools and other large buildings. Several mitigation systems have been installed in schools as part of a mitigation research program conducted by the U.S. EPA. ach install...

  16. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  17. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

  18. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

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  19. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

  20. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

  1. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35...Administrative Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection program without...

  2. LUMPED-PARAMETER MODEL ANALYSES OF DATA FROM THE 1992 NEW HOUSE EVALUATION PROJECT - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents analyses of Phase 2 data from the Florida Radon Research Program's New House Evaluation Project (NHEP) that were performed using a lumped-parameter model. The houses evaluated in Phase 2 were monitored by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) and the Univers...

  3. OVERVIEW OF INDOOR RADON MITIGATION ALTERNATIVES AND A SUMMARY OF RECENT EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) MITIGATION TEST RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The discussion is specific to single-family homes (detached houses), as opposed to apartment buildings, other multiple family dwellings, or office and other public use buildings. Introductory information covers indoor radon sources, health effects of radon exposure, radon level m...

  4. Policy #3011 Identity Theft Protection Program 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    Policy #3011 ­ Identity Theft Protection Program 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY University Policy Policy #3011 IDENTITY THEFT PROTECTION PROGRAM Responsible Oversight Executive: Vice President of this policy is to develop an Identity Theft Prevention Program (hereinafter referred to as "Program

  5. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

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  6. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

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  7. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

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  8. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

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  9. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

  10. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

  11. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

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  12. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

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  13. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

  14. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

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  15. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

  16. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

  17. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

  18. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each...

  19. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs....

  20. Radon: counseling patients about risk.

    PubMed

    Birrer, R B

    1990-09-01

    Exposure to radon and its decay products has increased as the United States has changed from an outdoor society to a largely indoor society. Radon, which is found primarily in the soil, enters houses and buildings through cracks, holes and pipes in foundation walls and floors. Although radon is suspected of being a significant cause of lung cancer, comparisons with other risk factors cannot yet be made. Radon levels in the home can be measured with commercially available kits. Guidelines for reducing the amount of radon in a home are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:2203238

  1. US Environmental Protection Agency: National Estuary Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1987 by amendments to the Clean Water Act and administered by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds (OWOW), the National Estuary Program (NEP) identifies, restores and protects estuaries along the coasts of the United States. Unlike the traditional regulatory approaches to environmental protection, the NEP targets a wide range of issues and engages local communities in the process. At the site users can find descriptions of the NEP, specific NEP projects, estuaries involved in the NEP (including location, size, presence of threatened and endangered species, major habitat types, etc.), a current awareness section, links to related sites, and the full text of NEP's newsletter, Coastlines.

  2. Chemical properties of radon

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, L.

    1986-01-01

    Radon is frequently regarded as a totally inert element. It is, however, a ''metalloid'' - an element which lies on the diagonal of the Periodic Table between the true metals and nonmetals and which exhibits some of the characteristics of both. It reacts with fluorine, halogen fluorides, dioxygenyl salts, fluoro-nitrogen salts, and halogen fluoride-metal fluoride complexes to form ionic compounds. Several of the solid reagents can be used to collect radon from air but must be protected from moisture, since they hydrolyze readily. Recently, solutions of nonvolatile, cationic radon have been produced in nonaqueous solvents. Ion-exchange studies have shown that the radon can be quantitatively collected on columns packed with either Nafion resins or complex salts. In its ionic state, radon is able to displace H/sup +/, Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Cs/sup +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Ba/sup 2 +/ ions from a number of solid materials. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Predictors of Home Radon Testing and Implications for Testing Promotion Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Peter M.; Weinstein, Neil D.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of 4 New Jersey studies of 3,329 homeowners found that (1) thinking about radon testing is predicted by general radon knowledge; (2) decision to test is related to perceived likelihood of risk; and (3) actual testing is influenced by situational factors such as locating and choosing test kits. (SK)

  4. Respiratory Protection Program Environmental Health & Safety

    E-print Network

    been medically qualified, fit tested and trained in respiratory safety. 3.2.7. Ensuring that onlyRespiratory Protection Program Environmental Health & Safety August 2012 #12;Georgia Institute of Technology Revision 1 Page of 38 8/1/12 K:\\Chemical Safety\\Lab Safety Manual and Associated Files for Website

  5. Pinellas Plant groundwater protection management program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-10-01

    The objectives of the Groundwater Protection Management Program (GPMP) are to establish that current operations and transition of the facility are not affecting groundwater in a way that creates unacceptable risks to human health and safety, or to the environment, and that the plant is working to address any such risks previously identified.

  6. Protection of Computer Programs--A Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, William H.

    Computer programs, as legitimate original inventions or creative written expressions, are entitled to patent or copyright protection. Understanding the legal implications of this concept is crucial to both computer programmers and their employers in our increasingly computer-oriented way of life. Basically the copyright or patent procedure…

  7. Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.

  8. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  9. The Austrian radon activities on the way to the national radon action plan.

    PubMed

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Haider, W

    2014-07-01

    Based on the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS), all EU member states will be obliged to design a strategy to address long-term risks from radon exposure, which is laid down in the 'national radon action plan'. In Austria, the National Radon Centre is responsible for the development of the action plan. This paper presents the current and planned radon protection activities on the way to establish the radon action plan--like the national radon database, the definition of radon risk areas by improving the existing radon map, as well as strategies and activities to increase the radon awareness of the public and decision-makers and to involve the building sector. The impact of and the need for actions caused by the BSS requirements on the Austrian radon legislation, strategy and programme are discussed. PMID:24736297

  10. Radon levels in New Jersey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ranney; R. Machever

    1988-01-01

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection began to assess the potential for a natural indoor radon problem in the state following the discovery in December 1984 of high radon levels in homes in northeastern Pennsylvania. A geologic feature commonly known as the Reading Prong underlying the affected homes was identified by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources as the

  11. Computer program for the sensitivity calculation of a CR-39 detector in a diffusion chamber for radon measurements.

    PubMed

    Nikezic, D; Yu, K N; Stajic, J M

    2014-02-01

    Computer software for calculation of the sensitivity of a CR-39 detector closed in a diffusion chamber to radon is described in this work. The software consists of two programs, both written in the standard Fortran 90 programming language. The physical background and a numerical example are given. Presented software is intended for numerous researches in radon measurement community. Previously published computer programs TRACK_TEST.F90 and TRACK_VISION.F90 [D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 160 (2006); D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 178, 591 (2008)] are used here as subroutines to calculate the track parameters and to determine whether the track is visible or not, based on the incident angle, impact energy, etching conditions, gray level, and visibility criterion. The results obtained by the software, using five different V functions, were compared with the experimental data found in the literature. Application of two functions in this software reproduced experimental data very well, while other three gave lower sensitivity than experiment. PMID:24593338

  12. Computer program for the sensitivity calculation of a CR-39 detector in a diffusion chamber for radon measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nikezic, D., E-mail: nikezic@kg.ac.rs; Stajic, J. M. [Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, R. Domanovica 12, Kragujevac 34000 (Serbia)] [Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, R. Domanovica 12, Kragujevac 34000 (Serbia); Yu, K. N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue (Hong Kong)] [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue (Hong Kong)

    2014-02-15

    Computer software for calculation of the sensitivity of a CR-39 detector closed in a diffusion chamber to radon is described in this work. The software consists of two programs, both written in the standard Fortran 90 programming language. The physical background and a numerical example are given. Presented software is intended for numerous researches in radon measurement community. Previously published computer programs TRACK-TEST.F90 and TRACK-VISION.F90 [D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 160 (2006); D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 178, 591 (2008)] are used here as subroutines to calculate the track parameters and to determine whether the track is visible or not, based on the incident angle, impact energy, etching conditions, gray level, and visibility criterion. The results obtained by the software, using five different V functions, were compared with the experimental data found in the literature. Application of two functions in this software reproduced experimental data very well, while other three gave lower sensitivity than experiment.

  13. Computer program for the sensitivity calculation of a CR-39 detector in a diffusion chamber for radon measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikezic, D.; Yu, K. N.; Stajic, J. M.

    2014-02-01

    Computer software for calculation of the sensitivity of a CR-39 detector closed in a diffusion chamber to radon is described in this work. The software consists of two programs, both written in the standard Fortran 90 programming language. The physical background and a numerical example are given. Presented software is intended for numerous researches in radon measurement community. Previously published computer programs TRACK_TEST.F90 and TRACK_VISION.F90 [D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 160 (2006); D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 178, 591 (2008)] are used here as subroutines to calculate the track parameters and to determine whether the track is visible or not, based on the incident angle, impact energy, etching conditions, gray level, and visibility criterion. The results obtained by the software, using five different V functions, were compared with the experimental data found in the literature. Application of two functions in this software reproduced experimental data very well, while other three gave lower sensitivity than experiment.

  14. RECOMMENDED SUB-SLAB DEPRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS DESIGN STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report recommends sub-slab depressurization systems design criteria to the State of Florida's Department of Community Affairs for their building code for radon resistant houses. Numerous details are set forth in the full report. Primary criteria include: (1) the operating soi...

  15. Radon Quest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this module, students pretend to be an environmental consulting firm that has been hired by the County to investigate two cases involving radon exposure. They will prepare a report addressing: the probable causes of the elevated radon values; the extent of the potential problem; the possible routes and effects of human exposure to radon, and ways to educate the public; and strategies for clean up and reduction of exposure to radon in the area. Students will form field, laboratory, risk and impact investigative teams in order to complete their reports.

  16. Planetary protection in the framework of the Aurora exploration program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, G.

    The Aurora Exploration Program will give ESA new responsibilities in the field of planetary protection. Until now, ESA had only limited exposure to planetary protection from its own missions. With the proposed ExoMars and MSR missions, however, ESA will enter the realm of the highest planetary protection categories. As a consequence, the Aurora Exploration Program has initiated a number of activities in the field of planetary protection. The first and most important step was to establish a Planetary Protection Working Group (PPWG) that is advising the Exploration Program Advisory Committee (EPAC) on all matters concerning planetary protection. The main task of the PPWG is to provide recommendations regarding: Planetary protection for robotic missions to Mars; Planetary protection for a potential human mission to Mars; Review/evaluate standards & procedures for planetary protection; Identify research needs in the field of planetary protection. As a result of the PPWG deliberations, a number of activities have been initiated: Evaluation of the Microbial Diversity in SC Facilities; Working paper on legal issues of planetary protection and astrobiology; Feasibility study on a Mars Sample Return Containment Facility; Research activities on sterilization procedures; Training course on planetary protection (May, 2004); Workshop on sterilization techniques (fall 2004). In parallel to the PPWG, the Aurora Exploration Program has established an Ethical Working Group (EWG). This working group will address ethical issues related to astrobiology, planetary protection, and manned interplanetary missions. The recommendations of the working groups and the results of the R&D activities form the basis for defining planetary protection specification for Aurora mission studies, and for proposing modification and new inputs to the COSPAR planetary protection policy. Close cooperation and free exchange of relevant information with the NASA planetary protection program is strongly encouraged.

  17. Researching Radon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucidi, Louis; Mecca, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students examined the physics, chemistry, and geology of radon and used available technology to measure radon concentrations in their homes. Uses the inquiry process, analytical skills, communication skills, content knowledge, and production of authentic products for student assessment. (YDS)

  18. Respiratory Protection Program medical clearance for respirator use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on occupational exposure to various inhalents is discussed including on-site hazard control measures, procedures, physiological effects, and interpretation of results for the medical clearance of employee for use of personal respiratory protection devices. The purpose of the Respiratory Protection Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Respiratory Protection at LeRC are discussed.

  19. Radon Health Risks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Air Indoor Air Radon Health Risks Health Risks (September 2009) The United Nation's World Health Organization ( ... 26 K) . For More Information on Radon Health Risks Radon Frequently Asked Questions EPA's 2003 Updated Radon ...

  20. Radon: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given.

  1. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  2. Space shuttle program: Lightning protection criteria document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The lightning environment for space shuttle design is defined and requirements that the design must satisfy to insure protection of the vehicle system from direct and indirect effects of lightning are imposed. Specifications, criteria, and guidelines included provide a practical and logical approach to protection problems.

  3. Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    Groundwater protection is a national priority that is promulgated in a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the US Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (now under revision) that requires all US Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate groundwater protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Groundwater Protection Management Program for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the Groundwater Protection Management Program cover the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the groundwater regime, (2) design and implementation of a groundwater monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations, (3) a management program for groundwater protection and remediation, (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste, (5) strategies for controlling these sources, (6) a remedial action program, and (7) decontamination and decommissioning and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing groundwater protection activities. Additionally, it describes how information needs are identified and can be incorporated into existing or proposed new programs. The Groundwater Protection Management Program provides the general scope, philosophy, and strategies for groundwater protection/management at the Hanford Site. Subtier documents provide the detailed plans for implementing groundwater-related activities and programs. Related schedule and budget information are provided in the 5-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management at the Hanford Site.

  4. Radon (Rn)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with Douglas Kladder, Director of the Center for Environmental Research and Technology, Inc. (CERTI), about federal commitments aimed to integrate radon awareness into several new collaborations, especially Healthy Indoor Environment Protocols for Home Energy Upgrades , HUD's Healthy Homes ...

  5. Human Research Protection Program Plan HRP-101; version dated: June 14, 2013

    E-print Network

    Paulsson, Johan

    Human Research Protection Program Plan HRP-101; version dated: June 14, 2013 1 HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION PROGRAM PLAN Table of Contents HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION PROGRAM PLAN........................................................................................................................................2 Engaged in Human Research

  6. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

  7. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

  8. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

  9. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

  10. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

  11. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

  12. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

  13. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

  14. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. 35.24 Section...Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of §...

  15. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35...Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation protection program change made...

  16. 75 FR 266 - Customs and Border Protection's Bond Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...to reflect the centralization of the continuous bond program at Customs and Border Protection's...Pursuant to this centralization, continuous bonds must be filed at the Revenue Division...maintenance, and periodic review of continuous bonds. Additionally, the...

  17. 75 FR 22681 - Supplemental Guidance on Overdraft Protection Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ...controversial implementation strategies raise the risk that...FTC Act and the OTS Advertising Rule. Consequently...also violates OTS's Advertising Rule. B. Program...an ``opt out'' strategy for consumers. See...overdraft protection. This strategy is discussed...

  18. Radon Reduction Methods: A Homeowner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying the effectiveness of various ways to reduce high concentrations of radon in houses. This booklet was produced to share what has been learned with those whose radon problems demand immediate action. The booklet describes nine methods that have been tested successfully--by EPA and/or other…

  19. Radon Measurement in Schools. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other major national and international scientific organizations have concluded that radon is a human carcinogen and a serious environmental health problem. The EPA has conducted extensive research on the presence and measurement of radon in schools. This report provides school administrators and…

  20. Radon Measurements in Schools: An Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation Programs.

    Radon-222 is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally in soil, rocks, underground water, and air. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other scientific organizations have identified an increased risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes. Schools in many…

  1. Removal of Radon from Household Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    By far, the greatest risk to health from radon occurs when the gas enters the house from underlying soil and is inhaled. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying ways to reduce radon in houses, including methods to remove the gas from water to prevent its release in houses when the water is used. While this research has not…

  2. Estimation of radon concentrations in coal mines using a hybrid technique calibration curve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalid Jamil; Safdar Ali

    2001-01-01

    The results of epidemiological studies in various countries show that radon and its progeny cause carcinogenic effects on mine workers. Therefore, it becomes of paramount importance to monitor radon concentrations and consequently determine the radon dose rates in coal mines for the protection of coal miners. A new calibration curve was obtained for radon concentration estimation using hybrid techniques. A

  3. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RESEARCH PROGRAM GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annual extramural research program guide for the Office of Research and Development. This report provides information on work being done in each part of ORD, research which EPA is planning for FY 1984, and how much the authors intend to spend on each program area. Some of the are...

  4. Development of Environmental Education Programs for Protected Areas in Madagascar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormsby, Alison

    2007-01-01

    Environmental education programs for schools in the peripheral zone of protected areas in Madagascar are still needed in numerous locations. My research investigated the status of environmental education and communication (EE&C) programs at Masoala National Park, Madagascar, as well as the attitudes of local residents toward the park and park…

  5. Radon detection

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding.

  6. Radon detection

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-01-25

    A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element is described. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding. 3 figures.

  7. S. 791: This Act may be cited as the Radon Information Act of 1991, introduced in the US Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, April 9, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US Senate on April 9, 1991 to amend Title III of the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 USC. 2661 et seq.). This legislation will require certain information relating to radon to be made available in connection with certain real estate transactions. In addition, radon testing devices offered for sale will be required to be tested in the radon measurement proficiency program of the Environmental Protection Agency. Buyers of homes have the right to know about radon risks, radon testing, and radon abatement techniques before they purchase a home. The purposes of this bill are: to establish a procedure by which home buyers receive information about radon; and to provide radon-related information to prospective home buyers at the time of all home sale transactions involving mortgage loans that are secured by a first lien on residential real property and are federally insured, guaranteed, made, or assisted or are purchased by a federally chartered secondary mortgage market institution.

  8. Yucca Mountain Standards: EPA's Radiation Protection Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hosted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Yucca Mountain Home Page furnishes information about the EPA's role in this Nevada-based "underground geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste." The site answers frequently asked questions about the repository and supplies an overview of the various roles of federal agencies. The publications section includes detailed articles (in html or .pdf format) on radioactive waste disposal and the standards and regulations surrounding radioactive waste management. For another Yucca Mountain site, see the October 1, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering.

  9. 78 FR 54069 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, and Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ...al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP...0938-AR82 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP...of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education...

  10. 40 CFR 700.41 - Radon user fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radon user fees. 700.41 Section 700.41 ...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Fees § 700.41 Radon user fees. User fees relating to radon proficiency programs authorized under the...

  11. 40 CFR 700.41 - Radon user fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Radon user fees. 700.41 Section 700.41 ...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Fees § 700.41 Radon user fees. User fees relating to radon proficiency programs authorized under the...

  12. PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON RADON POTENTIAL MAPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents a workshop on radon potential mapping, in Gainesville, FL, on April 20, 1990. he workshop, part of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP), was designed to identify and discuss in an expert forum the technical issues associated with radon potential characte...

  13. National radon database documentation. Volume 4. The EPA/state residential radon surveys: Year 4. Final report 1986-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The National Radon Database has been developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to distribute information collected in two recently completed radon surveys: the EPA/State Residential Radon Surveys, Years 1 to 6; and The National Residential Radon Survey. The goals of the state radon surveys were twofold. Some measure of the distribution of radon levels among residences was desired for major geographic areas within each state and for each state as a whole. In addition, it was desired that each state survey would be able to identify areas of potentially high residential radon concentrations (hot spots) in the state, enabling the state to focus its attention on areas where indoor radon concentrations might pose a greater health threat. The document discusses year 4, 1989-90. The areas surveyed are: California; Hawaii; Idaho; Louisiana; Nebraska; Billings, MT IHS Area; Nevada; North Carolina; Oklahoma; South Carolina; and Navajo Nation.

  14. Radon Testing in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Schools may be a significant source of radon exposure for children and staff. Describes radon detection kits and technologies, when to use them, and what action to take given the results of a radon test. (MLF)

  15. Radon: The Invisible Invader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Leader, 1987

    1987-01-01

    A brief background on indoor radon and the health risks associated with radon exposure, with special emphasis on nonresidential buildings. One school district's experience in radon testing and monitoring is included. (MLF)

  16. SITE-SPECIFIC PROTOCOL FOR MEASURING SOIL RADON POTENTIALS FOR FLORIDA HOUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a protocol for site-specific measurement of radon potentials for Florida houses that is consistent with existing residential radon protection maps. The protocol gives further guidance on the possible need for radon-protective house construction features. In a...

  17. FY-2007 PNNL Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Program Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Patrick A.; Fisher, Julie A.; Goheen, Steven C.; Isern, Nancy G.; Madson, Vernon J.; Meicenheimer, Russell L.; Pugh, Ray; Schneirla, Keri A.; Shockey, Loretta L.; Tinker, Mike R.

    2008-08-15

    This document reports the results of the FY-2007 PNNL VPP Program Evaluation, which is a self-assessment of the operational and programmatic performance of the Laboratory related to worker safety and health. The report was compiled by a team of worker representatives and safety professionals who evaluated the Laboratory's worker safety and health programs on the basis of DOE-VPP criteria. The principle elements of DOE's VPP program are: Management Leadership, Employee Involvement, Worksite Analysis, Hazard Prevention and Control, and Safety and Health Training.

  18. PNNL FY2005 DOE Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Program Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Patrick A.; Madson, Vernon J.; Isern, Nancy G.; Haney, Janice M.; Fisher, Julie A.; Goheen, Steven C.; Gulley, Susan E.; Reck, John J.; Collins, Drue A.; Tinker, Mike R.; Walker, Landon A.; Wynn, Clifford L.

    2005-01-31

    This document reports the results of the FY 2005 PNNL VPP Program Evaluation, which is a self-assessment of the operational and programmatic performance of the Laboratory related to worker safety and health. The report was compiled by a team of worker representatives and safety professionals who evaluated the Laboratory's worker safety and health programs on the basis of DOE-VPP criteria. The principle elements of DOE's VPP program are: Management Leadership, Employee Involvement, Worksite Analysis, Hazard Prevention and Control, and Safety and Health Training.

  19. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  20. A goal interval programming model for resource allocation in a marine environmental protection program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Crarnes; W. W. Cooper; J. Harrald; K. R. Karwan; W. A. Wallace

    1976-01-01

    A multidimensional ''goal programming'' model is developed to aid resource allocation decisions in the U.S. Coast Guard's Marine Environmental Protection (MEP) program. An information system to allow continual evaluation of this program relies on two data bases: (1) the Pollution Incident Reporting System for reports of oil discharges, pollution incidents and corresponding penalties; and (2) the Port Safety and Security\\/Marine

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-09-24

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

  2. NASA's planetary protection program as an astrobiology teaching module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera M.

    2005-09-01

    We are currently developing a teaching module on the NASA's Planetary Protection Program for UW-Parkside SENCER courses. SENCER stands for Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibility. It is a national initiative of the National Science Foundation (NSF), now in its fifth year, to improve science education by teaching basic sciences through the complex public issues of the 21st century. The Planetary Protection Program is one such complex public issue. Teaching astrobiology and the NASA's goals via the Planetary Protection module within the SENCER courses seems to be a good formula to reach large number of students in an interesting and innovative way. We shall describe the module that we are developing. It will be launched on our web site titled "Astrobiology at Parkside" (http://oldweb.uwp.edu/academic/chemistry/kolb/organic_chemistry/, or go to Google and then to Vera Kolb Home Page), and thus will be available for teaching to all interested parties.

  3. The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Knapp; G. Byrns; O. Suleiman

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program

  4. Evaluation of Food Protection and Defense Outreach Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutske, John M.; Pierquet, Jennifer; Michel, Laura; Rasmussen, Ruth; Olson, Debra

    2008-01-01

    This analysis documents the outcomes and impacts from a series of food protection and defense educational programs conducted over a 3-y period for private and public sector food system professionals. Several measures were used to determine the professions of participants; their improvements in skills and abilities that resulted from workshops; the…

  5. Dare County Beaches, Shore Protection Project Physical Monitoring Program

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Dare County Beaches, Shore Protection Project Physical Monitoring Program Profile Survey Report Hawk Profiles with complex morphology............. . 11 Figure 8. Profile Line 759 "beach push TOPO Photos G Profile Stack Plots 2003 through 2006 H Metadata files #12;2 Dare County Beaches, Shore

  6. QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: THE EPA QA PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formalized quality assurance (QA) program requirements for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been established for more than ten years. uring this period, the environmental issues and concerns addressed by the EPA have changed. any issues, such as ozone depletion...

  7. UCSD Respiratory Protection Program Administered by Environment, Health and Safety

    E-print Network

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    . II. The Respiratory Protection Program A. Hazards to the Respiratory System Your body's respiratory are breathed in, they become trapped in the respiratory system causing irritation. Short ­ or long-term health or vapors irritates the respiratory system, causing either short-or long-term health problems, or even death

  8. The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

    1994-05-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload.

  9. Standing up the National Ignition Facility radiation protection program.

    PubMed

    Kohut, Thomas R; Thacker, Rick L; Beale, Richard M; Dillon, Jon T

    2013-06-01

    Operation of the NIF requires a large and varied number of routine and infrequent activities involving contaminated and radioactive systems, both in servicing online equipment and offline refurbishment of components. Routine radiological operations include up to several dozen entries into contaminated systems per day, multiple laboratories refurbishing radiologically impacted parts, handling of tens of curies of tritium, and (eventually) tens of workers spending most of their day working in radiation areas and handling moderately activated parts. Prior to the introduction of radioactive materials and neutron producing experiments (capable of causing activation), very few of the operating staff had any radiological qualifications or experience. To support the full NIF operating program, over 600 radiological workers needed to be trained, and a functional and large-scale radiological protection program needed to be put in place. It quickly became evident that there was a need to supplement the LLNL site radiological protection staff with additional radiological controls technicians and a radiological protection staff within NIF operations to manage day-to-day activities. This paper discusses the approach taken to stand up the radiological protection program and some lessons learned. PMID:23629066

  10. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Multimedia Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ambutas, K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Native American multimedia program was developed to facilitate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) partnership with tribes in the delivery of environmental programs on reservation lands and to enhance the EPA`s ability to carry out its trust responsibility to the tribes. By providing the means for each tribe to employ its own environmental specialist, the multimedia program helps provide the foundation necessary to build environmental infrastructure for the protection of Native American lands and people and for the development of more rigorous medium-specific programs. The multimedia program began in 1991 with two pilot projects on the Bad River Chippewa Reservation, Wisconsin, and the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming. Expanded in 1992, Region 5 awarded ten multimedia cooperative agreements. At the time, Region 5 made the commitment to fund all reservations within the region, and by end of fiscal year 1993, 24 agreements brought the program to all 29 tribes. This has been a monumental effort, possible only by coupling fiscal year 1993`s funding from the Office of Federal Activities ($599050) with the region`s own reprogramming efforts ($510000).

  11. Indoor radon and decay products: Concentrations, causes, and control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report is another in the on going technical report series that addresses various aspects of the DOE Radon Research Program. It provides an overview of what is known about the behavior of radon and its decay products in the indoor environment and examines the manner in which several important classes of factors -- structural, geological, and meteorological -- affect indoor radon concentrations. Information on US indoor radon concentrations, currently available monitoring methods and novel radon control strategies are also explored. 238 refs., 22 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Radon daughter considerations in a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    VanderMey, T.J.

    1987-07-01

    A boiling water reactor in the start-up phase experienced a significant number of personnel contamination monitor alarms caused by radon daughter plateout on hard hats, clothing, and shoes. Alarm frequencies were compared to environmental conditions and ventilation system operations to determine the effects of various factors on radon plateout. High normal ventilation, radon daughter concentrations in the plant were found to be similar to outdoor concentrations, and alarm frequencies were inversely related to relative humidity. When ventilation systems were shutdown, indoor radon levels and personnel contamination monitor alarm rates increased significantly. In this paper some suggestions for accounting for radon daughter contamination in monitoring and training programs are presented.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The DOE has mandated in DOE Order 5400.1 that its operations will be conducted in an environmentally safe manner. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with DOE Order 5400.1 and will conduct its operations in a manner that ensures the safety of the environment and the public. This document outlines how the WIPP will protect and preserve groundwater within and surrounding the WIPP facility. Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. The WIPP groundwater surveillance program is designed to determine statistically if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will be determined and appropriate corrective action initiated.

  14. Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-27

    The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

  15. 75 FR 21011 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Statewide Communication Interoperability Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ...Security, National Protection and Programs Directorate/Cybersecurity and Communications/Office of Emergency Communications...DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate/Cybersecurity and Communications/Office of Emergency...

  16. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

  17. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

  18. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

  19. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. 35.2024 Section...of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a) A...duties, and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by §...

  20. 75 FR 68325 - Government Programs to Assist Businesses Protect Their Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ...Administration [ITA-2010-0006] Government Programs to Assist Businesses Protect...2010 (ITA-2010-0006) concerning government programs for protecting the intellectual...that you believe would help the U.S. Government formulate an effective enforcement...

  1. 75 FR 60408 - Government Programs To Assist Businesses Protect Their Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ...COMMERCE International Trade Administration Government Programs To Assist Businesses Protect...public input and participation in shaping government programs for protecting the intellectual...Export Initiative, improving U.S. Government support for U.S. business in...

  2. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, J.G.

    1985-04-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Radon-hazard potential the Beaver basin, Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    Indoor-radon levels in the Beaver basin of southwestern Utah are the highest recorded to date in Utah, ranging from 17.5 to 495 picocuries per liter (pCi\\/L). Because the U.S. Environment Protection Agency considers indoor-radon levels above 4 pCi\\/L to represent a risk of lung cancer from long-term exposure, the Utah Geological Survey is preparing a radon-hazard-potential map for the area

  4. Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program.

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R. E.; Buehring, W. A.; Whitfield, R. G.; Bassett, G. W.; Dickinson, D. C.; Haffenden, R. A.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; LANL

    2009-10-14

    The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) Program. During each such visit, the PSA documents information about the facility's current CIKR protection posture and overall security awareness. The primary goals for ECIP site visits (DHS 2009) are to: (1) inform facility owners and operators of the importance of their facilities as an identified high-priority CIKR and the need to be vigilant in light of the ever-present threat of terrorism; (2) identify protective measures currently in place at these facilities, provide comparisons of CIKR protection postures across like assets, and track the implementation of new protective measures; and (3) enhance existing relationships among facility owners and operators; DHS; and various Federal, State, local tribal, and territorial partners. PSAs conduct ECIP visits to assess overall site security; educate facility owners and operators about security; help owners and operators identify gaps and potential improvements; and promote communication and information sharing among facility owners and operators, DHS, State governments, and other security partners. Information collected during ECIP visits is used to develop metrics; conduct sector-by-sector and cross-sector vulnerability comparisons; identify security gaps and trends across CIKR sectors and subsectors; establish sector baseline security survey results; and track progress toward improving CIKR security through activities, programs, outreach, and training (Snyder 2009). The data being collected are used in a framework consistent with the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) risk criteria (DHS 2009). The NIPP framework incorporates consequence, threat, and vulnerability components and addresses all hazards. The analysis of the vulnerability data needs to be reproducible, support risk analysis, and go beyond protection. It also needs to address important security/vulnerability topics, such as physical security, cyber security, systems analysis, and dependencies and interdependencies. This report provides an overview of the approach being developed to estimate vulnerability and provide vulnerability comparisons for sectors and subsectors. the information will be used to assist DHS in analyzing existing protective measures and vulnerability at facilities, to identify potential ways to reduce vulnerabilities, and to assist in preparing sector risk estimates. The owner/operator receives an analysis of the data collected for a specific asset, showing a comparison between the facility's protection posture/vulnerability index and those of DHS sector/subsector sites visited. This comparison gives the owner/operator an indication of the asset's security strengths and weaknesses that may be contributing factors to its vulnerability and protection posture. The information provided to the owner/operator shows how the asset compares to other similar assets within the asset's sector or subsector. A 'dashboard' display is used to illustrate the results in a convenient format. The dashboard allows the owner/operator to analyze the implementation of additional protective measures and to illustrate how such actions would impact the asset's Protective Measures Index (PMI) or Vulnerability Index (VI).

  5. Radon reduction and radon-resistant construction demonstrations in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) cosponsored a project in New York State to demonstrate radon migration techniques in existing homes with elevated radon concentrations and to test radon-resistant construction techniques in new houses. The first part of the existing home evaluation demonstrated radon migration techniques in homes where the indoor radon concentrations exceeded the EPA guidance of 4 pCi/L. Results demonstrated that sealing all accessible foundation penetrations in the basement was an effective way to reduce the radon concentration, although not below the EPA guideline, and that sealing aids in the effectiveness of an active depressurization system. Basement pressurization also proved to be an effective method. Water aeration systems were effective at mitigating radon from residential water supplied although the system tested was large and noisy. Activated charcoal filters adsorbed the radon and eventually became an unacceptable source of gamma radiation. The second part of the existing home evaluation involved the inspection of homes where radon mitigation systems were installed in 1984 as part of an earlier NYSERDA/Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) project. It was found that new systems and techniques, such as in- line centrifugal fans, were generally superior to the earlier method using axial computer-type fans. Polyurethane caulk was found to be in good condition; butyl caulk, on the other hand, had deteriorated. In the new house task, a radon-resistant system was developed for integration into a house during construction. This system included sealing foundation floors, sealing concrete block foundation walls, and passive sub-slab ventilation. This integrated system reduced the radon concentration in new test houses below that of control houses, but the reduction was not usually sufficient to meet the EPA guideline.

  6. Controlling the Radon Threat Needn't Be Another Costly Nightmare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freije, Matthew R.

    1989-01-01

    After a study of 3,000 classrooms in 130 schools in 16 states, the Environmental Protection Agency urged all schools to conduct tests for radon. Explains a 6-step screening test, methods of reducing radon concentrations, and how the risk from radon exposure compares with other risks. (MLF)

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  8. Environmental Challenges: Radon and Carbon Dioxide in School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, James

    1991-01-01

    Many school buildings with high radon levels also exhibit high carbon dioxide levels that starve the minds of students for oxygen. Administrators must realize that the world's best educator cannot teach minds made dysfunctional by their environment. This article describes Environmental Protection Agency testing results and offers radon monitoring…

  9. FEASIBILITY AND APPROACH FOR MAPPING RADON POTENTIALS IN FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analysis of the feasibility and approach for developing statewide maps of radon potentials in Florida. he maps would provide a geographic basis for implementing new radon-protective building construction standards to reduce public health risks from ...

  10. Radon in private drinking water wells.

    PubMed

    Otahal, P; Merta, J; Burian, I

    2014-07-01

    At least 10% of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq·l(-1). This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. PMID:24714110

  11. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  12. Environmental Compliance and Protection Program Description Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2009-02-26

    The objective of the Environmental Compliance and Protection (EC and P) Program Description (PD) is to establish minimum environmental compliance requirements and natural resources protection goals for the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Oak Ridge Environmental Management Cleanup Contract (EMCC) Contract Number DE-AC05-98OR22700-M198. This PD establishes the work practices necessary to ensure protection of the environment during the performance of EMCC work activities on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by BJC employees and subcontractor personnel. Both BJC and subcontractor personnel are required to implement this PD. A majority of the decontamination and demolition (D and D) activities and media (e.g., soil and groundwater) remediation response actions at DOE sites on the ORR are conducted under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). CERCLA activities are governed by individual CERCLA decision documents (e.g., Record of Decision [ROD] or Action Memorandum) and according to requirements stated in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1992). Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for the selected remedy are the requirements for environmental remediation responses (e.g., removal actions and remedial actions) conducted under CERCLA.

  13. The carcinogenicity of radon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhonda S. Berger

    1990-01-01

    Numerous studies of underground miners exposed to radon daughters in the air of mines have shown an increased risk of lung cancer in comparison with nonexposed populations. The abundant epidemiological and experimental data have established the carcinogenicity of radon progeny. Although the carcinogenicity of radon daughters is established, and the hazards of exposure during mining are well recognized, the hazards

  14. Mapping the geogenic radon potential of the eastern Canary Islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiano, Jesús G.; Alonso, Hector; Arnedo, Miguel. A.; Tejera, Alicia; Martel, Pablo; Gil, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Rafael; González, Jonay

    2014-05-01

    The main contribution of indoor radon comes from soils and thus, the knowledge of the concentration of this gas in soils is important for estimating the risk of finding high radon indoor concentrations. To characterize the behavior of radon in soils, it is common to use the a quantity named Radon Potential which results of a combination of properties of the soil itself and from the underlying rock, such as concentration and distribution of radium, porosity, permeability, the moisture content and meteorological parameters, among others. In this work, the results three year of campaigns of measurement radon gas as well as the permeability in soils of the Eastern Canary Islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) are presented. By combining these two parameters and through the use of geostatistic interpolation techniques, the radon potential of soils is estimated and it is used to carry on a classification of the territory into hazard zones according to their potential for radon emanation. To measure the radon soil gas a probe equipped with a "lost" sharp tip is inserted to the desired sampling depth. One of the characteristics of the Canary Islands is the absence of developed soils and so the bedrock is found typically at very shallow depth. This fact has led us to adopt a sampling depth of 50 cm at most. The probe is connected to the continuous radon monitor Durridge RAD7 equipped with a solid-state alpha spectrometer to determine concentration radon using the activity its short-lived progeny. Dried soil air is delivered to the RAD7 radon monitor by pumping. A half hour counting time for all sampling points has been taken. In parallel to the radon measurement campaign, the permeability of soils has also been determined at each point using the permeameter RADON-JOK. The principle of operation of this equipment consists of air withdrawal by means of negative pressure. The gas permeability is then calculated using the known flow of air flowing through the probe using a calibrated nomogram. As results, maps of radon in soils have been developed for the three islands to identify areas where may appear high activity concentrations of radon due to natural sources. Finally to determine the radon potential of soils analyzed we applied a procedure to classify the radon areas in several levels of risk using the measured values of radon activity concentration and soil permeability. Acknowledgments: This work was financed by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) through a grant in its R&D program 2009 and by the European Development Fund (ERDF) through a research project program 2007 granted by Canary Agency for Research, Innovation and Information Society (ACIISI) of the Canary Islands.

  15. Protecting You/Protecting Me: Effects of an Alcohol Prevention and Vehicle Safety Program on Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Mary Lou; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses; Ringwalt, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (1) their brains (why their brain is…

  16. 78 FR 79619 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program...Protection and Affordable Care Act (Pub. L...and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010...to as the Affordable Care...

  17. 77 FR 32397 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program-Genitourinary Losses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ...RIN 2900-AO20 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program...regulations governing the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection...that expanded the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury...

  18. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds include...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

  19. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program? 63.30...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

  20. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

  1. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds include...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

  2. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds include...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

  3. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program? 63.30...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

  4. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

  5. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

  6. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program? 63.30...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

  7. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

  8. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds include...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

  9. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds include...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

  10. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program? 63.30...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

  11. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program? 63.30...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

  12. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...true How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used...GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

  13. Radon exposure assessment - Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-17

    In 1985, indoor air radon (radon-222) levels were found to be elevated in households in Pennsylvania. Following this discovery, the Connecticut Department of Health Services (CDHS) received inquiries from citizens who requested that their household air be tested for the presence of radon. Because information regarding radon exposures in Connecticut did not exist, CDHS initiated a series of surveys/projects to characterize this potential problem. CDHS has collected data on indoor air radon levels in 5,036 households. The data from the three Connecticut studies closely agree about both average radon levels detected and the percentage exceeding 4 pCi/L. Based on the risk model from the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations IV report, results from the EPA-Connecticut Survey indicate that, in Connecticut, radon exposure may account for 280 excess cases of lung cancer per year.

  14. Coordination Between the HEU Transparency Program and the Material Protection, Control and Accountability Program

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, J.; Hernandez, J.; Dougherty, D.; Bieniawski, A.; Cahalane, P.; Mastal, E.

    2000-06-30

    DOE sponsored programs such as Material Protection Control and Accountability (MPC&A) and implementation of the Highly-Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program send US personnel into Russian nuclear facilities and receive Russian representatives from these programs. While there is overlap in the Russian nuclear facilities visited by these two programs, there had not been any formal mechanism to share information between them. Recently, an MPC&A/HEU Working Group was developed to facilitate the sharing of appropriate information and to address concerns expressed by Minatom and Russian facility personnel such as US visit scheduling conflicts. This paper discusses the goals of the Working Group and ways it has helped to allow the programs to work more efficiently with the Russian facilities.

  15. EVALUATION OF WATERBORNE RADON IMPACT ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was conducted with two objectives: (1) evaluation of waterborne radon impacts on indoor air quality, and (2) assessment of available control technologies to limit indoor exposures to radon and its decay products. This report contains a review of radon's phys...

  16. Hanford Protective Barriers Program water-erosion studies, FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, K.A.; Cadwell, L.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1990-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting the water-erosion control task of the Hanford Protective Barriers Program to assess barrier stability against soil erosion and slumping. The purpose of the barriers is to protect shallow-burial waste sites at the Hanford Site from water infiltration, biointrusion, and surficial erosion for up to 10,000 years. These aboveground, mounded structures will consist of layered, fine-grained sediment and rock designed to direct surface- and ground-water pathways away from the buried waste. The fine-grained sediment for the barrier will be obtained from the McGee Ranch on the Hanford Site. The purpose of the FY 1989 field work was to test two hypotheses concerning the behavior of McGee Ranch soil: runoff may occur on very dry, fine-grained sediment prior to complete saturation and rainsplash is an important erosional process for this type of sediment. This report describes plot construction, sediment sampling, and calibration testing of the rainfall simulator. Baseline stratigraphic and sedimentologic data include bulk density and textural properties of sediment in the test plots. Baseline precipitation data consist of predetermined raindrop sizes, rainfall intensities, plot coverage, and operational data for the simulator. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. 75 FR 417 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Statewide Communication Interoperability Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security, National Protection and Programs Directorate/Cybersecurity and Communications/Office of Emergency Communications, has submitted the following Information Collection Request...

  18. 75 FR 9608 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Technical Assistance Request and Evaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security, National Protection and Programs Directorate/Cybersecurity and Communications/Office of Emergency Communications, has submitted the following Information Collection Request...

  19. Radon-hazard potential the Beaver basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, C.E. [Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Indoor-radon levels in the Beaver basin of southwestern Utah are the highest recorded to date in Utah, ranging from 17.5 to 495 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Because the U.S. Environment Protection Agency considers indoor-radon levels above 4 pCi/L to represent a risk of lung cancer from long-term exposure, the Utah Geological Survey is preparing a radon-hazard-potential map for the area to help prioritize indoor testing and evaluate the need for radon-resistant construction. Radon is a chemically inert radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium-238, which is commonly found in rocks and soils. Soil permeability, depth to ground water, and uranium/thorium content of source materials control the mobility and concentration of radon in the soil. Once formed, radon diffuses into the pore space of the soil and then to the atmosphere or into buildings by pressure-driven flow of air or additional diffusion. The Beaver basin has been a topographic and structural depression since late Miocene time. Paleocene to Miocene volcanic and igneous rocks border the basin. Uraniferous alluvial-fan, piedmont-slope, flood-plain, and lacustrine sediments derived from the surrounding volcanic rocks fill the basin. A soil-gas radon and ground radioactivity survey in the Beaver basin shows that soils have high levels of radon gas. In this survey, uranium concentrations range from 3 to 13 parts per million (ppm) and thorium concentrations range from 10 to 48 ppm. Radon concentrations in the soil gas ranged from 85 to 3,500 pCi/L. The highest concentrations of uranium, thorium, and radon gas and the highest radon-hazard-potential are in the well-drained permeable soils in the lower flood- plain deposits that underlie the city of Beaver.

  20. Indoor Radon: The Deadliest Pollutant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the origin, occurrence, and effects of radon gas. Cites studies which attribute 5,000 to 20,000 deaths per year to radon exposure and the synergistic effect between radon and smoking. Explains ways to reduce risks. (RT)

  1. National radon database documentation. Volume 2. The EPA/state residential radon surveys: Year 2. Final report, 1986-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The National Radon Database has been developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to distribute information collected in two recently completed radon surveys: the EPA/State Residential Radon Surveys, Years 1 to 6; and The National Residential Radon Survey. The goals of the state radon surveys were twofold. Some measure of the distribution of radon levels among residences was desired for major geographic areas within each state and for each state as a whole. In addition, it was desired that each state survey would be able to identify areas of potentially high residential radon concentrations (hot spots) in the state, enabling the state to focus its attention on areas where indoor radon concentrations might pose a greater health threat. During the winter and spring of 1987-88, EPA assisted seven states in conducting statewide radon surveys and in addition assisted the Indian Health Service (IHS) in conducting a survey of homes on Indian lands located in EPA region 5. The Year 2 states are: Arizona; Indiana; Massachusetts; Minnesota; Missouri; North Dakota; Pennsylvania; and EPA Region 5 Indian Lands.

  2. RADON REDUCTION IN A CRAWL SPACE HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is drawn from the soil into a house when low air pressure exists in the house. This is a commonplace environmental hazard in the United States, Canada, and northern Europe. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing ...

  3. Radon assay and purification techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-08-08

    Radon is a source of background in many astroparticle physics experiments searching for rare low energy events. In this paper an overview about radon in the field is given including radon detection techniques, radon sources and material screening with respect to radon emanation. Finally, also the problem of long-lived radioactive {sup 222}Rn-daughters and the question of gas purification from radon is addressed.

  4. Steady-state response of a charcoal bed to radon in flowing air with water vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, T.E.; Jarzemba, M.S.; Fentiman, A.W. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Previously we have developed a mathematical model of radon adsorption in active air with water vapor on small U.S. Environmental Protection Agency charcoal canisters that are used for environmental measurements of radon. The purpose of this paper is to extend this mathematical model to describe the adsorption of radon by large charcoal beds with radon-laden air flowing through them. The resulting model equations are solved analytically to predict the steady-state adsorption of radon by such beds. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  5. 24 CFR 5.363 - Housing programs: Protection of the pet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Housing programs: Protection of the pet. 5.363 Section 5.363 Housing and...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

  6. 24 CFR 5.363 - Housing programs: Protection of the pet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Housing programs: Protection of the pet. 5.363 Section 5.363 Housing and...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

  7. 24 CFR 5.363 - Housing programs: Protection of the pet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Housing programs: Protection of the pet. 5.363 Section 5.363 Housing and...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

  8. 24 CFR 5.363 - Housing programs: Protection of the pet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Housing programs: Protection of the pet. 5.363 Section 5.363 Housing and...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

  9. Radon level in dwellings and its correlation with uranium and radium content in some areas of Himachal Pradesh, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surinder Singh; Ajay Kumar; Baldev Singh

    2002-01-01

    LR-115 plastic track detectors have been used to measure indoor radon level in some dwellings of Una district, Himachal Pradesh, India. The annual average radon concentration in dwellings in most of the villages falls in the range of the action level recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The radon values in some of the dwellings exceed the action

  10. Home Safety: Radon Gas

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Denny, Monica L.

    1999-11-12

    Every home should be tested for radon, an invisible, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally. This publication explains the health risks, testing methods, and mitigation and reduction techniques....

  11. Protecting you\\/protecting me: Effects of an alcohol prevention and vehicle safety program on elementary students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Lou Bell; Tara Kelley-Baker; Raamses Rider; Christopher Ringwalt

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You\\/Protecting Me (PY\\/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY\\/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (1) their brains (why their brain is important, how their brain continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence, what

  12. Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1990 highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwell, L.L. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    The Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to design and test an earthen cover system(s) that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. The joint PNL/WHC program was initiated in FY 1986. To date, research findings support the initial concepts of barrier designs for the Hanford Site. A fine-soil surface is planned to partition surface water into runoff and temporary storage. Transpiration by vegetation that grows in the fine-soil layer will return stored water to the atmosphere as will surface evaporation. A capillary break created by the interface of the fine-soil layer and coarser textured materials below will further limit the downward migration of surface water, making it available over a longer period of time for cycling to the atmosphere. Should water pass the interface, it will drain laterally through a coarse textured sand/gravel layer. Tested barrier designs appear to work adequately to prevent drainage under current and postulated wetter-climate (added precipitation) conditions. Wind and water erosion tasks are developing data to predict the extent of erosion on barrier surfaces. Data collected during the last year confirm the effectiveness of small burrowing animals in removing surface water. Water infiltrating through burrows of larger mammals was subsequently lost by natural processes. Natural analog and climate change studies are under way to provide credibility for modeling the performance of barrier designs over a long period of time and under shifts in climate. 10 refs., 30 figs.

  13. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-31

    Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

  14. Determination of radon level and radon effective dose rate using SSNTD in dwellings in the Bathinda district of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Mehra, R; Badhan, K

    2012-11-01

    The problem of indoor radon has attracted a great deal of attention worldwide as radon is the largest contributor to the total natural radiation dose. The dwellings belonging to the Bathinda district of Punjab, India, are investigated for the yearly average of indoor radon concentrations using solid-state nuclear track detectors. The annual average indoor radon values in the study area vary from 122.30 to 147.10 Bq m(-3), which is well within the recommended action level given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The calculated lifetime fatality risk values vary from 1.61 to 1.94. The seasonal variations and the contribution of building materials and ventilation conditions to the indoor radon in dwellings are also discussed. PMID:22927649

  15. RADON REDUCTION AND RADON RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report covers three tasks related to indoor radon: (1) the demonstration of radon reduction techniques in 8 houses in each of two uniquely different radon prone areas of the State of New York; (2) the evaluation and repair of 14 radon mitigation systems in houses mitigated 4 ...

  16. RADON REDUCTIONAND RADON RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report covers three tasks related to indoor radon: (1) the demonstration of radon reduction techniques in 8 houses in each of two uniquely different radon prone areas of the State of New York; (2) the evaluation and repair of 14 radon mitigation systems in houses mitigated 4 ...

  17. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    PubMed

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). PMID:22280793

  18. Radon: The Silent Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffel, Jennifer

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the public health dangers associated with radon exposure in homes and schools. In addition, testing and corrective efforts by federal and state agencies are discussed. A map indicating areas in the U.S. with potentially high radon levels is included. (IAH)

  19. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  20. Radon Training for Professionals

    E-print Network

    Netoff, Theoden

    , and industry leaders. · You receive a course completion certificate from a great, globally recognized)? MURC is a University-based world leader in radon training for professionals with a focus on North more courses for more radon leaders than any other training provider. Our mission is to provide

  1. Radon in Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pages, 1999.) The listed hardcover price for the book is $37.46 U.S. The NAS Executive Summary of the report and initial EPA perspectives are available online at http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/rulesregs/sdwa/radon/nas.cfm Test Your Home for Radon — It's Easy and Inexpensive ...

  2. EPA Map of Radon Zones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Radon Zones. To order the U.S. Geological Survey radon potential books, organized by region, with individual chapters for each state, see http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/radon/grpinfo.html About the Map Sections 307 and 309 of the Indoor Radon ...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 73 - Physical Protection of Irradiated Reactor Fuel in Transit, Training Program Subject Schedule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Physical Protection of Irradiated Reactor Fuel in Transit, Training Program Subject Schedule D Appendix D to Part...Part 73—Physical Protection of Irradiated Reactor Fuel in Transit, Training Program Subject Schedule Pursuant to...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 73 - Physical Protection of Irradiated Reactor Fuel in Transit, Training Program Subject Schedule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Physical Protection of Irradiated Reactor Fuel in Transit, Training Program Subject Schedule D Appendix D to Part...Part 73—Physical Protection of Irradiated Reactor Fuel in Transit, Training Program Subject Schedule Pursuant to...

  5. 76 FR 34732 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/National Protection and Programs Directorate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...Protection and Programs Directorate--002 Chemical Facility Anti- Terrorism Standards Personnel...Protection and Programs Directorate--002 Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel...areas and critical assets at high risk chemical facilities and compares this...

  6. Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose rate dependence and the nature of the DNA lesion will be studied, using the thymidine kinase and HPRT loci to measure mutation frequency. A deficiency in DNA repair is shown to lead to a greater proportion of mutants with intergenic lesions. The cytotoxic effects of radon and its daughters are similar in human TK6 lymphoblasts and mouse L5178Y lymphoblasts, the cell line used in previous experiments. The results of molecular analysis of four spontaneous and 25 X-radiation induced HPRT{sup {minus}} mutants. Eleven radon-induced HPRT{sup {minus}} mutants have been isolated, and will be analyzed in a similar fashion. 9 figs.

  7. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Pesticide Control Program

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Robert M.

    08625-0411 Worker Protection Standard (WPS) Inspection Summary Sheet This is to acknowledge that a Worker Protection Standard (WPS) inspection has been conducted at your agricultural establishment. The items checked off below indicate the WPS requirements in which your establishment is deficient

  8. The Environmental protection agency industrial technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    Today TAC consists of a full service information center and five programs, which are: (1) our industrial program; (2) the energy information center; (3) the business and industry extension program; (4) the remote sensing program; and (5) the center for environmental research and development.

  9. Experimental, statistical, and biological models of radon carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, F.T.

    1991-09-01

    Risk models developed for underground miners have not been consistently validated in studies of populations exposed to indoor radon. Imprecision in risk estimates results principally from differences between exposures in mines as compared to domestic environments and from uncertainties about the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products. Uncertainties in extrapolating miner data to domestic exposures can be reduced by means of a broad-based health effects research program that addresses the interrelated issues of exposure, respiratory tract dose, carcinogenesis (molecular/cellular and animal studies, plus developing biological and statistical models), and the relationship of radon to smoking and other copollutant exposures. This article reviews experimental animal data on radon carcinogenesis observed primarily in rats at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Recent experimental and mechanistic carcinogenesis models of exposures to radon, uranium ore dust, and cigarette smoke are presented with statistical analyses of animal data. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Flexible, inversion-based Matlab implementation of the Radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Ryan; Jeffrey Gu, Yu

    2013-03-01

    This study reviews the theory, programming designs and merits of two new Matlab-based routines for the forward and inverse Radon transform. These routines offer users flexible choices of integration path functions to take advantage of improved Radon-domain identification and isolation of seismic phases. Least-squares inversion of frequency components and judicious choices of regularization techniques enables additional noise suppression and signal enhancement in the Radon domain. The forward Radon transform routine has the added benefit of spatial interpolation for irregularly sampled data. The accuracy and applicability of these two new routines are demonstrated using data sets containing long-period SS precursors and high-frequency receiver functions. With minimal modifications these two highly portable, carefully documented Radon-transform routines could be easily adapted for a broad range of applications.

  11. Radon Emanation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Deborah

    2012-10-01

    222Rn is a significant contributor to radioactive backgrounds. We are constructing a radon emanation system that includes several chambers which would emit the lowest levels of 222Rn possible and be almost completely airtight, minimizing 222Rn contributions from both inside and outside the chambers. This system includes several electropolished stainless steel chambers, copper gaskets, and weldless metal seals. This system makes it possible to more accurately determine the amount of 222Rn emanated from a sample or the amount present in a particular gas. A sample is placed inside one of these chambers and the system is then purged using a boil-off gas such as Helium. Any residual radon is reduced to negligible levels using a low-radon charcoal trap. After allowing the sample to emanate radon for around a week, the chamber's contents are pumped through a nitrogen cold trap, which collects the radon. The system is heated, allowing radon to expand into another detection chamber, this one containing a Si PIN diode that will collect the 218Po and 214Pb daughters of 222Rn. This system can also be used to determine the amount of radon in a sample of gas, however the gas would be released directly into the detection chamber, and is useful in many applications.

  12. Radon concentrations in different types of dwellings in Israel.

    PubMed

    Epstein, L; Koch, J; Riemer, T; Orion, I; Haquin, G

    2014-12-01

    The average radon concentration in Israeli dwellings was assessed by combining the results of a 2006 radon survey in single-family houses with the results of a 2011 radon survey in apartments of multistorey buildings. Both surveys were based on long-term measurements using CR-39 detectors. The survey in multistorey buildings was intended to assess the influence of recent practices in the local building industry on the radon concentrations. These practices include the use of building materials with higher concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the last 20 y than before, as well as the improvement in sealing techniques over that period. Another practice in place since the early 1990 s is the building of a shielded area in every apartment that is known as an RSS (residential secure space). The RSS is a room built from massive concrete walls, floor and ceiling that can be hermetically sealed and is intended to protect its residents from a missile attack. The influence of the above-mentioned features on radon concentrations was estimated by dividing the participating apartments into two groups: apartments in buildings >20 y, built using building materials with low concentrations of the natural radionuclides, regular sealing and without an RSS and apartments in buildings newer than 10 y, built using building materials with higher concentrations of the natural radionuclides, improved sealing and including an RSS. It was found that the average radon concentration in apartments in new buildings was significantly higher than in old buildings and the average radon concentration in single-family houses was significantly higher than in apartments in multistorey buildings. Doses due to indoor radon were estimated on the basis of the updated information included in the 2009 International Commission on Radiological Protection statement on radon. PMID:24381204

  13. 76 FR 4027 - Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ...years of an eligible entity's existence, budget, or staffing level will not be used as a ranking factor; (3) Multifunctional benefits of farm and ranch land protection including social, economic, historical and archaeological, and...

  14. THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A scientifically rigorous determination of the condition of an aquatic resource is fundamental to all subsequent research, modeling, protection, and restoration issues. Environmental risk characterization is predicated on knowledge of condition and the rate at which that conditio...

  15. 77 FR 6941 - Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ...and may conflict with State and local land preservation programs' approvals. The commenter argued...stated that an entity may have stellar land preservation programs but not meet the agricultural land or numerical requirement because...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: WET-WEATHER FLOW/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program which was established to overcome the numerous impediments to commercialization experienced by developers of innovative environmental technologies. ...

  17. 76 FR 2700 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ...SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS)/National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD)/Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C)/Office of Emergency Communications (OEC) will submit the following Information...

  18. 76 FR 28165 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections of Information From Applicant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 272 [FNS-2009-0024] RIN 0584-AD91 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections...Applicant Households AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  19. 78 FR 46799 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections of Information From Applicant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 272 [FNS-2009-0024] RIN 0584-AD91 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections...Applicant Households AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  20. 76 FR 27603 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Civil Rights Protections for SNAP Households

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 271 and 272 RIN 0584-AD89 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Civil Rights Protections...for SNAP Households AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Final...

  1. STATUS OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENCODRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Status of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Susan Laws. Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC. In response to emergi...

  2. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Protective Liner Systems, Inc., Epoxy Mastic, PLS-614

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Protective Liner Systems International, Inc. Epoxy Mastic PLS-614 coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and T...

  3. Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

    1989-04-01

    AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation-protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A Practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

  4. Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

    1989-04-01

    AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

  5. 6 CFR 29.4 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Preparedness Directorate Program Management. The Secretary of...Infrastructure Information Management System (PCIIMS). The...designees, an electronic database, to be known as the “Protected...Infrastructure Information Management System” (PCIIMS),...

  6. 6 CFR 29.4 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Preparedness Directorate Program Management. The Secretary of...Infrastructure Information Management System (PCIIMS). The...designees, an electronic database, to be known as the “Protected...Infrastructure Information Management System” (PCIIMS),...

  7. 6 CFR 29.4 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Preparedness Directorate Program Management. The Secretary of...Infrastructure Information Management System (PCIIMS). The...designees, an electronic database, to be known as the “Protected...Infrastructure Information Management System” (PCIIMS),...

  8. 6 CFR 29.4 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Preparedness Directorate Program Management. The Secretary of...Infrastructure Information Management System (PCIIMS). The...designees, an electronic database, to be known as the “Protected...Infrastructure Information Management System” (PCIIMS),...

  9. Local action for the global environment : municipal government participation in a voluntary climate protection program

    E-print Network

    Ravin, Amelia L., 1977-

    2004-01-01

    The Cities for Climate ProtectionTM (CCP) campaign is a voluntary environmental program for municipalities, which is increasingly being applied around the world by local governments taking action on climate change. This ...

  10. Radon and smoking status

    SciTech Connect

    Roscoe, R.J.; Steenland, K. (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The authors of two letters to the editor regarding an article entitled, Lung cancer mortality among non-smoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters, disagree with the risk analysis regarding nonsmokers and the conclusions drawn by the original authors. In a reply letter, the authors comment on each point raised in the letters, and reaffirm their original conclusion that the common exposure for all miners was radon daughters, which is the most likely explanation for the high observed lung cancer risk.

  11. Laser protective eyewear program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Winburn, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The proliferation of lasers at Los Alamos focused considerable attention on providing adequate eye protection for experimenters involved in the use of a wide variety of nonionizing radiation. Experiments with fast-pulsed lasers (Nd:YAG, HF, and CO/sub 2/) were performed to gain biological threshold data on ocular damage. In parallel, eye protection devices were evaluated, which resulted in the development of lightweight, comfortable spectacles of colored glass filters that can be ground to prescription specifications. Goggle styles are employed in specific applications.

  12. National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)] [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This paper will describe the NREL program for addressing lightning protection for wind turbines. A test program will begin this summer at the Central and South West Services Inc. (CSW) wind farm near Fort Davis, Texas, to assess lightning risk, the frequency of lightning strikes on wind turbines compared to risk assessment predictions, and the effectiveness of some protection techniques. A Web page will be assembled to provide resources for designers and operators and feedback for issues as they arise. Also, a database of lightning events (and corresponding damage) will be collected to assist in maturing the understanding of wind turbine lightning protection.

  13. Summary of fire protection programs of the United States Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This edition of the Annual Summary of DOE Fire Protection Programs continues the series started in 1972. Since May 1950, an annual report has been required from each field organization. The content has varied through the years and most of the accident data reporting requirements have been superseded by the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System administered by EG G, Idaho. However, this report is the sole source of information relating to fire protection programs, and to the actions of the field offices and to headquarters that are of general fire protection interest.

  14. Protecting C Programs from Attacks via Invalid Pointer Dereferences

    E-print Network

    Horwitz, Susan B.

    .6.5 [Man­ agement of Computing and Information Systems]: Security and Protection Permission to make Dept. of Computer Sciences, University of Wisconsin­Madison 1210 W. Dayton St., Madison WI 53706 USA vulnerabilities most often exploited by malicious code. The most common attacks use an unchecked string copy

  15. A Citizen's Guide to Radon. What It Is and What To Do about It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) are concerned about the increased risk of developing lung cancer faced by persons exposed to above-average levels of radon in their homes. The purpose of this pamphlet is to help readers to understand the radon problem and decide if they need to take…

  16. RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR NEW RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION: TECHNICAL GUIDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is found in varying amounts in nearly all houses. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed and demonstrated methods that have been used to reduce radon levels in existing houses. Many of these methods could be appl...

  17. Nuclear Technology Series. Radiation Protection Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary radiation protection technician program is designed for use with courses 17-22 of thirty-five included in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians, and operators; and to assist planners,…

  18. Sun Protection is Fun! A Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Mary K.; Herrmann, Nancy B.; Parcel, Guy S.; Chamberlin, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Sun Protection is Fun! skin cancer prevention program for preschool children that features intervention methods grounded in social cognitive theory and emphasizes symbolic modeling, vicarious learning, enactive mastery experiences, and persuasion. Program components include a curriculum and teacher's guide, videos, newsletters,…

  19. HOW TO COMPLY WITH POLICY 3-703 (Identity Theft Protection Program)

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    HOW TO COMPLY WITH POLICY 3-703 (Identity Theft Protection Program) Arizona State University new Policy 3-703 (Identity Theft Prevention Program) is intended to comply with Federal Trade Commission (FTC) requirements and to address risks associated with identity theft. To ensure compliance

  20. RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE rev 12/99 1-1 RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Wu, Dapeng Oliver

    RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE rev 12/99 1-1 CHAPTER 1 RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAM I. INTRODUCTION In view of increased utilization of ionizing and nonionizing radiation at the University of Florida, a university-wide radiation control program was established in September, l960. The primary responsibilities

  1. Control of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Sextro, R.G.

    1985-05-01

    There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air - restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon progeny. The predominant radon entry process in most residences appears to be pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or other openings in the basement, slab, or subfloor. Sealing these openings or ventilation of the subslab or subfloor space are methods of reducing radon entry rates. Indoor radon concentrations may be reduced by increased ventilation. The use of charcoal filters for removal of radon gas in the indoor air by adsorption has also been proposed. Concentrations of radon progeny, which are responsible for most of the health risks associated with radon exposures, can be controlled by use of electrostatic or mechanical filtration. Air circulation can also reduce radon progeny concentrations in certain cases. This paper reviews the application and limitations of each of these control measures and discusses recent experimental results.

  2. Radon: Is it a problem

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, B.L.; Mettler, F.A.; Harley, N.H. (Univ. of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Radon gas is a major source of radiation exposure to the general public. Radon-222 is a product of uranium-238, present in varying concentrations in all soils. Radon enters buildings from soil, water, natural gas, and building materials. Its short-lived breakdown products, termed radon daughters, include alpha-emitting solids that can deposit in the lungs. Firm evidence links lung cancer risk in miners with high exposure to radon daughters. The amount of risk associated with the much lower but chronic doses received in buildings is difficult to establish. By some extrapolations, radon daughters may be responsible for a significant number of lung cancer deaths. The existence or extent of synergism with smoking is unresolved. Local conditions can cause high levels of radon in some buildings, and measures that reduce indoor radon are of potential value. 39 references.

  3. Time-dependent response of a charcoal bed to radon and water vapor in flowing air

    SciTech Connect

    Henkel, J.A.; Fentiman, A.W.; Blue, T.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Extremely high airborne concentrations of radon gas may be encountered during the remediation of uranium mill tailings storage facilities. Radon is also a constituent of the off-gas of mill-tailing vitrification. An effective way to remove radon from either gas is to pass the gas through a packed bed containing activated charcoal. Measurements of radon concentrations in the environment using charcoal canisters were first described by George. Canisters similar to those used by George in his first experiments have become the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standard for measuring environmental radon and were described in the EPA protocol for environmental radon measurement. The dynamic behavior of EPA charcoal canisters has been previously described with a mathematical model for the kinetics of radon gas adsorption in air in the presence of water vapor. This model for charcoal canisters has been extended to large charcoal beds with flowing air containing radon and water vapor. The mathematical model for large charcoal beds can be used to evaluate proposed bed designs or to model existing beds. Parameters that affect the radon distribution within a charcoal bed that can be studied using the mathematical model include carrier gas relative humidity and flow velocity, and input radon concentration. In addition, the relative performances of several different charcoals can be studied, provided sufficient information about their adsorption, desorption, and diffusion constants is known.

  4. RADON REDUCTION STRATEGIES AND APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter is for inclusion in a textbook, Environmental Radon, for graduate students. It gives a flavor of what radon mitigation entails, rather than being a detailed handbook treatment of the subject. It emphasizes the removal or reduction of soil-gas-borne radon (the major so...

  5. Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan. Volume 2, Protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period.

  6. 78 FR 25591 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ...3206-AM47 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges; Correction...entitled ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the...

  7. 78 FR 75581 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ...MANAGEMENT Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the Multi-State Plan Program for the Affordable Insurance Exchanges; Announcement...entitled ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of the...

  8. Towards a Brazilian radon map: consortium radon Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, N C; Bossew, P; Ferreira Filho, A L; Campos, T F C; Pereira, A J S C; Yoshimura, E M; Veiga, L H S; Campos, M P; Rocha, Z; Paschuk, S A; Bonotto, D M

    2014-07-01

    Recently, the idea of generating radon map of Brazil has emerged. First attempts of coordinating radon surveys--carried out by different groups across the country--and initial discussions on how to proceed on a larger scale were made at the First Brazilian Radon Seminary, Natal, September 2012. Conventionally, it is believed that indoor radon is no major problem in Brazil, because the overall benign climate usually allows high ventilation rates. Nevertheless, scattered measurements have shown that moderately high indoor radon concentrations (up to a few hundred Bq m?³) do occur regionally. Brazilian geology is very diverse and there are regions where an elevated geogenic radon potential exists or is expected to exist. Therefore, a Brazilian Radon Survey is expected to be a challenge, although it appears an important issue, given the rising concern of the public about the quality of its environment. PMID:24743768

  9. Protecting Our Own. Community Child Passenger Safety Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This manual provides information on implementing a local child passenger safety program. It covers understanding the problems and solutions; deciding what can be done; planning and carrying out a project; providing adequate, accurate, and current technical information; and reaching additional sources of information. Chapter 1 provides community…

  10. LLNL Fire Protection Engineering Standard 5.8 Facility Survey Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-01-04

    This standard describes the LLNL Fire Protection Facility Survey Program. The purpose of this standard is to describe the type of facility surveys required to fulfill the requirements of DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety. Nothing in this standard is intended to prevent the development of a FHA using alternative approaches. Alternate approaches, including formatting, will be by exception only, and approved by the Fire Marshal/Fire Protection Engineering Subject Matter Expert in advance of their use.

  11. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    PubMed

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. PMID:21498864

  12. Radon monitoring and early low background counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.J.; Mei, D.M.; Heise, J.; Durben, D.; Salve, R.

    2010-09-01

    Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m{sup 3}, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m{sup 3} based on approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m{sup 3}. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in relevant areas underground.

  13. Radon Monitoring and Early Low Background Counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Mei, D.-M. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); Heise, J. [Sanford Laboratory at Homestake, Lead, SD 57754 (United States); Durben, D. [Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD 57799 (United States); Salve, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-04-27

    Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m{sup 3}, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m{sup 3} based on approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m{sup 3}. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in relevant areas underground.

  14. What Teachers Should Know about Radon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Clifford; Throckmorton, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Attempts to clear up misunderstandings about radon and outlines information teachers can convey to their students. Includes a brief history of radon, health threats posed by radon, methods to measure radon quantities, homeowner risks and preventative actions, and a glossary of radon terms. (MDH)

  15. Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Alyami, S. H. [Saudi School in KualaLumpur, Ministry of Education, 55000 KualaLumpur (Malaysia); Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M.S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-07-07

    Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9{+-}5 to 163{+-}32 Bqm{sup -3} and an average of 49{+-}2 Bqm{sup -3}. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm{sup -3} set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

  16. PRESSURE DROP IN RADON CONTROL PIPES

    E-print Network

    ABSTRACT + Design of radon mitigation systems requires the designer to choose among the available fan sizes and to choose a fan with pressure-flow characteristics which match the application. The mitigator is also faced with a choice of pipe size and material, and must choose a routing through the structure which is acceptable to the customer and which will not disrupt system function with excessive pressure drop. This paper presents a tabulation of pressure drops for use in selecting pipe size and routing for radon control system pipes. The calculated pressure drop in the pipework can also be used to assist in fan selection. Disclaimer This paper does not necessarily reflect the policies of the Environmental Protection Agency. No endorsement of any named

  17. Deep in the forests: Program works to protect water quality through forestry practices

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    source water pollution in the forests. ?We target a wide range of forestry professionals to encourage and promote forestry BMPs,? said Hughes Simpson, program coordinator. ?We believe it?s everyone?s responsibility to protect water quality, so we... of the federal Clean Water Act shi#30;ed more a#27;ention to nonpoint source pollution programs, Simpson said. Nonpoint source pollution is caused by water moving over the ground, picking up natural and manmade pollutants and depositing them in lakes, rivers...

  18. RADON / MOISTURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited field study in three basement houses in Mechanicsburg, Pa. Each house will have a radon mitigation installed and be monitored over the course of a year for moisture entry and control. Followed by a more extensive statistical analysis of the data....

  19. Risks from Radon: Reconciling Miner and Residential Epidemiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Harley, Naomi H.

    2008-08-01

    Everyone is exposed to radon, an inert radioactive gas that occurs naturally and is present everywhere in the atmosphere. The annual dose from radon and its (short-lived) decay products is typically about one-half of the dose received by members of the public from all natural sources of ionizing radiation. Data on exposures and consequent effects have recently been reviewed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Studies of underground miners provides a well-established basis for estimating risks from occupational exposures to radon and for studying factors that may affect the dose response relationship such as the reduction of risk (coefficients) with increasing time since exposure. Miners' studies previously formed the basis for estimating risks to people exposed to radon at home, with downward extrapolation from exposures in mines to residential levels of radon. Presently, the risk estimates from residential studies are adequate to estimate radon risks in homes. Although there are major uncertainties in extrapolating the risks of exposure to radon from the miner studies to assessing risks in the home, there is remarkably good agreement between the average of risk factors derived from miner studies and those from pooled residential case-control studies. There are now over 20 analytical studies of residential radon and lung cancer. These studies typically assess the relative risk from exposure to radon based on estimates of residential exposure over a period of 25 to 30 years prior to diagnosis of lung cancer. Recent pooled analyses of residential case-control studies support a small but detectable lung cancer risk from residential exposure, and this risk increases with increasing concentrations. The excess relative risk of lung cancer from long-term residential exposure is about the same for both smokers and non-smokers; however, because the baseline lung cancer rate for smokers is much higher than for non or never smokers, smokers account for nearly 90% of the population risk from residential exposure to radon. As described in the paper, an excess relative risk (ERR) of 0.12(95% CI: 0.08-0.2)per 100 Bq m-3 (radon gas) can be estimated from combined miner studies. This compares well with the ERR from pooled residential case-control studies (for restricted analysis) for Europe of 0.16(95% CI: 0.05-0.31)[1] and for North America of 0.11(95% CI: 0.0-0.28)[2].

  20. 77 FR 39748 - Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988; Report of Matching Program: RRB and State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of...Notice of a renewal of an existing computer matching program due to expire on August...obtained from state agencies in ongoing computer matching programs regarding...

  1. Constructing a resilience index for the enhanced critical in Frastructure Protection Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R. E.; Bassett, G. W.; Buehring, W. A.; Collins, M. J.; Dickinson, D. C.; Eaton, L. K.; Haffenden, R. A.; Hussar, N. E.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Millier, D. J.; Petit, F. D.; Peyton, S. M.; Wallace, K. E.; Whitfield, R. G.; Peerenboom, J. P.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2010-10-14

    Following recommendations made in Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7, which established a national policy for the identification and increased protection of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) by Federal departments and agencies, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2006 developed the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) program. The ECIP program aimed to provide a closer partnership with state, regional, territorial, local, and tribal authorities in fulfilling the national objective to improve CIKR protection. The program was specifically designed to identify protective measures currently in place in CIKR and to inform facility owners/operators of the benefits of new protective measures. The ECIP program also sought to enhance existing relationships between DHS and owners/operators of CIKR and to build relationships where none existed (DHS 2008; DHS 2009). In 2009, DHS and its protective security advisors (PSAs) began assessing CIKR assets using the ECIP program and ultimately produced individual protective measure and vulnerability values through the protective measure and vulnerability indices (PMI/VI). The PMI/VI assess the protective measures posture of individual facilities at their 'weakest link,' allowing for a detailed analysis of the most vulnerable aspects of the facilities (Schneier 2003), while maintaining the ability to produce an overall protective measures picture. The PMI has six main components (physical security, security management, security force, information sharing, protective measures assessments, and dependencies) and focuses on actions taken by a facility to prevent or deter the occurrence of an incident (Argonne National Laboratory 2009). As CIKR continue to be assessed using the PMI/VI and owners/operators better understand how they can prevent or deter incidents, academic research, practitioner emphasis, and public policy formation have increasingly focused on resilience as a necessary component of the risk management framework and infrastructure protection. This shift in focus toward resilience complements the analysis of protective measures by taking into account the three other phases of risk management: mitigation, response, and recovery (Figure 1). Thus, the addition of a robust resilience index (RI) to the established PMI/VI provides vital information to owners/operators throughout the risk management process. Combining a pre-incident focus with a better understanding of resilience, as well as potential consequences from damaged CIKR, allows owners/operators to better understand different ways to decrease risk by (1) increasing physical security measures to prevent an incident, (2) supplementing redundancy to mitigate the effects of an incident, and (3) enhancing emergency action and business continuity planning to increase the effectiveness of recovery procedures. Information provided by the RI methodology is also used by facility owners/operators to better understand how their facilities compare to similar sector/subsector sites and to help them make risk-based decisions. This report provides an overview of the RI methodology developed to estimate resilience and provide resilience comparisons for sectors and subsectors. The information will be used to (1) assist DHS in analyzing existing response and recovery methods and programs at facilities and (2) identify potential ways to increase resilience. The RI methodology is based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry, which is 'the coevolutionary search for the best in people, their organizations, and the relevant world around them' (Cooperrider et al. 2005). Appreciative Inquiry identifies the best of 'what is' and helps to envision 'what might be.' The ECIP program and the RI represent a new model (using Appreciative Inquiry principles) for information sharing between government and industry (Fisher and Petit 2010). A 'dashboard' display, which provides an interactive tool - rather than a static report, presents the results of the RI in a convenient format. Additional resilience measures c

  2. 1990 UPDATE OF THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) directed the U.S. Environmental Protection AGency (EPA) to establish an Alternative/Innovative Treatment Technology Research and Demonstration Program. The EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response and the ...

  3. 1990 UPDATE OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is seeking to foster the further development of technologies that have been successfully tested at bench-scale and are now ready for pilot-scale testing, prior...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (EMAP) IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agancy's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is improving the tools to assess status and trends in the condition of aquatic ecosystems across the U.S. Within the Office of Research and Development, EMAP has developed an approac...

  5. Descriptions of new varieties recently distributed from the Citrus Clonal Protection Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP) is operated through the Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology at University of California (UC) Riverside and is funded in large part by The California Citrus Research Board (CRB). The CCPP processes citrus propagative material in two phases. First...

  6. OVERVIEW OF THE EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PARTICULATE TECHNOLOGY R AND D PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of a number of key projects in the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) particulate research and development program having applicability to industry. For electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), it gives results of work on large-diameter discharge ele...

  7. Indoor Air Quality Program California State University, Fullerton has adopted a policy to protect employees and

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Indoor Air Quality Program I. Policy California State University, Fullerton has adopted a policy to protect employees and the public from unsafe indoor air quality (IAQ). The overall safety of faculty by conditions. D. Review construction plans with regard to proposed Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning

  8. RESEARCH PROGRAMS AT THE ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH DIVISION, U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents information on the research programs at the Ecosystems Research Division (ERD) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency located in Athens, Georgia. The presentation gives an overview of the Agency, laws and regulations that the Agency operates under,...

  9. Land Rehabilitation programs1 teach individuals how to monitor, protect, and restore disturbed landscapes to natural

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Land Rehabilitation programs1 teach individuals how to monitor, protect, and restore disturbed knowledge of land rehabilitation processes, are able to critically analyze and solve problems, and can work in teams to develop and implement effective land management strategies. Studies in Land Rehabilitation

  10. Effectiveness of a Parent Training Program "Incredible Years" in a Child Protection Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letarte, Marie-Josee; Normandeau, Sylvie; Allard, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a parent training program in improving parenting practices, parents' feeling of self-efficacy and parents' perception of their child's behavior, implemented in a child protection service, with trained professionals from the agency acting as facilitators. Method: Thirty-five parents…

  11. Communication Research for NASA's Planetary Protection Program: Science, Risk, Models, Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, L.

    2004-12-01

    Planetary protection is the term used to describe policies and practices that are intended to prevent 1) contamination of extraterrestrial environments by microbial Earth life (forward contamination) and 2) contamination of Earth's environment by possible extraterrestrial microbial life (back contamination) in the course of solar system exploration. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the international Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) both have planetary protection policies in place. Because the practice of planetary protection involves many different disciplines and many different national and international and governmental and nongovernmental organizations, communication has always been an important element of the practice. Thus NASA Planetary Protection Office has a long-term communication research initiative under way, addressing legal and ethical issues relating to planetary protection, models and methods of science and risk communication, and communication strategy and planning. With the pace of solar system exploration picking up, the era of solar system sample return under way, and public concerns about biological contamination heightened, communication is an increasingly important concern in the planetary protection community. This paper will describe current activities in communication research for NASA's planetary protection program.

  12. National Radon Database. Volume 4. The EPA/state residential radon surveys: CA, HI, ID, LA, NE, NV, NC, OK, SC, the Navajo Nation, and the Billings, MT IHS Area 1989-1990 (5 1/4 inch, 1. 2mb) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The National Radon Database (NRDB) was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to distribute information in two recent radon surveys: the EPA/State Residential Radon Surveys and the National Residential Radon Survey. The National Residential Radon Surveys collected annual average radon measurements on all levels of approximately 5,700 homes nationwide. Information collected during survey includes a detailed questionnaire on house characteristics, as well as radon measurements. The radon survey data for Volume 6 is contained on two diskettes. The data diskettes are accompanied by comprehensive documentation on the design and implementation of the survey, the development and use of sampling weights, a summary of survey results, and information concerning the household questionnaire.

  13. National Radon Database. Volume 4. The EPA/state residential radon survey: CA, HI, ID, LA, NE, NV, NC, OK, SC, the Navajo Nation, and the Billings, MT IHS Area 1989-1990 (3 1/2 inch, 1. 44mb) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The National Radon Database (NRDB) was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to distribute information in two recent radon surveys: the EPA/State Residential Radon Surveys and the National Residential Radon Survey. The National Residential Radon Surveys collected annual average radon measurements on all levels of approximately 5,700 homes nationwide. Information collected during survey includes a detailed questionnaire on house characteristics, as well as radon measurements. The radon survey data for Volume 6 is contained on two diskettes. The data diskettes are accompanied by comprehensive documentation on the design and implementation of the survey, the development and use of sampling weights, a summary of survey results, and information concerning the household questionnaire.

  14. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory search and property protection programs -- March 22, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, D.A.

    1984-03-22

    On November 30, 1983, the LLNL Directorate met to discuss Laboratory policy regarding searches. An advance package (dated November 16, 1983) discussing background issues and DOE`s property protection and safeguards concerns was distributed to the Director and Associate Directors. A number of Associate Directors expressed concern about the nature of the theft problem at the Laboratory. There was also discussion about many employees` perception that Laboratory Management (including the Security Department) really did not care. The Director endorsed the need to establish searches in the SNM areas. The property protection type of searches were perceived as being very sensitive from a labor relations perspective. Nevertheless, the Directorate was sufficiently concerned about the safeguards and property protection issues to request the Security Department to develop a search plan for their review. A draft Search Program was prepared by the Security Department and reviewed individually with the Directorate for their comments. On March 19, 1984, the Directorate met collectively to consider a summary of these individual comments and to finalize a Search Program. Decisions made during that meeting have been incorporated into this document. This plan describes the search procedures that will be implemented at SNM areas and a two point program concerning property protection. Procedures are also set forth that will allow for expanded searches during periods of heightened security concern.

  15. Hood River Production Program : Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Coccoli, Holly; Lambert, Michael

    2000-02-01

    Effective habitat protection and rehabilitation are essential to the long-term recovery of anadromous fish populations in the Hood River subbasin. This Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was prepared to advance the goals of the Hood River Production Program (HRRP) which include restoring self-sustaining runs of spring chinook salmon and winter and summer steelhead. The HRPP is a fish supplementation and monitoring and evaluation program initiated in 1991 and funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. The HRPP is a joint effort of the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Using recent watershed assessment and federal watershed analysis reports, this Plan reviews the historic and current condition of riparian, instream and upland habitats; natural watershed processes; anadromous and resident fish populations; identifies limiting factors, and indicates those subbasin areas that need protection or are likely to respond to restoration. Primary habitat restoration needs were identified as (1) improved fish screening and upstream adult passage at water diversions; (2) improved spawning gravel availability, instream habitat structure and diversity; and (3) improved water quality and riparian conditions. While several early action projects have been initiated in the Hood River subbasin since the mid 1990s, this Plan outlines additional projects and strategies needed to protect existing high quality habitat, correct known fish survival problems, and improve the habitat capacity for natural production to meet HRPP goals.

  16. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagomez Casimiro, Mariana; Ruiz Trejo, Cesar; Espejo Fonseca, Ruby

    2014-11-01

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1-4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)- presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  17. Lung cancer and exposure to radon in women - New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenberg, J.B.; Klotz, J.B.; Wilcox, H.B.; Gel-del-Real, M.; Stemhagen, A. (New Jersey State Dept of Health (USA)); Nicholls, G.P. (New Jersey State Dept of Environmental Protection (USA))

    1989-11-17

    In 1985, the New Jersey State Department of Health (NJDOH) initiated an epidemiologic study of lung cancer and exposure to radon in New Jersey women. In collaboration with the New Jersey State Department of Environmental Protection and the National Cancer Institute, NJDOH examined whether exposure to radon in homes is associated with increased lung cancer risk. This study was based on a previous statewide case-control study of risk for lung cancer. The data indicated that year-round exposures in living areas were two to five times lower than basement measurements taken during heating season. The difference increased with higher concentrations.

  18. Integrated Worker Health Protection and Promotion Programs: Overview and Perspectives on Health and Economic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Nicolaas P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe integrated worker health protection and promotion (IWHPP) program characteristics, to discuss the rationale for integration of OSH and WHP programs, and to summarize what is known about the impact of these programs on health and economic outcomes. Methods A descriptive assessment of the current state of the IWHPP field and a review of studies on the effectiveness of IWHPP programs on health and economic outcomes. Results Sufficient evidence of effectiveness was found for IWHPP programs when health outcomes are considered. Impact on productivity-related outcomes is considered promising, but inconclusive, whereas insufficient evidence was found for health care expenditures. Conclusions Existing evidence supports an integrated approach in terms of health outcomes but will benefit significantly from research designed to support the business case for employers of various company sizes and industry types. PMID:24284747

  19. The Renewable Energy and Environmental Protection (REEP) Academy: An international training and educational program

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.; Pichumani, J.; Linde, A. van der

    1999-07-01

    High school and college students are getting a global perspective of photovoltaic systems through a hands-on educational and training program. The Renewable Energy and Environmental Protection (REEP) Academy is a college preparatory program conducted by Texas Southern University (TSU), located in Houston, Texas, in partnership with Port Elizabeth Technikon, located in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. The program is designed to encourage minority high school students to pursue education in science, engineering and technology through a combination of lectures, laboratory activities, field trips and hands-on system installations. Also included in this program is an international exchange between TSU and Port Elizabeth Technikon that enables college students to study abroad and complete internships involving photovoltaics. Assessments show that the students' knowledge of renewable energy and sustainability increases by approximately 40% following their participation in the program. To date, approximately 60% of the participating students who are currently in college are enrolled in technical fields.

  20. Deep in the Forests: Program works to protect water quality through forestry practices

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    20 tx H2O Winter 2011 Story by Kathy Wythe The Texas Forest Service works with forestry professionals to implement best management practices to help protect water quality, which is critical for people and wildlife to survive. Photo courtesy... of Texas Forest Service. Deep in the forests Program works to protect water quality through forestry practices Winter 2011 tx H2O 21 ] Deep in the forests of East Texas and sca#27;ered in pockets of other parts of the state are more than...

  1. Indoor air radon

    SciTech Connect

    Cothern, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This review concerns primarily the health effects that result from indoor air exposure to radon gas and its progeny. Radon enters homes mainly from the soil through cracks in the foundation and other holes to the geologic deposits beneath these structures. Once inside the home the gas decays (half-life 3.8 d) and the ionized atoms adsorb to dust particles and are inhaled. These particles lodge in the lung and can cause lung cancer. The introduction to this review gives some background properties of radon and its progeny that are important to understanding this public health problem as well as a discussion of the units used to describe its concentrations. The data describing the health effects of inhaled radon and its progeny come both from epidemiological and animal studies. The estimates of risk from these two data bases are consistent within a factor of two. The epidemiological studies are primarily for hard rock miners, although some data exist for environmental exposures. The most complete studies are those of the US, Canadian, and Czechoslovakian uranium miners. Although all studies have some deficiencies, those of major importance include uranium miners in Saskatchewan, Canada, Swedish iron miners, and Newfoundland fluorspar miners. These six studies provide varying degrees of detail in the form of dose-response curves. Other epidemiological studies that do not provide quantitative dose-response information, but are useful in describing the health effects, include coal, iron ore and tin miners in the UK, iron ore miners in the Grangesburg and Kiruna, Sweden, metal miners in the US, Navajo uranium miners in the US, Norwegian niobian and magnitite miners, South African gold and uranium miners, French uranium miners, zinc-lead miners in Sweden and a variety of small studies of environmental exposure. An analysis of the epidemiological studies reveals a variety of interpretation problem areas.172 references.

  2. [Radon and internal contamination].

    PubMed

    Stanga, A; Trenta, F

    2008-01-01

    Because of hits everywhere presence in air and in water needful mediums for life, radon is a omnipresent risk for every person. Therefore, in relation to those vital functions, lungs and gastro-enteric tract represent the principal target organs of this noble radioactive gas (and mainly of hits radioactive daughters). International organisms evaluated the effective dose coefficients for both target organs, so it is possible e quantitative assessment of the exposure risk related to this noble gas. PMID:19288807

  3. Radiation protection program for declared pregnant workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Clark, J Margo

    2003-05-01

    This article presents an overview of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Fetal Radiation Protection Program (FRP) that satisfies the requirements set forth in 10 CFR 835 and LANL's Radiation Protection Program. At LANL, the FRP is one of three components of the larger Reproductive Health Hazards Program, which also includes Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene. Although pregnant employees usually enter the program through Occupational Medicine, coordination with all three groups is achieved. The most important part of the FRP Program is performance of the workplace evaluation at the pregnant worker's workplace. At the meeting between the health physicist and the pregnant employee, the following topics are reviewed: risks to the embryo/fetus of working around sources of ionizing radiation; LANL's requirements and 10 CFR 835 regulations; her dose history; basic methods of radiation protection; and a detailed discussion of the work assignments/locations that enables the health physicist to complete an evaluation of the level of radiological hazards. Interface with her supervisor and the Operational Health Physics health physicist in charge of her work areas is essential in acquiring additional information. All of these data, including the radiation dose history and recommendations for possible work modifications or reassignment, are summarized in the workplace evaluation memo, which becomes part of the pregnant employee's medical file. Using input from LANL's legal staff, the author developed a document titled "Guidance to the Supervisors Regarding Fetal Radiation Protection and Reproductive Health Hazards," which instructs supervisors regarding the requirements and regulations, contact names for workplace evaluations, and, very importantly, how to avoid discriminatory behavior against pregnant employees. PMID:12751194

  4. Moisture content and unsaturated conditions in UMTRA project radon barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    A typical Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal facility consists of uranium tailings and other contaminated materials covered by a three to six foot thick radon barrier and six inches of filter sand, overlain by one foot of erosion-protection riprap. To comply with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency groundwater protection standards applicable to the UMTRA Project, groundwater concentration limits of hazardous constitutents cannot be exceeded at the point of compliance, which is the downgradient limit of the waste management area. The typical radon barrier has a saturated hydraulic conductivity of approximately 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second (cm/s). Long-term seepage rates from a disposal facility with an unsaturated radon barrier may permit the concentration limits to be met at the point of compliance. Field studies were undertaken to measure the percent saturation and the relation of percent saturation to soil tension, and to predict the hydraulic conductivity as a function of percent saturation in radon barriers at three UMTRA Project disposal facilities that have been completed for up to two years. Presently typical covers have been completed at the Shiprock, Clive, and Burrell sites, and they are planned or under construction at the Ambrosia Lake, Green River, Lakeview, Mexican Hat, Slick Rock, and Tuba City sites. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Radon Treatment Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Strzelczyk, Jadwiga (Jodi)

    2006-01-01

    In spite of long traditions, treatments utilizing radon-rich air or water have not been unequivocally embraced by modern medicine. The objective of this work is to examine factors that contribute to this continuing controversy. While the exact mechanism of radon's effect on human body is not completely understood, recent advances in radiobiology offer new insights into biochemical processes occurring at low-level exposures to ionizing radiation. Medical evidence and patients' testimonials regarding effectiveness of radon spa treatments of various ailments, most notably rheumatoid arthritis are accumulating worldwide. They challenge the premise of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) theory that the dose-effect response is the same per unit dose regardless of the total dose. Historically, such inference overshadowed scientific inquiries into the low-dose region and lead to a popular belief that no amount of radiation can be good. Fortunately, the LNT theory, which lacks any scientific basis, did not remain unchallenged. As the reviewed literature suggests, a paradigm shift, reflected in the consideration of hormetic effects at low-doses, is gaining momentum in the scientific community worldwide. The impetus comes from significant evidence of adaptive and stimulatory effects of low-levels of radiation on human immune system. PMID:18648641

  6. Police Youth Protection Unit Programs, San Jose, California: Model Programs. Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    The police Youth Protection Unit (YPU) has four full-time officers under San Jose's police chief. The objectives of the YPU are: to prevent juvenile delinquency, encourage respect for law enforcement, provide information, expose youth to policeman and police work, and to given them places to go and things to do with their leisure time. In the…

  7. Suppression of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Radon Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamato, Keiko; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    The enhanced release of reactive oxygen species from activated neutrophils plays important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in various organs of mice. In this study, we examined the protective effects of radon inhalation on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS) induced colitis in mice which were subjected to DSS for 7 days. Mice were continuously treated with air only (sham) or radon at a concentration of 2000?Bq/m3 from a day before DSS administration to the end of colitis induction. In the results, radon inhalation suppressed the elevation of the disease activity index score and histological damage score induced by DSS. Based on the changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha in plasma and myeloperoxidase activity in the colon, it was shown that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colonic inflammation. Moreover, radon inhalation suppressed lipid peroxidation of the colon induced by DSS. The antioxidant level (superoxide dismutase and total glutathione) in the colon after DSS administration was significantly higher in mice treated with radon than with the sham. These results suggested that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colitis through the enhancement of antioxidative functions in the colon. PMID:23365486

  8. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the electrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14

    The Electrochemical Plant (ECP) is the one of the Russian Federation`s four uranium enrichment plants and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. ECP is located approximately 200 km east of Krasnoyarsk in the closed city of Zelenogorsk (formerly Krasnoyarsk- 45). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with ECP in September of 1996. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with ECP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at ECP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  9. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the Urals electrochemical integrated plant

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) is the Russian Federation`s largest uranium enrichment plant and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. UEIP is located approximately 70 km north of Yekaterinburg in the closed city of Novouralsk (formerly Sverdlovsk- 44). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with UEIP in June of 1996, however because of some contractual issues the work did not start until September of 1997. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with UEIP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at UEIP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  10. Is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency brownfields assessment pilot program environmentally just?

    PubMed Central

    Solitare, Laura; Greenberg, Micheal

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) started a grant program to assist communities redevelop brownfields, which are abandoned or underutilized sites that have real or perceived contamination. In addition to determining if the communities receiving the grants were the most distressed cities in the United States, we also evaluate the U.S. EPA program in terms of environmental justice at the macro scale. Using 1990 U.S. Census of Housing and Population data and a matched-cities methodology, we compared the brownfields pilot cities to other communities in the United States. We found that regardless of intent, the U.S. EPA program is environmentally just by disproportionately awarding grants to the most economically distressed cities. We also found that the cities that received funding in the early years of the program were more economically distressed than cities receiving the funding more recently. PMID:11929735

  11. APPLICATION OF RADON REDUCTION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is intended to aid homeowners and contractors in diagnosing and solving indoor radon problems. It will also be useful to State and Federal regulatory officials and many other persons who provide advice on the selection, design and operation of radon reduction methods...

  12. Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia's Health Insurance Program for the Poor.

    PubMed

    Miller, Grant; Pinto, Diana; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

    2013-10-01

    Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia's Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a "fuzzy" regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services - with measurable health gains. PMID:25346799

  13. MONITORING BEFORE AND AFTER RADON MITIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a radon reduction demonstration project in 1986 on 10 houses in Clinton, NJ. As part of this effort, radon was measured before and after radon reduction techniques were applied. The purpose of the measurements was to ascertain the effectiveness of the radon co...

  14. Radon in Earth, Air, and Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Radon in Earth, Air, and Water is an informative and interesting Web site offered by the US Geological Survey. The host of products on the site include a well-designed online publication, the Geology of Radon, which allows users to page through the chapters with titles such as What is Radon?, the Geology of Radon, Radon Potential (in homes for example), and more. The non-technical text and attractive graphics make this document educational and easy to follow. Other publications offered include Radon in Fault and Shear Zones, Eastern United States, Radon in Glacial Deposits of the Upper Midwest, Terrestrial Gamma Radioactivity of the Conterminous United States, and much more. [JAB

  15. Measurements of radon flux and soil-gas radon concentration along the Main Central Thrust, Garhwal Himalaya, using SRM and RAD7 detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourai, Abhay Anand; Aswal, Sunita; Dangwal, Anoop; Rawat, Mukesh; Prasad, Mukesh; Naithani, Nagendra Prasad; Joshi, Veena; Ramola, Rakesh Chand

    2013-08-01

    Radon in the Earth's crust or soil matrix is free to move only if its atoms find their way into pores or capillaries of the matrix. 222Rn atoms from solid mineral grains get into air, filling pores through emanation process. Then 222Rn enters into the atmosphere from air-filled pores by exhalation process. The estimation of radon flux from soil surface is an important parameter for determining the source term for radon concentration modeling. In the present investigation, radon fluxes and soil-gas radon concentration have been measured along and around the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in Uttarkashi district of Garhwal Himalaya, India, by using Scintillation Radon Monitor (SRM) and RAD7 devices, respectively. The soil radon gas concentration measured by RAD7 with soil probe at the constant depth was found to vary from 12 ± 3 to 2330 ± 48 Bq·m-3 with geometrical mean value of 302 ± 84 Bq·m-3. Th significance of this work is its usefulness from radiation protection point of view.

  16. PROTECTING CHILDREN FROM ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS - A CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR NURSES OF THE AMERICAN NURSES FOUNDATION/ASSOCIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The American Nurses Association/Foundation will develop online, in print and pre conference continuing education (CE) children's environmental health protection programs to meet the objective of the program. The first CE program is on school environments, the second on home and ...

  17. Collective dose as a performance measure for occupational radiation protection programs: Issues and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.J.; Harty, R.; Hickey, E.E.; Martin, J.B.; Peffers, M.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kathren, R.L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Collective dose is one of the performance measures used at many US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities to quantitatively assess the objectives of the radiation protection program. It can also be used as a management tool to improve the program for keeping worker doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Collective dose is used here to mean the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values for all workers in a specified group over a specified time. It is often used as a surrogate estimate of radiological risk. In principle, improvements in radiation protection programs and procedures will result in reduction of collective dose, all other things being equal. Within the DOE, most frequently, a single collective dose number, which may or may not be adjusted for workload and other factors, is used as a performance measure for a contractor. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the use of collective dose as a performance measure for ALARA programs at DOE sites.

  18. Building the basis for a comprehensive radiation protection program for a multi-program laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Copenhaver, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    An explicit, workplace-specific training has been developed, implemented, and documented for all radiation workers. In addition to the radiation worker personnel located at reactors, accelerators, radiochemical laboratories, and waste treatment areas, we have trained other personnel who work in areas where a lesser potential for radiological/chemical exposure exists. These workforces include construction crews, site restoration crews, contracted special services such as scoping and site characterization teams, and short-term visitors. We are developing a comprehensive, integrated approach to radiation protection training suited for a multi-purpose research laboratory. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Asbestos and radon

    SciTech Connect

    Camilli, A.; Lebowitz, M. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (USA))

    1988-01-01

    To understand the effects of inhaled agents on the lung, a characterization of both the lung and the inhaled agent is essential. Since deposition of the agent is the result of a dynamic process involving the particles as they move through the tracheobronchial tree, the authors' goal is to understand this interaction. To lay the groundwork for this they present basic tracheobronchial anatomy and physiology. Then they examine information on deposition and clearance of asbestos and radon and discuss how this relates to the resultant pathology.

  20. Monitoring of Radon in Tourist Part of Skocjan Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja; Jovanovic, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the yearly dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data, beside the most convenient measuring technique. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. The survey will be described along with education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection. An overview of Slovene legislation with practical example on implementation will be demonstrated in the case of Škocjan Caves where the managing authority considers the monitoring of Radon as one of the tools for adaptive management.

  1. The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Sustainability Program of Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Vakhonin, Alexander; Yuldashev, Rashid; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Eshter M.

    2009-09-30

    UEIP has been working on a comprehensive sustainability program that includes establishing a site sustainability working group, information gathering, planning, organizing, developing schedule and estimated costs, trhough joint UEIP-US DOE/NNSA National Laboratory sustainability contracts. Considerable efforts have been necessary in the sustainability planning, monitoring, and control of the scope of work using tools such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Project and SAP R/3. While information interchanges within the sustainability program provides adequate US assurances that US funds are well spent through its quarterly reporting methodology, proper information security and protection measures are taken throughout the process. Decommissioning of outdated equipment has also become part of determining sustainability requirements and processes. The site’s sustainability program has facilitated the development of a transition plan toward eventual full Russian funding of sustaining nuclear security upgrades.

  2. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...control room or emergency control station(s) must be...be established at each nuclear power plant. The program shall...both fire protection and nuclear safety. The fire...To detect rapidly, control, and extinguish...

  3. SYMPOSIUM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC PROGRAMS FOR MONITORING ECOLOGICAL IMPACT FROM PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Historically, monitoring programs in association with field releases of crops with plant incorporated protectants (PIPs) have been, explicitly or implicitly, called for as a part of risk assessment/management schemes or regulatory agenda. However...

  4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the early development of wind turbine generators (WTG) in the United States, wind farms were primarily located in California where lightning activity is the lowest in the United States. As such, lightning protection for wind turbines was not considered to be a major issue for designers or wind farm operators. However, wind turbine installations are expanding into the Midwest, Southwest and other regions of the United States where lightning activity is significantly more intense and lightning damage to wind turbines is more common. There is a growing need, therefore, to better understand lightning activity on wind farms and to improve wind turbine lightning protection systems. In support of the U.S. Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) Utility Wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently begun to take steps to determine the extent of damage due to lightning and the effectiveness of various lightning protection techniques for wind power plants. Working through the TVP program, NREL will also perform outreach and education to (1) help manufacturers to provide equipment that is adequately designed to survive lightning, (2) make sure that operators are aware of effective safety procedures, and (3) help site designers and wind farm developers take the risk of lightning into account as effectively as possible.

  5. Caves, mines and subterranean spaces: hazard and risk from exposure to radon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, R. G. M.; Gillmore, G. K.

    2009-04-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas. It is colourless, odourless and chemically inert. The most hazardous isotope is 222Rn. Radon is formed in the natural environment by the radioactive decay of the element uranium (238U) and is a daughter product of daughter product of radium (226Ra). Uranium and radium are found, in differing degrees, in a wide range of rocks, soils (and building materials that are made from these). Radon concentrations in caves, e.g. limestone caves such as the Great Cave of Niah, Borneo, and caves in the Mendips and Peak District in the UK, has been documented and reveal that both (prehistoric) cave-dwellers and other users such as archaeologists are at risk from exposure to radon a naturally occurring radioactive gas. In general, but dependent on cave geometry and ventilation, radon concentration increases with increasing distance from the entrance, implying that the hazard also increases with distance from the entrance. With regard to mines and mining operations, as well as modern extraction of uranium and radium ores, both ores commonly occur alongside other metallic ores, e.g. silver at Schneeberg and Joachimsthal, and tin in Cornwall, and in some instances, waste from earlier metalliferious mining activity has itself been ‘mined' for uranium and/or radium ores. It is not solely the miners and other subterranean workers which are at risk, other workers and local inhabitants are also at risk. Also, that risk is not eliminated by protection against dust/airborne particulates: the risk from inhalation of radon is only reduced by reducing the inhalation of radon, i.e. use of breathing apparatus. Amongst the general population, radon is the second most significant cause of lung cancer behind tobacco smoking. Estimates vary but 6-9% of lung-cancers are attributable to radon and approximately 2% all cancer deaths are attributable to radon. These proportions will increase in higher-radon environments such as caves, mines and mining areas (via spoil heaps, settlement lagoons etc. containing uranium and radium). We here present an overview of the potential hazard presented by radon in subterranean spaces and by metalliferous mining activities. We also present some speculation as to evidence of (pre-) historic exposure to radon which might potentially exist in archaeological remains and oral traditions. Keywords: radon; caves; metalliferous mining; cave-dwellers; archaeologists.

  6. 34 CFR 75.740 - Protection of and access to student records; student rights in research, experimental programs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Protection of and access to student records; student rights in...the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Are the Administrative...Privacy § 75.740 Protection of and access to student records; student rights...

  7. 34 CFR 75.740 - Protection of and access to student records; student rights in research, experimental programs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Protection of and access to student records; student rights in...the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Are the Administrative...Privacy § 75.740 Protection of and access to student records; student rights...

  8. 34 CFR 75.740 - Protection of and access to student records; student rights in research, experimental programs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Protection of and access to student records; student rights in...the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Are the Administrative...Privacy § 75.740 Protection of and access to student records; student rights...

  9. 34 CFR 75.740 - Protection of and access to student records; student rights in research, experimental programs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Protection of and access to student records; student rights in...the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Are the Administrative...Privacy § 75.740 Protection of and access to student records; student rights...

  10. 34 CFR 75.740 - Protection of and access to student records; student rights in research, experimental programs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Protection of and access to student records; student rights in...the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Are the Administrative...Privacy § 75.740 Protection of and access to student records; student rights...

  11. Results of the Nest Protection Program for Blanding's Turtle in Kejimkujik National Park, Canada: 1987-1997

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. LORRAINE STANDING; THOMAS B. HERMAN; MARIA SHALLOW; IAN P. MORRISON

    We studied the nesting ecology of Blanding's turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, from 1987 to 1997, as part of the Park's annual nest protection program. We identified 36 individual females nesting in this II-year period and recorded 124 nests of which we protected 101 with screened predator exclosures. Clutch size ranged from 4 to 16

  12. Radon in earthquake prediction research.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, H

    2012-04-01

    The observation of anomalies in the radon concentration in soil gas and ground water before earthquakes initiated systematic investigations on earthquake precursor phenomena. The question what is needed for a meaningful earthquake prediction as well as what types of precursory effects can be expected is shortly discussed. The basic ideas of the dilatancy theory are presented which in principle can explain the occurrence of earthquake forerunners. The reasons for radon anomalies in soil gas and in ground water are clarified and a possible classification of radon anomalies is given. PMID:21669940

  13. Energy deposition and radiation quality of radon and radon daughters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karam, L.R.; Caswell, R.S.

    1996-09-09

    This program was aimed at creating a quantitative physical description, at the micrometer and nanometer levels, of the physical interactions of the alpha particles from radon and its daughters with cells at risk in the bronchial epithelium. The authors calculated alpha-particle energy spectra incident upon the cells and also energy deposition spectra in micrometer- and nanometer-sized sites as a function of cell depth, site size, airway diameter, activities of {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po, and other parameters. These data are now being applied, using biophysical models of radiation effects, to predict cell killing, mutations, and cell transformation. The model predictions are then compared to experimental biophysical, biochemical, and biological information. These studies contribute to a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the biological effectiveness of the radiations emitted by radon and its progeny.

  14. Radon measurement and mitigation activity in Finland.

    PubMed

    Valmari, T; Arvela, H; Reisbacka, H; Holmgren, O

    2014-07-01

    Radon prevention, measurement and mitigation activities have been increasing in Finland during the 2000s. Nowadays, many municipal authorities, especially those located in high-radon areas, require radon prevention measures. This has activated radon measurements. Owners of new houses having radon piping installed under the floor slab are the most active group to measure and reduce the found high-radon values. Their radon awareness is apparently better than on the average, and the existing piping makes it easier and cheaper to reduce the radon levels. Local campaigns involving invitation flyers mailed to the residents have been a cost-effective means to activate measurements of older houses. So far 116,611 dwellings in low-rise residential buildings have been measured. At least 15% of the 16,860 dwellings found to exceed the reference level of 400 Bq m(-3) had their indoor radon level reduced below that. PMID:24729562

  15. Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) program : implementing physical security to protect large radioactive sources worldwide.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Daniel L.

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) Program strives to reduce the threat of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD) incident that could affect U.S. interests worldwide. Sandia National Laboratories supports the RTR program on many different levels. Sandia works directly with DOE to develop strategies, including the selection of countries to receive support and the identification of radioactive materials to be protected. Sandia also works with DOE in the development of guidelines and in training DOE project managers in physical protection principles. Other support to DOE includes performing rapid assessments and providing guidance for establishing foreign regulatory and knowledge infrastructure. Sandia works directly with foreign governments to establish cooperative agreements necessary to implement the RTR Program efforts to protect radioactive sources. Once necessary agreements are in place, Sandia works with in-country organizations to implement various security related initiatives, such as installing security systems and searching for (and securing) orphaned radioactive sources. The radioactive materials of interest to the RTR program include Cobalt 60, Cesium 137, Strontium 90, Iridium 192, Radium 226, Plutonium 238, Americium 241, Californium 252, and Others. Security systems are implemented using a standardized approach that provides consistency through out the RTR program efforts at Sandia. The approach incorporates a series of major tasks that overlap in order to provide continuity. The major task sequence is to: Establish in-country contacts - integrators, Obtain material characterizations, Perform site assessments and vulnerability assessments, Develop upgrade plans, Procure and install equipment, Conduct acceptance testing and performance testing, Develop procedures, and Conduct training. Other tasks are incorporated as appropriate and commonly include such as support of reconfiguring infrastructure, and developing security plans, etc. This standardized approach is applied to specific country and regional needs. Recent examples (FY 2003-2004) include foreign missions to Lithuania, Russian Federation Navy, Russia - PNPI, Greece (joint mission with IAEA), Tanzania, Iraq, Chile, Ecuador, and Egypt. Some of the ambitions and results of the RTR program may be characterized by the successes in Lithuania, Greece, and Russia.

  16. Corrosion Protection of Launch Infrastructure and Hardware Through the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion, the environmentally induced degradation of materials, has been a challenging and costly problem that has affected NASA's launch operations since the inception of the Space Program. Corrosion studies began at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966 during the Gemini/Apollo Programs with the evaluation of long-term protective coatings for the atmospheric protection of carbon steel. NASA's KSC Beachside Corrosion Test Site, which has been documented by the American Society of Materials (ASM) as one of the most corrosive, naturally occurring environments in the world, was established at that time. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive natural conditions at the launch pad were rendered even more severe by the acidic exhaust from the solid rocket boosters. In the years that followed, numerous efforts at KSC identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosiye environment at the launch pads. Knowledge on materials degradation, obtained by facing the highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment, as well as limitations imposed by the environmental impact of corrosion control, have led researchers at NASA's Corrosion Technology Laboratory to establish a new technology development capability in the area of corrosion prevention, detection, and mitigation at KSC that is included as one of the "highest priority" technologies identified by NASA's integrated technology roadmap. A historical perspective highlighting the challenges encountered in protecting launch infrastructure and hardware from corrosion during the life of the Space Shuttle program and the new technological advances that have resulted from facing the unique and highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment will be presented.

  17. Radiation Protection Considerations at USACE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.H. [CHP, SHB INC., Centennial, Colorado (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was initially authorized by Congress in 1974. FUSRAP was enacted to address residual radioactive contamination associated with numerous sites across the U.S. at which radioactive material (primarily Uranium ores and related milling products) had been processed in support of the nation's nuclear weapons program dating back to the Manhattan Project and the period immediately following World War II. In October 1997, Congress transferred the management of this program from the Department of Energy to the United States Corp of Engineers. Through this program, the Corps addresses the environmental remediation of certain sites once used by DOE's predecessor agencies, the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. The waste at FUSRAP sites consists mainly of low levels of uranium, thorium and radium, along with some mixed wastes. Upon completion of remedial activities, these sites are transferred to DOE for long-term stewardship activities. This paper presents and contrasts the radiological conditions and recent monitoring results associated with five large ongoing FUSRAP projects including Maywood, N.J.; the Linde site near Buffalo, N.Y.; Colonie in Albany N.Y. and the St Louis, Mo. airport and downtown sites. The radiological characteristics of soil and debris at each site and respective regulatory clean up criteria is presented and contrasted. Some differences are discussed in the radiological characteristics of material at some sites that result in variations in radiation protection monitoring programs. Additionally, summary data for typical personnel radiation exposure monitoring results are presented. In summary: 1. The FUSRAP projects for which data and observations are reported in this paper are considered typical of the radiological nature of FUSRAP sites in general. 2. These sites are characterized by naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides in soil and debris, at concentrations typically < E4 pCi/ gram total activity. 3. Although external exposure rates are generally low resulting in few exposures above background, occasional 'hot spots' are observed in the 1- 10 mR / hr range or higher. However personnel and general area external exposure monitoring programs consistently demonstrate very low potential for external exposure at theses sites. 4. Potential for airborne exposure is controlled by wetting and misting techniques during excavation and movement of materials. Air sampling and bioassay programs confirm low potential for airborne exposure of workers at these sites. 5. Radiation protection and health physics monitoring programs as implemented at these sites ensure that exposures to personal are maintained ALARA. (authors)

  18. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Point-of-entry treatment usually employs either granular activated carbon, or GAC, filters or aeration systems. While ... radon to outdoors. Private Well Water Systems: Granular Activated Carbon, or GAC 85 to 99 percent Less ...

  19. Radon: Clue to earthquake magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Radon's flow within the earth's crust could offer seismologists clues about the magnitude of an impending earthquake, according to a model proposed by Robert L. Fleischer, a General Electric Company physicist, at the AGU Fall Meeting last month. His work suggests that an extensive network of radon monitoring stations would be useful for early warning of potential damage areas of the pending tremors.Small amounts of radon, a gas released by the decay of uranium, tends to move slowly within the earth's crust where rocks are relatively porous. Velocities of a few inches an hour are typical. Shifting stresses in the earth's crust that precede an earthquake can speed up or slow down radon's movements.

  20. Human exposure to indoor radon: a survey in the region of Guarda, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Louro, Alina; Peralta, Luís; Soares, Sandra; Pereira, Alcides; Cunha, Gilda; Belchior, Ana; Ferreira, Luís; Monteiro Gil, Octávia; Louro, Henriqueta; Pinto, Paulo; Rodrigues, António Sebastião; Silva, Maria João; Teles, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) is a radioactive gas, abundant in granitic areas, such as the city of Guarda at the northeast of Portugal. This gas is recognised as a carcinogenic agent, being appointed by the World Health Organization as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoke. Therefore, the knowledge of radon concentrations inside the houses (where people stay longer) is important from the point of view of radiological protection. The main goal of this study was to assess the radon concentration in an area previously identified with a potentially high level of residential radon. The radon concentration was measured using CR-39 detectors, exposed for a period of 2 months in 185 dwellings in the Guarda region. The radon concentration in studied dwellings, ranged between 75 and 7640 Bq m(-3), with a geometric mean of 640 Bq m(-3) and an arithmetic mean of 1078 Bq m(-3). Based on a local winter-summer radon concentration variation model, these values would correspond to an annual average concentration of 860 Bq m(-3). Several factors contribute to this large dispersion, the main one being the exact location of housing construction in relation to the geochemical nature of the soil and others the predominant building material and ventilation. Based on the obtained results an average annual effective dose of 15 mSv y(-1) is estimated, well above the average previously estimated for Portugal. PMID:22899215

  1. A generic biokinetic model for noble gases with application to radon

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Marsh, James [Health Protection Agency of Great Britain; Gregoratto, Demetrio [Health Protection Agency of Great Britain; Blanchardon, Eric [IRSN

    2013-01-01

    The International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently uses a dose conversion coefficient to calculate effective dose per unit exposure to radon and its progeny. The coefficient is derived by dividing the detriment associated with unit exposure to radon, as estimated from epidemiological studies, by the detriment per unit effective dose, as estimated mainly from atomic bomb survivor data and animal studies. In a recent statement the ICRP indicated that future guidance on exposure to radon and its progeny will be developed in the same way as guidance for any other radionuclide. That is, intake of radon and progeny will be limited on the basis of effective dose coefficients derived from biokinetic and dosimetric models. This paper proposes a biokinetic model for systemic (absorbed) radon for use in the calculation of dose coefficients for inhaled or ingested radon. The model is based largely on physical laws governing transfer of a non-reactive and soluble gas between materials. Model predictions are shown to be consistent with results of controlled studies of the fate of internally deposited radon in human subjects.

  2. A study of Monitoring and Mapping for Radon-Concentration Distribution in Gyeongju - 12201

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Chan Hee; Lee, Jung Min; Jang, So Young; Kim, Shin Jae; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk University, 707, Seokjang-Dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Radon is one of the most important contributors to the radiation exposure in humans. This study measured the indoor radon concentrations at the 17 elementary school auditoriums that were sampled from those in the city of Gyeongju, Korea. The reason that an elementary school was selected as a measurement object is that many students and teachers stay for a long time in a day and it's easy to identify the characteristics of the auditorium building such as the essential building. The measurement shows that most of the indoor radon concentrations at the 17 elementary school auditoriums did not exceed 148 Bq/m{sup 3} that is the action level recommended by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This study measured the indoor radon concentrations at the elementary school auditoriums in Gyeongju. The measurements were analyzed according to the bedrock type and the time intervals per day. In this study, it was found that the indoor radon concentrations over off-duty hours were generally higher that those over on-duty hours, and the indoor radon concentration in the area whose bedrock is volcanic rock was higher than those in the area of the other types of bedrock. As mentioned above, attention has to be paid to an elementary school since many young students and teachers stay for more 6 hours a day at it. Hence, it is necessary to continuously monitor and properly manage the indoor radon concentrations in the elementary schools. (authors)

  3. Determination of radon concentration levels in well water in Konya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, M; Eren, N; Demirel, S; Zedef, V

    2013-10-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) measurements were undertaken in 16 samples of well water representing different depths and different types of aquifers found at the city centre of Konya, Central Turkey. The radon activity concentrations of the well water samples collected in the spring and summer seasons of 2012 were measured by using the radon gas analyser (AlphaGUARD PQ 2000PRO). The radon concentrations for spring and summer seasons are 2.29 ± 0.17 to 27.25 ± 1.07 and 1.44 ± 0.18 to 27.45 ± 1.25 Bq l(-1), respectively. The results at hand revealed that the radon concentration levels of the waters strictly depend on the seasons and are slightly variable with depth. Eleven of the 16 well water samples had radon concentration levels below the safe limit of 11.11 Bq l(-1) recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, all measured radon concentration levels are well below the 100 Bq l(-1) safe limit declared by the World Health Organisation. The doses resulting from the consumption of these waters were calculated. The calculated minimum and maximum effective doses are 0.29 and 5.49 µSv a(-1), respectively. PMID:23595410

  4. Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program - Part IV: Onsite review handbook

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Onsite Review Handbook contains criteria to be used in evaluating the management systems required for initial or continued participation in the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP), verifying and calculating rates of injury experience, the Onsite Review report format, and sample questions to be used during onsite interviews. This document should be used in conjunction with the first three DOE-VPP manuals (Part I: Program Elements, Part II: Procedures Manual, and Part III: Application Guidelines). This document is intended to assist Onsite Review team members and DOE contractors in evaluating safety and health programs, and to serve as guidance for DOE-VPP participants in performing their required annual evaluation. Requests for additional information or any questions may be addressed to a DOE-VPP Coordinator in the Office of Occupational Safety and Health Policy. The term contractor used throughout this document refers to an applicant to, or a participant in, the DOE-VPP. The term subcontractor refers to any organization that is contracted by the applicant or participant to do work at the site under review. The DOE-VPP Onsite Review Criteria contained in Appendix A provide guidance for evaluating a site`s implementation of the program requirements given in Part I: Program Elements. The program requirements are in bold italicized type, followed by guidance for ensuring implementation. Part I should be consulted for a complete description of the program requirements. These criteria should be used by team members whenever possible, but are not intended to be all inclusive. Determination of adequate implementation of the DOE-VPP requirements is at the team members` discretion. Guidance for calculating recordable injury and lost workday incidence rates is contained in Appendix B. The OSHA injury/illness records review and the associated calculations should be performed by Onsite Review Team members during the pre-onsite planning visit.

  5. 78 FR 29786 - Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988; Report of Matching Program: RRB and State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ...RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of...Notice of a renewal of an existing computer matching program due to expire on May...Register of its intent to renew an ongoing computer matching program. In this match,...

  6. Calculation of impulse current distributions and magnetic fields in lightning protection structures-a computer program and its laboratory validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Cortina; A. Porrino

    1992-01-01

    A circuit model and an ad hoc computer program were set up to evaluate electromagnetic interference in the vicinity of protective structures struck by lightning. This program permits the evaluation of the impulsive magnetic fields by calculating the impulse current distribution in different parts of such structures. It also allows the evaluation of the electromagnetic interference induced on susceptible victim

  7. EFFECT OF NATURAL VENTILATION ON RADON AND RADON PROGENY LEVELS IN HOUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the effect of natural ventilation on radon and radon progeny levels in houses. ontradicting the widely held assumption that ventilation is ineffective in reducing indoor radon concentrations, experiments in a research house have shown that the basement radon l...

  8. RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 1: TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of radon reduction and radon-resistant construction demonstrations in New York. The existing house evaluation demonstrated radon mitigation techniques where indoor radon concentrations exceeded 4 pCi/L. Results demonstrated that sealing all accessible fou...

  9. 1994 Annual wildlife survey report. Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-24

    This report summarizes the results of wildlife surveys and other wildlife monitoring performed from January through December 1994. These surveys are part of a long-term ecological monitoring program conducted under the Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program (NRPCP). This program is essential in identifying and quantifying fluctuations of wildlife populations, wildlife habitat use, and changes in the species using the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) as year-round or seasonal habitat. Wildlife population densities vary constantly due to natural pressures, and only well-integrated, long-term monitoring can identify which factors influencing wildlife populations are a consequence of natural causes, and which are due to human activities. An integrated monitoring program that gathers data on ecologically interactive species is essential in evaluating population fluctuations. Such data can be an invaluable tool in predicting and avoiding impacts on the ecology of an area due to projected human activities. With 167 species of birds, three big game species, nine species of carnivores, nine species of mid-sized mammals, and 15 small mammal species, the Site provides habitat to a surprising variety of wildlife. Many of these species are sensitive species or indicator organisms that by their presence or, more significantly, by their absence can indicate the ecological health of an area. Their presence at the Site indicates a very healthy ecosystem.

  10. Wackenhut Services, Incorporated: Report from the DOE Voluntary Protection Program onsite review, August 10--14, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) Review Team`s findings from the five-day onsite evaluation of Wackenhut Services, Inc. (WSI) at Savannah River Site (SRS), conducted August 10-14, 1998. The site was evaluated against the program requirements contained in US Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program, Part 1: Program Elements to determine its success in implementing the five DOE-VPP tenets. The Team determined that WSI has met in varying degrees, all the tenets of the DOE-VPP. In every case, WSI programs and procedures exceed the level or degree necessary for compliance with existing standards, DOE Orders, and guidelines. In addition, WSI has systematically integrated their occupational safety and health (OSH) program into management and work practices at all levels. WSI`s efforts toward implementing the five major DOE-VPP tenets are summarized.

  11. {sup 210}Po as a long-term integrating radon indicator in the indoor environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Exposure to radon (Rn-222) decay products in the indoor environment is suspected of being a significant lung cancer agent in many countries. But quantification of the contemporary lung cancer risk (i.e. probability) on an individual basis is not an easy task. Only past exposures are relevant and assessing individual exposures in retrospect is associated with large uncertainties, if possible at all. One way to extend the validity of contemporary measurements to past decades is to measure long-lived decay products of radon, the long-lived radon daughters. After our laboratory had exemplified the correlation between implanted Po-210 and the estimated radon exposures in six different dwellings, the US Department of Energy and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute granted funds for a one-year study, ``{sup 210}Po as a Long-Term Integrating Radon Indicator in the Indoor Environment.`` In this report the work performed under these two contracts is reported.

  12. Exposure to indoor radon and natural gamma radiation in some workplaces at Algiers, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Aït Ziane, M; Lounis-Mokrani, Z; Allab, M

    2014-07-01

    Radon activity concentrations have been measured in 34 workplaces throughout Algiers nuclear research centre, in Algeria, during some periods between March 2007 and June 2013 using Electret ion chambers, nuclear tracks detectors and an AlphaGuard system. The indoor radon levels range from 2 to 628 Bq m(-3) with an average indoor concentration equals to 92 Bq m(-3), whereas the estimated outdoor radon concentrations range from 2 to 14 Bq m(-3) with an average value of 6 Bq m(-3). This study also focused on parameters affecting radon concentration levels such as ?oor number, ventilation and atmospheric parameters. Furthermore, the mean gamma rates have been measured in the different investigated locations and have been found to be varying between 33 and 3300 nSv h(-1). The annual effective dose for workers calculated using the appropriate equilibrium and occupancy factors is lower than the value recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection in its Publication 103. PMID:24711531

  13. SWOT analysis of the Czech Radon programme.

    PubMed

    Fojtíková, I

    2014-07-01

    Since the early 1990s, the Czech Republic has been one of the countries that carry out a radon programme on its territory, with the aim of protecting people from unnecessary long-term exposure in their homes. Since that time, many achievements have been registered, and many unexpected difficulties have cropped up. This may be the right moment to take some time out to analyse the state of the programme and to determine the direction for its future development. An extended SWOT analysis can serve as a useful tool for this purpose. Originally, SWOT analyses were used exclusively by for-profit organisations aiming to evaluate their perspectives, develop strategies and make plans in order to achieve their objectives. More recently, it has been used in a wide range of decision-making situations when a desired end-state is to be defined. Here, an extended SWOT analysis is used to formulate possible beneficial strategies for advancing anti-radon policy in the Czech Republic. PMID:24729595

  14. Radon removal from flowing air by a water scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, T.E.; Jarzemba, M.S.; Fentiman, A.W.; Denison, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    As part of a process that is being developed to vitrify tailings from Belgian Congo ore that is stored in large silos at a former U.S. Department of Energy uranium-processing facility in southwestern Ohio, process off-gas is produced that contains large concentrations of radon gas (on the order of hundreds of thousands of picocuries per litre). To meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency restrictions, the process off-gas must be stripped of its radon content before it is vented to the atmosphere. It is appropriate to consider a charcoal bed as part of an off-gas treatment system for the removal of radon at the vitrification facility. However, a difficulty arises in incorporating a charcoal bed into an off-gas treatment system at a vitrification facility. That difficulty is that the capability of the charcoal bed to capture and retain radon gas decreases with increasing bed temperature. Thus, it may be necessary to include a water scrubber in the off-gas treatment system to cool the process off-gas before it is passed through the charcoal bed.

  15. Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Khalid; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas (222Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the 222Rn concentrations (Bq/m3) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter's dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (?int) and alpha hit efficiency (?hit). The ?int depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and ?hit depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper explains that how radon concentration from the experimentally obtained etched track density can be obtained. The program based on RAHI method is also given in this paper.

  16. The indoor radon problem: Studies in the Albuquerque, New Mexico area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookins, Douglas G.

    1988-12-01

    Radon buildup in homes is now recognized throughout the world as a potentially major health hazard. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimate 8,000 30,000 fatalities per year in the United States due to indoor radon. The Albuquerque, New Mexico area was chosen for study because it is representative of metropolitan areas in the southwestern United States where slightly uraniferous source rocks (Sandia granite) have provided the very immature soil for much of the area. The granite contains 4.7 ppm U, and limestone capping the granite 5.7 ppm U. Soils in the area average 4.24 ppm U, and Th/U ratios average 3.2. These data suggest some removal of U from the source rocks, but fixation of the U in the soils (that is, as opposed to widespread removal of the U by solution), thus providing a ready source for soil radon. A pilot study of soil radon in the area in winter of 1983 1984 shows high values, 180 pCi/l, relative to the U.S. average (about 100 pCi/l). In the winter of 1986 1987, 180 dwellings were surveyed for their indoor radon levels, including 20 that had been surveyed in summer of 1986. Twenty-eight percent of those in the winter study yielded indoor radon above the EPA suggested maximum permissible level of 4 pCi/l air, well above the EPA estimate of 10 15 dwellings for the U.S. The indoor radon levels show positive correlation with closeness to the Sandia Mountains, to soil radon, to excess insulation, to homes with solar capacities, and other factors. Building materials may provide a very minor source of some indoor radon. Summer readings are lower than winter readings except when the houses possess refrigerated air conditioning.

  17. RADON GENERATION AND TRANSPORT THROUGH CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of radon generation and transport through Florida residential concretes for their contribution to indoor radon concentrations. Radium concentrations in the 11 concretes tested were all ...

  18. Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations.

    PubMed

    Barros, Nirmalla; Field, Dan W; Steck, Daniel J; Field, R William

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the radon concentration at a particular home, or outdoor location, was a poor predictor of the radon concentration at a nearby workplace. Overall, 9.6 and 9.9 % of homes and workplace, respectively, exhibited radon concentrations of ?148 Bq m(-3). Because of the percentage of workplace with elevated radon concentrations, the results suggest that additional surveys of workplace radon concentrations are needed, especially in areas of high radon potential, to assess the contribution of workplace radon exposure to an individual's overall radon exposure. PMID:24936021

  19. Reducing Radon in Schools: A Team Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligman, Bryan K.; Fisher, Eugene J.

    This document presents the process of radon diagnostics and mitigation in schools to help educators determine the best way to reduce elevated radon levels found in a school. The guidebook is designed to guide school leaders through the process of measuring radon levels, selecting the best mitigation strategy, and directing the efforts of a…

  20. Radon Risk Perception and Testing: Sociodemographic Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Michael T.; Warner, Kenneth E.

    1994-01-01

    Using information from the 1990 National Health Interview Survey, examined beliefs regarding radon and radon-testing activities among different sociodemographic groups. Results suggest relatively superficial knowledge regarding radon, and little testing, within the survey population. Significantly less knowledge was observed among female and…

  1. PRELIMINARY DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES FOR RADON CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes analytical procedures for diagnosing radon entry mechanisms into buildings. These diagnostic methods are generally based on the premise that pressure-driven flow of radon-bearing soil gas into buildings is the most significant source of radon in houses with e...

  2. Is Your School Safe from Radon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Radon is a natural, chemically inert, radioactive gas that can seep to the surface from underground rocks. As many as 20,000 lung cancer deaths in the U.S. each year may be radon-caused. Screening a school for radon is not difficult and may be done on weekends. It's safer for students and staff to test and be sure. (MLH)

  3. REENTRY OF RADON FROM MITIGATION SYSTEM OUTLETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of the measurement of reentry rates for radon released at roof level and at ground level near a house, to determine whether or not exhaust is necessary above the roof. (NOTE: Some radon mitigation systems draw air with a high radon concentration from under...

  4. Radon concentrations in a spa in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Manic; S. Petrovic; Manic Vesna; Dragana Popovic; Dragana Todorovic

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the results of indoor radon concentration survey in 201 homes and offices in Niska Banja (the Spa of Nis), a well-known health resort and a spa in the South-East of Serbia. Radon indoor concentrations were determined by active charcoal method, according to standard EPA procedure. The indoor radon concentrations were in the range of up to 200

  5. Protected block time for teaching and learning in a postgraduate family practice residency program

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Piera; Kennedy, Maggie; Winder, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the elements necessary for a high-quality educational experience in a family practice residency program with respect to scheduling, learning environment, and approaches to teaching and learning. Design An interpretative, qualitative study using a generative-inquiry approach. Setting The Nanaimo Site of the University of British Columbia Family Practice Residency Program. Participants Fifteen physician instructors and 16 first- and second-year residents. Methods Data were gathered from 2 qualitative focus group interviews with residents; 2 qualitative focus group interviews with physician instructors; and structured and semistructured observation of 2 in-class seminars, with a focus on residents’ engagement with the class. Results were analyzed and categorized into themes independently and collectively by the researchers. Main findings Protected block time for teaching and learning at the Nanaimo Site has been effective in fostering a learning environment that supports collegial relationships and in-depth instruction. Residents and physician instructors benefit from the week-long academic schedule and the opportunity to teach and learn collaboratively. Participants specifically value the connections among learning environment, collegiality, relationships, reflective learning, and the teaching and learning process. Conclusion These findings suggest that strategic planning and scheduling of teaching and learning sessions in residency programs are important to promoting a comprehensive educational experience. PMID:22700741

  6. 1995 Annual wildlife survey report. Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-04-25

    This report summarizes the results of wildlife surveys performed at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) from January through December of 1995 as compared with results from previous years. These surveys were performed as part of a long-term ecological monitoring program conducted under the Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program (NRPCP). This program is essential in identifying and describing fluctuations of wildlife populations, wildlife habitat use, and changes in species using RFETS. The NRPCP provides support to the Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as Natural Resource Trustee, and provides data essential to accomplishing the goal of preserving the unique ecological values of RFETS in keeping with the Rocky Flats Vision presented in the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Public Comment Draft. Wildlife population densities vary due to natural pressures and human influences, and only long-term monitoring can verify which factors influencing wildlife populations are the consequence of natural fluctuations, and which are due to human influences. The wildlife monitoring described in this report provides qualitative data that give an indication of the ecological health of RFETS. Monitoring numbers, habitat affinities, and apparent health of the wildlife populations makes it possible to evaluate the overall ecological health of the site. Monitoring and surveys such as those carried out by the NRPCP can indicate trends of this sort, and act as an {open_quotes}early warning system{close_quotes} for impending ecological problems.

  7. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project: Report from the DOE voluntary protection program onsite review, November 17--21, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-01-28

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) Review Team`s findings from the five-day onsite evaluation of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), conducted November 17--21, 1997. The site was evaluated against the program requirements contained in ``US Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program, Part 1: Program Elements`` to determine its success in implementing the five tenets of DOE-VPP. DOE-VPP consists of three programs, with names and functions similar to those in OSHA`s VPP. These programs are STAR, MERIT, and DEMONSTRATION. The STAR program is the core of DOE-VPP. The program is aimed at truly outstanding protectors of employee safety and health. The MERIT program is a steppingstone for contractors and subcontractors that have good safety and health programs but need time and DOE guidance to achieve STAR status. The DEMONSTRATION program is rarely used; it allows DOE to recognize achievements in unusual situations about which DOE needs to learn more before determining approval requirements for the STAR status.

  8. A radon progeny deposition model

    SciTech Connect

    Rielage, Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hime, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guiseppe, Vincente E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Westerdale, S. [MIT

    2010-12-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly {sup 222}Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of {sup 210}Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  9. 76 FR 5186 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Agency Information Collection Activities; Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...Protection; Infrastructure Protection Stakeholder Input Project--Generic Clearance...Request, Infrastructure Protection Stakeholder Input Project--Generic Clearance...assessment with the full range of its stakeholders to identify, measure, and...

  10. Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes. Part 1; Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dean; Bond, Thomas; Sheldon, David; Wright, William; Langhals, Tammy; Al-Khalil, Kamel; Broughton, Howard

    1996-01-01

    The Icing Technology Branch at NASA Lewis has been involved in an effort to validate two thermal ice protection codes developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. LEWICE/Thermal (electrothermal deicing & anti-icing), and ANTICE (hot-gas & electrothermal anti-icing). The Thermal Code Validation effort was designated as a priority during a 1994 'peer review' of the NASA Lewis Icing program, and was implemented as a cooperative effort with industry. During April 1996, the first of a series of experimental validation tests was conducted in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel(IRT). The purpose of the April 96 test was to validate the electrothermal predictive capabilities of both LEWICE/Thermal, and ANTICE. A heavily instrumented test article was designed and fabricated for this test, with the capability of simulating electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Thermal measurements were then obtained over a range of test conditions, for comparison with analytical predictions. This paper will present an overview of the test, including a detailed description of: (1) the validation process; (2) test article design; (3) test matrix development; and (4) test procedures. Selected experimental results will be presented for de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Finally, the status of the validation effort at this point will be summarized. Detailed comparisons between analytical predictions and experimental results are contained in the following two papers: 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 2- The Validation of LEWICE/Thermal' and 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 3-The Validation of ANTICE'

  11. Reassessment of the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    On July 6, 1993, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Executive Director for Operations established a review team to reassess the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation. The team evaluated the current system, and solicited comments from various NRC offices, other Federal agencies, licensees, former allegers, and the public. This report is subject to agency review. The report summarizes current processes and gives an overview of current problems. It discusses: (1) ways in which licensees can promote a quality-conscious work environment, in which all employees feel free to raise concerns without fear of retaliation; (2) ways to improve the NRC`s overall handling of allegations; (3) the NRC`s involvement in the Department of Labor process; (4) related NRC enforcement practices; and (5) methods other than investigation and enforcement that may be useful in treating allegations of potential or actual discrimination. Recommendations are given in each area.

  12. Respirator and hearing protection use in the certified safe farm program.

    PubMed

    Donham, Kelley J; Kline, Aaron K; Kelly, Kevin M; Lange, Jeffrey L; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    An evaluation was conducted on the results of the Certified Safe Farm controlled intervention program on a wide range of occupational health and safety outcomes. This report focuses on the outcomes of personal protective equipment (PPE) usage among one cohort of 438 Iowa (owner-operator) farmers in the Certified Safe Farm study during a 5-year period from 2004 to 2008. Intervention farmers reported an 11% increase in regular respirator usage and a 23% increase in regular use of hearing protection relative to comparison groups. Furthermore, it was revealed that personal factors such as smoking and low self-assessment of health status are associated with lower usage of PPE. The authors provide evidence that multiple modalities of intervention are more likely to affect safe behavior changes in the owner-operator farming population compared with single modality interventions. Further, farmers reported that personal factors such as smoking history and low self-assessment of health status are associated with lower usage of PPE. PMID:23301887

  13. Status of U.S. programs for material protection, control & accounting assistance to Ukraine and Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, C.T.; Zinneman, T.E.; Rudolph, R.R.

    1995-12-01

    The United States is one of several donor states providing technical assistance to the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) for improving their systems for control of nuclear materials. Ukraine and Kazakstan have significant nuclear energy programs. Both countries have committed to nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. They have signed the NPT and have safeguards agreements with the U.S. concerning development of state systems of control, accounting and physical protection of nuclear materials. As directed by the DOE - International Safeguards Division (now the DOE - Russia/NIS Nuclear Materials Security Task Force), technical specialists from several national laboratories, including Argonne, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest and Sandia, as well as representatives of other U.S. Government organizations, such as the NRC, DOD/DNA and the New Brunswick Laboratory, are interacting with government regulatory and facility personnel of Ukraine and Kazakstan. Argonne has program coordination responsibilities for both countries. In support of agreements between the U.S. and Ukraine and the U.S. and Kazakstan, the DOE is responsible for providing technical assistance and training to aid in the evaluation, design, development, and implementation of nuclear material safeguards. This assistance includes: (1) information systems for tracking and reporting the location of nuclear materials, (2) application of nuclear measurement techniques for verifying inventories, (3) material control and accounting (MC&A) systems, and (4) physical protection (PP) systems. Site survey teams, including both MC&A and PP experts from several national labs, have visited Ukraine and Kazakstan. This paper summarizes activities to date and future plans.

  14. INDOOR RADON MEASUREMENTS IN TURKEY DWELLINGS.

    PubMed

    Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Task?n, H; Bingoldag, N Albayrak

    2014-11-11

    In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m(-3); the geometric mean was 57 Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. PMID:25389360

  15. Validation of a geographic information system for the evaluation of the soil radon exhalation potential in South-Tyrol and Veneto, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertolo, A; Verdi, L

    2001-01-01

    The PERS (soil radon exhalation potential) project was promoted by ANPA (Italian Environmental Protection Agency) together with the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore of Rome: the aim was to produce a geographic information system allowing the discovery of regions with different radon exhalation potential starting from some territorial knowledge. Some environmental measurements were carried out within this project in selected areas in South-Tyrol and Veneto. The measurement of radon in springwater and groundwater as well as in soil gas plays a decisive role for the validation of the algorithm for computing the PERS. Along with technical aspects, a possible use of the PERS method by the Regional Environmental Protection Agencies and by other agencies is discussed with the scope of identifying radon prone areas, as stated in the Italian 'Decreto Legislativo' 26 May 2000, n. 241. Moreover the forecasting power of PERS regarding indoor radon concentration is analysed. PMID:11878411

  16. EERF (Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility) standard operating procedures for radon-222 measurement using charcoal canisters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.J.; Windham, S.T.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes in detail EPA's office of Radiation Programs Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility's standard operating procedures for radon-222 measurement using charcoal canisters. It lists the materials and equipment that are used and explains their laboratory and survey methods.

  17. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, Jr., G. Harold (Mack, CO)

    1993-01-01

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  18. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1993-01-12

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  19. The Infrastructure Necessary to Support a Sustainable Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Bachner, Katherine M.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-20

    The NNSA Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program has been engaged for fifteen years in upgrading the security of nuclear materials in Russia. Part of the effort has been to establish the conditions necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of nuclear security. A sustainable program of nuclear security requires the creation of an indigenous infrastructure, starting with sustained high level government commitment. This includes organizational development, training, maintenance, regulations, inspections, and a strong nuclear security culture. The provision of modern physical protection, control, and accounting equipment to the Russian Federation alone is not sufficient. Comprehensive infrastructure projects support the Russian Federation's ability to maintain the risk reduction achieved through upgrades to the equipment. To illustrate the contributions to security, and challenges of implementation, this paper discusses the history and next steps for an indigenous Tamper Indication Device (TID) program, and a Radiation Portal Monitoring (RPM) program.

  20. An equilibrium-based model for measuring environmental radon using charcoal canisters.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, A L; Kearfott, K J

    2010-08-01

    Radon in indoor air is often measured using canisters of activated charcoal that function by adsorbing radon gas. The use of a diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) minimizes the effects of environmental humidity and extends the useful exposure time by several days. Many DBCC protocols model charcoal canisters as simple integrating detectors, which introduces errors due to the fact that radon uptake changes over the exposure period. Errors are compensated for by calculating a calibration factor that is nonlinear with respect to exposure time. This study involves the development and testing of an equilibrium-based model and corresponding measurement protocol that treats the charcoal canisters as a system coming into equilibrium with the surrounding radon environment. This model applies to both constant and temporally varying radon concentration situations, which was essential, as efforts are currently underway using a temporally varying radon chamber. It was found that the DBCCs equilibrate following the relationship E = (1 - e) where E is a measure of how close the DBCC is to equilibrium, t is exposure time, and q is the equilibration constant. This equilibration constant was empirically determined to be 0.019 h. The proposed model was tested in a blind test as well as compared with the currently accepted U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) model. Comparisons between the two methods showed a slight decrease in measurement error when using the equilibrium-based method as compared to the U.S. EPA method. PMID:20622564

  1. 'Radon Concentration Survey in Inner Rooms from Deputy Chamber and National Congress-Brasilia/DF'

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoli, Ieda Gomes [Escritorio de Brasilia-CNEN Quadra 4 Bl. B Sala 1002 A Setor Comercial Norte CEP 70714-900 Brasilia-DF (Brazil); Cardozo, Katia Maria [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear-CNEN Rua Helio de Almeida, 75--Cidade Universitaria-Ilha do Fundao CEP 21941-906-Caixa Postal 68550 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Azevedo Gouvea, Vandir de [Divisao de Materias Primas e Minerais-DIMAP-CNEN Rua General Severiano, 90-Botafogo CEP 22290-901 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)

    2008-08-07

    Radon gas has been monitored in many environments such as rural and urban houses, high natural radioactivity areas and underground mining regions. Nevertheless few data are reported in literature about studies in state buildings. So we get in touch with these buildings managers, where work the Deputy Chamber and the National Congress in Brasilia--DF, in order to obtain radon data in these state buildings, so representative for brazilian people. In order to make a preliminary scanning of radon concentration in these buildings, it was put in selected points, radon nuclear track passive detectors type SSNTD, specifically polycarbonate Lexan, which were exposed for periods from two to five months. Afterwards they were sent to Nuclear Engineering Institute in Rio de Janeiro for analysis of {sup 222}Rn contents. Derived values, whose average value was about 73 Bq/m{sup 3}, were all under maximum permissible limits for radon 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, established by International Comission on Radiological Protection--ICRP 65, for inner environments of houses and state buildings. This work has been coordinated by CNEN Office in Braselia with effective participation of Nuclear Engineering Institute from CNEN--RJ, that has worked since beginning of april 2004, supplying and analysing radon detectors.

  2. Study of temporal variation of radon concentrations in public drinking water supplies

    SciTech Connect

    York, E.L. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for radon-222 in public drinking water supplies of 300 pCi/L. Proposed monitoring requirements include collecting quarterly grab samples for the first year, then annual samples for the remainder of the compliance cycle provided first year quarterly samples average below the MCL. The focus of this research was to study the temporal variation of groundwater radon concentrations to investigate how reliably one can predict an annual average radon concentration based on the results of grab samples. Using a {open_quotes}slow-flow{close_quotes} collection method and liquid scintillation analysis, biweekly water samples were taken from ten public water supply wells in North Carolina (6 month - 11 month sampling periods). Based on study results, temporal variations exist in groundwater radon concentrations. Statistical analysis performed on the data indicates that grab samples taken from each of the ten wells during the study period would exhibit groundwater radon concentrations within 30% of their average radon concentration.

  3. Indoor radon concentration data: Its geographic and geologic distribution, an example from the Capital District, NY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.J. [Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY (United States); Overeynder, H.M. [C.E.S., Gabon (Central African Republic); Thomas, B.R. [CMT Independent Laboratories, Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Most studies of the geographic distribution of indoor radon levels are plotted by county or ZIP code. This method is used for the radon potential maps produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH). The basis for the mapping is the mean or median indoor radon count for all the data provided by NYSDOH within each geographic area. While testing the indoor radon analyses provided to the authors by CMT Independent Laboratories, we discovered data that deviated markedly from the EPA and NYSDOH means for the Capital District of New York (Albany and surrounding counties). Their screening indoor radon average concentrations in pCi/L, indicate low potential for Schenectady (3.0), Saratoga (3.2), and Albany (3.7) counties; and moderate potential for Rensselaer (6.4) and Columbia (7.0) counties. Our database of over 3,000 analyses contains over 800 records of indoor radon counts above 4 pCi/L (14-47% of each county`s analyses), many high enough to be rated as a serious health hazard. In order to obtain greater precision of information, the authors plotted their indoor radon data by street address using MapInfo, a geographic Information System (GIS), and StreetInfo, MapInfo`s TIGER address database. We compared the geographic distribution of our data to both the Bedrock Geology and Surficial Geology Maps of New York State. The results show a striking relationship of radon concentrations to bedrock, faults and permeability of surficial material. Data being compiled and mapped by street address by the NYSDOH in Erie County in western New York, confirm our results.

  4. LiMPETS: Scientists Contributions to Coastal Protection Program for Youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltzman, J.; Osborn, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    In the West Coast National Marine Sanctuaries' LiMPETS (Long-term Monitoring Experiential Training for Students), scientists have partnered with local sanctuaries to develop an educational and scientifically-based monitoring program. With different levels of commitment and interest, scientists have contributed to developing protocols that youth can successfully use to monitor coastal habitats. LiMPETS was developed to address the gap in marine science education for high school students. The team of sanctuary educators together with local scientists collaborate and compromise to develop scientifically accurate and meaningful monitoring projects. By crossing the border between scientists and educators, LiMPETS has become a rich program which provides to teachers professional development, monitoring equipment, an online database, and field support. In the Sandy Beach Monitoring Project, we called on an expert on the sand crab Emerita analoga to help us modify the protocols that she uses to monitor crabs regularly. This scientist brings inspiration to teachers at teacher workshops by explaining how the student monitoring compliments her research. The Rocky Intertidal Monitoring Project was developed by scientists at University of California at Santa Cruz with the intention of passing on this project to an informal learning center. After receiving California Sea Grant funding, the protocols used for over 30 years with undergraduates were modified for middle and high school students. With the help of teachers, classroom activities were developed to train students for fieldwork. The online database was envisioned by the scientists to house the historical data from undergraduate students while growing with new data collected middle and high school students. The support of scientists in this program has been crucial to develop a meaningful program for both youth and resource managers. The hours that a scientist contributes to this program may be minimal, a weeklong workshop or even a part-time job. The framework of resource protection agencies partnering with scientists can be replicated to monitor other natural habitats. Through LiMPETS, scientists are helping to develop scientifically literate youth who are engaged in environmental monitoring.

  5. CDC's National Asthma Control Program CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People from Health Threats. Saving Money Through Prevention.

    E-print Network

    CS229334-V CDC's National Asthma Control Program CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People from. · Nearly 26 million people have asthma. · Asthma is linked to 3,388 deaths a year. · Asthma is the 3rd asthma than any other racial or ethnic group. · Asthma costs the United States an estimated $56 billion

  6. 40 CFR 195.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS General Provisions...for each location from which it provides radon measurement services. After the application...component, or system designed to measure radon gas or radon decay products. EPA...

  7. Radon diffusion coefficients in 360 waterproof materials of different chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Jiránek, M; Kotrbatá, M

    2011-05-01

    This paper summarises the results of radon diffusion coefficient measurements in 360 common waterproof materials available throughout Europe. The materials were grouped into 26 categories according to their chemical composition. It was found that the diffusion coefficients of materials used for protecting houses against radon vary within eight orders from 10(-15) to 10(-8) m(2) s(-1). The lowest values were obtained for bitumen membranes with an Al carrier film and for ethylene vinyl acetate membranes. The highest radon diffusion coefficient values were discovered for sodium bentonite membranes, rubber membranes made of ethylene propylene diene monomer and polymer cement coatings. The radon diffusion coefficients for waterproofings widely used for protecting houses, i.e. flexible polyvinyl chloride, high-, low-density polyethylene, polypropylene and bitumen membranes, vary in the range from 3 × 10(-12) to 3 × 10(-11) m(2) s(-1). Tests were performed which confirmed that the radon diffusion coefficient is also an effective tool for verifying the air-tightness of joints. PMID:21450700

  8. 30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5037 Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a...person to determine if concentrations of radon daughters are present....

  9. 40 CFR 61.203 - Radon monitoring and compliance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Radon monitoring and compliance procedures. ...POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.203 Radon monitoring and compliance...

  10. 30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037...Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5037 Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a...person to determine if concentrations of radon daughters are present....

  11. Low Radon Cleanroom at the University of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Darren; Hallin, Aksel; Hanchurak, Stephen; Krauss, Carsten; Liu, Shengli; Soluk, Richard

    2011-04-01

    A cleanroom laboratory designed to create and maintain a low concentration of radon in the air has been designed and is now under construction. We describe the clean room, the radon stripping system, and various radon monitoring tools.

  12. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2006-12-01

    This document is the third revision of the 'Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan' for groundwater wells associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for: (1) inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12; (2) identifying maintenance needs that extend the life of the well and assure well-head protection is in place, and (3) identifying wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring-well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment. The inspection and maintenance of groundwater monitoring wells is one of the primary management strategies of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Management Plan, 'proactive stewardship of the extensive monitoring well network at Y-12' (BWXT 2004a). Effective stewardship, and a program of routine inspections of the physical condition of each monitoring well, ensures that representative water-quality monitoring and hydrologic data are able to be obtained from the well network. In accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP) for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (BWXT 2006b), the status designation (active or inactive) for each well determines the scope and extent of well inspections and maintenance activities. This plan, in conjunction with the above document, formalizes the GWPP approach to focus available resources on monitoring wells which provide the most useful data. This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management facilities located within the three hydrogeologic regimes: (1) the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime); (2) the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime); and (3) the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) immediately west of Y-12. The East Fork Regime encompasses most of the Y-12 process, operations, and support facilities in BCV east of scarboro Road. The Chestnut Ridge Regime is directly south of Y-12 and encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge that is bound to the west by a surface drainage feature (Dunaway Branch) and by Scarboro Road to the east. The GWPP maintains an extensive database of construction details and related information for the monitoring wells in each hydrogeologic regime in the 'Updated Subsurface Database for Bear Creek Valley, Chestnut Ridge, and parts of Bethel Valley on the US DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (BWXT 2003a). A detailed description of the hydrogeologic framework at Y-12 can be found in the GWPP Management Plan (BWXT 2004a).

  13. Radon/radon daughter environmental chamber located in the northwest end of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Radon/radon daughter environmental chamber located in the northwest end of building. VIEW LOOKING WEST - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, Building No. 32, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

  14. Indoor radon correlated with soil and subsoil radon potential—a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G.; Schneiders, H.; Schütz, M.; Siehl, A.; Stamm, R.

    1992-03-01

    High indoor radon concentrations in a uranium-radium low-level area in the Eifel region, Germany, near the village of Döttingen are caused by ascending radon migration following the convection of groundwater and soil gas along pathways (fractures and faults) in the bedrock sediments of Lower Devonian age. Positive radon anomalies in the soil gas are found to coincide with the locations of houses showing the highest concentrations. These houses are older buildings without concrete foundation slabs. Normally radon concentrations in soil gas are highly correlated with the values of emanated radon calculated on the basis of radium content in the surrounding soils and rocks (diffusive radon potential). However, close to zones of tectonic fractures and faults around the maar-type volcano of Döttingen abnormally high radon concentrations, which were transported by circulating groundwater and postvolcanic exhalation of CO2 (convective radon potential) were detected.

  15. 75 FR 69693 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security National Protection and Programs Directorate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...Department of Homeland Security National Protection...Infrastructure Coordinating Center Records System of...Department of Homeland Security National Protection...Infrastructure Coordinating Center, an extension of the National Operations Center, to...

  16. The value of Seasonal Correction Factors in assessing the health risk from domestic radon: a case study in Northamptonshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Denman, A R; Crockett, R G M; Groves-Kirkby, C J; Phillips, P S; Gillmore, G K; Woolridge, A C

    2007-01-01

    Following an intensive survey of domestic radon levels in the United Kingdom (UK), the former National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), now the Radiation Protection Division of the Health Protection Agency (HPA-RPD), established a measurement protocol and promulgated Seasonal Correction Factors applicable to the country as a whole. Radon levels in the domestic built environment are assumed to vary systematically and repeatably during the year, being generally higher in winter. The Seasonal Correction Factors therefore comprise a series of numerical multipliers, which convert a 1-month or 3-month radon concentration measurement, commencing in any month of the year, to an effective annual mean radon concentration. In a recent project undertaken to assess the utility of short-term exposures in quantifying domestic radon levels, a comparative assessment of a number of integrating detector types was undertaken, with radon levels in 34 houses on common geology monitored over a 12-month period using dose-integrating track-etch detectors exposed in pairs (one upstairs, one downstairs) at 1-month and 3-month resolution. Seasonal variability of radon concentrations departed significantly from that expected on the basis of the HPA-RPD Seasonal Correction Factor set, with year-end discontinuities at both 1-month and 3-month measurement resolutions. Following this study, monitoring with electrets was continued in four properties, with weekly radon concentration data now available for a total duration in excess of three and a half years. Analysis of this data has permitted the derivation of reliable local Seasonal Correction Factors. Overall, these are significantly lower than those recommended by HPA-RPD, but are comparable with other results from the UK and from abroad, particularly those that recognise geological diversity and are consequently prepared on a regional rather than a national basis. This finding calls into question the validity of using nationally aggregated Seasonal Correction Factors, especially for shorter exposures, and the universal applicability of these corrections is discussed in detail. PMID:16899293

  17. Establishing a lightning protection evaluation program for distribution and subtransmission lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Marshall; B. P. Angeli

    1998-01-01

    Union Electric (UE) began a project in December 1994 to evaluate the performance of existing types of lightning protection, identify deficiencies, and recommend changes that will result in improved performance. UE employs two basic types of lightning protection-static wire and arresters. The authors discuss ground impedance, the National Lightning Detection Network, and the Lightning Protection Design Workstation (LPDW). The LPDW

  18. REVIEW OF SELECTED STATE-OF-THE-ART APPLICATIONS OF DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENTS FOR RADON MITIGATION PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since late-1984, EPA's AEERL has supported a program to develop and demonstrate radon mitigation techniques for single-family detached dwellings. As part of the program, projects have been started directed at developing and demonstrating the use of diagnostic measurements in all ...

  19. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from vehicles and engines, radon, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change, and radiation protection. OAR is ... Interstate Rule Clean Air Mercury Rule Ground-level ozone Lead in air New Source Review Nitrogen oxides ...

  20. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  1. Anomalous radon emission as precursor of earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Sengupta, Rosalima

    2009-10-01

    Recent years have seen an ever increasing interest in studying the usefulness of radon measurements in earth sciences. Radon emissions that are enhanced by forthcoming geophysical events as earthquakes or volcanic activity have been observed all over the world. The abnormal radon exhalation from the interior of earth, as a precursory phenomenon related to earthquakes and as an indicator of underlying geological faults, is an important field of investigation. For this purpose a number of active and passive methods for getting radon signals have been developed. Several models have been proposed as an explanation of the experimental field data. This paper gives a brief review of the progress made in the field of radon measurements in earth sciences specially in predicting earthquakes. Radon anomalies that have been observed in soil gas as well as groundwater or spring prior to earthquakes have been reviewed in this paper. The models proposed in relating precursor time, epicentral distance, magnitude of earthquake have also been discussed.

  2. CAT scan and Radon/X-ray transform Relations with the Fourier transform. Dual Radon

    E-print Network

    CAT scan and Radon/X-ray transform Relations with the Fourier transform. Dual Radon Radon transform over d dimensional planes. X-ray transform. Inversion formulas. Range Stability of inversion Incomplete geometric transforms A classification of tomographic procedures Electrical Impedance Tomography Optical

  3. A new active method for continuous radon measurements based on a multiple cell proportional counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazed, D.; Ciolini, R.; Curzio, G.; Del Gratta, A.

    2007-11-01

    A new active method for continuous airborne radon activity concentration measurements is developed. It is based upon the use of a specially designed radon Multiple Cell Proportional Counter (MCPC). The constructed MCPC prototype is described and its operation principle presented. This gas-flow counter is a pile-up of 20 adjacent multiwire proportional counters. It uses argon-propane (1%) as the main counting gas mixture to which an appropriate fraction of ambient air is admixed. The airborne radon activity concentration is to be continuously measured through a periodic integral counting of the ? particles emitted by 222Rn and its short-lived decay products within the sensitive volume. A Monte Carlo simulation program, taking into account the major physical processes that determine directly the detector performances, has been written and used for design optimization purposes. The simulation results show that the admixture of 10% of ambient air seems to be sufficient to continuously assess radon activity concentration levels ranging from about 15 Bq m -3 up to 2.6×10 5 k Bq m -3 for an integral counting time period of 10 min. The expected radon sensitivity is about 1.16 cpm/10 Bq m -3 with a radon counting efficiency of about 180%. The detector ?-pulse height spectra obtained by simulation show a very good agreement with those delivered by the constructed MCPC prototype in its minimal configuration.

  4. Radon mitigation using an air cleaner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Yasuoka; T. Ishikawa; S. Tokonami; H. Takahashi; A. Sorimachi; M. Shinogi

    2009-01-01

    Room experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of an air cleaner on radon mitigation. Radon concentration, equilibrium\\u000a equivalent radon concentration and unattached fraction were measured during the experiments. Two types of filtration were\\u000a tested using the air cleaner which has a high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA-filter) and a deodorizing activated\\u000a carbon (carbon-filter). One is the filtration with the

  5. Development of Physical Protection Regulations for Rosatom State Corporation Sites under the U.S.-Russian MPC&A Program

    SciTech Connect

    Izmaylov, Alexander; Babkin, Vladimir; Shemigon, Nikolai N.; O'Brien, Patricia; Wright, Troy L.; Hazel, Michael J.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Lane, Melinda; Kovchegin, Dmitry

    2012-07-14

    This paper describes issues related to upgrading the physical protection regulatory basis for Rosatom State Corporation sites. It is underlined that most of the regulatory and methodological documents for this subject area have been developed under the U.S.-Russian MPC&A Program. According to the joint management plan developed and agreed upon by the parties in 2005, nearly 50 physical protection documents were identified to be developed, approved and implemented at Rosatom sites by 2012. It is also noted that, on the whole, the plans have been fulfilled.

  6. Radon Concern in the Hickory Aquifer

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    in the Hickory Aquifer's groundwater poses health risks for residents in the area. Radon is a natural, radioactive gas that may be found indoors in air or drinking water. Radon is the decay product of radium, so radon indi- rectly reflects the presence... of radium. Radon in groundwater occurs from the decay of radium both within the aquifer host rock and in the groundwater itself. It does not react chemically with either, however, because it is a noble or inert gas. About 1 percent to 2 percent...

  7. A preliminary model of radon exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.O.; Hummon, N.P.; Strom, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper develops a preliminary model of exposure to radon gases. This paper considers indoor and outdoor exposure to radon in residential and non-residential settings. Differential exposure associated with level of activity, age, duration and seasonal variation are also considered. Dose equivalents to bronchial epithelium are estimated as the result of type of exposure, activity differentials, age differences, estimated length of exposure, and seasonal variation. The preliminary model of radon exposure draws on a variety of existing data relating to the social, technical and physical health characteristics of radon exposure. 24 refs., 8 tabs.

  8. Radon: Chemical and physical processes associated with its distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the mechanisms which govern the distribution, fate, and pathways of entry into biological systems, as well as the ultimate hazards associated with the radon progeny and their secondary reaction products, depends on knowledge of their chemistry. Our studies are directed toward developing fundamental information which will provide a basis for modeling studies that are requisite in obtaining a complete picture of growth, attachment to aerosols, and transport to the bioreceptor and ultimate incorporation within. Our program is divided into three major areas of research. These include measurement of the determination of their mobilities, study of the role of radon progeny ions in affecting reactions, including study of the influence of the degree of solvation (clustering), and examination of the important secondary reaction products, with particular attention to processes leading to chemical conversion of either the core ions or the ligands as a function of the degree of clustering.

  9. The effect on the radon diffusion coefficient of long-term exposure of waterproof membranes to various degradation agents.

    PubMed

    Navrátilová Rovenská, Katerina

    2014-07-01

    Waterproofing, usually made of bitumen or polymers with various additives, is used to protect buildings mainly against dampness, but also against radon transported from the soil beneath the building. The radon diffusion coefficient is a material property which is considered to be strongly influenced by the inner structure (chemical composition, crystallinity) of a measured sample. We have used this parameter together with measurements of mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength, elongation at break, etc.) and FTIR spectroscopy has been used in order to describe the changes in material properties induced by long-term degradation. This paper summarizes the results of radon diffusion coefficient measurements of waterproof materials exposed to radon, soil bacteria, high temperature and combinations of these factors. We have discovered changes as high as 83 % have been discovered compared to virgin samples. PMID:24748486

  10. Identification of high radon areas with passive methods and geological assessments in some Italian regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Marta; Bartolomei, Paolo; Esposito, Massimo; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2010-05-01

    Internationally the indoor radon exposition as health hazard is widely recognized; so in many countries specific laws and regulations and so-called radon - risk maps have been introduced. Few Italian Regions have started surveys for the identification of 'radon prone areas', with independent standards and protocols and this involves a bigger uncertainty on the definition of a national risk map failing guidelines. In the present work a standardized methodology for indoor radon measurements has been set up by U-Series Srl (Bologna), with attention to the development of a passive measurement technique (solid state nuclear track detectors) on large scale. The developed technique has been validated through an inter-laboratory comparison conducted by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) in 2008 and repeated in 2009. An indoor radon monitoring survey has been conducted in all Italian Regions with the developed methodology and 5425 measurements have been elaborated to obtain the annual average radon concentration in regional scale and the relapse of seasonal fluctuations on radon concentrations were verified. For the survey, the detectors were installed in underground rooms in workplaces and the measurements were performed over one solar year. As a consequence of our developed methodology (measurements only in underground rooms), indoor radon concentrations resulted generally higher than the concentrations obtained in the National Survey; we estimated an annual mean radon concentration of 110 Bqm3 compared to 70 Bq/m3 obtained by the National Survey. Only for the Italian Regions with the largest number of sampling (Lombardia, with the case studies of Milano Province and Milano city, Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Puglia) the data obtained were georeferentiated and we elaborated these data using geostatistical technique in order to produce distribution maps of the annual average indoor radon concentration. We have integrated the elaborated maps with the geological knowledge of the high concentration macro-areas identified in this work in order to better determine them. This study has allowed to point out not negligible radon concentrations also in traditionally no-risk zone; moreover the application of the developed methodology will be useful to give advices in order to fill Italian legislation gaps or to draft urban development plans. In particular, the correlation between radon concentrations and some geological features has been proved in Lombardia and some hypothesis have been formulated to understand the geological origin of the radon source. The high radon concentrations in the North of the Region are related to the high uranium content in different rock types distributed in these areas. For the flat area in correspondence of the Milan Province and the city of Milan, traditionally considered a no-risk zone, we have done some hypothesis of correlation between radon and the geochemical processes occurred in this area and soil permeability and fracturation by means of the existing geological sections. The application of the developed methodology will be useful to give advices to fill legislation gaps or to draft urban development plans.

  11. 40 CFR 195.20 - Fee payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS Fees § 195.20...is not a listed participant in EPA's radon proficiency programs on the effective...and the RCP Program shall be sent to: Radon Proficiency Programs User Fees,...

  12. 40 CFR 195.30 - Failure to remit fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS Fees § 195.30...participant's listing in the National Radon Measurement Proficiency program, individual...component of the RMP program, or the National Radon Contractor Proficiency program until...

  13. 40 CFR 195.30 - Failure to remit fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS Fees § 195.30...participant's listing in the National Radon Measurement Proficiency program, individual...component of the RMP program, or the National Radon Contractor Proficiency program until...

  14. 40 CFR 195.1 - Purpose and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS General Provisions...operating the following programs: The National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program...component of the RMP Program, and the National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP)...

  15. 40 CFR 195.1 - Purpose and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS General Provisions...operating the following programs: The National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program...component of the RMP Program, and the National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP)...

  16. 76 FR 16000 - Voluntary Protection Programs Information; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ...effective safety and health management program. The OGE Form 450...improving their safety and health management programs and possibly pursuing...analysis of the applicant's knowledge of safety and health management programs; and (2)...

  17. Exposure assessment of radon in the drinking water supplies: a descriptive study in Palestine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Radon gas is considered as a main risk factor for lung cancer and found naturally in rock, soil, and water. The objective of this study was to determine the radon level in the drinking water sources in Nablus city in order to set up a sound policy on water management in Palestine. Methods This was a descriptive study carried out in two phases with a random sampling technique in the second phase. Primarily, samples were taken from 4 wells and 5 springs that supplied Nablus city residents. For each source, 3 samples were taken and each was analyzed in 4 cycles by RAD 7 device manufactured by Durridge Company. Secondly, from the seven regions of the Nablus city, three samples were taken from the residential tap water of each region. Regarding the old city, ten samples were taken. Finally, the mean radon concentration value for each source was calculated. Results The mean (range) concentration of radon in the main sources were 6.9 (1.5-23.4) Becquerel/liter (Bq/L). Separately, springs and wells' means were 4.6 Bq/L and 9.5 Bq/L; respectively. For the residential tap water in the 7 regions, the results of the mean (range) concentration values were found to be 1.0 (0.9-1.3) Bq/L. For the old city, the mean (range) concentration values were 2.3 (0.9-3.9) Bq/L. Conclusions Except for Al-Badan well, radon concentrations in the wells and springs were below the United State Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminated level (U.S EPA MCL). The level was much lower for tap water. Although the concentration of radon in the tap water of old city were below the MCL, it was higher than other regions in the city. Preventive measures and population awareness on radon's exposure are recommended. PMID:22243625

  18. Exposure pathways and radiation dose to burrowing animals in radon-rich soils

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, C.R. [AECL Research, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Canada is assessing the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal deep in plutonic rock. This assessment includes surveys to establish the ranges of natural background radiological doses to wildlife in the Canadian environment for comparison to doses received from radionuclides which may migrate from a disposal vault. This survey shows that burrowing animals may receive significantly elevated natural radiation doses as a result of exposure from radon-rich soils. Rn-222 levels in natural and simulated burrows in southern Manitoba range from background levels of approximately 2,000 Bq/M{sup 3} to approximately 45,000 Bq/M{sup 3}. Rn-222 in soils associated with fractures in overburden or uranium-rich bedrock may approach 300,000 Bq/M{sup 3}. The major exposure route to burrowing mammals is through inhalation which may result in an annual dose to bronchi in excess of 1 Gy. This model assumes a 1 kg body weight, a radon equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) of 50% of total radon, a 90% dilution of burrow radon from the atmosphere and an exposure/dose ratio of 0.0053 {mu}Gy/Bq-h/M{sup 3}. This dose is significantly higher than the 0.4 Gy-a-{sup 1} suggested by the IAEA to protect plant and animal populations. A second route of exposure contributing to internal dose is through the ingestion of radon progeny in soils and vegetation in radon-rich soils. In areas where elevated radon-222 levels are generated in situ from high radium-226 levels in the soil, there will be additional radiation exposure to the animals from the ingestion of radium-226 in soils and vegetation.

  19. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2006-12-01

    This document is a compendium of water quality and hydrologic characterization data obtained through December 2005 from the network of groundwater monitoring wells and surface water sampling stations (including springs and building sumps) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee that have been sampled since January 2003. The primary objectives of this document, hereafter referenced as the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Compendium, are to: (1) Serve as a single-source reference for monitoring data that meet the requirements of the Y-12 GWPP, as defined in the Y-12 GWPP Management Plan (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2004); (2) Maintain a detailed analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data for each applicable well, spring, and surface water sampling station, with a focus on results for the primary inorganic, organic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater and surface water at Y-12; and (3) Ensure retention of ''institutional knowledge'' obtained over the long-term (>20-year) history of groundwater and surface water monitoring at Y-12 and the related sources of groundwater and surface water contamination. To achieve these goals, the Y-12 GWPP Compendium brings together salient hydrologic, geologic, geochemical, water-quality, and environmental compliance information that is otherwise disseminated throughout numerous technical documents and reports prepared in support of completed and ongoing environmental contamination assessment, remediation, and monitoring activities performed at Y-12. The following subsections provide background information regarding the overall scope and format of the Y-12 GWPP Compendium and the planned approach for distribution and revision (i.e., administration) of this ''living'' document.

  20. Radon in homes of the Portland, Oregon Area: Radon data from local radon testing companies collected by CRM (Continuous Radon Measurement) machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, H.; Lindsey, K.; Linde, T.; Burns, S. F.

    2013-12-01

    Students from the Department of Geology at Portland State University paired up with the Oregon Health Authority to better understand radon gas values in homes of the Portland metropolitan area. This study focuses on radon values collected by continuous radon measurement (CRM) machines, taken by local radon testing companies. The local companies participating in this study include Alpha Environmental Services, Inc., Cascade Radon, Environmental Works, The House Detectives, LLC, and Soil Solutions Environmental Services, Inc. In total, 2491 radon readings spanning across 77 zip codes were collected from local companies in the Portland metropolitan area. The maximum value, average value, percentage of homes greater than 4 pCi/L and total rank sum was calculated and used to determine the overall radon potential for each zip code (Burns et al., 1998). A list and four maps were produced showing the results from each category. Out of the total records, 24 zip codes resulted in high radon potential and the average reading for the entire Portland Metropolitan area was 3.7 pCi/L. High potential zip codes are thought to be a result of sand and gravel (Missoula Flood deposits) and faults present in the subsurface. The CRM data was compared with both long-term and short-term data provided by the Oregon Health Authority to validate radon potentials in each zip code. If a home is located in a zip code with high or moderate radon potential across two types of data sets, it is recommended that those homes be tested for radon gas.

  1. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program CY 2009 Triennial Report Of The Monitoring Well Inspection And Maintenance Program, Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document is the triennial report for the Well Inspection and Maintenance Program of the Y- 12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). This report formally documents well inspection events conducted on active and inactive wells at Y-12 during calendar years (CY) 2007 through 2009; it documents well maintenance and plugging and abandonment activities completed since the last triennial inspection event (CY 2006); and provides summary tables of well inspection events, well maintenance events, and well plugging and abandonment events during the reference time period.

  2. The Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program: Protection of materials in the space environment subprogram

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, L.R.; Francoeur, J.; Aguero, A.; Wertheimer, M.R.; Klemberg-Sapieha, J.E.; Martinu, L.; Blezius, J.W.; Oliver, M.; Singh, A. [Cametoid Advanced Technologies, Inc., Whitby, Ontario (Canada); [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); [MPB Technologies, Inc., Pointe Claire, Quebec (Canada); [National Optics Inst., Ste-Foy, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-02-01

    Three projects are currently underway for the development of new coatings for the protection of materials in the space environment. These coatings are based on vacuum deposition technologies. The projects will go as far as the proof-of-concept stage when the commercial potential for the technology will be demonstrated on pilot-scale fabrication facilities in 1996. These projects are part of a subprogram to develop supporting technologies for automation and robotics technologies being developed under the Canadian Space Agency`s STEAR Program, part of the Canadian Space Station Program.

  3. Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia’s Health Insurance Program for the Poor

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Grant; Pinto, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia’s Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a “fuzzy” regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services – with measurable health gains. PMID:25346799

  4. The Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program: Protection of materials in the space environment subprogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Lorne R.; Francoeur, J.; Aguero, Alina; Wertheimer, Michael R.; Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.; Martinu, L.; Blezius, J. W.; Oliver, M.; Singh, A.

    1995-01-01

    Three projects are currently underway for the development of new coatings for the protection of materials in the space environment. These coatings are based on vacuum deposition technologies. The projects will go as far as the proof-of-concept stage when the commercial potential for the technology will be demonstrated on pilot-scale fabrication facilities in 1996. These projects are part of a subprogram to develop supporting technologies for automation and robotics technologies being developed under the Canadian Space Agency's STEAR Program, part of the Canadian Space Station Program.

  5. Department of Energy Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program at the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex, Aktau, Republic of Kazakhstan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Case; R. B. Berry; A. Eras

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program, the US Department of Energy and Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (MAEC), Aktau, Republic of Kazakstan have cooperated to enhance existing MAEC MPC and A features at the BN-350 liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor. This paper describes the methodology of the enhancement activities and provides representative

  6. Department of Energy Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program at the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex, Aktau, Republic of Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect

    Case, R.; Berry, R.B.; Eras, A. [and others

    1998-08-01

    As part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program, the US Department of Energy and Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (MAEC), Aktau, Republic of Kazakstan have cooperated to enhance existing MAEC MPC and A features at the BN-350 liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor. This paper describes the methodology of the enhancement activities and provides representative examples of the MPC and A augmentation implemented at the MAEC.

  7. Review of the Canadian and Swedish experience for the control of indoor radon. Published paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, D.C.

    1987-06-01

    The paper reviews Canadian and Swedish experience in controlling indoor radon. Interest in and concern about elevated levels of radon (Rn) and radon daughters (RnD) in the indoor environment have been growing steadily during the last 10 years. During this period the federal governments of Canada and Sweden, in conjunction with provincial authorities, have developed a coordinated response or program for reducing the national health risk of indoor Rn/RnD exposure. The focus of these programs is on characterizing and/or locating the problem areas or dwellings, and providing demonstrated control approaches to deal with the indoor Rn/RnD problem. The investigations by Canada and Sweden have identified numerous control approaches that are effective when they are applied appropriately and carefully. Among these control technqiues are the use of subfloor (depressurization) ventilation, crawlspace ventilation, house ventilation, and new construction practices such as monolithic pours with floor/wall joint sealing.

  8. Northwest Power and Conservation Council Protected Areas Designations, Fish and Wildlife Program

    E-print Network

    identified for the Pacific Northwest Region (Region 17) from the 2014 US Department of Energy Study (E-1 from of capacity from this study that falls into the protected areas designations, the Northwest Hydroelectric run-of-the-river hydroelectric projects may not be able to be developed within a protected areas

  9. Size distribution of radon decay products in the range 0.1-10 nm.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, Michael; Rogozina, Marina; Suponkina, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Information about the size distribution of radioactive aerosols in nanometre range is essential for the purposes of air contamination monitoring, dose assessment to respiratory tract and planning of protective measures. The diffusion battery, which allows capturing particles in the size range of 0.1-10 nm, has developed. Interpreting data obtained from diffusion battery is very complex. The method of expectation maximisation by Maher and Laird was chosen for indirect inversion data. The experiments were performed in the box with equivalent equilibrium concentration of radon in the range of 7000-10,000 Bq m(-3). The three modes of size distribution of radon decay products aerosols were obtained: activity median thermodynamic diameter (AMTD) 0.3, 1.5 and 5 nm. These modes can be identified as: AMTD 0.3 nm--atoms of radon progeny (218Po in general); AMTD 1.5 nm--clusters of radon progeny atoms and non-radioactive atoms in the atmosphere; AMTD 5 nm--particles formed by coagulation of previous mode clusters with existing aerosol particles or nucleation of condensation nuclei containing atoms of radon progeny. PMID:24711527

  10. Lung cancer risk due to residential radon exposures: estimation and prevention.

    PubMed

    Truta, L A; Hofmann, W; Cosma, C

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies proved that cumulative exposure to radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, the world's most common cancer. The objectives of the present study are (i) to analyse lung cancer risk for chronic, low radon exposures based on the transformation frequency-tissue response (TF-TR) model formulated in terms of alpha particle hits in cell nuclei; (ii) to assess the percentage of attributable lung cancers in six areas of Transylvania where the radon concentration was measured and (iii) to point out the most efficient remediation measures tested on a pilot house in Stei, Romania. Simulations performed with the TF-TR model exhibit a linear dose-effect relationship for chronic, residential radon exposures. The fraction of lung cancer cases attributed to radon ranged from 9 to 28% for the investigated areas. Model predictions may represent a useful tool to complement epidemiological studies on lung cancer risk and to establish reasonable radiation protection regulations for human safety. PMID:24751985

  11. Radon-getting the dosimetry right

    SciTech Connect

    Toohey, R.E.; Watson, J.E. Jr.

    1988-12-02

    A letter to the editor and reply from the author are presented dealing with serious errors in the radiation doses reported for exposure to indoor radon and its progeny in the report of the Council of Scientific Affairs on radon in homes.

  12. Radon transport from soil to air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William W. Nazaroff

    1992-01-01

    Radon generated within the upper few meters of the Earth's crust by the radioactive decay of radium can migrate during its brief lifetime from soil into the atmosphere. This phenomenon leads to a human health concern as inhalation of the short-lived decay products of radon causes irradiation of cells lining the respiratory tract. This paper reviews the factors that control

  13. TEST CELL STUDIES OF RADON ENTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to contrast the effectiveness of slab-in-stem wall (SSW) with floating slab (FS) construction practices, to measure radon transport and entry for model testing, to develop protocols relevant to depressurized radon measurements, and to determine...

  14. Hidden Hazards of Radon: Scanning the Country for Problem Locations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundersen, Linda C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the geology of the radon problem in the United States and suggests how homeowners can cope with the radio active gas. Vignettes illustrate how and where radon is produced beneath the earth's surface, testing sites and procedures for radon in houses, and locations for potential radon problems across the United States. (MCO)

  15. Spatial radon anomalies on active faults in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zhang; B. S. King; W. C. Evans; W. Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Radon emanation has been observed to be anomalously high along active faults in many parts of the world. We tested this relationship by conducting and repeating soil-air radon surveys with a portable radon meter across several faults in California. The results confirm the existence of fault-associated radon anomalies, which show characteristic features that may be related to fault structures but

  16. Radon action level for high-rise buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. C. Leung; M. Y. W. Tso; C. W. Ho

    1999-01-01

    Radon and its progeny are the major contributors to the natural radiation dose received by human beings. Many countries and radiological authorities have recommended radon action levels to limit the indoor radon concentrations, and, hence, the annual doses to the general public. Since the sources of indoor radon and the methods for reducing its concentration are different for different types

  17. MASTER HOME ENVIRONMENTALIST PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Master Home Environmentalist (MHE) program is an innovative approach to address issues of indoor pollution, such as molds and biological contaminants that cause allergies and asthma, dust, indoor air pollution (including asbestos, formaldehyde, radon, combustion sources, tob...

  18. Enhancing Industry-based Dissemination of an Occupational Sun Protection Program with Theory-based Strategies Employing Personal Contact

    PubMed Central

    Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.; Kane, Ilima L.; Zhang, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Industry-based strategies for dissemination of an evidence-based occupational sun protection program, Go Sun Smart (GSS), were tested. Design Two dissemination strategies were compared in a randomized trial in 2004 – 2007. Setting The North American ski industry. Subjects Ski areas in the United States and Canada (n=69) and their senior managers (n=469). Intervention Employers received GSS through a Basic Dissemination Strategy (BDS) from the industry’s professional association which included conference presentations and free starter kits. Half of the areas also received the Enhanced Dissemination Strategy (EDS), in which project staff met face-to-face with managers and made ongoing contacts to support program use. Measures Observation of program materials in use and managers’ reports on communication about sun protection. Analysis The effects of two alternative dissemination strategies were compared on program use using PROC MIXED in SAS, adjusted for covariates using 1-tailed p-values. Results Ski areas receiving the EDS used more GSS materials (M=7.36) than those receiving the BDS (M=5.17; F=7.82, p<.01). Managers from more areas receiving the EDS reported communicating about sun protection in employee newsletters/flyers (M=0.97, p=.04), in guest email messages (M=0.75, p=.02), and on ski area websites (M=0.38, p=.02) than those receiving the BDS (M=0.84, 0.50, 0.15, respectively). Conclusion Industry professional associations play an important role in disseminating prevention programs; however, active personal communication may be essential to ensure increased implementation fidelity. PMID:22747318

  19. Eyeglass lenses for personal radon dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Hadley, S A; Meyer, N R; Fleischer, R L; Cavallo, A

    2000-09-01

    Eyeglass lenses are commonly composed of allyl-diglycol carbonate (CR-39), an alpha-particle detecting plastic, thus making such lenses personal radon dosimeters. Samples of such lenses have been etched to reveal that radon and radon progeny alpha tracks can be seen in abundance, and sensitivities have been calibrated in radon chambers as a primary calibration and with a uranium-based source of alpha particles as a convenient secondary standard. Natural, environmental (fossil) track densities ranged from 3,000 to 25,000 cm(-2) for eyeglasses that had been worn for various times from 1 to nearly 5 y. Average radon concentrations to which the wearers were exposed are inferred to be in the range 20 to 130 Bq m(-3) (0.5 to 3.5 pCi L(-1)). Procedures for consistent, meaningful readout are described. PMID:10949248

  20. A complete low cost radon detection system.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, A; Barlas, E; Emirhan, E; Kutlu, Ç; Ozben, C S

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring the (222)Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center. PMID:23583920

  1. An updated radiation protection program prospectus based on 20 years of data describing program drivers and activities.

    PubMed

    Emery, Robert J; Gutierrez, Janet M

    2014-08-01

    In 1992, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHSCH) Radiation Safety Program began assembling data on a monthly basis that described various program drivers and associated activities. At the end of calendar year 2002, a decade of data had been collected, so the information was summarized into a novel program prospectus, displaying various program indicator parameters in a format similar to that used in a commercial enterprise prospectus provided to potential investors. The consistent formatting of the data afforded a succinct and easily digestible snapshot of program activities and trends. Feedback from various program stakeholders, even those unfamiliar with radiation safety matters, was overwhelmingly positive. By the end of 2012, a total of 20 years of data had been collected, so an updated and slightly modified prospectus was created. The summary document has helped to describe the drivers of the program, revealed some interesting trends, and has aided in maintaining program support even in challenging economic times. The data summary has also proved to be useful in making future projections regarding program needs. PMID:24949920

  2. Fluid-based radon mitigation technology development for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.V.; Gabor, J.D.; Holtz, R.E.; Gross, K.C.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of the radon mitigation technology development effort is to develop an efficient and economical radon gas removal technology based on a fluid absorption process. The technology must be capable of cleaning up a wide range of radon gas stream concentrations to a level that meets EPA gas emission standards for residential and industrial applications. Argonne has recently identified a phenomenon that offers the possibility of radon recovery from the atmosphere with high efficiency at room temperature, and radon release at slightly elevated temperatures (50-60 degrees C.) such a device would offer numerous substantial advantages over conventional cryogenic charcoal systems for the removal of radon. Controlled sources of radon in Argonne`s radon research facility are being used to quantitatively assess the performance of a selected class of absorbing fluids over a range of radon concentrations. This paper will discuss the design of laboratory- and engineering-scale radon absorption units and present some preliminary experimental test results.

  3. Stanford Geothermal Program Stanford University

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    s Stanford Geothermal Program Stanford University Stanford, California RADON MEASUEMENTS I N GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS ? d by * ** Alan K. Stoker and Paul Kruger SGP-TR-4 January 1975 :: raw at Lcs Alams S c i and water, o i l and n a t u r a l gas wells. with radon i n geothermal reservoirs. Its presence i n

  4. The Property Value Protection Program - How the Compensation Plan is Working and Evolving to Meet Changing Needs - 13149

    SciTech Connect

    Faught, Jeff; Herod, Judy; Mahabir, Alexandra [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)] [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Property Value Protection (PVP) Program offers an innovative approach to address the risk of individual property value loss resulting from the cleanup and long-term management of historic low level radioactive waste in the Port Hope area in Southern Ontario, Canada. This cleanup is taking place through the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI), a federally sponsored waste remediation project. The PVP Program came into effect on October 1, 2000, having been established as a key element of the PHAI Legal Agreement between the Government of Canada and the municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington. The PVP Program was designed in direct response to the concern expressed by the agreement's two municipal signatories that protection of local property owners from the risk of property value loss was critical to their acceptance of the Port Hope and Port Granby projects. The PVP Program compensates owners of residential, commercial or industrial properties for a loss in fair market value on the sale or rental of their properties. Increased mortgage refinancing costs and expenses incurred as a result of delayed sales that can be attributed to the Port Hope Area Initiative are also compensated. (authors)

  5. US/Russian program in materials protection, control and accounting at the RRC Kurchatov Institute: 1997--1998

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhoruchkin, V.; Rumyantsev, A.; Shmelev, V. [RRC Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-12-31

    Six US Department of Energy Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute to improve nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC and A) at Kurchatov. In 1997--1998 the primary thrust of this program has been directed to Building 106, which houses a number of test reactors and critical facilities. Substantial improvements in physical protection, upgrades in the physical inventory taking procedures, installation of equipment for the computerized materials accounting system, and installation of nuclear material portal monitors and neutron-based measurement equipment are being carried out at this facility. Software for the computerized accounting system, named KI-MACS, has been developed at Kurchatov and the system has been fully integrated with the bar code printing and reading equipment, electronic scales, and nondestructive assay equipment provided under this program. Additional 1997--1998 activities at Kurchatov include continuation of a tamper indicating device program, vulnerability assessments of several facilities, hosting of a Russian-American Workshop on Fissile Material Control and Accountability at Critical Facilities, and the development of accounting procedures for transfers of nuclear materials between material balance areas.

  6. PROCEEDINGS: THE 1992 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RADON AND RADON REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY: VOLUME 3. SYMPOSIUM POSTER PAPERS, POSTER SESSIONS - ALL SESSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three-volume proceedings document the 1992 International Symposium Radon and Radon Reduction Technology, held in Minneapolis, MN, September 22-25, 1992. he symposium was an international forum for the exchange of technical information on radon and radon reduction technology i...

  7. Design and Fabrication of A Modern Radon-Tight Chamber for Radon Concentration Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhalemi, Ahmed; Jaafar, M. S.

    2010-07-01

    A modern radon-tight chamber (RTC) has been designed and fabricated to meet the request and requirements for both the Professional Continuous Radon Monitor (PCRM), and the RAD7 radon detector. The chamber is cubic shaped, made of Perspex with a volume of about 0.125 m3. The RTC was also equipped with a thermometer and a humidity sensor. A pair of gloves was attached on one side of the chamber's lateral opening for operating the PCRM. In addition, a fan was installed to circulate the air, and to distribute the radon gas to ensure homogeneity after the air inside the chamber is evacuated with nitrogen gas. At the end of the monitoring period, the results of the concentration of the radon emanated from a sample placed inside the chamber will then be available in any of three forms: numerical display on the control panel of the radon detector, printed report on the accessory printer, or transferred into a file on a personal computer via the RS-232 Serial port without disturbing the radon concentration inside the chamber. Computer software is provided by the manufacturer for this purpose. The result of analysis was presented in a one-way ANOVA that indicated that the radon concentration means are not difference for the three different positions of the PCRM (P > 0.05). Thus, this RTC can be used to measure the radon concentration and its progeny; in addition, it can be used for research and useful studies on radon exhalation from building materials.

  8. Diffusion of radon through concrete block walls: A significant source of indoor radon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lively, R.S.; Goldberg, L.F.

    1999-01-01

    Basement modules located in southern Minnesota have been the site of continuous radon and environmental measurements during heating seasons since 1993. Concentrations of radon within the basement modules ranged from 70 Bq.m-3 to over 4000 Bq.m-3 between November to April during the three measurement periods. In the soil gas for the same times, concentrations of radon ranged between 25,000 and 70,000 Bq.m-3. Levels of radon within the basement modules changed by factors of five or more within 24 h, in concert with pressure gradients of 4 to 20 Pa that developed between the basement modules and their surroundings. Diffusion is identified as the principal method by which radon is transferred into and out of the basement modules, and appears to be relatively independent of insulating materials and vapour retarders. The variability of radon and correlations with differential pressure gradients may be related to air currents in the block walls and soil that interrupt radon diffusing inward. This yields a net decrease of radon in the basement modules by decay and outward diffusion. Levels of radon within the basement modules increase when the pressure differential is zero and air flow ceases, allowing diffusion gradients to be re-established. Radon levels in both the soil and the basement modules then increase until an equilibrium is achieved.

  9. Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities, Security and Safeguards Division, Safeguards and Security Program Office, Protective Force Oversight Program

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-30

    The purpose of this document is to identify and describe the duties and responsibilities of Facility Security and Safeguards (FSS) Safeguards and Security (SS) organizations (groups/offices) with oversight functions over the Protection Force (PF) subcontractor. Responsible organizations will continue their present PF oversight functions under the Cost Plus Award Fee (CPAF) assessment, but now will be required to also coordinate, integrate, and interface with other FSS S and S organizations and with the PF subcontractor to measure performance, assess Department of Energy (DOE) compliance, reduce costs, and minimize duplication of effort. The role of the PF subcontractor is to provide the Laboratory with effective and efficient protective force services. PF services include providing protection for the special nuclear material, government property and classified or sensitive information developed and/or consigned to the Laboratory, as well as protection for personnel who work or participate in laboratory activities. FSS S and S oversight of both performance and compliance standards/metrics is essential for these PF objectives to be met.

  10. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program CY2012 Triennial Report Of The Monitoring Well Inspection And Maintenance Program Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This document is the triennial report for the Well Inspection and Maintenance Program of the Y- 12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). This report formally documents well inspections completed by the GWPP on active and inactive wells at Y-12 during calendar years (CY) 2010 through 2012. In addition, this report also documents well inspections performed under the Y-12 Water Resources Restoration Program, which is administered by URS|CH2M Oak Ridge (UCOR). This report documents well maintenance activities completed since the last triennial inspection event (CY 2009); and provides summary tables of well inspections and well maintenance activities during the reference time period.

  11. 76 FR 55693 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security National Protection and Programs Directorate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ...of Homeland Security National Protection...Coordinating Center, an extension...the National Operations Center, to collect...domestic security and emergency...the National Operations Center (NOC...domestic security and...

  12. Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kisieleski

    1980-01-01

    Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi\\/m².s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period

  13. 1993 UPDATE OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Emerging Technology Program (ETP), part of the U.S. EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, is continuing to create an environment where technical innovation can accelerate into field and commercial applications for treatment of hazardous waste sites....

  14. 24 CFR 5.363 - Housing programs: Protection of the pet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing Programs...imposed under the pet rules. Pet Ownership Requirements for Public...

  15. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluates new technologies to assess their effectiveness. This bulletin summarizes results from the 1993 SITE demonstration of the Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) Pentachlorophenol (PCP) Method to determine P...

  16. Radon-contaminated drinking water from private wells: an environmental health assessment examining a rural Colorado mountain community's exposure.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Michael Anthony; Ferraro, Aimee; Mendelsohn, Aaron B; Prehn, Angela Witt

    2013-11-01

    In the study discussed in this article, 27 private drinking water wells located in a rural Colorado mountain community were sampled for radon contamination and compared against (a) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) proposed maximum contaminant level (MCL), (b) the U.S. EPA proposed alternate maximum contaminate level (AMCL), and (c) the average radon level measured in the local municipal drinking water system. The data from the authors' study found that 100% of the wells within the study population had radon levels in excess of the U.S. EPA MCL, 37% were in excess of the U.S. EPA AMCL, and 100% of wells had radon levels greater than that found in the local municipal drinking water system. Radon contamination in one well was found to be 715 times greater than the U.S. EPA MCL, 54 times greater than the U.S. EPA AMLC, and 36,983 times greater than that found in the local municipal drinking water system. According to the research data and the reviewed literature, the results indicate that this population has a unique and elevated contamination profile and suggest that radon-contaminated drinking water from private wells can present a significant public health concern. PMID:24341157

  17. Constructing a Radon Scrubber for Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Andrew; Yang, Xiaoyi; Mei, Dongming; Guiseppe, Vincente; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Yongchen; Spaans, Jason

    2010-11-01

    A recurring problem in low background physics is the presence of the decay products of 222Rn (radon). The particularly treacherous aspect of radon is its gaseous nature and the long half-life of its daughters. Many industrial devices for air radon removal are sold on the market, but none achieve the removal factor required by our experiments in DUSEL. Therefore, we must design our own system to remove the radon from the air. This paper will show a radon removal system that we built at USD using charcoal. We constructed a single charcoal column system to perform a ``spike'' test, where a chamber is used to gather large amount of radon and then flushed with nitrogen. The radon arrives in the charcoal in the form of a pulse. This technique will allow us to better understand the adsorption and desorption properties of the charcoal under specific flow rates and pressures. A large pressure swing system will be built after the spike test.

  18. Health Effects of High Radon Environments in Central Europe: Another Test for the LNT Hypothesis?

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Among the various “natural laboratories” of high natural or technical enhanced natural radiation environments in the world such as Kerala (India), Brazil, Ramsar (Iran), etc., the areas in and around the Central European Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) in the southern parts of former East Germany, but also including parts of Thuringia, northern Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and northeastern Bavaria, are still relatively little known internationally. Although this area played a central role in the history of radioactivity and radiation effects on humans over centuries, most of the valuable earlier results have not been published in English or quotable according to the current rules in the scientific literature and therefore are not generally known internationally. During the years 1945 to 1989, this area was one of the world’s most important uranium mining areas, providing the former Soviet Union with 300,000 tons of uranium for its military programs. Most data related to health effects of radon and other carcinogenic agents on miners and residents became available only during the years after German reunification. Many of the studies are still unpublished, or more or less internal reports. By now, substantial studies have been performed on the previously unavailable data about the miners and the population, providing valuable insights that are, to a large degree, in disagreement with the opinion of various international bodies assuming an increase of lung cancer risk in the order of 10% for each 100 Bq/m3 (or doubling for 1000 Bq/m3), even for small residential radon concentrations. At the same time, other studies focusing on never-smokers show little or no effects of residential radon exposures. Experiments in medical clinics using radon on a large scale as a therapeutic against various rheumatic and arthritic disease demonstrated in randomized double-blind studies the effectiveness of such treatments. The main purpose of this review is to critically examine, including some historical references, recent results primarily in three areas, namely the possible effects of the inhalation of very high radon concentrations on miners; the effect of increased residential radon concentrations on the population; and the therapeutic use of radon. With many of the results still evolving and/or under intense discussion among the experts, more evidence is emerging that radon, which has been inhaled at extremely high concentrations in the multimillion Bq/m3 range by many of older miners (however, with substantial confounders, and large uncertainties in retrospective dosimetry), was perhaps an important but not the dominating factor for an increase in lung cancer rates. Other factors such as smoking, inhalation of quartz and mineral dust, arsenic, nitrous gases, etc. are likely to be more serious contributors to increased miner lung cancer rates. An extrapolation of miner data to indoor radon situations is not feasible. Concerning indoor radon studies, the by far dominating effect of smoking on the lung cancer incidence makes the results of some studies, apparently showing a positive dose-response relationship, questionable. According to recent studies in several countries, there are no, or beneficial, residential radon effects below about 600 to 1000 Bq/m3 (the extensive studies in the U.S., in particular by B. Cohen, and the discussions about these data, will not be part of this review, because they have already been discussed in detail in the U.S. literature). As a cause of lung cancer, radon seems to rank — behind active and passive smoking, and probably also air pollution in densely populated and/or industrial areas (diesel exhaust soot, etc.) — as a minor contributor in cases of extremely high residential radon levels, combined with heavy smoking of the residents. As demonstrated in an increasing number of randomized double-blind clinical studies for various painful inflammatory joint diseases such as rheumatism, arthritic problems, and Morbus Bechterew, radon treatments are beneficial, with the positiv

  19. Radon diffusion coefficients for residential concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, V.C.; Nielson, K.K.; Holt, R.B. [Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Snoddy, R. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Radon gas diffusion through concrete can be a significant mechanism for radon entry into dwellings. Measurements of radon diffusion coefficients in the pores of residential concretes ranged from 2.1 x 10{sup {minus}8} m{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1} to 5.2 x 10{sup {minus}7} m{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1}. The pore diffusion coefficients generally increased with the water-cement ratio of the concrete and decreased with its density. A least-squares regression of the diffusion coefficients on concrete density gave an r value of -0.73. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Application of the can technique and radon gas analyzer for radon exhalation measurements.

    PubMed

    Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M I; Musazay, M S; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-01-01

    A passive "can technique" and an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container were applied for radon exhalation rate measurements from different construction materials, viz. five marble seven ceramic and 100 granite tiles used in Saudi Arabia. The marble and ceramic tiles did not show detectable radon exhalation using the active radon gas analyzer system. However the granite tiles showed relatively high radon exhalations, indicating a relatively high uranium content. A comparison of the radon exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.57. The radon exhalation rates from the granites varied from 0.02 to 6.58 Bqm(-2)h(-1) with an average of 1.35+/-1.40 Bqm(-2)h(-1). The geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of the frequency distribution were found to be 0.80 and 3.1, respectively. The track density found on the nuclear track detectors in the can technique exposed to the granites, having high exhalation rates, varied linearly with exposure time with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99. This experimental finding agrees with the theoretical prediction. The can technique showed sensitivity to low radon exhalation rates from ceramic, marble and some granite over a period of 2 months, which were not detectable by the active radon gas analyzer system. The reproducibility of data with both measuring techniques was found to be within a 7% deviation. PMID:14622934

  1. Soil gas radon assessment and development of a radon risk map in Bolsena, Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, G; Tositti, L; Capaccioni, B; Brattich, E; Mostacci, D

    2015-04-01

    Vulsini Volcanic district in Northern Latium (Central Italy) is characterized by high natural radiation background resulting from the high concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium in the volcanic products. In order to estimate the radon radiation risk, a series of soil gas radon measurements were carried out in Bolsena, the principal urban settlement in this area NE of Rome. Soil gas radon concentration ranges between 7 and 176 kBq/m(3) indicating a large degree of variability in the NORM content and behavior of the parent soil material related in particular to the occurrence of two different lithologies. Soil gas radon mapping confirmed the existence of two different areas: one along the shoreline of the Bolsena lake, characterized by low soil radon level, due to a prevailing alluvial lithology; another close to the Bolsena village with high soil radon level due to the presence of the high radioactive volcanic rocks of the Vulsini volcanic district. Radon risk assessment, based on soil gas radon and permeability data, results in a map where the alluvial area is characterized by a probability to be an area with high Radon Index lower than 20 %, while probabilities higher than 30 % and also above 50 % are found close to the Bolsena village. PMID:25239677

  2. Small Sample Radon Testing of Homes in East Texas

    E-print Network

    Crawford, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    measurements and charcoal canislers is 120 to 168 hours. The shorter period could bc used for the instrument so thal it could be moved to a new site once per week with time for set up, stabilization, eC. Additional Research An instrumenled lest program...,~~~~l~, the alpha value of 0.05 looks this value, we- The results of thc additional work would give a better understanding of the would want IO wait about 125-150 hours arkr the sm of (he lest before we dynamics of radon concentration in a home and how...

  3. Regional and Detailed Survey for Radon Activities in Soil-Gas and Groundwater in the Okchon Zone, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je, H.-K.; Chon, H.-T.

    2012-04-01

    The Okchon zone in Korea provides a typical example of natural geological materials enriched in potentially toxic elements including uranium which is parent nuclide for radon gas. For the purpose of radon radioactivity risk assessment, making the map of radon risk grade from Okchon zone, regional and detailed field surveys were carried out during 3 years. The study area is located in the central part of Korea, called the Okchon zone (about 5,100 km2), which occur in a 80km wide, northeast-trending belt that extends across the Korean Peninsula. The Okchon zone is underlain by metasedimentary rocks of unknown age that are composed mainly of black slate, phyllite, shale, and limestone. The three research areas (defined as Boeun, Chungju, and Nonsan) for detailed survey were selected from the results of regional survey. Results of detailed radon survey indicated a wide range of radon activities for soil-gases (148-1,843 pCi/L) and ground waters (23-5,540 pCi/L). About 15 percent of soil-gas samples exceeded 1,000 pCi/L and 84 percent of ground water samples exceeded the MCL (maximum contaminant level) of drinking water, 300 pCi/L, which proposed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1999. For detailed survey, radon activities of soil-gas and ground water were classified as bedrock geology, based on 1/50,000 geological map and field research. For soil-gas measurements, mean values of radon activity from black slate-shale (789 pCi/L) were highest among the other base rocks. And for groundwater measurements, mean value of radon activities were decreased in the order of granite (1,345 pCi/L) > black shale-slate (915 pCi/L) > metasediments (617 pCi/L). Result of indoor radon measurement from detailed survey areas showed that about 50% of houses exceeded the indoor guideline, 4 pCi/L. For the radon risk assessment in indoor environment showed that probability of lung cancer risk from the houses located on the granite base rock (3.0×10-2) was highest among the other base rocks. Finally, the maps of radon risk grade from detailed survey areas were developed by the application of field data and statistical simulation.

  4. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Measurements of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the {sup 226}Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m{sup ?3} to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m{sup ?3}, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m{sup ?3} to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m{sup ?3}, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m{sup ?3} to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m{sup ?3}, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m{sup ?3} to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m{sup ?3} and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m{sup ?3} to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m{sup ?3}, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m{sup ?3}, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m{sup ?3}, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m{sup ?3} and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m{sup ?3}, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m{sup ?3} proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0.15 kg and 0.25 kg. Whereas, all building material samples have exceeded the radon concentration in concrete and building materials of 3 to 7 Bq m{sup ?3} estimated by ICRP. The annual effective dose, effective dose equivalent, and radon exhalation rates in tin tailings were calculated to be in the range of 2.47 to 11.46 mSv, 5.94 to 1090.56 mSv y{sup ?1}, and 0.23 to 1.18 mBq kg{sup ?1} h{sup ?1}. For building materials, the calculated risk assessment of the annual effective dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk were 0.72 to 10.00 mSv, 1.73 to 24.00 mSv y{sup ?1}, 0.010 to 0.06 mBq kg{sup ?1} h{sup ?1} and 40 to 550 chances of persons will suffer the cancer per million (1 × 10{sup 6}), respectively.

  5. G-CSF Drives a Post Traumatic Immune Program that Protects the Host from Infection1

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Jason C.; Noel, John G.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos M.; Karns, Rebekah; Aronow, Bruce J.; Ogle, Cora K.; McCormack, Francis X.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injury is generally considered to have a suppressive effect on the immune system, resulting in increased susceptibility to infection. Paradoxically, we found that thermal injury to the skin induced a robust time-dependent protection of mice from a lethal Klebsiella pneumoniae pulmonary challenge. The protective response was neutrophil dependent and temporally associated with a systemic increase in neutrophils resulting from a reprioritization of hematopoiesis toward myeloid lineages. A prominent and specific activation of STAT3 in the bone marrow preceded the myeloid shift in that compartment, in association with durable increases in STAT3 activating serum cytokines G-CSF and IL-6. Neutralization of the post burn rise in serum G-CSF largely blocked STAT3 activation in marrow cells, reversing the hematopoietic changes and systemic neutrophilia. Daily administration of recombinant G-CSF was sufficient to recapitulate the changes induced by injury including hematopoietic reprioritization and protection from pulmonary challenge with K. pneumoniae. Analysis of posttraumatic gene expression patterns in humans reveals that they are also consistent with a role for G-CSF as a switch that activates innate immune responses and suppresses adaptive immune responses. Our findings suggest that the G-CSF STAT3 axis constitutes a key protective mechanism induced by injury to reduce the risk of post-traumatic infection. PMID:24470495

  6. EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM. OCTOBER 1985-MARCH 1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    By Congressional mandate, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency must determine whether individual chemicals, either new or existing, can be manufactured and sold in the United States. The evaluation process for each chemical includes an ecological risk assessment. To improve c...

  7. Effects of Program Exposure and Engagement With Tailored Prevention Communication on Sun Protection by Young Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim D. Reynolds; David B. Buller; Amy L. Yaroch; Julie Maloy; Cristy R. Geno; Gary R. Cutter

    2008-01-01

    Few family-based interventions to increase sun safe behavior among adolescents have been evaluated. The present study tested an intervention that included tailored and nontailored print communications delivered by mail to adolescents (age 11 to 15) and their parents who were also participating in an evaluation of an in-school intervention. The use of sunscreen, protective clothing, and avoidance of the sun

  8. HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL RESEARCH, USEPA (UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Land Pollution Control Division (LPCD), Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab. (HWERL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in Cincinnati, Ohio, has responsibility for research in solid and hazardous waste management with respect to land disposal of wastes. To fulfill th...

  9. Decentralisation, Service Delivery, and People's Perspectives: Empirical Observations on Selected Social Protection Programs in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anurag Priyadarshee; Farhad Hossain

    2010-01-01

    Decentralised governance is generally believed to facilitate pro-poor economic development. The process may however be captured by elite and become counterproductive if implemented without acknowledging the disparities in asset-ownerships and entitlements, strengthening accountability mechanisms, and building capacities at various levels. This paper evaluates delivery of various social protection programmes in two Indian states following different decentralisation mechanisms. Drawing on our

  10. THE US EPA'S DERMAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH PROGRAM IN SUPPORT OF THE FOOD QUALITY PROTECTION ACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA) requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessments to be conducted for all pesticides sources, not just food sources. It also requires tha...

  11. 1993 UPDATE OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Emerging Technology Program (ETP), part of the U.S. EPA`s Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, is continuing to create an environment where technical innovation can accelerate into field and commercial applications for treatment of hazardous waste sites....

  12. Invited Reaction: Protecting the Birds' Feathers--Keeping Ideology out of MBA and HRD Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Jeffry S.

    2007-01-01

    In reference to Peter Kuchinke's manuscript, the author points out that current MBA programs suffer from a myriad of ills that are somehow detrimental to organizations and that there is a similar problem with human resource development (HRD) programs (hence the reference in the title to "birds of a feather"). In this article, he shares his…

  13. U.S. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) WASTEWATER DISINFECTION RESEARCH PROGRAM EVOLUTION TO A DESIGN MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the history of the EPA wastewater disinfection research program from the early 1970's until it culminated with the publication of the Process Design Manual in September 1986. The program was elevated to the highest Agency research priority in 1976 with the infu...

  14. REVIEW OF U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY NO2 MONITORING QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of EPA's Quality Assurance Program for monitoring NO2 in ambient air is presented. Included are a discussion of the nationwide audit program, special audits of continuous monitors, the preparation of NO2 audit samples, and a general interpretation of the results of these...

  15. Promoting Protective Factors for Young Adolescents: ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kylie; Brennan, Leah; Cann, Warren

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a program for parents of young adolescents combining behavioral family intervention with acceptance-based strategies. 180 parents were randomly allocated to a 6-session group ABCD Parenting Young Adolescent Program or wait-list condition. Completer analysis indicated parents in the intervention reported…

  16. Virus Programs: A Clarification of Ideas and Strategies for Data Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okinaka, Russell T.

    Virus programs have become a significant problem in the computer industry. The effects of these programs have been publicized widely. Anyone working with microcomputers cannot have escaped exposure to the term. Yet, there are a large number of people (teachers in particular) who have only vague notions of what viruses are. This paper provides a…

  17. River Protection Project waste feed delivery program technical performance measurement assessment plan

    SciTech Connect

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-09-30

    This plan establishes a formal technical performance-monitoring program. Technical performance is assessed by establishing requirements based performance goals at the beginning of a program and routinely evaluating progress in meeting these goals at predetermined milestones throughout the project life cycle.

  18. STATUS OF THE EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) SPRAY PAINTING TRANSFER EFFICIENCY RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives the status of a 5-year EPA research program on spray painting transfer efficiency. The objective of the program has been to develop a laboratory transfer efficiency measurement method, with the ultimate goal of a production-line-standardized transfer efficiency me...

  19. Endocrine disrupting chemicals research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: summary of a peer-review report.

    PubMed

    Harding, Anna K; Daston, George P; Boyd, Glen R; Lucier, George W; Safe, Stephen H; Stewart, Juarine; Tillitt, Donald E; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2006-08-01

    At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development, a subcommittee of the Board of Scientific Counselors Executive Committee conducted an independent and open peer review of the Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Research Program (EDC Research Program) of the U.S. EPA. The subcommittee was charged with reviewing the design, relevance, progress, scientific leadership, and resources of the program. The subcommittee found that the long-term goals and science questions in the EDC Program are appropriate and represent an understandable and solid framework for setting research priorities, representing a combination of problem-driven and core research. Long-term goal (LTG) 1, dealing with the underlying science surrounding endocrine disruptors, provides a solid scientific foundation for conducting risk assessments and making risk management decisions. LTG 2, dealing with defining the extent of the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has shown greater progress on ecologic effects of EDCs compared with that on human health effects. LTG 3, which involves support of the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program of the U.S. EPA, has two mammalian tests already through a validation program and soon available for use. Despite good progress, we recommend that the U.S. EPA a) strengthen their expertise in wildlife toxicology, b) expedite validation of the Endocrine Disruptors Screening and Testing Advisory Committee tests, c) continue dependable funding for the EDC Research Program, d) take a leadership role in the application of "omics" technologies to address many of the science questions critical for evaluating environmental and human health effects of EDCs, and e) continue to sponsor multidisciplinary intramural research and interagency collaborations. PMID:16882539

  20. Occupant Protection Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

  1. Measurement of Radon in Indoor Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Daniel M.; Simolunas, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment to teach the principles of air sampling, gamma ray spectroscopy, nuclear decay, and radioactive equilibrium. Analyzes radon by carbon adsorption and gamma ray counting. Provides methodology and rate of decay equations. (MVL)

  2. Home Buyer's and Seller's Guide to Radon

    MedlinePLUS

    ... completely preventable. Radon can be detected with a simple test and fixed through well-established venting techniques." ... techniques work. When installed properly and completely, these simple and inexpensive passive techniques can help to reduce ...

  3. Health effects of radon in air

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.L. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1988-09-01

    Widely accepted risk estimates for exposure to radon in homes are derived largely from studies of miners. These include large groups of US Czechoslovakian, and Canadian uranium miners, Newfoundland fluorspar miners, and Swedish iron, lead, and zinc miners, all of which give roughly consistent results, with the excess risk of lung cancer increasing linearly with the exposure to radon. The authors have studied correlations between average radon levels and lung cancer rates in counties of the US. One study based on 50,000 purchased measurements in the main living areas of houses in which there have been no previous measurements involves 310 counties. It gives a weak but statistically significant negative correlation between mean radon levels and lung cancer rates for both females and males, whereas the usual risk estimates predict a large positive correlation.

  4. Proposed natural gas protection program for Naval Oil Shale Reserves Nos. 1 and 3, Garfield County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    As a result of US Department of Energy (DOE) monitoring activities, it was determined in 1983 that the potential existed for natural gas resources underlying the Naval Oil Shales Reserves Nos. 1 and 3 (NOSrs-1 3) to be drained by privately-owned gas wells that were being drilled along the Reserves borders. In 1985, DOE initiated a limited number of projects to protect the Government's interest in the gas resources by drilling its own offset production'' wells just inside the boundaries, and by formally sharing in the production, revenues and costs of private wells that are drilled near the boundaries ( communitize'' the privately-drilled wells). The scope of these protection efforts must be expanded. DOE is therefore proposing a Natural Gas Protection Program for NOSRs-1 3 which would be implemented over a five-year period that would encompass a total of 200 wells (including the wells drilled and/or communitized since 1985). Of these, 111 would be offset wells drilled by DOE on Government land inside the NOSRs' boundaries and would be owned either entirely by the Government or communitized with adjacent private land owners or lessees. The remainder would be wells drilled by private operators in an area one half-mile wide extending around the NOSRs boundaries and communitized with the Government. 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2014 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring is performed by the GWPP during CY 2014 to achieve the following goals: 􀁸 to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; 􀁸 to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; 􀁸 to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; 􀁸 to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and 􀁸 to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12.

  6. Material protection, control, and accounting enhancements through the Russian\\/US cooperative MPC & A program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Scott; S. Sude; W. M. Buckley

    1997-01-01

    The cooperative Russian\\/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC & A) project was initiated in June 1996. Since then, the GKhK has collaborated with Brookhaven, Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories to test, evaluate, and implement MPC & A elements including bar

  7. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

    2008-06-03

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

  8. PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION TESTING OF SOURCE WATER PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES UNDER EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a brief overview of EPA's ETV program established in 1995 to overcome the numerous impediments to commercialization experienced by developers of innovative environmental technologies. Among those most frequently mentioned is the lack of credible performance da...

  9. Anti-Pollution Backlash in Illinois: Can A Tough Protection Program Survive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Sally

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of the 1970 Illinois environmental program and the backlash activities taken by the Illinois General Assembly during the spring 1973 session. Indicates that the momentum of pollution fight is weakened by declining public support. (CC)

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCB METHOD - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The field analytical screening program (FASP) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) method uses a temperature-programmable gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCBs. Gas chromatography is an EPA-approved method for determi...

  11. 75 FR 28034 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Agency Information Collection Activities: United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ...Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology Program (US- VISIT); Enrollment of Additional Aliens in US-VISIT; Authority to Collect...continues to refine the fingerscan technology capability to accurately...

  12. Personal radon dosimetry from eyeglass lenses.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, R L; Meyer, N R; Hadley, S A; MacDonald, J; Cavallo, A

    2001-01-01

    Eyeglass lenses are commonly composed of allyl-diglycol carbonate (CR-39), an alpha-particle detecting plastic, thus making such lenses personal radon dosemeters. Samples of such lenses have been obtained, etched to reveal that radon and radon progeny alpha tracks can be seen in abundance, and sensitivities have been calibrated in radon chambers as a primary calibration, and with a uranium-based source of alpha particles as a convenient secondary standard. With one exception natural, environmental (fossil) track densities ranged from less than 3,000 to nearly 70,000 per cm2 for eyeglasses that had been worn for various times from one to nearly five years. Average radon concentrations to which those wearers were exposed are inferred to be in the range 14 to 130 Bq x m(-3) (0.4 to 3.5 pCi x l(-1)). A protocol for consistent, meaningful readout is derived and used. In the exceptional case the fossil track density was 1,780,000 cm(-2) and the inferred (24 h) average radon concentration was 6500 Bq x m(-3) (175 pCi x l(-1)) for a worker at an inactive uranium mine that is used for therapy. PMID:11843340

  13. Dosimetry of inhaled radon and thoron progeny

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This chapter reviews recent developments in modeling doses received by lung tissues, with particular emphasis on application of ICRP`s new dosimetric model of the respiratory tract for extrapolating to other environments the established risks from exposure to radon progeny in underground mines. Factors discussed include: (1) the influence of physical characteristics of radon progeny aerosols on dose per unit exposure, e.g., the unattached fraction, and the activity-size distributions of clustered and attached progeny; (2) the dependence of dose on breathing rate, and on the exposed subject (man, woman or child); (3) the variability of dose per unit exposure in a home when exposure is expressed in terms of potential {alpha} energy or radon gas concentration; (4) the comparative dosimetry of thoron progeny; and (5) the effects of air-cleaning on lung dose. Also discussed is the apparent discrepancy between lung cancer risk estimates derived purely from dosimetry and the lung cancer incidence observed in the epidemiological studies of radon-exposed underground miners. Application of ICRP`s recommended risk factors appears to overestimate radon lung-cancer risk for miners by a factor of three. ``Normalization`` of the calculated effective dose is therefore needed, at least for {alpha} dose from radon and thoron progeny, in order to obtain a realistic estimate of lung cancer risk.

  14. Radon measurement quality, how accurate is reasonable?

    PubMed

    Distenfeld, Carl

    2011-11-01

    Until 2006, continuous radon monitoring devices, CR, could either be calibrated by reference to known quantities or by internal adjustments and or alignments. In 2007, a policy was advanced by the National Radon Safety Board and the National Environmental Health Association mandating internal adjustment and or alignment. Further, calibrations could only be performed by radon chamber persons authorized by the specific device manufacturer, which was a process that was impossible for many chamber operators to achieve. The paper serves to examine the technical validity for routine internal adjustments to Honeywell and Sun Nuclear (Sun Nuclear Corporation, 425A Pineda Court, Melbourne, FL 32940-7508) devices in contrast to the clear market controlling advantages of the policy. The purpose for making radon measurements is to assess risk. Comparing the uncertainties associated with risk to counting uncertainties of Honeywell and Sun Nuclear CR devices, less than 1% of model 1027 devices would have a calibration error exceeding 25%, and those devices, at this Radon Measurement Proficiency limit, would produce results that were more precise and accurate than the radon risk uncertainty. This was true for CR devices that have not been internally adjusted nor corrected in any way. It was concluded that internal adjustment or alignment better supported business principles than science. PMID:21968821

  15. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2004-09-30

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2005 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2005 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (2) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (3) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (4) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2005 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2005 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  16. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2001-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2002 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2002 will be in accordance with the following requirements of DOE Order 5400.1: to evaluate and maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2002 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2002 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  17. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2002-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2003 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2003 will be in accordance with the following requirements of DOE Order 5400.1: (1) to evaluate and maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (2) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (3) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (4) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2003 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2003 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  18. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC for the Environmental Compliance Department ES& H Division, Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    2003-09-30

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2004 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2004 will be in accordance with the following requirements of DOE Order 5400.1: (1) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (2) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (3) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (4) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2004 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2004 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  19. The effect of rock type, grain size, sorting, permeability, and moisture on measurements of radon in soil gas: A comparison of two measurement techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gundersen, L.C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Soil surveys of radon conducted in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey, Alabama and Texas indicate that soil composition and grain size exert the strongest control on the concentration of radon measured. Soil-gas radon was measured in-situ using two techniques; one developed by G. Michael REIMER of the U.S. Geological Survey; the other developed by Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp. for use by the Environmental Protection Agency. The Reimer technique acquires a small-volume, grab sample of soil gas, whereas the Rogers and Associates technique acquires a large-volume, flow-through sample of soil gas. The two techniques yield similar radon concentrations in well-sorted sands, but do not correlate as well for poorly sorted soils and clays.

  20. Comparison of two methods for high purity germanium detector efficiency calibration for charcoal canister radon measurement.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, J; Pantelic, G; Zivanovic, M; Rajacic, M; Todorovic, D

    2014-11-01

    The charcoal canister method of radon measurement according to US Environment Protection Agency protocol 520/5-87-005 is widely used for screening. This method is based on radon adsorption on coal and measurement of gamma radiation of radon daughters. For the purpose of gamma spectrometry, appropriate efficiency calibration of the measuring system must be performed. The most usual method of calibration is using standard canister, a sealed canister with the same matrix and geometry as the canisters used for measurements, but with the known activity of radon. In the absence of standard canister, a different method of efficiency calibration has to be implemented. This study presents the results of efficiency calibration using the EFFTRAN efficiency transfer software. Efficiency was calculated using a soil matrix cylindrical secondary reference material as a starting point. Calculated efficiency is then compared with the one obtained using standard canister and applied to a realistic measurement in order to evaluate the results of the efficiency transfer. PMID:25377751

  1. Health risks due to radon in drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopke, P.K.; Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Gundersen, L.C.S.; Harley, N.H.; Hess, C.T.; Kinner, N.E.; Kopecky, K.J.; Mckone, T.E.; Sextro, R.G.; Simon, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

  2. Intercomparison of active and passive instruments for radon and radon progeny in North America

    SciTech Connect

    George, A.C.; Tu, Keng-Wu; Knutson, E.O.

    1995-02-01

    An intercomparison exercise for radon and radon progeny instruments and methods was held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) from April 22--May 2, 1994. The exercise was conducted in the new EML radon test and calibration facility in which conditions of exposure are very well controlled. The detection systems of the intercompared instruments consisted of. (1) pulse ionization chambers, (2) electret ionization chambers, (3) scintillation detectors, (4) alpha particle spectrometers with silicon diodes, surface barrier or diffused junction detectors, (5) registration of nuclear tracks in solid-state materials, and (6) activated carbon collectors counted by gamma-ray spectrometry or by alpha- and beta-liquid scintillation counting. 23 private firms, government laboratories and universities participated with a 165 passive integrating devices consisting of: Activated carbon collectors, nuclear alpha track detectors and electret ionization chambers, and 11 active and passive continuous radon monitors. Five portable integrating and continuous instruments were intercompared for radon progeny. Forty grab samples for radon progeny were taken by five groups that participated in person to test and evaluate their primary instruments and methods that measure individual radon progeny and the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) in indoor air. Results indicate that more than 80% of the measurements for radon performed with a variety of instruments, are within {plus_minus}10% of actual value. The majority of the instruments that measure individual radon progeny and the PAEC gave results that are in good agreement with the EML reference value. Radon progeny measurements made with continuous and integrating instruments are satisfactory with room for improvement.

  3. USE OF NATURAL VENTILATION TO CONTROL RADON IN SINGLE FAMILYDWELLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an examination of a fundamental assumption inradon mitigation work, that natural ventilation is not veryeffective in lowering indoor radon levels in buildings. Themechanism by which ventilation acted to reduce radon levels wasconsidered to be simple dilution; ...

  4. RAETRAD MODEL OF RADON GAS GENERATION, TRANSPORT, AND INDOOR ENTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the theoretical basis, implementation, and validation of the Radon Emanation and Transport into Dwellings (RAETRAD) model, a conceptual and mathematical approach for simulating radon (222Rn) gas generation and transport from soils and building foundations to ...

  5. On the exhalation rate of radon by man

    SciTech Connect

    Rundo, J.; Markun, F.; Plondke, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some aspects of the exhalation rate of radon by man which may be relevant to its internal dosimetry and, therefore, to possible radiobiological consequences. Prolonged exposure of a person to radon results in a reservoir or radon dissolved in body fat and fluids. If the person then moves to an environment with a lower radon concentration, there is a net exhalation of radon and the initial exhalation rate depends on the radon concentration in the first environment. This is demonstrated for seven persons whose houses contained radon at concentrations varying from 10 Bq m{sup {minus}3} to almost 1000 Bq m{sup {minus}3}. About one hour after leaving the house, the subjects' average exhalation rate of radon, expressed as the equivalent volume of house air per unit time, was 236 mL min{sup {minus}1}. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. A fast butterfly algorithm for generalized Radon transforms

    E-print Network

    Hu, Jingwei

    Generalized Radon transforms, such as the hyperbolic Radon transform, cannot be implemented as efficiently in the frequency domain as convolutions, thus limiting their use in seismic data processing. We have devised a fast ...

  7. TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR REMOVING RADON FROM SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radon contamination of drinking water primarily affects individual homeowners and communities using groundwater supplies. resently, three types of treatment processes have been used to remove radon: granular activated carbon adsorption (GAG>, diffused bubble aeration, and packed ...

  8. Sustainability of the Dissemination of an Occupational Sun Protection Program in a Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Scott, Michael D.; Dignan, Mark B.; Cutter, Gary R.; Zhang, Xiao; Kane, Ilima L.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability of an occupational sun safety program, Go Sun Smart (GSS), was explored in a randomized trial, testing dissemination strategies at 68 U.S. and Canadian ski areas in 2004-2007. All ski areas received GSS from the National Ski Areas Association through a Basic Dissemination Strategy (BDS) using conference presentations and free…

  9. EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION WITH MULTISTAGE BURNERS) TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of EPA's Limestone Injection with Multistage Burners (LIMB) program, a progam for research, development, and demonstration of cost-effective emissionscontrol technology for coal fired boilers that can reduce both sulfur oxides(SOx) and nitrogen oxides ...

  10. Protect your heart: a culture-specific multimedia cardiovascular health education program.

    PubMed

    Shah, Amy; Clayman, Marla L; Glass, Sara; Kandula, Namratha R

    2015-04-01

    South Asians, the second fastest growing racial/ethnic minority in the United States, have high rates of coronary heart disease. Few coronary heart disease prevention efforts target this population. The authors developed and tested a culture-specific, multimedia coronary heart disease prevention education program in English and Hindi for South Asians. Participants were recruited from community organizations in Chicago, Illinois, between June and October of 2011. Bilingual interviewers used questionnaires to assess participants' knowledge and perceptions before and after the patient education program. The change from pretest score to posttest score was calculated using a paired t test. Linear regression was used to determine the association between posttest scores and education and language. Participants' (N = 112) average age was 41 years, 67% had more than a high school education, and 50% spoke Hindi. Participants' mean pretest score was 15 (SD = 4). After the patient education program, posttest scores increased significantly among all participants (posttest score = 24, SD = 4), including those with limited English proficiency. Lower education was associated with a lower posttest score (? = -2.2, 95% CI [-0.68, -3.83]) in adjusted regression. A culture-specific, multimedia patient education program significantly improved knowledge and perceptions about coronary heart disease prevention among South Asian immigrants. Culturally salient multimedia education may be an effective and engaging way to deliver health information to diverse patient populations. PMID:25647363

  11. PATHOGEN REDUCTION STUDIES IN EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) SLUDGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since about 1976, EPA's Sludge Management Program has devoted a substantial portion of its resources towards evaluating existing and new sludge stabilization processes for their ability to reduce or eliminate pathogens. This presentation reviews the nature and extent of these eff...

  12. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RESEARCH PROGRAM GUIDE, FY-1987, OCTOBER 1, 1986-SEPTEMBER 30, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    The free and open exchange of knowledge both stimulates and provides quality control for the progress of science. The report provides information on the research which EPA is planning for this fiscal year, on how much EPA intend to spend on each program area, and on whom to conta...

  13. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RESEARCH PROGRAM GUIDE, FY-1989, OCTOBER 1, 1988-SEPTEMBER 30, 1989

    EPA Science Inventory

    The free and open exchange of knowledge both stimulates and provides quality control for the progress of science. The report provides information on the research which EPA is planning for the fiscal year, on how much the office intends to spend on each program area, and on it to ...

  14. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RESEARCH PROGRAM GUIDE, FY-1988, OCTOBER 1, 1987-SEPTEMBER 30, 1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    The free and open exchange of knowledge both stimulates and provides quality control for the progress of science. The report provides information on the research which EPA is planning for the fiscal year, on how much will be spent on each program area, and on whom to contact for ...

  15. 78 FR 29034 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Determination 28 for Significant New Alternatives Policy Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ...health. EPA recognizes that during the nearly two- decade long history of the SNAP program, new alternatives and new information about...trans-CF3CH=CHCl: Kinetics of the gas-phase reactions with Cl atoms, OH radicals, and O 3 '', Jrnl of...

  16. Randomized Trial Testing a Worksite Sun Protection Program in an Outdoor Recreation Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.; Zarlengo, Elizabeth M.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Giese, Aimee J.

    2005-01-01

    Health communication campaigns intended to reduce chronic and severe exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight and prevent skin cancer are a national priority. Outdoor workers represent an unaddressed, high-risk population. Go Sun Smart (GSS), a worksite sun safety program largely based on the diffusion-of-innovations theory, was evaluated in…

  17. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HAZARDOUS WASTE ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY'S RESEARCH PROGRAM IN SUPPORT OF SUPERFUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    In anticipation of the passage of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA or Superfund), the Office of Research and Development of the USEPA began a program in 1980 to support the Agency's activities concerned with uncontrolled ha...

  18. Evaluation of management programs for protecting young citrus plantings from huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease of citrus associated in North America with the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (LAS) vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. ACP management is considered a vital component of a program aimed at reducing...

  19. OVERVIEW OF EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) PROGRAM FOR RETROFIT SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview is given of EPA's research program to develop improved control technologies for emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the combustion of fossil fuels. Analysis indicates that low capital cost technology for retrofit to existing boilers would ...

  20. OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) ELECTROSTATIC PARTICULATE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's particulate research and development program, divided between an in-house laboratory effort and extramural work at various research institutes, makes use of electrostatics in most of the work associated with stack or ducted emissions. Research facilities which offe...