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Sample records for protection zastosowanie chemii

  1. Geopolymers in Construction / Zastosowanie Geopolimerów W Budownictwie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaszczyński, Tomasz Z.; Król, Maciej R.

    2015-03-01

    Within the framework of quests of supplementary and "healthier" binders to the production of concrete followed the development of geopolymers in construction. However the practical application of these materials is still very limited. The production of each ton of cement introduces one ton of CO2 into the atmosphere. According to various estimations, the synthesis of geopolymers absorbs 2-3 times less energy than the Portland cement and causes a generation of 4-8 times less of CO2. Geopolymeric concretes possess a high compressive strength, very small shrinkage and small creep, and they possess a high resistance to acid and sulphate corrosion. These concretes are also resistant to carbonate corrosion and possess a very high fire resistance and also a high resistance to UV radiation. W ramach poszukiwania zastępczych i "zdrowszych" spoiw do produkcji betonu nastąpił rozwój geopolimerów w budownictwie. Jednakże praktyczne zastosowanie tych materiałów jest jeszcze nadal bardzo ograniczone. Produkcja każdej tony cementu wprowadza do atmosfery tonę CO2. Według różnych szacunków, synteza geopolimerów pochłania 2-3 razy mniej energii, niż cementu portlandzkiego oraz powoduje wydzielenie 4-8 razy mniejszej ilości CO2. Do tego betony geopolimerowe posiadają wysoką wytrzymałość na ściskanie, bardzo mały skurcz i małe pełzanie oraz dają wysoką odporność na korozję kwasową i siarczanową. Betony te są także odporne na korozję węglanową i posiadają bardzo wysoką odporność ogniową, a także wysoką odporność na promieniowanie UV.

  2. Sun protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... age spots are caused by exposure to the sun. The two types of sun rays that can injure the skin are ultraviolet ... changes is to protect your skin from the sun. This includes using sunscreen and other protective measures. ...

  3. Insider protection

    SciTech Connect

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-07-01

    The government community is broadly addressing the insider threat. The first section of this paper defines protection approaches and the latter sections present various applicable technology developments. The bulk of the paper discusses technology developments applied to (1) personnel and material tracking and inventory, (2) classified document protection, and (3) protecting security systems. The personnel and material tracking system uses a PC based-host to (1) collect information from proximity tags and material movement sensors, (2) apply rules to this input to assure that the ongoing activity meets the site selectable rules and, (3) forward the results to either an automated inventory system or an alarm system. The document protection system uses a PC network to efficiently and securely control classified material which is stored on write-once-read-mostly optical media. The protection of sensor to multiplexer communications in a security system is emphasized in the discussion of protecting security systems.

  4. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  5. Protective Eyewear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Whether you’re on the basketball court, in chemistry class, or sitting by the pool, wearing protective ... remember to wear safety goggles. Using chemicals in chemistry class? Look like a real scientist by wearing ...

  6. Corrosion protection

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  7. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Kit-built airplanes are more affordable because they are assembled by the owner and do not require Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. The Glasair III, is an advanced technology homebuilt, constructed of a fiberglass and graphite fiber composite material, and equipped with digital instruments. Both technologies make the airplane more susceptible to lightning effects. When Glasair manufacturer, Stoddard-Hamilton, decided that lightning protection would enable more extensive instrument flight and make the plane more marketable, they proposed a joint development program to NASA Langley Research Center (LAR). Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Langley contractors designed and tested a lightning protection system, and the Glasair III-LP became the first kit-built composite aircraft to be lightning tested and protection-verified under FAA guidelines for general aviation aircraft.

  8. Noise Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  9. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lightning Technologies, Inc., Pittsfield, MA, - a spinoff company founded by president J. Anderson Plumer, a former NASA contractor employee who developed his expertise with General Electric Company's High Voltage Laboratory - was a key player in Langley Research Center's Storm Hazards Research Program. Lightning Technologies used its NASA acquired experience to develop protective measures for electronic systems and composite structures on aircraft, both of which are particularly susceptible to lightning damage. The company also provides protection design and verification testing services for complete aircraft systems or individual components. Most aircraft component manufacturers are among Lightning Technologies' clients.

  10. Protecting Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses privacy issues related to use of the Internet. Topics include data gathering functions that are built into applications of the World Wide Web; cookies that identify Web site visitors; personal identity information; libraries and privacy, including the need for privacy policies; protecting your privacy; and developing privacy literacy.…

  11. Protective Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Beta Glass material, originating from the Apollo program is supplied to Fyrepel by Owens-Corning and incorporated into Fyrepel's Fyretex and Beta-Mex aluminized fabrics. Fabrics are used in fire entry suits, several other types of protective suits for wear in hot industrial environments and such accessory items as heat-reflecting curtains for industrial applications.

  12. Protect thyself

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, A.M.

    1982-06-01

    The article considers items of personal protection for miners: Self-rescuers, respirators, hard hats and cap lamps. A table provides a comparison between five types of self-contained self-rescuer. Details are also given of hard hat cap lamp and respirator manufacturers.

  13. Protective Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Inorganic Coatings, Inc.'s K-Zinc 531 protective coating is water-based non-toxic, non-flammable and has no organic emissions. High ratio silicate formula bonds to steel, and in 30 minutes, creates a very hard ceramic finish with superior adhesion and abrasion resistance. Improved technology allows application over a minimal commercial sandblast, fast drying in high humidity conditions and compatibility with both solvent and water-based topcoats. Coating is easy to apply and provides long term protection with a single application. Zinc rich coating with water-based potassium silicate binder offers cost advantages in materials, labor hours per application, and fewer applications over a given time span.

  14. Protecting Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    House Science Committee Chairman Robert Walker (R-Pa.) has introduced a bill into Congress to give the United States the legislative authority to implement the 1991 Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. That protocol established rules and principles to shield the Antarctic environment from human spoilage—placing limits on the discharge of pollutants, protecting plant and animal life, and requiring environmental impact assessments before new activities and programs are launched. The protocol also forbids prospecting or developing of mineral resources except for scientific research.

  15. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Ameron International Protective Coatings Group developed a special coating for NASA that would withstand the high temperatures generated by the Space Shuttle rocket engines. The coating remains intact for at least 10 minutes, and insulates the launch pad so that it does not exceed 150 degrees and buckle. The NASA formulation was from Ameron's Engineered Siloxane (PSX) chemistry, which employs an inorganic silicon-oxygen structure which the company states is stronger and more reliable than organic polymers. Some of Ameron's PSX product line is based on the NASA technology, used for everything from industrial equipment to bridges.

  16. Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  17. Deformations of the Protection Shelf in the "Wapno" Salt Mine, Based on Model Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortas, Grzegorz; Maj, Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    The catastrophic mine failure resulting from the inrush of water into the Wapno Salt Mine was probably caused by a fracture in the roof protection shelf. The purpose of the present study was to apply the method of the homogenization of the multi-level room-and-pillar structure in the Wapno Salt Mine for 3D+t modelling of the elastic-viscous medium to determine the distribution of stress and strain, and, on that basis, to estimate the geomechanical conditions existing in the roof shelf. This paper presents briefly the spatial development of the salt mine's structure and the results of the surveying measurements carried out during the salt mine's operation and after the mine was flooded. Those results constituted a basis for the verification of the introduced homogenization parameters, i.e. the time-dependent changes of the elasticity modulus and the susceptibility to creep at particular salt mine's levels. A simulated process demonstrated the development of positive values of principle stresses, increasing with time, and of omnidirectional tensile strains. In such conditions, the cracking of the protection shelf body could proceed, also with opening of water flow paths from the dome cap into the salt mine's workings. This paper presents a new research method, the results of its application, and the obtained distribution of stresses and strains that can be useful for the assessment of water hazard in other salt mines. Katastrofa górnicza wywołana wdarciem wody do kopalni soli w Wapnie spowodowana była prawdopodobnie pęknięciem ochronnej półki stropowej. Celem tej pracy było zastosowanie metody homogenizacji struktury komorowo-filarowej wielopoziomowej kopalni Wapno do modelowania ośrodka sprężysto-lepkiego 3D+t dla określenia rozkładu naprężeń i odkształceń oraz na tej podstawie oszacowania warunków geomechanicznych w półce stropowej. W pracy przedstawiono krótko rozwój przestrzenny struktury kopalni oraz wyniki przeprowadzonych pomiar

  18. On the protection of "protected areas".

    PubMed

    Joppa, Lucas N; Loarie, Scott R; Pimm, Stuart L

    2008-05-01

    Tropical moist forests contain the majority of terrestrial species. Human actions destroy between 1 and 2 million km(2) of such forests per decade, with concomitant carbon release into the atmosphere. Within these forests, protected areas are the principle defense against forest loss and species extinctions. Four regions-the Amazon, Congo, South American Atlantic Coast, and West Africa-once constituted about half the world's tropical moist forest. We measure forest cover at progressively larger distances inside and outside of protected areas within these four regions, using datasets on protected areas and land-cover. We find important geographical differences. In the Amazon and Congo, protected areas are generally large and retain high levels of forest cover, as do their surroundings. These areas are protected de facto by being inaccessible and will likely remain protected if they continue to be so. Deciding whether they are also protected de jure-that is, whether effective laws also protect them-is statistically difficult, for there are few controls. In contrast, protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest and West Africa show sharp boundaries in forest cover at their edges. This effective protection of forest cover is partially offset by their very small size: little area is deep inside protected area boundaries. Lands outside protected areas in the Atlantic Coast forest are unusually fragmented. Finally, we ask whether global databases on protected areas are biased toward highly protected areas and ignore "paper parks." Analysis of a Brazilian database does not support this presumption. PMID:18451028

  19. Occupant Protection Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

  20. COMMUNITY BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community Based Environmental Protection intends to make environmental protection spring from the needs and values of the community of interest. Real community involvement in protecting the environment requires a process in which the environmental needs of communities and ecosyst...

  1. MSFC Respiratory Protection Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    CoVan, James P.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Marshall Space Flight Center Respiratory Protection program is provided in this poster display. Respiratory protection personnel, building, facilities, equipment, customers, maintenance and operational activities, and Dynatech fit testing details are described and illustrated.

  2. Personal protective equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... protective equipment. Available at: www.cdc.gov/niosh/ppe . Accessed October 27, 2015. Holland MG, Cawthon D. Personal protective equipment and decontamination of adults and children. Emerg Med Clin N ...

  3. Medicare Rights and Protections

    MedlinePlus

    CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Medicare Rights & Protections This official government booklet has important information about: Your rights & protections in: ■ ■ Original Medicare ■ ■ Medicare Advantage Plan or other Medicare health ...

  4. Protecting Children's Online Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kresses, Mamie

    2001-01-01

    Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)

  5. Corium protection assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A corium protection assembly includes a perforated base grid disposed below a pressure vessel containing a nuclear reactor core and spaced vertically above a containment vessel floor to define a sump therebetween. A plurality of layers of protective blocks are disposed on the grid for protecting the containment vessel floor from the corium.

  6. Careers in Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Reed

    The book presents concerns of our society in protecting our environment and the challenges involved in meaningful careers in environmental protection and management. "Estimates by the Environmental Protection Agency indicate that, compared with their numbers in the mid-'70's, the need for environmental professionals will triple by 1980.'" In a…

  7. Fire Protection Program Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  8. Office for Human Research Protections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Office for Human Research Protections The Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) provides leadership in the protection of the rights, welfare, and wellbeing of human subjects involved in ...

  9. Resilience from coastal protection.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. PMID:26392613

  10. Multiwall thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Multiwall insulating sandwich panels are provided for thermal protection of hypervelocity vehicles and other enclosures. In one embodiment, the multiwall panels are formed of alternate layers of dimpled and flat metal (titanium alloy) foil sheets and beaded scarfed edge seals to provide enclosure thermal protection up to 1000 F. An additional embodiment employs an intermediate fibrous insulation for the sandwich panel to provide thermal protection up to 2000 F. A third embodiment employs a silicide coated columbium waffle as the outer panel skin and fibrous layered intermediate protection for thermal environment protection up to 2500 F. The use of multiple panels on an enclosure facilitate repair and refurbishment of the thermal protection system due to the simple support provided by the tab and clip attachment for the panels.

  11. Emergency Protection from Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, G.A.

    2001-11-13

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved.

  12. NASA Fire Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on fire protection operations and administration at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The presentation also lists innovative practices and recent improvements.

  13. Protection - Principles and practice.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, G. S.; Denning, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The protection mechanisms of computer systems control the access to objects, especially information objects. The principles of protection system design are formalized as a model (theory) of protection. Each process has a unique identification number which is attached by the system to each access attempted by the process. Details of system implementation are discussed, taking into account the storing of the access matrix, aspects of efficiency, and the selection of subjects and objects. Two systems which have protection features incorporating all the elements of the model are described.

  14. Protecting the Crown Jewels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Cecil

    1979-01-01

    The National Park Service seeks to set the standard for environmental protection in the federally-owned lands which it administers. Often pollution from sources outside park boundaries creates adverse impacts within the parks. Innovative approaches and cooperative efforts are then required to protect the parks. (RE)

  15. Protective Garment Ensemble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    Protective garment ensemble with internally-mounted environmental- control unit contains its own air supply. Alternatively, a remote-environmental control unit or an air line is attached at the umbilical quick disconnect. Unit uses liquid air that is vaporized to provide both breathing air and cooling. Totally enclosed garment protects against toxic substances.

  16. Electroplating offers embrittlement protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, C. M., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Thin copper electrodeposited layer protects metal parts in environments with which they may be incompatible. Originally developed for main engine of Space Shuttle where high strength nickle alloy bellows must operate in high-pressure hydrogen, technique protects nickel and is unaffected by forming process or subsequent heat treatment and preinstallation processing.

  17. Environmental protection Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Holland

    1999-12-01

    This ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities.

  18. A Duty to Protect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James

    2009-01-01

    Asylum is a value. At its most basic, it is about the importance of protecting someone's life from persecution. The 1951 Refugee Convention seeks to achieve this--by ensuring that those people with a well-founded fear of persecution should be able to find protection within a state that has signed up to the Convention. The UK's commitments under…

  19. Protection of multimaterial assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhail, L. Zheludkevich; Silvar, Kallip; Maria, Serdechnova

    2016-01-01

    The light-weight design calls for broader utilization of multimaterial mixes (M3) in different engineering structures, especially in the transportation area. Together with joining technologies for hybrid structures, the optimization of the life cycle of such systems is an issue of prime importance. Multimaterial structures are often prone to faster degradation under service conditions because of galvanically forced electrochemical corrosion. The protection technologies traditionally used for single-material structures are not always applicable for multimaterial design because of compatibility issues and a stronger thermodynamic driving force for degradation. In this chapter different strategies for protection of multimaterials structures are briefly overviewed. The main focus is on new alternative protection systems based on combination of synergistic inhibiting mixtures introduced into protective coatings. A road map which can be followed in order to create an efficient active protection coating for hybrid structures is suggested.

  20. Wake Shield Target Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Valmianski, Emanuil I.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2003-05-15

    The heat flux from both gas convection and chamber radiation on a direct drive target must be limited to avoid target damage from excessive D-T temperature increase. One of the possibilities of protecting the target is a wake shield flying in front of the target. A shield will also reduce drag force on the target, thereby facilitating target tracking and position prediction. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code was used to calculate convection heat loads as boundary conditions input into ANSYS thermal calculations. These were used for studying the quality of target protection depending on various shapes of shields, target-shield distance, and protective properties of the shield moving relative to the target. The results show that the shield can reduce the convective heat flux by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on pressure, temperature, and velocity. The protective effect of a shield moving relative to the target is greater than the protective properties of a fixed shield. However, the protective effect of a shield moving under the drag force is not sufficient for bringing the heat load on the target down to the necessary limit. Some other ways of diminishing heat flux using a protective shield are discussed.

  1. Radiation protection in space.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Facius, R; Sandler, H

    1995-01-01

    Radiation environment, basic concepts of radiation protection, and specific aspects of the space radiation field are reviewed. The discussion of physico-chemical and subcellular radiation effects includes mechanisms of radiation action and cellular consequences. The discussion of radiobiological effects includes unique aspects of HZE particle effects, space flight findings, terrestrial findings, analysis of somatic radiation effects and effects on critical organs, and early and delayed effects. Other topics include the impact of the space flight environment, measurement of radiation exposure, establishing radiation protection limits, limitations in establishing space-based radiation exposure limits, radiation protection measures, and recommendations. PMID:11541474

  2. Optimization of radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Lochard, J.

    1981-07-01

    The practical and theoretical problems raised by the optimization of radiological protection merit a review of decision-making methods, their relevance, and the way in which they are used in order to better determine what role they should play in the decision-making process. Following a brief summary of the theoretical background of the cost-benefit analysis, we examine the methodological choices implicit in the model presented in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication No. 26 and, particularly, the consequences of the theory that the level of radiation protection, the benefits, and the production costs of an activity can be treated separately.

  3. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  4. Protected areas and poverty

    PubMed Central

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  5. Protective Face Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mask to protect the physically impaired from injuries to the face and head has been developed by Langley Research Center. It is made of composite materials, usually graphite or boron fibers woven into a matrix. Weighs less than three ounces.

  6. Protective relaying performance reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.P.; Ingelson, J.W.; Arnold, P.F.; Babcock, G.; Burzese, A.A.; Cornelison, J.R.; Drum, P.R.; Hasenwinkle, I.; Johnson, R.; Marsh, W. J. Jr.

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports on the performance of protective relaying systems which is an issue within the electric power industry which has received inadequate attention. The wide variations in relaying types and styles and applications, as well as differences in company structures and industry terminology, have hindered the adoption of a standardized system for the evaluation of protective relaying system performance. Such a system, if adopted by a significant portion of the industry, would provide suppliers and users better information with which to improve the product and its application and operation. The Protective Relaying Performance Criteria Working Group of the IEEE Power System Relaying Committee has generated this paper for the purpose of defining a standardized protective relaying performance reporting system.

  7. Fire Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Avco has drawn upon its heat shield experience to develop a number of widely-accepted commercial fire protection materials. Originating from NASA's space shuttle thermal protection system, one such material is Chartek 59 fireproofing, an intumescent epoxy coating specifically designed for outdoor use by industrial facilities dealing with highly flammable products such as oil refineries and chemical plants. The coating is applied usually by spray gun to exterior structural steel conduits, pipes and valves, offshore platforms and liquefied petroleum gas tanks. Fireproofing provides two types of protection: ablation or dissipation of heat by burn-off and "intumescence" or swelling; the coating swells to about five times its original size, forming a protective blanket of char which retards transfer of heat to the metal structure preventing loss of structural strength and possible collapse which would compound the fire fighting problem.

  8. Protect Yourself: Respirators

    MedlinePlus

    ... worn whenever you are working in a hazardous atmosphere. The appropriate respi- rator will depend on the ... must not be used to protect from hazardous atmospheres. However, they may be useful in providing comfort ...

  9. Protect Your Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead to infertility. To protect your chances of conceiving, maintain a healthy weight through proper nutrition and ... decreased sperm production. To improve your chances of conceiving in the future, avoid drugs now. For more ...

  10. Health protection well inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Health Protection (HP) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Plan (SRP) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRL research wells.

  11. Tomboy as protective identity.

    PubMed

    Craig, Traci; Lacroix, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    The tomboy in contemporary U.S. culture is a complex identity, providing meaning to many girls and women. In this article, we argue tomboy as a gendered social identity also provides temporary "protections" to girls and women in three main ways. First, tomboy identity can excuse masculine-typed behavior in girls and women and, in doing so, protect women from presumptions about sexual reputation and sexual orientation. Second, tomboy identities can provide some protection for lesbian girls and women who prefer to not divulge their sexual orientation. And, third, tomboy identity can gain women limited privilege to spaces for which masculinity is an unspoken requirement. The temporary nature of the protections provided to tomboys undermines the ability of tomboys to truly transcend the binary gender system. PMID:21973066

  12. Radiation Protection Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A handbook which sets forth the Kennedy Space Center radiation protection policy is presented. The book also covers administrative direction and guidance on organizational and procedural requirements of the program. Only ionizing radiation is covered.

  13. Wired for Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Describes how growing acceptance of security measures such as access-control cards, video surveillance, and biometric devices is allowing colleges to protect students and their belongings more effectively. (EV)

  14. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  15. REDUCED PROTECTIVE CLOTHING DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, R.L.

    2003-06-13

    This technical basis document defines conditions where reduced protective clothing can be allowed, defines reduced protective clothing, and documents the regulatory review that determines the process is compliant with the Tank Farm Radiological Control Manual (TFRCM) and Title 10, Part 835, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR835). The criteria, standards, and requirements contained in this document apply only to Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) facilities.

  16. Maintaining radiation protection records

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-30

    This Report is part of a series prepared under the auspices of Scientific Committee 46 on Operational Radiation Safety. It provides guidance on maintaining radiation protection records. Record keeping is an essential element of every radiation protection program. This Report describes the elements that should enter into the design of a program for the maintenance of operational radiation safety records. The problems of the length of time for retention of records for operational, regulatory, epidemiologic and legal uses are discussed in detail.

  17. Lightweight Protective Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed garment material protects wearer from poisonous chemicals, bacteria, and radioactive particulates. Garment allows heat, moisture, and carbon dioxide to pass from inside to outside so wearer remains comfortable. Garment made of cotton fabric on which thin layer of polyacrylate rubber is deposited by calendering or spraying. Lighter and cooler than existing protective garments. Polyacrylate rubber selected for garment material because it transmits water vapor and carbon dioxide at high rates.

  18. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  19. Protecting the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, John

    Historically speaking, the Earth's Moon has been subject to a wide variety of protections and cautions associated with space exploration. Early lunar missions (cf., the Ranger series) were initially subjected to sterilization procedures to protect the Moon from biological contamination, and though these were relaxed in later periods (e.g., Surveyor, Apollo), those measures were never entirely abandoned until the mid-1980s. More recent lunar missions (e.g., Clementine, Lunar Prospector, SMART-1) have only been inadvertently concerned with protection of the Moon—Clementine in the attempt to have it leave the vicinity of the Earth entirely, Lunar Prospector in it end-of-mission crash into the lunar south pole (with a resultant outcry by the Navajo population in the US), and SMART-1 because of the keen attention paid by the astronomical community to its end-of-mission location. While operations on the Moon are not constrained by current COSPAR planetary protection restrictions, an increasing interest in the Moon suggests that additional protections should be imposed in the future. For example, if lunar ices exist as a repository of past impact volatiles, then the contamination of lunar ices with non-organically-clean spacecraft and tools presents an initial concern for the potentially lost science, as well as future resource contamination concerns if such ices are found and can be used to as part of a comprehensive life-support strategy for human outposts. Requirements for the protection of this aspect of the lunar environment, as well as others, has been initiated both within COSPAR and by NASA, which (in NPR 8715.6) now requires orbital debris protection for spacecraft in lunar orbit, and prior approval of any future landing (or crashing) sites on the Moon, requiring those to "be chosen (or precluded) with due regard to the planned usage of those sites in future exploration or scientific study and the interests of other spacefaring nations."

  20. Rack protection monitor

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Stanley G.

    2000-01-01

    A hardwired, fail-safe rack protection monitor utilizes electromechanical relays to respond to the detection by condition sensors of abnormal or alarm conditions (such as smoke, temperature, wind or water) that might adversely affect or damage equipment being protected. When the monitor is reset, the monitor is in a detection mode with first and second alarm relay coils energized. If one of the condition sensors detects an abnormal condition, the first alarm relay coil will be de-energized, but the second alarm relay coil will remain energized. This results in both a visual and an audible alarm being activated. If a second alarm condition is detected by another one of the condition sensors while the first condition sensor is still detecting the first alarm condition, both the first alarm relay coil and the second alarm relay coil will be de-energized. With both the first and second alarm relay coils de-energized, both a visual and an audible alarm will be activated. In addition, power to the protected equipment will be terminated and an alarm signal will be transmitted to an alarm central control. The monitor can be housed in a separate enclosure so as to provide an interface between a power supply for the protected equipment and the protected equipment.

  1. Rack Protection Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, Stanley G.

    1998-10-21

    A hardwired, fail-safe rack protection monitor utilizes electromechanical relays to respond to the detection by condition sensors of abnormal or alarm conditions (such as smoke, temperature, wind or water) that might adversely affect or damage equipment being protected. When the monitor is reset, the monitor is in a detection mode with first and second alarm relay coils energized. If one of the condition sensors detects an abnormal condition, the first alarm relay coil will be de-energized, but the second alarm relay coil will remain energized. This results in both a visual and an audible alarm being activated. If a second alarm condition is detected by another one of the condition sensors while the first condition sensor is still detecting the first alarm condition, both the first alarm relay coil and the second alarm relay coil will be de-energized. With both the first and second alarm relay coils de-energized, both a visual and an audible alarm will be activated. In addition, power to the protected equipment will be terminated and an alarm signal will be transmitted to an alarm central control. The monitor can be housed in a separate enclosure so as to provide an interface between a power supply for the protected equipment and the protected equipment.

  2. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. PMID:26875849

  3. Data protection, privacy.

    PubMed

    La Monaca, G; Schiralli, I

    2010-01-01

    The topic of data protection is referred closely to the concept of privacy--characterized by the American political philosophy in order to indicate a sphere recognized as personal, and therefore private or intimate, of the person, which exclude other individuals or society--whose protection has deep roots in the international right. The technological progress in the field of telecommunication has increased the facility of acquisition and spreading of information, the exchange of data, and the possibility of access to confidential information by other people. This made it made necessary the regulation of the management and the transfer of these information in order to protect individual rights and, on the other hand, an easy circulation of data for legitimate and useful goals. PMID:20499037

  4. Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

  5. Microscope collision protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    DeNure, Charles R.

    2001-10-23

    A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

  6. Protection from Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The exposures anticipated for our astronauts in the anticipated Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate [1,2]. The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate our current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and to discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

  7. Protection from space radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, R.K.; Wilson, J.W.; Shinn, J.L.

    2000-07-01

    The exposures anticipated for astronauts in the anticipated human exploration and development of space will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than for any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from galactic cosmic rays for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate. The authors evaluate their current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

  8. Coral reef protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration announced the establishment on 13 November of the first U.S. zone to protect a sensitive coral reef area from potential damage by ships.The Florida Keys' Particularly Sensitive Sea Area, just one of a handful of such areas globally, has been designated by the International Maritime Organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations. The area protects a zone of more than 3,000 square nautical miles stretching from the Biscayne National Park to the Dry Tortugas.

  9. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities. PMID:26611003

  10. Protective overcoating of films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Kodak Film Type SO-212 was emulsion overcoated with gelatin and lacquer to evaluate the feasibility of application of the coatings, any image degradation, and the relative protection offered against abrasion. Evaluated were: Eastman motion picture film lacquer Type 485, water solutions of Eastman purified Calfskin gelatin, and experimental Eastman gelatin stripping film of 4 and 6 microns. Conclusions reached were: (1) All coatings can be applied with relative ease with the only limitation being that of equipment. (2) None of the coatings degrade the processed image. (3) All of the coatings provide protection to the emulsion. These conclusions apply to any film which may be considered for overcoating.

  11. Spacecraft ceramic protective shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larriva, Rene F. (Inventor); Nelson, Anne (M.); Czechanski, James G. (Inventor); Poff, Ray E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A low areal density protective shield apparatus, and method for making same, for protecting spacecraft structures from impact with hypervelocity objects, including a bumper member comprising a bumper ceramic layer, a bumper shock attenuator layer, and a bumper confining layer. The bumper ceramic layer can be SiC or B.sub.4 C; the bumper shock attenuator layer can be zirconia felt; and the bumper confining layer can be aluminum. A base armor member can be spaced from the bumper member and a ceramic fiber-based curtain can be positioned between the bumper and base armor members.

  12. Material for radioactive protection

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  13. Radiation protection in space

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, E.A.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  14. Pesticide personal protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Branson, D H; Sweeney, M

    1991-01-01

    A fairly large established data base provides information on clothing worn by U.S. and Canadian farmers to work with pesticides, their attitudes and beliefs about pesticide risk, and clothing as a dermal barrier. Very limited similar data are available for farmers in less developed countries. Clearly, farmers perceive the benefits of pesticides to far exceed any risks. While few report poisoning symptoms, most believe that their usual work clothing offers a sufficient pesticide barrier, and few wear special-purpose protective clothing. Gloves of various materials, including cotton and leather, appear to be the major protective clothing item. Although farmers feel that their usual work clothing provides excellent protection, fabric penetration research does not support this. Shirting-weight fabrics offer some limited protection against light spray of field-strenght pesticides. Heavier-weight fabrics, such as denim and twill, are better barriers. With a heavier spray or a spill, usual work clothing does not give sufficient protection. Greater protection can usually be achieved with the use of a fluorocarbon finished fabric, such as Scotchgard or Zepel. Scotchgard can readily be applied at home. A durable-press finish does not appear to improve fabric's pesticide-barrier resistance and some data suggest that it may decrease barrier properties. A second alternative for increased protection is the use of a special-purpose fabric, such as a coated nonwoven or possibly Gore-Tex. Numerous other new "waterproof breathable" fabrics have recently come to the market. Many of these are finished or coated fabrics and one would expect them to be at least somewhat resistant to pesticides. However, they have not been tested. Wearing an additional layer also appears to be another clothing strategy to minimize exposure. Fabric penetration research also shows that pesticide formulation, volume or spray regime, concentration, and active ingredients influence the barrier properties of

  15. Fire Protection Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NERAC, Inc., Tolland, CT, aided Paul Monroe Engineering, Orange, CA, in the development of their PC1200 Series Fire Protection Jacket that protects the oil conduit system on an offshore drilling platform from the intense hydrocarbon fires that cause buckling and could cause structural failure of the platform. The flame-proof jacketing, which can withstand temperatures of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit for four hours or more, was developed from a combination of ceramic cloth (similar to the ceramic in Space Shuttle tiles), and laminates used in space suits.

  16. Thermal Protection Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The main portion of this contract year was spent on the development of materials for high temperature applications. In particular, thermal protection materials were constantly tested and evaluated for thermal shock resistance, high-temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to hostile environmental effects. The analytical laboratory at the Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB), NASA-Ames played an integral part in the process of materials development of high temperature aerospace applications. The materials development focused mainly on the determination of physical and chemical characteristics of specimens from the various research programs.

  17. Protecting Gas Chromatographic Syringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruekberg, Ben

    1995-12-01

    This article describes the construction of a device which protects gas chromatographic syringes. The device lessens the likelihood of syringes rolling off tables and breaking. If the syringe is dropped, the glass barrel is less apt to be struck and shattered.

  18. Partners in Environmental Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehouse, Karen

    1975-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) and the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act's (CETA) cooperative relationship regarding the development of environmental manpower programs on a State and local level is discussed. Environmental programs resulting from CETA aid are described and EPA statistics given, stating that such programs are…

  19. Protecting against Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Kevin R.

    2006-01-01

    This article features an assistant professor of technology who shares his story of near disaster and offers advice for others about protecting their data. The author presents steps that can be taken to prevent unexpected events from destroying data. The author strongly recommends using backup files as a way of securing computer files and data.…

  20. Passive Protection Against Coccidiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of chicken egg antibody (IgY) powder which were prepared from hens hyperimmunized with a purified recombinant protein from Eimeria acervulina merozoites (3-E) was evaluated in a chicken challenge model with 2 different Eimeria species, E. acervulina and E. tenella. The chickens...

  1. Advanced extravehicular protective systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    New technologies are identified and recommended for developing a regenerative portable life support system that provides protection for extravehicular human activities during long duration missions on orbiting space stations, potential lunar bases, and possible Mars landings. Parametric subsystems analyses consider: thermal control, carbon dioxide control, oxygen supply, power supply, contaminant control, humidity control, prime movers, and automatic temperature control.

  2. Protective coatings for concrete

    SciTech Connect

    NAGY, KATHRYN L.; CYGAN, RANDALL T.; BRINKER, C. JEFFREY; SELLINGER, ALAN

    2000-05-01

    The new two-layer protective coating developed for monuments constructed of limestone or marble was applied to highway cement and to tobermorite, a component of cement, and tested in batch dissolution tests. The goal was to determine the suitability of the protective coating in retarding the weathering rate of concrete construction. The two-layer coating consists of an inner layer of aminoethylaminopropylsilane (AEAPS) applied as a 25% solution in methanol and an outer layer of A2** sol-gel. In previous work, this product when applied to calcite powders, had resulted in a lowering of the rate of dissolution by a factor of ten and was shown through molecular modeling to bind strongly to the calcite surface, but not too strongly so as to accelerate dissolution. Batch dissolution tests at 22 C of coated and uncoated tobermorite (1.1 nm phase) and powdered cement from Gibson Blvd. in Albuquerque indicated that the coating exhibits some protective behavior, at least on short time scales. However, the data suggest that the outer layer of sol-gel dissolves in the high-pH environment of the closed system of cement plus water. Calculated binding configuration and energy of AEAPS to the tobermorite surface suggests that AEAPS is well-suited as the inner layer binder for protecting tobermorite.

  3. Armored garment for protecting

    DOEpatents

    Purvis, James W.; Jones, II, Jack F.; Whinery, Larry D.; Brazfield, Richard; Lawrie, Catherine; Lawrie, David; Preece, Dale S.

    2009-08-11

    A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

  4. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  5. Protection of Intellectual Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary M.; McGrath, William T.

    1990-01-01

    The first of two articles discusses the extent to which piracy of intellectual property hurts the U.S. economy, the role of developing nations in piracy, and who benefits from the protection of intellectual property. The second explores the implications of a Supreme Court ruling on copyrighting of computer programs created by independent…

  6. Global protected area impacts

    PubMed Central

    Joppa, Lucas N.; Pfaff, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) dominate conservation efforts. They will probably play a role in future climate policies too, as global payments may reward local reductions of loss of natural land cover. We estimate the impact of PAs on natural land cover within each of 147 countries by comparing outcomes inside PAs with outcomes outside. We use ‘matching’ (or ‘apples to apples’) for land characteristics to control for the fact that PAs very often are non-randomly distributed across their national landscapes. Protection tends towards land that, if unprotected, is less likely than average to be cleared. For 75 per cent of countries, we find protection does reduce conversion of natural land cover. However, for approximately 80 per cent of countries, our global results also confirm (following smaller-scale studies) that controlling for land characteristics reduces estimated impact by half or more. This shows the importance of controlling for at least a few key land characteristics. Further, we show that impacts vary considerably within a country (i.e. across a landscape): protection achieves less on lands far from roads, far from cities and on steeper slopes. Thus, while planners are, of course, constrained by other conservation priorities and costs, they could target higher impacts to earn more global payments for reduced deforestation. PMID:21084351

  7. Protective Policy Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrin, Donald D.

    1994-01-01

    Offers ways to help student affairs administrators understand protective policy laws and regulations. Looks at how such federal guidelines affect campus policies, practices, and procedures. Examines the Buckley Amendment, student consumer information, student right-to-know, campus security, and the Drug Free Schools and Communities Act. (Includes…

  8. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A.; Elder, Michael G.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  9. ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION AND RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    To carry out this mission, GLNPO established its Ecological Protection and Restoration Team (the E Team), consisting of a staff plus extended team members from EPA Regions 2, 3, and 5, other federal and state agencies, and non-governmental organizations. GLNPO expect...

  10. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  11. Protectiveness, Persecution, and Powerlessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Kathleen G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of family pathology from a transactional viewpoint. The thesis proposed is that family pathology is a means of protecting the family and ensuring its survival. The father, mother, and child assume and exchange the roles of the Karpman drama triangle; namely, Persecutor, Victim, and Rescuer. (Author)

  12. The TLWP cathodic protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper details the subsea corrosion protection system of the tension leg well platform (TLWP), which comprises coatings and cathodic protection (CP). Postinstallation surveys reveal potentials of at least 150 mV more protective than the minimum potential required for protection. The TLWP protection system weighs 434,000 lbm less than the conventional CP design, with 286,000 lbm less on the floating portion of the TLWP.

  13. Protecting our patients by protecting ourselves

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Blake; Alsabbagh, Wasem; Houle, Sherilyn; Wenger, Lisa; Church, Dana; Waite, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Background: With recent expansions to scope of practice that have allowed Canadian pharmacists to play a larger role in administering influenza vaccinations to the public, it is important that pharmacists themselves meet Canadian guidelines recommending that 80% of health care professionals and 100% of vaccinators receive an annual influenza vaccination. Unvaccinated health care professionals pose an infection risk to patients they serve and are at an increased risk of infection themselves. Methods: An online, anonymous survey was sent to Ontario community pharmacists to determine whether they had received the influenza vaccination during the 2013–2014 influenza season. All significant univariate chi-square analysis respondent characteristics were included in a multivariate regression analysis model to determine predictors of vaccination status. Results: A total of 780 pharmacists completed the survey (18.1% response rate), which showed that 7 in 10 Ontario community pharmacists received the influenza vaccine. Those certified to immunize were nearly 3 times more likely to have received the influenza vaccine than those not certified (81.6% versus 61.2%, respectively). Discussion: Having 70% of Ontario community pharmacists vaccinated against influenza is both an accomplishment and an opportunity to improve vaccination rates. While similar to the influenza immunization rates of other health care professions, Ontario community pharmacists did not meet Public Health Canada’s recommendations. Comprehensive worksite programs, including promotion, education and convenient access to influenza vaccination at no cost, could increase community pharmacist influenza vaccination rates. Conclusion: The authors issue a call to arms to encourage all pharmacists to receive the influenza vaccine to protect the public and themselves. PMID:27540407

  14. Force protection: today's reality.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, Ron

    2004-11-11

    Most US infrastructure and major chemical manufacturing facilities as well as their supporting utility systems are inherently vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Force protection is a military and civilian term used to protect personnel and critical facilities and assets against would-be aggressors or terrorists. The war on terrorism is a 200-300-year war. Terrorist attacks on US soil could become as common-place as in the State of Israel. It is very easy to penetrate infrastructure or plants as evidenced by vulnerability assessments performed for states, cities, plants, and military facilities by Versar and others around the country. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive weapons can be readily used to attack facilities in the US. This paper will explain some of those vulnerabilities, outline the current DoD standard as it relates to vulnerability assessments, and explain how this may be used in commercial applications to deter potential aggressors. PMID:15573418

  15. Multifunction protective relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, J.; Yalla, M.; Kantor, J.

    1991-11-01

    Since the enactment of the National Energy Act of 1979, many private energy producers have been planning and building small generation and cogeneration facilities in order to sell power to the local utility. Many of the non-utility generators built after 1979 are connected directly to the closest utility distribution circuit. Aware of the problems associated with connecting generators in this manner, electric utilities across the country developed specifications and standards to allow safe and reliable interconnection. The report describes a malfunction protective relay which uses state-of-the-art digital signal processing procedures to accomplish the objective of providing most of the relay requirements of utility electrical interconnections. The relay has been demonstrated to be suitable for this critical application through extensive laboratory and in-service field testing. The relay, incorporating thirteen distinct protection functions affords the user the savings of the initial capital cost plus simplicity of installation and use.

  16. Radiation protection in space.

    PubMed

    Blakely, E A; Fry, R J

    1995-08-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in our knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared with previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers, including space travelers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space. PMID:7480625

  17. Protected Flux Pairing Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Matthew; Zhang, Wenyuan; Ioffe, Lev; Gershenson, Michael

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the coherent flux tunneling in a qubit containing two submicron Josephson junctions shunted by a superinductor (a dissipationless inductor with an impedance much greater than the resistance quantum). The two low energy quantum states of this device, 0 and 1, are represented by even and odd number of fluxes in the loop, respectively. This device is dual to the charge pairing Josephson rhombi qubit. The spectrum of the device, studied by microwave spectroscopy, reflects the interference between coherent quantum phase slips in the two junctions (the Aharonov-Casher effect). The time domain measurements demonstrate the suppression of the qubit's energy relaxation in the protected regime, which illustrates the potential of this flux pairing device as a protected quantum circuit. Templeton Foundation, NSF, and ARO.

  18. Protective orders: questions and conundrums.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert; Faragher, Teri Marie

    2006-07-01

    Current media portrayal of protective orders is often negative, focusing on weaknesses in how protective orders are obtained and enforced. This review of research findings on protective orders examines issues and suggests areas in need of future research to clarify and improve public policy. More specifically, this review has five main objectives: (a) to provide background information about partner violence and the need for protective orders; (b) to describe what protective orders are, how many women obtain them, and the advantages and disadvantages of obtaining protective orders; (c) to examine characteristics of women who seek protective orders; (d) to explore research on whether protective orders actually increase women's safety; and (e) to highlight opportunities and gaps in the practice and research literature regarding the use of protective orders for women with violent partners or ex-partners. PMID:16785286

  19. Nitrite in organ protection

    PubMed Central

    Rassaf, Tienush; Ferdinandy, Peter; Schulz, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged to therapeutical importance. Modulation of endogenous nitrate and nitrite levels with the subsequent S-nitros(yl)ation of the downstream signalling cascade open the way for novel cytoprotective strategies. In the following, we summarize the actual literature and give a short overview on the potential of nitrite in organ protection. PMID:23826831

  20. Protective garment ventilation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ventilating a protective garment, space suit system, and/or pressure suits to maintain a comfortable and nontoxic atmosphere within is described. The direction of flow of a ventilating and purging gas in portions of the garment may be reversed in order to compensate for changes in environment and activity of the wearer. The entire flow of the ventilating gas can also be directed first to the helmet associated with the garment.

  1. Protecting beans from ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    1983-03-01

    A chemical treatment to protect navy beans from ozone damage increased yields by an average of more than 20% in 3 years of tests. An experimental antioxidant chemical, EDU, made by the DuPont company was tested as soil applications and sprays on several varieties and under a variety of soil and planting conditions. The average yield increases were between 16 and 24%. Chemical treatment also increased snap bean pod production by 12%.

  2. [History of sun protection].

    PubMed

    Couteau, Céline; Coiffard, Laurence

    2010-07-01

    Human behavior towards the sun has changed over the years along with trends. Tan succeeded the white complexion. The sunscreens appeared recently in history. It is lining up with the discovery of bad effects due to prolonged exposure to ultraviolet at the end of the 19th century. Initially, those products had no signs of efficacy on their packaging, then the solar protection factors increased gradually, up to a limit value of 50+ more recently. PMID:21032925

  3. Protective immunity against plague.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Claire; Quenee, Lauriane; Anderson, Deborah; Schneewind, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    Plague, an infectious disease that reached catastrophic proportions during three pandemics, continues to be a legitimate public health concern worldwide. Although antibiotic therapy for the causative agent Yersinia pestis is available, pharmaceutical supply limitations, multi-drug resistance from natural selection as well as malicious bioengineering are a reality. Consequently, plague vaccinology is a priority for biodefense research. Development of a multi-subunit vaccine with Fraction 1 and LcrV as protective antigens seems to be receiving the most attention. However, LcrV has been shown to cause immune suppression and Y. pestis mutants lacking F1 expression are thought to be fully virulent in nature and in animal experiments. The LcrV variant, rV10, retains the well documented protective antigenic properties of LcrV but with diminished inhibitory effects on the immune system. More research is required to examine the molecular mechanisms of vaccine protection afforded by surface protein antigens and to decipher the host mechanisms responsible for vaccine success. PMID:17966437

  4. Thermal Protection and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Effie E.

    2013-01-01

    During all phases of a spacecraft's mission, a Thermal Protection System (TPS) is needed to protect the vehicle and structure from extreme temperatures and heating. When designing TPS, low weight and cost while ensuring the protection of the vehicle is highly desired. There are two main types of TPS, ablative and reusable. The Apollo missions needed ablators due to the high heat loads from lunar reentry. However, when the desire for a reusable space vehicle emerged, the resultant_ Space Shuttle program propelled a push for the development of reusable TPS. With the growth of reqsable TPS, the need for ablators declined, triggering a drop off of the ablator industry. As a result, the expertise was not heavily maintained within NASA or the industry. When the Orion Program initiated a few years back, a need. for an ablator reemerged. Yet, due to of the lack of industry capability, redeveloping the ablator material took several years and came at a high cost. As NASA looks towards the future with both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs, a need to preserve reusable, ablative, and other TPS technologies is essential. Research of the different TPS materials alongside their properties, capabilities, and manufacturing process was performed, and the benefits of the materials were analyzed alongside the future of TPS. Knowledge of the different technologies has the ability to help us know what expertise to maintain and ensure a lack in the industry does not occur again.

  5. Lightning Protection for Explosive Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M

    2001-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory funds construction of lightning protection systems to protect explosive processing and storage facilities. This paper provides an intuitive understanding of the lighting risks and types of lightning protection available. Managers can use this information to decide if limited funds should be spent constructing a lightning protection system for their own facilities. This paper answers the following questions: (1) Why do you need lightning protection systems? (2) How do lightning protection systems work? and (3) Why are there no documented cases of lightning problems at existing explosive facilities?

  6. Chemical Protection Against Radiation Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaigne, Ernest

    1969-01-01

    Discusses potential war time and medical uses for chemical compounds giving protection against radiation damage. Describes compounds known to protect, research aimed at discovering such compounds, and problems of toxicity. (EB)

  7. The Design of Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Engineering study guides design and monitoring of lightning protection. Design studies for project are collected in 150-page report, containing wealth of information on design of lightning protection systems and on instrumentation for monitoring current waveforms of lightning strokes.

  8. Future Trends in Park Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, William O.; Murrell, Dan S.

    1986-01-01

    The roles of ranger and park police in America's parks have shifted from visitor protection and resources management to visitor management and resources protection. Eight issues facing park police are discussed. (MT)

  9. ESA Missions Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    This presentation will report the planetary protection status of ESA flight projects with planetary protection requirements. It will cover Rosetta, Mars Express, ExoMars 2016, ExoMars 2018, JUICE, Solar Orbiter, and Bepi Colombo.

  10. [Protection against insects].

    PubMed

    Rudin, W

    2005-11-01

    Successful protection against haematophagous insects and ticks, especially in areas where transmission of diseases occurs, requires a consistent application of a combination of appropriate measures. However, this can never substitute a chemoprophylaxis. Which measures have to be used depends on the circumstances under which they have to work. Indoor, physical means such as mosquito-screens on doors and windows, air-conditioners, and bed nets can be used to keep the insects away. These measures can be supplemented or supported by insecticides used as knock-down sprays, by electrical evaporation or for the treatment of screens and bed nets. In the field, if it is not possible to avoid mosquito-areas during phases of activity, appropriate clothing and repellents must provide the protection. Bright, wide pants and shirts of dense weaving covering as much skin as bearable should be preferred. Repellents are sprays, lotions, milks or creams which are evenly applied to the skin to prevent insects from biting. They contain synthetic or natural active substances of substantially varying effectiveness. The gold standard since about 60 years is diethylbenzamine (DEET). There are a few other active substances with a lower risk of side effects, however, combined with a lower effectiveness mainly on people with a high attractiveness for mosquitoes. Products containing an extract of Eucalyptus citriodora provide the best protection amongst those with natural active substances. Wearing bracelets or necklaces treated with repellents, acoustic devices (buzzers), electrocuters, topical or systemic Vitamin B1 or eating garlic are useless measures to prevent insects from biting. PMID:16350532

  11. Protective Film Moves Aside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Relatively warmer daytime temperatures on Mars have allowed the biobarrier -- a shiny, protective film -- to peel away a little more from the robotic arm of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    This image shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with the biobarrier unpeeled on landing day, or Sol (Martian day) 0, and the lander's first full day on Mars, Sol 1.

    The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

    The biobarrier is an extra precaution to protect Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

    These images were taken on May 25, 2008 and May 26, 2008 by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    SciTech Connect

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  13. RHIC prefire protection masks

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, A.; Biscardi, C.; Curcio, T.; Gassner, D.; DeSanto, L.; Fu, W.; Liaw, C. J.; Montag, C.; Thieberger, P.; Yip, K.

    2015-01-07

    The protection of the RHIC experimental detectors from damage due to beam hitting close upstream elements in cases of abort kicker prefires requires some dedicated precautionary measures with two general options: to bring the beam close to a limiting aperture (i.e. the beam pipe wall), as far upstream of the detector components as possible or, alternatively, to bring a limiting aperture close to the circulating beam. Spontaneous and random prefires of abort kicker modules (Pulse Forming Network, PFN) have a history as long as RHIC is being operated. The abort system consist of 5 kickers in per ring, each of them equipped with its own dedicated PFN.

  14. Protected programs at NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Many scientists and science administrators say they are disturbed by the fact that Congress “protected” funding for some National Science Foundation (NSF) programs in the fiscal year (FY) 1987 budget at a cost to other NSF programs. Especially disturbing to some was the notion that the earmarking reportedly occurred as a result of special interest lobbying efforts by their fellow scientists. The favored programs, and those that were cut back to compensate for them, were mostly related to geophysics. The protection of these programs is likely to have some impact on the size and number of grants awarded in some other areas.

  15. Hearing protection for miners

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, T.

    2008-10-15

    A NIOSH analysis showed that at age 50 approximately 90% of coal miners have a hearing impairment, yet noise included hearing loss is 100% preventable. The article discusses requirements of the MSHA regulations, 30 CFR Part 62 - occupational noise exposure (2000) and a 2008-MSHA document describing technologically achievable and promising controls for several types of mining machinery. Hearing protection is still required for exposure to greater than 90 dBA. These are now commercially available ways to determine how much attenuation an individual gets from a given hearing protector, known as 'fit testing'. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  16. Ablative thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, J.; Fisher, R.; Wojciechowski, C.; Dean, W.

    1983-01-01

    The procedures used to establish the TPS (thermal protection system) design of the SRB (solid rocket booster) element of the Space Shuttle vehicle are discussed. A final evaluation of the adequacy of this design will be made from data obtained from the first five Shuttle flights. Temperature sensors installed at selected locations on the SRB structure covered by the TPS give information as a function of time throughout the flight. Anomalies are to be investigated and computer design thermal models adjusted if required. In addition, the actual TPS ablator material loss is to be measured after each flight and compared with analytically determined losses. The analytical methods of predicting ablator performance are surveyed.

  17. New laser protective eyewear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLear, Mark

    1996-04-01

    Laser technology has significantly impacted our everyday life. Lasers are now used to correct your vision, clear your arteries, and are used in the manufacturing of such diverse products as automobiles, cigarettes, and computers. Lasers are no longer a research tool looking for an application. They are now an integral part of manufacturing. In the case of Class IV lasers, this explosion in laser applications has exposed thousands of individuals to potential safety hazards including eye damage. Specific protective eyewear designed to attenuate the energy of the laser beam below the maximum permissible exposure is required for Class 3B and Class IV lasers according to laser safety standards.

  18. Thermal insulation protection means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotts, R. L.; Smith, J. A.; Strouhal, G. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system for providing thermal insulation for portions of a spacecraft which do not exceed 900 F during ascent or reentry relative to the earth's atmosphere is described. The thermal insulation is formed of relatively large flexible sheets of needled Nomex felt having a flexible waterproof coating. The thickness of the felt is sized to protect against projected temperatures and is attached to the structure by a resin adhesive. Vent holes in the sheets allow ventilation while maintaining waterproofing. The system is heat treated to provide thermal stability.

  19. Tornado protection by venting

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability to protect a modern nuclear power plant from the effects of a tornado by the use of a system of venting in all safety-related structures outside of the containment. The paper demonstrates this by presenting a method of analysis and of equipment selection that fully complies with the intent and the letter of applicable federal regulatory guides. A report of an actual tornado in the City of Kalamazoo, Michigan, suggests that the concept of sealing a plant during a tornado may not always be applicable.

  20. Icing: Accretion, Detection, Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, John J.

    1994-01-01

    The global aircraft industry and its regulatory agencies are currently involved in three major icing efforts: ground icing; advanced technologies for in-flight icing; and tailplane icing. These three major icing topics correspondingly support the three major segments of any aircraft flight profile: takeoff; cruise and hold; and approach and land. This lecture addressess these three topics in the same sequence as they appear in flight, starting with ground deicing, followed by advanced technologies for in-flight ice protection, and ending with tailplane icing.

  1. Protective helmet assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor); Weiss, Fred R. (Inventor); Eck, John D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a protective helmet assembly with improved safety and impact resistance, high resistance to ignition and combustion, and reduced offgassing. The assembly comprises a hard rigid ballistic outer shell with one or more impact absorbing pads fitted to the interior surface. The pads are made of open cell flexible polyimide foam material, each of which is attached to the inner surface of the ballistic outer shell by cooperative VELCRO fastener strips of hook-and-loop material affixed respectively to the rigid outer shell and the impact absorbing pads. The helmet assembly with shell and pads is sized to fit relatively close over a wearer's head.

  2. National Perspectives on Data Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurow, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of different approaches to protecting personal information in Europe and the United States highlights data protection laws and agreements (international transfer of personal data, European laws, United States state and federal laws), United States and European views of privacy protection, national economic and political goals, and…

  3. New concept in protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    A new concept in protective clothing is discussed. Preliminary design work has been done to develop a garment, a protective coverall, that would provide a necessary cushion of safety to significantly reduce the occurrence of injuries to underground miners. The protective coverall incorporates an elastic undergarment to provide needed support to the lower back.

  4. Patent protection strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Himanshu; Kumar, Suresh; Roy, Saroj Kumar; Gaud, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent. PMID:21814422

  5. Patent protection strategies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Himanshu; Kumar, Suresh; Roy, Saroj Kumar; Gaud, R S

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent. PMID:21814422

  6. Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) are required to protect a vehicle returning from space or entering an atmosphere. The selection of the material depends on the heat flux, heat load, pressure, and shear and other mechanical loads imposed on the material, which are in turn determined by the vehicle configuration and size, location on the vehicle, speed, a trajectory, and the atmosphere. In all cases the goal is to use a material that is both reliable and efficient for the application. Reliable materials are well understood and have sufficient test data under the appropriate conditions to provide confidence in their performance. Efficiency relates to the behavior of a material under the specific conditions that it encounters TPS that performs very well at high heat fluxes may not be efficient at lower heat fluxes. Mass of the TPS is a critical element of efficiency. This talk will review the major classes of TPS, reusable or insulating materials and ablators. Ultra high temperature ceramics for sharp leading edges will also be reviewed. The talk will focus on the properties and behavior of these materials.

  7. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems. PMID:15998496

  8. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  9. Protective Measurement and Quantum Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan

    2015-01-01

    1. Protective measurements: an introduction Shan Gao; Part I. Fundamentals and Applications: 2. Protective measurements of the wave function of a single system Lev Vaidman; 3. Protective measurement, postselection and the Heisenberg representation Yakir Aharonov and Eliahu Cohen; 4. Protective and state measurement: a review Gennaro Auletta; 5. Determination of the stationary basis from protective measurement on a single system Lajos Diósi; 6. Weak measurements, the energy-momentum tensor and the Bohm approach Robert Flack and Basil J. Hiley; Part II. Meanings and Implications: 7. Measurement and metaphysics Peter J. Lewis; 8. Protective measurements and the explanatory gambit Michael Dickson; 9. Realism and instrumentalism about the wave function: how should we choose? Mauro Dorato and Frederico Laudisa; 10. Protective measurements and the PBR theorem Guy Hetzroni and Daniel Rohrlich; 11. The roads not taken: empty waves, waveform collapse and protective measurement in quantum theory Peter Holland; 12. Implications of protective measurements on de Broglie–Bohm trajectories Aurelien Drezet; 13. Entanglement, scaling, and the meaning of the wave function in protective measurement Maximilian Schlosshauer and Tangereen V. B. Claringbold; 14. Protective measurements and the nature of the wave function within the primitive ontology approach Vincent Lam; 15. Reality and meaning of the wave function Shan Gao; Index.

  10. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saksonov, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  11. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A.; Moore, Troy K.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

  12. Macular protection with IOLs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderberg, Per G.; Lofgren, Stefan; Ayala, Marcelo; Dong, Xiuqin; Kakar, Manoj; Mody, Vino; Meyer, Linda; Laurell, Carl-Gustaf

    2004-07-01

    The clinical outcome within one month after phacoemulsification cataract extraction with implantation of the blue-blocking SN60AT IOL was examined prospectively and compared to a retrospectively examined material of implantations of the equivalent SA30AL without blue-blocker. There was no difference in best corrected visual acuity gain between the two lenses. In addition, the subjective color perception was examined for with a questionnaire after the first implantation of blue-blocking IOL and after the second implantation of blue-blocking IOL. Only one patient noted a changed color perception. There are thus strong theoretical reasons to block blue light in IOLs and no short term clinical inconvenience. But, it remains to be proven in long term follow up studies that the blue-blocking IOL protects against macular degeneration.

  13. ELECTRICAL PROTECTIVE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1958-05-01

    A protective system for high-energy resonant cavities is described. It is particularly directed to the discharging of resonant cavities for preventing energy back flow through associated equipment as a result of faults. The invention in general provides means defining a spark gap communicating with the interior of a cavity or waveguide adapted for high-power energization or an evacuated chamber containing an electrode having a large power differential from the wall or other electrode. A control or trigger circuit is connected between a power supply energizing the cavity and the spark gap whereby reverse current flow in the power supply circuit instantaneously triggers the spark gap to initiate discharge within the cavity, whereupon cavity energy discharges across the gap, or with an electrode present the electrode discharges to one of the spark gap elements.

  14. Laser diode protection circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Burgyan, L.; Hand, W.L.

    1990-05-08

    This patent describes a method for protecting a laser diode included within an electro-optical circuit. It comprises: the laser diode, a DC bias supply for supplying forward conduction current to the laser diode to cause it to emit light energy at a predetermined quiescent operating point, and an RF amplifier means for supplying an RF amplitude of an analog modulating signal to the laser diode for modulating the intensity of the emitted light energy about the quiescent operating point thereof, the method including providing a very high impedance to the laser diode during its nominal operating conditions about the quiescent point and, sensing an instantaneous amplitude of the RF amplitude modulating signal to detect amplitude surges therein, and responding to the sensing means by removing forward conduction current from the laser diode during the sense amplitude surges int he RF amplitude of the analog modulating signal, thereby causing the laser diode to reduce emission of light energy to a safe level.

  15. Protection Against Pertussis.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Parang N

    2016-08-01

    Though vaccines have been in use for over seventy years, we have been unable to eradicate or control pertussis. This disease is a worldwide problem, and recently has been occurring in outbreaks even in places with good immunization coverage. The debate about the use of acellular or whole cell vaccine has taken attention away from the other significant issues. The high rate of serious disease and death in young infants, and the repeated outbreaks of pertussis even in highly-vaccinated populations is a matter for grave concern. Finding strategies to protect the most vulnerable is a priority. Newer vaccines are under development, and will be welcome, but may be too expensive for mass use in resource-poor nations. It is important to adopt cost-effective strategies to deal with this disease. PMID:27567644

  16. Symbiont-mediated protection

    PubMed Central

    Haine, Eleanor R

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that all vertically transmitted symbionts sequester resources from their hosts and are therefore costly to maintain, there is an extraordinary diversity of them in invertebrates. Some spread through host populations by providing their hosts with fitness benefits or by manipulating host sex ratio, but some do not: their maintenance in host lineages remains an enigma. In this review, I explore the evolutionary ecology of vertically transmitted symbionts and their impact on host resistance, and provide an overview of the evidence for the three-way interactions between these symbionts, natural enemies and invertebrate hosts. A number of recent empirical and theoretical studies suggest that vertically transmitted symbionts may protect their hosts from pathogens. If this ‘symbiont-mediated protection’ is widespread, it is likely that vertically transmitted symbionts contribute significantly to variation in measures of invertebrate resistance to natural enemies. PMID:18055391

  17. Predicting sun protection behaviors using protection motivation variables.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Joanne W M; Glendon, A Ian

    2014-04-01

    Protection motivation theory components were used to predict sun protection behaviors (SPBs) using four outcome measures: typical reported behaviors, previous reported behaviors, current sunscreen use as determined by interview, and current observed behaviors (clothing worn) to control for common method bias. Sampled from two SE Queensland public beaches during summer, 199 participants aged 18-29 years completed a questionnaire measuring perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, response costs, and protection motivation (PM). Personal perceived risk (similar to threat appraisal) and response likelihood (similar to coping appraisal) were derived from their respective PM components. Protection motivation predicted all four SPB criterion variables. Personal perceived risk and response likelihood predicted protection motivation. Protection motivation completely mediated the effect of response likelihood on all four criterion variables. Alternative models are considered. Strengths and limitations of the study are outlined and suggestions made for future research. PMID:23292546

  18. Predicting the chemical protection factor of CBRN protective garments.

    PubMed

    Ambesi, Davide; Bouma, Richard; den Hartog, Emiel; Kleijn, Chris R

    2013-01-01

    The protection factor and pressure drop coefficient of single layers of active carbon particles in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) protective garments have been computed from computational fluid dynamics simulations of airflow and mass transport. Based on the results from the simulations, a closed-form analytical model has been proposed for the protection factor and the pressure drop coefficient as a function of layer porosity, particle diameter, and cross airflow velocity. This model has been validated against experimental data in literature. It can be used to find an optimal compromise between high protection factor and low pressure drop coefficient. Maximum protection factors are achieved when small carbon particles are employed in a layer with high packing density, at the expense of a high pressure drop coefficient. For a given required protection factor, the lowest pressure drop coefficient is found for layers combining a high porosity and small particle diameter. PMID:23473003

  19. Protective coating for ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Churchward, Rex A. (Inventor); Lowe, David M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A protective coating for ceramic materials such as those made of silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, aluminoborosilicate and silicon dioxide, and a thermal control structure comprising a ceramic material having coated thereon the protective coating. The protective coating contains, in admixture, silicon dioxide powder, colloidal silicon dioxide, water, and one or more emittance agents selected from silicon tetraboride, silicon hexaboride, silicon carbide, molybdenum disilicide, tungsten disilicide and zirconium diboride. In another aspect, the protective coating is coated on a flexible ceramic fabric which is the outer cover of a composite insulation. In yet another aspect, a metallic foil is bonded to the outer surface of a ceramic fabric outer cover of a composite insulation via the protective coating. A primary application of this invention is as a protective coating for ceramic materials used in a heat shield for space vehicles subjected to very high aero-convective heating environments.

  20. Cathodic protection: Theory and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, V.; Booker, C.J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an account of cathodic protection. It covers the advances made over the past decade, both in terms of understanding the complexity of the systems to which cathodic protection has been applied and assuring the reliability of the designs which have evolved. It shows how computer-validated design is superseding empirical design. The use of field gradient measurements for current output, acoustic transmission of potential data, and monitoring and surveying of cathodic protection systems are included.

  1. Protective link for superconducting coil

    DOEpatents

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2009-12-08

    A superconducting coil system includes a superconducting coil and a protective link of superconducting material coupled to the superconducting coil. A rotating machine includes first and second coils and a protective link of superconducting material. The second coil is operable to rotate with respect to the first coil. One of the first and second coils is a superconducting coil. The protective link is coupled to the superconducting coil.

  2. CEBAF - environmental protection program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    An important objective in the successful operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is to ensure protection of the public and the environment. To meet this objective, the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc., (SURA) is committed to working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop, implement, and manage a sound and workable environmental protection program at CEBAF. This environmental protection plan includes information on environmental monitoring, long-range monitoring, groundwater protection, waste minimization, and pollution prevention awareness program plan.

  3. Radiation protection and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation was found not to be an operational problem during the Apollo program. Doses received by the crewmen of Apollo missions 7 through 17 were small because no major solar-particle events occurred during those missions. One small event was detected by a radiation sensor outside the Apollo 12 spacecraft, but no increase in radiation dose to the crewmen inside the spacecraft was detected. Radiation protection for the Apollo program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft. Radiation-exposure risks to crewmen were assessed and balanced against mission gain to determine mission constraints. Operational radiation evaluation required specially designed radiation detection systems onboard the spacecraft in addition to the use of satellite data, solar observatory support, and other liaison. Control and management of radioactive sources and radiation-generating equipment was important in minimizing radiation exposure of ground-support personnel, researchers, and the Apollo flight and backup crewmen.

  4. Personal Radiation Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Mark; Vinci, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the personal radiation protection system (PRPS), which has been invented for use on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. The PRPS comprises walls that can be erected inside spacecraft, where and when needed, to reduce the amount of radiation to which personnel are exposed. The basic structural modules of the PRPS are pairs of 1-in. (2.54-cm)-thick plates of high-density polyethylene equipped with fasteners. The plates of each module are assembled with a lap joint. The modules are denoted bricks because they are designed to be stacked with overlaps, in a manner reminiscent of bricks, to build 2-in. (5.08-cm)-thick walls of various lengths and widths. The bricks are of two varieties: one for flat wall areas and one for corners. The corner bricks are specialized adaptations of the flat-area bricks that make it possible to join walls perpendicular to each other. Bricks are attached to spacecraft structures and to each other by use of straps that can be tightened to increase the strengths and stiffnesses of joints.

  5. Protecting a pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.H ); Garcia-Lopez, M. )

    1994-12-01

    This article describes some of the difficulties in constructing an oil pipeline in Colombia across a forested mountain range that has erosion-prone slopes. Engineers are finding ways to protect the pipeline against slope failures and severe erosion problems while contending with threats of guerrilla attacks. Torrential rainfall, precipitous slopes, unstable soils, unfavorable geology and difficult access make construction of an oil pipeline in Colombia a formidable undertaking. Add the threat of guerrilla attacks, and the project takes on a new dimension. In the country's central uplands, a 76 cm pipeline traverses some of the most daunting and formidable terrain in the world. The right-of-way crosses rugged mountains with vertical elevations ranging from 300 m to 2,000 mm above sea level over a distance of some 30 km. The pipeline snakes up and down steep forested inclines in some spots and crosses streams and faults in others, carrying the country's major export--petroleum--from the Cusiana oil field, located in Colombia's lowland interior, to the coast.

  6. Optical Fiber Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    F&S Inc. developed and commercialized fiber optic and microelectromechanical systems- (MEMS) based instrumentation for harsh environments encountered in the aerospace industry. The NASA SBIR programs have provided F&S the funds and the technology to develop ruggedized coatings and coating techniques that are applied during the optical fiber draw process. The F&S optical fiber fabrication facility and developed coating methods enable F&S to manufacture specialty optical fiber with custom designed refractive index profiles and protective or active coatings. F&S has demonstrated sputtered coatings using metals and ceramics and combinations of each, and has also developed techniques to apply thin coatings of specialized polyimides formulated at NASA Langley Research Center. With these capabilities, F&S has produced cost-effective, reliable instrumentation and sensors capable of withstanding temperatures up to 800? C and continues building commercial sales with corporate partners and private funding. More recently, F&S has adapted the same sensing platforms to provide the rapid detection and identification of chemical and biological agents

  7. Chronology protection conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1992-07-01

    It has been suggested that an advanced civilization might have the technology to warp spacetime so that closed timelike curves would appear, allowing travel into the past. This paper examines this possibility in the case that the causality violations appear in a finite region of spacetime without curvature singularities. There will be a Cauchy horizon that is compactly generated and that in general contains one or more closed null geodesics which will be incomplete. One can define geometrical quantities that measure the Lorentz boost and area increase on going round these closed null geodesics. If the causality violation developed from a noncompact initial surface, the averaged weak energy condition must be violated on the Cauchy horizon. This shows that one cannot create closed timelike curves with finite lengths of cosmic string. Even if violations of the weak energy condition are allowed by quantum theory, the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor would get very large if timelike curves become almost closed. It seems the back reaction would prevent closed timelike curves from appearing. These results strongly support the chronology protection conjecture: The laws of physics do not allow the appearance of closed timelike curves.

  8. Chronology protection conjecture

    SciTech Connect

    Hawking, S.W. )

    1992-07-15

    It has been suggested that an advanced civilization might have the technology to warp spacetime so that closed timelike curves would appear, allowing travel into the past. This paper examines this possibility in the case that the causality violations appear in a finite region of spacetime without curvature singularities. There will be a Cauchy horizon that is compactly generated and that in general contains one or more closed null geodesics which will be incomplete. One can define geometrical quantities that measure the Lorentz boost and area increase on going round these closed null geodesics. If the causality violation developed from a noncompact initial surface, the averaged weak energy condition must be violated on the Cauchy horizon. This shows that one cannot create closed timelike curves with finite lengths of cosmic string. Even if violations of the weak energy condition are allowed by quantum theory, the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor would get very large if timelike curves become almost closed. It seems the back reaction would prevent closed timelike curves from appearing. These results strongly support the chronology protection conjecture: {ital The} {ital laws} {ital of} {ital physics} {ital do} {ital not} {ital allow} {ital the} {ital appearance} {ital of} {ital closed} {ital timelike} {ital curves}.

  9. To Copy-Protect or Not to Copy-Protect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Jonathan

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the issues of software piracy, why people illegally copy software, protection afforded software developers by copyright laws, and current and future methods of disk-based protection built into software by developers and the problems these methods have created. (MBR)

  10. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Cheng, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2016-02-02

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  11. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-06-18

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  12. 40 CFR 27.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective order. 27.24 Section 27.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 27.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by...

  13. 40 CFR 27.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protective order. 27.24 Section 27.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 27.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by...

  14. Protective Athletic Mouthguards

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Richard T.; Conrad, Robert S.; Wood, Charles Rieger; Warren, Aric J.; Kohler, Gerwald A.; Bullard, James W.; Benson, Gifty; Gulden, Judyth M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Protective athletic mouthguards (PAMs) have been worn in competitive sports for more than 100 years. Today, participants in contact and noncontact sports wear PAMs. Hypothesis: Wearing a PAM produces oral injury. Study Type: Case series. Study Design and Methods: Sixty-two Division I football players voluntarily participated in the study. Before the beginning of the season, each player underwent a thorough oral examination, and all abnormal oral findings were photographed (hyperkeratosis, erythema, ulceration, and combinations thereof). At midseason, 14 players were given complete oral examinations, with all abnormal oral findings documented. At season end, all remaining players (n = 53) had complete oral examinations and photographs taken of abnormal oral findings. Results: The preseason examination of 62 players found a total of 85 lesions (1.4 lesions per player) on the gingiva (n = 17), buccal mucosa (n = 60), and palate (n = 8). The 14 midseason players had 28 lesions (2.0 lesions per player) on gingiva (n = 8), buccal mucosa (n = 16), and tongue (n = 4). At season end, the 53 remaining players had 198 lesions (3.7 per player) on the gingiva (n = 96), buccal mucosa (n = 79), tongue (n = 18), and palate (n = 5). In addition, the lesion intensity scores progressively increased over the season. Because the palate did not come into direct contact with the PAM, it was used as an internal control. Conclusion: The wearing of a PAM may increase the number and intensity of oral mucosal injuries, which may cause localized soft tissue reactions such as hyperkeratosis, erythema, and ulceration. Clinical Relevance: Because the PAM reduces tooth injury but may cause oral lesions, it should be sanitized daily and changed regularly and replaced whenever it becomes sharp and jagged or when the athlete develops an irritation in the mouth. PMID:23015901

  15. Protecting Against Cerebrovascular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Guang; Arai, Ken; Murata, Yoshihiro; Wang, Sophia; Stins, Monique F.; Lo, Eng H.; van Leyen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose The concept of the neurovascular unit suggests that effects on brain vasculature must be considered if neuroprotection is to be achieved in stroke. We previously reported that 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) is upregulated in the peri-infarct area after middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice, and 12/15-LOX contributes to brain damage after ischemia–reperfusion. The current study was designed to investigate 12/15-LOX involvement in vascular injury in the ischemic brain. Methods In cell culture, a human brain microvascular endothelial cell line was subjected to either hypoxia or H2O2-induced oxidative stress with or without lipoxygenase inhibitors. For in vivo studies, mice were subjected to 90 minutes middle cerebral artery occlusion, and the effects of either 12/15-LOX gene knockout or treatment with lipoxygenase inhibitors were compared. Expression of 12/15-LOX and claudin-5 as well as extravasation of immunoglobulin G were detected by immunohistochemistry. Edema was measured as water content of brain hemispheres according to the wet–dry weight method. Results Brain endothelial cells were protected against hypoxia and H2O2 by the lipoxygenase inhibitor baicalein. After focal ischemia, 12/15-LOX was increased in neurons and endothelial cells. The vascular tight junction protein claudin-5 underwent extensive degradation in the peri-infarct area, which was partially prevented by the lipoxygenase inhibitor baicalein. Leakage of immunoglobulin G into the brain parenchyma was significantly reduced in 12/15-LOX knockout mice as well as wild-type mice treated with baicalein. Likewise, brain edema was significantly ameliorated. Conclusion 12/15-LOX may contribute to ischemic brain damage not just by causing neuronal cell death, but also by detrimental effects on the brain microvasculature. 12/15-LOX inhibitors may thus be effective as both neuroprotectants and vasculoprotectants. PMID:18635843

  16. Occupant Protection at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Jeffrey; Granderson, Brad; Scheuring, Rick

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's efforts to arrive at protection of occupants of the ORION space craft on landing. An Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) has been developed, it is an anatomically-based, consensus-derived, global severity scoring system that classifies each injury by body region according to its relative importance on a 6-point ordinal scale. It reviews an Operationmally Relevant Injury Scale (ORIS), a classification methodology, and shows charts that detail the results of applying this ORIS to the injury databases. One chart uses NASCAR injury classification. It discusses providing a context for the level of risk inherent in the Orion landings in terms that people understand and have a sense for. For example is the risk of injury during an Orion landing roughly the same, better or worse than: An aircraft carrier landing, a NASCAR crash, or a helicopter crash, etc? The data for NASCAR and Indy Racing league (IRL) racing crash and injury data was reviewed. The risk from the Air Force, Navy, and Army injury data was also reviewed. Past NASA and the Soyuz programs injury risks are also reviewed. The work is an attempt to formulate a recommendation to the Orion Project for an acceptable level of injury risk associated with Nominal and Off-Nominal landing cases. The presentation also discusses the data mining and use of the data to Validate NASA Operationally-Relevant Injury Scale (NORIS) / Military Operationally-Relevant Injury Scale (MORIS), developing injury risk criteria, the types of data that are required, NASCAR modeling techniques and crash data, and comparison with the Brinkley model. The development of injury risk curves for each biodynamic response parameter is discussed. One of the main outcomes of this work is to establish an accurate Automated Test Dummy (ATD) that can be used to measure human tolerances.

  17. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  18. Thermal protection in space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salakhutdinov, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    The provision of heat protection for various elements of space flight apparata has great significance, particularly in the construction of manned transport vessels and orbital stations. A popular explanation of the methods of heat protection in rocket-space technology at the current stage as well as in perspective is provided.

  19. GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency helps state and local governments protect the environment by encouraging good environmental management and by regulating human activities to ensure clean air and water. At the Corvallis research laboratory for the EPA, we improve the ways t...

  20. Corrosion protection for silver reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Arendt, Paul N.; Scott, Marion L.

    1991-12-31

    A method of protecting silver reflectors from damage caused by contact with gaseous substances which are often present in the atmosphere and a silver reflector which is so protected. The inventive method comprises at least partially coating a reflector with a metal oxide such as aluminum oxide to a thickness of 15 .ANG. or less.

  1. Eye Protection in Kansas Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Kenneth M.; And Others

    A law passed by a state legislature requires that students in industrial arts shops and science laboratories must wear eye protective devices. Explanatory material presents the text of the bill and guidelines for implementation, including--(1) types of eye hazards, (2) types of protective devices, (3) administrating eye safety equipment, (4)…

  2. Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

  3. The mirage of oil protection

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This book describes the historical background and structure of the U.S. oil industry and analyzes the failure of past policies designed to protect it. It argues against current proposals for reinstituting protection of the industry as harmful to consumers, the industry, and the nation as a whole. It also presents relevant statistics.

  4. Adaptive protection algorithm and system

    DOEpatents

    Hedrick, Paul [Pittsburgh, PA; Toms, Helen L [Irwin, PA; Miller, Roger M [Mars, PA

    2009-04-28

    An adaptive protection algorithm and system for protecting electrical distribution systems traces the flow of power through a distribution system, assigns a value (or rank) to each circuit breaker in the system and then determines the appropriate trip set points based on the assigned rank.

  5. Fire Protection in Educational Occupancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, Romeo P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origins of school fires and the components of the fire protection code called the Life Safety Code (LSC). Three of the following LSC requirements are described: means of egress; protection from hazards; and fire suppression and alarm systems. Information on who starts fires is highlighted along with preventive measures. (GR)

  6. Fire Protection for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevig, William A.

    Fire protection in rural Alaskan communities depends on individual home fire prevention and protection rather than on the services offered by a centralized fire department. Even when help is summoned to extinguish a blaze, aid does not come in the form of a cadre of highly trained firefighters; it comes instead from whomever happens to be in the…

  7. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisin, J. R.

    Some of the problems related to chemical protection against ionizing radiation are discussed with emphasis on : definition, classification, degree of protection, mechanisms of action and toxicity. Results on the biological response modifyers (BRMs) and on the combination of nontoxic (i.e. low) doses of sulphydryl radioprotectors and BRMs are presented.

  8. Groundwater protection management program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a groundwater protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable Federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office has prepared a ``Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan`` (groundwater protection plan) of sufficient scope and detail to reflect the program`s significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter 3, for special program planning. The groundwater protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor groundwater resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies project technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA groundwater protection management program. In addition, the groundwater protection plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA sites (long-term care at disposal sites and groundwater restoration at processing sites). This plan will be reviewed annually and updated every 3 years in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  9. Protecting Minors from Free Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Joan Kennedy

    1997-01-01

    Because the Supreme Court has put severe limits on the use of the concepts of national security and protection of women to justify censorship, the predominant strategy has become censorship to protect minors. This article examines the legal concepts of obscenity and material harmful to minors, restrictions on broadcasting, and challenges raised by…

  10. Protective Clothing for Pesticide Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brief, largely pictorial guide to protective clothing for pesticide users addresses moderately to highly toxic pesticides. The guide discusses the potential hazards of pesticides and the kinds of clothing and equipment that should be worn for personal protection. It also explains how the type of pesticide formulation affects an individual's…

  11. [Radiation protection in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Adamus, R; Loose, R; Wucherer, M; Uder, M; Galster, M

    2016-03-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x‑ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X‑ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses. PMID:26913507

  12. Protecting Trade Secrets in Canada.

    PubMed

    Courage, Noel; Calzavara, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Patents in the life sciences industries are a key form of intellectual property (IP), particularly for products such as brand-name drugs and medical devices. However, trade secrets can also be a useful tool for many types of innovations. In appropriate cases, trade secrets can offer long-term protection of IP for a lower financial cost than patenting. This type of protection must be approached with caution as there is little room for error when protecting a trade secret. Strong agreements and scrupulous security can help to protect the secret. Once a trade secret is disclosed to the public, it cannot be restored as the owner's property; however, if the information is kept from the public domain, the owner can have a property right of unlimited duration in the information. In some situations patents and trade secrets may be used cooperatively to protect innovation, particularly for manufacturing processes. PMID:25986591

  13. Insider protection: A report card

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Enhanced security measures against external threats (e.g., terrorists, criminals) have been implemented at most facilities that handle special nuclear material, classified information, or other assets critical to national security. Attention is now focusing on insider protection, and safeguards managers are attempting to provide balanced protection against insider and outsider threats. Potential insider threats include attempts by facility employees to steal special nuclear material (SNM), to cause a radiological hazard to the public, to sabotage critical facilities, or to steal property or classified information. This paper presents a report card on the status of insider protection at Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed facilities, with emphasis on SNM theft. The authors discuss the general trends in insider protection and the limitations of protection measures currently in use. They also discuss the most critical needs for improved procedures, technology, analytical tools, and education for safeguards personnel.

  14. Insider protection: a report card

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Enhanced security measures against external threats (e.g., terrorists, criminals) have been implemented at most facilities that handle special nuclear material, classified information, or other assets critical to national security. Attention is not focussing on insider protection, and safeguards managers are attempting to provide balanced protection against insider and outsider threats. Potential insider threats include attempts by facility employees to steal special nuclear material (SNM), to cause a radiological hazard to the public, to sabotage critical facilities, or to steal property or classified information. This paper presents a report card on the status of insider protection at Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed facilities, with emphasis on SNM theft. We discuss the general trends in insider protection and the limitations of protection measures currently in use. We also discuss the most critical needs for improved procedures, technology, analytical tools, and education for safeguards personnel.

  15. Protected Area Certificates: Gaining Ground for Better Ecosystem Protection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segerstedt, Anna; Grote, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Protected areas are vital to sustain a number of ecosystem services. Yet, many protected areas are underfinanced and lack management effectiveness. Protected area certificates have been suggested as a way to resolve these problems. This instrument would allow land managers to certify an area if it meets certain conservation criteria. The certificates could then be sold on an international market, for example to companies and any consumers that are interested in environmental protection. Some pilot initiatives have been launched, yet little is known about future demand and features of protected area certificates. To fill this knowledge gap, we conduct a choice experiment with close to 400 long-distance tourists from Germany as a potential group of buyers. Our results indicate that the respondents have the highest willingness to pay for certificates that conserve sensitive ecosystems and in addition to this lead to poverty reduction and safeguard water resources. For other attributes such as a greenhouse gas reduction, the preferences are less significant. Overall, the results are rather homogenous irrespective of where the protected areas are located. These insights are important for the future design and marketing of protected area certificates.

  16. Protected area certificates: gaining ground for better ecosystem protection?

    PubMed

    Segerstedt, Anna; Grote, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Protected areas are vital to sustain a number of ecosystem services. Yet, many protected areas are underfinanced and lack management effectiveness. Protected area certificates have been suggested as a way to resolve these problems. This instrument would allow land managers to certify an area if it meets certain conservation criteria. The certificates could then be sold on an international market, for example to companies and any consumers that are interested in environmental protection. Some pilot initiatives have been launched, yet little is known about future demand and features of protected area certificates. To fill this knowledge gap, we conduct a choice experiment with close to 400 long-distance tourists from Germany as a potential group of buyers. Our results indicate that the respondents have the highest willingness to pay for certificates that conserve sensitive ecosystems and in addition to this lead to poverty reduction and safeguard water resources. For other attributes such as a greenhouse gas reduction, the preferences are less significant. Overall, the results are rather homogenous irrespective of where the protected areas are located. These insights are important for the future design and marketing of protected area certificates. PMID:25868572

  17. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating

  18. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    2010-01-21

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating

  19. Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, J

    1993-01-01

    The review of recent work on the mechanisms of soil removal from textiles assists in understanding decontamination of pesticide protective clothing. The current work provides explanatory conclusions about residue retention as a basis of making recommendations for the most effective decontamination procedures. A caution about generalizations: Some pesticides produce very idiosyncratic responses to decontamination. An example is the paraquat/salt response. Other pesticides exhibit noticeable and unique responses to a highly alkaline medium (carbaryl), or to bleach (chlorpyrifos), or are quickly volatilized (methyl parathion). Responses such as these do not apply to other pesticides undergoing decontamination. Given this caution, there are soil, substrate, and solvent responses that do maximize residue removal. Residue removal is less complete as the concentration of pesticide increases. The concentration of pesticide in fabric builds with successive exposures, and the more concentrated the pesticide, the more difficult the removal. Use a prewash product and/or presoak. The surfactant and/or solvent in a prewash product is a booster in residue removal. Residues transfer from contaminated clothing to other clothing during the washing cycle. Use a full washer of water for a limited number of garments to increase residue removal. The hotter the washing temperature, the better. Generally, this means a water temperature of at least 49 degrees C, and preferably 60 degrees C. Select the detergent shown to be more effective for the formulation: heavy-duty liquid detergents for emulsifiable concentrate formulations and powdered phosphate detergents for wettable powder formulations. If the fabric has a soil-repellent finish, use 1.25 times the amount recommended on the detergent label. For water hardness above 300 ppm, an additional amount of powdered phosphate detergent is needed to obtain the same level of residue removal as obtained with the heavy-duty liquid detergent when

  20. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA...

  1. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA...

  2. Handbook for Designing MMOD Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Jim; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Alan; Hyde, James; Lear, Dana; Liou, J.C.; Lyons, Frankel; Prior, Thomas; Studor, George; Ratliff, Martin; Ryan, Shannon; Giovane, Frank; Corsaro, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft are subject to micro-meteoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impact damage which have the potential to degrade performance, shorten the mission, or result in catastrophic loss of the vehicle. Specific MMOD protection requirements are established by NASA for each spacecraft early in the program/project life, to ensure the spacecraft meets desired safety and mission success goals. Both the design and operations influences spacecraft survivability in the MMOD environment, and NASA considers both in meeting MMOD protection requirements. The purpose of this handbook is to provide spacecraft designers and operations personnel with knowledge gained by NASA in implementing effective MMOD protection for the International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and various science spacecraft. It has been drawn from a number of previous publications [10-14], as well as new work. This handbook documents design and operational methods to reduce MMOD risk. In addition, this handbook describes tools and equations needed to design proper MMOD protection. It is a living report, in that it will be updated and re-released periodically in future with additional information. Providing effective and efficient MMOD protection is essential for ensuring safe and successful operations of spacecraft and satellites. A variety of shields protect crew modules, external pressurized vessels and critical equipment from MMOD on the International Space Station (ISS). Certain Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicle systems are hardened from MMOD impact, and operational rules are established to reduce the risk from MMOD (i.e., flight attitudes are selected and late inspection of sensitive thermal protection surfaces are conducted to reduce MMOD impacts). Science spacecraft include specific provisions to meet MMOD protection requirements in their design (for example, Stardust & GLAST). Commercial satellites such as Iridium and Bigelow Aerospace Genesis spacecraft incorporate MMOD protection. The development of low

  3. Transportable Collective Protection System (TCPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Tekesky, R.

    1990-08-15

    Human System Division (HSD/YAGD), Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-6503 requested assistance from the Air Force Packaging Evaluation Activity (AFPEA) to conduct vibration, shock and environmental testing on three Rowley containers with contents. The contents consist of a Transportable Collective Protective System (TCPS). The TCPS, manufactured by IIC/Dover Inc., is a chemical warfare tent. Personnel can enter the tent, remove protective clothing and perform duties in an uncontaminated environment. The purpose of this project was to determine if the Rowley containers would be able to contain and protect the TCPS during world-wide shipment, storage, and handling.

  4. Disease protection vs animal protection--synergisms and contradictions.

    PubMed

    Dimander, S O

    Health is an important part of animal welfare. This implies that measures for the protection against disease will also affect animal protection. In most instances, efforts to improve disease protection act synergistically with efforts to promote animal protection, and vice versa. In the context of farm animal transport, however, infectious disease protection and animal protection may not always be mutually beneficial. Examples of contradictions are: Logistic perturbations; Current farm animal production is increasingly sensitive to logistic perturbations. Control and prevention of epizootic diseases involve extraordinary transport precautions that rapidly result in overcrowded stables. Transhumance; The practise of transhumance is compromised when control measures are taken to prevent spread of epizootic diseases. Travel sickness; Travel sickness is a problem particularly in pigs. Starvation before transport prevents vomiting but result in hungry animals. Lack of experience; Animals that are kept under conditions estranged from situations associated with transport alike are more prone to transport induced stress. Flooring; A non-slip flooring is a prerequisite for firm footing but demand more careful cleaning and disinfection to prevent spread of infectious agents. PMID:16429802

  5. PERSONAL LEADERSHIP PROTECTS RESEARCH SUBJECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Personal leadership promotes the ethical conduct of human research activities. Leadership entails application of one’s cognitive abilities, technical skills, and emotional intelligence during the conduct of research activities, Personal leadership assures human research subject protection....

  6. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  7. Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, and Heart Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Heart Protection What is dyslipidemia? Cholesterol and triglycerides, known as lipids, are fatty substances that the ... lipoprotein (HDL or “good”) cholesterol • High levels of triglycerides (fats in the blood) Dyslipidemia contributes to atherosclerosis (“ ...

  8. Protection of superconducting AC windings

    SciTech Connect

    Verhaege, T.; Agnoux, C.; Tavergnier, J.P. ); Lacaze, A. ); Collet, M. )

    1992-01-01

    Recent progresses on multifilamentary wires open new prospects of 50-60 Hz applications for superconductivity. The problem of AC windings protection is more critical than that of DC windings, because of high current densities, and of high matrix resistivity: one should not allow the quenched wire to carry it nominal current for longer than a few milliseconds, otherwise permanent damage could occur. After a quench initiation, the protection system therefore has to switch off or drastically reduce the current very rapidly. In this paper, the authors propose various schemes, applicable when the conductor is made of several wires: active protection involves an ultra-rapid quench detection. It is based on the measurement of the current passing through the central resistive wire, and/or of unbalanced currents in the different superconducting wires. About 20 milliseconds after detection, a fast circuit-breaker switched off the current. A complementary passive protection is provided by the resistance developing during normal phase propagation.

  9. Ablative Thermal Protection System Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This is the presentation for a short course on the fundamentals of ablative thermal protection systems. It covers the definition of ablation, description of ablative materials, how they work, how to analyze them and how to model them.

  10. Fire protection for relocatable structures

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This standard supersedes DOE/EV-0043, ``Standard on Fire Protection for Portable Structures.`` It was revised to address the numerous types of relocatable structures, such as trailers, tension-supported structures, and tents being used by DOE and contractors.

  11. Protecting Workers from Heat Stress

    MedlinePlus

    QUICK CARD TM Protecting Workers from Heat Stress Heat Illness Exposure to heat can cause illness and death. The most serious ... OSHA (6742) OSHA 3154 -06R 2014 QUICK CARD TM • Modify work schedules and arrange frequent rest periods ...

  12. Food Protection Has Many Facets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Developments in food protection are described for microbiological contaminants, delicatessen foods, seafoods, mycotoxins, food additives, and regulatory surveillance. Proposed and advocated is a cooperative, basic data, monitoring program focusing on microbiological, chemical, nutritional, toxicological, and related food quality indices. (BL)

  13. About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... evaluation or testing against specific viruses, such as Ebola or flu. If performance data has met FDA ... about the Flu What You Should Know about Ebola Q3. Should caregivers use PPE to help protect ...

  14. Protecting Yourself from Heat Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Heat Stress Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Haitian ... as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, or heat cramps. Heat Stroke A condition that occurs when the body ...

  15. Shoulder Joint For Protective Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Smallcombe, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    Shoulder joint allows full range of natural motion: wearer senses little or no resisting force or torque. Developed for space suit, joint offers advantages in protective garments for underwater work, firefighting, or cleanup of hazardous materials.

  16. Distributed Supervisory Protection Interlock System

    SciTech Connect

    Walz, H.V.; Agostini, R.C.; Barker, L.; Cherkassky, R.; Constant, T.; Matheson, R.

    1989-03-01

    The Distributed Supervisory Protection Interlock System, DSPI, is under development at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center for requirements in the areas of personnel protection, beam containment and equipment protection interlocks. The DSPI system, distributed over the application site, consists of segments with microprocessor-based controller and I/O modules, local area networks for communication, and a global supervisor computer. Segments are implemented with commercially available controller and I/O modules arranged in local interlock clusters, and associated software. Segments provide local interlock data acquisition, processing and control. Local area networks provide the communication backbone between segments and a global supervisor processor. The supervisor processor monitors the overall system, reports detail status and provides human interfaces. Details of an R and D test system, which will implement the requirements for personnel protection of 4 typical linear accelerator sectors, will be described. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Integration of planetary protection activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.

    1995-01-01

    For decades, NASA has been concerned about the protection of planets and other solar system bodies from biological contamination. Its policies regarding biological contamination control for outbound and inbound planetary spacecraft have evolved to focus on three important areas: (1) the preservation of celestial objects and the space environment; (2) protection of Earth from extraterrestrial hazards; and (3) ensuring the integrity of its scientific investigations. Over the years as new information has been obtained from planetary exploration and research, planetary protection parameters and policies have been modified accordingly. The overall focus of research under this cooperative agreement has been to provide information about non-scientific and societal factors related to planetary protection and use it in the planning and implementation phases of future Mars sample return missions.

  18. New Vaccines Help Protect You

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues New Vaccines Help Protect You Past Issues / Fall 2006 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Important new vaccines have recently been approved for use and ...

  19. PROTECTING CONFIDENTIALITY IN ESTABLISHMENT SURVEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This invited chapter for an International Monograph on Survey Methods inEstablishment Surveys summarizes methods for protecting respondent confidentiality in establishment surveys and includes open research problems and an extensive bibliography. t will be summarized in an invite...

  20. 14 CFR 17.9 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protective orders. 17.9 Section 17.9... PROCEDURES FOR PROTESTS AND CONTRACT DISPUTES General § 17.9 Protective orders. (a) The ODRA may issue protective orders addressing the treatment of protected information, including protected information...

  1. 40 CFR 27.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protective order. 27.24 Section 27.24... Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order... availability or disclosure of evidence. (b) In issuing a protective order, the presiding officer may make...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2179 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2179 Section 52.2179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Dakota § 52.2179 Visibility protection. (a) The requirements of section 169A...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1488 - Visibility protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1488 Section 52.1488 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1488 Visibility protection. (a) The requirements of section 169A of...

  4. Embryo protection in contemporary immunology

    PubMed Central

    Fraune, Sebastian; Augustin, René

    2011-01-01

    Early embryos of many vertebrates and invertebrates develop outside the mother and are exposed to a myriad of potential microbial colonizers. Here we discuss how these embryos are protected from microbial attacks and how they might control and shape their microbiota. In essence we delineate a new role for antimicrobial peptides both in selecting particular bacterial partners during early development and in being important components of a “be prepared” strategy providing transgenerational protection. PMID:21966549

  5. Considerations in vaccine patent protection.

    PubMed

    Brazell, Lorna

    2010-12-01

    This feature article discusses the basic principles of patentability as related to vaccine research, and outlines recent cases in the US and EU in which vaccine patents have been considered. Issues regarding eligibility for supplementary protection, as currently being considered by the Court of Justice of the EU, are also outlined, as well as the implications of such issues in protecting future vaccine research. PMID:21154148

  6. Protection against Recurrent Stroke with Resveratrol: Endothelial Protection

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Darren; Tuor, Ursula I.; Thompson, Roger; Institoris, Adam; Kulynych, Angela; Zhang, Xu; Kinniburgh, David W.; Bari, Ferenc; Busija, David W.; Barber, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite increased risk of a recurrent stroke following a minor stroke, information is minimal regarding the interaction between injurious mild cerebral ischemic episodes and the possible treatments which might be effective. The aim of the current study was to investigate recurrent ischemic stroke and whether resveratrol, a nutritive polyphenol with promising cardio- and neuro- protective properties, could ameliorate the associated brain damage. Experiments in adult rats demonstrated that a mild ischemic stroke followed by a second mild cerebral ischemia exacerbated brain damage, and, daily oral resveratrol treatment after the first ischemic insult reduced ischemic cell death with the recurrent insult (P<0.002). Further investigation demonstrated reduction of both inflammatory changes and markers of oxidative stress in resveratrol treated animals. The protection observed with resveratrol treatment could not be explained by systemic effects of resveratrol treatment including effects either on blood pressure or body temperature measured telemetrically. Investigation of resveratrol effects on the blood-brain barrier in vivo demonstrated that resveratrol treatment reduced blood-brain barrier disruption and edema following recurrent stroke without affecting regional cerebral blood flow. Investigation of the mechanism in primary cell culture studies demonstrated that resveratrol treatment significantly protected endothelial cells against an in vitro ‘ischemia’ resulting in improved viability against oxygen and glucose deprivation (39.6±6.6% and 81.3±9.5% in vehicle and resveratrol treated cells, respectively). An inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis did not prevent the improved cell viability following oxygen glucose deprivation but SIRT-1 inhibition with sirtinol partially blocked the protection (P<0.001) suggesting endothelial protection is to some extent SIRT-1 dependent. Collectively, the results support that oral resveratrol treatment provides a low risk

  7. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS...: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency: On occasion. Affected Public:...

  8. 78 FR 42071 - Updates to Protective Action Guides Manual: Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and Planning Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Updates to Protective Action Guides Manual: Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and Planning Guidance... the public comment period for the proposed guidance ``PAG Manual: Protective Action Guides (PAGs)...

  9. Protective Skins for Composite Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Vicki S.; Boone, Richard L.; Jones, Shannon; Pendse, Vandana; Hayward, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Traditional composite aircraft structures are designed for load bearing and then overdesigned for impact damage and hot humid environments. Seeking revolutionary improvement in the performance and weight of composite structures, Cessna Aircraft Company, with sponsorship from the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program/Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, has developed and tested a protective skin concept which would allow the primary composite structure to carry only load and would meet the impact, hot and humid, and other requirements through protective skins. A key requirement for the protective skins is to make any impact damage requiring repair visible. Testing from the first generation of skins helped identify the most promising materials which were used in a second generation of test articles. This report summarizes lessons learned from the first generation of protective skins, the design and construction of the second-generation test articles, test results from the second generation for impact, electromagnetic effects, aesthetics and smoothing, thermal, and acoustic (for the first time), and an assessment of the feasibility of the protective skin concept.

  10. Generic physical protection logic trees

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  11. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment... Disposal Additional Provisions § 197.38 Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? Yes. The individual protection and ground water protection standards are severable....

  12. Orbiter Thermal Protection System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenshields, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) is traced from concept definition, through technical development, to final design and qualification for manned flight. A sufficiently detailed description of the TPS design is presented to support an indepth discussion of the key issues encountered in conceptual design, materials development, and structural integration. Emphasis is placed on the unique combination of requirements which resulted in the use not only of revolutionary design concepts and materials, but also of unique design criteria, newly developed analysis, testing and manufacturing methods, and finally of an unconventional approach to system certification for operational flight. The conclusion is drawn that a significant advance in all areas of thermal protection system development has been achieved which results in a highly efficient, flexible, and cost-effective thermal protection system for the Orbiter of the Space Shuttle System.

  13. New Approaches to Radiation Protection

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Eliot M.; Day, Regina; Singh, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (e.g., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion); hence they are called radiation countermeasures. Here, we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small-molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development. PMID:25653923

  14. Inside the cone of protection

    SciTech Connect

    Stahmann, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Although lightning cones of protection and cones of attraction have been used for over 100 years, much confusion still remains as to their effectiveness, particularly as applied to personnel protection. At Kennedy Space Center, a 1:1 cone of protection with a straight side is standard for structure or equipment protection. However, at the launch pad, where a 400-foot lightning lightning rod on top of an insulating mast is used for pad lightning protection, the idea developed that personnel within a 400-foot radius of this mast would be safe from lightning and those outside it would not. Since it is obvious that a person 395 feet (120.4 m.) from the mast is only slightly safer than one at 405 feet (123.5 m.), an investigation was initiated to calculate the probabilities of a person being struck by lightning as he moves closer to the mast inside the cone of protection. Since the risk does not go to zero outside the structure, the risk level can then be estimated. To arrive at the expected strike frequency, it was necessary to measure the strike frequencies at KSC. Krider and others have found a mean area density of cloud-to-ground lightning at KSC of about 4.6 + or - 3.1 flashes per sq km per month in the summer. An overall frequency is estimated as about 20 flashes per sq km per year. With these data, the risk of exposure at various distances from the lightning mast can be calculated. Assuming continuous exposure during thunderstorms, this risk varies from about one strike per person in 1,400 years near the tower to one stroke per person in 300 years at about 400 foot (122 m.).

  15. Reorganizing Child Protective Services: Protecting Children and Providing Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Elizabeth D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines the proposal to assign the child protective investigative function to law enforcement agencies, while maintaining the family service function in the child welfare system. Reviews the national experience with the separation of income maintenance and social services in public welfare, advising extreme caution in the implementation of this…

  16. National Infrastructure Protection Plan: Partnering to Enhance Protection and Resiliency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Homeland Security, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal of the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) is to build a safer, more secure, and more resilient America by preventing, deterring, neutralizing, or mitigating the effects of deliberate efforts by terrorists to destroy, incapacitate, or exploit elements of our Nation's critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR)…

  17. Cryogenic filters for RFI protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.; Petty, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    The increased bandwidth and sensitivity of the DSN maser-based receiver systems along with the increase in worldwide microwave spectrum usage dictated the need for employing additional measures to protect these systems from RFI (radio frequency inerference). Both in-band and out-of-band microwave signals at the input of the Deep Space Network (DSN) traveling wave masers (TWM) can adversely affect the maser performance in a variety of ways. Filters fabricated from superconducting materials operating below their superconducting transition temperature (Tc) possess the most potential for providing the necessary RFI protection without degrading the system performance.

  18. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  19. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lex lata, the existing applicable Law, especially Space Law, and also lex ferenda, what should be the law. With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of "Planetary", and of "Protection". About "Planetary": Our own Earth is the most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. Then, we have to discuss what is further meant by "Planetary": Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protection from what? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B. Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits. Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from Electronic "Noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then

  20. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.94 Foot protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot...

  5. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  6. 32 CFR 644.140 - Physical protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... physical protection. In accordance with 41 CFR 101-20.504, a Facility Self-Protection Plan is to be... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Physical protection. 644.140 Section 644.140... ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Acquisition by Leasing § 644.140 Physical protection. It is essential...

  7. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective orders. 21.4 Section 21.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES BID PROTEST REGULATIONS § 21.4 Protective orders. (a) At the request of a party or on its own initiative, GAO may issue a protective order controlling the treatment of protected information. Such...

  8. 14 CFR 25.581 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lightning protection. 25.581 Section 25.581... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Lightning Protection § 25.581 Lightning protection. (a) The airplane must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For...

  9. 14 CFR 25.581 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lightning protection. 25.581 Section 25.581... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Lightning Protection § 25.581 Lightning protection. (a) The airplane must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For...

  10. 14 CFR 25.581 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning protection. 25.581 Section 25.581... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Lightning Protection § 25.581 Lightning protection. (a) The airplane must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For...

  11. Adoption and Child Welfare Protection in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Rosset, Dominique-Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the French Child Protection system, which is managed by Child Welfare of the local authorities (Aide Sociale a l'Enfance) and by Judicial Juvenile Protection depending on the central government (Protection Judiciaire de la Jeunesse) Children's judges are involved in child protection. The majority of children in care live in…

  12. 10 CFR 1016.25 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective personnel. 1016.25 Section 1016.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.25 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel are required by § 1016.23, such protective...

  13. 10 CFR 1016.25 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protective personnel. 1016.25 Section 1016.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.25 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel are required by § 1016.23, such protective...

  14. 10 CFR 1016.25 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protective personnel. 1016.25 Section 1016.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.25 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel are required by § 1016.23, such protective...

  15. 10 CFR 1016.25 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protective personnel. 1016.25 Section 1016.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.25 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel are required by § 1016.23, such protective...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.93 Head protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each... the head from falling objects. (b)(1) The employer must ensure that head protection complies with...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.93 Head protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each... the head from falling objects. (b)(1) The employer must ensure that head protection complies with...

  18. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.93 Head protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each... the head from falling objects. (b)(1) The employer must ensure that head protection complies with...

  19. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.93 Head protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each... the head from falling objects. (b)(1) The employer must ensure that head protection complies with...

  20. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.93 Head protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each... the head from falling objects. (b)(1) The employer must ensure that head protection complies with...

  1. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  2. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  3. 30 CFR 865.11 - Protected activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES § 865.11 Protected activity. (a) No person shall discharge or.... (b) Each employer conducting operations which are regulated under this Act, shall within 30 days from... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protected activity. 865.11 Section...

  4. 4 CFR 21.4 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective orders. 21.4 Section 21.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES BID PROTEST REGULATIONS § 21.4 Protective orders. (a) At the request of... copies of documents omitting protected information. Because a protective order serves to facilitate...

  5. 30 CFR 865.11 - Protected activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES § 865.11 Protected activity. (a) No person shall discharge or.... (b) Each employer conducting operations which are regulated under this Act, shall within 30 days from... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protected activity. 865.11 Section...

  6. 43 CFR 35.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... protective order, the ALJ may make any order which justice requires to protect a party or person from... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protective order. 35.24 Section 35.24... CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS § 35.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may...

  7. 30 CFR 865.11 - Protected activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES § 865.11 Protected activity. (a) No person shall discharge or.... (b) Each employer conducting operations which are regulated under this Act, shall within 30 days from... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protected activity. 865.11 Section...

  8. 38 CFR 3.952 - Protected ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.952 Protected ratings. Ratings under the... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protected ratings. 3.952... evaluation and award are protected....

  9. 38 CFR 3.952 - Protected ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Protection § 3.952 Protected ratings. Ratings under the... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protected ratings. 3.952... evaluation and award are protected....

  10. 10 CFR 1016.25 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective personnel. 1016.25 Section 1016.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.25 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel are required by § 1016.23, such protective...