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Sample records for protein arginine methyltransferase

  1. Redox Control of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) Activity.

    PubMed

    Morales, Yalemi; Nitzel, Damon V; Price, Owen M; Gui, Shanying; Li, Jun; Qu, Jun; Hevel, Joan M

    2015-06-12

    Elevated levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) correlate with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. ADMA is generated by the catabolism of proteins methylated on arginine residues by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) and is degraded by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase. Reports have shown that dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase activity is down-regulated and PRMT1 protein expression is up-regulated under oxidative stress conditions, leading many to conclude that ADMA accumulation occurs via increased synthesis by PRMTs and decreased degradation. However, we now report that the methyltransferase activity of PRMT1, the major PRMT isoform in humans, is impaired under oxidative conditions. Oxidized PRMT1 displays decreased activity, which can be rescued by reduction. This oxidation event involves one or more cysteine residues that become oxidized to sulfenic acid (-SOH). We demonstrate a hydrogen peroxide concentration-dependent inhibition of PRMT1 activity that is readily reversed under physiological H2O2 concentrations. Our results challenge the unilateral view that increased PRMT1 expression necessarily results in increased ADMA synthesis and demonstrate that enzymatic activity can be regulated in a redox-sensitive manner. PMID:25911106

  2. Diamidine Compounds for Selective Inhibition of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification critical for a variety of biological processes. Misregulation of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) has been linked to many pathological conditions. Most current PRMT inhibitors display limited specificity and selectivity, indiscriminately targeting many methyltransferase enzymes that use S-adenosyl-l-methionine as a cofactor. Here we report diamidine compounds for specific inhibition of PRMT1, the primary type I enzyme. Docking, molecular dynamics, and MM/PBSA analysis together with biochemical assays were conducted to understand the binding modes of these inhibitors and the molecular basis of selective inhibition for PRMT1. Our data suggest that 2,5-bis(4-amidinophenyl)furan (1, furamidine, DB75), one leading inhibitor, targets the enzyme active site and is primarily competitive with the substrate and noncompetitive toward the cofactor. Furthermore, cellular studies revealed that 1 is cell membrane permeable and effectively inhibits intracellular PRMT1 activity and blocks cell proliferation in leukemia cell lines with different genetic lesions. PMID:24564570

  3. The Role of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases in Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, Byong Chul; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Eunji; Hong, Sungyoul

    2016-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) mediate the methylation of a number of protein substrates of arginine residues and serve critical functions in many cellular responses, including cancer development, progression, and aggressiveness, T-lymphocyte activation, and hepatic gluconeogenesis. There are nine members of the PRMT family, which are divided into 4 types (types I–IV). Although most PRMTs do not require posttranslational modification (PTM) to be activated, fine-tuning modifications, such as interactions between cofactor proteins, subcellular compartmentalization, and regulation of RNA, via micro-RNAs, seem to be required. Inflammation is an essential defense reaction of the body to eliminate harmful stimuli, including damaged cells, irritants, or pathogens. However, chronic inflammation can eventually cause several types of diseases, including some cancers, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. Therefore, inflammation responses should be well modulated. In this review, we briefly discuss the role of PRMTs in the control of inflammation. More specifically, we review the roles of four PRMTs (CARM1, PRMT1, PRMT5, and PRMT6) in modulating inflammation responses, particularly in terms of modulating the transcriptional factors or cofactors related to inflammation. Based on the regulatory roles known so far, we propose that PRMTs should be considered one of the target molecule groups that modulate inflammatory responses. PMID:27041824

  4. The Role of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases in Inflammatory Responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, Byong Chul; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Eunji; Hong, Sungyoul; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) mediate the methylation of a number of protein substrates of arginine residues and serve critical functions in many cellular responses, including cancer development, progression, and aggressiveness, T-lymphocyte activation, and hepatic gluconeogenesis. There are nine members of the PRMT family, which are divided into 4 types (types I-IV). Although most PRMTs do not require posttranslational modification (PTM) to be activated, fine-tuning modifications, such as interactions between cofactor proteins, subcellular compartmentalization, and regulation of RNA, via micro-RNAs, seem to be required. Inflammation is an essential defense reaction of the body to eliminate harmful stimuli, including damaged cells, irritants, or pathogens. However, chronic inflammation can eventually cause several types of diseases, including some cancers, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. Therefore, inflammation responses should be well modulated. In this review, we briefly discuss the role of PRMTs in the control of inflammation. More specifically, we review the roles of four PRMTs (CARM1, PRMT1, PRMT5, and PRMT6) in modulating inflammation responses, particularly in terms of modulating the transcriptional factors or cofactors related to inflammation. Based on the regulatory roles known so far, we propose that PRMTs should be considered one of the target molecule groups that modulate inflammatory responses. PMID:27041824

  5. Mammalian Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) Specifically Targets RXR Sites in Lysine- and Arginine-rich Regions*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, You; Maity, Ranjan; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Hadjikyriacou, Andrea; Li, Ziwei; Zurita-Lopez, Cecilia; Al-Hadid, Qais; Clark, Amander T.; Bedford, Mark T.; Masson, Jean-Yves; Clarke, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) has been implicated in roles of transcriptional regulation, DNA damage repair, RNA splicing, cell differentiation, and metastasis. However, the type of reaction that it catalyzes and its substrate specificity remain controversial. In this study, we purified a recombinant mouse PRMT7 expressed in insect cells that demonstrates a robust methyltransferase activity. Using a variety of substrates, we demonstrate that the enzyme only catalyzes the formation of ω-monomethylarginine residues, and we confirm its activity as the prototype type III protein arginine methyltransferase. This enzyme is active on all recombinant human core histones, but histone H2B is a highly preferred substrate. Analysis of the specific methylation sites within intact histone H2B and within H2B and H4 peptides revealed novel post-translational modification sites and a unique specificity of PRMT7 for methylating arginine residues in lysine- and arginine-rich regions. We demonstrate that a prominent substrate recognition motif consists of a pair of arginine residues separated by one residue (RXR motif). These findings will significantly accelerate substrate profile analysis, biological function study, and inhibitor discovery for PRMT7. PMID:24247247

  6. PRMT11: a new Arabidopsis MBD7 protein partner with arginine methyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Scebba, Francesca; De Bastiani, Morena; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Andreucci, Andrea; Galli, Alvaro; Pitto, Letizia

    2007-10-01

    Plant methyl-DNA-binding proteins (MBDs), discovered by sequence homology to their animal counterparts, have not been well characterized at the physiological and functional levels. In order better to characterize the Arabidopsis AtMBD7 protein, unique in bearing three MBD domains, we used a yeast two-hybrid system to identify its partners. One of the interacting proteins we cloned is the Arabidopsis arginine methyltransferase 11 (AtPRMT11). Glutathione S-transferase pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that the two proteins interact with each other and can be co-isolated. Using GFP fluorescence, we show that both AtMBD7 and AtPRMT11 are present in the nucleus. Further analyses revealed that AtPRMT11 acts as an arginine methyltransferase active on both histones and proteins of cellular extracts. The analysis of a T-DNA mutant line lacking AtPRMT11 mRNA revealed reduced levels of proteins with asymmetrically dimethylated arginines, suggesting that AtPRMT11, which is highly similar to mammalian PRMT1, is indeed a type I arginine methyltransferase. Further, AtMBD7 is a substrate for AtPRMT11, which post-translationally modifies the portion of the protein-containing C-terminal methylated DNA-binding domain. These results suggest the existence of a link between DNA methylation and arginine methylation. PMID:17711414

  7. Aflatoxin B1 induced upregulation of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 in human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ghufran, Md Sajid; Ghosh, Krishna; Kanade, Santosh R

    2016-09-01

    The exposure of naturally occurring mycotoxins affects human health and play a vital role in cancer initiation and progression. Aflatoxin B1 is a difuranocoumarin mycotoxin, classified as a group I carcinogen. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of aflatoxin B1 on epigenetic regulatory proteins. The protein arginine methyltransferase 5 expression was induced upon aflatoxin B1 treatment in a dose and time dependent manner. Further global arginine methylation was also increased in the same manner. This is the first report showing the induction of epigenetic regulatory protein, protein arginine methyltransferase 5 upon aflatoxin B1 treatment. Further study is required to establish the detailed pathway of PRMT5 induction. PMID:27242039

  8. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 regulates herpes simplex virus replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jungeun; Shin, Bongjin; Park, Eui-Soon; Yang, Sujeong; Choi, Seunga; Kang, Misun; Rho, Jaerang

    2010-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is involved in viral infection and replication through the modulation of diverse cellular processes including RNA metabolism, cytokine signaling, and subcellular localization. It has been suggested previously that the protein arginine methylation of the RGG-box of ICP27 is required for herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) viral replication and gene expression in vivo. However, a cellular mediator for this process has not yet been identified. In our current study, we show that the protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is a cellular mediator of the arginine methylation of ICP27 RGG-box. We generated arginine substitution mutants in this domain and examined which arginine residues are required for methylation by PRMT1. R138, R148 and R150 were found to be the major sites of this methylation but additional arginine residues serving as minor methylation sites are still required to sustain the fully methylated form of ICP27 RGG. We also demonstrate that the nuclear foci-like structure formation, SRPK interactions, and RNA-binding activity of ICP27 are modulated by the arginine methylation of the ICP27 RGG-box. Furthermore, HSV-1 replication is inhibited by hypomethylation of this domain resulting from the use of general PRMT inhibitors or arginine mutations. Our data thus suggest that the PRMT1 plays a key role as a cellular regulator of HSV-1 replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation.

  9. Structural basis for Sfm1 functioning as a protein arginine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Fengjuan; Zhang, Tianlong; Zhou, Zhen; Gao, Shuaixin; Wong, Catherine CL; Zhou, Jin-Qiu; Ding, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    SPOUT proteins constitute one class of methyltransferases, which so far are found to exert activity mainly towards RNAs. Previously, yeast Sfm1 was predicted to contain a SPOUT domain but can methylate ribosomal protein S3. Here we report the crystal structure of Sfm1, which comprises of a typical SPOUT domain and a small C-terminal domain. The active site is similar to that of protein arginine methyltransferases but different from that of RNA methyltransferases. In addition, Sfm1 exhibits a negatively charged surface surrounding the active site unsuitable for RNA binding. Our biochemical data show that Sfm1 exists as a monomer and has high activity towards ribosomal protein S3 but no activity towards RNA. It can specifically catalyze the methylation of Arg146 of S3 and the C-terminal domain is critical for substrate binding and activity. These results together provide the structural basis for Sfm1 functioning as a PRMT for ribosomal protein S3.

  10. A Potent, Selective, and Cell-Active Inhibitor of Human Type I Protein Arginine Methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Eram, Mohammad S; Shen, Yudao; Szewczyk, Magdalena M; Wu, Hong; Senisterra, Guillermo; Li, Fengling; Butler, Kyle V; Kaniskan, H Ümit; Speed, Brandon A; dela Seña, Carlo; Dong, Aiping; Zeng, Hong; Schapira, Matthieu; Brown, Peter J; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Liu, Jing; Vedadi, Masoud; Jin, Jian

    2016-03-18

    Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) play a crucial role in a variety of biological processes. Overexpression of PRMTs has been implicated in various human diseases including cancer. Consequently, selective small-molecule inhibitors of PRMTs have been pursued by both academia and the pharmaceutical industry as chemical tools for testing biological and therapeutic hypotheses. PRMTs are divided into three categories: type I PRMTs which catalyze mono- and asymmetric dimethylation of arginine residues, type II PRMTs which catalyze mono- and symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues, and type III PRMT which catalyzes only monomethylation of arginine residues. Here, we report the discovery of a potent, selective, and cell-active inhibitor of human type I PRMTs, MS023, and characterization of this inhibitor in a battery of biochemical, biophysical, and cellular assays. MS023 displayed high potency for type I PRMTs including PRMT1, -3, -4, -6, and -8 but was completely inactive against type II and type III PRMTs, protein lysine methyltransferases and DNA methyltransferases. A crystal structure of PRMT6 in complex with MS023 revealed that MS023 binds the substrate binding site. MS023 potently decreased cellular levels of histone arginine asymmetric dimethylation. It also reduced global levels of arginine asymmetric dimethylation and concurrently increased levels of arginine monomethylation and symmetric dimethylation in cells. We also developed MS094, a close analog of MS023, which was inactive in biochemical and cellular assays, as a negative control for chemical biology studies. MS023 and MS094 are useful chemical tools for investigating the role of type I PRMTs in health and disease. PMID:26598975

  11. Molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns of five protein arginine methyltransferase genes of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein arginine methylation, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT), has recently emerged as an important modification in the regulation of gene expression. In this communication, we identified and characterized the channel catfish orthologs to human PRMT 1, 3, 4 and 5, and PRMT4 ...

  12. A glutamate/aspartate switch controls product specificity in a protein arginine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Debler, Erik W; Jain, Kanishk; Warmack, Rebeccah A; Feng, You; Clarke, Steven G; Blobel, Günter; Stavropoulos, Pete

    2016-02-23

    Trypanosoma brucei PRMT7 (TbPRMT7) is a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) that strictly monomethylates various substrates, thus classifying it as a type III PRMT. However, the molecular basis of its unique product specificity has remained elusive. Here, we present the structure of TbPRMT7 in complex with its cofactor product S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (AdoHcy) at 2.8 Å resolution and identify a glutamate residue critical for its monomethylation behavior. TbPRMT7 comprises the conserved methyltransferase and β-barrel domains, an N-terminal extension, and a dimerization arm. The active site at the interface of the N-terminal extension, methyltransferase, and β-barrel domains is stabilized by the dimerization arm of the neighboring protomer, providing a structural basis for dimerization as a prerequisite for catalytic activity. Mutagenesis of active-site residues highlights the importance of Glu181, the second of the two invariant glutamate residues of the double E loop that coordinate the target arginine in substrate peptides/proteins and that increase its nucleophilicity. Strikingly, mutation of Glu181 to aspartate converts TbPRMT7 into a type I PRMT, producing asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) using a histone H4 peptide showed that the Glu181Asp mutant has markedly increased affinity for monomethylated peptide with respect to the WT, suggesting that the enlarged active site can favorably accommodate monomethylated peptide and provide sufficient space for ADMA formation. In conclusion, these findings yield valuable insights into the product specificity and the catalytic mechanism of protein arginine methyltransferases and have important implications for the rational (re)design of PRMTs. PMID:26858449

  13. A glutamate/aspartate switch controls product specificity in a protein arginine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Debler, Erik W.; Jain, Kanishk; Warmack, Rebeccah A.; Feng, You; Clarke, Steven G.; Blobel, Günter; Stavropoulos, Pete

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei PRMT7 (TbPRMT7) is a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) that strictly monomethylates various substrates, thus classifying it as a type III PRMT. However, the molecular basis of its unique product specificity has remained elusive. Here, we present the structure of TbPRMT7 in complex with its cofactor product S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (AdoHcy) at 2.8 Å resolution and identify a glutamate residue critical for its monomethylation behavior. TbPRMT7 comprises the conserved methyltransferase and β-barrel domains, an N-terminal extension, and a dimerization arm. The active site at the interface of the N-terminal extension, methyltransferase, and β-barrel domains is stabilized by the dimerization arm of the neighboring protomer, providing a structural basis for dimerization as a prerequisite for catalytic activity. Mutagenesis of active-site residues highlights the importance of Glu181, the second of the two invariant glutamate residues of the double E loop that coordinate the target arginine in substrate peptides/proteins and that increase its nucleophilicity. Strikingly, mutation of Glu181 to aspartate converts TbPRMT7 into a type I PRMT, producing asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) using a histone H4 peptide showed that the Glu181Asp mutant has markedly increased affinity for monomethylated peptide with respect to the WT, suggesting that the enlarged active site can favorably accommodate monomethylated peptide and provide sufficient space for ADMA formation. In conclusion, these findings yield valuable insights into the product specificity and the catalytic mechanism of protein arginine methyltransferases and have important implications for the rational (re)design of PRMTs. PMID:26858449

  14. Cloning, expression, purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of mouse protein arginine methyltransferase 7.

    PubMed

    Cura, Vincent; Troffer-Charlier, Nathalie; Lambert, Marie-Annick; Bonnefond, Luc; Cavarelli, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) is a unique but less characterized member of the family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) that plays a role in male germline gene imprinting. PRMT7 is the only known PRMT member that catalyzes the monomethylation but not the dimethylation of the target arginine residues and harbours two catalytic domains in tandem. PRMT7 genes from five different species were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and Sf21 insect cells. Four gave soluble proteins from Sf21 cells, of which two were homogeneous and one gave crystals. The mouse PRMT7 structure was solved by the single anomalous dispersion method using a crystal soaked with thimerosal that diffracted to beyond 2.1 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P4(3)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 97.4, c = 168.1 Å and one PRMT7 monomer in the asymmetric unit. The structure of another crystal form belonging to space group I222 was solved by molecular replacement. PMID:24419624

  15. Identification of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 as a Regulator for Encystation of Acanthamoeba

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Yeonchul; Chung, Dong-Il; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Encystation is an essential process for Acanthamoeba survival under nutrient-limiting conditions and exposure to drugs. The expression of several genes has been observed to increase or decrease during encystation. Epigenetic processes involved in regulation of gene expression have been shown to play a role in several pathogenic parasites. In the present study, we identified the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), a known epigenetic regulator, in Acanthamoeba castellanii. PRMT5 of A. castellanii (AcPRMT5) contained domains found in S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases and in PRMT5 arginine-N-methyltransferase. Expression levels of AcPRMT5 were increased during encystation of A. castellanii. The EGFP-PRMT5 fusion protein was mainly localized in the nucleus of trophozoites. A. castellanii transfected with siRNA designed against AcPRMT5 failed to form mature cysts. The findings of this study lead to a better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms behind the regulation of encystation in cyst-forming pathogenic protozoa. PMID:27180570

  16. Arginine methyltransferases in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, Sarah M; Liu, Fan; Nimer, Stephen D

    2016-06-01

    Arginine methylation is an abundant covalent modification that regulates diverse cellular processes, including transcription, translation, DNA repair, and RNA processing. The enzymes that catalyze these marks are known as the protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), and they can generate asymmetric dimethyl arginine (type I arginine methyltransferases), symmetric dimethylarginine (type II arginine methyltransferases), or monomethyarginine (type III arginine methyltransferases). The PRMTs are capable of modifying diverse substrates, from histone components to specific nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Additionally, the PRMTs can orchestrate chromatin remodeling by blocking the docking of other epigenetic modifying enzymes or by recruiting them to specific gene loci. In the hematopoietic system, PRMTs can regulate cell behavior, including the critical balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, in at least two critical ways, via (i) the covalent modification of transcription factors and (ii) the regulation of histone modifications at promoters critical to cell fate determination. Given these important functions, it is not surprising that these processes are altered in hematopoietic malignancies, such as acute myeloid leukemia, where they promote increased self-renewal and impair hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell differentiation. PMID:27026282

  17. Identification of Methylated Proteins in the Yeast Small Ribosomal Subunit: A Role for SPOUT Methyltransferases in Protein Arginine Methylation†

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brian D.; Weiss, David I.; Zurita-Lopez, Cecilia I.; Webb, Kristofor J.; Clarke, Steven G.; McBride, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    We have characterized the posttranslational methylation of Rps2, Rps3, and Rps27a, three small ribosomal subunit proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using mass spectrometry and amino acid analysis. We found that Rps2 is substoichiometrically modified at arginine-10 by the Rmt1 methyltransferase. We demonstrated that Rps3 is stoichiometrically modified by ω-monomethylation at arginine-146 by mass spectrometric and site-directed mutagenic analyses. Substitution of alanine for arginine at position 146 is associated with slow cell growth, suggesting that the amino acid identity at this site may influence ribosomal function and/or biogenesis. Analysis of the three-dimensional structure of Rps3 in S. cerevisiae shows that arginine-146 makes contacts with the small subunit rRNA. Screening of deletion mutants encoding potential yeast methyltransferases revealed that the loss of the YOR021C gene results in the absence of methylation on Rps3. We demonstrated that recombinant Yor021c catalyzes ω-monomethylarginine formation when incubated with S-adenosylmethionine and hypomethylated ribosomes prepared from a YOR021C deletion strain. Interestingly, Yor021c belongs to the family of SPOUT methyltransferases that, to date, have only been shown to modify RNA substrates. Our findings suggest a wider role for SPOUT methyltransferases in nature. Finally, we have demonstrated the presence of a stoichiometrically methylated cysteine residue at position 39 of Rps27a in a zinc-cysteine cluster. The discovery of these three novel sites of protein modification within the small ribosomal subunit will now allow for an analysis of their functional roles in translation and possibly other cellular processes. PMID:22650761

  18. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel coactivator of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR).

    PubMed

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Inajima, Jun; Kato, Sayaka; Matsumoto, Maika; Tokumoto, Chikako; Kure, Yuki; Inouye, Yoshio

    2015-03-27

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a key role in the expression of xenobiotic/steroid and drug metabolizing enzymes and their transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel CAR-interacting protein. Furthermore, the PRMT-dependent induction of a CAR reporter gene, which was independent of methyltransferase activity, was enhanced in the presence of steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) or DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase DP97. Using tetracycline inducible-hCAR system in HepG2 cells, we showed that knockdown of PRMT5 with small interfering RNA suppressed tetracycline -induced mRNA expression of CYP2B6 but not of CYP2C9 or CYP3A4. PRMT5 enhanced phenobarbital-mediated transactivation of a phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM)-driven reporter gene in co-operation with PGC-1α in rat primary hepatocytes. Based on these findings, we suggest PRMT5 to be a gene (or promoter)-selective coactivator of CAR by mediating the formation of complexes between hCAR and appropriate coactivators. PMID:25721668

  19. The Arginine Methyltransferase PRMT6 Cooperates with Polycomb Proteins in Regulating HOXA Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Caroline; Bauer, Uta-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) catalyses asymmetric dimethylation of histone H3 at arginine 2 (H3R2me2a), which has been shown to impede the deposition of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) by blocking the binding and activity of the MLL1 complex. Importantly, the genomic occurrence of H3R2me2a has been found to coincide with histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), a repressive histone mark generated by the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). Therefore, we investigate here a putative crosstalk between PRMT6- and PRC-mediated repression in a cellular model of neuronal differentiation. We show that PRMT6 and subunits of PRC2 as well as PRC1 are bound to the same regulatory regions of rostral HOXA genes and that they control the differentiation-associated activation of these genes. Furthermore, we find that PRMT6 interacts with subunits of PRC1 and PRC2 and that depletion of PRMT6 results in diminished PRC1/PRC2 and H3K27me3 occupancy and in increased H3K4me3 levels at these target genes. Taken together, our data uncover a novel, additional mechanism of how PRMT6 contributes to gene repression by cooperating with Polycomb proteins. PMID:26848759

  20. Genetic validation of the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 as a candidate therapeutic target in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fengting; Alinari, Lapo; Lustberg, Mark E.; Martin, Ludmila Katherine; Cordero-Nieves, Hector M.; Banasavadi-Siddegowda, Yeshavanth; Virk, Selene; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Bell, Erica Hlavin; Wojton, Jeffrey; Jacob, Naduparambil K.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Nowicki, Michal O.; Wu, Xin; Lapalombella, Rosa; Datta, Jharna; Yu, Bo; Gordon, Kate; Haseley, Amy; Patton, John T.; Smith, Porsha L.; Ryu, John; Zhang, Xiaoli; Mo, Xiaokui; Marcucci, Guido; Nuovo, Gerard; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk; Byrd, John C.; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Li, Chenglong; Sif, Said; Jacob, Samson; Lawler, Sean; Kaur, Balveen; Baiocchi, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive histologic subtype of brain cancer with poor outcomes and limited treatment options. Here we report the selective overexpression of the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 as a novel candidate theranostic target in this disease. PRMT5 silences the transcription of regulatory genes by catalyzing symmetric di-methylation of arginine residues on histone tails. PRMT5 overexpression in patient-derived primary tumors and cell lines correlated with cell line growth rate and inversely with overall patient survival. Genetic attenuation of PRMT5 led to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and loss of cell migratory activity. Cell death was p53-independent but caspase-dependent and enhanced with temozolomide, a chemotherapeutic agent used as a present standard of care. Global gene profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified the tumor suppressor ST7 as a key gene silenced by PRMT5. Diminished ST7 expression was associated with reduced patient survival. PRMT5 attenuation limited PRMT5 recruitment to the ST7 promoter, led to restored expression of ST7 and cell growth inhibition. Lastly, PRMT5 attenuation enhanced GBM cell survival in a mouse xenograft model of aggressive GBM. Together, our findings defined PRMT5 as a candidate prognostic factor and therapeutic target in GBM, offering a preclinical justification for targeting PRMT5-driven oncogenic pathways in this deadly disease. PMID:24453002

  1. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 is a key regulator of the MYCN oncoprotein in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Hyun; Szemes, Marianna; Vieira, Gabriella Cunha; Melegh, Zsombor; Malik, Sally; Heesom, Kate J; Von Wallwitz-Freitas, Laura; Greenhough, Alexander; Brown, Keith W; Zheng, Y George; Catchpoole, Daniel; Deery, Michael J; Malik, Karim

    2015-03-01

    Approximately half of poor prognosis neuroblastomas (NBs) are characterized by pathognomonic MYCN gene amplification and MYCN over-expression. Here we present data showing that short-interfering RNA mediated depletion of the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) in cell-lines representative of NBs with MYCN gene amplification leads to greatly impaired growth and apoptosis. Growth suppression is not apparent in the MYCN-negative SH-SY5Y NB cell-line, or in two immortalized human fibroblast cell-lines. Immunoblotting of NB cell-lines shows that high PRMT5 expression is strongly associated with MYCN-amplification (P < 0.004, Mann-Whitney U-test) and immunohistochemical analysis of primary NBs reveals that whilst PRMT5 protein is ubiquitously expressed in the cytoplasm of most cells, MYCN-amplified tumours exhibit pronounced nuclear PRMT5 staining. PRMT5 knockdown in MYCN-overexpressing cells, including the SHEP-21N cell-line with inducible MYCN expression leads to a dramatic decrease in MYCN protein and MYCN-associated cell-death in SHEP-21N cells. Quantitative gene expression analysis and cycloheximide chase experiments suggest that PRMT5 regulates MYCN at a post-transcriptional level. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that endogenous PRMT5 and MYCN interact in both SK-N-BE(2)C and NGP cell lines. By using liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of immunoprecipitated MYCN protein, we identified several potential sites of arginine dimethylation on the MYCN protein. Together our studies implicate PRMT5 in a novel mode of MYCN post-translational regulation and suggest PRMT5 plays a major role in NB tumorigenesis. Small-molecule inhibitors of PRMT5 may therefore represent a novel therapeutic strategy for neuroblastoma and other cancers driven by the MYCN oncogene. PMID:25475372

  2. Myc and Omomyc functionally associate with the Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mongiardi, Maria Patrizia; Savino, Mauro; Bartoli, Laura; Beji, Sara; Nanni, Simona; Scagnoli, Fiorella; Falchetti, Maria Laura; Favia, Annarita; Farsetti, Antonella; Levi, Andrea; Nasi, Sergio; Illi, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The c-Myc protein is dysregulated in many human cancers and its function has not been fully elucitated yet. The c-Myc inhibitor Omomyc displays potent anticancer properties in animal models. It perturbs the c-Myc protein network, impairs c-Myc binding to the E-boxes, retaining transrepressive properties and inducing histone deacetylation. Here we have employed Omomyc to further analyse c-Myc activity at the epigenetic level. We show that both Myc and Omomyc stimulate histone H4 symmetric dimethylation of arginine (R) 3 (H4R3me2s), in human glioblastoma and HEK293T cells. Consistently, both associated with protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5)—the catalyst of the reaction—and its co-factor Methylosome Protein 50 (MEP50). Confocal experiments showed that Omomyc co-localized with c-Myc, PRMT5 and H4R3me2s-enriched chromatin domains. Finally, interfering with PRMT5 activity impaired target gene activation by Myc whereas it restrained Omomyc-dependent repression. The identification of a histone-modifying complex associated with Omomyc represents the first demonstration of an active role of this miniprotein in modifying chromatin structure and adds new information regarding its action on c-Myc targets. More importantly, the observation that c-Myc may recruit PRMT5-MEP50, inducing H4R3 symmetric di-methylation, suggests previously unpredictable roles for c-Myc in gene expression regulation and new potential targets for therapy. PMID:26563484

  3. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel coactivator of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Yuichiro Inajima, Jun; Kato, Sayaka; Matsumoto, Maika; Tokumoto, Chikako; Kure, Yuki; Inouye, Yoshio

    2015-03-27

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a key role in the expression of xenobiotic/steroid and drug metabolizing enzymes and their transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel CAR-interacting protein. Furthermore, the PRMT-dependent induction of a CAR reporter gene, which was independent of methyltransferase activity, was enhanced in the presence of steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) or DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase DP97. Using tetracycline inducible-hCAR system in HepG2 cells, we showed that knockdown of PRMT5 with small interfering RNA suppressed tetracycline -induced mRNA expression of CYP2B6 but not of CYP2C9 or CYP3A4. PRMT5 enhanced phenobarbital-mediated transactivation of a phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM)-driven reporter gene in co-operation with PGC-1α in rat primary hepatocytes. Based on these findings, we suggest PRMT5 to be a gene (or promoter)-selective coactivator of CAR by mediating the formation of complexes between hCAR and appropriate coactivators. - Highlights: • Nuclear receptor CAR interact with PRMT5. • PRMT5 enhances transcriptional activity of CAR. • PRMT5 synergistically enhances transactivity of CAR by the co-expression of SRC-1, DP97 or PGC1α. • PRMT5 is a gene-selective co-activator for hCAR.

  4. Modulation of Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 2-dependent transcription by protein arginine methyltransferase 5

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cheng-Der; Cheng, Chi-Ping; Fang, Jia-Shih; Chen, Ling-Chih; Zhao, Bo; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-Wen

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Catalytic active PRMT5 substantially binds to the EBNA2 RG domain. ► PRMT5 augments the EBNA2-dependent transcription. ► PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of the EBNA2 RG domain. ► PRMT5 enhances the promoter occupancy of EBNA2 on its target promoters. -- Abstract: Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) 2 features an Arginine–Glycine repeat (RG) domain at amino acid positions 335–360, which is a known target for protein arginine methyltransferaser 5 (PRMT5). In this study, we performed protein affinity pull-down assays to demonstrate that endogenous PRMT5 derived from lymphoblastoid cells specifically associated with the protein bait GST-E2 RG. Transfection of a plasmid expressing PRMT5 induced a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in EBNA2-dependent transcription of both the LMP1 promoter in AKATA cells, which contain the EBV genome endogenously, and a Cp-Luc reporter plasmid in BJAB cells, which are EBV negative. Furthermore, we showed that there was a 2-fold enrichment of EBNA2 occupancy in target promoters in the presence of exogenous PRMT5. Taken together, we show that PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of EBNA2 RG domain to coordinate with EBNA2-mediated transcription. This modulation suggests that PRMT5 may play a role in latent EBV infection.

  5. Arabidopsis protein arginine methyltransferase 3 is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting precursor ribosomal RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Runlai; Liu, Chunyan; Ahmad, Ayaz; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Falong; Cao, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental and tightly regulated cellular process, including synthesis, processing, and assembly of rRNAs with ribosomal proteins. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been implicated in many important biological processes, such as ribosome biogenesis. Two alternative precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing pathways coexist in yeast and mammals; however, how PRMT affects ribosome biogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis PRMT3 (AtPRMT3) is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting pre-rRNA processing. Disruption of AtPRMT3 results in pleiotropic developmental defects, imbalanced polyribosome profiles, and aberrant pre-rRNA processing. We further identify an alternative pre-rRNA processing pathway in Arabidopsis and demonstrate that AtPRMT3 is required for the balance of these two pathways to promote normal growth and development. Our work uncovers a previously unidentified function of PRMT in posttranscriptional regulation of rRNA, revealing an extra layer of complexity in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:25352672

  6. Exploration of Cyanine Compounds as Selective Inhibitors of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is involved in many biological activities, such as gene transcription, signal transduction, and RNA processing. Overexpression of PRMT1 is related to cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases, and cancers; therefore, selective PRMT1 inhibitors serve as chemical probes to investigate the biological function of PRMT1 and drug candidates for disease treatment. Our previous work found trimethine cyanine compounds that effectively inhibit PRMT1 activity. In our present study, we systematically investigated the structure–activity relationship of cyanine structures. A pentamethine compound, E-84 (compound 50), showed inhibition on PRMT1 at the micromolar level and 6- to 25-fold selectivity over CARM1, PRMT5, and PRMT8. The cellular activity suggests that compound 50 permeated the cellular membrane, inhibited cellular PRMT1 activity, and blocked leukemia cell proliferation. Additionally, our molecular docking study suggested compound 50 might act by occupying the cofactor binding site, which provided a roadmap to guide further optimization of this lead compound. PMID:25559100

  7. Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 promotes breast cancer cell invasion through the induction of MMP9 expression

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, R. Mitchell; Haghandish, Nasim; Daneshmand, Manijeh; Amin, Shahrier; Paris, Geneviève; Falls, Theresa J.; Bell, John C.; Islam, Shahidul; Côté, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence points to the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of enzymes playing critical roles in cancer. PRMT7 has been identified in several gene expression studies to be associated with increased metastasis and decreased survival in breast cancer patients. However, this has not been extensively studied. Here we report that PRMT7 expression is significantly upregulated in both primary breast tumour tissues and in breast cancer lymph node metastases. We have demonstrated that reducing PRMT7 levels in invasive breast cancer cells using RNA interference significantly decreased cell invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Conversely, overexpression of PRMT7 in non-aggressive MCF7 cells enhanced their invasiveness. Furthermore, we show that PRMT7 induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), a well-known mediator of breast cancer metastasis. Importantly, we significantly rescued invasion of aggressive breast cancer cells depleted of PRMT7 by the exogenous expression of MMP9. Our results demonstrate that upregulation of PRMT7 in breast cancer may have a significant role in promoting cell invasion through the regulation of MMP9. This identifies PRMT7 as a novel and potentially significant biomarker and therapeutic target for breast cancer. PMID:25605249

  8. Novel Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 8 Isoform Is Essential for Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Sarah; Dominko, Tanja

    2016-09-01

    Identification of molecular mechanisms that regulate cellular replicative lifespan is needed to better understand the transition between a normal and a neoplastic cell phenotype. We have previously reported that low oxygen-mediated activity of FGF2 leads to an increase in cellular lifespan and acquisition of regeneration competence in human dermal fibroblasts (iRC cells). Though cells display a more plastic developmental phenotype, they remain non-tumorigenic when injected into SCID mice (Page et al. [2009] Cloning Stem Cells 11:417-426; Page et al. [2011] Eng Part A 17:2629-2640) allowing for investigation of mechanisms that regulate increased cellular lifespan in a non-tumorigenic system. Analysis of chromatin modification enzymes by qRT-PCR revealed a 13.3-fold upregulation of the arginine methyltransferase PRMT8 in iRC cells. Increased protein expression was confirmed in both iRC and human embryonic stem cells-the first demonstration of endogenous human PRMT8 expression outside the brain. Furthermore, iRC cells express a novel PRMT8 mRNA variant. Using siRNA-mediated knockdown we demonstrated that this novel variant was required for proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs) and grade IV glioblastomas. PRMT8 upregulation in a non-tumorigenic system may offer a potential diagnostic biomarker and a therapeutic target for cells in pre-cancerous and cancerous states. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2056-2066, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26851891

  9. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 is associated with malignant phenotype and peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Mitsuro; Shimizu, Dai; Fujii, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Haruyoshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Iwata, Naoki; Hayashi, Masamichi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Chie; Yamada, Suguru; Nakayama, Goro; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Koike, Masahiko; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Identification of novel gastric cancer (GC)-related molecules is necessary to improve management of patients with GC in both diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. The aim of the present study was to determine whether protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) acts as an oncogene in the progression of GC and whether it serves as a novel diagnostic marker and therapeutic target. We conducted global expression profiling of GC cell lines and RNA interference experiments to evaluate the effect of PRMT5 expression on the phenotype of GC cells. We analysed tissues of 179 patients with GC to assess the association of PRMT5 mRNA levels with clinicopathological factors. Differential expression of PRMT5 mRNA by GC cell lines correlated positively with the levels of GEMIN2, STAT3 and TGFB3. PRMT5 knockdown reduced the proliferation, invasion and migration of a GC cell line. PRMT5 mRNA levels were significantly higher in GC tissues than the corresponding adjacent normal tissues and were independent of tumour depth, differentiation and lymph node metastasis. High PRMT5 expression was an independent risk factor of positive peritoneal lavage cytology (odds ratio 3.90, P=0.003) and decreased survival. PRMT5 enhances the malignant phenotype of GC cell lines and its expression in gastric tissues may serve as a biomarker for patient stratification and a potential target of therapy. PMID:27315569

  10. Unique Features of Human Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 9 (PRMT9) and Its Substrate RNA Splicing Factor SF3B2*

    PubMed Central

    Hadjikyriacou, Andrea; Yang, Yanzhong; Espejo, Alexsandra; Bedford, Mark T.; Clarke, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Human protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) 9 symmetrically dimethylates arginine residues on splicing factor SF3B2 (SAP145) and has been functionally linked to the regulation of alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. Site-directed mutagenesis studies on this enzyme and its substrate had revealed essential unique residues in the double E loop and the importance of the C-terminal duplicated methyltransferase domain. In contrast to what had been observed with other PRMTs and their physiological substrates, a peptide containing the methylatable Arg-508 of SF3B2 was not recognized by PRMT9 in vitro. Although amino acid substitutions of residues surrounding Arg-508 had no great effect on PRMT9 recognition of SF3B2, moving the arginine residue within this sequence abolished methylation. PRMT9 and PRMT5 are the only known mammalian enzymes capable of forming symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) residues as type II PRMTs. We demonstrate here that the specificity of these enzymes for their substrates is distinct and not redundant. The loss of PRMT5 activity in mouse embryo fibroblasts results in almost complete loss of SDMA, suggesting that PRMT5 is the primary SDMA-forming enzyme in these cells. PRMT9, with its duplicated methyltransferase domain and conserved sequence in the double E loop, appears to have a unique structure and specificity among PRMTs for methylating SF3B2 and potentially other polypeptides. PMID:25979344

  11. Protein N-arginine methyltransferase 5 promotes the tumor progression and radioresistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Daoke; Liang, Tiansong; Gu, Yue; Zhao, Yulin; Shi, Yonggang; Zuo, Xiaoxiao; Cao, Qinchen; Yang, Ya; Kan, Quancheng

    2016-03-01

    Radiotherapy resistance is the main cause of the the poor prognosis of some nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Yet, the exact mechanism is still elusive. In the present study, we explored the clinical and biological role of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) in NPC. Our results revealed that PRMT5 was overexpressed in NPC tissues when compared with that in adjacent non-tumor tissues by quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting. High expression of PRMT5 was correlated with adverse outcomes of NPC patients as determined by the scoring of a tissue microarray. Silencing of PRMT5 promoted the radiosensitivity of 5-8F and CNE2 cells as determined by cell proliferation and colony formation assays. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) was identified as one of the downstream targets of PRMT5, and the silencing of PRMT5 decreased the mRNA and protein levels of FGFR3 in the 5-8F and CNE2 cells. Silencing of FGFR3 induced similar phenotypes as the inhibition of PRMT5, and re-expression of FGFR3 in 5-8F/shPRMT5 and CNE2/shPRMT5 cells restored the proliferation and colony formation ability induced by irradiation exposure. Our results indicate that PRMT5 is a marker of poor prognosis in NPC patients. PRMT5 promoted the radioresistance of NPC cells via targeting FGFR3, at least partly if not totally. PRMT5 and its downstream effector FGFR3 may be potential targets for anticancer strategy. PMID:26708443

  12. Genomic insights of protein arginine methyltransferase Hmt1 binding reveals novel regulatory functions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein arginine methylation is a post-translational modification involved in important biological processes such as transcription and RNA processing. This modification is catalyzed by both type I and II protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). One of the most conserved type I PRMTs is PRMT1, the homolog of which is Hmt1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hmt1 has been shown to play a role in various gene expression steps, such as promoting the dynamics of messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP) biogenesis, pre-mRNA splicing, and silencing of chromatin. To determine the full extent of Hmt1’s involvement during gene expression, we carried out a genome-wide location analysis for Hmt1. Results A comprehensive genome-wide binding profile for Hmt1 was obtained by ChIP-chip using NimbleGen high-resolution tiling microarrays. Of the approximately 1000 Hmt1-binding sites found, the majority fall within or proximal to an ORF. Different occupancy patterns of Hmt1 across genes with different transcriptional rates were found. Interestingly, Hmt1 occupancy is found at a number of other genomic features such as tRNA and snoRNA genes, thereby implicating a regulatory role in the biogenesis of these non-coding RNAs. RNA hybridization analysis shows that Hmt1 loss-of-function mutants display higher steady-state tRNA abundance relative to the wild-type. Co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate that Hmt1 interacts with the TFIIIB component Bdp1, suggesting a mechanism for Hmt1 in modulating RNA Pol III transcription to regulate tRNA production. Conclusions The genome-wide binding profile of Hmt1 reveals multiple potential new roles for Hmt1 in the control of eukaryotic gene expression, especially in the realm of non-coding RNAs. The data obtained here will provide an important blueprint for future mechanistic studies on the described occupancy relationship for genomic features bound by Hmt1. PMID:23268696

  13. Protein arginine methyltransferase CARM1 attenuates the paraspeckle-mediated nuclear retention of mRNAs containing IRAlus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shi-Bin; Xiang, Jian-Feng; Li, Xiang; Xu, Yefen; Xue, Wei; Huang, Min; Wong, Catharine C; Sagum, Cari A; Bedford, Mark T; Yang, Li; Cheng, Donghang; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2015-03-15

    In many cells, mRNAs containing inverted repeated Alu elements (IRAlus) in their 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) are inefficiently exported to the cytoplasm. Such nuclear retention correlates with paraspeckle-associated protein complexes containing p54(nrb). However, nuclear retention of mRNAs containing IRAlus is variable, and how regulation of retention and export is achieved is poorly understood. Here we show one mechanism of such regulation via the arginine methyltransferase CARM1 (coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1). We demonstrate that disruption of CARM1 enhances the nuclear retention of mRNAs containing IRAlus. CARM1 regulates this nuclear retention pathway at two levels: CARM1 methylates the coiled-coil domain of p54(nrb), resulting in reduced binding of p54(nrb) to mRNAs containing IRAlus, and also acts as a transcription regulator to suppress NEAT1 transcription, leading to reduced paraspeckle formation. These actions of CARM1 work together synergistically to regulate the export of transcripts containing IRAlus from paraspeckles under certain cellular stresses, such as poly(I:C) treatment. This work demonstrates how a post-translational modification of an RNA-binding protein affects protein-RNA interaction and also uncovers a mechanism of transcriptional regulation of the long noncoding RNA NEAT1. PMID:25792598

  14. Protein arginine methyltransferase CARM1 attenuates the paraspeckle-mediated nuclear retention of mRNAs containing IRAlus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shi-Bin; Xiang, Jian-Feng; Li, Xiang; Xu, Yefen; Xue, Wei; Huang, Min; Wong, Catharine C.; Sagum, Cari A.; Bedford, Mark T.; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    In many cells, mRNAs containing inverted repeated Alu elements (IRAlus) in their 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) are inefficiently exported to the cytoplasm. Such nuclear retention correlates with paraspeckle-associated protein complexes containing p54nrb. However, nuclear retention of mRNAs containing IRAlus is variable, and how regulation of retention and export is achieved is poorly understood. Here we show one mechanism of such regulation via the arginine methyltransferase CARM1 (coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1). We demonstrate that disruption of CARM1 enhances the nuclear retention of mRNAs containing IRAlus. CARM1 regulates this nuclear retention pathway at two levels: CARM1 methylates the coiled-coil domain of p54nrb, resulting in reduced binding of p54nrb to mRNAs containing IRAlus, and also acts as a transcription regulator to suppress NEAT1 transcription, leading to reduced paraspeckle formation. These actions of CARM1 work together synergistically to regulate the export of transcripts containing IRAlus from paraspeckles under certain cellular stresses, such as poly(I:C) treatment. This work demonstrates how a post-translational modification of an RNA-binding protein affects protein–RNA interaction and also uncovers a mechanism of transcriptional regulation of the long noncoding RNA NEAT1. PMID:25792598

  15. The protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT6 inhibits HIV-1 Tat nucleolar retention.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Alex J; Sivakumaran, Haran; Jin, Hongping; Rawle, Daniel J; Harrich, David; Jans, David A

    2016-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 transactivator protein Tat is known to play a key role in HIV infection, integrally related to its role in the host cell nucleus/nucleolus. Here we show for the first time that Tat localisation can be modulated by specific methylation, whereby overexpression of active but not catalytically inactive PRMT6 methyltransferase specifically leads to exclusion of Tat from the nucleolus. An R52/53A mutated Tat derivative does not show this redistribution, implying that R52/53, within Tat's nuclear/nucleolar localisation signal, are the targets of PRMT6 activity. Analysis using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching indicate that Tat nucleolar accumulation is largely through binding to nucleolar components, with methylation of Tat by PRMT6 preventing this. To our knowledge, this is the first report of specific protein methylation inhibiting nucleolar retention. PMID:26611710

  16. Mapping of Post-translational Modifications of Transition Proteins, TP1 and TP2, and Identification of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 4 and Lysine Methyltransferase 7 as Methyltransferase for TP2*

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nikhil; Madapura, M. Pradeepa; Bhat, U. Anayat; Rao, M. R. Satyanarayana

    2015-01-01

    In a unique global chromatin remodeling process during mammalian spermiogenesis, 90% of the nucleosomal histones are replaced by testis-specific transition proteins, TP1, TP2, and TP4. These proteins are further substituted by sperm-specific protamines, P1 and P2, to form a highly condensed sperm chromatin. In spermatozoa, a small proportion of chromatin, which ranges from 1 to 10% in mammals, retains the nucleosomal architecture and is implicated to play a role in transgenerational inheritance. However, there is still no mechanistic understanding of the interaction of chromatin machinery with histones and transition proteins, which facilitate this selective histone replacement from chromatin. Here, we report the identification of 16 and 19 novel post-translational modifications on rat endogenous transition proteins, TP1 and TP2, respectively, by mass spectrometry. By in vitro assays and mutational analysis, we demonstrate that protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT4 (CARM1) methylates TP2 at Arg71, Arg75, and Arg92 residues, and lysine methyltransferase KMT7 (Set9) methylates TP2 at Lys88 and Lys91 residues. Further studies with modification-specific antibodies that recognize TP2K88me1 and TP2R92me1 modifications showed that they appear in elongating to condensing spermatids and predominantly associated with the chromatin-bound TP2. This work establishes the repertoire of post-translational modifications that occur on TP1 and TP2, which may play a significant role in various chromatin-templated events during spermiogenesis and in the establishment of the sperm epigenome. PMID:25818198

  17. Mapping of Post-translational Modifications of Transition Proteins, TP1 and TP2, and Identification of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 4 and Lysine Methyltransferase 7 as Methyltransferase for TP2.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nikhil; Madapura, M Pradeepa; Bhat, U Anayat; Rao, M R Satyanarayana

    2015-05-01

    In a unique global chromatin remodeling process during mammalian spermiogenesis, 90% of the nucleosomal histones are replaced by testis-specific transition proteins, TP1, TP2, and TP4. These proteins are further substituted by sperm-specific protamines, P1 and P2, to form a highly condensed sperm chromatin. In spermatozoa, a small proportion of chromatin, which ranges from 1 to 10% in mammals, retains the nucleosomal architecture and is implicated to play a role in transgenerational inheritance. However, there is still no mechanistic understanding of the interaction of chromatin machinery with histones and transition proteins, which facilitate this selective histone replacement from chromatin. Here, we report the identification of 16 and 19 novel post-translational modifications on rat endogenous transition proteins, TP1 and TP2, respectively, by mass spectrometry. By in vitro assays and mutational analysis, we demonstrate that protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT4 (CARM1) methylates TP2 at Arg(71), Arg(75), and Arg(92) residues, and lysine methyltransferase KMT7 (Set9) methylates TP2 at Lys(88) and Lys(91) residues. Further studies with modification-specific antibodies that recognize TP2K88me1 and TP2R92me1 modifications showed that they appear in elongating to condensing spermatids and predominantly associated with the chromatin-bound TP2. This work establishes the repertoire of post-translational modifications that occur on TP1 and TP2, which may play a significant role in various chromatin-templated events during spermiogenesis and in the establishment of the sperm epigenome. PMID:25818198

  18. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 is an essential component of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Ji-Hong; Choi, Yong-Joon; Cho, Chung-Hyun

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HIF-1{alpha} is expressed PRMT5-dependently in hypoxic cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HIF-1 regulation of hypoxia-induced genes is attenuated in PRMT5-knocked-down cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The de novo synthesis of HIF-1{alpha} depends on PRMT5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PRMT5 is involved in the HIF-1{alpha} translation initiated by 5 Prime UTR of HIF-1{alpha} mRNA. -- Abstract: Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is an enzyme that transfers one or two methyl groups to the arginine residues of histones or non-histone proteins, and that plays critical roles in cellular processes as diverse as receptor signaling and gene expression. Furthermore, PRMT5 is highly expressed in tumors, where it may be associated with tumor growth. Although much research has been conducted on PRMT5, little is known regarding its role in adaption to hypoxia. As hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a key player in hypoxic response, we examined the possible involvement of PRMT5 in the HIF-1 signaling pathway. Of the siRNAs targeting PRMT1-8, only PRMT5 siRNA attenuated the hypoxic induction of HIF-1{alpha} in A549 cells, and this result was reproducible in all three cancer cell lines examined. PRMT5 knock-down also repressed the promoter activities and the transcript levels of HIF-1-governed genes. Mechanistically, de novo synthesis of HIF-1{alpha} protein was reduced in PRMT5-knocked-down A549 cells, and this was rescued by PRMT5 restoration. In contrast, HIF-1{alpha} transcription, RNA processing, and protein stability were unaffected by PRMT5 knock-down. Furthermore, PRMT5 was found to be essential for the HIF-1{alpha} translation initiated by the 5 Prime UTR of HIF-1{alpha} mRNA. Given our results and previous reports, we believe that PRMT5 probably promotes tumor growth by stimulating cell proliferation and by participating in the construction of a tumor-favorable microenvironment via HIF-1 activation.

  19. Identification of the methylation preference region in heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 and its implication in regulating nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yuan-I; Hsu, Sheng-Chieh; Chau, Gar-Yang; Huang, Chi-Ying F.; Sung, Jung-Sung; Hua, Wei-Kai; Lin, Wey-Jinq

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} Verifying by direct methylation assay the substrate sites of PRMT1 in the hnRNP K protein. {yields} Identifying the preferred PMRT1 methylation regions in hnRNP K by kinetic analysis. {yields} Linking methylation in regulating nuclear localization of hnRNP K. -- Abstract: Protein arginine methylation plays crucial roles in numerous cellular processes. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a multi-functional protein participating in a variety of cellular functions including transcription and RNA processing. HnRNP K is methylated at multiple sites in the glycine- and arginine-rich (RGG) motif. Using various RGG domain deletion mutants of hnRNP K as substrates, here we show by direct methylation assay that protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) methylated preferentially in a.a. 280-307 of the RGG motif. Kinetic analysis revealed that deletion of a.a. 280-307, but not a.a. 308-327, significantly inhibited rate of methylation. Importantly, nuclear localization of hnRNP K was significantly impaired in mutant hnRNP K lacking the PRMT1 methylation region or upon pharmacological inhibition of methylation. Together our results identify preferred PRMT1 methylation sequences of hnRNP K by direct methylation assay and implicate a role of arginine methylation in regulating intracellular distribution of hnRNP K.

  20. Cloning of a protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT1 homologue from Schistosoma mansoni: Evidence for roles in nuclear receptor signaling and RNA metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Mansure, Jose Joao; Furtado, Daniel Rodrigues; Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco Meirelles; Rumjanek, Franklin David; Franco, Gloria Regina; Fantappie, Marcelo Rosado . E-mail: fantappie@bioqmed.ufrj.br

    2005-10-07

    The most studied arginine methyltransferase is the type I enzyme, which catalyzes the transfer of an S-adenosyl-L-methionine to a broad spectrum of substrates, including histones, RNA-transporting proteins, and nuclear hormone receptor coactivators. We cloned a cDNA encoding a protein arginine methyltransferase in Schistosoma mansoni (SmPRMT1). SmPRMT1 is highly homologous to the vertebrate PRMT1 enzyme. In vitro methylation assays showed that SmPRMT1 recombinant protein was able to specifically methylate histone H4. Two schistosome proteins likely to be involved in RNA metabolism, SMYB1 and SmSmD3, that display a number of RGG motifs, were strongly methylated by SmPRMT1. In vitro GST pull-down assays showed that SMYB1 and SmSmD3 physically interacted with SmPRMT1. Additional GST pull-down assay suggested the occurrence of a ternary complex including SmPRMT1, SmRXR1 nuclear receptor, and the p160 (SRC-1) nuclear receptor coactivator. Together, these data suggest a mechanism by which SmPRMT1 plays a role in nuclear receptor-mediated chromatin remodeling and RNA transactions.

  1. Selective Inhibitors of Protein Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that protein methyltransferases (PMTs), which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and human diseases. In particular, PMTs have been recognized as major players in regulating gene expression and chromatin state. PMTs are divided into two categories: protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) and protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). There has been a steadily growing interest in these enzymes as potential therapeutic targets and therefore discovery of PMT inhibitors has also been pursued increasingly over the past decade. Here, we present a perspective on selective, small-molecule inhibitors of PMTs with an emphasis on their discovery, characterization, and applicability as chemical tools for deciphering the target PMTs’ physiological functions and involvement in human diseases. We highlight the current state of PMT inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for PMT inhibitor discovery. PMID:25406853

  2. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 gene (As-PRMT1) from Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue; Yao, Feng; Li, Xuejie; Jia, Baolin; Zhong, Guangying; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zou, Xiangyang; Hou, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is an important epigenetic regulation factor in eukaryotic genomes. PRMT1 is involved in histone arginine loci methylation modification, changes in eukaryotic genomes' chromatin structure, and gene expression regulation. In the present paper, the full-length 1201-bp cDNA sequence of the PRMT1 homolog of Artemia sinica (As-PRMT1) was cloned for the first time. The putative As-PRMT1 protein comprises 346 amino acids with a SAM domain and a PRMT5 domain. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that the putative sequence of As-PRMT1 protein was relatively conserved across species, especially in the SAM domain. As-PRMT1 is widely expressed during embryo development of A. sinica. This is followed by a dramatic upregulation after diapause termination and then downregulation from the nauplius stage. Furthermore, As-PRMT1 transcripts are highly upregulated under conditions of high salinity and low temperature stress. These findings suggested that As-PRMT1 is a stress-related factor that might promote or inhibit the expression of certain genes, play a critical role in embryonic development and in resistance to low temperature and high salinity stress. PMID:25843627

  3. Upregulated protein arginine methyltransferase 1 by IL-4 increases eotaxin-1 expression in airway epithelial cells and participates in antigen-induced pulmonary inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingzhu; Yang, Xudong; Zhong, Bo; Jiao, Fangfang; Li, Chenyan; Li, Dongmin; Lan, Xi; Sun, Jian; Lu, Shemin

    2012-04-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), catalyzing methylation of both histones and other cellular proteins, have emerged as key regulators of various cellular processes. This study aimed to identify key PRMTs involved in Ag-induced pulmonary inflammation (AIPI), a rat model for asthma, and to explore the role of PRMT1 in the IL-4-induced eosinophil infiltration process. E3 rats were i.p. sensitized with OVA/alum and intranasally challenged with OVA to induce AIPI. The expressions of PRMT1-6, eotaxin-1, and CCR3 in lungs were screened by real-time quantitative PCR. Arginine methyltransferase inhibitor 1 (AMI-1, a pan-PRMT inhibitor) and small interfering RNA-PRMT1 were used to interrupt the function of PRMT1 in A549 cells. In addition, AMI-1 was administrated intranasally to AIPI rats to observe the effects on inflammatory parameters. The results showed that PRMT1 expression was mainly expressed in bronchus and alveolus epithelium and significantly upregulated in lungs from AIPI rats. The inhibition of PRMTs by AMI-1 and the knockdown of PRMT1 expression were able to downregulate the expressions of eotaxin-1 and CCR3 with the IL-4 stimulation in the epithelial cells. Furthermore, AMI-1 administration to AIPI rats can also ameliorate pulmonary inflammation, reduce IL-4 production and humoral immune response, and abrogate eosinophil infiltration into the lungs. In summary, PRMT1 expression is upregulated in AIPI rat lungs and can be stimulated by IL-4. Intervention of PRMT1 activity can abrogate IL-4-dependent eotaxin-1 production to influence the pulmonary inflammation with eosinophil infiltration. The findings may provide experimental evidence that PRMT1 plays an important role in asthma pathogenesis. PMID:22387551

  4. Protein arginine Methyltransferase 8 gene is expressed in pluripotent stem cells and its expression is modulated by the transcription factor Sox2.

    PubMed

    Solari, Claudia; Echegaray, Camila Vázquez; Luzzani, Carlos; Cosentino, María Soledad; Waisman, Ariel; Petrone, María Victoria; Francia, Marcos; Sassone, Alina; Canizo, Jésica; Sevlever, Gustavo; Barañao, Lino; Miriuka, Santiago; Guberman, Alejandra

    2016-04-22

    Addition of methyl groups to arginine residues is catalyzed by a group of enzymes called Protein Arginine Methyltransferases (Prmt). Although Prmt1 is essential in development, its paralogue Prmt8 has been poorly studied. This gene was reported to be expressed in nervous system and involved in neurogenesis. In this work, we found that Prmt8 is expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and in induced pluripotent stem cells, and modulated along differentiation to neural precursor cells. We found that Prmt8 promoter activity is induced by the pluripotency transcription factors Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. Moreover, endogenous Prmt8 mRNA levels were reduced in ESC transfected with Sox2 shRNA vector. As a whole, our results indicate that Prmt8 is expressed in pluripotent stem cells and its transcription is modulated by pluripotency transcription factors. These findings suggest that besides its known function in nervous system, Prmt8 could play a role in pluripotent stem cells. PMID:27012206

  5. Severe Hypomyelination and Developmental Defects Are Caused in Mice Lacking Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) in the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Misuzu; Murata, Kazuya; Ishida, Junji; Kanou, Akihiko; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2016-01-29

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is involved in cell proliferation, DNA damage response, and transcriptional regulation. Although PRMT1 is extensively expressed in the CNS at embryonic and perinatal stages, the physiological role of PRMT1 has been poorly understood. Here, to investigate the primary function of PRMT1 in the CNS, we generated CNS-specific PRMT1 knock-out mice by the Cre-loxP system. These mice exhibited postnatal growth retardation with tremors, and most of them died within 2 weeks after birth. Brain histological analyses revealed prominent cell reduction in the white matter tracts of the mutant mice. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that myelin sheath was almost completely ablated in the CNS of these animals. In agreement with hypomyelination, we also observed that most major myelin proteins including myelin basic protein (MBP), 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) were dramatically decreased, although neuronal and astrocytic markers were preserved in the brain of CNS-specific PRMT1 knock-out mice. These animals had a reduced number of OLIG2(+) oligodendrocyte lineage cells in the white matter. We found that expressions of transcription factors essential for oligodendrocyte specification and further maturation were significantly suppressed in the brain of the mutant mice. Our findings provide evidence that PRMT1 is required for CNS development, especially for oligodendrocyte maturation processes. PMID:26637354

  6. Exchange Factor TBL1 and Arginine Methyltransferase PRMT6 Cooperate in Protecting G Protein Pathway Suppressor 2 (GPS2) from Proteasomal Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiawen; Cardamone, M. Dafne; Johnson, Holly E.; Neault, Mathieu; Chan, Michelle; Floyd, Z. Elizabeth; Mallette, Frédérick A.; Perissi, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    G protein pathway suppressor 2 (GPS2) is a multifunctional protein involved in the regulation of a number of metabolic organs. First identified as part of the NCoR-SMRT corepressor complex, GPS2 is known to play an important role in the nucleus in the regulation of gene transcription and meiotic recombination. In addition, we recently reported a non-transcriptional role of GPS2 as an inhibitor of the proinflammatory TNFα pathway in the cytosol. Although this suggests that the control of GPS2 localization may be an important determinant of its molecular functions, a clear understanding of GPS2 differential targeting to specific cellular locations is still lacking. Here we show that a fine balance between protein stabilization and degradation tightly regulates GPS2 nuclear function. Our findings indicate that GPS2 is degraded upon polyubiquitination by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah2. Unexpectedly, interaction with the exchange factor TBL1 is required to protect GPS2 from degradation, with methylation of GPS2 by arginine methyltransferase PRMT6 regulating the interaction with TBL1 and inhibiting proteasome-dependent degradation. Overall, our findings indicate that regulation of GPS2 by posttranslational modifications provides an effective strategy for modulating its molecular function within the nuclear compartment. PMID:26070566

  7. Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 6 (Prmt6) Is Essential for Early Zebrafish Development through the Direct Suppression of gadd45αa Stress Sensor Gene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Xi; Zhang, Yun-Bin; Ni, Pei-Li; Wu, Zhi-Li; Yan, Yuan-Chang; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Histone lysine methylation is important in early zebrafish development; however, the role of histone arginine methylation in this process remains unclear. H3R2me2a, generated by protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (Prmt6), is a repressive mark. To explore the role of Prmt6 and H3R2me2a during zebrafish embryogenesis, we identified the maternal characteristic of prmt6 and designed two prmt6-specific morpholino-oligos (MOs) to study its importance in early development, application of which led to early epiboly defects and significantly reduced the level of H3R2me2a marks. prmt6 mRNA could rescue the epiboly defects and the H3R2me2a reduction in the prmt6 morphants. Functionally, microarray data demonstrated that growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible, α, a (gadd45αa) was a significantly up-regulated gene in MO-treated embryos, the activity of which was linked to the activation of the p38/JNK pathway and apoptosis. Importantly, gadd45αa MO and p38/JNK inhibitors could partially rescue the defect of prmt6 morphants, the downstream targets of Prmt6, and the apoptosis ratios of the prmt6 morphants. Moreover, the results of ChIP quantitative real time PCR and luciferase reporter assay indicated that gadd45αa is a repressive target of Prmt6. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal Prmt6 is essential to early zebrafish development by directly repressing gadd45αa. PMID:26487724

  8. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 may be involved in pregnane x receptor-activated overexpression of multidrug resistance 1 gene during acquired multidrug resistant

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Ma, Zhiqiang; Liu, Haiyan; Liu, Pinghua; Xiao, Yu; Jiang, Xuehua; Wang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pregnane x receptor (PXR) - activated overexpression of the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene is an important way for tumor cells to acquire drug resistance. However, the detailed mechanism still remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether protein arginine methyl transferase 1(PRMT1) is involved in PXR - activated overexpression of MDR1 during acquired multidrug resistant. Experimental Design Arginine methyltransferase inhibitor 1 (AMI-1) was used to pharmacologically block PRMT1 in resistant breast cancer cells (MCF7/adr). The mRNA and protein levels of MDR1 were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting analysis. Immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation were used to investigate the physical interaction between PXR and PRMT1. Then, 136 candidate compounds were screened for PRMT1 inhibitors. Lastly, luciferase reporter gene and nude mice bearing resistant breast cancer xenografts were adopted to investigate the anti-tumor effect of PRMT1 inhibitors when combined with adriamycin. Results AMI-1 significantly suppressed the expression of MDR1 in MCF7/adr cells and increased cells sensitivity of MCF7/adr to adriamycin. Physical interaction between PRMT1 and PXR exists in MCF7/adr cells, which could be disrupted by AMI-1. Those results suggest that PRMT1 may be involved in PXR-activated overexpression of MDR1 in resistant breast cancer cells, and AMI-1 may suppress MDR1 by disrupting the interaction between PRMT1 and PXR. Then, five compounds including rutin, isoquercitrin, salvianolic acid A, naproxen, and felodipline were identified to be PRMT1 inhibitors. Finally, those PRMT1 inhibitors were observed to significantly decrease MDR1 promoter activity in vitro and enhance the antitumor effect of adriamycin in nude mice that bearing resistant breast cancer xenografts. Conclusions PRMT1 may be an important co-activator of PXR in activating MDR1 gene during acquired resistance, and PRMT1 inhibitor combined with

  9. Two distinct arginine methyltransferases are required for biogenesis of Sm-class ribonucleoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Gonsalvez, Graydon B.; Tian, Liping; Ospina, Jason K.; Boisvert, François-Michel; Lamond, Angus I.; Matera, A. Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) are core components of the spliceosome. The U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs each contain a common set of seven Sm proteins. Three of these Sm proteins are posttranslationally modified to contain symmetric dimethylarginine (sDMA) residues within their C-terminal tails. However, the precise function of this modification in the snRNP biogenesis pathway is unclear. Several lines of evidence suggest that the methyltransferase protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is responsible for sDMA modification of Sm proteins. We found that in human cells, PRMT5 and a newly discovered type II methyltransferase, PRMT7, are each required for Sm protein sDMA modification. Furthermore, we show that the two enzymes function nonredundantly in Sm protein methylation. Lastly, we provide in vivo evidence demonstrating that Sm protein sDMA modification is required for snRNP biogenesis in human cells. PMID:17709427

  10. Type I Arginine Methyltransferases PRMT1 and PRMT-3 Act Distributively*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Kölbel, Knut; Ihling, Christian; Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Neundorf, Ines; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G.; Sinz, Andrea; Kühn, Uwe; Wahle, Elmar

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric dimethylation of arginine residues is a common posttranslational modification of proteins carried out by type I protein arginine methyltransferases, including PRMT1 and -3. We report that the consecutive transfer of two methyl groups to a single arginine side chain by PRMT1 and -3 occurs in a distributive manner, i.e. with intermittent release of the monomethylated intermediate. The oligomeric state of PRMTs together with the clustering of methylated arginine residues in most proteins carrying this type of modification suggests that multiple methyl transfers to a single polypeptide chain might proceed in a processive manner by cooperation of multiple active sites. However, three different types of experiments provide evidence that the reaction is distributive even with substrates containing multiple methyl-accepting arginines, including one with 13 such residues. PRMT1 also does not prefer substrates already containing one or more singly or doubly methylated arginine residues. Even though the reaction is distributive, the efficiency of methylation of one particular protein strongly depends on the number of methyl-accepting arginine residues it contains. PMID:19158082

  11. pUL69 of Human Cytomegalovirus Recruits the Cellular Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 6 via a Domain That Is Crucial for mRNA Export and Efficient Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Marco; Sonntag, Eric; Müller, Regina; Schmidt, Stefanie; Zielke, Barbara; Fossen, Torgils

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The regulatory protein pUL69 of human cytomegalovirus acts as a viral mRNA export factor, facilitating the cytoplasmic accumulation of unspliced RNA via interaction with the cellular mRNA export factor UAP56. Here we provide evidence for a posttranslational modification of pUL69 via arginine methylation within the functionally important N terminus. First, we demonstrated a specific immunoprecipitation of full-length pUL69 as well as pUL69aa1-146 by a mono/dimethylarginine-specific antibody. Second, we observed a specific electrophoretic mobility shift upon overexpression of the catalytically active protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6). Third, a direct interaction of pUL69 and PRMT6 was confirmed by yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analyses. We mapped the PRMT6 interaction motif to the pUL69 N terminus and identified critical amino acids within the arginine-rich R1 box of pUL69 that were crucial for PRMT6 and/or UAP56 recruitment. In order to test the impact of putative methylation substrates on the functions of pUL69, we constructed various pUL69 derivatives harboring arginine-to-alanine substitutions and tested them for RNA export activity. Thus, we were able to discriminate between arginines within the R1 box of pUL69 that were crucial for UAP56/PRMT6-interaction and/or mRNA export activity. Remarkably, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses revealed the same α-helical structures for pUL69 sequences encoding either the wild type R1/R2 boxes or a UAP56/PRMT6 binding-deficient derivative, thereby excluding the possibility that R/A amino acid substitutions within R1 affected the secondary structure of pUL69. We therefore conclude that the pUL69 N terminus is methylated by PRMT6 and that this critically affects the functions of pUL69 for efficient mRNA export and replication of human cytomegalovirus. IMPORTANCE The UL69 protein of human cytomegalovirus is a multifunctional regulatory protein that acts as a viral RNA export factor with a

  12. Drosophila arginine methyltransferase 1 (DART1) is an ecdysone receptor co-repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Shuhei; Sawatsubashi, Shun; Ito, Saya; Kouzmenko, Alexander; Suzuki, Eriko; Zhao, Yue; Yamagata, Kaoru; Tanabe, Masahiko; Ueda, Takashi; Fujiyama, Sari; Murata, Takuya; Matsukawa, Hiroyuki; Takeyama, Ken-ichi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2008-07-11

    Histone arginine methylation is an epigenetic marker that regulates gene expression by defining the chromatin state. Arginine methyltransferases, therefore, serve as transcriptional co-regulators. However, unlike other transcriptional co-regulators, the physiological roles of arginine methyltransferases are poorly understood. Drosophila arginine methyltransferase 1 (DART1), the mammalian PRMT1 homologue, methylates the arginine residue of histone H4 (H4R3me2). Disruption of DART1 in Drosophila by imprecise P-element excision resulted in low viability during metamorphosis in the pupal stages. In the pupal stage, an ecdysone hormone signal is critical for developmental progression. DART1 interacted with the nuclear ecdysone receptor (EcR) in a ligand-dependent manner, and co-repressed EcR in intact flies. These findings suggest that DART1, a histone arginine methyltransferase, is a co-repressor of EcR that is indispensable for normal pupal development in the intact fly.

  13. The PRMT5 arginine methyltransferase: many roles in development, cancer and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Stopa, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational arginine methylation is responsible for regulation of many biological processes. The protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5, also known as Hsl7, Jbp1, Skb1, Capsuleen, or Dart5) is the major enzyme responsible for mono- and symmetric dimethylation of arginine. An expanding literature demonstrates its critical biological function in a wide range of cellular processes. Histone and other protein methylation by PRMT5 regulate genome organization, transcription, stem cells, primordial germ cells, differentiation, the cell cycle, and spliceosome assembly. Metazoan PRMT5 is found in complex with the WD-repeat protein MEP50 (also known as Wdr77, androgen receptor coactivator p44, or Valois). PRMT5 also directly associates with a range of other protein factors, including pICln, Menin, CoPR5 and RioK1 that may alter its subcellular localization and protein substrate selection. Protein substrate and PRMT5–MEP50 post-translation modifications induce crosstalk to regulate PRMT5 activity. Crystal structures of C. elegans PRMT5 and human and frog PRMT5–MEP50 complexes provide substantial insight into the mechanisms of substrate recognition and procession to dimethylation. Enzymo-logical studies of PRMT5 have uncovered compelling insights essential for future development of specific PRMT5 inhibitors. In addition, newly accumulating evidence implicates PRMT5 and MEP50 expression levels and their methyltransferase activity in cancer tumorigenesis, and, significantly, as markers of poor clinical outcome, marking them as potential oncogenes. Here, we review the substantial new literature on PRMT5 and its partners to highlight the significance of understanding this essential enzyme in health and disease. PMID:25662273

  14. GABAAergic stimulation modulates intracellular protein arginine methylation.

    PubMed

    Denman, Robert B; Xie, Wen; Merz, George; Sung, Ying-Ju

    2014-06-20

    Changes in cytoplasmic pH are known to regulate diverse cellular processes and influence neuronal activities. In neurons, the intracellular alkalization is shown to occur after stimulating several channels and receptors. For example, it has previously demonstrated in P19 neurons that a sustained intracellular alkalinization can be mediated by the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter. In addition, the benzodiazepine binding subtypes of the γ-amino butyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor mediate a transient intracellular alkalinization when they are stimulated. Because the activities of many enzymes are sensitive to pH shift, here we investigate the effects of intracellular pH modulation resulted from stimulating GABAA receptor on the protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT) activities. We show that the major benzodiazepine subtype (2α1, 2β2, 1γ2) is constitutively expressed in both undifferentiated P19 cells and retinoic acid (RA) differentiated P19 neurons. Furthermore stimulation with diazepam and, diazepam plus muscimol produce an intracellular alkalinization that can be detected ex vivo with the fluorescence dye. The alkalinization results in significant perturbation in protein arginine methylation activity as measured in methylation assays with specific protein substrates. Altered protein arginine methylation is also observed when cells are treated with the GABAA agonist muscimol but not an antagonist, bicuculline. These data suggest that pH-dependent and pH-independent methylation pathways can be activated by GABAAergic stimulation, which we verified using hippocampal slice preparations from a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. PMID:24793772

  15. MTAP deletion confers enhanced dependency on the PRMT5 arginine methyltransferase in cancer cells | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The discovery of cancer dependencies has the potential to inform therapeutic strategies and to identify putative drug targets. Integrating data from comprehensive genomic profiling of cancer cell lines and from functional characterization of cancer cell dependencies, we discovered that loss of the enzyme methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) confers a selective dependence on protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) and its binding partner WDR77. MTAP is frequently lost due to its proximity to the commonly deleted tumor suppressor gene, CDKN2A.

  16. Using oriented peptide array libraries to evaluate methylarginine-specific antibodies and arginine methyltransferase substrate motifs.

    PubMed

    Gayatri, Sitaram; Cowles, Martis W; Vemulapalli, Vidyasiri; Cheng, Donghang; Sun, Zu-Wen; Bedford, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Signal transduction in response to stimuli relies on the generation of cascades of posttranslational modifications that promote protein-protein interactions and facilitate the assembly of distinct signaling complexes. Arginine methylation is one such modification, which is catalyzed by a family of nine protein arginine methyltransferases, or PRMTs. Elucidating the substrate specificity of each PRMT will promote a better understanding of which signaling networks these enzymes contribute to. Although many PRMT substrates have been identified, and their methylation sites mapped, the optimal target motif for each of the nine PRMTs has not been systematically addressed. Here we describe the use of Oriented Peptide Array Libraries (OPALs) to methodically dissect the preferred methylation motifs for three of these enzymes - PRMT1, CARM1 and PRMT9. In parallel, we show that an OPAL platform with a fixed methylarginine residue can be used to validate the methyl-specific and sequence-specific properties of antibodies that have been generated against different PRMT substrates, and can also be used to confirm the pan nature of some methylarginine-specific antibodies. PMID:27338245

  17. Using oriented peptide array libraries to evaluate methylarginine-specific antibodies and arginine methyltransferase substrate motifs

    PubMed Central

    Gayatri, Sitaram; Cowles, Martis W.; Vemulapalli, Vidyasiri; Cheng, Donghang; Sun, Zu-Wen; Bedford, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Signal transduction in response to stimuli relies on the generation of cascades of posttranslational modifications that promote protein-protein interactions and facilitate the assembly of distinct signaling complexes. Arginine methylation is one such modification, which is catalyzed by a family of nine protein arginine methyltransferases, or PRMTs. Elucidating the substrate specificity of each PRMT will promote a better understanding of which signaling networks these enzymes contribute to. Although many PRMT substrates have been identified, and their methylation sites mapped, the optimal target motif for each of the nine PRMTs has not been systematically addressed. Here we describe the use of Oriented Peptide Array Libraries (OPALs) to methodically dissect the preferred methylation motifs for three of these enzymes – PRMT1, CARM1 and PRMT9. In parallel, we show that an OPAL platform with a fixed methylarginine residue can be used to validate the methyl-specific and sequence-specific properties of antibodies that have been generated against different PRMT substrates, and can also be used to confirm the pan nature of some methylarginine-specific antibodies. PMID:27338245

  18. The arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 regulates CIITA-dependent MHC II transcription.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhiwen; Kong, Xiaocen; Xia, Jun; Wu, Xiaoyan; Li, He; Xu, Huihui; Fang, Mingming; Xu, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC II) dependent antigen presentation serves as a key step in mammalian adaptive immunity and host defense. In antigen presenting cells (e.g., macrophages), MHC II transcription can be activated by interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and mediated by class II transactivator (CIITA). The underlying epigenetic mechanism, however, is not completely understood. Here we report that following IFN-γ stimulation, symmetrically dimethylated histone H3 arginine 2 (H3R2Me2s) accumulated on the MHC II promoter along with CIITA. IFN-γ augmented expression, nuclear translocation, and promoter binding of the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 in macrophages. Over-expression of PRMT5 potentiated IFN-γ induced activation of MHC II transcription in an enzyme activity-dependent manner. In contrast, PRMT5 silencing or inhibition of PRMT5 activity by methylthioadenosine (MTA) suppressed MHC II transactivation by IFN-γ. CIITA interacted with and recruited PRMT5 to the MHC II promoter and mediated the synergy between PRMT5 and ASH2/WDR5 to activate MHC II transcription. PRMT5 expression was down-regulated in senescent and H2O2-treated macrophages rendering ineffectual induction of MHC II transcription by IFN-γ. Taken together, our data reveal a pathophysiologically relevant role for PRMT5 in MHC II transactivation in macrophages. PMID:26972221

  19. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of isolated modules of the mouse coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Troffer-Charlier, Nathalie; Cura, Vincent; Hassenboehler, Pierre; Moras, Dino; Cavarelli, Jean

    2007-04-01

    Isolated modules of mouse coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 encompassing the protein arginine N-methyltransferase catalytic domain have been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data have been collected and have enabled determination of the structures by multiple isomorphous replacement using anomalous scattering. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) plays a crucial role in gene expression as a coactivator of several nuclear hormone receptors and also of non-nuclear receptor systems. Its recruitment by the transcriptional machinery induces protein methylation, leading to chromatin remodelling and gene activation. CARM1{sub 28–507} and two structural states of CARM1{sub 140–480} were expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of CARM1{sub 28–507} belong to space group P6{sub 2}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.0, c = 125.3 Å; they diffract to beyond 2.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and contain one monomer in the asymmetric unit. The structure of CARM1{sub 28–507} was solved by multiple isomorphous replacement and anomalous scattering methods. Crystals of apo CARM1{sub 140–480} belong to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.6, b = 99.0, c = 207.4 Å; they diffract to beyond 2.7 Å resolution and contain two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Crystals of CARM1{sub 140–480} in complex with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine belong to space P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.6, b = 98.65, c = 206.08 Å; they diffract to beyond 2.6 Å resolution and contain four monomers in the asymmetric unit. The structures of apo and holo CARM1{sub 140–480} were solved by molecular-replacement techniques from the structure of CARM1{sub 28–507}.

  20. Interplay among coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1, CBP, and CIITA in IFN-gamma-inducible MHC-II gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zika, Eleni; Fauquier, Lucas; Vandel, Laurence; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2005-11-01

    Class II major histocompatibility (MHC-II) genes are prototype targets of IFN-gamma. IFN-gamma activates the expression of the non-DNA-binding master regulator of MHC-II, class II transactivator (CIITA), which is crucial for enhanceosome formation and gene activation. This report shows the importance of the histone methyltransferase, coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase (CARM1/PRMT4), during IFN-gamma-induced MHC-II gene activation. It also demonstrates the coordinated regulation of CIITA, CARM1, and the acetyltransferase cyclic-AMP response element binding (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) during this process. CARM1 synergizes with CIITA in activating MHC-II transcription and synergy is abrogated when an arginine methyltransferase-defective CARM1 mutant is used. Protein-arginine methyltransferase 1 has much less effect on MHC-II transcription. Specific RNA interference reduced CARM1 expression as well as MHC-II expression. The recruitment of CARM1 to the promoter requires endogenous CIITA and results in methylation of histone H3-R17; hence, CIITA is an upstream regulator of histone methylation. Previous work has shown that CARM1 can methylate CBP at three arginine residues. Using wild-type CBP and a mutant of CBP lacking the CARM1-targeted arginine residues (R3A), we show that arginine methylation of CBP is required for IFN-gamma induction of MHC-II. A kinetic analysis shows that CIITA, CARM1, and H3-R17 methylation all precede CBP loading on the MHC-II promoter during IFN-gamma treatment. These results suggest functional and temporal relationships among CIITA, CARM1, and CBP for IFN-gamma induction of MHC-II. PMID:16254053

  1. Improving treatment of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency: reduction of guanidinoacetic acid in body fluids by arginine restriction and ornithine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Schulze, A; Ebinger, F; Rating, D; Mayatepek, E

    2001-12-01

    Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency (McKusick 601240), an inborn error of creatine biosynthesis, is characterized by creatine depletion and accumulation of guanidinoacetate (GAA) in the brain. Treatment by oral creatine supplementation had no effect on the intractable seizures. Based on the possible role of GAA as an epileptogenic agent, we evaluated a dietary treatment with arginine restriction and ornithine supplementation in order to achieve reduction of GAA. In an 8-year-old Kurdish girl with GAMT deficiency arginine intake was restricted to 15 mg/kg/day (0.4 g natural protein/kg/day) and ornithine was supplemented with 100 mg/kg/day over a period of 14 months. The diet was enriched with 0.4 g/kg/day of arginine-free essential amino acid mixture and creatine treatment remained unchanged (1.1 g/kg/day). Guanidino compounds in blood, urine, and CSF were measured by means of cation-exchange chromatography. The combination of arginine restriction and ornithine supplementation led to a substantial and permanent decrease of arginine without disturbance of nitrogen detoxification. Formation of GAA was effectively reduced after 4 weeks of treatment and sustained thereafter. Biochemical effects were accompanied by a marked clinical improvement. Distinctly reduced epileptogenic activities in electroencephalography accompanied by almost complete disappearance of seizures demonstrates the positive effect of GAA reduction. This indicates for the first time that GAA may exert an important epileptogenic potential in man. Arginine restriction in combination with ornithine supplementation represents a new and rationale therapeutic approach in GAMT deficiency. PMID:11749046

  2. Accessing Protein Methyltransferase and Demethylase Enzymology Using Microfluidic Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Wigle, Tim J.; Provencher, Laurel M.; Norris, Jacqueline L.; Jin, Jian; Brown, Peter J.; Frye, Stephen V.; Janzen, William P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The discovery of small molecules targeting the > 80 enzymes that add (methyltransferases) or remove (demethylases) methyl marks from lysine and arginine residues, most notably present in histone tails, may yield unprecedented chemotherapeutic agents and facilitate regenerative medicine. To better enable chemical exploration of these proteins, we have developed a novel and highly quantitative microfluidic capillary electrophoresis assay to enable full mechanistic studies of these enzymes and the kinetics of their inhibition. This technology separates small biomolecules, i.e., peptides, based on their charge-to-mass ratio. Methylation, however, does not alter the charge of peptide substrates. To overcome this limitation, we have employed a methylation-sensitive endoproteinase strategy to separate methylated from unmethylated peptides. The assay was validated on a lysine methyltransferase (G9a) and a lysine demethylase (LSD1) and was employed to investigate the inhibition of G9a by small molecules. PMID:20659682

  3. Nuclear import factor transportin and arginine methyltransferase 1 modify FUS neurotoxicity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Jäckel, Sandra; Summerer, Anna K; Thömmes, Catherine M; Pan, Xia; Voigt, Aaron; Schulz, Jörg B; Rasse, Tobias M; Dormann, Dorothee; Haass, Christian; Kahle, Philipp J

    2015-02-01

    Inclusions containing Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) are found in familial and sporadic cases of the incurable progressive motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in a common form of dementia, frontotemporal dementia. Most disease-associated mutations are located in the C-terminal proline-tyrosine nuclear localization sequence (PY-NLS) of FUS and impair its nuclear import. It has been shown in cell culture that the nuclear import of FUS is mediated by transportin, which binds the PY-NLS and the last arginine/glycine/glycine-rich (RGG) domain of FUS. Methylation of this last RGG domain by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) weakens transportin binding and therefore impairs nuclear translocation of FUS. To investigate the requirements for the nuclear import of FUS in an in vivo model, we generated different transgenic Drosophila lines expressing human FUS wild type (hFUS wt) and two disease-related variants P525L and R495X, in which the NLS is mutated or completely absent, respectively. To rule out effects caused by heterologous hFUS expression, we analysed the corresponding variants for the Drosophila FUS orthologue Cabeza (Caz wt, P398L, Q349X). Expression of these variants in eyes and motor neurons confirmed the PY-NLS-dependent nuclear localization of FUS/Caz and caused neurodegenerative effects. Surprisingly, FUS/Caz toxicity was correlated to the degree of its nuclear localization in this overexpression model. High levels of nuclear FUS/Caz became insoluble and reduced the endogenous Caz levels, confirming FUS autoregulation in Drosophila. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the two transportin orthologues interfered with the nuclear import of FUS/Caz and also enhanced the eye phenotype. Finally, we screened the Drosophila PRMT proteins (DART1-9) and found that knockdown of Dart1 led to a reduction in methylation of hFUS P525L and aggravated its phenotype. These findings show that the molecular mechanisms controlling the nuclear import of FUS/Caz and FUS

  4. The arginine methyltransferase Rmt2 is enriched in the nucleus and co-purifies with the nuclear porins Nup49, Nup57 and Nup100

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, Ida; Berrez, Jean-Marc; Leipus, Arunas; Ostlund, Cecilia; Mutvei, Ann . E-mail: ann.mutvei@sh.se

    2007-05-15

    Arginine methylation is a post-translational modification of proteins implicated in RNA processing, protein compartmentalization, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. In a screen for proteins associated with the nuclear envelope in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have identified the arginine methyltransferase Rmt2, previously shown to methylate the ribosomal protein L12. By indirect immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionations we demonstrate here that Rmt2 has nuclear and cytoplasmic localizations. Biochemical analysis of a fraction enriched in nuclei reveals that nuclear Rmt2 is resistant to extractions with salt and detergent, indicating an association with structural components. This was supported by affinity purification experiments with TAP-tagged Rmt2. Rmt2 was found to co-purify with the nucleoporins Nup49, Nup57 and Nup100, revealing a novel link between arginine methyltransferases and the nuclear pore complex. In addition, a genome-wide transcription study of the rmt2{delta} mutant shows significant downregulation of the transcription of MYO1, encoding the Type II myosin heavy chain required for cytokinesis and cell separation.

  5. Rmt1 catalyzes zinc-finger independent arginine methylation of ribosomal protein Rps2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, Rebecca S.; Webb, Kristofor J.; Clarke, Steven G.

    2010-01-22

    Rps2/rpS2 is a well conserved protein of the eukaryotic ribosomal small subunit. Rps2 has previously been shown to contain asymmetric dimethylarginine residues, the addition of which is catalyzed by zinc-finger-containing arginine methyltransferase 3 (Rmt3) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate that despite the lack of a zinc-finger-containing homolog of Rmt3/PRMT3 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rps2 is partially modified to generate asymmetric dimethylarginine and monomethylarginine residues. We find that this modification of Rps2 is dependent upon the major arginine methyltransferase 1 (Rmt1) in S. cerevisiae. These results are suggestive of a role for Rmt1 in modifying the function of Rps2 in a manner distinct from that occurring in S. pombe and mammalian cells.

  6. Beyond PAINs: Chemotype Sensitivity of Protein Methyltransferases in Screens.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cen; Margolis, Brandon J; Strelow, John M; Vidler, Lewis R; Mader, Mary M

    2016-02-11

    Screening of the relatively new target class, the lysine and arginine methyltransferases (MTases), presents unique challenges in the identification and confirmation of active chemical matter. Examination of high throughput screening data generated using Scintillation Proximity Assay (SPA) format for a number of protein MTase targets reveals sensitivity to both the known pan assay interference compounds (PAINS) and also other scaffolds not currently precedented as assay interferers. We find that, in general, true actives show significant selectivity within the MTase family. With the exception of slight modifications of SAM-like compounds, scaffolds that are observed frequently in multiple MTase assays should be viewed with caution and should be carefully validated before following up. PMID:26985291

  7. Arginine depletion by arginine deiminase does not affect whole protein metabolism or muscle fractional protein synthesis rate in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the absolute need for arginine that certain cancer cells have, arginine depletion is a therapy in clinical trials to treat several types of cancers. Arginine is an amino acids utilized not only as a precursor for other important molecules, but also for protein synthesis. Because arginine depl...

  8. Discovery and mechanistic study of a class of protein arginine methylation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Feng, You; Li, Mingyong; Wang, Binghe; Zheng, Yujun George

    2010-08-26

    Protein arginine methylation regulates multiple biological processes such as chromatin remodeling and RNA splicing. Malfunction of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) is correlated with many human diseases. Thus, small molecule inhibitors of protein arginine methylation are of great potential for therapeutic development. Herein, we report a type of compound that blocks PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation at micromolar potency through a unique mechanism. Most of the discovered compounds bear naphthalene and sulfonate groups and are structurally different from typical PRMT substrates, for example, histone H4 and glycine- and arginine-rich sequences. To elucidate the molecular basis of inhibition, we conducted a variety of kinetic and biophysical assays. The combined data reveal that this type of naphthyl-sulfo (NS) molecule directly targets the substrates but not PRMTs for the observed inhibition. We also found that suramin effectively inhibited PRMT1 activity. These findings about novel PRMT inhibitors and their unique inhibition mechanism provide a new way for chemical regulation of protein arginine methylation. PMID:20666457

  9. Toxoplasma gondii Arginine Methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) Is Necessary for Centrosome Dynamics during Tachyzoite Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    El Bissati, Kamal; Suvorova, Elena S.; Xiao, Hui; Lucas, Olivier; Upadhya, Rajendra; Ma, Yanfen; Hogue Angeletti, Ruth; White, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The arginine methyltransferase family (PRMT) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including signal transduction, epigenetic regulation, and DNA repair pathways. PRMT1 is thought to be responsible for the majority of PRMT activity in Toxoplasma gondii, but its exact function is unknown. To further define the biological function of the PRMT family, we generated T. gondii mutants lacking PRMT1 (Δprmt1) by deletion of the PRMT1 gene. Δprmt1 parasites exhibit morphological defects during cell division and grow slowly, and this phenotype reverses in the Δprmt::PRMT1mRFP complemented strain. Tagged PRMT1 localizes primarily in the cytoplasm with enrichment at the pericentriolar material, and the strain lacking PRMT1 is unable to segregate progeny accurately. Unlike wild-type and complemented parasites, Δprmt1 parasites have abnormal daughter buds, perturbed centrosome stoichiometry, and loss of synchronous replication. Whole-genome expression profiling demonstrated differences in expression of cell-cycle-regulated genes in the Δprmt1 strain relative to the complemented Δprmt1::PRMT1mRFP and parental wild-type strains, but these changes do not correlate with a specific block in cell cycle. Although PRMT1’s primary biological function was previously proposed to be methylation of histones, our studies suggest that PRMT1 plays an important role within the centrosome to ensure the proper replication of the parasite. PMID:26838719

  10. Preferential interactions between protein and arginine: effects of arginine on tertiary conformational and colloidal stability of protein solution.

    PubMed

    Wen, Lili; Chen, Yan; Liao, Jie; Zheng, Xianxian; Yin, Zongning

    2015-01-30

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the preferential binding behavior of arginine to protein as well as the impact of arginine on the conformational and colloidal stability of protein solution. Physical stabilities of model proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA), were investigated by fluorescence-based and dynamic light scattering techniques in the absence and presence of arginine. We investigated the interactions between arginine and tryptophan or tyrosine residues by conducting solubility and fluorescence studies of two amino acid derivatives, N-acetyl-l-tryptophanamide (NATA) and N-acetyl-l-tyrosinamide (NAYA), in arginine solutions. The result showed that arginine preferentially bond to the aromatic amino acids of proteins mainly through hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals' forces, while the binding constant K of arginine with BSA and OVA at 298K was 41.92 and 5.77L/mol, respectively. The fluorescence quenching, the decreased fluorescence lifetime and the red-shifted ANS peak position revealed that arginine perturbed the local environment of tryptophan and tyrosine residues. We also found the attenuated electrostatic repulsion among BSA and OVA molecules after adding arginine. These findings provided strong evidence that arginine possessed negative effects on tertiary conformational and colloidal stability of BSA and OVA during the preferential binding process. PMID:25529432

  11. Arginine Depletion by Arginine Deiminase Does Not Affect Whole Protein Metabolism or Muscle Fractional Protein Synthesis Rate in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Juan C.; Didelija, Inka Cajo

    2015-01-01

    Due to the absolute need for arginine that certain cancer cells have, arginine depletion is a therapy in clinical trials to treat several types of cancers. Arginine is an amino acids utilized not only as a precursor for other important molecules, but also for protein synthesis. Because arginine depletion can potentially exacerbate the progressive loss of body weight, and especially lean body mass, in cancer patients we determined the effect of arginine depletion by pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) on whole body protein synthesis and fractional protein synthesis rate in multiple tissues of mice. ADI-PEG 20 successfully depleted circulating arginine (<1 μmol/L), and increased citrulline concentration more than tenfold. Body weight and body composition, however, were not affected by ADI-PEG 20. Despite the depletion of arginine, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown were maintained in the ADI-PEG 20 treated mice. The fractional protein synthesis rate of muscle was also not affected by arginine depletion. Most tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lungs, stomach, small and large intestine, pancreas) were able to maintain their fractional protein synthesis rate; however, the fractional protein synthesis rate of brain, thymus and testicles was reduced due to the ADI-PEG 20 treatment. Furthermore, these results were confirmed by the incorporation of ureido [14C]citrulline, which indicate the local conversion into arginine, into protein. In conclusion, the intracellular recycling pathway of citrulline is able to provide enough arginine to maintain protein synthesis rate and prevent the loss of lean body mass and body weight. PMID:25775142

  12. Protein Arginine Methylation and Citrullination in Epigenetic Regulation.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, Jakob; Thompson, Paul R

    2016-03-18

    The post-translational modification of arginine residues represents a key mechanism for the epigenetic control of gene expression. Aberrant levels of histone arginine modifications have been linked to the development of several diseases including cancer. In recent years, great progress has been made in understanding the physiological role of individual arginine modifications and their effects on chromatin function. The present review aims to summarize the structural and functional aspects of histone arginine modifying enzymes and their impact on gene transcription. We will discuss the potential for targeting these proteins with small molecules in a variety of disease states. PMID:26686581

  13. Protein Arginine Methylation and Citrullination in Epigenetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The post-translational modification of arginine residues represents a key mechanism for the epigenetic control of gene expression. Aberrant levels of histone arginine modifications have been linked to the development of several diseases including cancer. In recent years, great progress has been made in understanding the physiological role of individual arginine modifications and their effects on chromatin function. The present review aims to summarize the structural and functional aspects of histone arginine modifying enzymes and their impact on gene transcription. We will discuss the potential for targeting these proteins with small molecules in a variety of disease states. PMID:26686581

  14. The Sm protein methyltransferase PRMT5 is not required for primordial germ cell specification in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziwei; Yu, Juehua; Hosohama, Linzi; Nee, Kevin; Gkountela, Sofia; Chaudhari, Sonal; Cass, Ashley A; Xiao, Xinshu; Clark, Amander T

    2015-03-12

    PRMT5 is a type II protein arginine methyltransferase with roles in stem cell biology, reprograming, cancer and neurogenesis. During embryogenesis in the mouse, it was hypothesized that PRMT5 functions with the master germline determinant BLIMP1 to promote primordial germ cell (PGC) specification. Using a Blimp1-Cre germline conditional knockout, we discovered that Prmt5 has no major role in murine germline specification, or the first global epigenetic reprograming event involving depletion of cytosine methylation from DNA and histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation from chromatin. Instead, we discovered that PRMT5 functions at the conclusion of PGC reprograming I to promote proliferation, survival and expression of the gonadal germline program as marked by MVH. We show that PRMT5 regulates gene expression by promoting methylation of the Sm spliceosomal proteins and significantly altering the spliced repertoire of RNAs in mammalian embryonic cells and primordial cells. PMID:25519955

  15. Protein arginine methylation facilitates KCNQ channel-PIP2 interaction leading to seizure suppression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ji; Jeong, Myong-Ho; Kim, Kyung-Ran; Jung, Chang-Yun; Lee, Seul-Yi; Kim, Hanna; Koh, Jewoo; Vuong, Tuan Anh; Jung, Seungmoon; Yang, Hyunwoo; Park, Su-Kyung; Choi, Dahee; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, KyeongJin; Sohn, Jong-Woo; Park, Joo Min; Jeon, Daejong; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Ho, Won-Kyung; Kang, Jong-Sun; Kim, Seong-Tae; Cho, Hana

    2016-01-01

    KCNQ channels are critical determinants of neuronal excitability, thus emerging as a novel target of anti-epileptic drugs. To date, the mechanisms of KCNQ channel modulation have been mostly characterized to be inhibitory via Gq-coupled receptors, Ca(2+)/CaM, and protein kinase C. Here we demonstrate that methylation of KCNQ by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (Prmt1) positively regulates KCNQ channel activity, thereby preventing neuronal hyperexcitability. Prmt1+/- mice exhibit epileptic seizures. Methylation of KCNQ2 channels at 4 arginine residues by Prmt1 enhances PIP2 binding, and Prmt1 depletion lowers PIP2 affinity of KCNQ2 channels and thereby the channel activities. Consistently, exogenous PIP2 addition to Prmt1+/- neurons restores KCNQ currents and neuronal excitability to the WT level. Collectively, we propose that Prmt1-dependent facilitation of KCNQ-PIP2 interaction underlies the positive regulation of KCNQ activity by arginine methylation, which may serve as a key target for prevention of neuronal hyperexcitability and seizures. PMID:27466704

  16. Protein arginine methylation facilitates KCNQ channel-PIP2 interaction leading to seizure suppression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ji; Jeong, Myong-Ho; Kim, Kyung-Ran; Jung, Chang-Yun; Lee, Seul-Yi; Kim, Hanna; Koh, Jewoo; Vuong, Tuan Anh; Jung, Seungmoon; Yang, Hyunwoo; Park, Su-Kyung; Choi, Dahee; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, KyeongJin; Sohn, Jong-Woo; Park, Joo Min; Jeon, Daejong; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Ho, Won-Kyung; Kang, Jong-Sun; Kim, Seong-Tae; Cho, Hana

    2016-01-01

    KCNQ channels are critical determinants of neuronal excitability, thus emerging as a novel target of anti-epileptic drugs. To date, the mechanisms of KCNQ channel modulation have been mostly characterized to be inhibitory via Gq-coupled receptors, Ca2+/CaM, and protein kinase C. Here we demonstrate that methylation of KCNQ by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (Prmt1) positively regulates KCNQ channel activity, thereby preventing neuronal hyperexcitability. Prmt1+/- mice exhibit epileptic seizures. Methylation of KCNQ2 channels at 4 arginine residues by Prmt1 enhances PIP2 binding, and Prmt1 depletion lowers PIP2 affinity of KCNQ2 channels and thereby the channel activities. Consistently, exogenous PIP2 addition to Prmt1+/- neurons restores KCNQ currents and neuronal excitability to the WT level. Collectively, we propose that Prmt1-dependent facilitation of KCNQ-PIP2 interaction underlies the positive regulation of KCNQ activity by arginine methylation, which may serve as a key target for prevention of neuronal hyperexcitability and seizures. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17159.001 PMID:27466704

  17. The NSD family of protein methyltransferases in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Vougiouklakis, Theodore; Hamamoto, Ryuji; Nakamura, Yusuke; Saloura, Vassiliki

    2015-08-01

    The NSD family of protein lysine methyltransferases consists of NSD1, NSD2/WHSC1/MMSET and NSD3/WHSC1L1. NSD2 haploinsufficiency causes Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, while NSD1 mutations lead to the Sotos syndrome. Recently, a number of studies showed that the NSD methyltransferases were overexpressed, amplified or somatically mutated in multiple types of cancer, suggesting their critical role in cancer. These enzymes methylate specific lysine residues on histone tails and their dysfunction results in epigenomic aberrations which play a fundamental role in oncogenesis. Furthermore, NSD1 was also reported to methylate a nonhistone protein substrate, RELA/p65 subunit of NF-κB, implying its regulatory function through nonhistone methylation pathways. In this review, we summarize the current research regarding the role of the NSD family proteins in cancer and underline their potential as targets for novel cancer therapeutics. PMID:25942451

  18. 1 Protein Methyltransferases: Their Distribution Among the Five Structural Classes of AdoMet-Dependent Methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Heidi L; Blumenthal, Robert M; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2006-01-01

    S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) dependent methyltransferases (MTases) are involved in biosynthesis, signal transduction, protein repair, chromatin regulation, and gene silencing. Five different structural folds (designated I through V) have been described that bind AdoMet and catalyze methyltransfer to diverse substrates, although the great majority of known MTases have the Class I fold. Even within a particular MTase class the amino-acid sequence similarity can be as low as 10%. Thus, the structural and catalytic requirements for methyltransfer from AdoMet appear to be remarkably flexible. MTases that act on protein substrates have been found to date among three of the five structural classes (I, the classical fold; III, the corrin MTase fold; and V, the SET fold). "There are many paths to the top of the mountain, but the view is always the same."-Chinese proverb The Columbia World of Quotations, New York, Columbia University Press, 1996. PMID:26718035

  19. Protein arginine deiminase 4: a target for an epigenetic cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Slack, Jessica L; Causey, Corey P; Thompson, Paul R

    2011-02-01

    The recent approvals of anticancer therapeutic agents targeting the histone deacetylases and DNA methyltransferases have highlighted the important role that epigenetics plays in human diseases, and suggested that the factors controlling gene expression are novel drug targets. Protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is one such target because its effects on gene expression parallel those observed for the histone deacetylases. We demonstrated that F- and Cl-amidine, two potent PAD4 inhibitors, display micromolar cytotoxic effects towards several cancerous cell lines (HL-60, MCF7 and HT-29); no effect was observed in noncancerous lines (NIH 3T3 and HL-60 granulocytes). These compounds also induced the differentiation of HL-60 and HT29 cells. Finally, these compounds synergistically potentiated the cell killing effects of doxorubicin. Taken together, these findings suggest PAD4 inhibition as a novel epigenetic approach for the treatment of cancer, and suggest that F- and Cl-amidine are candidate therapeutic agents for this disease. PMID:20706768

  20. RmtA, a Putative Arginine Methyltransferase, Regulates Secondary Metabolism and Development in Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Satterlee, Timothy; Cary, Jeffrey W.; Calvo, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus colonizes numerous oil seed crops such as corn, peanuts, treenuts and cotton worldwide, contaminating them with aflatoxin and other harmful potent toxins. In the phylogenetically related model fungus Aspergillus nidulans, the methyltransferase, RmtA, has been described to be involved in epigenetics regulation through histone modification. Epigenetics regulation affects a variety of cellular processes, including morphogenesis and secondary metabolism. Our study shows that deletion of rmtA in A. flavus results in hyperconidiating colonies, indicating that rmtA is a repressor of asexual development in this fungus. The increase in conidiation in the absence of rmtA coincides with greater expression of brlA, abaA, and wetA compared to that in the wild type. Additionally, the rmtA deletion mutant presents a drastic reduction or loss of sclerotial production, while forced expression of this gene increased the ability of this fungus to generate these resistant structures, revealing rmtA as a positive regulator of sclerotial formation. Importantly, rmtA is also required for the production of aflatoxin B1 in A. flavus, affecting the expression of aflJ. Furthermore, biosynthesis of additional metabolites is also controlled by rmtA, indicating a broad regulatory output in the control of secondary metabolism. This study also revealed that rmtA positively regulates the expression of the global regulatory gene veA, which could contribute to mediate the effects of rmtA on development and secondary metabolism in this relevant opportunistic plant pathogen. PMID:27213959

  1. RmtA, a Putative Arginine Methyltransferase, Regulates Secondary Metabolism and Development in Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Satterlee, Timothy; Cary, Jeffrey W; Calvo, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus colonizes numerous oil seed crops such as corn, peanuts, treenuts and cotton worldwide, contaminating them with aflatoxin and other harmful potent toxins. In the phylogenetically related model fungus Aspergillus nidulans, the methyltransferase, RmtA, has been described to be involved in epigenetics regulation through histone modification. Epigenetics regulation affects a variety of cellular processes, including morphogenesis and secondary metabolism. Our study shows that deletion of rmtA in A. flavus results in hyperconidiating colonies, indicating that rmtA is a repressor of asexual development in this fungus. The increase in conidiation in the absence of rmtA coincides with greater expression of brlA, abaA, and wetA compared to that in the wild type. Additionally, the rmtA deletion mutant presents a drastic reduction or loss of sclerotial production, while forced expression of this gene increased the ability of this fungus to generate these resistant structures, revealing rmtA as a positive regulator of sclerotial formation. Importantly, rmtA is also required for the production of aflatoxin B1 in A. flavus, affecting the expression of aflJ. Furthermore, biosynthesis of additional metabolites is also controlled by rmtA, indicating a broad regulatory output in the control of secondary metabolism. This study also revealed that rmtA positively regulates the expression of the global regulatory gene veA, which could contribute to mediate the effects of rmtA on development and secondary metabolism in this relevant opportunistic plant pathogen. PMID:27213959

  2. West Nile virus methyltransferase domain interacts with protein kinase G

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The flaviviral nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) is a phosphoprotein, though the precise identities and roles of many specific phosphorylations remain unknown. Protein kinase G (PKG), a cGMP-dependent protein kinase, has previously been shown to phosphorylate dengue virus NS5. Methods We used mass spectrometry to specifically identify NS5 phosphosites. Co-immunoprecipitation assays were used to study protein-protein interactions. Effects on viral replication were measured via replicon system and plaque assay titering. Results We identified multiple sites in West Nile virus (WNV) NS5 that are phosphorylated during a WNV infection, and showed that the N-terminal methyltransferase domain of WNV NS5 can be specifically phosphorylated by PKG in vitro. Expressing PKG in cell culture led to an enhancement of WNV viral production. We hypothesized this effect on replication could be caused by factors beyond the specific phosphorylations of NS5. Here we show for the first time that PKG is also able to stably interact with a viral substrate, WNV NS5, in cell culture and in vitro. While the mosquito-borne WNV NS5 interacted with PKG, tick-borne Langat virus NS5 did not. The methyltransferase domain of NS5 is able to mediate the interaction between NS5 and PKG, and mutating positive residues in the αE region of the methyltransferase interrupts the interaction. These same mutations completely inhibited WNV replication. Conclusions PKG is not required for WNV replication, but does make a stable interaction with NS5. While the consequence of the NS5:PKG interaction when it occurs is unclear, mutational data demonstrates that this interaction occurs in a region of NS5 that is otherwise necessary for replication. Overall, the results identify an interaction between virus and a cellular kinase and suggest a role for a host kinase in enhancing flaviviral replication. PMID:23876037

  3. Arginine selective reagents for ligation to peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Darren A; Ng, Raymond; Dawson, Philip E

    2016-05-01

    A new class of arginine-specific bioconjugation reagents for protein labeling has been developed. This method utilizes a triazolyl-phenylglyoxal group on the probe molecule that reacts selectively with the guandinyl group of Arg residues in a protein or peptide. The reaction proceeds in neutral to basic bicarbonate buffers and is selective for arginine residues in peptides and folded proteins. Importantly, the triazolyl-phenylglyoxal group can be introduced into complex molecules containing alkyne groups using CuAAC chemistry, providing a robust approach for the generation of phenylglyoxal reactive groups into molecules to be covalently attached onto the surface of proteins. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27005702

  4. The regulatory PII protein controls arginine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ferrario-Méry, Sylvie; Besin, Evelyne; Pichon, Olivier; Meyer, Christian; Hodges, Michael

    2006-04-01

    In higher plants, PII is a nuclear-encoded plastid protein which is homologous to bacterial PII signalling proteins known to be involved in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism. A reduced ornithine, citrulline and arginine accumulation was observed in two Arabidopsis PII knock-out mutants in response to NH4+ resupply after N starvation. This difference could be explained by the regulation of a key enzyme of the arginine biosynthesis pathway, N-acetyl glutamate kinase (NAGK) by PII. In vitro assays using purified recombinant proteins showed the catalytic activation of Arabidopsis NAGK by PII giving the first evidence of a physiological role of the PII protein in higher plants. Using Arabidopsis transcriptome microarray (CATMA) and RT-PCR analyses, it was found that none of the genes involved in the arginine biosynthetic or catabolic pathways were differentially expressed in a PII knock-out mutant background. In conclusion, the observed changes in metabolite levels can be explained by the reduced activation of NAGK by PII. PMID:16545809

  5. The protein arginine deiminases (PADs): Structure, Function, Inhibition, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bicker, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    The post translational modification of histones has significant effects on overall chromatin function. One such modification is citrullination, which is catalyzed by the protein arginine deiminases (PADs), a unique family of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptidyl-arginine to form peptidyl-citrulline on histones, fibrinogen, and other biologically relevant proteins. Overexpression and/or increased PAD activity is observed in several diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, lupus, Parkinson’s disease, and cancer. This review discusses the important structural and mechanistic characteristics of the PADs, as well as recent investigations into the role of the PADs in increasing disease severity in RA and colitis and the importance of PAD activity in mediating neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation through chromatin decondensation. Lastly, efforts to develop PAD inhibitors with excellent potency, selectivity and in vivo efficacy are discussed, highlighting the most promising inhibitors. PMID:23175390

  6. Haloarchaeal Protein Translocation via the Twin Arginine Translocation Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Pohlschroder Mechthild

    2009-02-03

    Protein transport across hydrophobic membranes that partition cellular compartments is essential in all cells. The twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membranes. Distinct from the universally conserved Sec pathway, which secretes unfolded proteins, the Tat machinery is unique in that it secretes proteins in a folded conformation, making it an attractive pathway for the transport and secretion of heterologously expressed proteins that are Sec-incompatible. During the past 7 years, the DOE-supported project has focused on the characterization of the diversity of bacterial and archaeal Tat substrates as well as on the characterization of the Tat pathway of a model archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, a member of the haloarchaea. We have demonstrated that H. volcanii uses this pathway to transport most of its secretome.

  7. Protein lysine methylation by seven-β-strand methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Falnes, Pål Ø; Jakobsson, Magnus E; Davydova, Erna; Ho, Angela; Małecki, Jędrzej

    2016-07-15

    Methylation of biomolecules is a frequent biochemical reaction within the cell, and a plethora of highly specific methyltransferases (MTases) catalyse the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to various substrates. The posttranslational methylation of lysine residues, catalysed by numerous lysine (K)-specific protein MTases (KMTs), is a very common and important protein modification, which recently has been subject to intense studies, particularly in the case of histone proteins. The majority of KMTs belong to a class of MTases that share a defining 'SET domain', and these enzymes mostly target lysines in the flexible tails of histones. However, the so-called seven-β-strand (7BS) MTases, characterized by a twisted beta-sheet structure and certain conserved sequence motifs, represent the largest MTase class, and these enzymes methylate a wide range of substrates, including small metabolites, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins. Until recently, the histone-specific Dot1/DOT1L was the only identified eukaryotic 7BS KMT. However, a number of novel 7BS KMTs have now been discovered, and, in particular, several recently characterized human and yeast members of MTase family 16 (MTF16) have been found to methylate lysines in non-histone proteins. Here, we review the status and recent progress on the 7BS KMTs, and discuss these enzymes at the levels of sequence/structure, catalytic mechanism, substrate recognition and biological significance. PMID:27407169

  8. Proteome-wide analysis of arginine monomethylation reveals widespread occurrence in human cells.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Sara C; Sylvestersen, Kathrine B; Mund, Andreas; Lyon, David; Mullari, Meeli; Madsen, Maria V; Daniel, Jeremy A; Jensen, Lars J; Nielsen, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    The posttranslational modification of proteins by arginine methylation is functionally important, yet the breadth of this modification is not well characterized. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 8030 arginine methylation sites within 3300 human proteins in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, indicating that the occurrence of this modification is comparable to phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. A site-level conservation analysis revealed that arginine methylation sites are less evolutionarily conserved compared to arginines that were not identified as modified by methylation. Through quantitative proteomics and RNA interference to examine arginine methylation stoichiometry, we unexpectedly found that the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of arginine methyltransferases catalyzed methylation independently of arginine sequence context. In contrast to the frequency of somatic mutations at arginine methylation sites throughout the proteome, we observed that somatic mutations were common at arginine methylation sites in proteins involved in mRNA splicing. Furthermore, in HeLa and U2OS cells, we found that distinct arginine methyltransferases differentially regulated the functions of the pre-mRNA splicing factor SRSF2 (serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2) and the RNA transport ribonucleoprotein HNRNPUL1 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U-like 1). Knocking down PRMT5 impaired the RNA binding function of SRSF2, whereas knocking down PRMT4 [also known as coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1)] or PRMT1 increased the RNA binding function of HNRNPUL1. High-content single-cell imaging additionally revealed that knocking down CARM1 promoted the nuclear accumulation of SRSF2, independent of cell cycle phase. Collectively, the presented human arginine methylome provides a missing piece in the global and integrative view of cellular physiology and protein regulation. PMID:27577262

  9. Global impact of protein arginine phosphorylation on the physiology of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Elsholz, Alexander K. W.; Turgay, Kürşad; Michalik, Stephan; Hessling, Bernd; Gronau, Katrin; Oertel, Dan; Mäder, Ulrike; Bernhardt, Jörg; Becher, Dörte; Hecker, Michael; Gerth, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is an important and ubiquitous protein modification in all living cells. Here we report that protein phosphorylation on arginine residues plays a physiologically significant role. We detected 121 arginine phosphorylation sites in 87 proteins in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis in vivo. Moreover, we provide evidence that protein arginine phosphorylation has a functional role and is involved in the regulation of many critical cellular processes, such as protein degradation, motility, competence, and stringent and stress responses. Our results suggest that in B. subtilis the combined activity of a protein arginine kinase and phosphatase allows a rapid and reversible regulation of protein activity and that protein arginine phosphorylation can play a physiologically important and regulatory role in bacteria. PMID:22517742

  10. Kinetic Mechanism of Protein N-terminal Methyltransferase 1*

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stacie L.; Mao, Yunfei; Zhang, Gang; Hanjra, Pahul; Peterson, Darrell L.; Huang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1 (NTMT1) catalyzes the transfer of the methyl group from the S-adenosyl-l-methionine to the protein α-amine, resulting in formation of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and α-N-methylated proteins. NTMT1 is an interesting potential anticancer target because it is overexpressed in gastrointestinal cancers and plays an important role in cell mitosis. To gain insight into the biochemical mechanism of NTMT1, we have characterized the kinetic mechanism of recombinant NTMT1 using a fluorescence assay and mass spectrometry. The results of initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition studies indicate that methylation by NTMT1 proceeds via a random sequential Bi Bi mechanism. In addition, our processivity studies demonstrate that NTMT1 proceeds via a distributive mechanism for multiple methylations. Together, our studies provide new knowledge about the kinetic mechanism of NTMT1 and lay the foundation for the development of mechanism-based inhibitors. PMID:25771539

  11. Kinetic mechanism of protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Stacie L; Mao, Yunfei; Zhang, Gang; Hanjra, Pahul; Peterson, Darrell L; Huang, Rong

    2015-05-01

    The protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1 (NTMT1) catalyzes the transfer of the methyl group from the S-adenosyl-l-methionine to the protein α-amine, resulting in formation of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and α-N-methylated proteins. NTMT1 is an interesting potential anticancer target because it is overexpressed in gastrointestinal cancers and plays an important role in cell mitosis. To gain insight into the biochemical mechanism of NTMT1, we have characterized the kinetic mechanism of recombinant NTMT1 using a fluorescence assay and mass spectrometry. The results of initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition studies indicate that methylation by NTMT1 proceeds via a random sequential Bi Bi mechanism. In addition, our processivity studies demonstrate that NTMT1 proceeds via a distributive mechanism for multiple methylations. Together, our studies provide new knowledge about the kinetic mechanism of NTMT1 and lay the foundation for the development of mechanism-based inhibitors. PMID:25771539

  12. Heterologous protein production using the twin arginine translocation pathway

    DOEpatents

    Pohlschroder, Mechtild; Kissinger, Jessica C; Rose, R. Wesley; Brueser, Thomas; Dilks, Kieran

    2008-11-04

    Provided are means for evaluating and identifying putative substrates of the twin arginine translocation (Tat) secretory pathway in Streptomyces and other bacterial species. Also provided, therefore, are simple ways to express, secrete and purify correctly folded heterologous proteins on a large scale using host microorganisms, such as, Streptomyces and the Tat pathway therein. Many of the thus-produced proteins are of significant therapeutic value in the pharmaceutical and biochemical industries, particularly when they can be secreted from the host in fully-folded active form. Accordingly, there are further provided the heterologous proteins produced by the Tat secretion pathway using the foregoing methods, and the computer algorithm used to identify the Tat signal sequence and putative substrates.

  13. A conserved arginine-containing motif crucial for the assembly and enzymatic activity of the mixed lineage leukemia protein-1 core complex.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anamika; Vought, Valarie E; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Cosgrove, Michael S

    2008-11-21

    The mixed lineage leukemia protein-1 (MLL1) belongs to the SET1 family of histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferases. Recent studies indicate that the catalytic subunits of SET1 family members are regulated by interaction with a conserved core group of proteins that include the WD repeat protein-5 (WDR5), retinoblastoma-binding protein-5 (RbBP5), and the absent small homeotic-2-like protein (Ash2L). It has been suggested that WDR5 functions to bridge the interactions between the catalytic and regulatory subunits of SET1 family complexes. However, the molecular details of these interactions are unknown. To gain insight into the interactions among these proteins, we have determined the biophysical basis for the interaction between the human WDR5 and MLL1. Our studies reveal that WDR5 preferentially recognizes a previously unidentified and conserved arginine-containing motif, called the "Win" or WDR5 interaction motif, which is located in the N-SET region of MLL1 and other SET1 family members. Surprisingly, our structural and functional studies show that WDR5 recognizes arginine 3765 of the MLL1 Win motif using the same arginine binding pocket on WDR5 that was previously shown to bind histone H3. We demonstrate that WDR5's recognition of arginine 3765 of MLL1 is essential for the assembly and enzymatic activity of the MLL1 core complex in vitro. PMID:18829457

  14. Regulating the regulators: serine/arginine-rich proteins under scrutiny.

    PubMed

    Risso, Guillermo; Pelisch, Federico; Quaglino, Ana; Pozzi, Berta; Srebrow, Anabella

    2012-10-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are among the most studied splicing regulators. They constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that, apart from their initially identified and deeply studied role in splicing regulation, have been implicated in genome stability, chromatin binding, transcription elongation, mRNA stability, mRNA export and mRNA translation. Remarkably, this list of SR protein activities seems far from complete, as unexpected functions keep being unraveled. An intriguing aspect that awaits further investigation is how the multiple tasks of SR proteins are concertedly regulated within mammalian cells. In this article, we first discuss recent findings regarding the regulation of SR protein expression, activity and accessibility. We dive into recent studies describing SR protein auto-regulatory feedback loops involving different molecular mechanisms such asunproductive splicing, microRNA-mediated regulation and translational repression. In addition, we take into account another step of regulation of SR proteins, presenting new findings about a variety of post-translational modifications by proteomics approaches and how some of these modifications can regulate SR protein sub-cellular localization or stability. Towards the end, we focus in two recently revealed functions of SR proteins beyond mRNA biogenesis and metabolism, the regulation of micro-RNA processing and the regulation of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation. PMID:22941908

  15. Protein kinase C catalyses the phosphorylation and activation of rat liver phospholipid methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, M; Pajares, M A; Renart, M F; Mato, J M

    1987-01-01

    When a partially purified rat liver phospholipid methyltransferase is incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP and rat brain protein kinase C, phospholipid methyltransferase (Mr 50,000, pI 4.75) becomes phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of the enzyme showed Ca2+/lipid-dependency. Protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of phospholipid methyltransferase was accompanied by an approx. 2-fold activation of the enzyme activity. Activity changes and enzyme phosphorylation showed the same time course. Activation of the enzyme also showed Ca2+/lipid-dependency. Protein kinase C mediates phosphorylation of predominantly serine residues of the methyltransferase. One major peak of phosphorylation was identified by analysis of tryptic phosphopeptides by isoelectrofocusing. This peak (pI 5.2) differs from that phosphorylated by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (pI 7.2), demonstrating the specificity of phosphorylation of protein kinase C. Tryptic-peptide mapping by h.p.l.c. of the methyltransferase phosphorylated by protein kinase C revealed one major peak of radioactivity, which could be resolved into two labelled phosphopeptides by t.l.c. The significance of protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of phospholipid methyltransferase is discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. PMID:3593229

  16. Evaluation of chemical labeling methods for identifying functional arginine residues of proteins by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wanigasekara, Maheshika S K; Chowdhury, Saiful M

    2016-09-01

    Arginine residues undergo several kinds of post-translational modifications (PTMs). These PTMs are associated with several inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Mass spectrometric studies of arginine modified proteins and peptides are very important, not only to identify the reactive arginine residues but also to understand the tandem mass spectrometry behavior of these peptides for assigning the sequences unambiguously. Herein, we utilize tandem mass spectrometry to report the performance of two widely used arginine labeling reagents, 1,2-cyclohexanedione (CHD) and phenylglyoxal (PG) with several arginine containing peptides and proteins. Time course labeling studies were performed to demonstrate the selectivity of the reagents in proteins or protein digests. Structural studies on the proteins were also explored to better understand the reaction sites and position of arginine residues. We found CHD showed better labeling efficiencies compared to phenylglyoxal. Reactive arginine profiling on a purified albumin protein clearly pointed out the cellular glycation modification site for this protein with high confidence. We believe these detailed mass-spectrometric studies will provide significant input to profile reactive arginine residues in large-scale studies; therefore, targeted proteomics can be performed to the short listed reactive sites for cellular arginine modifications. PMID:27543028

  17. Ribosomal protein methyltransferases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadid, Qais; White, Jonelle; Clarke, Steven

    2016-02-12

    A significant percentage of the methyltransferasome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes is devoted to methylation of the translational machinery. Methylation of the RNA components of the translational machinery has been studied extensively and is important for structure stability, ribosome biogenesis, and translational fidelity. However, the functional effects of ribosomal protein methylation by their cognate methyltransferases are still largely unknown. Previous work has shown that the ribosomal protein Rpl3 methyltransferase, histidine protein methyltransferase 1 (Hpm1), is important for ribosome biogenesis and translation elongation fidelity. In this study, yeast strains deficient in each of the ten ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae were examined for potential defects in ribosome biogenesis and translation. Like Hpm1-deficient cells, loss of four of the nine other ribosomal protein methyltransferases resulted in defects in ribosomal subunit synthesis. All of the mutant strains exhibited resistance to the ribosome inhibitors anisomycin and/or cycloheximide in plate assays, but not in liquid culture. Translational fidelity assays measuring stop codon readthrough, amino acid misincorporation, and programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting, revealed that eight of the ten enzymes are important for translation elongation fidelity and the remaining two are necessary for translation termination efficiency. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae play important roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation. PMID:26801560

  18. Structure of the C-terminal domain of the arginine repressor protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, Leonid T.; Cherney, Maia M.; Garen, Craig R.; Lu, George J.; James, Michael N. G.

    2008-09-01

    The structure of the core domain of the arginine repressor protein from M. tuberculosis has been determined with (1.85 Å resolution) and without (2.15 Å resolution) the arginine corepressor bound. Three additional arginine molecules have been found to bind to the core domain hexamer at high (0.2 M) arginine concentration. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) gene product encoded by open reading frame Rv1657 is an arginine repressor (ArgR). All genes involved in the l-arginine (hereafter arginine) biosynthetic pathway are essential for optimal growth of the Mtb pathogen, thus making MtbArgR a potential target for drug design. The C-terminal domains of arginine repressors (CArgR) participate in oligomerization and arginine binding. Several crystal forms of CArgR from Mtb (MtbCArgR) have been obtained. The X-ray crystal structures of MtbCArgR were determined at 1.85 Å resolution with bound arginine and at 2.15 Å resolution in the unliganded form. These structures show that six molecules of MtbCArgR are arranged into a hexamer having approximate 32 point symmetry that is formed from two trimers. The trimers rotate relative to each other by about 11° upon binding arginine. All residues in MtbCArgR deemed to be important for hexamer formation and for arginine binding have been identified from the experimentally determined structures presented. The hexamer contains six regular sites in which the arginine molecules have one common binding mode and three sites in which the arginine molecules have two overlapping binding modes. The latter sites only bind the ligand at high (200 mM) arginine concentrations.

  19. Crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase protein clusters assembled on to damaged DNA.

    PubMed

    Miggiano, Riccardo; Perugino, Giuseppe; Ciaramella, Maria; Serpe, Mario; Rejman, Dominik; Páv, Ondřej; Pohl, Radek; Garavaglia, Silvia; Lahiri, Samarpita; Rizzi, Menico; Rossi, Franca

    2016-01-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MtOGT) contributes to protect the bacterial GC-rich genome against the pro-mutagenic potential of O(6)-methylated guanine in DNA. Several strains of M. tuberculosis found worldwide encode a point-mutated O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (OGT) variant (MtOGT-R37L), which displays an arginine-to-leucine substitution at position 37 of the poorly functionally characterized N-terminal domain of the protein. Although the impact of this mutation on the MtOGT activity has not yet been proved in vivo, we previously demonstrated that a recombinant MtOGT-R37L variant performs a suboptimal alkylated-DNA repair in vitro, suggesting a direct role for the Arg(37)-bearing region in catalysis. The crystal structure of MtOGT complexed with modified DNA solved in the present study reveals details of the protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions occurring during alkylated-DNA binding, and the protein capability also to host unmodified bases inside the active site, in a fully extrahelical conformation. Our data provide the first experimental picture at the atomic level of a possible mode of assembling three adjacent MtOGT monomers on the same monoalkylated dsDNA molecule, and disclose the conformational flexibility of discrete regions of MtOGT, including the Arg(37)-bearing random coil. This peculiar structural plasticity of MtOGT could be instrumental to proper protein clustering at damaged DNA sites, as well as to protein-DNA complexes disassembling on repair. PMID:26512127

  20. The CASTOR proteins are arginine sensors for the mTORC1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chantranupong, Lynne; Scaria, Sonia M.; Saxton, Robert A.; Gygi, Melanie P.; Shen, Kuang; Wyant, Gregory A.; Wang, Tim; Harper, J. Wade; Gygi, Steven P.; Sabatini, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids signal to the mTOR complex I (mTORC1) growth pathway through the Rag GTPases. Multiple distinct complexes regulate the Rags, including GATOR1, a GTPase activating protein (GAP), and GATOR2, a positive regulator of unknown molecular function. Arginine stimulation of cells activates mTORC1, but how it is sensed is not well understood. Recently, SLC38A9 was identified as a putative lysosomal arginine sensor required for arginine to activate mTORC1 but how arginine deprivation represses mTORC1 is unknown. Here, we show that CASTOR1, a previously uncharacterized protein, interacts with GATOR2 and is required for arginine deprivation to inhibit mTORC1. CASTOR1 homodimerizes and can also heterodimerize with the related protein, CASTOR2. Arginine disrupts the CASTOR1-GATOR2 complex by binding to CASTOR1 with a dissociation constant of ~30 μM, and its arginine-binding capacity is required for arginine to activate mTORC1 in cells. Collectively, these results establish CASTOR1 as an arginine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway. PMID:26972053

  1. The CASTOR Proteins Are Arginine Sensors for the mTORC1 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Chantranupong, Lynne; Scaria, Sonia M; Saxton, Robert A; Gygi, Melanie P; Shen, Kuang; Wyant, Gregory A; Wang, Tim; Harper, J Wade; Gygi, Steven P; Sabatini, David M

    2016-03-24

    Amino acids signal to the mTOR complex I (mTORC1) growth pathway through the Rag GTPases. Multiple distinct complexes regulate the Rags, including GATOR1, a GTPase activating protein (GAP), and GATOR2, a positive regulator of unknown molecular function. Arginine stimulation of cells activates mTORC1, but how it is sensed is not well understood. Recently, SLC38A9 was identified as a putative lysosomal arginine sensor required for arginine to activate mTORC1 but how arginine deprivation represses mTORC1 is unknown. Here, we show that CASTOR1, a previously uncharacterized protein, interacts with GATOR2 and is required for arginine deprivation to inhibit mTORC1. CASTOR1 homodimerizes and can also heterodimerize with the related protein, CASTOR2. Arginine disrupts the CASTOR1-GATOR2 complex by binding to CASTOR1 with a dissociation constant of ∼30 μM, and its arginine-binding capacity is required for arginine to activate mTORC1 in cells. Collectively, these results establish CASTOR1 as an arginine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway. PMID:26972053

  2. C9orf72 repeat expansions cause neurodegeneration in Drosophila through arginine-rich proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ridler, Charlotte E.; Clayton, Emma L.; Devoy, Anny; Moens, Thomas; Norona, Frances E.; Woollacott, Ione O.C.; Pietrzyk, Julian; Cleverley, Karen; Nicoll, Andrew J.; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Dols, Jacqueline; Cabecinha, Melissa; Hendrich, Oliver; Fratta, Pietro; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Partridge, Linda; Isaacs, Adrian M.

    2016-01-01

    An expanded GGGGCC repeat in C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A fundamental question is whether toxicity is driven by the repeat RNA itself and/or by dipeptide repeat proteins generated by repeat-associated, non-ATG translation. To address this question we developed in vitro and in vivo models to dissect repeat RNA and dipeptide repeat protein toxicity. Expression of pure repeats in Drosophila caused adult-onset neurodegeneration attributable to poly-(glycine-arginine) proteins. Thus expanded repeats promoted neurodegeneration through neurotoxic proteins. Expression of individual dipeptide repeat proteins with a non-GGGGCC RNA sequence showed both poly-(glycine-arginine) and poly-(proline-arginine) proteins caused neurodegeneration. These findings are consistent with a dual toxicity mechanism, whereby both arginine-rich proteins and repeat RNA contribute to C9orf72-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:25103406

  3. PRMT9 is a Type II methyltransferase that methylates the splicing factor SAP145

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanzhong; Hadjikyriacou, Andrea; Xia, Zheng; Gayatri, Sitaram; Kim, Daehoon; Zurita-Lopez, Cecilia; Kelly, Ryan; Guo, Ailan; Li, Wei; Clarke, Steven G.; Bedford, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    The human genome encodes a family of nine protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT1-9), which members can catalyze three distinct types of methylation on arginine residues. Here, we identify two spliceosome-associated proteins – SAP145 and SAP49 – as PRMT9 binding partners, linking PRMT9 to U2snRNP maturation. We show that SAP145 is methylated by PRMT9 at arginine 508, which takes the form of monomethylated arginine (MMA) and symmetrically dimethylated arginine (SDMA). PRMT9 thus joins PRMT5 as the only mammalian enzymes capable of depositing the SDMA mark. Methylation of SAP145 on Arg508 generates a binding site for the Tudor domain of the Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein, and RNA-seq analysis reveals gross splicing changes when PRMT9 levels are attenuated. These results identify PRMT9 as a non-histone methyltransferase that primes the U2snRNP for interaction with SMN. PMID:25737013

  4. Facile synthesis of SAM–peptide conjugates through alkyl linkers targeting protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1†

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    We report the first chemical synthesis of SAM–peptide conjugates through alkyl linkers to prepare bisubstrate analogs for protein methyltransferases. We demonstrate its application by developing a series of bisubstrate inhibitors for protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1 and the most potent one exhibits a Ki value of 310 ± 55 nM.

  5. Dysregulation of protein methyltransferases in human cancer: An emerging target class for anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Ryuji; Nakamura, Yusuke

    2016-04-01

    Protein methylation is one of the important post-translational modifications. Although its biological and physiological functions were unknown for a long time, we and others have characterized a number of protein methyltransferases, which have unveiled the critical functions of protein methylation in various cellular processes, in particular, in epigenetic regulation. In addition, it had been believed that protein methylation is an irreversible phenomenon, but through identification of a variety of protein demethylases, protein methylation is now considered to be dynamically regulated similar to protein phosphorylation. A large amount of evidence indicated that protein methylation has a pivotal role in post-translational modification of histone proteins as well as non-histone proteins and is involved in various processes of cancer development and progression. As dysregulation of this modification has been observed frequently in various types of cancer, small-molecule inhibitors targeting protein methyltransferases and demethylases have been actively developed as anticancer drugs; clinical trials for some of these drugs have already begun. In this review, we discuss the biological and physiological importance of protein methylation in human cancer, especially focusing on the significance of protein methyltransferases as emerging targets for anticancer therapy. PMID:26751963

  6. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Reveals the Role of Protein Arginine Phosphorylation in the Bacterial Stress Response*

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Andreas; Trentini, Débora Broch; Spiess, Silvia; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Ammerer, Gustav; Mechtler, Karl; Clausen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Arginine phosphorylation is an emerging protein modification implicated in the general stress response of Gram-positive bacteria. The modification is mediated by the arginine kinase McsB, which phosphorylates and inactivates the heat shock repressor CtsR. In this study, we developed a mass spectrometric approach accounting for the peculiar chemical properties of phosphoarginine. The improved methodology was used to analyze the dynamic changes in the Bacillus subtilis arginine phosphoproteome in response to different stress situations. Quantitative analysis showed that a B. subtilis mutant lacking the YwlE arginine phosphatase accumulated a strikingly large number of arginine phosphorylations (217 sites in 134 proteins), however only a minor fraction of these sites was increasingly modified during heat shock or oxidative stress. The main targets of McsB-mediated arginine phosphorylation comprise central factors of the stress response system including the CtsR and HrcA heat shock repressors, as well as major components of the protein quality control system such as the ClpCP protease and the GroEL chaperonine. These findings highlight the impact of arginine phosphorylation in orchestrating the bacterial stress response. PMID:24263382

  7. A Study on the Effect of Surface Lysine to Arginine Mutagenesis on Protein Stability and Structure Using Green Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sokalingam, Sriram; Raghunathan, Govindan; Soundrarajan, Nagasundarapandian; Lee, Sun-Gu

    2012-01-01

    Two positively charged basic amino acids, arginine and lysine, are mostly exposed to protein surface, and play important roles in protein stability by forming electrostatic interactions. In particular, the guanidinium group of arginine allows interactions in three possible directions, which enables arginine to form a larger number of electrostatic interactions compared to lysine. The higher pKa of the basic residue in arginine may also generate more stable ionic interactions than lysine. This paper reports an investigation whether the advantageous properties of arginine over lysine can be utilized to enhance protein stability. A variant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was created by mutating the maximum possible number of lysine residues on the surface to arginines while retaining the activity. When the stability of the variant was examined under a range of denaturing conditions, the variant was relatively more stable compared to control GFP in the presence of chemical denaturants such as urea, alkaline pH and ionic detergents, but the thermal stability of the protein was not changed. The modeled structure of the variant indicated putative new salt bridges and hydrogen bond interactions that help improve the rigidity of the protein against different chemical denaturants. Structural analyses of the electrostatic interactions also confirmed that the geometric properties of the guanidinium group in arginine had such effects. On the other hand, the altered electrostatic interactions induced by the mutagenesis of surface lysines to arginines adversely affected protein folding, which decreased the productivity of the functional form of the variant. These results suggest that the surface lysine mutagenesis to arginines can be considered one of the parameters in protein stability engineering. PMID:22792305

  8. Uncovering the Protein Lysine and Arginine Methylation Network in Arabidopsis Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Mininno, Morgane; Brugière, Sabine; Gilgen, Annabelle; Ma, Sheng; Mazzoleni, Meryl; Gigarel, Océane; Martin-Laffon, Jacqueline; Ferro, Myriam; Ravanel, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins by the addition of methyl groups to the side chains of Lys and Arg residues is proposed to play important roles in many cellular processes. In plants, identification of non-histone methylproteins at a cellular or subcellular scale is still missing. To gain insights into the extent of this modification in chloroplasts we used a bioinformatics approach to identify protein methyltransferases targeted to plastids and set up a workflow to specifically identify Lys and Arg methylated proteins from proteomic data used to produce the Arabidopsis chloroplast proteome. With this approach we could identify 31 high-confidence Lys and Arg methylation sites from 23 chloroplastic proteins, of which only two were previously known to be methylated. These methylproteins are split between the stroma, thylakoids and envelope sub-compartments. They belong to essential metabolic processes, including photosynthesis, and to the chloroplast biogenesis and maintenance machinery (translation, protein import, division). Also, the in silico identification of nine protein methyltransferases that are known or predicted to be targeted to plastids provided a foundation to build the enzymes/substrates relationships that govern methylation in chloroplasts. Thereby, using in vitro methylation assays with chloroplast stroma as a source of methyltransferases we confirmed the methylation sites of two targets, plastid ribosomal protein L11 and the β-subunit of ATP synthase. Furthermore, a biochemical screening of recombinant chloroplastic protein Lys methyltransferases allowed us to identify the enzymes involved in the modification of these substrates. The present study provides a useful resource to build the methyltransferases/methylproteins network and to elucidate the role of protein methylation in chloroplast biology. PMID:24748391

  9. Uncovering the protein lysine and arginine methylation network in Arabidopsis chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Alban, Claude; Tardif, Marianne; Mininno, Morgane; Brugière, Sabine; Gilgen, Annabelle; Ma, Sheng; Mazzoleni, Meryl; Gigarel, Océane; Martin-Laffon, Jacqueline; Ferro, Myriam; Ravanel, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins by the addition of methyl groups to the side chains of Lys and Arg residues is proposed to play important roles in many cellular processes. In plants, identification of non-histone methylproteins at a cellular or subcellular scale is still missing. To gain insights into the extent of this modification in chloroplasts we used a bioinformatics approach to identify protein methyltransferases targeted to plastids and set up a workflow to specifically identify Lys and Arg methylated proteins from proteomic data used to produce the Arabidopsis chloroplast proteome. With this approach we could identify 31 high-confidence Lys and Arg methylation sites from 23 chloroplastic proteins, of which only two were previously known to be methylated. These methylproteins are split between the stroma, thylakoids and envelope sub-compartments. They belong to essential metabolic processes, including photosynthesis, and to the chloroplast biogenesis and maintenance machinery (translation, protein import, division). Also, the in silico identification of nine protein methyltransferases that are known or predicted to be targeted to plastids provided a foundation to build the enzymes/substrates relationships that govern methylation in chloroplasts. Thereby, using in vitro methylation assays with chloroplast stroma as a source of methyltransferases we confirmed the methylation sites of two targets, plastid ribosomal protein L11 and the β-subunit of ATP synthase. Furthermore, a biochemical screening of recombinant chloroplastic protein Lys methyltransferases allowed us to identify the enzymes involved in the modification of these substrates. The present study provides a useful resource to build the methyltransferases/methylproteins network and to elucidate the role of protein methylation in chloroplast biology. PMID:24748391

  10. Yeast Hmt1 catalyses asymmetric dimethylation of histone H3 arginine 2 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Tao; Gong, Ting; Zhou, Zhen; Liu, Yu-Ting; Cao, Xiongwen; He, Yongning; Chen, Charlie Degui; Zhou, Jin-Qiu

    2015-05-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are a family of enzymes that can methylate protein arginine residues. PRMTs' substrates include histones and a variety of non-histone proteins. Previous studies have shown that yeast Hmt1 is a type I PRMT and methylates histone H4 arginine 3 and several mRNA-binding proteins. Hmt1 forms dimers or oligomers, but how dimerization or oligomerization affects its activity remains largely unknown. We now report that Hmt1 can methylate histone H3 arginine 2 (H3R2) in vitro. The dimerization but not hexamerization is essential for Hmt1's activity. Interestingly, the methyltransferase activity of Hmt1 on histone H3R2 requires reciprocal contributions from two Hmt1 molecules. Our results suggest an intermolecular trans-complementary mechanism by which Hmt1 dimer methylates its substrates. PMID:25715670

  11. Construction of a robust and sensitive arginine biosensor through ancestral protein reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Jason H; Zhang, William H; Herde, Michel K; Clifton, Ben E; Radziejewski, Johanna; Janovjak, Harald; Henneberger, Christian; Jackson, Colin J

    2015-09-01

    Biosensors for signaling molecules allow the study of physiological processes by bringing together the fields of protein engineering, fluorescence imaging, and cell biology. Construction of genetically encoded biosensors generally relies on the availability of a binding "core" that is both specific and stable, which can then be combined with fluorescent molecules to create a sensor. However, binding proteins with the desired properties are often not available in nature and substantial improvement to sensors can be required, particularly with regard to their durability. Ancestral protein reconstruction is a powerful protein-engineering tool able to generate highly stable and functional proteins. In this work, we sought to establish the utility of ancestral protein reconstruction to biosensor development, beginning with the construction of an l-arginine biosensor. l-arginine, as the immediate precursor to nitric oxide, is an important molecule in many physiological contexts including brain function. Using a combination of ancestral reconstruction and circular permutation, we constructed a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor for l-arginine (cpFLIPR). cpFLIPR displays high sensitivity and specificity, with a Kd of ∼14 µM and a maximal dynamic range of 35%. Importantly, cpFLIPR was highly robust, enabling accurate l-arginine measurement at physiological temperatures. We established that cpFLIPR is compatible with two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and report l-arginine concentrations in brain tissue. PMID:26061224

  12. Construction of a robust and sensitive arginine biosensor through ancestral protein reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Jason H; Zhang, William H; Herde, Michel K; Clifton, Ben E; Radziejewski, Johanna; Janovjak, Harald; Henneberger, Christian; Jackson, Colin J

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors for signaling molecules allow the study of physiological processes by bringing together the fields of protein engineering, fluorescence imaging, and cell biology. Construction of genetically encoded biosensors generally relies on the availability of a binding “core” that is both specific and stable, which can then be combined with fluorescent molecules to create a sensor. However, binding proteins with the desired properties are often not available in nature and substantial improvement to sensors can be required, particularly with regard to their durability. Ancestral protein reconstruction is a powerful protein-engineering tool able to generate highly stable and functional proteins. In this work, we sought to establish the utility of ancestral protein reconstruction to biosensor development, beginning with the construction of an l-arginine biosensor. l-arginine, as the immediate precursor to nitric oxide, is an important molecule in many physiological contexts including brain function. Using a combination of ancestral reconstruction and circular permutation, we constructed a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor for l-arginine (cpFLIPR). cpFLIPR displays high sensitivity and specificity, with a Kd of ∼14 µM and a maximal dynamic range of 35%. Importantly, cpFLIPR was highly robust, enabling accurate l-arginine measurement at physiological temperatures. We established that cpFLIPR is compatible with two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and report l-arginine concentrations in brain tissue. PMID:26061224

  13. Comprehensive identification of arginine methylation in primary T cells reveals regulatory roles in cell signalling

    PubMed Central

    Geoghegan, Vincent; Guo, Ailan; Trudgian, David; Thomas, Benjamin; Acuto, Oreste

    2015-01-01

    The impact of protein arginine methylation on the regulation of immune functions is virtually unknown. Here, we apply a novel method—isomethionine methyl-SILAC—coupled with antibody-mediated arginine-methylated peptide enrichment to identify methylated peptides in human T cells by mass spectrometry. This approach allowed the identification of 2,502 arginine methylation sites from 1,257 tissue-specific and housekeeping proteins. We find that components of T cell antigen receptor signal machinery and several key transcription factors that regulate T cell fate determination are methylated on arginine. Moreover, we demonstrate changes in arginine methylation stoichiometry during cellular stimulation in a subset of proteins critical to T cell differentiation. Our data suggest that protein arginine methyltransferases exert key regulatory roles in T cell activation and differentiation, opening a new field of investigation in T cell biology. PMID:25849564

  14. [Bioinformatics analysis and expressed level of histone methyltransferase genes in Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin-jie; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Long, Ping; Zha, Liang-ping; Wang, Yao-long

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-three histone methyltransferase genes were obtained from transcriptome dataset of Lonicera japonica. The nucleotide and proteins characteristics, subcellular localization, senior structural domains and conservative forecasting were analyzed. The result of phylogenetic tree showed that 23 histone methyltransferases were mainly divided into two groups: lysine methyltransferase and arginine methyltransferases. The result of gene expression showed that 23 histone methyltransferases showed preference in terms of interspecies and organs. They were more expressed in buds of L. japonica than in L. japonica var. chinensis and lower in leaves of L. japonica than in L. japonica var. chinensis. Eight genes were specific expressed in flower. These results provided basis for further understanding the function of histone methyltransferase and epigenetic regulation of active ingredients of L. japonica. PMID:26552158

  15. Importance of Host Cell Arginine Uptake in Francisella Phagosomal Escape and Ribosomal Protein Amounts*

    PubMed Central

    Ramond, Elodie; Gesbert, Gael; Guerrera, Ida Chiara; Chhuon, Cerina; Dupuis, Marion; Rigard, Mélanie; Henry, Thomas; Barel, Monique; Charbit, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Upon entry into mammalian host cells, the pathogenic bacterium Francisella must import host cell arginine to multiply actively in the host cytoplasm. We identified and functionally characterized an arginine transporter (hereafter designated ArgP) whose inactivation considerably delayed bacterial phagosomal escape and intracellular multiplication. Intramacrophagic growth of the ΔargP mutant was fully restored upon supplementation of the growth medium with excess arginine, in both F. tularensis subsp. novicida and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica LVS, demonstrating the importance of arginine acquisition in these two subspecies. High-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that arginine limitation reduced the amount of most of the ribosomal proteins in the ΔargP mutant. In response to stresses such as nutritional limitation, repression of ribosomal protein synthesis has been observed in all kingdoms of life. Arginine availability may thus contribute to the sensing of the intracellular stage of the pathogen and to trigger phagosomal egress. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange database with identifier PXD001584 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001584). PMID:25616868

  16. The methyltransferase adaptor protein Trm112 is involved in biogenesis of both ribosomal subunits

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Richa; Johnson, Arlen W.

    2012-01-01

    We previously identified Bud23 as the methyltransferase that methylates G1575 of rRNA in the P-site of the small (40S) ribosomal subunit. In this paper, we show that Bud23 requires the methyltransferase adaptor protein Trm112 for stability in vivo. Deletion of Trm112 results in a bud23Δ-like mutant phenotype. Thus Trm112 is required for efficient small-subunit biogenesis. Genetic analysis suggests the slow growth of a trm112Δ mutant is due primarily to the loss of Bud23. Surprisingly, suppression of the bud23Δ-dependent 40S defect revealed a large (60S) biogenesis defect in a trm112Δ mutant. Using sucrose gradient sedimentation analysis and coimmunoprecipitation, we show that Trm112 is also involved in 60S subunit biogenesis. The 60S defect may be dependent on Nop2 and Rcm1, two additional Trm112 interactors that we identify. Our work extends the known range of Trm112 function from modification of tRNAs and translation factors to both ribosomal subunits, showing that its effects span all aspects of the translation machinery. Although Trm112 is required for Bud23 stability, our results suggest that Trm112 is not maintained in a stable complex with Bud23. We suggest that Trm112 stabilizes its free methyltransferase partners not engaged with substrate and/or helps to deliver its methyltransferase partners to their substrates. PMID:22956767

  17. A structural role for arginine in proteins: multiple hydrogen bonds to backbone carbonyl oxygens.

    PubMed

    Borders, C L; Broadwater, J A; Bekeny, P A; Salmon, J E; Lee, A S; Eldridge, A M; Pett, V B

    1994-04-01

    We propose that arginine side chains often play a previously unappreciated general structural role in the maintenance of tertiary structure in proteins, wherein the positively charged guanidinium group forms multiple hydrogen bonds to backbone carbonyl oxygens. Using as a criterion for a "structural" arginine one that forms 4 or more hydrogen bonds to 3 or more backbone carbonyl oxygens, we have used molecular graphics to locate arginines of interest in 4 proteins: Arg 180 in Thermus thermophilus manganese superoxide dismutase, Arg 254 in human carbonic anhydrase II, Arg 31 in Streptomyces rubiginosus xylose isomerase, and Arg 313 in Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Arg 180 helps to mold the active site channel of superoxide dismutase, whereas in each of the other enzymes the structural arginine is buried in the "mantle" (i.e., inside, but near the surface) of the protein interior well removed from the active site, where it makes 5 hydrogen bonds to 4 backbone carbonyl oxygens. Using a more relaxed criterion of 3 or more hydrogen bonds to 2 or more backbone carbonyl oxygens, arginines that play a potentially important structural role were found in yeast enolase, Bacillus stearothermophilus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, bacteriophage T4 and human lysozymes, Enteromorpha prolifera plastocyanin, HIV-1 protease, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and yeast triosephosphate isomerases, and Escherichia coli trp aporepressor (but not trp repressor or the trp repressor/operator complex).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8003972

  18. Glucose Autoxidation Induces Functional Damage to Proteins via Modification of Critical Arginine Residues†

    PubMed Central

    Chetyrkin, Sergei; Mathis, Missy; Pedchenko, Vadim; Sanchez, Otto A.; McDonald, W. Hayes; Hachey, David L.; Madu, Hartman; Stec, Donald; Hudson, Billy; Voziyan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Non-enzymatic modification of proteins in hyperglycemia is a major mechanism causing diabetic complications. These modifications can have pathogenic consequences when they target active site residues, thus affecting protein function. In the present study, we examined the role of glucose autoxidation in functional protein damage using lysozyme and RGD-α3NC1 domain of collagen IV as model proteins in vitro. We demonstrated that glucose autoxidation induced inhibition of lysozyme activity as well as NC1 domain binding to αVβ3 integrin receptor via modification of critical arginine residues by reactive carbonyl species (RCS) glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal while non-oxidative glucose adduction to the protein did not affect protein function. The role of RCS in protein damage was confirmed using pyridoxamine which blocked glucose autoxidation and RCS production, thus protecting protein function, even in the presence of high concentrations of glucose. Glucose autoxidation may cause protein damage in vivo since increased levels of GO-derived modifications of arginine residues were detected within the assembly interface of collagen IV NC1 domains isolated from renal ECM of diabetic rats. Since arginine residues are frequently present within protein active sites, glucose autoxidation may be a common mechanism contributing to ECM protein functional damage in hyperglycemia and oxidative environment. Our data also point out the pitfalls in functional studies, particularly in cell culture experiments, that involve glucose treatment but do not take into account toxic effects of RCS derived from glucose autoxidation. PMID:21661747

  19. Purification of homologous protein carboxyl methyltransferase isozymes from human and bovine erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, J.M.; Fowler, A.; Bleibaum, J.; Clarke, S.

    1988-07-12

    The authors have purified the two major isozymes of the L-isoaspartyl/D-aspartyl protein methyltransferase from both human and bovine erythrocytes. These four enzymes all have polypeptide molecular weights of approximately 26,500 and appear to be monomers in solution. Each of these enzymes cross-reacts with antibodies directed against protein carboxyl methyltransferase I from bovine brain. Their structures also appear to be similar when analyzed by dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis for the large fragments produced by digestion with Staphylococcus aureus protease V8 or when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for tryptic peptides. The structural relatedness of these enzymes was confirmed by sequence analysis of a total of 433 residues in 32 tryptic fragments of the human erythrocyte isozymes I and II and of the bovine erythrocyte isozyme II. They found sequence identity or probable identity in 111 out of 112 residues when they compared the human isozymes I and II and identities in 127 out of 134 residues when the human and bovine isozymes II were compared. These results suggest that the erythrocyte isozymes from both organisms may have nearly identical structures and confirm the similarities in the function of these methyltransferases that have been previously demonstrated.

  20. Shrimp arginine kinase being a binding protein of WSSV envelope protein VP31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cuiyan; Gao, Qiang; Liang, Yan; Li, Chen; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Viral entry into the host is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle in which attachment proteins play a key role. VP31 (WSV340/WSSV396), an envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide domain known as a cellular attachment site. At present, the process of VP31 interacting with shrimp host cells has not been explored. Therefore, the VP31 gene was cloned into pET30a (+), expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 and purified with immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Four gill cellular proteins of shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were pulled down by an affinity column coupled with recombinant VP31 (rVP31), and the amino acid sequences were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Hemocyanin, beta-actin, arginine kinase (AK), and an unknown protein were suggested as the putative VP31 receptor proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that AK is the predominant binding protein of VP31. An i n vitro binding activity experiment indicated that recombinant AK's (rAK) binding activity with rVP31 is comparable to that with the same amount of WSSV. These results suggested that AK, as a member of the phosphagen kinase family, plays a role in WSSV infection. This is the first evidence showing that AK is a binding protein of VP31. Further studies on this topic will elucidate WSSV infection mechanism in the future.

  1. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Human Methyltransferase Modulating Hsp70 Protein Function through Lysine Methylation*

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Magnus E.; Moen, Anders; Bousset, Luc; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Kernstock, Stefan; Melki, Ronald; Falnes, Pål Ø.

    2013-01-01

    Hsp70 proteins constitute an evolutionarily conserved protein family of ATP-dependent molecular chaperones involved in a wide range of biological processes. Mammalian Hsp70 proteins are subject to various post-translational modifications, including methylation, but for most of these, a functional role has not been attributed. In this study, we identified the methyltransferase METTL21A as the enzyme responsible for trimethylation of a conserved lysine residue found in several human Hsp70 (HSPA) proteins. This enzyme, denoted by us as HSPA lysine (K) methyltransferase (HSPA-KMT), was found to catalyze trimethylation of various Hsp70 family members both in vitro and in vivo, and the reaction was stimulated by ATP. Furthermore, we show that HSPA-KMT exclusively methylates 70-kDa proteins in mammalian protein extracts, demonstrating that it is a highly specific enzyme. Finally, we show that trimethylation of HSPA8 (Hsc70) has functional consequences, as it alters the affinity of the chaperone for both the monomeric and fibrillar forms of the Parkinson disease-associated protein α-synuclein. PMID:23921388

  2. A subset of bacterial inner membrane proteins integrated by the twin-arginine translocase.

    PubMed

    Hatzixanthis, Kostas; Palmer, Tracy; Sargent, Frank

    2003-09-01

    A group of bacterial exported proteins are synthesized with N-terminal signal peptides containing a SRRxFLK 'twin-arginine' amino acid motif. Proteins bearing twin-arginine signal peptides are targeted post-translationally to the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system which transports folded substrates across the inner membrane. In Escherichia coli, most integral inner membrane proteins are assembled by a co-translational process directed by SRP/FtsY, the SecYEG translocase, and YidC. In this work we define a novel class of integral membrane proteins assembled by a Tat-dependent mechanism. We show that at least five E. coli Tat substrate proteins contain hydrophobic C-terminal transmembrane helices (or 'C-tails'). Fusions between the identified transmembrane C-tails and the exclusively Tat-dependent reporter proteins TorA and SufI render the resultant chimeras membrane-bound. Export-linked signal peptide processing and membrane integration of the chimeras is shown to be both Tat-dependent and YidC-independent. It is proposed that the mechanism of membrane integration of proteins by the Tat system is fundamentally distinct from that employed for other bacterial inner membrane proteins. PMID:12940994

  3. NRMT is an α-N-methyltransferase that methylates RCC1 and Retinoblastoma Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tooley, Christine E. Schaner; Petkowski, Janusz J.; Muratore-Schroeder, Tara L.; Balsbaugh, Jeremy L.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Sabat, Michal; Minor, Wladek; Hunt, Donald F.; Macara, Ian G.

    2010-01-01

    The post-translational methylation of α-amino groups was first discovered over 30 years ago on the bacterial ribosomal proteins L16 and L331–2, but almost nothing is known about the function or enzymology of this modification. Several other bacterial and eukaryotic proteins have since been shown to be α-N-methylated3–10. However, the Ran guanine nucleotide-exchange factor, RCC1, is the only protein for which any biological function of α-N-methylation has been identified3, 11. Methylation-defective mutants of RCC1 have reduced affinity for DNA and cause mitotic defects3, 11, but further characterization of this modification has been hindered by ignorance of the responsible methyltransferase. All fungal and animal N-terminally methylated proteins contain a unique N-terminal motif, Met-(Ala/Pro/Ser)-Pro-Lys, indicating they may be targets of the same, unknown enzyme3,12. The initiating Met is cleaved, and the exposed α-amino group is mono-, di-, or trimethylated. Here we report the discovery of the first α-N-methyltransferase, which we named N-terminal RCC1 methyltransferase (NRMT). Substrate docking and mutational analysis of RCC1 defined the NRMT recognition sequence and enabled the identification of numerous new methylation targets, including SET/TAF-I/PHAPII and the retinoblastoma protein, RB. Knockdown of NRMT recapitulates the multi-spindle phenotype seen with methylation-defective RCC1 mutants3, demonstrating the importance of alpha-N-methylation for normal bipolar spindle formation and chromosome segregation. PMID:20668449

  4. Twin-arginine-dependent translocation of SufI in the absence of cytosolic helper proteins.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Eva; Moser, Michael; Schiltz, Emile; Ueda, Takuya; Betton, Jean-Michel; Müller, Matthias

    2009-06-16

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) machinery present in bacterial and thylakoidal membranes is able to transport fully folded proteins. Folding of some Tat precursor proteins requires dedicated chaperones that also sequester the signal sequence during the maturation process. Whether or not signal sequence-binding chaperones are a general prerequisite for all Tat substrate proteins is not known. Here, we have studied the propensity of Tat signal sequences of Escherichia coli to interact with general chaperones and peptidyl-prolyl-cis,trans-isomerases. Site-specific photocross-linking revealed a clear specificity for FK506-binding proteins. Nevertheless transport of the Tat substrate SufI into inverted inner membrane vesicles of E. coli was found to occur in the bona fide absence of any cytosolic chaperone. Our results suggest that in E. coli, cytosolic chaperones are not essential for the twin-arginine-dependent export of cofactor-less substrates. PMID:19432418

  5. Dissection of the bifunctional ARGRII protein involved in the regulation of arginine anabolic and catabolic pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Qui, H F; Dubois, E; Messenguy, F

    1991-01-01

    ARGRII is a regulatory protein which regulates the arginine anabolic and catabolic pathways in combination with ARGRI and ARGRIII. We have investigated, by deletion analysis and fusion to LexA protein, the different domains of ARGRII protein. In contrast to other yeast regulatory proteins, 92% of ARGRII is necessary for its anabolic repression function and 80% is necessary for its catabolic activator function. We can define three domains in this protein: a putative DNA-binding domain containing a zinc finger motif, a region more involved in the repression activity located around the RNase-like sequence, and a large activation domain. Images PMID:2005903

  6. Effect of level of dietary protein on arginine-stimulated citrulline synthesis. Correlation with mitochondrial N-acetylglutamate concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, B H; Brady, J F; Atkinson, D E

    1990-01-01

    Increases in dietary protein have been reported to increase the rate of citrulline synthesis and the level of N-acetylglutamate in liver. We have confirmed this effect of diet on citrulline synthesis in rat liver mitochondria and show parallel increases in N-acetylglutamate concentration. The magnitude of the effect of arginine in the suspending medium on citrulline synthesis was also dependent on dietary protein content. Mitochondria from rats fed on a protein-free diet initially contained low levels of N-acetylglutamate, and addition of arginine increased the rate of its synthesis. Citrulline synthesis and acetylglutamate content in these mitochondria increased more than 5-fold when 1 mM-arginine was added. A diet high in protein results in mitochondria with increased N-acetylglutamate and a high rate of citrulline synthesis; 1 mM-arginine increased citrulline synthesis in such mitochondria by only 36%. The concentration of arginine in portal blood was 47 microM in rats fed on a diet lacking protein, and 182 microM in rats fed on a diet containing 60% protein, suggesting that arginine may be a regulatory signal to the liver concerning the dietary protein intake. The rates of citrulline synthesis were proportional to the mitochondrial content of acetylglutamate in mitochondria obtained from rats fed on diets containing 0, 24, or 60% protein, whether incubated in the absence or presence of arginine. Although the effector concentrations are higher than the Ka for the enzymes, these results support the view that concentrations of both arginine and acetylglutamate are important in the regulation of synthesis of citrulline and urea. Additionally, the effects of dietary protein level (and of arginine) are exerted in large part by way of modulation of the concentration of acetylglutamate. PMID:2268294

  7. Substrate Specificity of the HEMK2 Protein Glutamine Methyltransferase and Identification of Novel Substrates.

    PubMed

    Kusevic, Denis; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Jeltsch, Albert

    2016-03-18

    Bacterial HEMK2 homologs initially had been proposed to be involved in heme biogenesis or to function as adenine DNA methyltransferase. Later it was shown that this family of enzymes has protein glutamine methyltransferase activity, and they methylate the glutamine residue in the GGQ motif of ribosomal translation termination factors. The murine HEMK2 enzyme methylates Gln(185) of the eukaryotic translation termination factor eRF1. We have employed peptide array libraries to investigate the peptide sequence recognition specificity of murine HEMK2. Our data show that HEMK2 requires a GQX3R motif for methylation activity. In addition, amino acid preferences were observed between the -3 and +7 positions of the peptide substrate (considering the target glutamine as 0), including a preference for Ser, Arg, and Gly at the +1 and a preference for Arg at the +7 position. Based on our specificity profile, we identified several human proteins that contain putative HEMK2 methylation sites and show that HEMK2 methylates 58 novel peptide substrates. After cloning, expression, and purification of the corresponding protein domains, we confirmed methylation for 11 of them at the protein level. Transfected CHD5 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 5) and NUT (nuclear protein in testis) were also demonstrated to be methylated by HEMK2 in human HEK293 cells. Our data expand the range of proteins potentially subjected to glutamine methylation significantly, but further investigation will be required to understand the function of HEMK2-mediated methylation in proteins other than eRF1. PMID:26797129

  8. Ribosomal protein methylation in Escherichia coli: the gene prmA, encoding the ribosomal protein L11 methyltransferase, is dispensable.

    PubMed

    Vanet, A; Plumbridge, J A; Guérin, M F; Alix, J H

    1994-12-01

    The prmA gene, located at 72 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome, is the genetic determinant of ribosomal protein L11-methyltransferase activity. Mutations at this locus, prmA1 and prmA3, result in a severely undermethylated form of L11. No effect, other than the lack of methyl groups on L11, has been ascribed to these mutations. DNA sequence analysis of the mutant alleles prmA1 and prmA3 detected point mutations near the C-terminus of the protein and plasmids overproducing the wild-type and the two mutant proteins have been constructed. The wild-type PrmA protein could be crosslinked to its radiolabelled substrate, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), by u.v. irradiation indicating that it is the gene for the methyltransferase rather than a regulatory protein. One of the mutant proteins, PrmA3, was also weakly crosslinked to SAM. Both mutant enzymes when expressed from the overproducing plasmids were capable of catalysing the incorporation of 3H-labelled methyl groups from SAM to L11 in vitro. This confirmed the observation that the mutant proteins possess significant residual activity which could account for their lack of growth phenotype. However, a strain carrying an in vitro-constructed null mutation of the prmA gene, transferred to the E. coli chromosome by homologous recombination, was perfectly viable. PMID:7715456

  9. Design, synthesis, and protein methyltransferase activity of a unique set of constrained amine containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Che, Xin; Bao, Guochen; Wang, Na; Peng, Li; Barnash, Kimberly D; Frye, Stephen V; James, Lindsey I; Bai, Xu

    2016-09-15

    Epigenetic alterations relate to various human diseases, and developing inhibitors of Kme regulatory proteins is considered to be a new frontier for drug discovery. We were inspired by the known multicyclic ligands, UNC669 and UNC926, which are the first reported small molecule ligands for a methyl-lysine binding domain. We hypothesized that reducing the conformational flexibility of the key amine moiety of UNC669 would result in a unique set of ligands. Twenty-five novel compounds containing a fused bi- or tricyclic amine or a spirocyclic amine were designed and synthesized. To gauge the potential of these amine-containing compounds to interact with Kme regulatory proteins, the compounds were screened against a panel of 24 protein methyltransferases. Compound 13 was discovered as a novel scaffold that interacts with SETD8 and could serve as a starting point for the future development of PKMT inhibitors. PMID:27528434

  10. Low molecular weight flaxseed protein-derived arginine-containing peptides reduced blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats faster than amino acid form of arginine and native flaxseed protein.

    PubMed

    Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Adebiyi, Abayomi P; Doyen, Alain; Li, Huan; Bazinet, Laurent; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2012-05-01

    Flaxseed protein isolate (FPI) contains high amount of arginine, which plays important physiological roles especially as nitric oxide precursor in the vascular endothelium. Arginine-rich peptides can be generated from FPI and used as a source of nitric oxide, which can produce in vivo vasodilatory effects during hypertension. Enzymatic hydrolysis of FPI with trypsin and pronase resulted in a hydrolysate that was fractionated using electrodialysis-ultrafiltration (EDUF). EDUF experiment resulted in migration of peptides to the anionic and cationic recovery compartments. Compared to FPI with 11% arginine, about one-third of the cationic fraction was composed of arginine. Thirteen potential peptide sequences were identified to be present in the cationic compartment of which 12 contained at least one arginine residue. None of the peptides identified from the anionic compartment contained arginine. Oral administration of the cationic peptides (200mg/kgbodywt.) to spontaneously hypertensive rats resulted in a more rapid decrease in systolic blood pressure when compared to similar amounts of FPI or the amino acid form of arginine. It was concluded that the rapid effect of the arginine-rich peptide product suggests faster rate of peptide absorption than amino acids and this may be exploited to provide fast relief from hypertension. PMID:26434317

  11. Arginine, a key residue for the enhancing ability of an antifreeze protein of the beetle Dendroides canadensis†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sen; Amornwittawat, Natapol; Juwita, Vonny; Kao, Yu; Duman, John G.; Pascal, Tod A.; Goddard, William A.; Wen, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can produce a difference between the nonequilibrium freezing point and the melting point is termed thermal hysteresis (TH). The TH activity of an antifreeze protein (AFP) depends on the specific AFP, its concentration as well as the presence of co-solutes including low-molecular-mass solutes and/or proteins. We recently identified series of carboxylates and polyols as efficient enhancers for an AFP from the beetle Dendroides canadensis. In this study, we chemically modified DAFP-1 using the arginine-specific reagent 1,2-cyclohexanedione. We demonstrated that 1,2-cyclohexanedione specifically modifies one arginine residue and the modified DAFP-1 loses its enhancing ability completely or partially in the presence of previously identified enhancers. The stronger the enhancement ability of the enhancer on the native DAFP-1, the stronger the enhancement effect of the enhancer has on the modified DAFP-1. The weaker enhancers (e.g., glycerol) completely lose their enhancement effect on the modified DAFP-1 due to their inability to compete with 1,2-cyclohexanedione for the arginine residue. Regeneration of the arginine residue using hydroxylamine fully restored the enhancing ability of DAFP-1. These studies indicated that an arginine residue is critical for the enhancing ability of DAFP-1 and the guanidinium group of the arginine residue is important for its interaction with the enhancers, where the general mechanism of arginine-ligand interaction is borne. This work may initiate a complete mechanistic study of the enhancement effect in AFPs. PMID:19746966

  12. Synthesis of Lysine Methyltransferase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tao; Hui, Chunngai

    2015-07-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting Lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery.

  13. Charge state of arginine as an additive on heat-induced protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Takumi; Yoshizawa, Shunsuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2016-06-01

    Arginine (Arg) is one of the most versatile solvent additives, such as suppressing protein aggregation, increasing solubility of small aromatic compounds and peptides, and preventing protein binding on solid surfaces. In this study, we investigated the role of the charged state of α-amino group of Arg for the prevention of protein aggregation. As expected, Arg effectively suppressed thermal aggregation of hen egg-white lysozyme at neutral pH, whereas the suppression effect diminished at and above pH 9.0, which corresponds to the pK of Arg's α-amino group. The pH dependence of Arg as an aggregation suppressor was confirmed by additional experiments with neutral proteins, bovine hemoglobin and bovine γ-globulin. Interestingly, N-acetylated arginine, which lacks the α-amino group, showed a weaker suppressive effect on protein aggregation than Arg, even at neutral pH. These results indicate that both positively charged α-amino group and guanidinium group play important roles in suppressing heat-induced protein aggregation by Arg. The elucidated limitation of Arg at alkaline pH provides new insight in the application as well as the mechanism of Arg as a solvent additive. PMID:26987431

  14. Periplasmic Binding Proteins in Thermophiles: Characterization and Potential Application of an Arginine-Binding Protein from Thermotoga maritima: A Brief Thermo-Story.

    PubMed

    Ausili, Alessio; Staiano, Maria; Dattelbaum, Jonathan; Varriale, Antonio; Capo, Alessandro; D'Auria, Sabato

    2013-01-01

    Arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga maritima is a 27.7 kDa protein possessing the typical two-domain structure of the periplasmic binding proteins family. The protein is characterized by a very high specificity and affinity to bind to arginine, also at high temperatures. Due to its features, this protein could be taken into account as a potential candidate for the design of a biosensor for arginine. It is important to investigate the stability of proteins when they are used for biotechnological applications. In this article, we review the structural and functional features of an arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga maritima with a particular eye on its potential biotechnological applications. PMID:25371336

  15. Mannitol/l-Arginine-Based Formulation Systems for Freeze Drying of Protein Pharmaceuticals: Effect of the l-Arginine Counter Ion and Formulation Composition on the Formulation Properties and the Physical State of Mannitol.

    PubMed

    Stärtzel, Peter; Gieseler, Henning; Gieseler, Margit; Abdul-Fattah, Ahmad M; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Goldbach, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that protein storage stability in freeze-dried l-arginine-based systems improved in the presence of chloride ions. However, chloride ions reduced the glass transition temperature of the freeze concentrate (Tg') and made freeze drying more challenging. In this study, l-arginine was freeze dried with mannitol to obtain partially crystalline solids that can be freeze dried in a fast process and result in elegant cakes. We characterized the effect of different l-arginine counter ions on physicochemical properties of mannitol compared with mannitol/sucrose systems. Thermal properties of formulations with different compositions were correlated to thermal history during freeze drying and to physicochemical properties (cake appearance, residual moisture, reconstitution time, crystallinity). Partially crystalline solids were obtained even at the highest l-arginine level (mannitol:l-arginine of 2:1) used in this study. All l-arginine-containing formulations yielded elegant cakes. Only cakes containing l-arginine chloride and succinate showed a surface "crust" formed by phase separation. X-ray powder diffraction showed that inhibition of mannitol crystallization was stronger for l-arginine compared with sucrose and varied with the type of l-arginine counter ion. The counter ion affected mannitol polymorphism and higher levels of mannitol hemi-hydrate were obtained at high levels of l-arginine chloride. PMID:27506270

  16. Structure of the TatC core of the twin-arginine protein transport system.

    PubMed

    Rollauer, Sarah E; Tarry, Michael J; Graham, James E; Jääskeläinen, Mari; Jäger, Franziska; Johnson, Steven; Krehenbrink, Martin; Liu, Sai-Man; Lukey, Michael J; Marcoux, Julien; McDowell, Melanie A; Rodriguez, Fernanda; Roversi, Pietro; Stansfeld, Phillip J; Robinson, Carol V; Sansom, Mark S P; Palmer, Tracy; Högbom, Martin; Berks, Ben C; Lea, Susan M

    2012-12-13

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is one of two general protein transport systems found in the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane and is conserved in the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. The defining, and highly unusual, property of the Tat pathway is that it transports folded proteins, a task that must be achieved without allowing appreciable ion leakage across the membrane. The integral membrane TatC protein is the central component of the Tat pathway. TatC captures substrate proteins by binding their signal peptides. TatC then recruits TatA family proteins to form the active translocation complex. Here we report the crystal structure of TatC from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. This structure provides a molecular description of the core of the Tat translocation system and a framework for understanding the unique Tat transport mechanism. PMID:23201679

  17. Freeze-Drying of L-Arginine/Sucrose-Based Protein Formulations, Part 2: Optimization of Formulation Design and Freeze-Drying Process Conditions for an L-Arginine Chloride-Based Protein Formulation System.

    PubMed

    Stärtzel, Peter; Gieseler, Henning; Gieseler, Margit; Abdul-Fattah, Ahmad M; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Goldbach, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    We recently reported that the presence of chloride counter ions in freeze-dried l-arginine/sucrose formulations provided the greatest protein stability, but led to low collapse temperatures and glass transition temperatures of the freeze concentrates. The objectives of this study were to identify l-arginine chloride-based formulations and optimize freeze-drying process conditions to deliver a freeze-dried product with good physical quality attributes (including cake appearance, residual moisture, and reconstitution time). Additional properties were tested such as thermal properties, cake microstructure, and protein physical stability. Excipient concentrations were varied with and without a model protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA). Formulations were frozen with and without annealing or with and without controlled nucleation. Primary drying was conducted at high and low shelf temperature. Cakes with least defects and optimum physical attributes were achieved when protein to excipient ratios were high. Controlled nucleation led to elegant cakes for most systems at a low shelf temperature. Replacing BSA by a monoclonal antibody showed that protein (physical) stability was slightly improved under stress storage temperature (i.e., 40°C) in the presence of a low concentration of l-arginine in a sucrose-based formulation. At higher l-arginine concentrations, cake defects increased. Using optimized formulation design, addition of l-arginine chloride to a sucrose-based formulation provided elegant cakes and benefits for protein stability. PMID:26422647

  18. Endothelial transcriptome in response to pharmacological methyltransferase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Jun; Fernandez, Ana Z; Ziemann, Mark; Keating, Samuel T; Balcerczyk, Aneta; El-Osta, Assam

    2014-08-01

    The enzymatic activities of protein methyltransferases serve to write covalent modifications on histone and non-histone proteins in the control of gene transcription. Here, we describe gene expression changes in human endothelial cells caused by treatment with methyltransferase inhibitors 7,7'-carbonylbis (azanediyl) bis(4-hydroxynaphthalene-2 -sulfonic acid (AMI-1) and disodium-2-(2,4,5,7- tetrabromo-3-oxido-6-oxoxanthen-9-yl) benzoate trihydrate (AMI-5). Deep sequencing of mRNA indicated robust change on transcription following AMI-5 treatment compared with AMI-1. Functional annotation analysis revealed that both compounds suppress the expression of genes associated with translational regulation, suggesting arginine methylation by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) could be associated with regulation of this pathway. Interestingly, AMI-5 but not AMI-1 was found to decrease methylation of H3 histones at lysine 4 and down-regulate gene expression associated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling pathways. These results imply that inhibition of protein methylation by AMI-1 and AMI-5 can differentially regulate specific pathways with potential to interrupt pathological signaling in the vascular endothelium. PMID:24850797

  19. The HIV-1 Tat Protein Is Monomethylated at Lysine 71 by the Lysine Methyltransferase KMT7.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ibraheem; Ramage, Holly; Boehm, Daniela; Dirk, Lynnette M A; Sakane, Naoki; Hanada, Kazuki; Pagans, Sara; Kaehlcke, Katrin; Aull, Katherine; Weinberger, Leor; Trievel, Raymond; Schnoelzer, Martina; Kamada, Masafumi; Houtz, Robert; Ott, Melanie

    2016-07-29

    The HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat is a critical regulator of HIV transcription primarily enabling efficient elongation of viral transcripts. Its interactions with RNA and various host factors are regulated by ordered, transient post-translational modifications. Here, we report a novel Tat modification, monomethylation at lysine 71 (K71). We found that Lys-71 monomethylation (K71me) is catalyzed by KMT7, a methyltransferase that also targets lysine 51 (K51) in Tat. Using mass spectrometry, in vitro enzymology, and modification-specific antibodies, we found that KMT7 monomethylates both Lys-71 and Lys-51 in Tat. K71me is important for full Tat transactivation, as KMT7 knockdown impaired the transcriptional activity of wild type (WT) Tat but not a Tat K71R mutant. These findings underscore the role of KMT7 as an important monomethyltransferase regulating HIV transcription through Tat. PMID:27235396

  20. Serine/arginine-rich splicing factors belong to a class of intrinsically disordered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Chad; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.

    2006-01-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) splicing factors play an important role in constitutive and alternative splicing as well as during several steps of RNA metabolism. Despite the wealth of functional information about SR proteins accumulated to-date, structural knowledge about the members of this family is very limited. To gain a better insight into structure-function relationships of SR proteins, we performed extensive sequence analysis of SR protein family members and combined it with ordered/disordered structure predictions. We found that SR proteins have properties characteristic of intrinsically disordered (ID) proteins. The amino acid composition and sequence complexity of SR proteins were very similar to those of the disordered protein regions. More detailed analysis showed that the SR proteins, and their RS domains in particular, are enriched in the disorder-promoting residues and are depleted in the order-promoting residues as compared to the entire human proteome. Moreover, disorder predictions indicated that RS domains of SR proteins were completely unstructured. Two different classification methods, the charge-hydropathy measure and the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the disorder scores, were in agreement with each other, and they both strongly predicted members of the SR protein family to be disordered. This study emphasizes the importance of the disordered structure for several functions of SR proteins, such as for spliceosome assembly and for interaction with multiple partners. In addition, it demonstrates the usefulness of order/disorder predictions for inferring protein structure from sequence. PMID:16407336

  1. Arginine methylation of HSP70 regulates retinoid acid-mediated RARβ2 gene activation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei-wei; Xiao, Rong-quan; Peng, Bing-ling; Xu, Huan-teng; Shen, Hai-feng; Huang, Ming-feng; Shi, Tao-tao; Yi, Jia; Zhang, Wen-juan; Wu, Xiao-nan; Gao, Xiang; Lin, Xiang-zhi; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Rosenfeld, Michael G.; Liu, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Although “histone” methyltransferases and demethylases are well established to regulate transcriptional programs and to use nonhistone proteins as substrates, their possible roles in regulation of heat-shock proteins in the nucleus have not been investigated. Here, we report that a highly conserved arginine residue, R469, in HSP70 (heat-shock protein of 70 kDa) proteins, an evolutionarily conserved protein family of ATP-dependent molecular chaperone, was monomethylated (me1), at least partially, by coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1/protein arginine methyltransferase 4 (CARM1/PRMT4) and demethylated by jumonji-domain–containing 6 (JMJD6), both in vitro and in cultured cells. Functional studies revealed that HSP70 could directly regulate retinoid acid (RA)-induced retinoid acid receptor β2 (RARβ2) gene transcription through its binding to chromatin, with R469me1 being essential in this process. HSP70’s function in gene transcriptional regulation appears to be distinct from its protein chaperon activity. R469me1 was shown to mediate the interaction between HSP70 and TFIIH, which involves in RNA polymerase II phosphorylation and thus transcriptional initiation. Our findings expand the repertoire of nonhistone substrates targeted by PRMT4 and JMJD6, and reveal a new function of HSP70 proteins in gene transcription at the chromatin level aside from its classic role in protein folding and quality control. PMID:26080448

  2. An enzyme-coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay for S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Dorgan, Kathleen M; Wooderchak, Whitney L; Wynn, Donraphael P; Karschner, Erin L; Alfaro, Joshua F; Cui, Yinqiu; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Hevel, Joan M

    2006-03-15

    Modification of small molecules and proteins by methyltransferases affects a wide range of biological processes. Here, we report an enzyme-coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay to quantitatively characterize S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet/SAM)-dependent methyltransferase activity. In this assay, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy/SAH), the transmethylation product of AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases, is hydrolyzed to S-ribosylhomocysteine and adenine by recombinant S-adenosylhomocysteine/5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (SAHN/MTAN, EC 3.2.2.9). Subsequently, adenine generated from AdoHcy is further hydrolyzed to hypoxanthine and ammonia by recombinant adenine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.2). This deamination is associated with a decrease in absorbance at 265 nm that can be monitored continuously. Coupling enzymes are recombinant and easily purified. The utility of this assay was shown using recombinant rat protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1, EC 2.1.1.125), which catalyzes the mono- and dimethylation of guanidino nitrogens of arginine residues in select proteins. Using this assay, the kinetic parameters of PRMT1 with three synthetic peptides were determined. An advantage of this assay is the destruction of AdoHcy by AdoHcy nucleosidase, which alleviates AdoHcy product feedback inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases. Finally, this method may be used to assay other enzymes that produce AdoHcy, 5'-methylthioadenosine, or compounds that can be cleaved by AdoHcy nucleosidase. PMID:16460659

  3. Primary structure of a human arginine-rich nuclear protein that colocalizes with spliceosome components

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, N.; McMahon, C.; Blobel, G. )

    1991-09-15

    The cDNA for a 54-kDa nuclear protein (p54) has been cloned from a human hepatoma expression library. Contained within p54 is an arginine/serine-rich region similar to segments of several proteins that participate in pre-mRNA splicing including the 70-kDa component of U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) and the Drosophila transformer and suppressor-of-white-apricot proteins. The arginine/serine-rich region is dominated by a series of 8-amino acid imperfect repetitive motifs (consensus sequence, Arg-Arg-Ser-Arg-Ser-Arg-Ser-Arg). Antibodies raised against synthetic peptides of p54 react with an {approximately}70-kDa protein on immunoblots of HeLa cell and rat liver nuclear proteins. This apparent discrepancy in mass is also observed when p54 mRNA is translated in vitro. Indirect immunofluorescence studies in HeLa cells show that p54 is distributed throughout the nucleus in a speckled pattern, with an additional diffuse labeling of the nucleus excluding the nucleoli. Double immunofluorescence experiments indicate that these punctate regions are coincident with the speckles seen in cells stained with antibodies against several constituents of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. Sedimentation analysis of HeLa cell extracts on sucrose gradients showed that p54 migrates at 4-6 S, indicating that the protein is not a tightly associated component of snRNPs. Although the function of p54 is not yet known, the structure and immunolocalization data suggest that this protein may have a role in pre-mRNA processing.

  4. Arabidopsis Protein Repair L-Isoaspartyl Methyltransferases: Predominant Activities at Lethal Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Villa, Sarah T; Xu, Qilong; Downie, A Bruce; Clarke, Steven G

    2006-12-01

    Protein L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) O-methyltransferases (EC 2.1.1.77; PIMT or PCMT) are enzymes that initiate the full or partial repair of damaged L-aspartyl and L-asparaginyl residues, respectively. These enzymes are found in most organisms and maintain a high degree of sequence conservation. Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis L. Heynh.) is unique among eukaryotes in that it contains two genes, rather than one, that encode PIMT isozymes. We describe a novel Arabidopsis PIMT isozyme, designated AtPIMT2αω, encoded by the PIMT2 gene (At5g50240). We characterized the enzymatic activity of the recombinant AtPIMT2αω in comparison to the other AtPIMT2 isozymes, AtPIMT1, and to the human PCMT ortholog, to better understand its role in Arabidopsis. All Arabidopsis PIMT isozymes are active over a relatively wide pH range. For AtPIMT2αω maximal activity is observed at 50 °C (a lethal temperature for Arabidopsis); this activity is almost ten times greater than the activity at the growth temperature of 25 °C. Interestingly, enzyme activity decreases after pre-incubation at temperatures above 30°C. A similar situation is found for the recombinant AtPIMT2ψ and the AtPIMT2ω isozymes, as well as for the AtPIMT1 and human PCMT1 enzymes. These results suggest that the short-term ability of these methyltransferases to initiate repair under extreme temperature conditions may be a common feature of both the plant and animal species. PMID:21076691

  5. An In Silico Approach for Characterization of an Aminoglycoside Antibiotic-Resistant Methyltransferase Protein from Pyrococcus furiosus (DSM 3638)

    PubMed Central

    Oany, Arafat Rahman; Jyoti, Tahmina Pervin; Ahmad, Shah Adil Ishtiyaq

    2014-01-01

    Pyrococcus furiosus is a hyperthermophilic archaea. A hypothetical protein of this archaea, PF0847, was selected for computational analysis. Basic local alignment search tool and multiple sequence alignment (MSA) tool were employed to search for related proteins. Both the secondary and tertiary structure prediction were obtained for further analysis. Three-dimensional model was assessed by PROCHECK and QMEAN6 programs. To get insights about the physical and functional associations of the protein, STRING network analysis was performed. Binding of the SAM (S-adenosyl-l-methionine) ligand with our protein, fetched from an antibiotic-related methyltransferase (PDB code: 3P2K: D), showed high docking energy and suggested the function of the protein as methyltransferase. Finally, we tried to look for a specific function of the proposed methyltransferase, and binding of the geneticin bound to the eubacterial 16S rRNA A-site (PDB code: 1MWL) in the active site of the PF0847 gave us the indication to predict the protein responsible for aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance. PMID:24683305

  6. Hydrogen bonding motifs of protein side chains: descriptions of binding of arginine and amide groups.

    PubMed Central

    Shimoni, L.; Glusker, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    The modes of hydrogen bonding of arginine, asparagine, and glutamine side chains and of urea have been examined in small-molecule crystal structures in the Cambridge Structural Database and in crystal structures of protein-nucleic acid and protein-protein complexes. Analysis of the hydrogen bonding patterns of each by graph-set theory shows three patterns of rings (R) with one or two hydrogen bond acceptors and two donors and with eight, nine, or six atoms in the ring, designated R2(2)(8), R2(2)(9), and R1(2)(6). These three patterns are found for arginine-like groups and for urea, whereas only the first two patterns R2(2)(8) and R2(2)(9) are found for asparagine- and glutamine-like groups. In each case, the entire system is planar within 0.7 A or less. On the other hand, in macromolecular crystal structures, the hydrogen bonding patterns in protein-nucleic acid complexes between the nucleic acid base and the protein are all R2(2)(9), whereas hydrogen bonding between Watson-Crick-like pairs of nucleic acid bases is R2(2)(8). These two hydrogen bonding arrangements [R2(2)(9)] and R2(2)(8)] are predetermined by the nature of the groups available for hydrogen bonding. The third motif identified, R1(2)(6), involves hydrogen bonds that are less linear than in the other two motifs and is found in proteins. PMID:7773178

  7. Overexpression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) protein in astrocytic tumour and its correlation with O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Wan Faiziah Wan Abdul; Rahman, Khairul Shakir Ab; Nafi, Siti Norasikin Mohd; Fauzi, Mohd Hashairi; Jaafar, Hasnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in mediating tumorigenesis is still poorly understood. This study was carried out to investigate a correlation between DNMT1 and MGMT immunoexpression in astrocytic tumour samples. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues of astrocytic tumour patients was obtained from an observational study conducted in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), which was performed from January 1997 until May 2012. Patient’s histological information was retrieved from the accessible Pathology Registry. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was performed to assess DNMT1 and MGMT expressions in patients’ tumours. Results: Our data showed that DNMT1 was highly expressed in high grade astrocytic tumours. A multiple regression analysis demonstrated a significant association of DNMT1 overexpression with tumour grade III and IV (GIII: OR=5.802; 95% CI: 1.059, 31.785; p value=0.043; GIV: OR=40.663; 95% CI=4.069, 406.347; p value=0.002). The MGMT protein was downregulated in tumours with higher grade as evident by a reduction mean H-score for MGMT expression from GI to GIV [28.36 ± 43.88, 28.08 ± 33.67, 26.00 ± 48.70 and 16.20 ± 35.61]. However, a good negative correlation was observed between DNMT1 and MGMT in high grade tumour [Spearman correlation test: r=-0.561, p value≤0.001 in percentage expression and r=-0.576, p value≤0.001 in H score]. Conclusion: DNMT1 overexpression was seen correlated with a reduction of MGMT protein expression in high grade astrocytic tumour. Understanding the role of these markers could be important to overcome astrocytic tumour aggresiveness. PMID:26261487

  8. Interactions between two fission yeast serine/arginine-rich proteins and their modulation by phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhaohua; Käufer, Norbert F; Lin, Ren-Jang

    2002-01-01

    The unexpected low number of genes in the human genome has triggered increasing attention to alternative pre-mRNA splicing, and serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins have been correlated with the complex alternative splicing that is a characteristic of metazoans. SR proteins interact with RNA and splicing protein factors, and they also undergo reversible phosphorylation, thereby regulating constitutive and alternative splicing in mammals and Drosophila. However, it is not clear whether the features of SR proteins and alternative splicing are present in simple and genetically tractable organisms, such as yeasts. In the present study, we show that the SR-like proteins Srp1 and Srp2, found in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, interact with each other and the interaction is modulated by protein phosphorylation. By using Srp1 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid analysis, we specifically isolated Srp2 from a random screen. This Srp interaction was confirmed by a glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assay. We also found that the Srp1-Srp2 complex was phosphorylated at a reduced efficiency by a fission yeast SR-specific kinase, Dis1-suppression kinase (Dsk1). Conversely, Dsk1-mediated phosphorylation inhibited the formation of the Srp complex. These findings offer the first example in fission yeast for interactions between SR-related proteins and the modulation of the interactions by specific protein phosphorylation, suggesting that a mammalian-like SR protein function may exist in fission yeast. PMID:12186627

  9. Homogalacturonan synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana requires a Golgi-localized protein with a putative methyltransferase domain.

    PubMed

    Mouille, Grégory; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Cavelier, Céline; Eland, Cathlene; Effroy, Delphine; Hématy, Kian; McCartney, Lesley; Truong, Hoai Nam; Gaudon, Virginie; Thibault, Jean-François; Marchant, Alan; Höfte, Herman

    2007-05-01

    Pectins are a family of complex cell-wall polysaccharides, the biosynthesis of which remains poorly understood. We identified dwarf mutants with reduced cell adhesion at a novel locus, QUASIMODO2 (QUA2). qua2-1 showed a 50% reduction in homogalacturonan (HG) content compared with the wild type, without affecting other cell-wall polysaccharides. The remaining HG in qua2-1 showed an unaltered degree of methylesterification. Positional cloning and GFP fusions showed that QUA2, consistent with a role in HG synthesis, encodes a Golgi-localized protein. In contrast to QUA1, another Golgi-localized protein required for HG-synthesis, QUA2 does not show sequence similarity to glycosyltransferases, but instead contains a putative methyltransferase (MT) domain. The Arabidopsis genome encodes 29 QUA2-related proteins. Interestingly, the transcript profiles of QUA1 and QUA2 are correlated and other pairs of QUA1 and QUA2 homologues with correlated transcript profiles can be identified. Together, the results lead to the hypothesis that QUA2 is a pectin MT, and that polymerization and methylation of homogalacturonan are interdependent reactions. PMID:17425712

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Reveals Correlated Inter-Lobe Motion in Protein Lysine Methyltransferase SMYD2

    PubMed Central

    Spellmon, Nicholas; Sun, Xiaonan; Sirinupong, Nualpun; Edwards, Brian; Li, Chunying; Yang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    SMYD proteins are an exciting field of study as they are linked to many types of cancer-related pathways. Cardiac and skeletal muscle development and function also depend on SMYD proteins opening a possible avenue for cardiac-related treatment. Previous crystal structure studies have revealed that this special class of protein lysine methyltransferases have a bilobal structure, and an open–closed motion may regulate substrate specificity. Here we use the molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the still-poorly-understood SMYD2 dynamics. Cross-correlation analysis reveals that SMYD2 exhibits a negative correlated inter-lobe motion. Principle component analysis suggests that this correlated dynamic is contributed to by a twisting motion of the C-lobe with respect to the N-lobe and a clamshell-like motion between the lobes. Dynamical network analysis defines possible allosteric paths for the correlated dynamics. There are nine communities in the dynamical network with six in the N-lobe and three in the C-lobe, and the communication between the lobes is mediated by a lobe-bridging β hairpin. This study provides insight into the dynamical nature of SMYD2 and could facilitate better understanding of SMYD2 substrate specificity. PMID:26717235

  11. Altered Arginine Metabolism in Cells Transfected with Human Wild-Type Beta Amyloid Precursor Protein (βAPP).

    PubMed

    Jęśko, Henryk; Wilkaniec, Anna; Cieślik, Magdalena; Hilgier, Wojciech; Gąssowska, Magdalena; Lukiw, Walter J; Adamczyk, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of enzymes linked to arginine metabolism have been recently implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite strong association of arginine changes with nitric oxide (NO) pathway, the impact of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides on arginine degradation and re-synthesis is unknown. In the present study we compared expression levels of arginases (ARG1, ARG2), neuronal, endothelial and inducible NO synthase isoforms (NNOS, ENOS, INOS), enzymes that metabolize arginine or resynthesize it from citrulline and the levels of corresponding amino acids in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells overexpressing human Aβ precursor protein (APPwt cells). Moreover, we investigated the changes in miRNAs responsible for modulation of arginine metabolism in AD brains. Real-time PCR analysis revealed in APPwt cells significant decreases of ARG1 and ARG2 which are responsible for lysing arginine into ornithine and urea; this reduction was followed by significantly lower enzyme activity. NNOS and ENOS mRNAs were elevated in APPwt cells while iNOS was undetectable in both cell lines. The expression of argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) that metabolizes citrulline was down-regulated without changes in argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which decarboxylates ornithine to form putrescine was also reduced. Arginine, the substrate for both arginases and NOS, was unchanged in APPwt cells. However, citrulline concentration was significantly higher. Elevated miRNA-9 and miRNA-128a found in AD brain tissues might modulate the expression of ASS and NOS, respectively. Our results indicate that Aβ affects arginine metabolism and this influence might have important role in the pathomechanism of AD. PMID:26971935

  12. Multiple-Site Trimethylation of Ribosomal Protein L11 by the PrmA Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Hasan; Gregory, Steven T.; Dahlberg, Albert E.; Jogl, Gerwald

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Ribosomal protein L11 is a universally conserved component of the large subunit, and plays a significant role during initiation, elongation, and termination of protein synthesis. In Escherichia coli, the lysine methyltransferase PrmA trimethylates the N-terminal α-amino group and the ε-amino groups of Lys3 and Lys39. Here, we report four PrmA-L11 complex structures in different orientations with respect to the PrmA active site. Two structures capture the L11 N-terminal α-amino group in the active site in a trimethylated postcatalytic state and in a dimethylated state with bound S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. Two other structures show L11 in a catalytic orientation to modify Lys39 and in a noncatalytic orientation. The comparison of complex structures in different orientations with a minimal substrate recognition complex shows that the binding mode remains conserved in all L11 orientations, and that substrate orientation is brought about by the unusual interdomain flexibility of PrmA. PMID:18611379

  13. Protein arginine deiminase 2 binds calcium in an ordered fashion: Implications for inhibitor design

    SciTech Connect

    Slade, Daniel J.; Fang, Pengfei; Dreyton, Christina J.; Zhang, Ying; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Rempel, Don; Bax, Benjamin D.; Coonrod, Scott A.; Lewis, Huw D.; Guo, Min; Gross, Michael L.; Thompson, Paul R.

    2015-01-26

    Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) are calcium-dependent histone-modifying enzymes whose activity is dysregulated in inflammatory diseases and cancer. PAD2 functions as an Estrogen Receptor (ER) coactivator in breast cancer cells via the citrullination of histone tail arginine residues at ER binding sites. Although an attractive therapeutic target, the mechanisms that regulate PAD2 activity are largely unknown, especially the detailed role of how calcium facilitates enzyme activation. To gain insights into these regulatory processes, we determined the first structures of PAD2 (27 in total), and through calcium-titrations by X-ray crystallography, determined the order of binding and affinity for the six calcium ions that bind and activate this enzyme. These structures also identified several PAD2 regulatory elements, including a calcium switch that controls proper positioning of the catalytic cysteine residue, and a novel active site shielding mechanism. Additional biochemical and mass-spectrometry-based hydrogen/deuterium exchange studies support these structural findings. The identification of multiple intermediate calcium-bound structures along the PAD2 activation pathway provides critical insights that will aid the development of allosteric inhibitors targeting the PADs.

  14. Protein arginine deiminase 2 binds calcium in an ordered fashion: Implications for inhibitor design

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Slade, Daniel J.; Fang, Pengfei; Dreyton, Christina J.; Zhang, Ying; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Rempel, Don; Bax, Benjamin D.; Coonrod, Scott A.; Lewis, Huw D.; Guo, Min; et al

    2015-01-26

    Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) are calcium-dependent histone-modifying enzymes whose activity is dysregulated in inflammatory diseases and cancer. PAD2 functions as an Estrogen Receptor (ER) coactivator in breast cancer cells via the citrullination of histone tail arginine residues at ER binding sites. Although an attractive therapeutic target, the mechanisms that regulate PAD2 activity are largely unknown, especially the detailed role of how calcium facilitates enzyme activation. To gain insights into these regulatory processes, we determined the first structures of PAD2 (27 in total), and through calcium-titrations by X-ray crystallography, determined the order of binding and affinity for the six calcium ionsmore » that bind and activate this enzyme. These structures also identified several PAD2 regulatory elements, including a calcium switch that controls proper positioning of the catalytic cysteine residue, and a novel active site shielding mechanism. Additional biochemical and mass-spectrometry-based hydrogen/deuterium exchange studies support these structural findings. The identification of multiple intermediate calcium-bound structures along the PAD2 activation pathway provides critical insights that will aid the development of allosteric inhibitors targeting the PADs.« less

  15. Protein Arginine Deiminase 2 Binds Calcium in an Ordered Fashion: Implications for Inhibitor Design

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) are calcium-dependent histone-modifying enzymes whose activity is dysregulated in inflammatory diseases and cancer. PAD2 functions as an Estrogen Receptor (ER) coactivator in breast cancer cells via the citrullination of histone tail arginine residues at ER binding sites. Although an attractive therapeutic target, the mechanisms that regulate PAD2 activity are largely unknown, especially the detailed role of how calcium facilitates enzyme activation. To gain insights into these regulatory processes, we determined the first structures of PAD2 (27 in total), and through calcium-titrations by X-ray crystallography, determined the order of binding and affinity for the six calcium ions that bind and activate this enzyme. These structures also identified several PAD2 regulatory elements, including a calcium switch that controls proper positioning of the catalytic cysteine residue, and a novel active site shielding mechanism. Additional biochemical and mass-spectrometry-based hydrogen/deuterium exchange studies support these structural findings. The identification of multiple intermediate calcium-bound structures along the PAD2 activation pathway provides critical insights that will aid the development of allosteric inhibitors targeting the PADs. PMID:25621824

  16. Autocitrullination of human peptidyl arginine deiminase type 4 regulates protein citrullination during cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Felipe; Darrah, Erika; Gucek, Marjan; Cole, Robert N.; Rosen, Antony; Zhu, Xiaoming

    2010-01-01

    Objective To address mechanisms that control the activity of human peptidyl arginine deiminase type 4 (PAD-4). Methods PAD-4 autocitrullination was determined by anti–modified citrulline immunoblotting, using purified recombinant and endogenous PAD-4 from activated human primary neutrophils and cell lines expressing PAD-4. The citrullination sites in PAD-4 were determined by mass spectrometry. Mechanisms of autocitrullination-induced inactivation and the functional consequences of autocitrullination in PAD-4 polymorphic variants were addressed using purified components and cell lines expressing PAD-4 wild-type, PAD-4 mutant, and PAD-4 polymorphic variants relevant to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Results PAD-4 is autocitrullinated in vitro and during activation of primary cells and cell lines expressing PAD-4. Interestingly, this modification inactivated the function of the enzyme. The efficiency of inactivation differed among genetically defined PAD-4 variants relevant to RA. PAD-4 was citrullinated at 10 sites, which are clustered into 3 distinct regions, including a cluster of arginines around the active site cleft where Arg-372 and -374 were identified as the potential autocitrullination targets that inactivate the enzyme. Autocitrullination also modified the structure of PAD-4, abrogating its recognition by multiple rabbit antibodies, but augmenting its recognition by human anti–PAD-4 autoantibodies. Conclusion Our findings suggest that autocitrullination regulates the production of citrullinated proteins during cell activation, and that this is affected by structural polymorphisms in PAD-4. Autocitrullination also influences PAD-4 structure and immune response. PMID:20201080

  17. Arginine deiminase: recent advances in discovery, crystal structure, and protein engineering for improved properties as an anti-tumor drug.

    PubMed

    Han, Rui-Zhi; Xu, Guo-Chao; Dong, Jin-Jun; Ni, Ye

    2016-06-01

    Arginine deiminase (ADI) is an important arginine-degrading enzyme with wide applications, in particular as an anti-cancer agent for the therapy of arginine-auxotrophic tumors. In recent years, novel ADIs with excellent properties have been identified from various organisms, and crystal structures of ADI were investigated. To satisfy the requirements of potential therapeutic applications, protein engineering has been performed to improve the activity and properties of ADIs. In this mini-review, we systematically summarized the latest progress on identification and crystal structure of ADIs, and protein engineering strategies for improved enzymatic properties, such as pH optimum, K m and k cat values, and thermostability. We also outlined the PEGylation of ADI for improved circulating half-life and immunogenicity, as well as their performance in clinical trials. Finally, perspectives on extracellular secretion and property improvement of ADI were discussed. PMID:27087524

  18. RamA, a Protein Required for Reductive Activation of Corrinoid-dependent Methylamine Methyltransferase Reactions in Methanogenic Archaea*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Tsuneo; Soares, Jitesh A.; Lienard, Tanja; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Krzycki, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Archaeal methane formation from methylamines is initiated by distinct methyltransferases with specificity for monomethylamine, dimethylamine, or trimethylamine. Each methylamine methyltransferase methylates a cognate corrinoid protein, which is subsequently demethylated by a second methyltransferase to form methyl-coenzyme M, the direct methane precursor. Methylation of the corrinoid protein requires reduction of the central cobalt to the highly reducing and nucleophilic Co(I) state. RamA, a 60-kDa monomeric iron-sulfur protein, was isolated from Methanosarcina barkeri and is required for in vitro ATP-dependent reductive activation of methylamine:CoM methyl transfer from all three methylamines. In the absence of the methyltransferases, highly purified RamA was shown to mediate the ATP-dependent reductive activation of Co(II) corrinoid to the Co(I) state for the monomethylamine corrinoid protein, MtmC. The ramA gene is located near a cluster of genes required for monomethylamine methyltransferase activity, including MtbA, the methylamine-specific CoM methylase and the pyl operon required for co-translational insertion of pyrrolysine into the active site of methylamine methyltransferases. RamA possesses a C-terminal ferredoxin-like domain capable of binding two tetranuclear iron-sulfur proteins. Mutliple ramA homologs were identified in genomes of methanogenic Archaea, often encoded near methyltrophic methyltransferase genes. RamA homologs are also encoded in a diverse selection of bacterial genomes, often located near genes for corrinoid-dependent methyltransferases. These results suggest that RamA mediates reductive activation of corrinoid proteins and that it is the first functional archetype of COG3894, a family of redox proteins of unknown function. PMID:19043046

  19. Quantitative Profiling of the Activity of Protein Lysine Methyltransferase SMYD2 Using SILAC-Based Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jonathan B; Cao, Xing-Jun; Han, Bomie; Chen, Lisa Hong; Horvath, Alexander; Richardson, Timothy I; Campbell, Robert M; Garcia, Benjamin A; Nguyen, Hannah

    2016-03-01

    The significance of non-histone lysine methylation in cell biology and human disease is an emerging area of research exploration. The development of small molecule inhibitors that selectively and potently target enzymes that catalyze the addition of methyl-groups to lysine residues, such as the protein lysine mono-methyltransferase SMYD2, is an active area of drug discovery. Critical to the accurate assessment of biological function is the ability to identify target enzyme substrates and to define enzyme substrate specificity within the context of the cell. Here, using stable isotopic labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) coupled with immunoaffinity enrichment of mono-methyl-lysine (Kme1) peptides and mass spectrometry, we report a comprehensive, large-scale proteomic study of lysine mono-methylation, comprising a total of 1032 Kme1 sites in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells and 1861 Kme1 sites in ESCC cells overexpressing SMYD2. Among these Kme1 sites is a subset of 35 found to be potently down-regulated by both shRNA-mediated knockdown of SMYD2 and LLY-507, a selective small molecule inhibitor of SMYD2. In addition, we report specific protein sequence motifs enriched in Kme1 sites that are directly regulated by endogenous SMYD2 activity, revealing that SMYD2 substrate specificity is more diverse than expected. We further show direct activity of SMYD2 toward BTF3-K2, PDAP1-K126 as well as numerous sites within the repetitive units of two unique and exceptionally large proteins, AHNAK and AHNAK2. Collectively, our findings provide quantitative insights into the cellular activity and substrate recognition of SMYD2 as well as the global landscape and regulation of protein mono-methylation. PMID:26750096

  20. Crystal Structure of the Arginine Repressor Protein in Complex With the DNA Operator From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, L.T.; Cherney, M.M.; Garen, C.R.; Lu, G.J.; James, M.N.G.

    2009-05-12

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) gene product encoded by open reading frame Rv1657 is an arginine repressor (ArgR). All genes involved in the L-arginine (hereafter arginine) biosynthetic pathway are essential for optimal growth of the Mtb pathogen, thus making MtbArgR a potential target for drug design. The C-terminal domains of arginine repressors (CArgR) participate in oligomerization and arginine binding. Several crystal forms of CArgR from Mtb (MtbCArgR) have been obtained. The X-ray crystal structures of MtbCArgR were determined at 1.85 {angstrom} resolution with bound arginine and at 2.15 {angstrom} resolution in the unliganded form. These structures show that six molecules of MtbCArgR are arranged into a hexamer having approximate 32 point symmetry that is formed from two trimers. The trimers rotate relative to each other by about 11{sup o} upon binding arginine. All residues in MtbCArgR deemed to be important for hexamer formation and for arginine binding have been identified from the experimentally determined structures presented. The hexamer contains six regular sites in which the arginine molecules have one common binding mode and three sites in which the arginine molecules have two overlapping binding modes. The latter sites only bind the ligand at high (200 mM) arginine concentrations.

  1. Protein repair L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase in plants. Phylogenetic distribution and the accumulation of substrate proteins in aged barley seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Mudgett, M B; Lowenson, J D; Clarke, S

    1997-01-01

    Protein L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferases (MTs; EC 2.1.1.77) can initiate the conversion of detrimental L-isoaspartyl residues in spontaneously damaged proteins to normal L-aspartyl residues. We detected this enzyme in 45 species from 23 families representing most of the divisions of the plant kingdom. MT activity is often localized in seeds, suggesting that it has a role in their maturation, quiescence, and germination. The relationship among MT activity, the accumulation of abnormal protein L-isoaspartyl residues, and seed viability was explored in barley (Hordeum vulgare cultivar Himalaya) seeds, which contain high levels of MT. Natural aging of barley seeds for 17 years resulted in a significant reduction in MT activity and in seed viability, coupled with increased levels of "unrepaired" L-isoaspartyl residues. In seeds heated to accelerate aging, we found no reduction of MT activity, but we did observe decreased seed viability and the accumulation of isoaspartyl residues. Among populations of accelerated aged seed, those possessing the highest levels of L-isoaspartyl-containing proteins had the lowest germination percentages. These results suggest that the MT present in seeds cannot efficiently repair all spontaneously damaged proteins containing altered aspartyl residues, and their accumulation during aging may contribute to the loss of seed viability. PMID:9414558

  2. Anhydrobiosis vs. aging: comparative genomics of protein repair L-isoaspartyl methyltransferases in the sleeping chironomid. .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Oleg; Kikawada, Takahiro; Shagimardanova, Elena; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Ayupov, Rustam

    Origin of anhydrobiosis in the larvae of the sleeping chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki represents unique example of set of evolutionary events in a single species, resulted in acquiring new ability allowing survival in extremely changeable environment. Complex comparative analysis of the genome of P. vanderplanki resulted in discovery of a set of features, including existence of the set of unique clusters of genes contributing in desiccation resistance. Surprisingly, in several cases, the genes mainly contributing to the formation of the molecular shield in the larvae are sleeping chironomid-specific and have no homology with genes from other insects, including P. nubifer - a chironomid from the same genus. Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) acts on proteins that have been non-enzymatically damaged due to age, and partially restores aspartic residues, extending life of the polypeptides. PIMT a highly conserved enzyme present in nearly all eukaryotes, and microorganisms mostly in a single copy (or in a few isoforms in certain plants and some bacteria). While conducting a comparative analysis of the genomes of two chironomid midge species different in their ability to stand complete water loss, we have noticed that structure and number of PIMT-coding genes in the desiccation resistant (anhydrobiotic) midge (Polypedilum vanderplanki, Pv) is different from those of the common desiccation-sensitive midge (Polypedilum nubifer, Pn) and the rest of insects. Both species have a clear orthologous PIMT shared by all insects. At the same time, in contrast to Pn which has only one PIMT gene (PnPimt-1), the Pv genome contains 12 additional genes paralogous to Pimt1 (PvPimt-2-12) presumably coding functional PIMT proteins, which are arranged in a single cluster. Remarkably, PvPimt-1 location in the Pv is different from the rest of Pimt-like genes. PvPimt-1 gene is ubiquitously expressed during the life cycle, but expression of the PvPimt2-12 is limited to the eggs

  3. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase regulates hepatic nutrient metabolism through Sirt1 protein stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Shangyu; Moreno-Navarrete, Jose M; Wei, Xiaojing; Kikukawa, Yusuke; Tzameli, Iphigenia; Prasad, Deepthi; Lee, Yoonjin; Asara, John M; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Pissios, Pavlos

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (Nnmt) methylates nicotinamide, a form of vitamin B3, to produce N1-methylnicotinamide (MNAM). Nnmt is an emerging metabolic regulator in adipocytes but its role in the liver, a tissue with the strongest Nnmt expression, is not known. In spite of its overall high expression, here we find that hepatic expression of Nnmt is highly variable and correlates with multiple metabolic parameters in mice and in humans. Further, we find that suppression of hepatic Nnmt expression in vivo alters glucose and cholesterol metabolism and that the metabolic effects of Nnmt in the liver are mediated by its product MNAM. Supplementation of high fat diet with MNAM decreases serum and liver cholesterol and liver triglycerides levels in mice. Mechanistically, increasing Nnmt expression or MNAM levels stabilizes sirtuin 1 protein, an effect, which is required for their metabolic benefits. In summary, we describe a novel regulatory pathway for vitamin B3 that could provide a new opportunity for metabolic disease therapy. PMID:26168293

  4. Structural basis for G9a-like protein lysine methyltransferase inhibition by BIX-01294

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yanqi; Zhang, Xing; Horton, John R.; Upadhyay, Anup K.; Spannhoff, Astrid; Liu, Jin; Synder, James P.; Bedford, Mark T.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2009-03-26

    Histone lysine methylation is an important epigenetic mark that regulates gene expression and chromatin organization. G9a and G9a-like protein (GLP) are euchromatin-associated methyltransferases that repress transcription by methylating histone H3 Lys9. BIX-01294 was originally identified as a G9a inhibitor during a chemical library screen of small molecules and has previously been used in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Here we present the crystal structure of the catalytic SET domain of GLP in complex with BIX-01294 and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. The inhibitor is bound in the substrate peptide groove at the location where the histone H3 residues N-terminal to the target lysine lie in the previously solved structure of the complex with histone peptide. The inhibitor resembles the bound conformation of histone H3 Lys4 to Arg8, and is positioned in place by residues specific for G9a and GLP through specific interactions.

  5. Four Human Thiopurine S-Methyltransferase Alleles Severely Affect Protein Structure and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Karen; Daggett, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Summary Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) metabolizes cytotoxic thiopurine drugs used in the treatment of leukemia and inflammatory bowel disease. TPMT is a major pharmacogenomic target with 23 alleles identified to date. Several of these alleles cause rapid protein degradation and/or aggregation, making it extremely difficult to study the structural impact of the TPMT polymorphisms experimentally. We, therefore, have performed multiple molecular dynamics simulations of the four most common alleles (TPMT 2 (A80P), 3A (A154T/Y240C), 3B (A154T) and 3C (Y240C)) to investigate the molecular mechanism of TPMT inactivation at an atomic level. The A80P polymorphism in TPMT *2 disrupts helix α3 bordering the active site, which breaks several salt-bridge interactions and opens up a large cleft in the protein. The A154T polymorphism is located within the co-substrate binding-site. The larger threonine alters the packing of substrate binding residues (P68, L69, Y166), increasing the solvent exposure of the polymorphic site. This packing rearrangement may account for the complete lack of activity in the A154T mutant. The Y240C polymorphism is located in β-strand 9, distant from the active site. Side-chain contacts between residue 240 and helix α8 are lost in TPMT *3C. Residues 154 and 240 in TPMT *3A are connected through a hydrogen-bonding network. The dual polymorphisms result in a flattened, slightly distorted protein structure and an increase in the thiopurine-binding site solvent accessibility. The two variants that undergo the most rapid degradation in vivo, TPMT*2 and *3A, are also the most deformed in the simulations. PMID:18482735

  6. Techniques in protein methylation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeho; Cheng, Donghang; Bedford, Mark T

    2004-01-01

    Proteins can be methylated on the side-chain nitrogens of arginine and lysine residues or on carboxy-termini. Protein methylation is a way of subtly changing the primary sequence of a peptide so that it can encode more information. This common posttranslational modification is implicated in the regulation of a variety of processes including protein trafficking, transcription and protein-protein interactions. In this chapter, we will use the arginine methyltransferases to illustrate different approaches that have been developed to assess protein methylation. Both in vivo and in vitro methylation techniques are described, and the use of small molecule inhibitors of protein methylation will be demonstrated. PMID:15173617

  7. Structural model for the protein-translocating element of the twin-arginine transport system

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Fernanda; Rouse, Sarah L.; Tait, Claudia E.; Harmer, Jeffrey; De Riso, Antonio; Timmel, Christiane R.; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Berks, Ben C.; Schnell, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    The twin-arginine translocase (Tat) carries out the remarkable process of translocating fully folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. Tat is required for bacterial pathogenesis and for photosynthesis in plants. TatA, the protein-translocating element of the Tat system, is a small transmembrane protein that assembles into ring-like oligomers of variable size. We have determined a structural model of the Escherichia coli TatA complex in detergent solution by NMR. TatA assembly is mediated entirely by the transmembrane helix. The amphipathic helix extends outwards from the ring of transmembrane helices, permitting assembly of complexes with variable subunit numbers. Transmembrane residue Gln8 points inward, resulting in a short hydrophobic pore in the center of the complex. Simulations of the TatA complex in lipid bilayers indicate that the short transmembrane domain distorts the membrane. This finding suggests that TatA facilitates protein transport by sensitizing the membrane to transient rupture. PMID:23471988

  8. The arginine finger of the Bloom syndrome protein: its structural organization and its role in energy coupling

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hua; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Rigolet, Pascal; Yang, Ye; Wang, Peng-Ye; Amor-Gueret, Mounira; Xi, Xu Guang

    2007-01-01

    RecQ family helicases are essential in maintaining chromosomal DNA stability and integrity. Despite extensive studies, the mechanisms of these enzymes are still poorly understood. Crystal structures of many helicases reveal a highly conserved arginine residue located near the γ-phosphate of ATP. This residue is widely recognized as an arginine finger, and may sense ATP binding and hydrolysis, and transmit conformational changes. We investigated the existence and role of the arginine finger in the Bloom syndrome protein (BLM), a RecQ family helicase, in ATP hydrolysis and energy coupling. Our studies by combination of structural modelling, site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical and biophysical approaches, demonstrate that mutations of residues interacting with the γ-phosphate of ATP or surrounding the ATP-binding sites result in severe impairment in the ATPase activity of BLM. These mutations also impair BLM's DNA-unwinding activities, but do not affect its ATP and DNA-binding abilities. These data allow us to identify R982 as the residue that functions as a BLM arginine finger. Our findings further indicate how the arginine finger is precisely positioned by the conserved motifs with respect to the γ-phosphate. PMID:17766252

  9. Arginine as an eluent overcomes the hindrance of monoclonal antibody quantification by dextran sulfate in protein A affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong Gyun; Park, Hong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Analytical chromatography using protein A affinity columns was employed for the fast and simple quantitative analysis of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) from suspension cultures of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells. Reliable results could not be obtained from analysis of rCHO cell culture supernatants containing dextran sulfate using elution buffers such as phosphate, glycine, or MgCl2 . These problems increased as the number of analysis and the concentration of dextran sulfate in samples increased. Arginine was identified as an alternative eluent to overcome the hindrance by dextran sulfate. When the samples contain dextran sulfate up to 100 mg/L, the elution buffer containing 0.6-1.0 M arginine at pH 3.0-3.8 is useful for the effective analysis. Reproducible results in the mAb quantification could be obtained by this developed arginine elution buffer from rCHO cell culture supernatants containing dextran sulfate. PMID:26363185

  10. The T. brucei TRM5 methyltransferase plays an essential role in mitochondrial protein synthesis and function

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Zdeněk; Horáková, Eva; Rubio, Mary Anne T.; Sample, Paul; Fleming, Ian M.C.; Armocida, Stephanie; Lukeš, Julius; Alfonzo, Juan D.

    2013-01-01

    All tRNAs undergo post-transcriptional chemical modifications as part of their natural maturation pathway. Some modifications, especially those in the anticodon loop, play important functions in translational efficiency and fidelity. Among these, 1-methylguanosine, at position 37 (m1G37) of the anticodon loop in several tRNAs, is evolutionarily conserved and participates in translational reading frame maintenance. In eukaryotes, the tRNA methyltransferase TRM5 is responsible for m1G formation in nucleus-encoded as well as mitochondria-encoded tRNAs, reflecting the universal importance of this modification for protein synthesis. However, it is not clear what role, if any, mitochondrial TRM5 serves in organisms that do not encode tRNAs in their mitochondrial genomes. These organisms may easily satisfy the m1G37 requirement through their robust mitochondrial tRNA import mechanisms. We have explored this possibility in the parasitic protist Trypanosoma brucei and show that down-regulation of TRM5 by RNAi leads to the expected disappearance of m1G37, but with surprisingly little effect on cytoplasmic translation. On the contrary, lack of TRM5 causes a marked growth phenotype and a significant decrease in mitochondrial functions, including protein synthesis. These results suggest mitochondrial TRM5 may be needed to mature unmethylated tRNAs that reach the mitochondria and that could pose a problem for translational fidelity. This study also reveals an unexpected lack of import specificity between some fully matured and potentially defective tRNA species. PMID:23520175

  11. MEP50/PRMT5 reduces gene expression by histone arginine methylation and this is reversed by PKCδ/p38δ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kamalika; Adhikary, Gautam; Eckert, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    PKCδ and p38δ are key proteins in a cascade that stimulates keratinocyte differentiation. This cascade activates transcription of involucrin (hINV) and other genes associated with differentiation. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is an arginine methyltransferase that symmetrically dimethylates arginine residues. This protein interacts with a cofactor, MEP50, and symmetrically dimethylates arginine eight of histone 3 (H3R8me2s) and arginine three of histone 4 (H4R3me2s) to silence gene expression. We use the involucrin gene as a tool to understand the relationship between PKCδ/p38δ and PRMT5/MEP50 signaling. MEP50 suppresses hINV mRNA level and promoter activity. This is associated with increased arginine dimethylation of hINV gene-associated H3/H4. We further show that the PKCδ/p38δ keratinocyte differentiation cascade reduces PRMT5 and MEP50 expression, association with the hINV gene promoter, and H3R8me2s and H4R2me2s formation. We propose that PRMT5/MEP50-dependent methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that assists in silencing of hINV expression, and that PKCδ signaling activates gene expression by directly activating transcription and by suppressing PRMT5/MEP50 dependent arginine dimethylation of promoter associated histones. This is an example of crosstalk between PKCδ/p38δ signaling and PRMT5/MEP50 epigenetic silencing. PMID:26763441

  12. CROP/Luc7A, a novel serine/arginine-rich nuclear protein, isolated from cisplatin-resistant cell line.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Y; Morishima, M; Kakehi, Y; Umehara, K; Kioka, N; Terano, Y; Amachi, T; Ueda, K

    2000-01-14

    A novel putative SR protein, designated cisplatin resistance-associated overexpressed protein (CROP), has been cloned from cisplatin-resistant cell lines by differential display. The N-half of the deduced amino acid sequence of 432 amino acids of CROP contains cysteine/histidine motifs and leucine zipper-like repeats. The C-half consists mostly of charged and polar amino acids: arginine (58 residues or 25%), glutamate (36 residues or 16%), serine (35 residues or 15%), lysine (30 residues, 13%), and aspartate (20 residues or 9%). The C-half is extremely hydrophilic and comprises domains rich in lysine and glutamate residues, rich in alternating arginine and glutamate residues, and rich in arginine and serine residues. The arginine/serine-rich domain is dominated by a series of 8 amino acid imperfect repetitive motif (consensus sequence, Ser-Arg-Ser-Arg-Asp/Glu-Arg-Arg-Arg), which has been found in RNA splicing factors. The RNase protection assay and Western blotting analysis indicate that the expression of CROP is about 2-3-fold higher in mRNA and protein levels in cisplatin-resistant ACHN/CDDP cells than in host ACHN cells. CROP is the human homologue of yeast Luc7p, which is supposed to be involved in 5'-splice site recognition and is essential for vegetative growth. PMID:10631324

  13. Weaver Syndrome‐Associated EZH2 Protein Variants Show Impaired Histone Methyltransferase Function In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Damian B.; Lewis, M.E. Suzanne; Chijiwa, Chieko; Ramos‐Arroyo, Maria A.; Tkachenko, Natália; Milano, Valentina; Fradin, Mélanie; McKinnon, Margaret L.; Townsend, Katelin N.; Xu, Jieqing; Van Allen, M.I.; Ross, Colin J.D.; Dobyns, William B.; Weaver, David D.; Gibson, William T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Weaver syndrome (WS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by generalized overgrowth, macrocephaly, specific facial features, accelerated bone age, intellectual disability, and susceptibility to cancers. De novo mutations in the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) have been shown to cause WS. EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase that acts as the catalytic agent of the polycomb‐repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to maintain gene repression via methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27). Functional studies investigating histone methyltransferase activity of mutant EZH2 from various cancers have been reported, whereas WS‐associated mutations remain poorly characterized. To investigate the role of EZH2 in WS, we performed functional studies using artificially assembled PRC2 complexes containing mutagenized human EZH2 that reflected the codon changes predicted from patients with WS. We found that WS‐associated amino acid alterations reduce the histone methyltransferase function of EZH2 in this in vitro assay. Our results support the hypothesis that WS is caused by constitutional mutations in EZH2 that alter the histone methyltransferase function of PRC2. However, histone methyltransferase activities of different EZH2 variants do not appear to correlate directly with the phenotypic variability between WS patients and individuals with a common c.553G>C (p.Asp185His) polymorphism in EZH2. PMID:26694085

  14. Weaver Syndrome-Associated EZH2 Protein Variants Show Impaired Histone Methyltransferase Function In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ana S A; Yap, Damian B; Lewis, M E Suzanne; Chijiwa, Chieko; Ramos-Arroyo, Maria A; Tkachenko, Natália; Milano, Valentina; Fradin, Mélanie; McKinnon, Margaret L; Townsend, Katelin N; Xu, Jieqing; Van Allen, M I; Ross, Colin J D; Dobyns, William B; Weaver, David D; Gibson, William T

    2016-03-01

    Weaver syndrome (WS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by generalized overgrowth, macrocephaly, specific facial features, accelerated bone age, intellectual disability, and susceptibility to cancers. De novo mutations in the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) have been shown to cause WS. EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase that acts as the catalytic agent of the polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to maintain gene repression via methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27). Functional studies investigating histone methyltransferase activity of mutant EZH2 from various cancers have been reported, whereas WS-associated mutations remain poorly characterized. To investigate the role of EZH2 in WS, we performed functional studies using artificially assembled PRC2 complexes containing mutagenized human EZH2 that reflected the codon changes predicted from patients with WS. We found that WS-associated amino acid alterations reduce the histone methyltransferase function of EZH2 in this in vitro assay. Our results support the hypothesis that WS is caused by constitutional mutations in EZH2 that alter the histone methyltransferase function of PRC2. However, histone methyltransferase activities of different EZH2 variants do not appear to correlate directly with the phenotypic variability between WS patients and individuals with a common c.553G>C (p.Asp185His) polymorphism in EZH2. PMID:26694085

  15. Response of maize serine/arginine-rich protein gene family in seedlings to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Guo, Yuqi; Cui, Weiling; Xu, Aihua; Tian, Zengyuan

    2014-07-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) in eukaryotic organisms is closely related to the gene regulation in plant abiotic stress responses, in which serine/arginine-rich proteins (SR proteins) act as key regulators. The genome sequence of maize inbred line B73 was analyzed, showing that the promoter regions of SR genes possess about three to eight kinds of cis-acting regulatory elements. Twenty-seven SR genes encode alkaline proteins, and 23 of which are divided into five subgroups in terms of the first RNA recognition motif (RRM) at the amino terminal. The expression of SR genes showed tissue-specific and genotype-dependent features under drought stress in the hybrid Zhengdan-958 and its parents, Zheng-58 and Chang-7-2 via bidirectional hierarchical clustering. SR genes were down-regulated in roots while they were up-regulated in shoots under drought stress. However, SR genes were down-regulated in both roots and shoots in three different rehydration stages after severe drought stress. Additionally, a widespread alternative splicing exists in all SR genes although SR genes showed differential expression tendency under drought stress and/or during rehydration stages. Results above will deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant response to abiotic stress from the perspective of AS-network. PMID:25076035

  16. Protein Isoaspartate Methyltransferase Prevents Apoptosis Induced by Oxidative Stress in Endothelial Cells: Role of Bcl-Xl Deamidation and Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Cimmino, Amelia; Capasso, Rosanna; Muller, Fabbri; Sambri, Irene; Masella, Lucia; Raimo, Marianna; De Bonis, Maria Luigia; D'Angelo, Stefania; Zappia, Vincenzo; Galletti, Patrizia; Ingrosso, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Background Natural proteins undergo in vivo spontaneous post-biosynthetic deamidation of specific asparagine residues with isoaspartyl formation. Deamidated-isomerized molecules are both structurally and functionally altered. The enzyme isoaspartyl protein carboxyl-O-methyltransferase (PCMT; EC 2.1.1.77) has peculiar substrate specificity towards these deamidated proteins. It catalyzes methyl esterification of the free α-carboxyl group at the isoaspartyl site, thus initiating the repair of these abnormal proteins through the conversion of the isopeptide bond into a normal α-peptide bond. Deamidation occurs slowly during cellular and molecular aging, being accelerated by physical-chemical stresses brought to the living cells. Previous evidence supports a role of protein deamidation in the acquisition of susceptibility to apoptosis. Aim of this work was to shed a light on the role of PCMT in apoptosis clarifying the relevant mechanism(s). Methodology/Principal Findings Endothelial cells transiently transfected with various constructs of PCMT, i.e. overexpressing wild type PCMT or negative dominants, were used to investigate the role of protein methylation during apoptosis induced by oxidative stress (H2O2; 0.1–0.5 mM range). Results show that A) Cells overexpressing “wild type” human PCMT were resistant to apoptosis, whereas overexpression of antisense PCMT induces high sensitivity to apoptosis even at low H2O2 concentrations. B) PCMT protective effect is specifically due to its methyltransferase activity rather than to any other non-enzymatic interactions. In fact negative dominants, overexpressing PCMT mutants devoid of catalytic activity do not prevent apoptosis. C) Cells transfected with antisense PCMT, or overexpressing a PCMT mutant, accumulate isoaspartyl-containing damaged proteins upon H2O2 treatment. Proteomics allowed the identification of proteins, which are both PCMT substrates and apoptosis effectors, whose deamidation occurs under oxidative

  17. Conserved Arginines of Bovine Adenovirus-3 33K Protein Are Important for Transportin-3 Mediated Transport and Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Azharul; Tikoo, Suresh K.

    2014-01-01

    The L6 region of bovine adenovirus (BAdV)-3 encodes a spliced protein designated 33K. The 33K specific sera detected five major proteins and three minor proteins in transfected or virus infected cells, which could arise by internal initiation of translation and alternative splicing. The 33K protein is predominantly localized to the nucleus of BAdV-3 infected cells. The 33K nuclear transport utilizes both classical importin-α/-β and importin-β dependent nuclear import pathways and preferentially binds to importin-α5 and transportin-3 receptors, respectively. Analysis of mutant 33K proteins demonstrated that amino acids 201–240 of the conserved C-terminus of 33K containing RS repeat are required for nuclear localization and, binding to both importin-α5 and transportin-3 receptors. Interestingly, the arginine residues of conserved RS repeat are required for binding to transportin-3 receptor but not to importin-α5 receptor. Moreover, mutation of arginines residues of RS repeat proved lethal for production of progeny virus. Our results suggest that arginines of RS repeat are required for efficient nuclear transport of 33K mediated by transportin-3, which appears to be essential for replication and production of infectious virion. PMID:25019945

  18. Synthesis of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Chunngai; Ye, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and non-histone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery. PMID:26258118

  19. Identification of critical residues in Hepatitis E virus macro domain involved in its interaction with viral methyltransferase and ORF3 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Anang, Saumya; Subramani, Chandru; Nair, Vidya P.; Kaul, Sheetal; Kaushik, Nidhi; Sharma, Chandresh; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Ranjith-Kumar, CT; Surjit, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of hepatitis in normal and organ transplant individuals. HEV open reading frame-1 encodes a polypeptide comprising of the viral nonstructural proteins as well as domains of unknown function such as the macro domain (X-domain), V, DUF3729 and Y. The macro domain proteins are ubiquitously present from prokaryotes to human and in many positive-strand RNA viruses, playing important roles in multiple cellular processes. Towards understanding the function of the HEV macro domain, we characterized its interaction partners among other HEV encoded proteins. Here, we report that the HEV X-domain directly interacts with the viral methyltransferase and the ORF3 proteins. ORF3 association with the X-domain was mediated through two independent motifs, located within its N-terminal 35aa (amino acids) and C-terminal 63-123aa. Methyltransferase interaction domain was mapped to N-terminal 30-90aa. The X-domain interacted with both ORF3 and methyltransferase through its C-terminal region, involving 66th,67th isoleucine and 101st,102nd leucine, conserved across HEV genotypes. Furthermore, ORF3 and methyltransferase competed with each other for associating with the X-domain. These findings provide molecular understanding of the interaction between the HEV macro domain, methyltransferase and ORF3, suggesting an important role of the macro domain in the life cycle of HEV. PMID:27113483

  20. Identification of critical residues in Hepatitis E virus macro domain involved in its interaction with viral methyltransferase and ORF3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Anang, Saumya; Subramani, Chandru; Nair, Vidya P; Kaul, Sheetal; Kaushik, Nidhi; Sharma, Chandresh; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Ranjith-Kumar, C T; Surjit, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of hepatitis in normal and organ transplant individuals. HEV open reading frame-1 encodes a polypeptide comprising of the viral nonstructural proteins as well as domains of unknown function such as the macro domain (X-domain), V, DUF3729 and Y. The macro domain proteins are ubiquitously present from prokaryotes to human and in many positive-strand RNA viruses, playing important roles in multiple cellular processes. Towards understanding the function of the HEV macro domain, we characterized its interaction partners among other HEV encoded proteins. Here, we report that the HEV X-domain directly interacts with the viral methyltransferase and the ORF3 proteins. ORF3 association with the X-domain was mediated through two independent motifs, located within its N-terminal 35aa (amino acids) and C-terminal 63-123aa. Methyltransferase interaction domain was mapped to N-terminal 30-90aa. The X-domain interacted with both ORF3 and methyltransferase through its C-terminal region, involving 66(th),67(th) isoleucine and 101(st),102(nd) leucine, conserved across HEV genotypes. Furthermore, ORF3 and methyltransferase competed with each other for associating with the X-domain. These findings provide molecular understanding of the interaction between the HEV macro domain, methyltransferase and ORF3, suggesting an important role of the macro domain in the life cycle of HEV. PMID:27113483

  1. Changing Transcriptional Initiation Sites and Alternative 5'- and 3'-Splice Site Selection of the First Intron Deploys the Arabidopsis Protein Isoaspartyl Methyltransferase2 Variants to Different Subcellular Compartments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. possesses two PROTEIN-L-ISOASPARTATE METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT), genes encoding an enzyme (EC 2.1.1.77) capable of converting uncoded, L-isoaspartyl residues, arising spontaneously at L-asparaginyl and L-aspartyl sites in proteins, to L-aspartate. PIMT2 produces at lea...

  2. Arginine methylation of DRBD18 differentially impacts its opposing effects on the trypanosome transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Lott, Kaylen; Mukhopadhyay, Shreya; Li, Jun; Wang, Jie; Yao, Jin; Sun, Yijun; Qu, Jun; Read, Laurie K.

    2015-01-01

    Arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that impacts wide-ranging cellular functions, including transcription, mRNA splicing and translation. RNA binding proteins (RBPs) represent one of the largest classes of arginine methylated proteins in both mammals and the early diverging parasitic protozoan, Trypanosoma brucei. Here, we report the effects of arginine methylation on the functions of the essential and previously uncharacterized T. brucei RBP, DRBD18. RNAseq analysis shows that DRBD18 depletion causes extensive rearrangement of the T. brucei transcriptome, with increases and decreases in hundreds of mRNAs. DRBD18 contains three methylated arginines, and we used complementation of DRBD18 knockdown cells with methylmimic or hypomethylated DRBD18 to assess the functions of these methylmarks. Methylmimic and hypomethylated DRBD18 associate with different ribonucleoprotein complexes. These altered macromolecular interactions translate into differential impacts on the T. brucei transcriptome. Methylmimic DRBD18 preferentially stabilizes target RNAs, while hypomethylated DRBD18 is more efficient at destabilizing RNA. The protein arginine methyltransferase, TbPRMT1, interacts with DRBD18 and knockdown of TbPRMT1 recapitulates the effects of hypomethylated DRBD18 on mRNA levels. Together, these data support a model in which arginine methylation acts as a switch that regulates T. brucei gene expression. PMID:25940618

  3. Distinct patterns of expression but similar biochemical properties of protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Thapar, N; Kim, A K; Clarke, S

    2001-02-01

    Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase is a widely distributed repair enzyme that initiates the conversion of abnormal L-isoaspartyl residues to their normal L-aspartyl forms. Here we show that this activity is expressed in developing corn (Zea mays) and carrot (Daucus carota var. Danvers Half Long) plants in patterns distinct from those previously seen in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Augusta) and thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas the pattern of expression observed in rice (Oryza sativa) is similar to that of winter wheat. Although high levels of activity are found in the seeds of all of these plants, relatively high levels of activity in vegetative tissues are only found in corn and carrot. The activity in leaves was found to decrease with aging, an unexpected finding given the postulated role of this enzyme in repairing age-damaged proteins. In contrast with the situation in wheat and Arabidopsis, we found that osmotic or salt stress could increase the methyltransferase activity in newly germinated seeds (but not in seeds or seedlings), whereas abscisic acid had no effect. We found that the corn, rice, and carrot enzymes have comparable affinity for methyl-accepting substrates and similar optimal temperatures for activity of 45 degrees C to 55 degrees C as the wheat and Arabidopsis enzymes. These experiments suggest that this enzyme may have specific roles in different plant tissues despite a common catalytic function. PMID:11161058

  4. Identification of DIM-7, a protein required to target the DIM-5 H3 methyltransferase to chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Zachary A.; Adhvaryu, Keyur K.; Honda, Shinji; Shiver, Anthony L.; Selker, Eric U.

    2010-01-01

    Functionally distinct chromatin domains are delineated by distinct posttranslational modifications of histones, and in some organisms by differences in DNA methylation. Proper establishment and maintenance of chromatin domains is critical but not well understood. We previously demonstrated that heterochromatin in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is marked by cytosine methylation directed by trimethylated Lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9me3). H3K9me3 is the product of the DIM-5 Lysine methyltransferase and is recognized by a protein complex containing heterochromatin protein-1 and the DIM-2 DNA methyltransferase. To identify additional components that control the establishment and function of DNA methylation and heterochromatin, we built a strain harboring two selectable reporter genes that are silenced by DNA methylation and employed this strain to select for mutants that are defective in DNA methylation (dim). We report a previously unidentified gene (dim-7) that is essential for H3K9me3 and DNA methylation. DIM-7 homologs are found only in fungi and are highly divergent. We found that DIM-7 interacts with DIM-5 in vivo and demonstrated that a conserved domain near the N terminus of DIM-7 is required for its stability. In addition, we found that DIM-7 is essential for recruitment of DIM-5 to form heterochromatin. PMID:20404183

  5. LLY-507, a Cell-active, Potent, and Selective Inhibitor of Protein-lysine Methyltransferase SMYD2.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hannah; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Antonysamy, Stephen; Chang, Shawn; Chen, Lisa Hong; Curtis, Carmen; Emtage, Spencer; Fan, Li; Gheyi, Tarun; Li, Fengling; Liu, Shichong; Martin, Joseph R; Mendel, David; Olsen, Jonathan B; Pelletier, Laura; Shatseva, Tatiana; Wu, Song; Zhang, Feiyu Fred; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Brown, Peter J; Campbell, Robert M; Garcia, Benjamin A; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Mader, Mary; Vedadi, Masoud

    2015-05-29

    SMYD2 is a lysine methyltransferase that catalyzes the monomethylation of several protein substrates including p53. SMYD2 is overexpressed in a significant percentage of esophageal squamous primary carcinomas, and that overexpression correlates with poor patient survival. However, the mechanism(s) by which SMYD2 promotes oncogenesis is not understood. A small molecule probe for SMYD2 would allow for the pharmacological dissection of this biology. In this report, we disclose LLY-507, a cell-active, potent small molecule inhibitor of SMYD2. LLY-507 is >100-fold selective for SMYD2 over a broad range of methyltransferase and non-methyltransferase targets. A 1.63-Å resolution crystal structure of SMYD2 in complex with LLY-507 shows the inhibitor binding in the substrate peptide binding pocket. LLY-507 is active in cells as measured by reduction of SMYD2-induced monomethylation of p53 Lys(370) at submicromolar concentrations. We used LLY-507 to further test other potential roles of SMYD2. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics showed that cellular global histone methylation levels were not significantly affected by SMYD2 inhibition with LLY-507, and subcellular fractionation studies indicate that SMYD2 is primarily cytoplasmic, suggesting that SMYD2 targets a very small subset of histones at specific chromatin loci and/or non-histone substrates. Breast and liver cancers were identified through in silico data mining as tumor types that display amplification and/or overexpression of SMYD2. LLY-507 inhibited the proliferation of several esophageal, liver, and breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that LLY-507 serves as a valuable chemical probe to aid in the dissection of SMYD2 function in cancer and other biological processes. PMID:25825497

  6. Plasmodium falciparum PfSET7: enzymatic characterization and cellular localization of a novel protein methyltransferase in sporozoite, liver and erythrocytic stage parasites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Patty B.; Ding, Shuai; Zanghì, Gigliola; Soulard, Valérie; DiMaggio, Peter A.; Fuchter, Matthew J.; Mecheri, Salah; Mazier, Dominique; Scherf, Artur; Malmquist, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic control via reversible histone methylation regulates transcriptional activation throughout the malaria parasite genome, controls the repression of multi-copy virulence gene families and determines sexual stage commitment. Plasmodium falciparum encodes ten predicted SET domain-containing protein methyltransferases, six of which have been shown to be refractory to knock-out in blood stage parasites. We have expressed and purified the first recombinant malaria methyltransferase in sufficient quantities to perform a full enzymatic characterization and reveal the ill-defined PfSET7 is an AdoMet-dependent histone H3 lysine methyltransferase with highest activity towards lysines 4 and 9. Steady-state kinetics of the PfSET7 enzyme are similar to previously characterized histone methyltransferase enzymes from other organisms, however, PfSET7 displays specific protein substrate preference towards nucleosomes with pre-existing histone H3 lysine 14 acetylation. Interestingly, PfSET7 localizes to distinct cytoplasmic foci adjacent to the nucleus in erythrocytic and liver stage parasites, and throughout the cytoplasm in salivary gland sporozoites. Characterized recombinant PfSET7 now allows for target based inhibitor discovery. Specific PfSET7 inhibitors can aid in further investigating the biological role of this specific methyltransferase in transmission, hepatic and blood stage parasites, and may ultimately lead to the development of suitable antimalarial drug candidates against this novel class of essential parasite enzymes. PMID:26902486

  7. Automethylation of SUV39H2, an oncogenic histone lysine methyltransferase, regulates its binding affinity to substrate proteins.

    PubMed

    Piao, Lianhua; Nakakido, Makoto; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2016-04-19

    We previously reported that the histone lysine methyltransferase SUV39H2, which is overexpressed in various types of human cancer, plays a critical role in the DNA repair after double strand breakage, and possesses oncogenic activity. Although its biological significance in tumorigenesis has been elucidated, the regulatory mechanism of SUV39H2 activity through post-translational modification is not well known. In this study, we demonstrate in vitro and in vivo automethylation of SUV39H2 at lysine 392. Automethylation of SUV39H2 led to impairment of its binding affinity to substrate proteins such as histone H3 and LSD1. Furthermore, we observed that hyper-automethylated SUV39H2 reduced methylation activities to substrates through affecting the binding affinity to substrate proteins. Our finding unveils a novel autoregulatory mechanism of SUV39H2 through lysine automethylation. PMID:26988914

  8. Automethylation of SUV39H2, an oncogenic histone lysine methyltransferase, regulates its binding affinity to substrate proteins

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Lianhua; Nakakido, Makoto; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that the histone lysine methyltransferase SUV39H2, which is overexpressed in various types of human cancer, plays a critical role in the DNA repair after double strand breakage, and possesses oncogenic activity. Although its biological significance in tumorigenesis has been elucidated, the regulatory mechanism of SUV39H2 activity through post-translational modification is not well known. In this study, we demonstrate in vitro and in vivo automethylation of SUV39H2 at lysine 392. Automethylation of SUV39H2 led to impairment of its binding affinity to substrate proteins such as histone H3 and LSD1. Furthermore, we observed that hyper-automethylated SUV39H2 reduced methylation activities to substrates through affecting the binding affinity to substrate proteins. Our finding unveils a novel autoregulatory mechanism of SUV39H2 through lysine automethylation. PMID:26988914

  9. Involvement of the "A" isozyme of methyltransferase II and the 29-kilodalton corrinoid protein in methanogenesis from monomethylamine.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, S A; Krzycki, J A

    1995-01-01

    An assay which allowed detection of proteins involved in the trimethylamine- or monomethylamine (MMA)-dependent methylation of coenzyme M (CoM) was developed. The two activities could be separated by anion-exchange chromatography. The unresolved activity responsible for MMA:CoM methyl transfer eluted from a gel permeation column in the molecular mass range of 32 kDa. The activity was purified to two monomeric proteins of 40 and 29 kDa. The preparation contained protein-bound corrinoid in a mixture of Co(II) and Co(III) states, as well as methyl-B12:CoM methyltransferase (MT2) activity. N-terminal sequence analysis demonstrated that the polypeptides were two previously identified proteins of undefined physiological function. The smaller polypeptide was the monomeric 29-kDa corrinoid protein. The larger polypeptide was the "A" isozyme of MT2. Individually purified preparations of both proteins increased the rate of MMA-dependent CoM methylation by approximately 1.7 mumol/min/mg of purified protein above background activity in the extract of methanol-grown cells. These results indicate that the 29-kDa corrinoid protein and the "A" isozyme of MT2 function in methanogenesis from MMA. A likely mechanism is that the 29-kDa corrinoid is methylated by MMA and the methyl group is then transferred by the "A" isozyme of MT2 to CoM. PMID:7635826

  10. A human tRNA methyltransferase 9-like protein prevents tumour growth by regulating LIN9 and HIF1-α.

    PubMed

    Begley, Ulrike; Sosa, Maria Soledad; Avivar-Valderas, Alvaro; Patil, Ashish; Endres, Lauren; Estrada, Yeriel; Chan, Clement T Y; Su, Dan; Dedon, Peter C; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A; Begley, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Emerging evidence points to aberrant regulation of translation as a driver of cell transformation in cancer. Given the direct control of translation by tRNA modifications, tRNA modifying enzymes may function as regulators of cancer progression. Here, we show that a tRNA methyltransferase 9-like (hTRM9L/KIAA1456) mRNA is down-regulated in breast, bladder, colorectal, cervix and testicular carcinomas. In the aggressive SW620 and HCT116 colon carcinoma cell lines, hTRM9L is silenced and its re-expression and methyltransferase activity dramatically suppressed tumour growth in vivo. This growth inhibition was linked to decreased proliferation, senescence-like G0/G1-arrest and up-regulation of the RB interacting protein LIN9. Additionally, SW620 cells re-expressing hTRM9L did not respond to hypoxia via HIF1-α-dependent induction of GLUT1. Importantly, hTRM9L-negative tumours were highly sensitive to aminoglycoside antibiotics and this was associated with altered tRNA modification levels compared to antibiotic resistant hTRM9L-expressing SW620 cells. Our study links hTRM9L and tRNA modifications to inhibition of tumour growth via LIN9 and HIF1-α-dependent mechanisms. It also suggests that aminoglycoside antibiotics may be useful to treat hTRM9L-deficient tumours. PMID:23381944

  11. The l-Isoaspartyl Protein Repair Methyltransferase Enhances Survival of Aging Escherichia coli Subjected to Secondary Environmental Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Visick, Jonathan E.; Cai, Hui; Clarke, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Like its homologs throughout the biological world, the l-isoaspartyl protein repair methyltransferase of Escherichia coli, encoded by the pcm gene, can convert abnormal l-isoaspartyl residues in proteins (which form spontaneously from asparaginyl or aspartyl residues) to normal aspartyl residues. Mutations in pcm were reported to greatly reduce survival in stationary phase and when cells were subjected to heat or osmotic stresses (C. Li and S. Clarke, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:9885–9889, 1992). However, we subsequently demonstrated that those strains had a secondary mutation in rpoS, which encodes a stationary-phase-specific sigma factor (J. E. Visick and S. Clarke, J. Bacteriol. 179:4158–4163, 1997). We now show that the rpoS mutation, resulting in a 90% decrease in HPII catalase activity, can account for the previously observed phenotypes. We further demonstrate that a new pcm mutant lacks these phenotypes. Interestingly, the newly constructed pcm mutant, when maintained in stationary phase for extended periods, is susceptible to environmental stresses, including exposure to methanol, oxygen radical generation by paraquat, high salt concentrations, and repeated heating to 42°C. The pcm mutation also results in a competitive disadvantage in stationary-phase cells. All of these phenotypes can be complemented by a functional pcm gene integrated elsewhere in the chromosome. These data suggest that protein denaturation and isoaspartyl formation may act synergistically to the detriment of aging E. coli and that the repair methyltransferase can play a role in limiting the accumulation of the potentially disruptive isoaspartyl residues in vivo. PMID:9573145

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa EftM Is a Thermoregulated Methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Owings, Joshua P; Kuiper, Emily G; Prezioso, Samantha M; Meisner, Jeffrey; Varga, John J; Zelinskaya, Natalia; Dammer, Eric B; Duong, Duc M; Seyfried, Nicholas T; Albertí, Sebastián; Conn, Graeme L; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2016-02-12

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that trimethylates elongation factor-thermo-unstable (EF-Tu) on lysine 5. Lysine 5 methylation occurs in a temperature-dependent manner and is generally only seen when P. aeruginosa is grown at temperatures close to ambient (25 °C) but not at higher temperatures (37 °C). We have previously identified the gene, eftM (for EF-Tu-modifying enzyme), responsible for this modification and shown its activity to be associated with increased bacterial adhesion to and invasion of respiratory epithelial cells. Bioinformatic analyses predicted EftM to be a Class I S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase. An in vitro methyltransferase assay was employed to show that, in the presence of SAM, EftM directly trimethylates EF-Tu. A natural variant of EftM, with a glycine to arginine substitution at position 50 in the predicted SAM-binding domain, lacks both SAM binding and enzyme activity. Mass spectrometry analysis of the in vitro methyltransferase reaction products revealed that EftM exclusively methylates at lysine 5 of EF-Tu in a distributive manner. Consistent with the in vivo temperature dependence of methylation of EF-Tu, preincubation of EftM at 37 °C abolished methyltransferase activity, whereas this activity was retained when EftM was preincubated at 25 °C. Irreversible protein unfolding at 37 °C was observed, and we propose that this instability is the molecular basis for the temperature dependence of EftM activity. Collectively, our results show that EftM is a thermolabile, SAM-dependent methyltransferase that directly trimethylates lysine 5 of EF-Tu in P. aeruginosa. PMID:26677219

  13. Parkinsonism-associated protein DJ-1/Park7 is a major protein deglycase that repairs methylglyoxal- and glyoxal-glycated cysteine, arginine, and lysine residues.

    PubMed

    Richarme, Gilbert; Mihoub, Mouadh; Dairou, Julien; Bui, Linh Chi; Leger, Thibaut; Lamouri, Aazdine

    2015-01-16

    Glycation is an inevitable nonenzymatic covalent reaction between proteins and endogenous reducing sugars or dicarbonyls (methylglyoxal, glyoxal) that results in protein inactivation. DJ-1 was reported to be a multifunctional oxidative stress response protein with poorly defined function. Here, we show that human DJ-1 is a protein deglycase that repairs methylglyoxal- and glyoxal-glycated amino acids and proteins by acting on early glycation intermediates and releases repaired proteins and lactate or glycolate, respectively. DJ-1 deglycates cysteines, arginines, and lysines (the three major glycated amino acids) of serum albumin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, and aspartate aminotransferase and thus reactivates these proteins. DJ-1 prevented protein glycation in an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in the DJ-1 homolog YajL and restored cell viability in glucose-containing media. These results suggest that DJ-1-associated Parkinsonism results from excessive protein glycation and establishes DJ-1 as a major anti-glycation and anti-aging protein. PMID:25416785

  14. Parkinsonism-associated Protein DJ-1/Park7 Is a Major Protein Deglycase That Repairs Methylglyoxal- and Glyoxal-glycated Cysteine, Arginine, and Lysine Residues

    PubMed Central

    Richarme, Gilbert; Mihoub, Mouadh; Dairou, Julien; Bui, Linh Chi; Leger, Thibaut; Lamouri, Aazdine

    2015-01-01

    Glycation is an inevitable nonenzymatic covalent reaction between proteins and endogenous reducing sugars or dicarbonyls (methylglyoxal, glyoxal) that results in protein inactivation. DJ-1 was reported to be a multifunctional oxidative stress response protein with poorly defined function. Here, we show that human DJ-1 is a protein deglycase that repairs methylglyoxal- and glyoxal-glycated amino acids and proteins by acting on early glycation intermediates and releases repaired proteins and lactate or glycolate, respectively. DJ-1 deglycates cysteines, arginines, and lysines (the three major glycated amino acids) of serum albumin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, and aspartate aminotransferase and thus reactivates these proteins. DJ-1 prevented protein glycation in an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in the DJ-1 homolog YajL and restored cell viability in glucose-containing media. These results suggest that DJ-1-associated Parkinsonism results from excessive protein glycation and establishes DJ-1 as a major anti-glycation and anti-aging protein. PMID:25416785

  15. Mapping precursor-binding site on TatC subunit of twin arginine-specific protein translocase by site-specific photo cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Zoufaly, Stefan; Fröbel, Julia; Rose, Patrick; Flecken, Tobias; Maurer, Carlo; Moser, Michael; Müller, Matthias

    2012-04-13

    A number of secreted precursor proteins of bacteria, archaea, and plant chloroplasts stand out by a conserved twin arginine-containing sequence motif in their signal peptides. Many of these precursor proteins are secreted in a completely folded conformation by specific twin arginine translocation (Tat) machineries. Tat machineries are high molecular mass complexes consisting of two types of membrane proteins, a hexahelical TatC protein, and usually one or two single-spanning membrane proteins, called TatA and TatB. TatC has previously been shown to be involved in the recognition of twin arginine signal peptides. We have performed an extensive site-specific cross-linking analysis of the Escherichia coli TatC protein under resting and translocating conditions. This strategy allowed us to map the recognition site for twin arginine signal peptides to the cytosolic N-terminal region and first cytosolic loop of TatC. In addition, discrete contact sites between TatC, TatB, and TatA were revealed. We discuss a tentative model of how a twin arginine signal sequence might be accommodated in the Tat translocase. PMID:22362773

  16. Protein repair L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase 1 (PIMT1) in rice improves seed longevity by preserving embryo vigor and viability.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yidong; Xu, Huibin; Diao, Lirong; Zhu, Yongsheng; Xie, Hongguang; Cai, Qiuhua; Wu, Fangxi; Wang, Zonghua; Zhang, Jianfu; Xie, Huaan

    2015-11-01

    Damaged proteins containing abnormal isoaspartyl (isoAsp) accumulate as seeds age and the abnormality is thought to undermine seed vigor. Protein-L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) is involved in isoAsp-containing protein repair. Two PIMT genes from rice (Oryza sativa L.), designated as OsPIMT1 and OsPIMT2, were isolated and investigated for their roles. The results indicated that OsPIMT2 was mainly present in green tissues, but OsPIMT1 largely accumulated in embryos. Confocal visualization of the transient expression of OsPIMTs showed that OsPIMT2 was localized in the chloroplast and nucleus, whereas OsPIMT1 was predominately found in the cytosol. Artificial aging results highlighted the sensitivity of the seeds of OsPIMT1 mutant line when subjected to accelerated aging. Overexpression of OsPIMT1 in transgenic seeds reduced the accumulation of isoAsp-containing protein in embryos, and increased embryo viability. The germination percentage of transgenic seeds overexpressing OsPIMT1 increased 9-15% compared to the WT seeds after 21-day of artificial aging, whereas seeds from the OsPIMT1 RNAi lines overaccumulated isoAsp in embryos and experienced rapid loss of seed germinability. Taken together, these data strongly indicated that OsPIMT1-related seed longevity improvement is probably due to the repair of detrimental isoAsp-containing proteins that over accumulate in embryos when subjected to accelerated aging. PMID:26438231

  17. Discovery and Characterization of a Highly Potent and Selective Aminopyrazoline-Based in Vivo Probe (BAY-598) for the Protein Lysine Methyltransferase SMYD2

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein lysine methyltransferases have recently emerged as a new target class for the development of inhibitors that modulate gene transcription or signaling pathways. SET and MYND domain containing protein 2 (SMYD2) is a catalytic SET domain containing methyltransferase reported to monomethylate lysine residues on histone and nonhistone proteins. Although several studies have uncovered an important role of SMYD2 in promoting cancer by protein methylation, the biology of SMYD2 is far from being fully understood. Utilization of highly potent and selective chemical probes for target validation has emerged as a concept which circumvents possible limitations of knockdown experiments and, in particular, could result in an improved exploration of drug targets with a complex underlying biology. Here, we report the development of a potent, selective, and cell-active, substrate-competitive inhibitor of SMYD2, which is the first reported inhibitor suitable for in vivo target validation studies in rodents. PMID:27075367

  18. Discovery and Characterization of a Highly Potent and Selective Aminopyrazoline-Based in Vivo Probe (BAY-598) for the Protein Lysine Methyltransferase SMYD2.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Erik; Hillig, Roman C; Koehr, Silke; Stöckigt, Detlef; Weiske, Jörg; Barak, Naomi; Mowat, Jeffrey; Brumby, Thomas; Christ, Clara D; Ter Laak, Antonius; Lang, Tina; Fernandez-Montalvan, Amaury E; Badock, Volker; Weinmann, Hilmar; Hartung, Ingo V; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Szewczyk, Magdalena; Kennedy, Steven; Li, Fengling; Vedadi, Masoud; Brown, Peter J; Santhakumar, Vijayaratnam; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Stellfeld, Timo; Stresemann, Carlo

    2016-05-26

    Protein lysine methyltransferases have recently emerged as a new target class for the development of inhibitors that modulate gene transcription or signaling pathways. SET and MYND domain containing protein 2 (SMYD2) is a catalytic SET domain containing methyltransferase reported to monomethylate lysine residues on histone and nonhistone proteins. Although several studies have uncovered an important role of SMYD2 in promoting cancer by protein methylation, the biology of SMYD2 is far from being fully understood. Utilization of highly potent and selective chemical probes for target validation has emerged as a concept which circumvents possible limitations of knockdown experiments and, in particular, could result in an improved exploration of drug targets with a complex underlying biology. Here, we report the development of a potent, selective, and cell-active, substrate-competitive inhibitor of SMYD2, which is the first reported inhibitor suitable for in vivo target validation studies in rodents. PMID:27075367

  19. Arginine methylation modulates autophagic degradation of PGL granules in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Li, Sihui; Yang, Peiguo; Tian, E; Zhang, Hong

    2013-11-01

    The selective degradation of intracellular components by autophagy involves sequential interactions of the cargo with a receptor, which also binds the autophagosomal protein Atg8 and a scaffold protein. Here, we demonstrated that mutations in C. elegans epg-11, which encodes an arginine methyltransferase homologous to PRMT1, cause the defective removal of PGL-1 and PGL-3 (cargo)-SEPA-1 (receptor) complexes, known as PGL granules, from somatic cells during embryogenesis. Autophagic degradation of the PGL granule scaffold protein EPG-2 and other protein aggregates was unaffected in epg-11/prmt-1 mutants. Loss of epg-11/prmt-1 activity impairs the association of PGL granules with EPG-2 and LGG-1 puncta. EPG-11/PRMT-1 directly methylates arginines in the RGG domains of PGL-1 and PGL-3. Autophagic removal of PGL proteins is impaired when the methylated arginines are mutated. Our study reveals that posttranslational arginine methylation regulates the association of the cargo-receptor complex with the scaffold protein, providing a mechanism for modulating degradation efficiency in selective autophagy. PMID:24140420

  20. AMP-activated protein kinase regulates L-arginine mediated cellular responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our prior study revealed the loss in short-term L-Arginine (ARG) therapeutic efficacy after continuous exposure; resulting in tolerance development, mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) down-regulation, secondary to oxidative stress and induced glucose accumulation. However, the potential factor regulating ARG cellular response is presently unknown. Method Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with 100 μM ARG for 2 h in buffer (short-term or acute), or for 7 days in culture medium and challenged for 2 h in buffer (continuous or chronic), in the presence or absence of other agents. eNOS activity was determined by analyzing cellular nitrite/nitrate (NO2–/NO3–), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity was assayed using SAMS peptide. 13C6 glucose was added to medium to measure glucose uptake during cellular treatments, which were determined by LC-MS/MS. Cellular glucose was identified by o-toluidine method. Superoxide (O2•–) was identified by EPR-spin-trap, and peroxynitrite (ONOO–) was measured by flow-cytometer using aminophenyl fluorescein dye. Results Short-term incubation of cells with 100 μM ARG in the presence or absence of 30 μM L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or 30 μM AMPK inhibitor (compound C, CMP-C) increased cellular oxidative stress and overall glucose accumulation with no variation in glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), or AMPK activity from control. The increase in total NO2–/NO3– after 2 h 100 μM ARG exposure, was suppressed in cells co-incubated with 30 μM CMP-C or L-NAME. Long-term exposure of ARG with or without CMP-C or L-NAME suppressed NO2–/NO3–, glucose uptake, GLUT-1, AMPK expression and activity below control, and increased overall cellular glucose, O2•– and ONOO–. Gluconeogenesis inhibition with 30 μM 5-Chloro-2-N-2,5-dichlorobenzenesulfonamido-benzoxazole (CDB) during ARG exposure for 2 h maintained overall cellular glucose to control, but increased

  1. Exploration of twin‐arginine translocation for expression and purification of correctly folded proteins in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Adam C.; Kim, Jae‐Young; Perez‐Rodriguez, Ritsdeliz; Tullman‐Ercek, Danielle; Fish, Wallace R.; Henderson, Lee A.; DeLisa, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Historically, the general secretory (Sec) pathway of Gram‐negative bacteria has served as the primary route by which heterologous proteins are delivered to the periplasm in numerous expression and engineering applications. Here we have systematically examined the twin‐arginine translocation (Tat) pathway as an alternative, and possibly advantageous, secretion pathway for heterologous proteins. Overall, we found that: (i) export efficiency and periplasmic yield of a model substrate were affected by the composition of the Tat signal peptide, (ii) Tat substrates were correctly processed at their N‐termini upon reaching the periplasm and (iii) proteins fused to maltose‐binding protein (MBP) were reliably exported by the Tat system, but only when correctly folded; aberrantly folded MBP fusions were excluded by the Tat pathway's folding quality control feature. We also observed that Tat export yield was comparable to Sec for relatively small, well‐folded proteins, higher relative to Sec for proteins that required cytoplasmic folding, and lower relative to Sec for larger, soluble fusion proteins. Interestingly, the specific activity of material purified from the periplasm was higher for certain Tat substrates relative to their Sec counterparts, suggesting that Tat expression can give rise to relatively pure and highly active proteins in one step. PMID:21261860

  2. Quantification of Arginine and Its Methylated Derivatives in Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Vicente, Faye B; Vespa, Gina; Miller, Alan; Haymond, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Arginine is the substrate for nitric oxide synthases (NOS), thus the production of nitric oxide (NO) is based on arginine availability. Arginine is methylated through the activity of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT1 and PRMT2), to form asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA). These compounds have gained interest in recent years due to their influence on NO production rates and association with cardiovascular and renal diseases. The accurate and precise measurement of arginine and its methylated derivatives is needed for research studies investigating their role(s) in NO bioavailability and development of disease. We describe a high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for quantifying arginine, ADMA, and SDMA requiring only 50 μL of plasma. The sample preparation involves addition of internal standards (ADMA-d7 for ADMA and SDMA, and (13)C6 -arginine for arginine) prior to protein precipitation with LCMS grade acetonitrile. Samples are centrifuged and supernatant is dried under nitrogen gas at 50 °C. Samples are reconstituted with mobile phase (ammonium acetate-formic acid-water). Arginine, ADMA, and SDMA are separated using an isocratic HPLC method on a 3 μM silica analytical column. MS/MS detection is performed in the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and the transitions monitored are m/z 203 to m/z 70 for ADMA and SDMA, m/z 210 to m/z 77 for ADMA-d7, m/z 175 to m/z 70 for arginine, and m/z 181 to m/z 74 for (13)C6-arginine. PMID:26602113

  3. Inhibition of Cellular Methyltransferases Promotes Endothelial Cell Activation by Suppressing Glutathione Peroxidase 1 Protein Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Madalena; Florindo, Cristina; Kalwa, Hermann; Silva, Zélia; Turanov, Anton A.; Carlson, Bradley A.; de Almeida, Isabel Tavares; Blom, Henk J.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Michel, Thomas; Castro, Rita; Loscalzo, Joseph; Handy, Diane E.

    2014-01-01

    S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) is a negative regulator of most methyltransferases and the precursor for the cardiovascular risk factor homocysteine. We have previously identified a link between the homocysteine-induced suppression of the selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) and endothelial dysfunction. Here we demonstrate a specific mechanism by which hypomethylation, promoted by the accumulation of the homocysteine precursor SAH, suppresses GPx-1 expression and leads to inflammatory activation of endothelial cells. The expression of GPx-1 and a subset of other selenoproteins is dependent on the methylation of the tRNASec to the Um34 form. The formation of methylated tRNASec facilitates translational incorporation of selenocysteine at a UGA codon. Our findings demonstrate that SAH accumulation in endothelial cells suppresses the expression of GPx-1 to promote oxidative stress. Hypomethylation stress, caused by SAH accumulation, inhibits the formation of the methylated isoform of the tRNASec and reduces GPx-1 expression. In contrast, under these conditions, the expression and activity of thioredoxin reductase 1, another selenoprotein, is increased. Furthermore, SAH-induced oxidative stress creates a proinflammatory activation of endothelial cells characterized by up-regulation of adhesion molecules and an augmented capacity to bind leukocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that SAH accumulation in endothelial cells can induce tRNASec hypomethylation, which alters the expression of selenoproteins such as GPx-1 to contribute to a proatherogenic endothelial phenotype. PMID:24719327

  4. PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation controls ATXN2L localization

    SciTech Connect

    Kaehler, Christian; Guenther, Anika; Uhlich, Anja; Krobitsch, Sylvia

    2015-05-15

    Arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that is of importance in diverse cellular processes. Recent proteomic mass spectrometry studies reported arginine methylation of ataxin-2-like (ATXN2L), the paralog of ataxin-2, a protein that is implicated in the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. Here, we investigated the methylation state of ATXN2L and its significance for ATXN2L localization. We first confirmed that ATXN2L is asymmetrically dimethylated in vivo, and observed that the nuclear localization of ATXN2L is altered under methylation inhibition. We further discovered that ATXN2L associates with the protein arginine-N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1). Finally, we showed that neither mutation of the arginine–glycine-rich motifs of ATXN2L nor methylation inhibition alters ATXN2L localization to stress granules, suggesting that methylation of ATXN2L is probably not mandatory. - Highlights: • ATXN2L is asymmetrically dimethylated in vivo. • ATXN2L interacts with PRMT1 under normal and stress conditions. • PRMT1-mediated dimethylation of ATXN2L controls its nuclear localization. • ATXN2L localization to stress granules appears independent of its methylation state.

  5. Protein loop compaction and the origin of the effect of arginine and glutamic acid mixtures on solubility, stability and transient oligomerization of proteins.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Jascha; Brath, Ulrika; Bernadó, Pau; Diehl, Carl; Ballester, Lidia; Sornosa, Alejandra; Akke, Mikael; Pons, Miquel

    2011-12-01

    Addition of a 50 mM mixture of L: -arginine and L: -glutamic acid (RE) is extensively used to improve protein solubility and stability, although the origin of the effect is not well understood. We present Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) results showing that RE induces protein compaction by collapsing flexible loops on the protein core. This is suggested to be a general mechanism preventing aggregation and improving resistance to proteases and to originate from the polyelectrolyte nature of RE. Molecular polyelectrolyte mixtures are expected to display long range correlation effects according to dressed interaction site theory. We hypothesize that perturbation of the RE solution by dissolved proteins is proportional to the volume occupied by the protein. As a consequence, loop collapse, minimizing the effective protein volume, is favored in the presence of RE. PMID:21390527

  6. Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase catalyzes in vivo racemization of Aspartate-25 in mammalian histone H2B.

    PubMed

    Young, Glen W; Hoofring, Sarah A; Mamula, Mark J; Doyle, Hester A; Bunick, Gerard J; Hu, Yonglin; Aswad, Dana W

    2005-07-15

    Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) has been implicated in the repair or metabolism of proteins containing atypical L-isoaspartyl peptide bonds. The repair hypothesis is supported by previous studies demonstrating in vitro repair of isoaspartyl peptides via formation of a succinimide intermediate. Utilization of this mechanism in vivo predicts that PIMT modification sites should exhibit significant racemization as a side reaction to the main repair pathway. We therefore studied the D/L ratio of aspartic acid at specific sites in histone H2B, a known target of PIMT in vivo. Using H2B from canine brain, we found that Asp25 (the major PIMT target site in H2B) was significantly racemized, exhibiting d/l ratios as high as 0.12, whereas Asp51, a comparison site, exhibited negligible racemization (D/L < or = 0.01). Racemization of Asp25 was independent of animal age over the range of 2-15 years. Using H2B from 2-3-week mouse brain, we found a similar D/L ratio (0.14) at Asp25 in wild type mice, but substantially less racemization (D/L = 0.035) at Asp25 in PIMT-deficient mice. These findings suggest that PIMT functions in the repair, rather than the metabolic turnover, of isoaspartyl proteins in vivo. Because PIMT has numerous substrates in cells, these findings also suggest that D-aspartate may be more common in cellular proteins than hitherto imagined and that its occurrence, in some proteins at least, is independent of animal age. PMID:15908425

  7. The methyltransferase domain of dengue virus protein NS5 ensures efficient RNA synthesis initiation and elongation by the polymerase domain.

    PubMed

    Potisopon, Supanee; Priet, Stéphane; Collet, Axelle; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno; Selisko, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) responsible for the replication of single-strand RNA virus genomes exert their function in the context of complex replication machineries. Within these replication complexes the polymerase activity is often highly regulated by RNA elements, proteins or other domains of multi-domain polymerases. Here, we present data of the influence of the methyltransferase domain (NS5-MTase) of dengue virus (DENV) protein NS5 on the RdRp activity of the polymerase domain (NS5-Pol). The steady-state polymerase activities of DENV-2 recombinant NS5 and NS5-Pol are compared using different biochemical assays allowing the dissection of the de novo initiation, transition and elongation steps of RNA synthesis. We show that NS5-MTase ensures efficient RdRp activity by stimulating the de novo initiation and the elongation phase. This stimulation is related to a higher affinity of NS5 toward the single-strand RNA template indicating NS5-MTase either completes a high-affinity RNA binding site and/or promotes the correct formation of the template tunnel. Furthermore, the NS5-MTase increases the affinity of the priming nucleotide ATP upon de novo initiation and causes a higher catalytic efficiency of the polymerase upon elongation. The complex stimulation pattern is discussed under the perspective that NS5 adopts several conformations during RNA synthesis. PMID:25209234

  8. The methyltransferase domain of dengue virus protein NS5 ensures efficient RNA synthesis initiation and elongation by the polymerase domain

    PubMed Central

    Potisopon, Supanee; Priet, Stéphane; Collet, Axelle; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno; Selisko, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) responsible for the replication of single-strand RNA virus genomes exert their function in the context of complex replication machineries. Within these replication complexes the polymerase activity is often highly regulated by RNA elements, proteins or other domains of multi-domain polymerases. Here, we present data of the influence of the methyltransferase domain (NS5-MTase) of dengue virus (DENV) protein NS5 on the RdRp activity of the polymerase domain (NS5-Pol). The steady-state polymerase activities of DENV-2 recombinant NS5 and NS5-Pol are compared using different biochemical assays allowing the dissection of the de novo initiation, transition and elongation steps of RNA synthesis. We show that NS5-MTase ensures efficient RdRp activity by stimulating the de novo initiation and the elongation phase. This stimulation is related to a higher affinity of NS5 toward the single-strand RNA template indicating NS5-MTase either completes a high-affinity RNA binding site and/or promotes the correct formation of the template tunnel. Furthermore, the NS5-MTase increases the affinity of the priming nucleotide ATP upon de novo initiation and causes a higher catalytic efficiency of the polymerase upon elongation. The complex stimulation pattern is discussed under the perspective that NS5 adopts several conformations during RNA synthesis. PMID:25209234

  9. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Tetrazole Analogs of Cl-Amidine as Protein Arginine Deiminase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze the post-translational hydrolysis of arginine residues to form citrulline. This once obscure modification is now known to play a key role in the etiology of multiple autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus, and ulcerative colitis) and in some forms of cancer. Among the five human PADs (PAD1, -2, -3, -4, and -6), it is unclear which isozyme contributes to disease pathogenesis. Toward the identification of potent, selective, and bioavailable PAD inhibitors that can be used to elucidate the specific roles of each isozyme, we describe tetrazole analogs as suitable backbone amide bond bioisosteres for the parent pan PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine. These tetrazole based analogs are highly potent and show selectivity toward particular isozymes. Importantly, one of the compounds, biphenyl tetrazole tert-butyl Cl-amidine (compound 13), exhibits enhanced cell killing in a PAD4 expressing osteosarcoma bone marrow (U2OS) cell line and can also block the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. These bioisosteres represent an important step in our efforts to develop stable, bioavailable, and selective inhibitors for the PADs. PMID:25559347

  10. The juxtamembrane lysine and arginine residues of surfactant protein C precursor influence palmitoylation via effects on trafficking.

    PubMed

    ten Brinke, A; Batenburg, J J; Gadella, B M; Haagsman, H P; Vaandrager, A B; van Golde, L M

    2001-08-01

    Surfactant protein (SP)-C propeptide (proSP-C) becomes palmitoylated on cysteines 5 and 6 before mature SP-C is formed by several proteolytic steps. To study the structural requirements for the palmitoylation of proSP-C, his-tagged human proSP-C (his-proSP-C) and his-proSP-C mutants were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and analyzed by metabolic labeling with [(3)H]palmitate and immunocytochemistry. Substitution of cysteines 5 and 6 by serines showed that these were the only two cysteine residues palmitoylated in his-proSP-C. Substitution of the juxtamembrane basic residues lysine and arginine by uncharged glutamines led to a large decrease in palmitoylation level of proSP-C. The addition of brefeldin A nearly abolished this decrease for the lysine and double mutant; the palmitoylation of the arginine mutant increased also, but not to wild-type (WT) levels. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry showed that WT proSP-C was localized in punctate vesicles throughout the cell, whereas the mutant lacking the juxtamembrane positive charges was found more perinuclear, probably in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This indicates that the two basic juxtamembrane residues influence palmitoylation of proSP-C by preventing the transport of proSP-C out of the ER, implying that proSP-C becomes palmitoylated normally in a compartment distal to the ER. PMID:11509324

  11. Expression, Purification And Preliminary X-Ray Analysis of the C-Terminal Domain of An Arginine Repressor Protein From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, G.J.; Garen, C.R.; Cherney, M.M.; Cherney, L.T.; Lee, C.; James, M.N.J.

    2009-06-03

    The gene product of an open reading frame Rv1657 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a putative arginine repressor protein (ArgR), a transcriptional factor that regulates the expression of arginine-biosynthetic enzymes. Rv1657 was expressed and purified and a C-terminal domain was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected and processed to a resolution of 2.15 {angstrom}. The crystals belong to space group P1 and the Matthews coefficient suggests that the crystals contain six C-terminal domain molecules per unit cell. Previous structural and biochemical studies on the arginine repressor proteins from other organisms have likewise shown the presence of six molecules per unit cell.

  12. Linking electrostatic effects and protein motions in enzymatic catalysis. A theoretical analysis of catechol o-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    García-Meseguer, Rafael; Zinovjev, Kirill; Roca, Maite; Ruiz-Pernía, Javier J; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2015-01-22

    The role of protein motions in enzymatic catalysis is the subject of a hot scientific debate. We here propose the use of an explicit solvent coordinate to analyze the impact of environmental motions during the reaction process. The example analyzed here is the reaction catalyzed by catechol O-methyltransferase, a methyl transfer reaction from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to the nucleophilic oxygen atom of catecholate. This reaction proceeds from a charged reactant to a neutral product, and then a large electrostatic coupling with the environment could be expected. By means of a two-dimensional free energy surface, we show that a large fraction of the environmental motions needed to attain the transition state happens during the first stages of the reaction because most of the environmental motions are slower than changes in the substrate. The incorporation of the solvent coordinate in the definition of the transition state improves the transmission coefficient and the committor histogram in solution, while the changes are much less significant in the enzyme. The equilibrium solvation approach seems then to work better in the enzyme than in aqueous solution because the enzyme provides a preorganized environment where the reaction takes place. PMID:25159911

  13. The preRC protein ORCA organizes heterochromatin by assembling histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferases on chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Sumanprava; Aggarwal, Vasudha; Pontis, Julien; Shen, Zhen; Chakraborty, Arindam; Khan, Abid; Mizzen, Craig; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V; Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane; Ha, Taekjip; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2015-01-01

    Heterochromatic domains are enriched with repressive histone marks, including histone H3 lysine 9 methylation, written by lysine methyltransferases (KMTs). The pre-replication complex protein, origin recognition complex-associated (ORCA/LRWD1), preferentially localizes to heterochromatic regions in post-replicated cells. Its role in heterochromatin organization remained elusive. ORCA recognizes methylated H3K9 marks and interacts with repressive KMTs, including G9a/GLP and Suv39H1 in a chromatin context-dependent manner. Single-molecule pull-down assays demonstrate that ORCA-ORC (Origin Recognition Complex) and multiple H3K9 KMTs exist in a single complex and that ORCA stabilizes H3K9 KMT complex. Cells lacking ORCA show alterations in chromatin architecture, with significantly reduced H3K9 di- and tri-methylation at specific chromatin sites. Changes in heterochromatin structure due to loss of ORCA affect replication timing, preferentially at the late-replicating regions. We demonstrate that ORCA acts as a scaffold for the establishment of H3K9 KMT complex and its association and activity at specific chromatin sites is crucial for the organization of heterochromatin structure. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06496.001 PMID:25922909

  14. Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 5 (NS5) Assembles into a Dimer with a Unique Methyltransferase and Polymerase Interface

    PubMed Central

    Klema, Valerie J.; Ye, Mengyi; Hindupur, Aditya; Teramoto, Tadahisa; Gottipati, Keerthi; Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan; Choi, Kyung H.

    2016-01-01

    Flavivirus nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) consists of methyltransferase (MTase) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains, which catalyze 5’-RNA capping/methylation and RNA synthesis, respectively, during viral genome replication. Although the crystal structure of flavivirus NS5 is known, no data about the quaternary organization of the functional enzyme are available. We report the crystal structure of dengue virus full-length NS5, where eight molecules of NS5 are arranged as four independent dimers in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. The relative orientation of each monomer within the dimer, as well as the orientations of the MTase and RdRp domains within each monomer, is conserved, suggesting that these structural arrangements represent the biologically relevant conformation and assembly of this multi-functional enzyme. Essential interactions between MTase and RdRp domains are maintained in the NS5 dimer via inter-molecular interactions, providing evidence that flavivirus NS5 can adopt multiple conformations while preserving necessary interactions between the MTase and RdRp domains. Furthermore, many NS5 residues that reduce viral replication are located at either the inter-domain interface within a monomer or at the inter-molecular interface within the dimer. Hence the X-ray structure of NS5 presented here suggests that MTase and RdRp activities could be coordinated as a dimer during viral genome replication. PMID:26895240

  15. The human interferon-regulated ISG95 protein interacts with RNA polymerase II and shows methyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haline-Vaz, Thais; Lima Silva, Tereza Cristina; Zanchin, Nilson I.T.

    2008-08-08

    A major mechanism of cellular resistance to viral invasion involves genes from the interferon signaling pathway, called ISGs (interferon stimulated genes). Global transcriptional profiling studies have linked increased expression of ISG95 (KIAA0082) to response to interferon treatment and viral infection, suggesting that it may be part of the cellular defense against viral replication. In this work, we show that the ISG95 promoter can drive interferon-induced transcription of a reporter gene in Vero cells. Recombinant ISG95 shows RNA- and S-adenosyl-methionine binding and protein methyltransferase activity in vitro. ISG95 interacts with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, which is consistent with its nuclear localization and with the predicted function of the WW domain found in the C-terminal region of ISG95. The results presented in this work indicate that ISG95 is part of the interferon response pathway and functions in the pre-mRNA processing events mediated by the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II.

  16. Two proteins with ornithine acetyltransferase activity show different functions in Streptomyces clavuligerus: Oat2 modulates clavulanic acid biosynthesis in response to arginine.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, A; Martín, J F; Rodríguez-García, A; Liras, P

    2004-10-01

    The oat2 gene, located in the clavulanic acid gene cluster in Streptomyces clavuligerus, is similar to argJ, which encodes N-acetylornithine:glutamic acid acetyltransferase activity. Purified proteins obtained by expression in Escherichia coli of the argJ and oat2 genes of S. clavuligerus posses N-acetyltransferase activity. The kinetics and substrate specificities of both proteins are very similar. Deletion of the oat2 gene did not affect the total N-acetylornithine transferase activity and slightly reduced the formation of clavulanic acid under standard culture conditions. However, the oat2 mutant produced more clavulanic acid than the parental strain in cultures supplemented with high levels (above 1 mM) of arginine. The purified S. clavuligerus ArgR protein bound the arginine box in the oat2 promoter, and the expression of oat2 was higher in mutants with a disruption in argR (arginine-deregulated), confirming that the Arg boxes of oat2 are functional in vivo. Our results suggest that the Oat2 protein or one of its reaction products has a regulatory role that modulates clavulanic acid biosynthesis in response to high arginine concentrations. PMID:15375131

  17. Arginine transport in catabolic disease states.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ming; Choudry, Haroon A; Epler, Mark J; Meng, Qinghe; Karinch, Anne; Lin, Chengmao; Souba, Wiley

    2004-10-01

    Arginine appears to be a semiessential amino acid in humans during critical illness. Catabolic disease states such as sepsis, injury, and cancer cause an increase in arginine utilization, which exceeds body production, leading to arginine depletion. This is aggravated by the reduced nutrient intake that is associated with critical illness. Arginine depletion may have negative consequences on tissue function under these circumstances. Nutritional regimens containing arginine have been shown to improve nitrogen balance and lymphocyte function, and stimulate arginine transport in the liver. We have studied the effects of stress mediators on arginine transport in vascular endothelium, liver, and gut epithelium. In vascular endothelium, endotoxin stimulates arginine uptake, an effect that is mediated by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and by the cyclo-oxygenase pathway. This TNF-alpha stimulation involves the activation of intracellular protein kinase C (PKC). A significant increase in hepatic arginine transport activity also occurs following burn injury and in rats with progressive malignant disease. Surgical removal of the growing tumor results in a normalization of the accelerated hepatic arginine transport within days. Chronic metabolic acidosis and sepsis individually augment intestinal arginine transport in rats and Caco-2 cell culture. PKC and mitogen-activated protein kinases are involved in mediating the sepsis/acidosis stimulation of arginine transport. Understanding the regulation of plasma membrane arginine transport will enhance our knowledge of nutrition and metabolism in seriously ill patients and may lead to the design of improved nutritional support formulas. PMID:15465794

  18. Arginine and nitrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Llácer, José L; Fita, Ignacio; Rubio, Vicente

    2008-12-01

    When nitrogen is abundant, prokaryotic and eukaryotic oxygen-producing photosynthetic organisms store nitrogen as arginine, by relieving feedback inhibition of the arginine biosynthesis controlling enzyme, N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK). The signalling protein PII, an ancient and widely distributed nitrogen/carbon/ADP/ATP sensor, mediates feedback inhibition relief of NAGK by binding to this enzyme. PII phosphorylation or PII binding of ADP or 2-oxoglutarate prevents PII-NAGK complex formation. Crystal structures of NAGK, cyanobacterial and plant PII and corresponding PII-NAGK complexes have been recently determined. In these complexes, two polar PII trimers sandwich one ring-like NAGK hexamer. Each PII subunit contacts one NAGK subunit, triggering a symmetry-restricted narrowing of the NAGK ring, with concomitant adoption by the arginine sites of a low-affinity conformation. PMID:19013524

  19. Effect of counter ions of arginine as an additive for the solubilization of protein and aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Shunsuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2016-10-01

    Arginine is widely used in biotechnological application, but mostly with chloride counter ion. Here, we examined the effects of various anions on solubilization of aromatic compounds and reduced lysozyme and on refolding of the lysozyme. All arginine salts tested increased the solubility of propyl gallate with acetate much more effectively than chloride. The effects of arginine salts were compared with those of sodium or guanidine salts, indicating that the ability of anions to modulate the propyl gallate solubility is independent of the cation. Comparison of transfer free energy of propyl gallate between sodium and arginine salts indicates that the interaction of propyl gallate is more favorable with arginine than sodium. On the contrary, the solubility of aromatic amino acids is only slightly modulated by anions, implying that there is specific interaction between acetic acid and propyl gallate. Unlike their effects on the solubility of small aromatic compounds, the solubility of reduced lysozyme was much higher in arginine chloride than in arginine acetate or sulfate. Consistent with high solubility, refolding of reduced lysozyme was most effective in arginine chloride. These results suggest potential broader applications of arginine modulated by different anions. PMID:27234496

  20. Functions that Protect Escherichia coli from Tightly Bound DNA-Protein Complexes Created by Mutant EcoRII Methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Morgan L; Kreuzer, Kenneth N

    2015-01-01

    Expression of mutant EcoRII methyltransferase protein (M.EcoRII-C186A) in Escherichia coli leads to tightly bound DNA-protein complexes (TBCs), located sporadically on the chromosome rather than in tandem arrays. The mechanisms behind the lethality induced by such sporadic TBCs are not well studied, nor is it clear whether very tight binding but non-covalent complexes are processed in the same way as covalent DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs). Using 2D gel electrophoresis, we found that TBCs induced by M.EcoRII-C186A block replication forks in vivo. Specific bubble molecules were detected as spots on the 2D gel, only when M.EcoRII-C186A was induced, and a mutation that eliminates a specific EcoRII methylation site led to disappearance of the corresponding spot. We also performed a candidate gene screen for mutants that are hypersensitive to TBCs induced by M.EcoRII-C186A. We found several gene products necessary for protection against these TBCs that are known to also protect against DPCs induced with wild-type M.EcoRII (after 5-azacytidine incorporation): RecA, RecBC, RecG, RuvABC, UvrD, FtsK, XerCD and SsrA (tmRNA). In contrast, the RecFOR pathway and Rep helicase are needed for protection against TBCs but not DPCs induced by M.EcoRII. We propose that stalled fork processing by RecFOR and RecA promotes release of tightly bound (but non-covalent) blocking proteins, perhaps by licensing Rep helicase-driven dissociation of the blocking M.EcoRII-C186A. Our studies also argued against the involvement of several proteins that might be expected to protect against TBCs. We took the opportunity to directly compare the sensitivity of all tested mutants to two quinolone antibiotics, which target bacterial type II topoisomerases and induce a unique form of DPC. We uncovered rep, ftsK and xerCD as novel quinolone hypersensitive mutants, and also obtained evidence against the involvement of a number of functions that might be expected to protect against quinolones. PMID:25993347

  1. The reductive acetyl coenzyme A pathway: sequence and heterologous expression of active methyltetrahydrofolate:corrinoid/iron-sulfur protein methyltransferase from Clostridium thermoaceticum.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, D L; Zhao, S; Doukov, T; Ragsdale, S W

    1994-01-01

    The methyltransferase (MeTr) from Clostridium thermoaceticum transfers the N5-methyl group of (6S)-methyltetrahydrofolate to the cobalt center of a corrinoid/iron-sulfur protein in the acetyl coenzyme A pathway. MeTr was purified to homogeneity and shown to lack metals. The acsE gene encoding MeTr was sequenced and actively expressed in Escherichia coli at a level of 9% of cell protein. Regions in the sequence of MeTr and the E. coli cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase were found to share significant homology, suggesting that they may represent tetrahydrofolate-binding domains. PMID:7928975

  2. The Influence of Arginine on the Response of Enamel Matrix Derivative (EMD) Proteins to Thermal Stress: Towards Improving the Stability of EMD-Based Products.

    PubMed

    Apicella, Alessandra; Heunemann, Peggy; Bolisetty, Sreenath; Marascio, Matteo; Gemperli Graf, Anja; Garamszegi, Laszlo; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Fischer, Peter; Plummer, Christopher J; Månson, Jan-Anders

    2015-01-01

    In a current procedure for periodontal tissue regeneration, enamel matrix derivative (EMD), which is the active component, is mixed with a propylene glycol alginate (PGA) gel carrier and applied directly to the periodontal defect. Exposure of EMD to physiological conditions then causes it to precipitate. However, environmental changes during manufacture and storage may result in modifications to the conformation of the EMD proteins, and eventually premature phase separation of the gel and a loss in therapeutic effectiveness. The present work relates to efforts to improve the stability of EMD-based formulations such as Emdogain™ through the incorporation of arginine, a well-known protein stabilizer, but one that to our knowledge has not so far been considered for this purpose. Representative EMD-buffer solutions with and without arginine were analyzed by 3D-dynamic light scattering, UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at different acidic pH and temperatures, T, in order to simulate the effect of pH variations and thermal stress during manufacture and storage. The results provided evidence that arginine may indeed stabilize EMD against irreversible aggregation with respect to variations in pH and T under these conditions. Moreover, stopped-flow transmittance measurements indicated arginine addition not to suppress precipitation of EMD from either the buffers or the PGA gel carrier when the pH was raised to 7, a fundamental requirement for dental applications. PMID:26670810

  3. The Influence of Arginine on the Response of Enamel Matrix Derivative (EMD) Proteins to Thermal Stress: Towards Improving the Stability of EMD-Based Products

    PubMed Central

    Bolisetty, Sreenath; Marascio, Matteo; Gemperli Graf, Anja; Garamszegi, Laszlo; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Fischer, Peter; Månson, Jan-Anders

    2015-01-01

    In a current procedure for periodontal tissue regeneration, enamel matrix derivative (EMD), which is the active component, is mixed with a propylene glycol alginate (PGA) gel carrier and applied directly to the periodontal defect. Exposure of EMD to physiological conditions then causes it to precipitate. However, environmental changes during manufacture and storage may result in modifications to the conformation of the EMD proteins, and eventually premature phase separation of the gel and a loss in therapeutic effectiveness. The present work relates to efforts to improve the stability of EMD-based formulations such as Emdogain™ through the incorporation of arginine, a well-known protein stabilizer, but one that to our knowledge has not so far been considered for this purpose. Representative EMD-buffer solutions with and without arginine were analyzed by 3D-dynamic light scattering, UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at different acidic pH and temperatures, T, in order to simulate the effect of pH variations and thermal stress during manufacture and storage. The results provided evidence that arginine may indeed stabilize EMD against irreversible aggregation with respect to variations in pH and T under these conditions. Moreover, stopped-flow transmittance measurements indicated arginine addition not to suppress precipitation of EMD from either the buffers or the PGA gel carrier when the pH was raised to 7, a fundamental requirement for dental applications. PMID:26670810

  4. Recruitment of histone methyltransferase G9a mediates transcriptional repression of Fgf21 gene by E4BP4 protein.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Deqiang; Buelow, Katie; Guha, Anirvan; Arthurs, Blake; Brady, Hugh J M; Yin, Lei

    2013-02-22

    The liver responds to fasting-refeeding cycles by reprogramming expression of metabolic genes. Fasting potently induces one of the key hepatic hormones, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), to promote lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis, whereas refeeding suppresses its expression. We previously reported that the basic leucine zipper transcription factor E4BP4 (E4 binding protein 4) represses Fgf21 expression and disrupts its circadian oscillations in cultured hepatocytes. However, the epigenetic mechanism for E4BP4-dependent suppression of Fgf21 has not yet been addressed. Here we present evidence that histone methyltransferase G9a mediates E4BP4-dependent repression of Fgf21 during refeeding by promoting repressive histone modification. We find that Fgf21 expression is up-regulated in E4bp4 knock-out mouse liver. We demonstrate that the G9a-specific inhibitor BIX01294 abolishes suppression of the Fgf21 promoter activity by E4BP4, whereas overexpression of E4bp4 leads to increased levels of dimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) around the Fgf21 promoter region. Furthermore, we also show that E4BP4 interacts with G9a, and knockdown of G9a blocks repression of Fgf21 promoter activity and expression in cells overexpressing E4bp4. A G9a mutant lacking catalytic activity, due to deletion of the SET domain, fails to inhibit the Fgf21 promoter activity. Importantly, acute hepatic knockdown by adenoviral shRNA targeting G9a abolishes Fgf21 repression by refeeding, concomitant with decreased levels of H3K9me2 around the Fgf21 promoter region. In summary, we show that G9a mediates E4BP4-dependent suppression of hepatic Fgf21 by enhancing histone methylation (H3K9me2) of the Fgf21 promoter. PMID:23283977

  5. Arginine Metabolism in Developing Soybean Cotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Micallef, Barry J.; Shelp, Barry J.

    1989-01-01

    Tracerkinetic experiments were performed using l-[guanidino-14C]arginine, l-[U-14C]arginine, l-[ureido-14C]citrulline, and l-[1-14C]ornithine to investigate arginine utilization in developing cotyledons of Glycine max (L.) Merrill. Excised cotyledons were injected with carrier-free 14C compounds and incubated in sealed vials containing a CO2 trap. The free and protein amino acids were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography and arginine-specific enzyme-linked assays. After 4 hours, 75% and 90% of the 14C metabolized from [guanidino-14C]arginine and [U-14C]arginine, respectively, was in protein arginine. The net protein arginine accumulation rate, calculated from the depletion of nitrogenous solutes in the cotyledon during incubation, was 17 nanomoles per cotyledon per hour. The data indicated that arginine was also catabolized by the arginase-urease reactions at a rate of 5.5 nanomoles per cotyledon per hour. Between 2 and 4 hours 14CO2 was also evolved from carbons other than C-6 of arginine at a rate of 11.0 nanomoles per cotyledon per hour. It is suggested that this extra 14CO2 was evolved during the catabolism of ornithine-derived glutamate; 14C-ornithine was a product of the arginase reaction. A model for the estimated fluxes associated with arginine utilization in developing soybean cotyledons is presented. The maximum specific radioactivity ratios between arginine in newly synthesized protein and total free arginine in the 14C-citrulline and 14C-ornithine experiments indicated that only 3% of the free arginine was in the protein precursor pool, and that argininosuccinate and citrulline were present in multiple pools. PMID:16666991

  6. Structural Biology of Human H3K9 Methyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.; Min, J; Lunin, V; Antoshenko, T; Dombrovsk, L; Zeng, H; Allali-Hassani, A; Campagna-Slater, V; Vedadi, M; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    SET domain methyltransferases deposit methyl marks on specific histone tail lysine residues and play a major role in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. We solved the structures of the catalytic domains of GLP, G9a, Suv39H2 and PRDM2, four of the eight known human H3K9 methyltransferases in their apo conformation or in complex with the methyl donating cofactor, and peptide substrates. We analyzed the structural determinants for methylation state specificity, and designed a G9a mutant able to tri-methylate H3K9. We show that the I-SET domain acts as a rigid docking platform, while induced-fit of the Post-SET domain is necessary to achieve a catalytically competent conformation. We also propose a model where long-range electrostatics bring enzyme and histone substrate together, while the presence of an arginine upstream of the target lysine is critical for binding and specificity. Post-translational modifications of histone proteins regulate chromatin compaction, mediate epigenetic regulation of transcription, and control cellular differentiation in health and disease. Methylation of histone tails is one of the fundamental events of epigenetic signaling. Tri-methylation of lysine 9 of histone 3 (H3K9) mediates chromatin recruitment of HP1, heterochromatin condensation and gene silencing. Similarly, methylation of H3K27 and H4K20 are associated with a repressed state of chromatin, whereas expressed genes are methylated at H3K4, H3K36 and H3K79. Histone methyltransferases are divided into protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) and histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs). HKMTs catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from the co-factor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to a substrate lysine and, with the exception of DOT1L, are all organized around a canonical SET domain. The structures of a number of HKMTs have been reported, including ternary complexes of human orthologs with co-factor and substrate peptides (SETD7-H3K4, SETD8-H4K20 and MLL1-H3K4), as well

  7. Functional mapping of the plant small RNA methyltransferase: HEN1 physically interacts with HYL1 and DICER-LIKE 1 proteins.

    PubMed

    Baranauskė, Simona; Mickutė, Milda; Plotnikova, Alexandra; Finke, Andreas; Venclovas, Česlovas; Klimašauskas, Saulius; Vilkaitis, Giedrius

    2015-03-11

    Methylation of 3'-terminal nucleotides of miRNA/miRNA* is part of miRNAs biogenesis in plants but is not found in animals. In Arabidopsis thaliana this reaction is carried out by a multidomain AdoMet-dependent 2'-O-methyltransferase HEN1. Using deletion and structure-guided mutational analysis, we show that the double-stranded RNA-binding domains R(1) and R(2) of HEN1 make significant but uneven contributions to substrate RNA binding, and map residues in each domain responsible for this function. Using GST pull-down assays and yeast two-hybrid analysis we demonstrate direct HEN1 interactions, mediated by its FK506-binding protein-like domain and R(2) domain, with the microRNA biogenesis protein HYL1. Furthermore, we find that HEN1 forms a complex with DICER-LIKE 1 (DCL1) ribonuclease, another key protein involved in miRNA biogenesis machinery. In contrast, no direct interaction is detectable between HEN1 and SERRATE. On the basis of these findings, we propose a mechanism of plant miRNA maturation which involves binding of the HEN1 methyltransferase to the DCL1•HYL1•miRNA complex excluding the SERRATE protein. PMID:25680966

  8. Impaired Homocysteine Transmethylation and Protein-Methyltransferase Activity Reduce Expression of Selenoprotein P: Implications for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity causes Metabolic Syndrome and Type-II Diabetes, disrupting hepatic function, methionine (Met)/homocysteine (Hcy) transmethylation and methyltransferase (PRMT) activities. Selenoprotein P (SEPP1), exported from the liver, is the predominate form of plasma selenium (Se) and the physiological S...

  9. Interaction of the hepatitis B virus X protein with the lysine methyltransferase SET and MYND domain-containing 3 induces activator protein 1 activation.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Miwako; Deng, Lin; Chen, Ming; Gan, Xiang; Shinozaki, Kenta; Shoji, Ikuo; Hotta, Hak

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a widespread human pathogen that often causes chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The detailed mechanisms underlying HBV pathogenesis remain poorly understood. The HBV X protein (HBx) is a multifunctional regulator that modulates viral replication and host cell functions, such as cell cycle progression, apoptosis and protein degradation through interaction with a variety of host factors. Recently, the nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) of hepatitis C virus has been reported to interact with methyltransferase SET and MYND domain-containing 3 (SMYD3), which is implicated in chromatin modification and development of cancer. Because HBx shares fundamental regulatory functions concerning viral replication and pathogenesis with NS5A, it was decided to examine whether HBx interacts with SMYD3. In the present study, it was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation analysis that HBx interacts with both ectopically and endogenously expressed SMYD3 in Huh-7.5 cells. Deletion mutation analysis revealed that the C-terminal region of HBx (amino acids [aa] 131-154) and an internal region of SMYD3 (aa 269-288) are responsible for their interaction. Immunofluorescence and proximity ligation assays showed that HBx and SMYD3 co-localize predominantly in the cytoplasm. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the interaction between HBx and SMYD3 activates activator protein 1 (AP-1) signaling, but not that of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). On the other hand, neither overexpression nor knockdown of SMYD3 altered production of HBV transcripts and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). In conclusion, a novel HBx-interacting protein, SMYD3, was identified, leading to proposal of a novel mechanism of AP-1 activation in HBV-infected cells. PMID:26616333

  10. Milk protein responses in dairy cows to changes in postruminal supplies of arginine, isoleucine, and valine.

    PubMed

    Haque, M N; Rulquin, H; Lemosquet, S

    2013-01-01

    An ideal profile of essential AA (EAA) can improve the efficiency of metabolizable protein (or PDIE, the equivalent in the INRA feeding system) utilization in dairy cows. Compared with other EAA, existing recommendations for the requirements of Arg, Ile, and Val are few and inconsistent. Four multiparous Holstein dairy cows at 22±6 wk of lactation received 4 treatments (duodenal infusions of 445±22.4 g/d of an EAA mixture complementing a low-protein diet in a 4×4 Latin square design with a period length of 1 wk). The control treatment provided a balanced supply (in % of PDIE) of 5.1% Arg, 5.2% Ile, and 5.9% Val, whereas in the 3 subsequent treatments of -Arg, -Ile, and -Val, the concentrations of these 3 EAA were reduced to 3.5, 4.1, and 4.5%, respectively. All treatments were made isonitrogenous and were balanced to provide 7 other EAA (Lys, Met, His, Leu, Phe, Thr, and Trp), according to the recommendations described in the literature. Combined, the diet and the infusions provided 14.3±0.1% crude protein on a dry matter basis, and 66.0±1.2 g of PDIE/Mcal of net energy for lactation. Neither dry matter intake (19.2 kg/d) nor milk yield (30.4±0.4 kg/d) was affected by treatments. The -Arg and -Ile treatments did not modify milk protein synthesis or the efficiency of N utilization. However, the -Val treatment decreased milk protein content by 4.9% and milk crude protein content by 4.3%, and tended to decrease the efficiency of N use for milk protein yield by 3.7% (compared with the control). These effects of Val were related to a decrease in the plasma concentration of Val as well as a trend toward decreasing plasma concentrations of Met, His, and the sum of all EAA and nonessential AA in the -Val treatment, which indicates a different utilization of all AA in response to the Val deficit. The deletion of Ile, compared with the deletion of Val, tended to decrease the milk protein-to-fat ratio by 3.8%. In conclusion, the supply of Arg at 3.5% of PDIE was not

  11. Identification and Characterization of Proteins Involved in Rice Urea and Arginine Catabolism1[W

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Feng-Qiu; Werner, Andrea K.; Dahncke, Kathleen; Romeis, Tina; Liu, Lai-Hua; Witte, Claus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) production relies strongly on nitrogen (N) fertilization with urea, but the proteins involved in rice urea metabolism have not yet been characterized. Coding sequences for rice arginase, urease, and the urease accessory proteins D (UreD), F (UreF), and G (UreG) involved in urease activation were identified and cloned. The functionality of urease and the urease accessory proteins was demonstrated by complementing corresponding Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants and by multiple transient coexpression of the rice proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. Secondary structure models of rice (plant) UreD and UreF proteins revealed a possible functional conservation to bacterial orthologs, especially for UreF. Using amino-terminally StrepII-tagged urease accessory proteins, an interaction between rice UreD and urease could be shown. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic urease activation complexes seem conserved despite limited protein sequence conservation for UreF and UreD. In plant metabolism, urea is generated by the arginase reaction. Rice arginase was transiently expressed as a carboxyl-terminally StrepII-tagged fusion protein in N. benthamiana, purified, and biochemically characterized (Km = 67 mm, kcat = 490 s−1). The activity depended on the presence of manganese (Kd = 1.3 μm). In physiological experiments, urease and arginase activities were not influenced by the external N source, but sole urea nutrition imbalanced the plant amino acid profile, leading to the accumulation of asparagine and glutamine in the roots. Our data indicate that reduced plant performance with urea as N source is not a direct result of insufficient urea metabolism but may in part be caused by an imbalance of N distribution. PMID:20631318

  12. Proline 235 plays a key role in the regulation of the oligomeric states of Thermotoga maritima Arginine Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Smaldone, Giovanni; Vigorita, Marilisa; Ruggiero, Alessia; Balasco, Nicole; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D; D'Auria, Sabato; Del Vecchio, Pompea; Graziano, Giuseppe; Vitagliano, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    The Arginine Binding Protein isolated from Thermotoga maritima (TmArgBP) is a protein endowed with several peculiar properties. We have previously shown that TmArgBP dimerization is a consequence of the swapping of the C-terminal helix. Here we explored the structural determinants of TmArgBP domain swapping and oligomerization. In particular, we report a mutational analysis of the residue Pro235, which is located in the hinge region of the swapping dimer. This residue was either replaced with a Gly-Lys dipeptide (TmArgBP(P235GK)) or a Gly residue (TmArgBP(P235G)). Different forms of these mutants were generated and extensively characterized using biophysical techniques. For both TmArgBP(P235GK) and TmArgBP(P235G) mutants, the occurrence of multiple oligomerization states (monomers, dimers and trimers) was detected. The formation of well-folded monomeric forms for these mutants indicates that the dimerization through C-terminal domain swapping observed in wild-type TmArgBP is driven by conformational restraints imposed by the presence of Pro235 in the hinge region. Molecular dynamics studies corroborate this observation by showing that Gly235 assumes conformational states forbidden for Pro residues in the TmArgBP(P235G) monomer. Unexpectedly, the trimeric forms present: (a) peculiar circular dichroism spectra, (b) a great susceptibility to heating, and (c) the ability to bind the Thioflavin T dye. The present findings clearly demonstrate that single-point mutations have an important impact on the TmArgBP oligomerization process. In a wider context, they also indicate that proteins endowed with an intrinsic propensity to swap have an easy access to states with altered structural and, possibly, functional properties. PMID:27087545

  13. Arginine kinase: differentiation of gene expression and protein activity in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haichuan; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Lee; Lin, Qin; Liu, Nannan

    2009-02-01

    Arginine kinase (AK), a primary enzyme in cell metabolism and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-consuming processes, plays an important role in cellular energy metabolism and maintaining constant ATP levels in invertebrate cells. In order to identify genes that are differentially expressed between larvae and adults, queens and workers, and female alates (winged) and queens (wingless), AK cDNA was obtained from the red imported fire ant. The cDNA sequence of the gene has open reading frames of 1065 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 355 amino acid residues that includes the substrate recognition region, the signature sequence pattern of ATP:guanidino kinases, and an "actinin-type" actin binding domain. Northern blot analysis and protein activity analysis demonstrated that the expression of the AK gene and its protein activity were developmentally, caste specifically, and tissue specifically regulated in red imported fire ants with a descending order of worker> alate (winged adult) female> alate (winged adult) male> larvae> worker pupae approximately alate pupae. These results suggest a different demand for energy-consumption and production in the different castes of the red imported fire ant, which may be linked to their different missions and physiological activities in the colonies. The highest level of the AK gene expression and activity was identified in head tissue of both female alates and workers and thorax tissue of workers, followed by thorax tissue of female alates and abdomen tissue of male alates, suggesting the main tissues or cells in these body parts, such as brain, neurons and muscles, which have been identified as the major tissues and/or cells that display high and variable rates of energy turnover in other organisms, play a key role in energy production and its utilization in the fire ant. In contrast, in the male alate, the highest AK expression and activity were found in the abdomen, suggesting that here energy demand may relate to sperm formation

  14. Mass Spectrometric Identification of the Arginine and Lysine deficient Proline Rich Glutamine Rich Wheat Storage Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of enzymatic digest has made possible identification of a wide variety of proteins and complex samples prepared by such techniques as RP-HPLC or 2-D gel electrophoresis. Success requires peptide fragmentation to be indicative of the peptide amino acid sequence. The f...

  15. Diversity and Evolution of Bacterial Twin Arginine Translocase Protein, TatC, Reveals a Protein Secretion System That Is Evolving to Fit Its Environmental Niche

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Domenico; Bay, Denice C.; Leach, Thorin; Turner, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) protein export system enables the transport of fully folded proteins across a membrane. This system is composed of two integral membrane proteins belonging to TatA and TatC protein families and in some systems a third component, TatB, a homolog of TatA. TatC participates in substrate protein recognition through its interaction with a twin arginine leader peptide sequence. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of this study was to explore TatC diversity, evolution and sequence conservation in bacteria to identify how TatC is evolving and diversifying in various bacterial phyla. Surveying bacterial genomes revealed that 77% of all species possess one or more tatC loci and half of these classes possessed only tatC and tatA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of diverse TatC homologues showed that they were primarily inherited but identified a small subset of taxonomically unrelated bacteria that exhibited evidence supporting lateral gene transfer within an ecological niche. Examination of bacilli tatCd/tatCy isoform operons identified a number of known and potentially new Tat substrate genes based on their frequent association to tatC loci. Evolutionary analysis of these Bacilli isoforms determined that TatCy was the progenitor of TatCd. A bacterial TatC consensus sequence was determined and highlighted conserved and variable regions within a three dimensional model of the Escherichia coli TatC protein. Comparative analysis between the TatC consensus sequence and Bacilli TatCd/y isoform consensus sequences revealed unique sites that may contribute to isoform substrate specificity or make TatA specific contacts. Synonymous to non-synonymous nucleotide substitution analyses of bacterial tatC homologues determined that tatC sequence variation differs dramatically between various classes and suggests TatC specialization in these species. Conclusions/Significance TatC proteins appear to be diversifying within particular bacterial

  16. Identification of essential arginine residues of Escherichia coli DedA/Tvp38 family membrane proteins YqjA and YghB.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sujeet; Bradley, Cersten L; Mukashyaka, Patience; Doerrler, William T

    2016-07-01

    Escherichia coli DedA/Tvp38 family proteins YghB and YqjA are putative membrane transporters with 62% amino acid identity and overlapping functions. An E. coli strain (BC202) with nonpolar ΔyghB and ΔyqjA mutations displays cell-division defects and temperature sensitivity and is sensitive to antibiotics and alkaline pH. In this study, we performed site-directed mutagenesis on conserved, charged amino acids of YqjA and YghB. We discovered two conserved predicted membrane-embedded arginines (R130 and R136) that are critical for function in both proteins as defined by their ability to complement BC202 phenotypes, when expressed from a plasmid. Lysine can substitute for arginine at position R130 indicating a charge dependence at this position, but could not substitute at R136. In light of the established role that arginine plays in the translocation mechanism of numerous membrane transporters, we hypothesize that these amino acids play a role in the transport mechanism of these DedA/Tvp38 family proteins. PMID:27190159

  17. Arginine residues at internal positions in a protein are always charged

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Michael J.; Schlessman, Jamie L.; Sue, Gloria R.; García-Moreno E., Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Many functionally essential ionizable groups are buried in the hydrophobic interior of proteins. A systematic study of Lys, Asp, and Glu residues at 25 internal positions in staphylococcal nuclease showed that their pKa values can be highly anomalous, some shifted by as many as 5.7 pH units relative to normal pKa values in water. Here we show that, in contrast, Arg residues at the same internal positions exhibit no detectable shifts in pKa; they are all charged at pH ≤ 10. Twenty-three of these 25 variants with Arg are folded at both pH 7 and 10. The mean decrease in thermodynamic stability from substitution with Arg was 6.2 kcal/mol at this pH, comparable to that for substitution with Lys, Asp, or Glu at pH 7. The physical basis behind the remarkable ability of Arg residues to remain protonated in environments otherwise incompatible with charges is suggested by crystal structures of three variants showing how the guanidinium moiety of the Arg side chain is effectively neutralized through multiple hydrogen bonds to protein polar atoms and to site-bound water molecules. The length of the Arg side chain, and slight deformations of the protein, facilitate placement of the guanidinium moieties near polar groups or bulk water. This unique capacity of Arg side chains to retain their charge in dehydrated environments likely contributes toward the important functional roles of internal Arg residues in situations where a charge is needed in the interior of a protein, in a lipid bilayer, or in similarly hydrophobic environments. PMID:22080604

  18. Arginine residues at internal positions in a protein are always charged.

    PubMed

    Harms, Michael J; Schlessman, Jamie L; Sue, Gloria R; García-Moreno, Bertrand

    2011-11-22

    Many functionally essential ionizable groups are buried in the hydrophobic interior of proteins. A systematic study of Lys, Asp, and Glu residues at 25 internal positions in staphylococcal nuclease showed that their pK(a) values can be highly anomalous, some shifted by as many as 5.7 pH units relative to normal pK(a) values in water. Here we show that, in contrast, Arg residues at the same internal positions exhibit no detectable shifts in pK(a); they are all charged at pH ≤ 10. Twenty-three of these 25 variants with Arg are folded at both pH 7 and 10. The mean decrease in thermodynamic stability from substitution with Arg was 6.2 kcal/mol at this pH, comparable to that for substitution with Lys, Asp, or Glu at pH 7. The physical basis behind the remarkable ability of Arg residues to remain protonated in environments otherwise incompatible with charges is suggested by crystal structures of three variants showing how the guanidinium moiety of the Arg side chain is effectively neutralized through multiple hydrogen bonds to protein polar atoms and to site-bound water molecules. The length of the Arg side chain, and slight deformations of the protein, facilitate placement of the guanidinium moieties near polar groups or bulk water. This unique capacity of Arg side chains to retain their charge in dehydrated environments likely contributes toward the important functional roles of internal Arg residues in situations where a charge is needed in the interior of a protein, in a lipid bilayer, or in similarly hydrophobic environments. PMID:22080604

  19. Dual Targeting of the Protein Methyltransferase PrmA Contributes to Both Chloroplastic and Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L11 Methylation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mazzoleni, Meryl; Figuet, Sylvie; Martin-Laffon, Jacqueline; Mininno, Morgane; Gilgen, Annabelle; Leroux, Mélanie; Brugière, Sabine; Tardif, Marianne; Alban, Claude; Ravanel, Stéphane

    2015-09-01

    Methylation of ribosomal proteins has long been described in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but our knowledge about the enzymes responsible for these modifications in plants is scarce. The bacterial protein methyltransferase PrmA catalyzes the trimethylation of ribosomal protein L11 (RPL11) at three distinct sites. The role of these modifications is still unknown. Here, we show that PrmA from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPrmA) is dually targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria. Mass spectrometry and enzymatic assays indicated that the enzyme methylates RPL11 in plasto- and mitoribosomes in vivo. We determined that the Arabidopsis and Escherichia coli PrmA enzymes share similar product specificity, making trimethylated residues, but, despite an evolutionary relationship, display a difference in substrate site specificity. In contrast to the bacterial enzyme that trimethylates the ε-amino group of two lysine residues and the N-terminal α-amino group, AtPrmA methylates only one lysine in the MAFCK(D/E)(F/Y)NA motif of plastidial and mitochondrial RPL11. The plant enzyme possibly methylates the N-terminus of plastidial RPL11, whereas mitochondrial RPL11 is N-α-acetylated by an unknown acetyltransferase. Lastly, we found that an Arabidopsis prma-null mutant is viable in standard environmental conditions and no molecular defect could be associated with a lack of RPL11 methylation in leaf chloroplasts or mitochondria. However, the conservation of PrmA during the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes together with the location of methylated residues at the binding site of translation factors to ribosomes suggests that RPL11 methylation in plant organelles could be involved, in combination with other post-translational modifications, in optimizing ribosome function. PMID:26116422

  20. The Epstein-Barr virus oncogene product, latent membrane protein 1, induces the downregulation of E-cadherin gene expression via activation of DNA methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Neu; Tsai, Chia-Lung; Tse, Ka-Po; Chang, Hwan-You; Chang, Yu-Sun

    2002-07-23

    The latent membrane protein (LMP1) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is expressed in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which is notoriously metastatic. Although it is established that LMP1 represses E-cadherin expression and enhances the invasive ability of carcinoma cells, the mechanism underlying this repression remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that LMP1 induces the expression and activity of the DNA methyltransferases 1, 3a, and 3b, using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme activity assay. This results in hypermethylation of the E-cadherin promoter and down-regulation of E-cadherin gene expression, as revealed by methylation-specific PCR, real-time reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting data. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5'-Aza-2'dC, restores E-cadherin promoter activity and protein expression in LMP1-expressing cells, which in turn blocks cell migration ability, as demonstrated by the Transwell cell migration assay. Our findings suggest that LMP1 down-regulates E-cadherin gene expression and induces cell migration activity by using cellular DNA methylation machinery. PMID:12110730

  1. The phage growth limitation system in Streptomyces coelicolor A(3)2 is a toxin/antitoxin system, comprising enzymes with DNA methyltransferase, protein kinase and ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Hoskisson, Paul A.; Sumby, Paul; Smith, Margaret C.M.

    2015-01-01

    The phage growth limitation system of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is an unusual bacteriophage defence mechanism. Progeny ϕC31 phage from an initial infection are thought to be modified such that subsequent infections are attenuated in a Pgl+ host but normal in a Pgl− strain. Earlier work identified four genes required for phage resistance by Pgl. Here we demonstrate that Pgl is an elaborate and novel phage restriction system that, in part, comprises a toxin/antitoxin system where PglX, a DNA methyltransferase is toxic in the absence of a functional PglZ. In addition, the ATPase activity of PglY and a protein kinase activity in PglW are shown to be essential for phage resistance by Pgl. We conclude that on infection of a Pgl+ cell by bacteriophage ϕC31, PglW transduces a signal, probably via phosphorylation, to other Pgl proteins resulting in the activation of the DNA methyltransferase, PglX and this leads to phage restriction. PMID:25592393

  2. Posttranslational modification of the Ha-ras oncogene protein: evidence for a third class of protein carboxyl methyltransferases.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, S; Vogel, J P; Deschenes, R J; Stock, J

    1988-01-01

    The ras oncogene products require membrane localization for their function, and this is thought to be accomplished by the addition of a palmitoyl group to a cysteine residue near the carboxyl terminus of the nascent chain. A lipidated carboxyl-terminal cysteine residue is also found in sequence-related yeast sex factors, and in at least two cases, the alpha-carboxyl group is also methyl esterified. To determine if ras proteins are themselves modified by a similar type of methylation reaction, we incubated rat embryo fibroblasts transformed with p53 and activated Ha-ras oncogenes with L-[methyl-3H]methionine under conditions in which the isotope was converted to the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H]methionine. By using an assay that detects methyl ester linkages, we found that immunoprecipitated ras proteins are in fact esterified and that the stability of these esters is consistent with a carboxyl-terminal localization. This methylation reaction may be important in regulating the interaction of ras proteins with plasma membrane components. The presence of analogous carboxyl-terminal tetrapeptide sequences in other proteins may provide a general recognition sequence for lipidation and methylation modification reactions. Images PMID:3290900

  3. Theoretical study of the mechanism of protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) inhibition by F-amidine.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongmei; Liu, Cui; Lin, Jianping

    2015-02-01

    Protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) catalyzes the hydrolysis of a peptidylarginine residue to form a citrulline residue and ammonia during posttranslational modification. This process plays a pivotal role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and gene regulation. F-amidine belongs to a series of haloacetamidine compounds that are the most potent PAD4 inhibitors described to date. F-amidine acts as a mechanism-based inhibitor of PAD4, inactivating PAD4 by the covalent modification of the active site Cys645. In this manuscript, the fundamental mechanism of PAD4 inhibition by F-amidine is investigated using a QM/MM approach. Our simulations show that in the PAD4-F-amidine reactant complex, the active site Cys645 exists as a thiolate and His471 is protonated. This is consistent with the reverse protonation mechanism wherein the active site nucleophile, Cys645, in PAD4 exists as a thiolate in the active form of the enzyme. Inhibition of PAD4 by F-amidine is initiated by the nucleophilic addition of Sγ to the Cζ of F-amidine, leading to the formation of a tetrahedral intermediate. His471 serves as a proton donor, helping F to leave the fluoroacetamidine moiety of F-amidine; meanwhile, Sγ forms a three-membered ring with Cζ and Cη of F-amidine. Subsequently, the three-membered sulfonium ring collapses and rearranges to the final thioether product. His471 acts as a proton donor in the transition state and facilitates the inhibition reaction of PAD4. PMID:25424656

  4. Serine-arginine protein kinase 1 (SRPK1) inhibition as a potential novel targeted therapeutic strategy in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mavrou, A; Brakspear, K; Hamdollah-Zadeh, M; Damodaran, G; Babaei-Jadidi, R; Oxley, J; Gillatt, D A; Ladomery, M R; Harper, S J; Bates, D O; Oltean, S

    2015-08-13

    Angiogenesis is required for tumour growth and is induced principally by vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). VEGF-A pre-mRNA is alternatively spliced at the terminal exon to produce two families of isoforms, pro- and anti-angiogenic, only the former of which is upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa). In renal epithelial cells and colon cancer cells, the choice of VEGF splice isoforms is controlled by the splicing factor SRSF1, phosphorylated by serine-arginine protein kinase 1 (SRPK1). Immunohistochemistry staining of human samples revealed a significant increase in SRPK1 expression both in prostate intra-epithelial neoplasia lesions as well as malignant adenocarcinoma compared with benign prostate tissue. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the selective upregulation of pro-angiogenic VEGF in PCa may be under the control of SRPK1 activity. A switch in the expression of VEGF165 towards the anti-angiogenic splice isoform, VEGF165b, was seen in PC-3 cells with SRPK1 knockdown (KD). PC-3 SRPK1-KD cells resulted in tumours that grew more slowly in xenografts, with decreased microvessel density. No effect was seen as a result of SRPK1-KD on growth, proliferation, migration and invasion capabilities of PC-3 cells in vitro. Small-molecule inhibitors of SRPK1 switched splicing towards the anti-angiogenic isoform VEGF165b in PC-3 cells and decreased tumour growth when administered intraperitoneally in an orthotopic mouse model of PCa. Our study suggests that modulation of SRPK1 and subsequent inhibition of tumour angiogenesis by regulation of VEGF splicing can alter prostate tumour growth and supports further studies for the use of SRPK1 inhibition as a potential anti-angiogenic therapy in PCa. PMID:25381816

  5. Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) intestinal immune responses, antioxidant status and tight junction protein mRNA expression are modulated via Nrf2 and PKC in response to dietary arginine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Biao; Feng, Lin; Chen, Gang-Fu; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhao, Juan; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary arginine on the immune response, antioxidant status and tight junction mRNA expression in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). A total of 1200 juvenile Jian carp with an average initial weight of 6.33 ± 0.03 g were fed graded levels of arginine (9.8-24.5 g kg(-1) diet) for nine weeks. The study showed that arginine deficiency up-regulated interleukin 1, interleukin 8 and transforming growth factor-β and down-regulated tumour necrosis factor α gene expression (P < 0.05). Additionally, arginine deficiency increased malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and glutathione contents and decreased the activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, arginine deficiency significantly increased claudin 7, occludin, protein kinase C, NF-E2-related factor 2 and Kelch-like-ECH- associated protein 1 mRNA expression and decreased SOD1, CAT and GR mRNA expression (P < 0.05). All of these results indicated that arginine deficiency impaired intestinal immune function via the regulation of mRNA expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes, Nrf2/Keap1 and PKC in fish intestine. PMID:26518504

  6. Identification of protein-protein interactions between the TatB and TatC subunits of the twin-arginine translocase system and respiratory enzyme specific chaperones.

    PubMed

    Kuzniatsova, Lalita; Winstone, Tara M L; Turner, Raymond J

    2016-04-01

    The Twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway serves for translocation of fully folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane in bacterial and chloroplast thylakoid membranes. The Escherichia coli Tat system consists of three core components: TatA, TatB, and TatC. The TatB and TatC subunits form the receptor complex for Tat dependent proteins. The TatB protein is composed of a single transmembrane helix and cytoplasmic domain. The structure of TatC revealed six transmembrane helices. Redox Enzyme Maturation Proteins (REMPs) are system specific chaperones, which play roles in the maturation of Tat dependent respiratory enzymes. Here we applied the in vivo bacterial two-hybrid technique to investigate interaction of REMPs with the TatBC proteins, finding that all but the formate dehydrogenase REMP dock to TatB or TatC. We focused on the NarJ subfamily, where DmsD--the REMP for dimethyl sulfoxide reductase in E. coli--was previously shown to interact with TatB and TatC. We found that these REMPs interact with TatC cytoplasmic loops 1, 2 and 4, with the exception of NarJ, that only interacts with 1 and 4. An in vitro isothermal titration calorimetry study was applied to confirm the evidence of interactions between TatC fragments and DmsD chaperone. Using a peptide overlapping array, it was shown that the different NarJ subfamily REMPs interact with different regions of the TatB cytoplasmic domains. The results demonstrate a role of REMP chaperones in targeting respiratory enzymes to the Tat system. The data suggests that the different REMPs may have different mechanisms for this task. PMID:26826271

  7. A Cyclized Helix-Loop-Helix Peptide as a Molecular Scaffold for the Design of Inhibitors of Intracellular Protein-Protein Interactions by Epitope and Arginine Grafting.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Daisuke; Kitada, Hidekazu; Oguri, Masahiro; Nishihara, Toshio; Michigami, Masataka; Shiraishi, Kazunori; Yuba, Eiji; Nakase, Ikuhiko; Im, Haeri; Cho, Sunhee; Joung, Jong Young; Kodama, Seiji; Kono, Kenji; Ham, Sihyun; Fujii, Ikuo

    2016-08-26

    The design of inhibitors of intracellular protein-protein interactions (PPIs) remains a challenge in chemical biology and drug discovery. We propose a cyclized helix-loop-helix (cHLH) peptide as a scaffold for generating cell-permeable PPI inhibitors through bifunctional grafting: epitope grafting to provide binding activity, and arginine grafting to endow cell-permeability. To inhibit p53-HDM2 interactions, the p53 epitope was grafted onto the C-terminal helix and six Arg residues were grafted onto another helix. The designed peptide cHLHp53-R showed high inhibitory activity for this interaction, and computational analysis suggested a binding mode for HDM2. Confocal microscopy of cells treated with fluorescently labeled cHLHp53-R revealed cell membrane penetration and cytosolic localization. The peptide inhibited the growth of HCT116 and LnCap cancer cells. This strategy of bifunctional grafting onto a well-structured peptide scaffold could facilitate the generation of inhibitors for intracellular PPIs. PMID:27467415

  8. Arginine-mediated stimulation of intestinal epithelial cell protein synthesis is mTOR-dependent but NO-independent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arginine (ARG) is an indispensable amino acid in neonates and required for growth. Evidence indicates that intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are capable of ARG transport, catabolism and synthesis, and express nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to produce NO from ARG. Our aim was to determine whether ARG di...

  9. Structures of the N47A and E109Q mutant proteins of pyruvoyl-dependent arginine decarboxylase from Methanococcus jannaschii

    SciTech Connect

    Soriano, Erika V.; McCloskey, Diane E.; Kinsland, Cynthia; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2008-04-01

    The crystal structures of two arginine decarboxylase mutant proteins provide insights into the mechanisms of pyruvoyl-group formation and the decarboxylation reaction. Pyruvoyl-dependent arginine decarboxylase (PvlArgDC) catalyzes the first step of the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway in plants and some archaebacteria. The pyruvoyl group of PvlArgDC is generated by an internal autoserinolysis reaction at an absolutely conserved serine residue in the proenzyme, resulting in two polypeptide chains. Based on the native structure of PvlArgDC from Methanococcus jannaschii, the conserved residues Asn47 and Glu109 were proposed to be involved in the decarboxylation and autoprocessing reactions. N47A and E109Q mutant proteins were prepared and the three-dimensional structure of each protein was determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The N47A and E109Q mutant proteins showed reduced decarboxylation activity compared with the wild-type PvlArgDC. These residues may also be important for the autoprocessing reaction, which utilizes a mechanism similar to that of the decarboxylation reaction.

  10. Frameshift events associated with the lysyl-tRNA and the rare arginine codon, AGA, in Escherichia coli: a case study involving the human Relaxin 2 protein.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, John J; McNulty, Dean E; Burns, Matthew; Allen, Kimberly E; Tang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Quinn; Trulli, Janice M; Johanson, Kyung O; Kane, James F

    2008-08-01

    Human Relaxin 2 is an insulin-related peptide hormone with a mass of 19,084 Da. The mRNA contains a number of arginine codons that are rarely used by Escherichia coli to produce highly expressed proteins. As a result, expressing this recombinant protein in E. coli is problematic. When human Relaxin 2 was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3), several forms of the protein were made. One species had the expected molecular weight (19,084 Da). A second species observed had a molecular weight of 21,244 Da. A third minor species had a molecular weight of 17,118 Da. These aberrant molecular weights can be explained as follows. First, a sequence CGA-AAA-AAG-AGA, containing the rare arginine codons CGA and AGA was the site of the +1 frameshift that generated the 21,244 Da species. Since there was a limited supply of this arginyl-tRNA, the peptidyl-tRNA moved +1 nucleotide to occupy the codon and resumed protein synthesis. Second, a -1 frameshift associated with 'slippery A' sequence XXA-AAA-AAG accounted for 10% of the product with a mass of 17,118 Da. Presumably, the shift to -1 also occurred because there was a paucity of the arginyl-tRNAArgucu. Introduction of a plasmid coding for the cognate tRNA for AGA and site directed mutagenesis prevented the formation of both frameshift species. PMID:18474430

  11. Mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide M-chlorophenylhydrazone induces the multimer assembly and activity of repair enzyme protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Fanélus, Irvens; Desrosiers, Richard R

    2013-07-01

    The protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) repairs damaged aspartyl residues in proteins. It is commonly described as a cytosolic protein highly expressed in brain tissues. Here, we report that PIMT is an active monomeric as well as a multimeric protein in mitochondria isolated from neuroblastoma cells. Upon treatments with mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), PIMT monomers level decreased by half while that of PIMT multimers was higher. Gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions of CCCP-induced PIMT multimers led to PIMT monomers accumulation, indicating that multimers resulted from disulfide-linked PIMT monomers. The antioxidant ascorbic acid significantly lowered CCCP-induced formation of PIMT multimers, suggesting that reactive oxygen species contributed to PIMT multimerization. In addition, the elevation of PIMT multimers catalytic activity upon treatments with CCCP was severely inhibited by the reducing agent dithiothreitol. This indicated that PIMT monomers have lower enzymatic activity following CCCP treatments and that activation of PIMT multimers is essentially dependent on the formation of disulfide-linked monomers of PIMT. Furthermore, the perturbation of mitochondrial function by CCCP promoted the accumulation of damaged aspartyl residues in proteins with high molecular weights. Thus, this study demonstrates the formation of active PIMT multimers associated with mitochondria that could play a key role in repairing damaged proteins accumulating during mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23319267

  12. An Arabidopsis ATP-Dependent, DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Loses Activity upon IsoAsp Formation but Is Restored by PROTEIN ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nihar R.; Putnam, Andrea A.; Addepalli, Balasubrahmanyam; Lowenson, Jonathan D.; Chen, Tingsu; Jankowsky, Eckhard; Perry, Sharyn E.; Dinkins, Randy D.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Clarke, Steven G.; Downie, A. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Orthodox seeds are capable of withstanding severe dehydration. However, in the dehydrated state, Asn and Asp residues in proteins can convert to succinimide residues that can further react to predominantly form isomerized isoAsp residues upon rehydration (imbibition). IsoAsp residues can impair protein function and can render seeds nonviable, but PROTEIN ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) can initiate isoAsp conversion to Asp residues. The proteins necessary for translation upon imbibition in orthodox seeds may be particularly important to maintain in an active state. One such protein is the large, multidomain protein, Arabidopsis thaliana PLANT RNA HELICASE75 (PRH75), a DEAD-box helicase known to be susceptible to isoAsp residue accumulation. However, the consequences of such isomerization on PRH75 catalysis and for the plant are unknown. Here, it is demonstrated that PRH75 is necessary for successful seed development. It acquires isoAsp rapidly during heat stress, which eliminates RNA unwinding (but not rewinding) competence. The repair by PIMT is able to restore PRH75’s complex biochemical activity provided isoAsp formation has not led to subsequent, destabilizing conformational alterations. For PRH75, an important enzymatic activity associated with translation would be eliminated unless rapidly repaired by PIMT prior to additional, deleterious conformational changes that would compromise seed vitality and germination. PMID:23903319

  13. Basis of arginine sensitivity of microbial N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinases: mutagenesis and protein engineering study with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Murga, M Leonor; Rubio, Vicente

    2008-04-01

    N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK) catalyzes the second step of arginine biosynthesis. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not in Escherichia coli, this step is rate limiting and feedback and sigmoidally inhibited by arginine. Crystal structures revealed that arginine-insensitive E. coli NAGK (EcNAGK) is homodimeric, whereas arginine-inhibitable NAGKs, including P. aeruginosa NAGK (PaNAGK), are hexamers in which an extra N-terminal kinked helix (N-helix) interlinks three dimers. By introducing single amino acid replacements in PaNAGK, we prove the functionality of the structurally identified arginine site, as arginine site mutations selectively decreased the apparent affinity for arginine. N-helix mutations affecting R24 and E17 increased and decreased, respectively, the apparent affinity of PaNAGK for arginine, as predicted from enzyme structures that revealed the respective formation by these residues of bonds favoring inaccessible and accessible arginine site conformations. N-helix N-terminal deletions spanning > or = 16 residues dissociated PaNAGK to active dimers, those of < or = 20 residues decreased the apparent affinity for arginine, and complete N-helix deletion (26 residues) abolished arginine inhibition. Upon attachment of the PaNAGK N-terminal extension to the EcNAGK N terminus, EcNAGK remained dimeric and arginine insensitive. We concluded that the N-helix and its C-terminal portion after the kink are essential but not sufficient for hexamer formation and arginine inhibition, respectively; that the N-helix modulates NAGK affinity for arginine and mediates signal transmission between arginine sites, thus establishing sigmoidal arginine inhibition kinetics; that the mobile alphaH-beta16 loop of the arginine site is the modulatory signal receiver; and that the hexameric architecture is not essential for arginine inhibition but is functionally essential for physiologically relevant arginine control of NAGK. PMID:18263723

  14. Basis of Arginine Sensitivity of Microbial N-Acetyl-l-Glutamate Kinases: Mutagenesis and Protein Engineering Study with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli Enzymes▿

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Murga, M. Leonor; Rubio, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    N-Acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK) catalyzes the second step of arginine biosynthesis. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not in Escherichia coli, this step is rate limiting and feedback and sigmoidally inhibited by arginine. Crystal structures revealed that arginine-insensitive E. coli NAGK (EcNAGK) is homodimeric, whereas arginine-inhibitable NAGKs, including P. aeruginosa NAGK (PaNAGK), are hexamers in which an extra N-terminal kinked helix (N-helix) interlinks three dimers. By introducing single amino acid replacements in PaNAGK, we prove the functionality of the structurally identified arginine site, as arginine site mutations selectively decreased the apparent affinity for arginine. N-helix mutations affecting R24 and E17 increased and decreased, respectively, the apparent affinity of PaNAGK for arginine, as predicted from enzyme structures that revealed the respective formation by these residues of bonds favoring inaccessible and accessible arginine site conformations. N-helix N-terminal deletions spanning ≥16 residues dissociated PaNAGK to active dimers, those of ≤20 residues decreased the apparent affinity for arginine, and complete N-helix deletion (26 residues) abolished arginine inhibition. Upon attachment of the PaNAGK N-terminal extension to the EcNAGK N terminus, EcNAGK remained dimeric and arginine insensitive. We concluded that the N-helix and its C-terminal portion after the kink are essential but not sufficient for hexamer formation and arginine inhibition, respectively; that the N-helix modulates NAGK affinity for arginine and mediates signal transmission between arginine sites, thus establishing sigmoidal arginine inhibition kinetics; that the mobile αH-β16 loop of the arginine site is the modulatory signal receiver; and that the hexameric architecture is not essential for arginine inhibition but is functionally essential for physiologically relevant arginine control of NAGK. PMID:18263723

  15. Amino-acid selective experiments on uniformly 13C and 15N labeled proteins by MAS NMR: Filtering of lysines and arginines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehle, Stefan; Rehbein, Kristina; Diehl, Anne; van Rossum, Barth-Jan

    2006-12-01

    Amino-acid selective magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments can aid the assignment of ambiguous cross-peaks in crowded spectra of solid proteins. In particular for larger proteins, data analysis can be hindered by severe resonance overlap. In such cases, filtering techniques may provide a good alternative to site-specific spin-labeling to obtain unambiguous assignments that can serve as starting points in the assignment procedure. In this paper we present a simple pulse sequence that allows selective excitation of arginine and lysine residues. To achieve this, we make use of a combination of specific cross-polarization for selective excitation [M. Baldus, A.T. Petkova, J. Herzfeld, R.G. Griffin, Cross polarization in the tilted frame: assignment and spectral simplification in heteronuclear spin systems, Mol. Phys. 95 (1998) 1197-1207.] and spin diffusion for transfer along the amino-acid side-chain. The selectivity of the filter is demonstrated with the excitation of lysine and arginine side-chain resonances in a uniformly 13C and 15N labeled protein preparation of the α-spectrin SH3 domain. It is shown that the filter can be applied as a building block in a 13C- 13C lysine-only correlation experiment.

  16. PRMT6 increases cytoplasmic localization of p21CDKN1A in cancer cells through arginine methylation and makes more resistant to cytotoxic agents

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2015-01-01

    p21CDKN1A is known as a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), which regulates cell cycle in response to various stimuli, including DNA damage, on the p53-dependent manner. Here we demonstrate that protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) methylates p21 at arginine 156 and promotes phosphorylation of threonine 145 on p21, resulting in the increase of cytoplasmic localization of p21. The cytoplasmic presence of p21 makes cancer cells more resistant to cytotoxic agents. Our results indicate that PRMT6 appears to be one of the key proteins to dysregulate p21 functions in human cancer, and targeting this pathway may be an appropriate strategy for development of anticancer drugs. PMID:26436589

  17. Biosynthesis of Protein Amino Acids in Plant Tissue Culture. III. Studies on the Biosynthesis of Arginine 123

    PubMed Central

    Dougall, Donald K.; Fulton, Michael M.

    1967-01-01

    Evidence from isotope competition studies and enzymic studies indicates that n-acetyl glutamic semialdehyde, α-n-acetyl-l-ornithine, l-ornithine and l-citrulline are intermediates between glucose and arginine in cells of Paul's Scarlet Rose. Evidence for the presence of α-n-acetyl-ornithine aminotransferase (E. C. 2.6.1.11) in cell-free extracts was obtained. PMID:6045297

  18. Arginine metabolism in developing soybean cotyledons

    SciTech Connect

    Micallef, B.J.; Shelp, B.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Tracerkinetic experiments were performed using L-(guanidino-{sup 14}C)arginine, L-(U-{sup 14}C)arginine, L-(ureido-{sup 14}C)citrulline, and L-(1-{sup 14}C)ornithine to investigate arginine utilization in developing cotyledons of Gycine max (L.) Merrill. Excised cotyledons were injected with carrier-free {sup 14}C compounds and incubated in sealed vials containing a CO{sub 2} trap. The free and protein amino acids were analyzed using higher performance liquid chromatography and arginine-specific enzyme-linked assays. After 4 hours, 75% and 90% of the {sup 14}C metabolized from (guanidino-{sup 14}C)arginine and (U-{sup 14}C)arginine, respectively, was in protein arginine. The net protein arginine accumulation rate, calculated from the depletion of nitrogenous solutes in the cotyledon during incubation, was 17 nanomoles per cotyledon per hour. The data indicated that arginine was also catabolized by the arginase-urease reactions at a rate of 5.5 nanomoles per cotyledon per hour. Between 2 and 4 hours {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was also evolved from carbons other than C-6 of arginine at a rate of 11.0 nanomoles per cotyledon per hour. It is suggested that this extra {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was evolved during the catabolism of ornithine-derived glutamate; {sup 14}C-ornithine was a product of the arginase reaction. A model for the estimated fluxes associated with arginine utilization in developing soybean cotyledons is presented.

  19. The transducible TAT-RIZ1-PR protein exerts histone methyltransferase activity and tumor-suppressive functions in human malignant meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mao-Hua; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Lei; Fu, Hua-Lin; Gao, Jie; Lin, Xian-Bin; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Liu, Zhen-Yang; Shi, Yi-Fei; Qiu, Guan-Zhong; Ma, Yue; Cui, Da-Xiang; Hu, Guo-Han; Jin, Wei-Lin

    2015-07-01

    Malignant meningiomas are a rare meningioma subtype and tend to have post-surgical recurrence. Significant endeavors have been taken to identify functional therapeutic targets to halt the growth of this aggressive cancer. We have recently discovered that RIZ1 is downregulated in high-grade meningiomas, and RIZ1 overexpression inhibits proliferation while promoting cell apoptosis of the IOMM-Lee malignant meningioma cell line. In this report, we show that the N-terminal PR domain of RIZ1 alone possessed growth-inhibitory activity and anticancer activity in primary human meningioma cells. Interestingly, the effects seem to be dependent on differential RIZ1 protein levels. Transducible TAT-RIZ1-PR protein could also inhibit meningioma tumor growth in nude mice models. We further demonstrate that PR protein exerts histone methyltransferase activity. A microarray analysis of TAT-RIZ1-PR-treated human malignant meningioma cells reveals 969 differentially expressed genes and 848 alternative splicing exons. Moreover, c-Myc and TXNIP, two putative downstream targets of H3K9 methylation, may be involved in regulating RIZ1 tumor-suppressive effects. The reciprocal relationship between RIZ1 and c-Myc was then validated in primary meningioma cells and human tumor samples. These findings provide insights into RIZ1 tumor suppression mechanisms and suggest that TAT-RIZ1-PR protein is a potential new epigenetic therapeutic agent for advanced meningiomas. PMID:25934289

  20. A loose domain swapping organization confers a remarkable stability to the dimeric structure of the arginine binding protein from Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Alessia; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D; Staiano, Maria; Berisio, Rita; D'Auria, Sabato; Vitagliano, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The arginine binding protein from Thermatoga maritima (TmArgBP), a substrate binding protein (SBP) involved in the ABC system of solute transport, presents a number of remarkable properties. These include an extraordinary stability to temperature and chemical denaturants and the tendency to form multimeric structures, an uncommon feature among SBPs involved in solute transport. Here we report a biophysical and structural characterization of the TmArgBP dimer. Our data indicate that the dimer of the protein is endowed with a remarkable stability since its full dissociation requires high temperature as well as SDS and urea at high concentrations. In order to elucidate the atomic level structural properties of this intriguing protein, we determined the crystallographic structures of the apo and the arginine-bound forms of TmArgBP using MAD and SAD methods, respectively. The comparison of the liganded and unliganded models demonstrates that TmArgBP tertiary structure undergoes a very large structural re-organization upon arginine binding. This transition follows the Venus Fly-trap mechanism, although the entity of the re-organization observed in TmArgBP is larger than that observed in homologous proteins. Intriguingly, TmArgBP dimerizes through the swapping of the C-terminal helix. This dimer is stabilized exclusively by the interactions established by the swapping helix. Therefore, the TmArgBP dimer combines a high level of stability and conformational freedom. The structure of the TmArgBP dimer represents an uncommon example of large tertiary structure variations amplified at quaternary structure level by domain swapping. Although the biological relevance of the dimer needs further assessments, molecular modelling suggests that the two TmArgBP subunits may simultaneously interact with two distinct ABC transporters. Moreover, the present protein structures provide some clues about the determinants of the extraordinary stability of the biomolecule. The availability of

  1. Physiological implications of arginine metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Winter, Gudrun; Todd, Christopher D; Trovato, Maurizio; Forlani, Giuseppe; Funck, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen is a limiting resource for plant growth in most terrestrial habitats since large amounts of nitrogen are needed to synthesize nucleic acids and proteins. Among the 21 proteinogenic amino acids, arginine has the highest nitrogen to carbon ratio, which makes it especially suitable as a storage form of organic nitrogen. Synthesis in chloroplasts via ornithine is apparently the only operational pathway to provide arginine in plants, and the rate of arginine synthesis is tightly regulated by various feedback mechanisms in accordance with the overall nutritional status. While several steps of arginine biosynthesis still remain poorly characterized in plants, much wider attention has been paid to inter- and intracellular arginine transport as well as arginine-derived metabolites. A role of arginine as alternative source besides glutamate for proline biosynthesis is still discussed controversially and may be prevented by differential subcellular localization of enzymes. Apparently, arginine is a precursor for nitric oxide (NO), although the molecular mechanism of NO production from arginine remains unclear in higher plants. In contrast, conversion of arginine to polyamines is well documented, and in several plant species also ornithine can serve as a precursor for polyamines. Both NO and polyamines play crucial roles in regulating developmental processes as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stress. It is thus conceivable that arginine catabolism serves on the one hand to mobilize nitrogen storages, while on the other hand it may be used to fine-tune development and defense mechanisms against stress. This review summarizes the recent advances in our knowledge about arginine metabolism, with a special focus on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and pinpoints still unresolved critical questions. PMID:26284079

  2. Physiological implications of arginine metabolism in plants

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Gudrun; Todd, Christopher D.; Trovato, Maurizio; Forlani, Giuseppe; Funck, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen is a limiting resource for plant growth in most terrestrial habitats since large amounts of nitrogen are needed to synthesize nucleic acids and proteins. Among the 21 proteinogenic amino acids, arginine has the highest nitrogen to carbon ratio, which makes it especially suitable as a storage form of organic nitrogen. Synthesis in chloroplasts via ornithine is apparently the only operational pathway to provide arginine in plants, and the rate of arginine synthesis is tightly regulated by various feedback mechanisms in accordance with the overall nutritional status. While several steps of arginine biosynthesis still remain poorly characterized in plants, much wider attention has been paid to inter- and intracellular arginine transport as well as arginine-derived metabolites. A role of arginine as alternative source besides glutamate for proline biosynthesis is still discussed controversially and may be prevented by differential subcellular localization of enzymes. Apparently, arginine is a precursor for nitric oxide (NO), although the molecular mechanism of NO production from arginine remains unclear in higher plants. In contrast, conversion of arginine to polyamines is well documented, and in several plant species also ornithine can serve as a precursor for polyamines. Both NO and polyamines play crucial roles in regulating developmental processes as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stress. It is thus conceivable that arginine catabolism serves on the one hand to mobilize nitrogen storages, while on the other hand it may be used to fine-tune development and defense mechanisms against stress. This review summarizes the recent advances in our knowledge about arginine metabolism, with a special focus on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and pinpoints still unresolved critical questions. PMID:26284079

  3. Cigarette smoke induces proteasomal-mediated degradation of DNA methyltransferases and methyl CpG-/CpG domain-binding proteins in embryonic orofacial cells.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Greene, Robert M; Pisano, M Michele

    2015-12-01

    Orofacial clefts, the most prevalent of developmental anomalies, occur with a frequency of 1 in 700 live births. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy represents a risk factor for having a child with a cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Using primary cultures of first branchial arch-derived cells (1-BA cells), which contribute to the formation of the lip and palate, the present study addressed the hypothesis that components of cigarette smoke alter global DNA methylation, and/or expression of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) and various methyl CpG-binding proteins. Primary cultures of 1-BA cells, exposed to 80μg/mL cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 24h, exhibited a >13% decline in global DNA methylation and triggered proteasomal-mediated degradation of Dnmts (DNMT-1 and -3a), methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and methyl-CpG binding domain protein 3 (MBD-3). Pretreatment of 1-BA cells with the proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 completely reversed such degradation. Collectively, these data allow the suggestion of a potential epigenetic mechanism underlying maternal cigarette smoke exposure-induced orofacial clefting. PMID:26482727

  4. Differences in folate-protein interactions result in differing inhibition of native rat liver and recombinant glycine N-methyltransferase by 5-methyltetrahydrofolate

    SciTech Connect

    Luka, Zigmund; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Loukachevitch, Lioudmila V; Newcomer, Marcia E; Wagner, Conrad

    2012-06-27

    Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is a key regulatory enzyme in methyl group metabolism. In mammalian liver it reduces S-adenosylmethionine levels by using it to methylate glycine, producing N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and S-adenosylhomocysteine. GNMT is inhibited by binding two molecules of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (mono- or polyglutamate forms) per tetramer of the active enzyme. Inhibition is sensitive to the status of the N-terminal valine of GNMT and to polyglutamation of the folate inhibitor. It is inhibited by pentaglutamate form more efficiently compared to monoglutamate form. The native rat liver GNMT contains an acetylated N-terminal valine and is inhibited much more efficiently compared to the recombinant protein expressed in E. coli where the N-terminus is not acetylated. In this work we used a protein crystallography approach to evaluate the structural basis for these differences. We show that in the folate-GNMT complexes with the native enzyme, two folate molecules establish three and four hydrogen bonds with the protein. In the folate-recombinant GNMT complex only one hydrogen bond is established. This difference results in more effective inhibition by folate of the native liver GNMT activity compared to the recombinant enzyme.

  5. L-arginine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)L-arginine seems to slow blood clotting. Taking L-arginine along with medications that also ...

  6. The glove-like structure of the conserved membrane protein TatC provides insight into signal sequence recognition in twin-arginine translocation.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Sureshkumar; Abrol, Ravinder; Suloway, Christian J M; Clemons, William M

    2013-05-01

    In bacteria, two signal-sequence-dependent secretion pathways translocate proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Although the mechanism of the ubiquitous general secretory pathway is becoming well understood, that of the twin-arginine translocation pathway, responsible for translocation of folded proteins across the bilayer, is more mysterious. TatC, the largest and most conserved of three integral membrane components, provides the initial binding site of the signal sequence prior to pore assembly. Here, we present two crystal structures of TatC from the thermophilic bacteria Aquifex aeolicus at 4.0 Å and 6.8 Å resolution. The membrane architecture of TatC includes a glove-shaped structure with a lipid-exposed pocket predicted by molecular dynamics to distort the membrane. Correlating the biochemical literature to these results suggests that the signal sequence binds in this pocket, leading to structural changes that facilitate higher order assemblies. PMID:23583035

  7. Arginine/serine-rich domains of the su(wa) and tra RNA processing regulators target proteins to a subnuclear compartment implicated in splicing.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Bingham, P M

    1991-10-18

    Two unrelated pre-mRNA splicing regulators-suppressor-of-white-apricot (su(wa)) and transformer (tra)-contain distinctive, approximately 120 amino acid arginine/serine (RS)-rich domains. Deletion of the su(wa) RS domain eliminates function. Replacement with the tra RS domain restores su(wa) function to nearly wild-type levels. Replacement with a 10 amino acid simple nuclear entry signal allows partial, inefficient function. Thus, the su(wa) RS domain apparently serves a generic function(s) subsuming nuclear entry. Moreover, immunocytochemical studies demonstrate that both RS domains specifically direct localization of a fused reporter protein to a punctate subnuclear compartment shown previously to be enriched in several constitutive splicing components. We propose that RS domains are a new class of targeting signals directing concentration of proteins in a subnuclear compartment implicated in splicing metabolism. PMID:1655279

  8. The glove-like structure of the conserved membrane protein TatC provides insight into signal sequence recognition in twin-arginine translocation

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Sureshkumar; Abrol, Ravinder; Suloway, Christian J.M.; Clemons, William M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In bacteria, two signal sequence dependent secretion pathways translocate proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. While the mechanism of the ubiquitous general secretory pathway (SEC) is becoming well understood, that of the twin-arginine translocation pathway (TAT), responsible for translocation of folded proteins across the bilayer, is more mysterious. TatC, the largest and most conserved of three integral membrane components, provides the initial binding site of the signal sequence prior to pore assembly. Here, we present two crystal structures of TatC from the thermophilic bacteria Aquifex aeolicus at 4.0Å and 6.8Å resolution. The novel membrane architecture of TatC includes a glove-shaped structure with a lipid-exposed pocket predicted by molecular dynamics to distort the membrane. Correlating the biochemical literature to these results suggests that the signal sequence binds in this pocket leading to structural changes that facilitate higher order assemblies. PMID:23583035

  9. Arginine methylation and citrullination of splicing factor proline- and glutamine-rich (SFPQ/PSF) regulates its association with mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Ambrosius P.; Hautbergue, Guillaume M.; Bloom, Alex; Williamson, James C.; Minshull, Thomas C.; Phillips, Helen L.; Mihaylov, Simeon R.; Gjerde, Douglas T.; Hornby, David P.; Wilson, Stuart A.; Hurd, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Splicing factor proline- and glutamine-rich (SFPQ) also commonly known as polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated-splicing factor (PSF) and its binding partner non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO/p54nrb), are highly abundant, multifunctional nuclear proteins. However, the exact role of this complex is yet to be determined. Following purification of the endogeneous SFPQ/NONO complex, mass spectrometry analysis identified a wide range of interacting proteins, including those involved in RNA processing, RNA splicing, and transcriptional regulation, consistent with a multifunctional role for SFPQ/NONO. In addition, we have identified several sites of arginine methylation in SFPQ/PSF using mass spectrometry and found that several arginines in the N-terminal domain of SFPQ/PSF are asymmetrically dimethylated. Furthermore, we find that the protein arginine N-methyltransferase, PRMT1, catalyzes this methylation in vitro and that this is antagonized by citrullination of SFPQ. Arginine methylation and citrullination of SFPQ/PSF does not affect complex formation with NONO. However, arginine methylation was shown to increase the association with mRNA in mRNP complexes in mammalian cells. Finally we show that the biochemical properties of the endogenous complex from cell lysates are significantly influenced by the ionic strength during purification. At low ionic strength, the SFPQ/NONO complex forms large heterogeneous protein assemblies or aggregates, preventing the purification of the SFPQ/NONO complex. The ability of the SFPQ/NONO complex to form varying protein assemblies, in conjunction with the effect of post-translational modifications of SFPQ modulating mRNA binding, suggests key roles affecting mRNP dynamics within the cell. PMID:25605962

  10. Biosynthesis of homoarginine (hArg) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) from acutely and chronically administered free L-arginine in humans.

    PubMed

    Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Langen, Jennifer; Weigt-Usinger, Katharina; Chobanyan-Jürgens, Kristine; Mariotti, François; Schneider, Jessica Y; Rothmann, Sabine; Frölich, Jürgen C; Atzler, Dorothee; Choe, Chi-Un; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Huneau, Jean François; Lücke, Thomas; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2015-09-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, whereas L-arginine (Arg) and L-homoarginine (hArg) serve as substrates for NO synthesis. ADMA and other methylated arginines are generally believed to exclusively derive from guanidine (N (G))-methylated arginine residues in proteins by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) that use S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as the methyl donor. L-Lysine is known for decades as a precursor for hArg, but only recent studies indicate that arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) is responsible for the synthesis of hArg. AGAT catalyzes the formation of guanidinoacetate (GAA) that is methylated to creatine by guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) which also uses SAM. The aim of the present study was to learn more about the mechanisms of ADMA and hArg formation in humans. Especially, we hypothesized that ADMA is produced by N (G)-methylation of free Arg in addition to the known PRMTs-involving mechanism. In knockout mouse models of AGAT- and GAMT-deficiency, we investigated the contribution of these enzymes to hArg synthesis. Arg infusion (0.5 g/kg, 30 min) in children (n = 11) and ingestion of high-fat protein meals by overweight men (n = 10) were used to study acute effects on ADMA and hArg synthesis. Daily Arg ingestion (10 g) or placebo for 3 or 6 months by patients suffering from peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD, n = 20) or coronary artery disease (CAD, n = 30) was used to study chronic effects of Arg on ADMA synthesis. Mass spectrometric methods were used to measure all biochemical parameters in plasma and urine samples. In mice, AGAT but not GAMT was found to contribute to plasma hArg, while ADMA synthesis was independent of AGAT and GAMT. Arg infusion acutely increased plasma Arg, hArg and ADMA concentrations, but decreased the plasma hArg/ADMA ratio. High-fat protein meals acutely increased plasma Arg, hArg, ADMA concentrations, as well as the plasma h

  11. Use of External, Biosynthetic, and Organellar Arginine by Neurospora

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, K. N.; Weiss, Richard L.; Davis, Rowland H.

    1973-01-01

    The fate of very low amounts of 14C-arginine derived from the medium or from biosynthesis was studied in Neurospora cells grown in minimal medium. In both cases, the label enters the cytoplasm, where it is very briefly used with high efficiency for protein synthesis without mixing with the bulk of the large, endogenous pool of 12C-arginine. The soluble 14C-arginine which is not used for protein synthesis is sequestered in a vesicle with the bulk of the endogenous arginine pool. After this time, it is selectively excluded from use in protein synthesis except by exchange with cytoplasmic arginine. The data suggest that in vivo, the non-organellar cytoplasm contains less than 5% of the soluble, cellular arginine. The cellular organization of Neurospora described here also prevents the catabolism of arginine. Our results are discussed in relation to previous work on amino acid pools of other eukaryotic systems. PMID:4717516

  12. Roles of a conserved arginine residue of DsbB in linking protein disulfide-bond-formation pathway to the respiratory chain of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kadokura, Hiroshi; Bader, Martin; Tian, Hongping; Bardwell, James C. A.; Beckwith, Jon

    2000-01-01

    The active-site cysteines of DsbA, the periplasmic disulfide-bond-forming enzyme of Escherichia coli, are kept oxidized by the cytoplasmic membrane protein DsbB. DsbB, in turn, is oxidized by two kinds of quinones (ubiquinone for aerobic and menaquinone for anaerobic growth) in the electron-transport chain. We describe the isolation of dsbB missense mutations that change a highly conserved arginine residue at position 48 to histidine or cysteine. In these mutants, DsbB functions reasonably well aerobically but poorly anaerobically. Consistent with this conditional phenotype, purified R48H exhibits very low activity with menaquinone and an apparent Michaelis constant (Km) for ubiquinone seven times greater than that of the wild-type DsbB, while keeping an apparent Km for DsbA similar to that of wild-type enzyme. From these results, we propose that this highly conserved arginine residue of DsbB plays an important role in the catalysis of disulfide bond formation through its role in the interaction of DsbB with quinones. PMID:11005861

  13. Subcellular and subnuclear distribution of high-light responsive serine/arginine-rich proteins, atSR45a and atSR30, in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tatsuya; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Nosaka, Ryota; Sakuyama, Harumi; Koike, Yoshiyuki; Tanabe, Noriaki; Maruta, Takanori; Tamoi, Masahiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Here, we demonstrated the involvement of the domains in Arabidopsis high-light responsive serine/arginine-rich (SR) and SR-like proteins, atSR30 and atSR45a, respectively, in subcellular and subnuclear distribution using a series of structural domain-deleted mutants. Judging from the localization of the transiently expressed domain-deleted mutants in onion epidermal cells, the C terminal low complexity domain rich in arginine-serine repeats (C-RS) domain of atSR30 appeared to be necessary for the nuclear localization. On the other hand, the N-terminal RS (N-RS) domain of atSR45a was necessary for the accurate nuclear localization, although the N- or C-RS domain alone was sufficient for the nuclear speckled organization. The phosphorylation of RS domains of atSR45a is irrelevant to the regulation of its localization. atSR45a and atSR30 were co-localized in the speckles, suggesting their collaborative roles in the regulation of alternative splicing events. PMID:23132568

  14. Time Resolved EPR Study on the Photoinduced Long-Range Charge-Separated State in Protein: Electron Tunneling Mediated by Arginine Residue in Human Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Fuki, Masaaki; Murai, Hisao; Tachikawa, Takashi; Kobori, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-19

    To elucidate how local molecular conformations play a role on electronic couplings for the long-range photoinduced charge-separated (CS) states in protein systems, we have analyzed time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) spectra by polarized laser irradiations of 9,10-anthraquinone-1-sulfonate (AQ1S(-)) bound to human serum albumin (HSA). Analyses of the magnetophotoselection effects on the EPR spectra and a docking simulation clarified the molecular geometry and the electronic coupling of the long-range CS states of AQ1S(•2-)-tryptophan214 radical cation (W214(•+)) separated by 1.2 nm. The ligand of AQ1S(-) has been demonstrated to be bound to the drug site I in HSA. Molecular conformations of the binding region were estimated by the docking simulations, indicating that an arginine218 (R218(+)) residue bound to AQ1S(•2-) mediates the long-range electron-transfer. The energetics of triad states of AQ1S(•2-)-R218(+)-W214(•+) and AQ1S(-)-R218(•)-W214(•+) have been computed on the basis of the density functional molecular orbital calculations, providing the clear evidence for the long-range electronic couplings of the CS states in terms of the superexchange tunneling model through the arginine residue. PMID:27116363

  15. The Vaccine Candidate Substrate Binding Protein SBP2 Plays a Key Role in Arginine Uptake, Which Is Required for Growth of Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Taketo; Kirkham, Charmaine; Brauer, Aimee; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human pathogen that is an important cause of otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A vaccine to prevent M. catarrhalis infections would have an enormous global impact in reducing morbidity resulting from these infections. Substrate binding protein 2 (SBP2) of an ABC transporter system has recently been identified as a promising vaccine candidate antigen on the bacterial surface of M. catarrhalis. In this study, we showed that SBP1, -2, and -3 individually bind different basic amino acids with exquisite specificity. We engineered mutants that each expressed a single SBP from this gene cluster and showed in growth experiments that SBP1, -2, and -3 serve a nutritional function through acquisition of amino acids for the bacterium. SBP2 mediates uptake of arginine, a strict growth requirement of M. catarrhalis. Adherence and invasion assays demonstrated that SBP1 and SBP3 play a role in invasion of human respiratory epithelial cells, consistent with a nutritional role in intracellular survival in the human respiratory tract. This work demonstrates that the SBPs of an ABC transporter system function in the uptake of basic amino acids to support growth of M. catarrhalis. The critical role of SBP2 in arginine uptake may contribute to its potential as a vaccine antigen. PMID:26597985

  16. Intra-domain Cross-talk Regulates Serine-arginine Protein Kinase 1-dependent Phosphorylation and Splicing Function of Transformer 2β1.

    PubMed

    Jamros, Michael A; Aubol, Brandon E; Keshwani, Malik M; Zhang, Zhaiyi; Stamm, Stefan; Adams, Joseph A

    2015-07-10

    Transformer 2β1 (Tra2β1) is a splicing effector protein composed of a core RNA recognition motif flanked by two arginine-serine-rich (RS) domains, RS1 and RS2. Although Tra2β1-dependent splicing is regulated by phosphorylation, very little is known about how protein kinases phosphorylate these two RS domains. We now show that the serine-arginine protein kinase-1 (SRPK1) is a regulator of Tra2β1 and promotes exon inclusion in the survival motor neuron gene 2 (SMN2). To understand how SRPK1 phosphorylates this splicing factor, we performed mass spectrometric and kinetic experiments. We found that SRPK1 specifically phosphorylates 21 serines in RS1, a process facilitated by a docking groove in the kinase domain. Although SRPK1 readily phosphorylates RS2 in a splice variant lacking the N-terminal RS domain (Tra2β3), RS1 blocks phosphorylation of these serines in the full-length Tra2β1. Thus, RS2 serves two new functions. First, RS2 positively regulates binding of the central RNA recognition motif to an exonic splicing enhancer sequence, a phenomenon reversed by SRPK1 phosphorylation on RS1. Second, RS2 enhances ligand exchange in the SRPK1 active site allowing highly efficient Tra2β1 phosphorylation. These studies demonstrate that SRPK1 is a regulator of Tra2β1 splicing function and that the individual RS domains engage in considerable cross-talk, assuming novel functions with regard to RNA binding, splicing, and SRPK1 catalysis. PMID:26013829

  17. High-level secretion of a recombinant protein to the culture medium with a Bacillus subtilis twin-arginine translocation system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Albiniak, Anna M; Matos, Cristina F R O; Branston, Steven D; Freedman, Robert B; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Robinson, Colin

    2013-08-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system transports folded proteins across the plasma membrane in bacteria, and heterologous proteins can be exported by this pathway if a Tat-type signal peptide is present at the N-terminus. The system thus has potential for biopharmaceutical production in Escherichia coli, where export to the periplasm is often a favoured approach. Previous studies have shown that E. coli cells can export high levels of protein by the Tat pathway, and the protein product accummulates almost exclusively in the periplasm. In this study, we analysed E. coli cells that express the Bacillus subtilis TatAdCd system in place of the native TatABC system. We show that a heterologous model protein, comprising the TorA signal peptide linked to green fluorescent protein (TorA-GFP), is efficiently exported by the TatAdCd system. However, whereas the GFP is exported initially to the periplasm during batch fermentation, the mature protein is increasingly found in the extracellular culture medium. By the end of a 16-h fermentation, ~ 90% of exported GFP is present in the medium as active mature protein. The total protein profiles of the medium and periplasm are essentially identical, confirming that the outer membrane becomes leaky during the fermentation process. The cells are otherwise intact, and there is no large-scale release of cytoplasmic contents. Export levels are relatively high, with ~ 0.35 g GFP·L⁻¹ culture present in the medium. This system thus offers a means of producing recombinant protein in E. coli and harvesting directly from the medium, with potential advantages in terms of ease of purification and downstream processing. PMID:23745597

  18. Loss of RUNX1/AML1 arginine-methylation impairs peripheral T cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Shinsuke; Yoshida, Tatsushi; Zhao, Xinyang; Nimer, Stephen D; Taniwaki, Masafumi; Okuda, Tsukasa

    2015-09-01

    RUNX1 (previously termed AML1) is a frequent target of human leukaemia-associated gene aberrations, and it encodes the DNA-binding subunit of the Core-Binding Factor transcription factor complex. RUNX1 expression is essential for the initiation of definitive haematopoiesis, for steady-state thrombopoiesis, and for normal lymphocytes development. Recent studies revealed that protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), which accounts for the majority of the type I PRMT activity in cells, methylates two arginine residues in RUNX1 (R206 and R210), and these modifications inhibit corepressor-binding to RUNX1 thereby enhancing its transcriptional activity. In order to elucidate the biological significance of these methylations, we established novel knock-in mouse lines with non-methylable, double arginine-to-lysine (RTAMR-to-KTAMK) mutations in RUNX1. Homozygous Runx1(KTAMK) (/) (KTAMK) mice are born alive and appear normal during adulthood. However, Runx1(KTAMK) (/) (KTAMK) mice showed a reduction in CD3(+) T lymphoid cells and a decrease in CD4(+) T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs, in comparison to their wild-type littermates, leading to a reduction in the CD4(+) to CD8(+) T-cell ratio. These findings suggest that arginine-methylation of RUNX1 in the RTAMR-motif is dispensable for the development of definitive haematopoiesis and for steady-state platelet production, however this modification affects the role of RUNX1 in the maintenance of the peripheral CD4(+) T-cell population. PMID:26010396

  19. Loss of RUNX1/AML1 arginine-methylation impairs in peripheral T cell homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Shinsuke; Yoshida, Tatsushi; Zhao, Xinyang; Nimer, Stephen D.; Taniwaki, Masafumi; Okuda, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Summary RUNX1 (previously termed AML1) is a frequent target of human leukaemia-associated gene aberrations, and it encodes the DNA-binding subunit of the Core-Binding Factor transcription factor complex. RUNX1 expression is essential for the initiation of definitive haematopoiesis, for steady-state thrombopoiesis, and for normal lymphocytes development. Recent studies revealed that protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), which accounts for the majority of the type I PRMT activity in cells, methylates two arginine residues in RUNX1 (R206 and R210), and these modifications inhibit corepressor-binding to RUNX1 thereby enhancing its transcriptional activity. In order to elucidate the biological significance of these methylations, we established novel knock-in mouse lines with non-methylable, double arginine-to-lysine (RTAMR-to-KTAMK) mutations in RUNX1. Homozygous Runx1KTAMK/KTAMK mice are born alive and appear normal during adulthood. However, Runx1KTAMK/KTAMK mice showed a reduction in CD3+ T lymphoid cells and a decrease in CD4+ T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs, in comparison to their wild-type littermates, leading to a reduction in the CD4+ to CD8+ T-cell ratio. These findings suggest that arginine-methylation of RUNX1 in the RTAMR-motif is dispensable for the development of definitive haematopoiesis and for steady-state platelet production, however this modification affects the role of RUNX1 in the maintenance of the peripheral CD4+ T-cell population. PMID:26010396

  20. Unexpected Distinct Roles of the Related Histone H3 Lysine 9 Methyltransferases G9a and G9a-Like Protein in Myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Valentine; Pontis, Julien; Boyarchuk, Ekaterina; Fritsch, Lauriane; Robin, Philippe; Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane; Joliot, Véronique

    2016-06-01

    Lysine methyltransferases G9a and GLP (G9a-like protein) are highly homologous and form functional heterodimeric complexes that establish mono- and dimethylation on histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me1, H3K9me2) in euchromatin. Here, we describe unexpected distinct roles for G9a and GLP in skeletal muscle terminal differentiation. Indeed, gain- or loss-of-function assays in myoblasts showed, in agreement with previous reports, that G9a inhibits terminal differentiation. While GLP plays a more intricate role in muscle differentiation,in one hand, both GLP gain and loss of function inhibit late steps of differentiation; on the other hand, in contrast to G9a, GLP overexpression promotes abnormal precocious expression of muscle differentiation-specific genes already in proliferating myoblasts. In agreement, transcriptomic analysis indicates that G9a and GLP regulate different sets of genes. Thus, GLP, but not G9a, inhibits proteasome subunit-encoding genes expression, resulting in an inhibition of the proteasome activities. Subsequently, GLP, but not G9a, overexpression stabilizes MyoD that is likely to be responsible for muscle markers expression in proliferating myoblasts. PMID:27056598

  1. Protein Lysine Methyltransferase G9a Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis, and Structure Activity Relationships of 2,4-Diamino-7-aminoalkoxy-quinazolines.†

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Xin; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Quinn, Amy M.; Wigle, Tim J.; Wasney, Gregory A.; Dong, Aiping; Senisterra, Guillermo; Chau, Irene; Siarheyeva, Alena; Norris, Jacqueline L.; Kireev, Dmitri B.; Jadhav, Ajit; Herold, J. Martin; Janzen, William P.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Frye, Stephen V.; Brown, Peter J.; Simeonov, Anton; Vedadi, Masoud; Jin, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Protein lysine methyltransferase G9a, which catalyzes methylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9) and lysine 373 (K373) of p53, is over expressed in human cancers. Genetic knockdown of G9a inhibits cancer cell growth and the di-methylation of p53 K373 results in the inactivation of p53. Initial SAR exploration of the 2,4-diamino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline template represented by 3a (BIX01294), a selective small molecule inhibitor of G9a and GLP, led to the discovery of 10 (UNC0224) as a potent G9a inhibitor with excellent selectivity. A high resolution X-ray crystal structure of the G9a-10 complex, the first co-crystal structure of G9a with a small molecule inhibitor, was obtained. Based on the structural insights revealed by this co-crystal structure, optimization of the 7-dimethylaminopropoxy side chain of 10 resulted in the discovery of 29 (UNC0321) (Morrison Ki = 63 pM), which is the first G9a inhibitor with picomolar potency and the most potent G9a inhibitor to date. PMID:20614940

  2. Role for the nuclear receptor-binding SET domain protein 1 (NSD1) methyltransferase in coordinating lysine 36 methylation at histone 3 with RNA polymerase II function

    PubMed Central

    Lucio-Eterovic, Agda Karina; Singh, Melissa M.; Gardner, Jeffrey E.; Veerappan, Chendhore S.; Rice, Judd C.; Carpenter, Phillip B.

    2010-01-01

    The NSD (nuclear receptor-binding SET domain protein) family encodes methyltransferases that are important in multiple aspects of development and disease. Perturbations in NSD family members can lead to Sotos syndrome and Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome as well as cancers such as acute myeloid leukemia. Previous studies have implicated NSD1 (KMT3B) in transcription and methylation of histone H3 at lysine 36 (H3-K36), but its molecular mechanism in these processes remains largely unknown. Here we describe an NSD1 regulatory network in human cells. We show that NSD1 binds near various promoter elements and regulates multiple genes that appear to have a concerted role in various processes, such as cell growth/cancer, keratin biology, and bone morphogenesis. In particular, we show that NSD1 binding is concentrated upstream of gene targets such as the bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and zinc finger protein 36 C3H type-like 1 (ZFP36L1/TPP). NSD1 regulates the levels of the various forms of methylation at H3-K36 primarily, but not exclusively, within the promoter proximal region occupied by NSD1. At BMP4 we find that this reduces the levels of RNAP II recruited to the promoter, suggesting a role for NSD1-dependent methylation in initiation. Interestingly, we also observe that the RNAP II molecules that lie within BMP4 have inappropriate persistence of serine-5 phosphorylation and reduced levels of serine-2 phosphorylation within the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNAP II. Our findings indicate that NSD1 regulates RNAP II recruitment to BMP4, and failure to do so leads to reduced gene expression and abrogated levels of H3K36Me and CTD phosphorylation. PMID:20837538

  3. Lipoic acid inhibits the DNA repair protein O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and triggers its depletion in colorectal cancer cells with concomitant autophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Göder, Anja; Nagel, Georg; Kraus, Alexander; Dörsam, Bastian; Seiwert, Nina; Kaina, Bernd; Fahrer, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    Alkylating agents are present in food and tobacco smoke, but are also used in cancer chemotherapy, inducing the DNA lesion O (6)-methylguanine. This critical adduct is repaired by O (6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), resulting in MGMT inactivation and degradation. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of the natural disulfide compound lipoic acid (LA) on MGMT in vitro and in colorectal cancer cells. We show that LA, but not its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid, potently inhibits the activity of recombinant MGMT by interfering with its catalytic Cys-145 residue, which was partially reversible by N-acetyl cysteine. Incubation of HCT116 colorectal cancer cells with LA altered their glutathione pool and caused a decline in MGMT activity. This was mirrored by LA-induced depletion of MGMT protein, which was not attributable to changes in MGMT messenger RNA levels. Loss of MGMT protein coincided with LA-induced autophagy, a process resulting in lysosomal degradation of proteins, including presumably MGMT. LA-stimulated autophagy in a p53-independent manner as revealed by the response of isogenic HCT116 cell lines. Knockdown of the crucial autophagy component beclin-1 and chemical inhibitors blocked LA-induced autophagy, but did not abrogate LA-triggered MGMT degradation. Concomitant with MGMT depletion, LA pretreatment resulted in enhanced O (6)-methylguanine levels in DNA. It also increased the cytotoxicity of the alkylating anticancer drug temozolomide in temozolomide-resistant colorectal cancer cells. Taken together, our study showed that the natural compound LA inhibits MGMT and induces autophagy. Furthermore, LA enhanced the cytotoxic effects of temozolomide, which makes it a candidate for a supplement in cancer therapy. PMID:25998848

  4. A Proline/Arginine-Rich End Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein (PRELP) Variant Is Uniquely Expressed in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mikaelsson, Eva; Österborg, Anders; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Kokhaei, Parviz; Ostadkarampour, Mahyar; Hadavi, Reza; Gholamin, Mehran; Akhondi, Mehdi; Shokri, Fazel; Rabbani, Hodjattallah; Mellstedt, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    Proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP) belongs to the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family, normally expressed in extracellular matrix of collagen-rich tissues. We have previously reported on another SLRP, fibromodulin (FMOD) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). PRELP is structurally similar to FMOD with adjacent localization on chromosome 1 (1q32.1). As cluster-upregulation of genes may occur in malignancies, the aim of our study was to analyze PRELP expression in CLL. PRELP was expressed (RT-PCR) in all CLL patients (30/30), as well as in some patients with mantle cell lymphoma (3/5), but not in healthy donor leukocytes (0/20) or tumor samples from other hematological malignancies (0/35). PRELP was also detected in CLL cell-lines (4/4) but not in cell-lines from other hematological tumors (0/9). PRELP protein was detected in all CLL samples but not in normal leukocytes. Deglycosylation experiments revealed a CLL-unique 38 kDa core protein, with an intact signal peptide. This 38 kDa protein was, in contrast to the normal 55 kDa size, not detected in serum which, in combination with the uncleaved signal peptide, suggests cellular retention. The unique expression of a 38 kDa PRELP in CLL cells may suggest involvement in the pathobiology of CLL and merits further studies. PMID:23826326

  5. A proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP) variant is uniquely expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Mikaelsson, Eva; Österborg, Anders; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Kokhaei, Parviz; Ostadkarampour, Mahyar; Hadavi, Reza; Gholamin, Mehran; Akhondi, Mehdi; Shokri, Fazel; Rabbani, Hodjattallah; Mellstedt, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    Proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP) belongs to the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family, normally expressed in extracellular matrix of collagen-rich tissues. We have previously reported on another SLRP, fibromodulin (FMOD) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). PRELP is structurally similar to FMOD with adjacent localization on chromosome 1 (1q32.1). As cluster-upregulation of genes may occur in malignancies, the aim of our study was to analyze PRELP expression in CLL. PRELP was expressed (RT-PCR) in all CLL patients (30/30), as well as in some patients with mantle cell lymphoma (3/5), but not in healthy donor leukocytes (0/20) or tumor samples from other hematological malignancies (0/35). PRELP was also detected in CLL cell-lines (4/4) but not in cell-lines from other hematological tumors (0/9). PRELP protein was detected in all CLL samples but not in normal leukocytes. Deglycosylation experiments revealed a CLL-unique 38 kDa core protein, with an intact signal peptide. This 38 kDa protein was, in contrast to the normal 55 kDa size, not detected in serum which, in combination with the uncleaved signal peptide, suggests cellular retention. The unique expression of a 38 kDa PRELP in CLL cells may suggest involvement in the pathobiology of CLL and merits further studies. PMID:23826326

  6. Facilitation of cell adhesion by immobilized dengue viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1): arginine-glycine-aspartic acid structural mimicry within the dengue viral NS1 antigen.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Hou; Shyu, Huey-Fen; Wang, Yo-Ming; Sun, Der-Shan; Shyu, Rong-Hwa; Tang, Shiao-Shek; Huang, Yao-Shine

    2002-09-15

    Dengue virus infection causes life-threatening hemorrhagic fever. Increasing evidence implies that dengue viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) exhibits a tendency to elicit potentially hazardous autoantibodies, which show a wide spectrum of specificity against extracellular matrix and platelet antigens. How NS1 elicits autoantibodies remains unclear. To address the hypothesis that NS1 and matrix proteins may have structural and functional similarity, cell-matrix and cell-NS1 interactions were evaluated using a cell-adhesion assay. The present study showed that dengue NS1 immobilized on coverslips resulted in more cell adhesion than did the control proteins. This cell adhesion was inhibited by peptides containing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD), a motif important for integrin-mediated cell adhesion. In addition, anti-NS1 antibodies blocked RGD-mediated cell adhesion. Although there is no RGD motif in the NS1 protein sequence, these data indicate that RGD structural mimicry exists within the NS1 antigen. PMID:12198607

  7. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%. PMID:2235851

  8. Altered asymmetric dimethyl arginine metabolism in allergically inflamed mouse lungs.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tanveer; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ghosh, Balaram; Agrawal, Anurag

    2010-01-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), causes uncoupling of NOS leading to generation of reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite. The lung generates a significant amount of ADMA, potentially contributing to plasma ADMA levels that have been related to endothelial dysfunction. ADMA infusion causes increased collagen deposition in lungs, suggesting that it could influence the development of chronic lung diseases such as fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. To explore the link between endogenous ADMA and asthma, we determined the levels of ADMA, enzymes implicated in its metabolism, and peroxynitrite in murine models of allergic airway inflammation (AAI) resembling asthma. ADMA levels and nitrosative stress were found to be positively correlated in cytosol and mitochondria during AAI. This was associated with increased expression of protein-arginine methyltransferase-2, an ADMA-synthesizing enzyme, and reduced expression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-2, an ADMA-degrading enzyme, in bronchial epithelia. Increased nitrotyrosine similarly localized to the bronchial epithelium, as well as in infiltrated inflammatory cells. Administration of L-arginine, which was expected to compete with ADMA and reverse the uncoupling/inhibition of NOS, restored normal ADMA metabolism, along with the expected reduction of nitrosative stress in lung. Because dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-2 function is known to be negatively related to oxidative stress, this may represent a feed-forward loop effect. We conclude that a delicate balance between ADMA-metabolizing enzymes is disturbed in bronchial epithelium during AAI, potentially causing increased nitrosative stress in a self-propagating cycle. This represents a potential therapeutic target in asthma. PMID:19648472

  9. Homology modeling of major intrinsic proteins in rice, maize and Arabidopsis: comparative analysis of transmembrane helix association and aromatic/arginine selectivity filters

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Anjali; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2007-01-01

    Background The major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) facilitate the transport of water and neutral solutes across the lipid bilayers. Plant MIPs are believed to be important in cell division and expansion and in water transport properties in response to environmental conditions. More than 30 MIP sequences have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, maize and rice. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), Nod26-like intrinsic protein (NIPs) and small and basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) are subfamilies of plant MIPs. Despite sequence diversity, all the experimentally determined structures belonging to the MIP superfamily have the same "hour-glass" fold. Results We have structurally characterized 39 rice and 31 maize MIPs and compared them with that of Arabidopsis. Homology models of 105 MIPs from all three plant species were built. Structure-based sequence alignments were generated and the residues in the helix-helix interfaces were analyzed. Small residues (Gly/Ala/Ser/Thr) are found to be highly conserved as a group in the helix-helix interface of MIP structures. Individual families sometimes prefer one or another of the residues from this group. The narrow aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter in MIPs has been shown to provide an important constriction for solute permeability. Ar/R regions were analyzed and compared between the three plant species. Seventeen TIP, NIP and SIP members from rice and maize have ar/R signatures that are not found in Arabidopsis. A subgroup of rice and maize NIPs has small residues in three of the four positions in the ar/R tetrad, resulting in a wider constriction. These MIP members could transport larger solute molecules. Conclusion Small residues are group-conserved in the helix-helix interface of MIP structures and they seem to be important for close helix-helix interactions. Such conservation might help to preserve the hour-glass fold in MIP structures. Analysis and comparison of ar

  10. Arginine metabolism in asthma.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeremy A; Grasemann, Hartmut

    2014-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is important in the regulation of airway tone and airway responsiveness. Alterations in the L-arginine metabolism resulting in reduced availability of the substrate L-arginine for NO synthases, as well as the presence of NO synthase inhibitors such as asymmetric dimethylarginine, contribute to the reduced NO formation and airway dysfunction in asthma. Therapeutic interventions aiming to modulate the impaired L-arginine metabolism may help correct the enhanced airway tone and responsiveness in asthma. PMID:25282289

  11. The effects of arginine glutamate, a promising excipient for protein formulation, on cell viability: Comparisons with NaCl.

    PubMed

    Kheddo, Priscilla; Golovanov, Alexander P; Mellody, Kieran T; Uddin, Shahid; van der Walle, Christopher F; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2016-06-01

    The effects of an equimolar mixture of l-arginine and l-glutamate (Arg·Glu) on cell viability and cellular stress using in vitro cell culture systems are examined with reference to NaCl, in the context of monoclonal antibody formulation. Cells relevant to subcutaneous administration were selected: the human monocyte cell line THP-1, grown as a single cell suspension, and adherent human primary fibroblasts. For THP-1 cells, the mechanism of cell death caused by relatively high salt concentrations was investigated and effects on cell activation/stress assessed as a function of changes in membrane marker and cytokine (interleukin-8) expression. These studies demonstrated that Arg·Glu does not have any further detrimental effects on THP-1 viability in comparison to NaCl at equivalent osmolalities, and that both salts at higher concentrations cause cell death by apoptosis; there was no significant effect on measures of THP-1 cellular stress/activation. For adherent fibroblasts, both salts caused significant toxicity at ~400 mOsm/kg, although Arg·Glu caused a more precipitous subsequent decline in viability than did NaCl. These data indicate that Arg·Glu is of equivalent toxicity to NaCl and that the mechanism of toxicity is such that cell death is unlikely to trigger inflammation upon subcutaneous injection in vivo. PMID:26873863

  12. The effects of arginine glutamate, a promising excipient for protein formulation, on cell viability: Comparisons with NaCl

    PubMed Central

    Kheddo, Priscilla; Golovanov, Alexander P.; Mellody, Kieran T.; Uddin, Shahid; van der Walle, Christopher F.; Dearman, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an equimolar mixture of l-arginine and l-glutamate (Arg·Glu) on cell viability and cellular stress using in vitro cell culture systems are examined with reference to NaCl, in the context of monoclonal antibody formulation. Cells relevant to subcutaneous administration were selected: the human monocyte cell line THP-1, grown as a single cell suspension, and adherent human primary fibroblasts. For THP-1 cells, the mechanism of cell death caused by relatively high salt concentrations was investigated and effects on cell activation/stress assessed as a function of changes in membrane marker and cytokine (interleukin-8) expression. These studies demonstrated that Arg·Glu does not have any further detrimental effects on THP-1 viability in comparison to NaCl at equivalent osmolalities, and that both salts at higher concentrations cause cell death by apoptosis; there was no significant effect on measures of THP-1 cellular stress/activation. For adherent fibroblasts, both salts caused significant toxicity at ~ 400 mOsm/kg, although Arg·Glu caused a more precipitous subsequent decline in viability than did NaCl. These data indicate that Arg·Glu is of equivalent toxicity to NaCl and that the mechanism of toxicity is such that cell death is unlikely to trigger inflammation upon subcutaneous injection in vivo. PMID:26873863

  13. Water-Protein Interactions of an Arginine-Rich Membrane Peptide in Lipid Bilayers Investigated by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shenhui; Su, Yongchao; Luo, Wenbin; Hong, Mei

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of an arginine (Arg) residue with water in a transmembrane antimicrobial peptide, PG-1, is investigated by two-dimensional heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Using 13C and 15N dipolar-edited 1H-15N HETCOR experiments, we unambiguously assigned a water-guanidinium cross peak that is distinct from intramolecular protein-protein cross peaks. This water-Arg cross peak was detected within a short 1H spin diffusion mixing time of 1 ms, indicating that water is in close contact with the membrane-inserted guanidinium. Together with previously observed short guanidinium-phosphate distances, these solid-state NMR data suggest that the Arg sidechains of PG-1 are stabilized by both hydration water and neutralizing lipid headgroups. The membrane deformation that occurs when water and lipid headgroups are pulled into the hydrophobic region of the bilayer is symptomatic of the membrane-disruptive function of this antimicrobial peptide. The water-Arg interactions observed here provide direct experimental evidence for molecular dynamics simulations of the solvation of Arg sidechains of membrane proteins by deeply embedded water in lipid bilayers. PMID:20199036

  14. Loading of PAX3 to Mitotic Chromosomes Is Mediated by Arginine Methylation and Associated with Waardenburg Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tsu-Fang; Yao, Ya-Li; Lai, I-Lu; Lai, Chien-Chen; Lin, Pei-Lun; Yang, Wen-Ming

    2015-01-01

    PAX3 is a transcription factor critical to gene regulation in mammalian development. Mutations in PAX3 are associated with Waardenburg syndrome (WS), but the mechanism of how mutant PAX3 proteins cause WS remains unclear. Here, we found that PAX3 loads on mitotic chromosomes using its homeodomain. PAX3 WS mutants with mutations in homeodomain lose the ability to bind mitotic chromosomes. Moreover, loading of PAX3 on mitotic chromosomes requires arginine methylation, which is regulated by methyltransferase PRMT5 and demethylase JMJD6. Mutant PAX3 proteins that lose mitotic chromosome localization block cell proliferation and normal development of zebrafish. These results reveal the molecular mechanism of PAX3s loading on mitotic chromosomes and the importance of this localization pattern in normal development. Our findings suggest that PAX3 WS mutants interfere with the normal functions of PAX3 in a dominant negative manner, which is important to the understanding of the pathogenesis of Waardenburg syndrome. PMID:26149688

  15. Loading of PAX3 to Mitotic Chromosomes Is Mediated by Arginine Methylation and Associated with Waardenburg Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsu-Fang; Yao, Ya-Li; Lai, I-Lu; Lai, Chien-Chen; Lin, Pei-Lun; Yang, Wen-Ming

    2015-08-14

    PAX3 is a transcription factor critical to gene regulation in mammalian development. Mutations in PAX3 are associated with Waardenburg syndrome (WS), but the mechanism of how mutant PAX3 proteins cause WS remains unclear. Here, we found that PAX3 loads on mitotic chromosomes using its homeodomain. PAX3 WS mutants with mutations in homeodomain lose the ability to bind mitotic chromosomes. Moreover, loading of PAX3 on mitotic chromosomes requires arginine methylation, which is regulated by methyltransferase PRMT5 and demethylase JMJD6. Mutant PAX3 proteins that lose mitotic chromosome localization block cell proliferation and normal development of zebrafish. These results reveal the molecular mechanism of PAX3s loading on mitotic chromosomes and the importance of this localization pattern in normal development. Our findings suggest that PAX3 WS mutants interfere with the normal functions of PAX3 in a dominant negative manner, which is important to the understanding of the pathogenesis of Waardenburg syndrome. PMID:26149688

  16. Juxtaposition of Two Distant, Serine-Arginine-Rich Protein-Binding Elements Is Required for Optimal Polyadenylation in Rous Sarcoma Virus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Stephen W.; McNally, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    The Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) polyadenylation site (PAS) is very poorly used in vitro due to suboptimal upstream and downstream elements, and yet ∼85% of viral transcripts are polyadenylated in vivo. The mechanisms that orchestrate polyadenylation at the weak PAS are not completely understood. It was previously shown that serine-arginine (SR)-rich proteins stimulate RSV PAS use in vitro and in vivo. It has been proposed that viral RNA polyadenylation is stimulated through a nonproductive splice complex that forms between a pseudo 5′ splice site (5′ss) within the negative regulator of splicing (NRS) and a downstream 3′ss, which repositions NRS-bound SR proteins closer to the viral PAS. This repositioning is thought to be important for long-distance poly(A) stimulation by the NRS. We report here that a 308-nucleotide deletion downstream of the env 3′ss decreased polyadenylation efficiency, suggesting the presence of an additional element required for optimal RSV polyadenylation. Mapping studies localized the poly(A) stimulating element to a region coincident with the Env splicing enhancer, which binds SR proteins, and inactivation of the enhancer and SR protein binding decreased polyadenylation efficiency. The positive effect of the Env enhancer on polyadenylation could be uncoupled from its role in splicing. As with the NRS, the Env enhancer also stimulated use of the viral PAS in vitro. These results suggest that a critical threshold of SR proteins, achieved by juxtaposition of SR protein binding sites within the NRS and Env enhancer, is required for long-range polyadenylation stimulation. PMID:21849435

  17. Cloning and expresion of cDNA for rat O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Sakumi, K; Shiraishi, A; Hayakawa, H; Sekiguchi, M

    1991-01-01

    cDNA for O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase was isolated by screening rat liver cDNA libraries, using as a probe the human cDNA sequence for methyltransferase. The rat cDNA encodes a protein with 209 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence of the rat methyltransferase exhibits considerable homology with those of the human, yeast and bacterial enzymes, especially around putative methyl acceptor sites. When the cDNA was placed under control of the lac promoter and expressed in methyltransferase-deficient Escherichia coli (ada-, ogt-) cells, a characteristic methyltransferase protein was produced. The rat DNA methyltransferase thus expressed could complement the biological defects of the E. coli cell caused by lack of its own DNA methyltransferases; e.g. increased sensitivity to alkylating agents in terms of both cell death and mutation induction. Images PMID:1945835

  18. Arginine metabolism: nitric oxide and beyond.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, G; Morris, S M

    1998-01-01

    Arginine is one of the most versatile amino acids in animal cells, serving as a precursor for the synthesis not only of proteins but also of nitric oxide, urea, polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine and agmatine. Of the enzymes that catalyse rate-controlling steps in arginine synthesis and catabolism, argininosuccinate synthase, the two arginase isoenzymes, the three nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes and arginine decarboxylase have been recognized in recent years as key factors in regulating newly identified aspects of arginine metabolism. In particular, changes in the activities of argininosuccinate synthase, the arginases, the inducible isoenzyme of nitric oxide synthase and also cationic amino acid transporters play major roles in determining the metabolic fates of arginine in health and disease, and recent studies have identified complex patterns of interaction among these enzymes. There is growing interest in the potential roles of the arginase isoenzymes as regulators of the synthesis of nitric oxide, polyamines, proline and glutamate. Physiological roles and relationships between the pathways of arginine synthesis and catabolism in vivo are complex and difficult to analyse, owing to compartmentalized expression of various enzymes at both organ (e.g. liver, small intestine and kidney) and subcellular (cytosol and mitochondria) levels, as well as to changes in expression during development and in response to diet, hormones and cytokines. The ongoing development of new cell lines and animal models using cDNA clones and genes for key arginine metabolic enzymes will provide new approaches more clearly elucidating the physiological roles of these enzymes. PMID:9806879

  19. Functional Analysis of Genetic Variation in Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT): Effects on mRNA, Protein, and Enzyme Activity in Postmortem Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingshan; Lipska, Barbara K.; Halim, Nader; Ma, Quang D.; Matsumoto, Mitsuyuki; Melhem, Samer; Kolachana, Bhaskar S.; Hyde, Thomas M.; Herman, Mary M.; Apud, Jose; Egan, Michael F.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2004-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a key enzyme in the elimination of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex of the human brain. Genetic variation in the COMT gene (MIM 116790) has been associated with altered prefrontal cortex function and higher risk for schizophrenia, but the specific alleles and their functional implications have been controversial. We analyzed the effects of several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within COMT on mRNA expression levels (using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis), protein levels (using Western blot analysis), and enzyme activity (using catechol methylation) in a large sample (n = 108) of postmortem human prefrontal cortex tissue, which predominantly expresses the -membrane-bound isoform. A common coding SNP, Val158Met (rs4680), significantly affected protein abundance and enzyme activity but not mRNA expression levels, suggesting that differences in protein integrity account for the difference in enzyme activity between alleles. A SNP in intron 1 (rs737865) and a SNP in the 3′ flanking region (rs165599)—both of which have been reported to contribute to allelic expression differences and to be associated with schizophrenia as part of a haplotype with Val—had no effect on mRNA expression levels, protein immunoreactivity, or enzyme activity. In lymphocytes from 47 subjects, we confirmed a similar effect on enzyme activity in samples with the Val/Met genotype but no effect in samples with the intron 1 or 3′ SNPs. Separate analyses revealed that the subject's sex, as well as the presence of a SNP in the P2 promoter region (rs2097603), had small effects on COMT enzyme activity. Using site-directed mutagenesis of mouse COMT cDNA, followed by in vitro translation, we found that the conversion of Leu at the homologous position into Met or Val progressively and significantly diminished enzyme activity. Thus, although we cannot exclude a more complex genetic basis for functional effects of COMT, Val is a

  20. A Novel Non-SET Domain Multi-subunit Methyltransferase Required for Sequential Nucleosomal Histone H3 Methylation by the Mixed Lineage Leukemia Protein-1 (MLL1) Core Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anamika; Vought, Valarie E.; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Cosgrove, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression within the context of eukaryotic chromatin is regulated by enzymes that catalyze histone lysine methylation. Histone lysine methyltransferases that have been identified to date possess the evolutionarily conserved SET or Dot1-like domains. We previously reported the identification of a new multi-subunit histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase lacking homology to the SET or Dot1 family of histone lysine methyltransferases. This enzymatic activity requires a complex that includes WRAD (WDR5, RbBP5, Ash2L, and DPY-30), a complex that is part of the MLL1 (mixed lineage leukemia protein-1) core complex but that also exists independently of MLL1 in the cell. Here, we report that the minimal complex required for WRAD enzymatic activity includes WDR5, RbBP5, and Ash2L and that DPY-30, although not required for enzymatic activity, increases the histone substrate specificity of the WRAD complex. We also show that WRAD requires zinc for catalytic activity, displays Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and is inhibited by S-adenosyl-homocysteine. In addition, we demonstrate that WRAD preferentially methylates lysine 4 of histone H3 within the context of the H3/H4 tetramer but does not methylate nucleosomal histone H3 on its own. In contrast, we find that MLL1 and WRAD are required for nucleosomal histone H3 methylation, and we provide evidence suggesting that each plays distinct structural and catalytic roles in the recognition and methylation of a nucleosome substrate. Our results indicate that WRAD is a new H3K4 methyltransferase with functions that include regulating the substrate and product specificities of the MLL1 core complex. PMID:21106533

  1. A novel non-SET domain multi-subunit methyltransferase required for sequential nucleosomal histone H3 methylation by the mixed lineage leukemia protein-1 (MLL1) core complex.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anamika; Vought, Valarie E; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Cosgrove, Michael S

    2011-02-01

    Gene expression within the context of eukaryotic chromatin is regulated by enzymes that catalyze histone lysine methylation. Histone lysine methyltransferases that have been identified to date possess the evolutionarily conserved SET or Dot1-like domains. We previously reported the identification of a new multi-subunit histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase lacking homology to the SET or Dot1 family of histone lysine methyltransferases. This enzymatic activity requires a complex that includes WRAD (WDR5, RbBP5, Ash2L, and DPY-30), a complex that is part of the MLL1 (mixed lineage leukemia protein-1) core complex but that also exists independently of MLL1 in the cell. Here, we report that the minimal complex required for WRAD enzymatic activity includes WDR5, RbBP5, and Ash2L and that DPY-30, although not required for enzymatic activity, increases the histone substrate specificity of the WRAD complex. We also show that WRAD requires zinc for catalytic activity, displays Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and is inhibited by S-adenosyl-homocysteine. In addition, we demonstrate that WRAD preferentially methylates lysine 4 of histone H3 within the context of the H3/H4 tetramer but does not methylate nucleosomal histone H3 on its own. In contrast, we find that MLL1 and WRAD are required for nucleosomal histone H3 methylation, and we provide evidence suggesting that each plays distinct structural and catalytic roles in the recognition and methylation of a nucleosome substrate. Our results indicate that WRAD is a new H3K4 methyltransferase with functions that include regulating the substrate and product specificities of the MLL1 core complex. PMID:21106533

  2. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, DNA methyltransferase, and transforming growth factor-β promotes differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Nao; Iwao, Takahiro; Kabeya, Tomoki; Horikawa, Takashi; Niwa, Takuro; Kondo, Yuki; Nakamura, Katsunori; Matsunaga, Tamihide

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that small-molecule compounds were effective in generating pharmacokinetically functional enterocytes from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. In this study, to determine whether the compounds promote the differentiation of human iPS cells into enterocytes, we investigated the effects of a combination of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibitors on intestinal differentiation. Human iPS cells cultured on feeder cells were differentiated into endodermal cells by activin A. These endodermal-like cells were then differentiated into intestinal stem cells by fibroblast growth factor 2. Finally, the cells were differentiated into enterocyte cells by epidermal growth factor and small-molecule compounds. After differentiation, mRNA expression levels and drug-metabolizing enzyme activities were measured. The mRNA expression levels of the enterocyte marker sucrase-isomaltase and the major drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 were increased by a combination of MEK, DNMT, and TGF-β inhibitors. The mRNA expression of CYP3A4 was markedly induced by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Metabolic activities of CYP1A1/2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4/5, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and sulfotransferase were also observed in the differentiated cells. In conclusion, MEK, DNMT, and TGF-β inhibitors can be used to promote the differentiation of human iPS cells into pharmacokinetically functional enterocytes. PMID:27161454

  3. A new type of signal peptide: central role of a twin-arginine motif in transfer signals for the delta pH-dependent thylakoidal protein translocase.

    PubMed Central

    Chaddock, A M; Mant, A; Karnauchov, I; Brink, S; Herrmann, R G; Klösgen, R B; Robinson, C

    1995-01-01

    The delta pH-driven and Sec-related thylakoidal protein translocases recognise distinct types of thylakoid transfer signal, yet all transfer signals resemble bacterial signal peptides in structural terms. Comparison of known transfer signals reveals a single concrete difference: signals for the delta pH-dependent system contain a common twin-arginine motif immediately before the hydrophobic region. We show that this motif is critical for the delta pH-driven translocation process; substitution of the arg-arg by gln-gln or even arg-lys totally blocks translocation across the thylakoid membrane, and replacement by lys-arg reduces the rate of translocation by > 100-fold. The targeting information in this type of signal thus differs fundamentally from that of bacterial signal peptides, where the required positive charge can be supplied by any basic amino acid. Insertion of a twin-arg motif into a Sec-dependent substrate does not alter the pathway followed but reduces translocation efficiency, suggesting that the motif may also repel the Sec-type system. Other information must help to specify the choice of translocation mechanism, but this information is unlikely to reside in the hydrophobic region because substitution by a hydrophobic section from an integral membrane protein does not affect the translocation pathway. Images PMID:7796800

  4. Transcriptome-Wide Identification of RNA Targets of Arabidopsis SERINE/ARGININE-RICH45 Uncovers the Unexpected Roles of This RNA Binding Protein in RNA Processing[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yajun; Hamilton, Michael; Ben-Hur, Asa; Reddy, Anireddy S.N.

    2015-01-01

    Plant SR45 and its metazoan ortholog RNPS1 are serine/arginine-rich (SR)-like RNA binding proteins that function in splicing/postsplicing events and regulate diverse processes in eukaryotes. Interactions of SR45 with both RNAs and proteins are crucial for regulating RNA processing. However, in vivo RNA targets of SR45 are currently unclear. Using RNA immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing, we identified over 4000 Arabidopsis thaliana RNAs that directly or indirectly associate with SR45, designated as SR45-associated RNAs (SARs). Comprehensive analyses of these SARs revealed several roles for SR45. First, SR45 associates with and regulates the expression of 30% of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling genes at the postsplicing level. Second, although most SARs are derived from intron-containing genes, surprisingly, 340 SARs are derived from intronless genes. Expression analysis of the SARs suggests that SR45 differentially regulates intronless and intron-containing SARs. Finally, we identified four overrepresented RNA motifs in SARs that likely mediate SR45’s recognition of its targets. Therefore, SR45 plays an unexpected role in mRNA processing of intronless genes, and numerous ABA signaling genes are targeted for regulation at the posttranscriptional level. The diverse molecular functions of SR45 uncovered in this study are likely applicable to other species in view of its conservation across eukaryotes. PMID:26603559

  5. Methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase from Methanosarcina barkeri. Purification, properties and encoding genes of the corrinoid protein MT1.

    PubMed

    Sauer, K; Harms, U; Thauer, R K

    1997-02-01

    In Methanosarcina barkeri, methanogenesis from methanol is initiated by the formation of methylcoenzyme M from methanol and coenzyme M. This methyl transfer reaction is catalyzed by two enzymes, designated MT1 and MT2. Transferase MT1 is a corrinoid protein. The purification, catalytic properties and encoding genes of MT2 (MtaA) have been described previously [Harms, U. and Thauer, R.K. (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 235, 653-659]. We report here on the corresponding analysis of MT1. The corrinoid protein MT1 was purified to apparent homogeneity and showed a specific activity of 750 mumol min-1 mg-1. The enzyme catalyzed the methylation of its bound corrinoid in the cob(I)amide oxidation state by methanol. In addition to this automethylation, the purified enzyme was found to catalyze the methylation of free cob(I)alamin to methylcob(III)alamin. It was composed of two different subunits designated MtaB and MtaC, with apparent molecular masses of 49 kDa and 24 kDa, respectively. The subunit MtaC was shown to harbour the corrinoid prosthetic group. The genes mtaB and mtaC were cloned and sequenced. They were found to be juxtapositioned and to form a transcription unit mtaCB. The corrinoid-harbouring subunit MtaC exhibits 35% sequence similarity to the cobalamin-binding domain of methionine synthase from Escherichia coli. PMID:9057830

  6. Methylation of arginine by PRMT1 regulates Nrf2 transcriptional activity during the antioxidative response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Li, Hongyuan; Liu, Lingxia; Lu, Yang; Gao, Yanyan; Geng, Pengyu; Li, Xiaoxue; Huang, Baiqu; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The cap 'n' collar (CNC) family of transcription factors play important roles in resistance of oxidative and electrophilic stresses. Among the CNC family members, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is critical for regulating the antioxidant and phase II enzymes through antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated transactivation. The activity of Nrf2 is controlled by a variety of post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and sumoylation. Here we demonstrate that the arginine methyltransferase-1 (PRMT1) methylates Nrf2 protein at a single residue of arginine 437, both in vitro and in vivo. Using the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as a model of phase II enzyme gene, we found that methylation of Nrf2 by PRMT1 led to a moderate increase of its DNA-binding activity and transactivation, which subsequently protected cells against the tBHP-induced glutathione depletion and cell death. Collectively, our results define a novel modification of Nrf2, which operates as a fine-tuning mechanism for the transcriptional activity of Nrf2 under the oxidative stress. PMID:27183873

  7. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of Haloferax volcanii H26 and identification of DNA methyltransferase related PD-(D/E)XK nuclease family protein HVO_A0006

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, Matthew; Jackson, Laura; Chimileski, Scott; Papke, R. Thane

    2015-01-01

    Restriction-modification (RM) systems have evolved to protect the cell from invading DNAs and are composed of two enzymes: a DNA methyltransferase and a restriction endonuclease. Although RM systems are present in both archaeal and bacterial genomes, DNA methylation in archaea has not been well defined. In order to characterize the function of RM systems in archaeal species, we have made use of the model haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii. A genomic DNA methylation analysis of H. volcanii strain H26 was performed using PacBio single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. This analysis was also performed on a strain of H. volcanii in which an annotated DNA methyltransferase gene HVO_A0006 was deleted from the genome. Sequence analysis of H26 revealed two motifs which are modified in the genome: Cm4TAG and GCAm6BN6VTGC. Analysis of the ΔHVO_A0006 strain indicated that it exhibited reduced adenine methylation compared to the parental strain and altered the detected adenine motif. However, protein domain architecture analysis and amino acid alignments revealed that HVO_A0006 is homologous only to the N-terminal endonuclease region of Type IIG RM proteins and contains a PD-(D/E)XK nuclease motif, suggesting that HVO_A0006 is a PD-(D/E)XK nuclease family protein. Further bioinformatic analysis of the HVO_A0006 gene demonstrated that the gene is rare among the Halobacteria. It is surrounded by two transposition genes suggesting that HVO_A0006 is a fragment of a Type IIG RM gene, which has likely been acquired through gene transfer, and affects restriction-modification activity by interacting with another RM system component(s). Here, we present the first genome-wide characterization of DNA methylation in an archaeal species and examine the function of a DNA methyltransferase related gene HVO_A0006. PMID:25904898

  8. A Tat ménage à trois--The role of Bacillus subtilis TatAc in twin-arginine protein translocation.

    PubMed

    Goosens, Vivianne J; De-San-Eustaquio-Campillo, Alba; Carballido-López, Rut; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2015-10-01

    The twin-arginine translocation system (Tat) is a protein transport system that moves fully folded and cofactor-containing proteins across membranes of bacteria, archaea and thylakoids. The minimal Tat pathway is composed of two subunits, TatA and TatC. In some organisms TatA has been duplicated and evolved to form a third specialized subunit, TatB. The Bacillus subtilis genome encodes two TatC subunits (TatCd and TatCy) and three TatA subunits (TatAd, TatAy and TatAc). These subunits combine to form two parallel minimal pathways, TatAy-TatCy and TatAd-TatCd. The purpose and role of the third TatA component, TatAc, has remained ambiguous. In this study we examined the translocation of two natively expressed TatAy-TatCy-dependent substrates, EfeB and QcrA, in various Tat-deficient genetic backgrounds. More specifically, we examined the ability of different mutated TatAy subunits to complement for the absence of wild-type TatAy. We further detailed a graded growth phenotype associated with the functional translocation of EfeB. We found that in various instances where specific amino acid substitutions were made in TatAy, a definite TatAc-associated growth phenotype occurred in genetic backgrounds lacking TatAc. Altogether, our findings show that TatAy and TatAc interact and that this TatAy-TatAc interaction, although not essential, supports the translocation of the Tat substrate EfeB when TatAy function is compromised. This implies that the third TatA-like protein in B. subtilis could represent an intermediate evolutionary step in TatA-TatB specialization. PMID:26239117

  9. Structural analysis of substrate binding by the TatBC component of the twin-arginine protein transport system.

    PubMed

    Tarry, Michael J; Schäfer, Eva; Chen, Shuyun; Buchanan, Grant; Greene, Nicholas P; Lea, Susan M; Palmer, Tracy; Saibil, Helen R; Berks, Ben C

    2009-08-11

    The Tat system transports folded proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. In Escherichia coli substrate proteins initially bind to the integral membrane TatBC complex which then recruits the protein TatA to effect translocation. Overproduction of TatBC and the substrate protein SufI in the absence of TatA led to the accumulation of TatBC-SufI complexes that could be purified using an affinity tag on the substrate. Three-dimensional structures of the TatBC-SufI complexes and unliganded TatBC were obtained by single-particle electron microscopy and random conical tilt reconstruction. Comparison of the structures shows that substrate molecules bind on the periphery of the TatBC complex and that substrate binding causes a significant reduction in diameter of the TatBC part of the complex. Although the TatBC complex contains multiple copies of the signal peptide-binding TatC protomer, purified TatBC-SufI complexes contain only 1 or 2 SufI molecules. Where 2 substrates are present in the TatBC-SufI complex, they are bound at adjacent sites. These observations imply that only certain TatC protomers within the complex interact with substrate or that there is a negative cooperativity of substrate binding. Similar TatBC-substrate complexes can be generated by an alternative in vitro reconstitution method and using a different substrate protein. PMID:19666509

  10. Serine-arginine protein kinase 1 (SRPK1), a determinant of angiogenesis, is upregulated in prostate cancer and correlates with disease stage and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Nicholas; Potts, Jonathan; Simpkin, Andrew J; Koupparis, Anthony; Harper, Steve J; Oxley, Jon; Oltean, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) undergoes alternative splicing to produce both proangiogenic and antiangiogenic isoforms. Preferential splicing of proangiogenic VEGF is determined by serine-arginine protein kinase 1 (SRPK1), which is upregulated in a number of cancers. In the present study, we aimed to investigate SRPK1 expression in prostate cancer (PCa) and its association with cancer progression. SRPK1 expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry of PCa tissue extracted from radical prostatectomy specimens of 110 patients. SRPK1 expression was significantly higher in tumour compared with benign tissue (p<0.00001) and correlated with higher pT stage (p=0.004), extracapsular extension (p=0.003) and extracapsular perineural invasion (p=0.008). Interestingly, the expression did not correlate with Gleason grade (p=0.21), suggesting that SRPK1 facilitates the development of a tumour microenvironment that favours growth and invasion (possibly through stimulating angiogenesis) while having little bearing on the morphology or function of the tumour cells themselves. PMID:26500332

  11. Interaction of L-arginine with κ-casein and its effect on amyloid fibril formation by the protein: multi-spectroscopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fanbo; Yin, Jianyuan; Wang, Yunhua; Yang, Miao; Meng, Qin; Zeng, Baohua; Sun, Dandan; Liu, Jihua

    2015-02-01

    Herein, the interaction of l-arginine (ARG) with κ-casein, and its effect on amyloid fibril formation of the protein, have been investigated in vitro by resonance light scattering (RLS), fluorescence, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) under simulated physiological conditions. The results indicated that ARG inhibited fibril formation by reduced and carboxymethylated κ-casein (RCMκ-CN), and there was interaction between ARG and RCMκ-CN, proved by the observation of enhancement in RLS intensity attributed to the formation of RCMκ-CN-ARG complex. It was also demonstrated that ARG strongly quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of RCMκ-CN through a static quenching mechanism. The corresponding thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) were tested to show that the binding process was spontaneous and mainly enthalpy driven with an unfavorable entropy, and both hydrogen bond and van der Waals forces played a key role in the binding of ARG and RCMκ-CN. The determined value of the distance r between ARG and RCMκ-CN Trp97 residue evaluated by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was 2.94nm. Furthermore, the conformational investigation from synchronous fluorescence showed that the RCMκ-CN Trp97 residue was placed in a less polar environment and more difficultly exposed to the solvent after addition of ARG. PMID:25622152

  12. An arginine tetrad as mediator of input-dependent and input-independent ATPases in the clock protein KaiC

    PubMed Central

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Xu, Yao; Lamichhane, Aashish; Johnson, Carl H.; Egli, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A post-translational oscillator (PTO) composed of the proteins KaiA, KaiB and KaiC is at the heart of the cyanobacterial circadian clock. KaiC interacts with KaiA and KaiB over the daily cycle, and CII domains undergo rhythmic phosphorylation/dephosphorylation with a 24 h period. Both the N-terminal (CI) and C-terminal (CII) rings of KaiC exhibit ATPase activity. The CI ATPase proceeds in an input-independent fashion, but the CII ATPase is subject to metabolic input signals. The crystal structure of KaiC from Thermosynechococcus elongatus allows insight into the different anatomies of the CI and CII ATPases. Four consecutive arginines in CI (Arg linker) that connect the P-loop, CI subunits and CI and CII at the ring interface are primary candidates for the coordination of the CI and CII activities. The mutation of linker residues alters the period or triggers arhythmic behavior. Comparison between the CI and CII structures also reveals differences in loop regions that are key to KaiA and KaiB binding and activation of CII ATPase and kinase. Common packing features in KaiC crystals shed light on the KaiB–KaiC interaction. PMID:24816106

  13. An arginine tetrad as mediator of input-dependent and input-independent ATPases in the clock protein KaiC.

    PubMed

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Xu, Yao; Lamichhane, Aashish; Johnson, Carl H; Egli, Martin

    2014-05-01

    A post-translational oscillator (PTO) composed of the proteins KaiA, KaiB and KaiC is at the heart of the cyanobacterial circadian clock. KaiC interacts with KaiA and KaiB over the daily cycle, and CII domains undergo rhythmic phosphorylation/dephosphorylation with a 24 h period. Both the N-terminal (CI) and C-terminal (CII) rings of KaiC exhibit ATPase activity. The CI ATPase proceeds in an input-independent fashion, but the CII ATPase is subject to metabolic input signals. The crystal structure of KaiC from Thermosynechococcus elongatus allows insight into the different anatomies of the CI and CII ATPases. Four consecutive arginines in CI (Arg linker) that connect the P-loop, CI subunits and CI and CII at the ring interface are primary candidates for the coordination of the CI and CII activities. The mutation of linker residues alters the period or triggers arhythmic behavior. Comparison between the CI and CII structures also reveals differences in loop regions that are key to KaiA and KaiB binding and activation of CII ATPase and kinase. Common packing features in KaiC crystals shed light on the KaiB-KaiC interaction. PMID:24816106

  14. Translational control of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by arginine can explain the arginine paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junghee; Ryu, Hoon; Ferrante, Robert J.; Morris, Sidney M.; Ratan, Rajiv R.

    2003-01-01

    l-Arginine is the only endogenous nitrogen-containing substrate of NO synthase (NOS), and it thus governs the production of NO during nervous system development as well as in disease states such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and HIV dementia. The “arginine paradox” refers to the dependence of cellular NO production on exogenous l-arginine concentration despite the theoretical saturation of NOS enzymes with intracellular l-arginine. Herein, we report that decreased availability of l-arginine blocked induction of NO production in cytokine-stimulated astrocytes, owing to inhibition of inducible NOS (iNOS) protein expression. However, activity of the promoter of the iNOS gene, induction of iNOS mRNA, and stability of iNOS protein were not inhibited under these conditions. Our results indicate that inhibition of iNOS activity by arginine depletion in stimulated astrocyte cultures occurs via inhibition of translation of iNOS mRNA. After stimulation by cytokines, uptake of l-arginine negatively regulates the phosphorylation status of the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF2α), which, in turn, regulates translation of iNOS mRNA. eIF2α phosphorylation correlates with phosphorylation of the mammalian homolog of yeast GCN2 eIF2α kinase. As the kinase activity of GCN2 is activated by phosphorylation, these findings suggest that GCN2 activity represents a proximal step in the iNOS translational regulation by availability of l-arginine. These results provide an explanation for the arginine paradox for iNOS and define a distinct mechanism by which a substrate can regulate the activity of its associated enzyme. PMID:12655043

  15. Effects of arginine on multimodal anion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Atsushi; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Kameda, Tomoshi

    2015-12-01

    The effects of arginine on binding and elution properties of a multimodal anion exchanger, Capto adhere, were examined using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-8 (mAb-IL8). Negatively charged BSA was bound to the positively charged Capto adhere and was readily eluted from the column with a stepwise or gradient elution using 1M NaCl at pH 7.0. For heat-treated BSA, small oligomers and remaining monomers were also eluted using a NaCl gradient, whereas larger oligomers required arginine for effective elution. The positively charged mAb-IL8 was bound to Capto adhere at pH 7.0. Arginine was also more effective for elution of the bound mAb-IL8 than was NaCl. The results imply that arginine interacts with the positively charged Capto adhere. The mechanism underlying the interactions of arginine with Capto adhere was examined by calculating the binding free energy between an arginine molecule and a Capto adhere ligand in water through molecular dynamics simulations. The overall affinity of arginine for Capto adhere is attributed to the hydrophobic and π-π interactions between an arginine side chain and the aromatic moiety of the ligand as well as hydrogen bonding between arginine and the ligand hydroxyl group, which may account for the characteristics of protein elution using arginine. PMID:26225914

  16. L-arginine

    MedlinePlus

    ... L-arginine is used in combination with a number of over-the-counter and prescription medications for ... to help reduce the recovery time, reduce the number of infections, and improve wound healing after surgery. ...

  17. Catalytic site remodelling of the DOT1L methyltransferase by selective inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Wenyu; Chory, Emma J.; Wernimont, Amy K.; Tempel, Wolfram; Scopton, Alex; Federation, Alexander; Marineau, Jason J.; Qi, Jun; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Yi, Joanna; Marcellus, Richard; Iacob, Roxana E.; Engen, John R.; Griffin, Carly; Aman, Ahmed; Wienholds, Erno; Li, Fengling; Pineda, Javier; Estiu, Guillermina; Shatseva, Tatiana; Hajian, Taraneh; Al-awar, Rima; Dick, John E.; Vedadi, Masoud; Brown, Peter J.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Bradner, James E.; Schapira, Matthieu

    2012-12-18

    Selective inhibition of protein methyltransferases is a promising new approach to drug discovery. An attractive strategy towards this goal is the development of compounds that selectively inhibit binding of the cofactor, S-adenosylmethionine, within specific protein methyltransferases. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of the protein methyltransferase DOT1L bound toEPZ004777, the first S-adenosylmethionine-competitive inhibitor of a protein methyltransferase with in vivo efficacy. This structure and those of four new analogues reveal remodelling of the catalytic site. EPZ004777 and a brominated analogue, SGC0946, inhibit DOT1L in vitro and selectively kill mixed lineage leukaemia cells, in which DOT1L is aberrantly localized via interaction with an oncogenic MLL fusion protein. These data provide important new insight into mechanisms of cell-active S-adenosylmethionine-competitive protein methyltransferase inhibitors, and establish a foundation for the further development of drug-like inhibitors of DOT1L for cancer therapy.

  18. PRMT5- mediated symmetric arginine dimethylation is attenuated by mutant huntingtin and is impaired in Huntington's disease (HD)

    PubMed Central

    Ratovitski, Tamara; Arbez, Nicolas; Stewart, Jacqueline C; Chighladze, Ekaterine; Ross, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal protein interactions of mutant huntingtin (Htt) triggered by polyglutamine expansion are thought to mediate Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis. Here, we explored a functional interaction of Htt with protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), an enzyme mediating symmetrical dimethylation of arginine (sDMA) of key cellular proteins, including histones, and spliceosomal Sm proteins. Gene transcription and RNA splicing are impaired in HD. We demonstrated PRMT5 and Htt interaction and their co-localization in transfected neurons and in HD brain. As a result of this interaction, normal (but to a lesser extend mutant) Htt stimulated PRMT5 activity in vitro. SDMA of histones H2A and H4 was reduced in the presence of mutant Htt in primary cultured neurons and in HD brain, consistent with a demonstrated reduction in R3Me2s occupancy at the transcriptionally repressed promoters in HD brain. SDMA of another PRMT5 substrate, Cajal body marker coilin, was also reduced in the HD mouse model and in human HD brain. Finally, compensation of PRMT5 deficiency by ectopic expression of PRMT5/MEP50 complexes, or by the knock-down of H4R3Me2 demethylase JMJD6, reversed the toxic effects of mutant Htt in primary cortical neurons, suggesting that PRMT5 deficiency may mediate, at least in part, HD pathogenesis. These studies revealed a potential new mechanism for disruption of gene expression and RNA processing in HD, involving a loss of normal function of Htt in facilitation of PRMT5, supporting the idea that epigenetic regulation of gene transcription may be involved in HD and highlighting symmetric dimethylation of arginine as potential new therapeutic target. PMID:25927346

  19. Arginine: Its pKa value revisited

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, Carolyn A; Platzer, Gerald; Okon, Mark; Garcia-Moreno E, Bertrand; McIntosh, Lawrence P

    2015-01-01

    Using complementary approaches of potentiometry and NMR spectroscopy, we have determined that the equilibrium acid dissociation constant (pKa value) of the arginine guanidinium group is 13.8 ± 0.1. This is substantially higher than that of ∼12 often used in structure-based electrostatics calculations and cited in biochemistry textbooks. The revised intrinsic pKa value helps explains why arginine side chains in proteins are always predominantly charged, even at pH values as great as 10. The high pKa value also reinforces the observation that arginine side chains are invariably protonated under physiological conditions of near neutral pH. This occurs even when the guanidinium moiety is buried in a hydrophobic micro-environment, such as that inside a protein or a lipid membrane, thought to be incompatible with the presence of a charged group. PMID:25808204

  20. Arginine: Its pKa value revisited.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Carolyn A; Platzer, Gerald; Okon, Mark; Garcia-Moreno, Bertrand E; McIntosh, Lawrence P

    2015-05-01

    Using complementary approaches of potentiometry and NMR spectroscopy, we have determined that the equilibrium acid dissociation constant (pKa value) of the arginine guanidinium group is 13.8 ± 0.1. This is substantially higher than that of ∼ 12 often used in structure-based electrostatics calculations and cited in biochemistry textbooks. The revised intrinsic pKa value helps explains why arginine side chains in proteins are always predominantly charged, even at pH values as great as 10. The high pKa value also reinforces the observation that arginine side chains are invariably protonated under physiological conditions of near neutral pH. This occurs even when the guanidinium moiety is buried in a hydrophobic micro-environment, such as that inside a protein or a lipid membrane, thought to be incompatible with the presence of a charged group. PMID:25808204

  1. Arginine 116 stabilizes the entrance to the metal ion-binding site of the MntC protein

    PubMed Central

    Kanteev, Margarita; Adir, Noam

    2013-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 imports Mn2+ ions via MntCAB, an ABC transport system that is expressed at submicromolar Mn2+ concentrations. The structures of the wild type (WT) and a site-directed mutant of the MntC solute-binding protein have been determined at 2.7 and 3.5 Å resolution, respectively. The WT structure is significantly improved over the previously determined structure (PDB entry 1xvl), showing improved Mn2+ binding site parameters, disulfide bonds in all three monomers and ions bound to the protein surface, revealing the role of Zn2+ ions in the crystallization liquor. The structure of MntC reveals that the active site is surrounded by neutral-to-­positive electrostatic potential and is dominated by a network of polar interactions centred around Arg116. The mutation of this residue to alanine was shown to destabilize loops in the entrance to the metal-ion binding site and suggests a possible role in MntC function. PMID:23519795

  2. Arginine, citrulline and nitric oxide metabolism in sepsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arginine has vasodilatory effects, via its conversion by nitric oxide (NO) synthase into NO, and immunomodulatory actions that play important roles in sepsis. Protein breakdown affects arginine availability, and the release of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of NO synthase, may therefore a...

  3. Arginine Biosynthesis in Thermotoga maritima: Characterization of the Arginine-Sensitive N-Acetyl-l-Glutamate Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Murga, M. Leonor; Gil-Ortiz, Fernando; Llácer, José L.; Rubio, Vicente

    2004-01-01

    To help clarify the control of arginine synthesis in Thermotoga maritima, the putative gene (argB) for N-acetyl-l-glutamate kinase (NAGK) from this microorganism was cloned and overexpressed, and the resulting protein was purified and shown to be a highly thermostable and specific NAGK that is potently and selectively inhibited by arginine. Therefore, NAGK is in T. maritima the feedback control point of arginine synthesis, a process that in this organism involves acetyl group recycling and appears not to involve classical acetylglutamate synthase. The inhibition of NAGK by arginine was found to be pH independent and to depend sigmoidally on the concentration of arginine, with a Hill coefficient (N) of ∼4, and the 50% inhibitory arginine concentration (I0.5) was shown to increase with temperature, approaching above 65°C the I0.50 observed at 37°C with the mesophilic NAGK of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (the best-studied arginine-inhibitable NAGK). At 75°C, the inhibition by arginine of T. maritima NAGK was due to a large increase in the Km for acetylglutamate triggered by the inhibitor, but at 37°C arginine also substantially decreased the Vmax of the enzyme. The NAGKs of T. maritima and P. aeruginosa behaved in gel filtration as hexamers, justifying the sigmoidicity and high Hill coefficient of arginine inhibition, and arginine or the substrates failed to disaggregate these enzymes. In contrast, Escherichia coli NAGK is not inhibited by arginine and is dimeric, and thus the hexameric architecture may be an important determinant of arginine sensitivity. Potential thermostability determinants of T. maritima NAGK are also discussed. PMID:15342584

  4. Arginine biosynthesis in Thermotoga maritima: characterization of the arginine-sensitive N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Murga, M Leonor; Gil-Ortiz, Fernando; Llácer, José L; Rubio, Vicente

    2004-09-01

    To help clarify the control of arginine synthesis in Thermotoga maritima, the putative gene (argB) for N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) from this microorganism was cloned and overexpressed, and the resulting protein was purified and shown to be a highly thermostable and specific NAGK that is potently and selectively inhibited by arginine. Therefore, NAGK is in T. maritima the feedback control point of arginine synthesis, a process that in this organism involves acetyl group recycling and appears not to involve classical acetylglutamate synthase. The inhibition of NAGK by arginine was found to be pH independent and to depend sigmoidally on the concentration of arginine, with a Hill coefficient (N) of approximately 4, and the 50% inhibitory arginine concentration (I0.5) was shown to increase with temperature, approaching above 65 degrees C the I0.50 observed at 37 degrees C with the mesophilic NAGK of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (the best-studied arginine-inhibitable NAGK). At 75 degrees C, the inhibition by arginine of T. maritima NAGK was due to a large increase in the Km for acetylglutamate triggered by the inhibitor, but at 37 degrees C arginine also substantially decreased the Vmax of the enzyme. The NAGKs of T. maritima and P. aeruginosa behaved in gel filtration as hexamers, justifying the sigmoidicity and high Hill coefficient of arginine inhibition, and arginine or the substrates failed to disaggregate these enzymes. In contrast, Escherichia coli NAGK is not inhibited by arginine and is dimeric, and thus the hexameric architecture may be an important determinant of arginine sensitivity. Potential thermostability determinants of T. maritima NAGK are also discussed. PMID:15342584

  5. Characterization and cloning of the human splicing factor 9G8: a novel 35 kDa factor of the serine/arginine protein family.

    PubMed Central

    Cavaloc, Y; Popielarz, M; Fuchs, J P; Gattoni, R; Stévenin, J

    1994-01-01

    By adopting a monoclonal antibody approach, we have identified a novel splicing factor of 35 kDa which we have termed 9G8. The isolation and characterization of cDNA clones indicate that 9G8 is a novel member of the serine/arginine (SR) splicing factor family because it includes an N-terminal RNA binding domain (RBD) and a C-terminal SR domain. The RNA binding domain of 9G8 is highly homologous to those of the SRp20 and RBP1 factors (79-71% identity), but the homology is less pronounced in the cases of SF2/ASF and SC35/PR264 (45-37% identity). Compared with the other SR splicing factors, 9G8 presents some specific sequence features because it contains an RRSRSXSX consensus sequence repeated six times in the SR domain, and a CCHC motif in its median region, similar to the zinc knuckle found in the SLU7 splicing factor in yeast. Complete immunodepletion of 9G8 from a nuclear extract, which is accompanied by a substantial depletion of other SR factors, results in a loss of splicing activity. We show that a recombinant 9G8 protein, expressed using a baculovirus vector and excluding other SR factors, rescues the splicing activity of a 9G8-depleted nuclear extract and an S100 cytoplasmic fraction. This indicates that 9G8 plays a crucial role in splicing, similar to that of the other SR splicing factors. This similarity was confirmed by the fact that purified human SC35 also rescues the 9G8-depleted extract. The identification of the 9G8 factor enlarges the essential family of SR splicing factors, whose members have also been proposed to play key roles in alternative splicing. Images PMID:8013463

  6. The Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Raloxifene Regulates Arginine-Vasopressin Gene Expression in Human Female Neuroblastoma Cells Through G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor and ERK Signaling.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Daniela; Ghorbanpoor, Samar; Acaz-Fonseca, Estefania; Ruiz-Palmero, Isabel; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2015-10-01

    The selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene reduces blood pressure in hypertensive postmenopausal women. In the present study we have explored whether raloxifene regulates gene expression of arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The effect of raloxifene was assessed in human female SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which have been recently identified as a suitable cellular model to study the estrogenic regulation of AVP. Raloxifene, within a concentration ranging from 10(-10) M to 10(-6) M, decreased the mRNA levels of AVP in SH-SY5Y cells with maximal effect at 10(-7) M. This effect of raloxifene was imitated by an agonist (±)-1-[(3aR*,4S*,9bS*)-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinolin-8-yl]-ethanone of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER) and blocked by an antagonist (3aS*,4R*,9bR*)-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline of GPER and by GPER silencing. Raloxifene induced a time-dependent increase in the level of phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2, by a mechanism blocked by the GPER antagonist. The treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with either a MAPK/ERK kinase 1/2-specific inhibitor (1,4-diamino-2, 3-dicyano-1,4-bis(2-aminophenylthio)butadine) or a protein kinase C inhibitor (sotrastaurin) blocked the effects of raloxifene on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and the regulation of AVP mRNA levels. These results reveal a mechanism mediating the regulation of AVP expression by raloxifene, involving the activation of GPER, which in turn activates protein kinase C, MAPK/ERK kinase, and ERK. The regulation of AVP by raloxifene and GPER may have implications for the treatment of blood hypertension(.). PMID:26200092

  7. Arginine (CGC) codon targeting in the human prostacyclin receptor gene (PTGIR) and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR)

    PubMed Central

    Stitham, Jeremiah; Arehart, Eric J.; Gleim, Scott; Douville, Karen L.; MacKenzie, Todd; Hwa, John

    2007-01-01

    The human prostacyclin receptor (hIP) has recently been recognized as an important seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor that plays critical roles in a theroprevention and cardioprotection. To date, four non-synonymous genetic variants have been identified, two of which occur at the same Arg amino acid position (R212H, R212C). This observation instigated further genetic screening for prostacyclin receptor variants on 1,455 human genomic samples. A total of 31 distinct genetic variants were detected, with 6 (19%) involving Arg residues. Distinct differences in location and frequencies of genetic variants were noted between Caucasian, Asian, Hispanic and African Americans, with the most changes noted in the Asian cohort._From the sequencing results, three Arg-targeted changes at the same 212 position within the third cytoplasmic loop of the human prostacyclin (hIP) receptor were detected: 1) R212C (CGC→TGC), 2) R212H (CGC→CAC), and 3) R212R (CGC→CGT). Three additional Arg codon variants (all exhibiting the same CGC to TGC change) were also detected, R77C, R215C, and R279C. Analysis (GPCR and SNP databases) of 200 other GPCRs, with recorded non-synonymous mutations, confirmed a high frequency of Arg-targeted missense mutations, particularly within the important cytoplasmic domain. Preferential nucleotide changes (at Arg codons), were observed involving cytosine (C) to thymine (T) (pyrimidine to pyrimidine), as well as guanine (G) to adenine (A) (purine to purine) (p<0.001, Pearson’s goodness-of-fit test). Such targeting of Arg residues, leading to significant changes in coding amino acid size and/or charge, may have potentially-important structural and evolutionary implications on the hIP and GPCRs in general. In the case of the human prostacyclin receptor, such alterations may reduce the cardio-, vasculo-, and cytoprotective effects of prostacyclin. PMID:17481829

  8. Arginine (CGC) codon targeting in the human prostacyclin receptor gene (PTGIR) and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR).

    PubMed

    Stitham, Jeremiah; Arehart, Eric J; Gleim, Scott; Douville, Karen; MacKenzie, Todd; Hwa, John

    2007-07-01

    The human prostacyclin receptor (hIP) has recently been recognized as an important seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor that plays critical roles in atheroprevention and cardioprotection. To date, four non-synonymous genetic variants have been identified, two of which occur at the same Arg amino acid position (R212H, R212C). This observation instigated further genetic screening for prostacyclin receptor variants on 1455 human genomic samples. A total of 31 distinct genetic variants were detected, with 6 (19%) involving Arg residues. Distinct differences in location and frequencies of genetic variants were noted between Caucasian, Asian, Hispanic and African Americans, with the most changes noted in the Asian cohort. From the sequencing results, three Arg-targeted changes at the same 212 position within the third cytoplasmic loop of the human prostacyclin (hIP) receptor were detected: 1) R212C (CGC-->TGC), 2) R212H (CGC-->CAC), and 3) R212R (CGC-->CGT). Three additional Arg codon variants (all exhibiting the same CGC to TGC change) were also detected, R77C, R215C, and R279C. Analysis (GPCR and SNP databases) of 200 other GPCRs, with recorded non-synonymous mutations, confirmed a high frequency of Arg-targeted missense mutations, particularly within the important cytoplasmic domain. Preferential nucleotide changes (at Arg codons), were observed involving cytosine (C) to thymine (T) (pyrimidine to pyrimidine), as well as guanine (G) to adenine (A) (purine to purine) (p<0.001, Pearson's goodness-of-fit test). Such targeting of Arg residues, leading to significant changes in coding amino acid size and/or charge, may have potentially-important structural and evolutionary implications on the hIP and GPCRs in general. In the case of the human prostacyclin receptor, such alterations may reduce the cardio-, vasculo-, and cytoprotective effects of prostacyclin. PMID:17481829

  9. The combination of arginine and leucine supplementation of reduced crude protein diets for boars increases eating quality of pork.

    PubMed

    Madeira, M S; Alfaia, C M; Costa, P; Lopes, P A; Lemos, J P C; Bessa, R J B; Prates, J A M

    2014-05-01

    Fifty-four entire male pigs (Duroc × Pietrain × Large White × Landrace) from a commercial crossbred operation were used to investigate the effect of dietary Arg supplementation, protein reduction (PR), and Leu supplementation on performance, carcass traits, and meat quality. Pigs weighing 58.9 ± 1.6 kg BW were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments (n = 9). The 6 dietary treatments were normal CP diet (16% CP, NPD), reduced CP diet (13% CP, RPD), reduced CP diet with Leu addition to 2.0% (RPDL), normal CP diet supplemented with 1% Arg (16% CP, Arg-NPD), reduced CP diet supplemented with 1% Arg (13% CP, Arg-RPD), and reduced CP diet with Leu addition to 2.0% and supplemented with 1% Arg (13% CP, Arg-RPDL). Pigs were slaughtered at 91.7 ± 1.6 kg BW. Dietary Arg supplementation had no effect on intramuscular fat (IMF) content but produced meat off-flavor and increased meat tenderness and overall acceptability. The PR increased (P < 0.001) IMF content (45% to 48%) but negatively affected the growth performance of pigs. In addition, PR increased (P < 0.05) back fat thickness and decreased loin weight. Leucine addition did not affect IMF content, back fat thickness, or loin weight. There was an increase of juiciness with PR and Leu addition, which accompanied the increase of IMF content with the low-CP diet. The PR increased meat deposition of 18:1c9, SFA, MUFA, and PUFA, which were not correlated with any pork sensory trait. The main combined effect of Arg was an increased tenderness and overall acceptability of pork. In conclusion, it was confirmed that dietary CP reduction enhances pork eating quality but negatively affects growth performance and carcass characteristics of pigs. PMID:24663178

  10. Dual roles for an arginine-rich motif in specific genome recognition and localization of viral coat protein to RNA replication sites in flock house virus-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Venter, P Arno; Marshall, Dawn; Schneemann, Anette

    2009-04-01

    Assembly of many RNA viruses entails the encapsidation of multiple genome segments into a single virion, and underlying mechanisms for this process are still poorly understood. In the case of the nodavirus Flock House virus (FHV), a bipartite positive-strand RNA genome consisting of RNA1 and RNA2 is copackaged into progeny virions. In this study, we investigated whether the specific packaging of FHV RNA is dependent on an arginine-rich motif (ARM) located in the N terminus of the coat protein. Our results demonstrate that the replacement of all arginine residues within this motif with alanines rendered the resultant coat protein unable to package RNA1, suggesting that the ARM represents an important determinant for the encapsidation of this genome segment. In contrast, replacement of all arginines with lysines had no effect on RNA1 packaging. Interestingly, confocal microscopic analysis demonstrated that the RNA1 packaging-deficient mutant did not localize to mitochondrial sites of FHV RNA replication as efficiently as wild-type coat protein. In addition, gain-of-function analyses showed that the ARM by itself was sufficient to target green fluorescent protein to RNA replication sites. These data suggest that the packaging of RNA1 is dependent on trafficking of coat protein to mitochondria, the presumed site of FHV assembly, and that this trafficking requires a high density of positive charge in the N terminus. Our results are compatible with a model in which recognition of RNA1 and RNA2 for encapsidation occurs sequentially and in distinct cellular microenvironments. PMID:19158251

  11. Purification of free arginine from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Megías, Cristina; Alaiz, Manuel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Chickpea is a grain legume widely consumed in the Mediterranean region and other parts of the world. Chickpea seeds are rich in proteins but they also contain a substantial amount of free amino acids, especially arginine. Hence chickpea may represent a useful source of free amino acids for nutritional or pharmaceutical purposes. Arginine is receiving great attention in recent years because it is the substrate for the synthesis of nitric oxide, an important signaling molecule involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes in mammals. In this work we describe a simple procedure for the purification of arginine from chickpea seeds, using nanofiltration technology and an ion-exchange resin, Amberlite IR-120. Arginine was finally purified by precipitation or crystallization, yielding preparations with purities of 91% and 100%, respectively. Chickpea may represent an affordable green source of arginine, and a useful alternative to production by fermentation or protein hydrolysis. PMID:26304327

  12. Genome-Wide Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing Analysis of the Penicillium chrysogenum Velvet Protein PcVelA Identifies Methyltransferase PcLlmA as a Novel Downstream Regulator of Fungal Development.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kordula; Ziemons, Sandra; Lentz, Katharina; Freitag, Michael; Kück, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is the sole industrial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin, which is the most commonly used drug for treating bacterial infections. In P. chrysogenum and other filamentous fungi, secondary metabolism and morphogenesis are controlled by the highly conserved multisubunit velvet complex. Here we present the first chromatin immunoprecipitation next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis of a fungal velvet protein, providing experimental evidence that a velvet homologue in P. chrysogenum (PcVelA) acts as a direct transcriptional regulator at the DNA level in addition to functioning as a regulator at the protein level in P. chrysogenum, which was previously described. We identified many target genes that are related to processes known to be dependent on PcVelA, e.g., secondary metabolism as well as asexual and sexual development. We also identified seven PcVelA target genes that encode putative methyltransferases. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses showed that one of the putative methyltransferases, PcLlmA, directly interacts with PcVelA. Furthermore, functional characterization of PcLlmA demonstrated that this protein is involved in the regulation of conidiosporogenesis, pellet formation, and hyphal morphology, all traits with major biotechnological relevance. IMPORTANCE Filamentous fungi are of major interest for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. This is due mainly to their ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites, many of which are relevant as antibiotics. One of the most prominent examples is penicillin, a β-lactam antibiotic that is produced on the industrial scale by fermentation of P. chrysogenum. In recent years, the multisubunit protein complex velvet has been identified as one of the key regulators of fungal secondary metabolism and development. However, until recently, only a little has been known about how velvet mediates regulation at the

  13. Genome-Wide Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing Analysis of the Penicillium chrysogenum Velvet Protein PcVelA Identifies Methyltransferase PcLlmA as a Novel Downstream Regulator of Fungal Development

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Kordula; Ziemons, Sandra; Lentz, Katharina; Freitag, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Penicillium chrysogenum is the sole industrial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin, which is the most commonly used drug for treating bacterial infections. In P. chrysogenum and other filamentous fungi, secondary metabolism and morphogenesis are controlled by the highly conserved multisubunit velvet complex. Here we present the first chromatin immunoprecipitation next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis of a fungal velvet protein, providing experimental evidence that a velvet homologue in P. chrysogenum (PcVelA) acts as a direct transcriptional regulator at the DNA level in addition to functioning as a regulator at the protein level in P. chrysogenum, which was previously described. We identified many target genes that are related to processes known to be dependent on PcVelA, e.g., secondary metabolism as well as asexual and sexual development. We also identified seven PcVelA target genes that encode putative methyltransferases. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses showed that one of the putative methyltransferases, PcLlmA, directly interacts with PcVelA. Furthermore, functional characterization of PcLlmA demonstrated that this protein is involved in the regulation of conidiosporogenesis, pellet formation, and hyphal morphology, all traits with major biotechnological relevance. IMPORTANCE Filamentous fungi are of major interest for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. This is due mainly to their ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites, many of which are relevant as antibiotics. One of the most prominent examples is penicillin, a β-lactam antibiotic that is produced on the industrial scale by fermentation of P. chrysogenum. In recent years, the multisubunit protein complex velvet has been identified as one of the key regulators of fungal secondary metabolism and development. However, until recently, only a little has been known about how velvet mediates regulation at

  14. Octa-Arginine Mediated Delivery of Wild-Type Lnk Protein Inhibits TPO-Induced M-MOK Megakaryoblastic Leukemic Cell Growth by Promoting Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Looi, Chung Yeng; Imanishi, Miki; Takaki, Satoshi; Sato, Miki; Chiba, Natsuko; Sasahara, Yoji; Futaki, Shiroh; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Kumaki, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    Background Lnk plays a non-redundant role by negatively regulating cytokine signaling of TPO, SCF or EPO. Retroviral expression of Lnk has been shown to suppress hematopoietic leukemic cell proliferation indicating its therapeutic value in cancer therapy. However, retroviral gene delivery carries risks of insertional mutagenesis. To circumvent this undesired consequence, we fused a cell permeable peptide octa-arginine to Lnk and evaluated the efficacy of inhibition of leukemic cell proliferation in vitro. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, proliferation assays, flow cytometry, Western Blot analyses were performed on wild-type (WT), mutant Lnk R8 or BSA treated M-MOK cells. We found that delivered WT, but not mutant Lnk R8 blocked TPO-induced M-MOK megakaryoblastic leukemic cell proliferation. In contrast, WT Lnk R8 showed no growth inhibitive effect on non-hematopoietic HELA or COS-7 cell. Moreover, we demonstrated that TPO-induced M-MOK cell growth inhibition by WT Lnk R8 was dose-dependent. Penetrated WT Lnk R8 induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Immunoprecipitation and Western blots data indicated WT Lnk R8 interacted with endogeneous Jak2 and downregulated Jak-Stat and MAPK phosphorylation level in M-MOK cells after TPO stimulation. Treatment with specific inhibitors (TG101348 and PD98059) indicated Jak-Stat and MAPK pathways were crucial for TPO-induced proliferation of M-MOK cells. Further analyses using TF-1 and HEL leukemic cell-lines showed that WT Lnk R8 inhibited Jak2-dependent cell proliferation. Using cord blood-derived CD34+ stem cells, we found that delivered WT Lnk R8 blocked TPO-induced megakaryopoiesis in vitro. Conclusions/Significance Intracellular delivery of WT Lnk R8 fusion protein efficiently inhibited TPO-induced M-MOK leukemic cell growth by promoting apoptosis. WT Lnk R8 protein delivery may provide a safer and more practical approach to inhibit leukemic cell growth worthy of further development. PMID:21853157

  15. Structural Chemistry of Human RNA Methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Schapira, Matthieu

    2016-03-18

    RNA methyltransferases (RNMTs) play important roles in RNA stability, splicing, and epigenetic mechanisms. They constitute a promising target class that is underexplored by the medicinal chemistry community. Information of relevance to drug design can be extracted from the rich structural coverage of human RNMTs. In this work, the structural chemistry of this protein family is analyzed in depth. Unlike most methyltransferases, RNMTs generally feature a substrate-binding site that is largely open on the cofactor-binding pocket, favoring the design of bisubstrate inhibitors. Substrate purine or pyrimidines are often sandwiched between hydrophobic walls that can accommodate planar ring systems. When the substrate base is laying on a shallow surface, a 5' flanking base is sometimes anchored in a druggable cavity. The cofactor-binding site is structurally more diverse than in protein methyltransferases and more druggable in SPOUT than in Rossman-fold enzymes. Finally, conformational plasticity observed both at the substrate and cofactor binding sites may be a challenge for structure-based drug design. The landscape drawn here may inform ongoing efforts toward the discovery of the first human RNMT inhibitors. PMID:26566070

  16. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the Ecal DNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, V; Venetianer, P; Kiss, A

    1990-01-01

    The gene coding for the GGTNACC specific Ecal DNA methyltransferase (M.Ecal) has been cloned in E. coli from Enterobacter cloacae and its nucleotide sequence has been determined. The ecalM gene codes for a protein of 452 amino acids (Mr: 51,111). It was determined that M.Ecal is an adenine methyltransferase. M.Ecal shows limited amino acid sequence similarity to other adenine methyltransferases. A clone that expresses Ecal methyltransferase at high level was constructed. Images PMID:2183182

  17. Selective Interactions between Vertebrate Polycomb Homologs and the SUV39H1 Histone Lysine Methyltransferase Suggest that Histone H3-K9 Methylation Contributes to Chromosomal Targeting of Polycomb Group Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sewalt, Richard G. A. B.; Lachner, Monika; Vargas, Mark; Hamer, Karien M.; den Blaauwen, Jan L.; Hendrix, Thijs; Melcher, Martin; Schweizer, Dieter; Jenuwein, Thomas; Otte, Arie P.

    2002-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins form multimeric chromatin-associated protein complexes that are involved in heritable repression of gene activity. Two distinct human PcG complexes have been characterized. The EED/EZH2 PcG complex utilizes histone deacetylation to repress gene activity. The HPC/HPH PcG complex contains the HPH, RING1, BMI1, and HPC proteins. Here we show that vertebrate Polycomb homologs HPC2 and XPc2, but not M33/MPc1, interact with the histone lysine methyltransferase (HMTase) SUV39H1 both in vitro and in vivo. We further find that overexpression of SUV39H1 induces selective nuclear relocalization of HPC/HPH PcG proteins but not of the EED/EZH2 PcG proteins. This SUV39H1-dependent relocalization concentrates the HPC/HPH PcG proteins to the large pericentromeric heterochromatin domains (1q12) on human chromosome 1. Within these PcG domains we observe increased H3-K9 methylation. Finally, we show that H3-K9 HMTase activity is associated with endogenous HPC2. Our findings suggest a role for the SUV39H1 HMTase and histone H3-K9 methylation in the targeting of human HPC/HPH PcG proteins to modified chromatin structures. PMID:12101246

  18. Arginine-induced stimulation of protein synthesis and survival in IPEC-J2 cells is mediated by mTOR but not nitric oxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arginine (ARG) is an indispensable amino acid in neonates and required for growth. Neonatal intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are capable of ARG transport, catabolism, and synthesis, and express nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to produce NO from ARG. Our aim was to determine whether ARG directly stimul...

  19. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, Duncan J.; Girosky, Kimberly E.; Krzycki, Joseph A.; Ferguson, Donald J.

    2014-01-01

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. In addition, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. They are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health. PMID:25313086

  20. Arginine metabolism in wounds

    SciTech Connect

    Albina, J.E.; Mills, C.D.; Barbul, A.; Thirkill, C.E.; Henry, W.L. Jr.; Mastrofrancesco, B.; Caldwell, M.D.

    1988-04-01

    Arginine metabolism in wounds was investigated in the rat in 1) lambda-carrageenan-wounded skeletal muscle, 2) Schilling chambers, and 3) subcutaneous polyvinyl alcohol sponges. All showed decreased arginine and elevated ornithine contents and high arginase activity. Arginase could be brought to the wound by macrophages, which were found to contain arginase activity. However, arginase was expressed by macrophages only after cell lysis and no arginase was released by viable macrophages in vitro. Thus the extracellular arginase of wounds may derive from dead macrophages within the injured tissue. Wound and peritoneal macrophages exhibited arginase deiminase activity as demonstrated by the conversion of (guanido-/sup 14/C)arginine to radiolabeled citrulline during culture, the inhibition of this reaction by formamidinium acetate, and the lack of prokaryotic contamination of the cultures. These findings and the known metabolic fates of the products of arginase and arginine deiminase in the cellular populations of the wound suggest the possibility of cooperativity among cells for the production of substrates for collagen synthesis.

  1. Asymmetric arginine dimethylation of RelA provides a repressive mark to modulate TNFα/NF-κB response

    PubMed Central

    Reintjes, Anja; Fuchs, Julian E.; Kremser, Leopold; Lindner, Herbert H.; Liedl, Klaus R.; Huber, Lukas A.; Valovka, Taras

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is an inducible transcription factor that plays critical roles in immune and stress responses and is often implicated in pathologies, including chronic inflammation and cancer. Although much has been learned about NF-κB–activating pathways, the specific repression of NF-κB is far less well understood. Here we identified the type I protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) as a restrictive factor controlling TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB. PRMT1 forms a cellular complex with NF-κB through direct interaction with the Rel homology domain of RelA. We demonstrate that PRMT1 methylates RelA at evolutionary conserved R30, located in the DNA-binding L1 loop, which is a critical residue required for DNA binding. Asymmetric R30 dimethylation inhibits the binding of RelA to DNA and represses NF-κB target genes in response to TNFα. Molecular dynamics simulations of the DNA-bound RelA:p50 predicted structural changes in RelA caused by R30 methylation or a mutation that interferes with the stability of the DNA–NF-κB complex. Our findings provide evidence for the asymmetric arginine dimethylation of RelA and unveil a unique mechanism controlling TNFα/NF-κB signaling. PMID:27051065

  2. Asymmetric arginine dimethylation of RelA provides a repressive mark to modulate TNFα/NF-κB response.

    PubMed

    Reintjes, Anja; Fuchs, Julian E; Kremser, Leopold; Lindner, Herbert H; Liedl, Klaus R; Huber, Lukas A; Valovka, Taras

    2016-04-19

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is an inducible transcription factor that plays critical roles in immune and stress responses and is often implicated in pathologies, including chronic inflammation and cancer. Although much has been learned about NF-κB-activating pathways, the specific repression of NF-κB is far less well understood. Here we identified the type I protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) as a restrictive factor controlling TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB. PRMT1 forms a cellular complex with NF-κB through direct interaction with the Rel homology domain of RelA. We demonstrate that PRMT1 methylates RelA at evolutionary conserved R30, located in the DNA-binding L1 loop, which is a critical residue required for DNA binding. Asymmetric R30 dimethylation inhibits the binding of RelA to DNA and represses NF-κB target genes in response to TNFα. Molecular dynamics simulations of the DNA-bound RelA:p50 predicted structural changes in RelA caused by R30 methylation or a mutation that interferes with the stability of the DNA-NF-κB complex. Our findings provide evidence for the asymmetric arginine dimethylation of RelA and unveil a unique mechanism controlling TNFα/NF-κB signaling. PMID:27051065

  3. Altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Jing, Y; Collie, N D; Dean, B; Bilkey, D K; Zhang, H

    2016-01-01

    Previous research implicates altered metabolism of l-arginine, a versatile amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites, in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study, for we believe the first time, systematically compared the metabolic profile of l-arginine in the frontal cortex (Brodmann's area 8) obtained post-mortem from schizophrenic individuals and age- and gender-matched non-psychiatric controls (n=20 per group). The enzyme assays revealed no change in total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, but significantly increased arginase activity in the schizophrenia group. Western blot showed reduced endothelial NOS protein expression and increased arginase II protein level in the disease group. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric assays confirmed significantly reduced levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but increased agmatine concentration and glutamate/GABA ratio in the schizophrenia cases. Regression analysis indicated positive correlations between arginase activity and the age of disease onset and between l-ornithine level and the duration of illness. Moreover, cluster analyses revealed that l-arginine and its main metabolites l-citrulline, l-ornithine and agmatine formed distinct groups, which were altered in the schizophrenia group. The present study provides further evidence of altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia, which enhances our understanding of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and may lead to the future development of novel preventions and/or therapeutics for the disease. PMID:27529679

  4. A high-resolution structure of the DNA-binding domain of AhrC, the arginine repressor/activator protein from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, James A.; Baumberg, Simon; Stockley, Peter G.; Phillips, Simon E. V.

    2007-11-01

    The structure of the winged helix–turn–helix DNA-binding domain of AhrC has been determined at 1.0 Å resolution. The largely hydrophobic β-wing shows high B factors and may mediate the dimer interface in operator complexes. In Bacillus subtilis the concentration of l-arginine is controlled by the transcriptional regulator AhrC, which interacts with 18 bp DNA operator sites called ARG boxes in the promoters of arginine biosynthetic and catabolic operons. AhrC is a 100 kDa homohexamer, with each subunit having two domains. The C-terminal domains form the core, mediating intersubunit interactions and binding of the co-repressor l-arginine, whilst the N-terminal domains contain a winged helix–turn–helix DNA-binding motif and are arranged around the periphery. The N-terminal domain of AhrC has been expressed, purified and characterized and it has been shown that the fragment still binds DNA operators as a recombinant monomer. The DNA-binding domain has also been crystallized and the crystal structure refined to 1.0 Å resolution is presented.

  5. An engineered L-arginine sensor of Chlamydia pneumoniae enables arginine-adjustable transcription control in mammalian cells and mice.

    PubMed

    Hartenbach, Shizuka; Daoud-El Baba, Marie; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

    2007-01-01

    For optimal compatibility with biopharmaceutical manufacturing and gene therapy, heterologous transgene control systems must be responsive to side-effect-free physiologic inducer molecules. The arginine-inducible interaction of the ArgR repressor and the ArgR-specific ARG box, which synchronize arginine import and synthesis in the intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae, was engineered for arginine-regulated transgene (ART) expression in mammalian cells. A synthetic arginine-responsive transactivator (ARG), consisting of ArgR fused to the Herpes simplex VP16 transactivation domain, reversibly adjusted transgene transcription of chimeric ARG box-containing mammalian minimal promoters (P(ART)) in an arginine-inducible manner. Arginine-controlled transgene expression showed rapid induction kinetics in a variety of mammalian cell lines and was adjustable and reversible at concentrations which were compatible with host cell physiology. ART variants containing different transactivation domains, variable spacing between ARG box and minimal promoter and several tandem ARG boxes showed modified regulation performance tailored for specific expression scenarios and cell types. Mice implanted with microencapsulated cells engineered for ART-inducible expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) exhibited adjustable serum phosphatase levels after treatment with different arginine doses. Using a physiologic inducer, such as the amino acid l-arginine, to control heterologous transgenes in a seamless manner which is devoid of noticeable metabolic interference will foster novel opportunities for precise expression dosing in future gene therapy scenarios as well as the manufacturing of difficult-to-produce protein pharmaceuticals. PMID:17947334

  6. Inhibition of lytic infection of pseudorabies virus by arginine depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.-C.; Kao, Y.-C.; Chang, T-J.; Wong, M.-L. . E-mail: mlwong@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2005-08-26

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a member of Alphahepesviruses; it is an enveloped virus with a double-stranded DNA genome. Polyamines (such as spermine and spermidine) are ubiquitous in animal cells and participate in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Previous results of our laboratory showed that the PRV can accomplish lytic infection either in the presence of exogenous spermine (or spermidine) or depletion of cellular polyamines. The amino acid arginine is a precursor of polyamine biosynthesis. In this work, we investigated the role of arginine in PRV infection. It was found that the plaque formation of PRV was inhibited by arginase (enzyme catalyzing the conversion of arginine into ornithine and urea) treatment whereas this inhibition can be reversed by exogenous arginine, suggesting that arginine is essential for PRV proliferation. Western blotting was conducted to study the effect of arginine depletion on the levels of structural proteins of PRV in virus-infected cells. Four PRV structural proteins (gB, gE, UL47, and UL48) were chosen for examination, and results revealed that the levels of viral proteins were obviously reduced in long time arginase treatment. However, the overall protein synthesis machinery was apparently not influenced by arginase treatment either in mock or PRV-infected cells. Analyzing with native gel, we found that arginase treatment affected the mobility of PRV structural proteins, suggesting the conformational change of viral proteins by arginine depletion. Heat shock proteins, acting as molecular chaperons, participate in protein folding and translocation. Our results demonstrated that long time arginase treatment could reduce the expression of cellular heat shock proteins 70 (hsc70 and hsp70), and transcriptional suppression of heat shock protein 70 gene promoter was one of the mechanisms involved in this reduced expression.

  7. Rice PROTEIN l-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE isoforms differentially accumulate during seed maturation to restrict deleterious isoAsp and reactive oxygen species accumulation and are implicated in seed vigor and longevity.

    PubMed

    Petla, Bhanu Prakash; Kamble, Nitin Uttam; Kumar, Meenu; Verma, Pooja; Ghosh, Shraboni; Singh, Ajeet; Rao, Venkateswara; Salvi, Prafull; Kaur, Harmeet; Saxena, Saurabh Chandra; Majee, Manoj

    2016-07-01

    PROTEIN l-ISOASPARTYL O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) is a protein-repairing enzyme involved in seed vigor and longevity. However, the regulation of PIMT isoforms during seed development and the mechanism of PIMT-mediated improvement of seed vigor and longevity are largely unknown. In this study in rice (Oryza sativa), we demonstrate the dynamics and correlation of isoaspartyl (isoAsp)-repairing demands and PIMT activity, and their implications, during seed development, germination and aging, through biochemical, molecular and genetic studies. Molecular and biochemical analyses revealed that rice possesses various biochemically active and inactive PIMT isoforms. Transcript and western blot analyses clearly showed the seed development stage and tissue-specific accumulation of active isoforms. Immunolocalization studies revealed distinct isoform expression in embryo and aleurone layers. Further analyses of transgenic lines for each OsPIMT isoform revealed a clear role in the restriction of deleterious isoAsp and age-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation to improve seed vigor and longevity. Collectively, our data suggest that a PIMT-mediated, protein repair mechanism is initiated during seed development in rice, with each isoform playing a distinct, yet coordinated, role. Our results also raise the intriguing possibility that PIMT repairs antioxidative enzymes and proteins which restrict ROS accumulation, lipid peroxidation, etc. in seed, particularly during aging, thus contributing to seed vigor and longevity. PMID:26987457

  8. Expression and function of arginine-producing and consuming-enzymes in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Levillain, Olivier

    2012-04-01

    The kidney plays a key role in arginine metabolism. Arginine production is controlled by argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) which metabolize citrulline and aspartate to arginine and fumarate whereas arginine consumption is dependent on arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (GAT), which mediates creatine and ornithine synthesis. Histological and biochemical techniques have been used to study the distribution and activity of these enzymes in anatomically dissected segments, in isolated fragments of tubules and in whole tissues. ASS and ASL mRNAs and proteins are expressed in the proximal tubule. Within this nephron segment, the proximal convoluted tubule has a higher arginine synthesis capacity than the proximal straight tubules. Furthermore, this arginine-synthesizing portion of the nephron matches perfectly with the site of citrulline reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate. The kidney itself can produce citrulline from methylated arginine, but this capacity is limited. Therefore, intestinal citrulline synthesis is required for renal arginine production. Although the proximal convoluted tubule also expresses a significant amount of GAT, only 10% of renal arginine synthesis is metabolized to guanidinoacetic acid, possibly because GAT has a mitochondrial localization. Kidney arginase (AII) is expressed in the cortical and outer medullary proximal straight tubules and does not degrade significant amounts of newly synthesized arginine. The data presented in this review identify the proximal convoluted tubule as the main site of endogenous arginine biosynthesis. PMID:21567240

  9. Methylation mediated by an anthocyanin, O-methyltransferase, is involved in purple flower coloration in Paeonia.

    PubMed

    Du, Hui; Wu, Jie; Ji, Kui-Xian; Zeng, Qing-Yin; Bhuiya, Mohammad-Wadud; Su, Shang; Shu, Qing-Yan; Ren, Hong-Xu; Liu, Zheng-An; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Anthocyanins are major pigments in plants. Methylation plays a role in the diversity and stability of anthocyanins. However, the contribution of anthocyanin methylation to flower coloration is still unclear. We identified two homologous anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) genes from purple-flowered (PsAOMT) and red-flowered (PtAOMT) Paeonia plants, and we performed functional analyses of the two genes in vitro and in vivo. The critical amino acids for AOMT catalytic activity were studied by site-directed mutagenesis. We showed that the recombinant proteins, PsAOMT and PtAOMT, had identical substrate preferences towards anthocyanins. The methylation activity of PsAOMT was 60 times higher than that of PtAOMT in vitro. Interestingly, this vast difference in catalytic activity appeared to result from a single amino acid residue substitution at position 87 (arginine to leucine). There were significant differences between the 35S::PsAOMT transgenic tobacco and control flowers in relation to their chromatic parameters, which further confirmed the function of PsAOMT in vivo. The expression levels of the two homologous AOMT genes were consistent with anthocyanin accumulation in petals. We conclude that AOMTs are responsible for the methylation of cyanidin glycosides in Paeonia plants and play an important role in purple coloration in Paeonia spp. PMID:26208646

  10. Methylation mediated by an anthocyanin, O-methyltransferase, is involved in purple flower coloration in Paeonia

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hui; Wu, Jie; Ji, Kui-Xian; Zeng, Qing-Yin; Bhuiya, Mohammad-Wadud; Su, Shang; Shu, Qing-Yan; Ren, Hong-Xu; Liu, Zheng-An; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are major pigments in plants. Methylation plays a role in the diversity and stability of anthocyanins. However, the contribution of anthocyanin methylation to flower coloration is still unclear. We identified two homologous anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) genes from purple-flowered (PsAOMT) and red-flowered (PtAOMT) Paeonia plants, and we performed functional analyses of the two genes in vitro and in vivo. The critical amino acids for AOMT catalytic activity were studied by site-directed mutagenesis. We showed that the recombinant proteins, PsAOMT and PtAOMT, had identical substrate preferences towards anthocyanins. The methylation activity of PsAOMT was 60 times higher than that of PtAOMT in vitro. Interestingly, this vast difference in catalytic activity appeared to result from a single amino acid residue substitution at position 87 (arginine to leucine). There were significant differences between the 35S::PsAOMT transgenic tobacco and control flowers in relation to their chromatic parameters, which further confirmed the function of PsAOMT in vivo. The expression levels of the two homologous AOMT genes were consistent with anthocyanin accumulation in petals. We conclude that AOMTs are responsible for the methylation of cyanidin glycosides in Paeonia plants and play an important role in purple coloration in Paeonia spp. PMID:26208646

  11. Functional Genomics Enables Identification of Genes of the Arginine Transaminase Pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhe; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2007-01-01

    Arginine utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa with multiple catabolic pathways represents one of the best examples of the metabolic versatility of this organism. To identify genes involved in arginine catabolism, we have employed DNA microarrays to analyze the transcriptional profiles of this organism in response to l-arginine. While most of the genes involved in arginine uptake, regulation, and metabolism have been identified as members of the ArgR (arginine-responsive regulatory protein) regulon in our previous study, they did not include any genes of the arginine dehydrogenase (ADH) pathway. In this study, 18 putative transcriptional units of 38 genes, including the two known genes of the ADH pathway, kauB and gbuA, were found to be inducible by exogenous l-arginine in the absence of ArgR. To identify the missing genes that encode enzymes for the initial steps of the ADH pathway, the potential physiological functions of those candidate genes in arginine utilization were studied by growth phenotype analysis of knockout mutants. Expression of these genes was induced by l-arginine in an aruF mutant strain devoid of a functional arginine succinyltransferase pathway, the major route of arginine utilization. Disruption of dadA, a putative catabolic alanine dehydrogenase-encoding gene, in the aruF mutant produced no growth on l-arginine, suggesting the involvement of l-alanine in arginine catabolism. This hypothesis was further supported by the detection of an l-arginine-inducible arginine:pyruvate transaminase activity in the aruF mutant. Knockout of aruH and aruI, which encode an arginine:pyruvate transaminase and a 2-ketoarginine decarboxylase in an operon, also abolished the ability of the aruF mutant to grow on l-arginine. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated consumption of 2-ketoarginine and suggested that generation of 4-guanidinobutyraldehyde occurred in the aruF mutant but not in the aruF aruI mutant. These results led

  12. IDENTIFYING CRITICAL CYSTEINE RESIDUES IN ARSENIC (+3 OXIDATION STATE) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) catalyzes methylation of inorganic arsenic to mono, di, and trimethylated arsenicals. Orthologous AS3MT genes in genomes ranging from simple echinoderm to human predict a protein with five conserved cysteine (C) residues. In ...

  13. Multiple lysine methylation of PCAF by Set9 methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Masatsugu, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Ken

    2009-03-27

    The molecular functions of several non-histone proteins are regulated through lysine modification by histone methyltransferases. The p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) is an acetyltransferase that has been implicated in many cellular processes. Here, we report that PCAF is a novel substrate of Set9 methyltransferase. In vitro mapping experiments revealed six lysine residues could be methylated by Set9. A comparison of amino acid sequences of target sites revealed the novel consensus motif which differs from previously identified Set9-consensus sequence. Further methyltransferase assays focusing on the six lysine residues showed that K78 and K89 are preferentially methylated in full-length PCAF in vitro. Using specific antibodies recognizing mono-methylated K89, in vivo PCAF methylation and its nuclear localization were demonstrated. Our data may lead to a new insight into PCAF functions and provide additional information to identify unknown targets of Set9.

  14. Arginine starvation in colorectal carcinoma cells: Sensing, impact on translation control and cell cycle distribution.

    PubMed

    Vynnytska-Myronovska, Bozhena O; Kurlishchuk, Yuliya; Chen, Oleh; Bobak, Yaroslav; Dittfeld, Claudia; Hüther, Melanie; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A; Stasyk, Oleh V

    2016-02-01

    Tumor cells rely on a continued exogenous nutrient supply in order to maintain a high proliferative activity. Although a strong dependence of some tumor types on exogenous arginine sources has been reported, the mechanisms of arginine sensing by tumor cells and the impact of changes in arginine availability on translation and cell cycle regulation are not fully understood. The results presented herein state that human colorectal carcinoma cells rapidly exhaust the internal arginine sources in the absence of exogenous arginine and repress global translation by activation of the GCN2-mediated pathway and inhibition of mTOR signaling. Tumor suppressor protein p53 activation and G1/G0 cell cycle arrest support cell survival upon prolonged arginine starvation. Cells with the mutant or deleted TP53 fail to stop cell cycle progression at defined cell cycle checkpoints which appears to be associated with reduced recovery after durable metabolic stress triggered by arginine withdrawal. PMID:26751966

  15. Arginine Supplementation Recovered the IFN-γ-Mediated Decrease in Milk Protein and Fat Synthesis by Inhibiting the GCN2/eIF2α Pathway, Which Induces Autophagy in Primary Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaojing; Che, Yanyi; Gao, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Shuang; Ao, Changjin; Yang, Hongjian; Liu, Juxiong; Liu, Guowen; Han, Wenyu; Wang, Yuping; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-01-01

    During the lactation cycle of the bovine mammary gland, autophagy is induced in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) as a cellular homeostasis and survival mechanism. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an important antiproliferative and apoptogenic factor that has been shown to induce autophagy in multiple cell lines in vitro. However, it remains unclear whether IFN-γ can induce autophagy and whether autophagy affects milk synthesis in BMECs. To understand whether IFN-γ affects milk synthesis, we isolated and purified primary BMECs and investigated the effect of IFN-γ on milk synthesis in primary BMECs in vitro. The results showed that IFN-γ significantly inhibits milk synthesis and that autophagy was clearly induced in primary BMECs in vitro within 24 h. Interestingly, autophagy was observed following IFN-γ treatment, and the inhibition of autophagy can improve milk protein and milk fat synthesis. Conversely, upregulation of autophagy decreased milk synthesis. Furthermore, mechanistic analysis confirmed that IFN-γ mediated autophagy by depleting arginine and inhibiting the general control nonderepressible-2 kinase (GCN2)/eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) signaling pathway in BMECs. Then, it was found that arginine supplementation could attenuate IFN-γ-induced autophagy and recover milk synthesis to some extent. These findings may not only provide a novel measure for preventing the IFN-γ-induced decrease in milk quality but also a useful therapeutic approach for IFN-γ-associated breast diseases in other animals and humans. PMID:27025389

  16. Arginine Supplementation Recovered the IFN-γ-Mediated Decrease in Milk Protein and Fat Synthesis by Inhibiting the GCN2/eIF2α Pathway, Which Induces Autophagy in Primary Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaojing; Che, Yanyi; Gao, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Shuang; Ao, Changjin; Yang, Hongjian; Liu, Juxiong; Liu, Guowen; Han, Wenyu; Wang, Yuping; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-05-31

    During the lactation cycle of the bovine mammary gland, autophagy is induced in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) as a cellular homeostasis and survival mechanism. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an important antiproliferative and apoptogenic factor that has been shown to induce autophagy in multiple cell lines in vitro. However, it remains unclear whether IFN-γ can induce autophagy and whether autophagy affects milk synthesis in BMECs. To understand whether IFN-γ affects milk synthesis, we isolated and purified primary BMECs and investigated the effect of IFN-γ on milk synthesis in primary BMECs in vitro. The results showed that IFN-γ significantly inhibits milk synthesis and that autophagy was clearly induced in primary BMECs in vitro within 24 h. Interestingly, autophagy was observed following IFN-γ treatment, and the inhibition of autophagy can improve milk protein and milk fat synthesis. Conversely, upregulation of autophagy decreased milk synthesis. Furthermore, mechanistic analysis confirmed that IFN-γ mediated autophagy by depleting arginine and inhibiting the general control nonderepressible-2 kinase (GCN2)/eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) signaling pathway in BMECs. Then, it was found that arginine supplementation could attenuate IFN-γ-induced autophagy and recover milk synthesis to some extent. These findings may not only provide a novel measure for preventing the IFN-γ-induced decrease in milk quality but also a useful therapeutic approach for IFN-γ-associated breast diseases in other animals and humans. PMID:27025389

  17. FcWRKY70, a WRKY protein of Fortunella crassifolia, functions in drought tolerance and modulates putrescine synthesis by regulating arginine decarboxylase gene.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jingyan; Hu, Jianbing; Wang, Wei; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Qinghua; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-11-01

    WRKY comprises a large family of transcription factors in plants, but most WRKY members are still poorly understood. In this study, we report functional characterization of a Group III WRKY gene (FcWRKY70) from Fortunella crassifolia. FcWRKY70 was greatly induced by drought and abscisic acid, but slightly or negligibly by salt and cold. Overexpression of FcWRKY70 in tobacco (Nicotiana nudicaulis) and lemon (Citrus lemon) conferred enhanced tolerance to dehydration and drought stresses. Transgenic tobacco and lemon exhibited higher expression levels of ADC (arginine decarboxylase), and accumulated larger amount of putrescine in comparison with wild type (WT). Treatment with D-arginine, an inhibitor of ADC, caused transgenic tobacco plants more sensitive to dehydration. Knock-down of FcWRKY70 in kumquat down-regulated ADC abundance and decreased putrescine level, accompanied by compromised dehydration tolerance. The promoter region of FcADC contained two W-box elements, which were shown to be interacted with FcWRKY70. Taken together, our data demonstrated that FcWRKY70 functions in drought tolerance by, at least partly, promoting production of putrescine via regulating ADC expression. PMID:25808564

  18. O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase protein expression by immunohistochemistry in brain and non-brain systemic tumours: systematic review and meta-analysis of correlation with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The DNA repair protein O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) confers resistance to alkylating agents. Several methods have been applied to its analysis, with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) the most commonly used for promoter methylation study, while immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become the most frequently used for the detection of MGMT protein expression. Agreement on the best and most reliable technique for evaluating MGMT status remains unsettled. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the correlation between IHC and MSP. Methods A computer-aided search of MEDLINE (1950-October 2009), EBSCO (1966-October 2009) and EMBASE (1974-October 2009) was performed for relevant publications. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were those comparing MGMT protein expression by IHC with MGMT promoter methylation by MSP in the same cohort of patients. Methodological quality was assessed by using the QUADAS and STARD instruments. Previously published guidelines were followed for meta-analysis performance. Results Of 254 studies identified as eligible for full-text review, 52 (20.5%) met the inclusion criteria. The review showed that results of MGMT protein expression by IHC are not in close agreement with those obtained with MSP. Moreover, type of tumour (primary brain tumour vs others) was an independent covariate of accuracy estimates in the meta-regression analysis beyond the cut-off value. Conclusions Protein expression assessed by IHC alone fails to reflect the promoter methylation status of MGMT. Thus, in attempts at clinical diagnosis the two methods seem to select different groups of patients and should not be used interchangeably. PMID:21269507

  19. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Craig T.; Mason, Philip E.; Anderson, J. L. Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD. PMID:26899474

  20. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Craig T.; Mason, Philip E.; Anderson, J. L. Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E.

    2016-02-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD.

  1. Arginine production in the neonate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endogenous arginine synthesis in adults is a complex multiorgan process, in which citrulline is synthesized in the gut, enters the general circulation, and is converted into arginine in the kidney, by what is known as the intestinal-renal axis. In neonates, the enzymes required to convert citrulline...

  2. Arginine catabolism in Aphanocapsa 6308.

    PubMed

    Weathers, P J; Chee, H L; Allen, M M

    1978-07-01

    The catabolic products of arginine metabolism were observed in Aphanocapsa 6308, a unicellular cyanobacterium, by thin layer chromatography of growth media, by limiting growth conditions, and by enzymatic analysis. Of the organic, nitrogenous compounds examined, only arginine supported growth in CO2-free media. The excretion of ornithine at a concentration level greater than citrulline suggested the existence in Aphanocapsa 6308 of the arginine dihydrolase pathway which produced ornithine, CO2,NH4,+ adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Its existence was confirmed by enzymatic analysis. Although cells could not grow on urea as a sole carbon source a very active urease and subsequently an arginase were also demonstrated, indicating that Aphanocapsa can metabolize arginine via the arginase pathway. The level of enzymes for both pathways indicates a lack of genetic control. It is suggested that the arginase pathway provides only nitrogen for the cells wheras the arginine dihydrolase pathway provides not only nitrogen, but also CO2 and adenosine 5'-triphosphate. PMID:100070

  3. Characterization and structure of the Aquifex aeolicus protein DUF752: a bacterial tRNA-methyltransferase (MnmC2) functioning without the usually fused oxidase domain (MnmC1).

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Aya; Nishimoto, Madoka; Sengoku, Toru; Shibata, Rie; Jäger, Gunilla; Björk, Glenn R; Grosjean, Henri; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Bessho, Yoshitaka

    2012-12-21

    Post-transcriptional modifications of the wobble uridine (U34) of tRNAs play a critical role in reading NNA/G codons belonging to split codon boxes. In a subset of Escherichia coli tRNA, this wobble uridine is modified to 5-methylaminomethyluridine (mnm(5)U34) through sequential enzymatic reactions. Uridine 34 is first converted to 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluridine (cmnm(5)U34) by the MnmE-MnmG enzyme complex. The cmnm(5)U34 is further modified to mnm(5)U by the bifunctional MnmC protein. In the first reaction, the FAD-dependent oxidase domain (MnmC1) converts cmnm(5)U into 5-aminomethyluridine (nm(5)U34), and this reaction is immediately followed by the methylation of the free amino group into mnm(5)U34 by the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent domain (MnmC2). Aquifex aeolicus lacks a bifunctional MnmC protein fusion and instead encodes the Rossmann-fold protein DUF752, which is homologous to the methyltransferase MnmC2 domain of Escherichia coli MnmC (26% identity). Here, we determined the crystal structure of the A. aeolicus DUF752 protein at 2.5 Å resolution, which revealed that it catalyzes the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation of nm(5)U in vitro, to form mnm(5)U34 in tRNA. We also showed that naturally occurring tRNA from A. aeolicus contains the 5-mnm group attached to the C5 atom of U34. Taken together, these results support the recent proposal of an alternative MnmC1-independent shortcut pathway for producing mnm(5)U34 in tRNAs. PMID:23091054

  4. BRAF inhibitor resistance enhances vulnerability to arginine deprivation in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying-Ying; Wu, Chunjing; Chen, Shu-Mei; Shah, Sumedh S.; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; Feun, Lynn G.; Kuo, Macus T.; Suarez, Miguel; Prince, Jeffrey; Savaraj, Niramol

    2016-01-01

    BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) has been used for treatment of melanomas harboring V600E mutation. Despite a high initial response rate, resistance to BRAFi is inevitable. Here, we demonstrate that BRAFi-resistant (BR) melanomas are susceptible to arginine deprivation due to inability to initiate re-expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1, a key enzyme for arginine synthesis) as well as ineffective autophagy. Autophagy and ASS1 re-expression are known to protect melanoma cells from cell death upon arginine deprivation. When melanoma cells become BR cells by long-term in vitro incubation with BRAFi, c-Myc-mediated ASS1 re-expression and the levels of autophagy-associated proteins (AMPK-α1 and Atg5) are attenuated. Furthermore, our study uncovers that downregulation of deubiquitinase USP28 which results in more active c-Myc degradation via ubiquitin-proteasome machinery is the primary mechanism for inability to re-express ASS1 upon arginine deprivation in BR cells. Overexpression of USP28 in BR cells enhances c-Myc expression and hence increases ASS1 transcription upon arginine deprivation, and consequently leads to cell survival. On the other hand, overexpression of Atg5 or AMPK-α1 in BR cells can redirect arginine deprivation-induced apoptosis toward autophagy. The xenograft models also confirm that BR tumors possess lower expression of ASS1 and are hypersensitive to arginine deprivation. These biochemical changes in BRAFi resistance which make them vulnerable to arginine deprivation can be exploited for the future treatment of BR melanoma patients. PMID:26771234

  5. Conserved arginine residues in the carboxyl terminus of the equine arteritis virus E protein may play a role in heparin binding but may not affect viral infectivity in equine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhengchun; Sarkar, Sanjay; Zhang, Jianqiang; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2016-04-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV), the causative agent of equine viral arteritis, has relatively broad cell tropism in vitro. In horses, EAV primarily replicates in macrophages and endothelial cells of small blood vessels. Until now, neither the cellular receptor(s) nor the mechanism(s) of virus attachment and entry have been determined for this virus. In this study, we investigated the effect of heparin on EAV infection in equine endothelial cells (EECs). Heparin, but not other glycosaminoglycans, could reduce EAV infection up to 93 %. Sequence analysis of the EAV E minor envelope protein revealed a conserved amino acid sequence (52 RSLVARCSRGARYR 65) at the carboxy terminus of the E protein, which was predicted to be the heparin-binding domain. The basic arginine (R) amino acid residues were subsequently mutated to glycine by site-directed mutagenesis of ORF2a in an E protein expression vector and an infectious cDNA clone of EAV. Two single mutations in E (R52G and R57G) did not affect the heparin-binding capability, whereas the E double mutation (R52,60G) completely eliminated the interaction between the E protein and heparin. Although the mutant R52,60G EAV did not bind heparin, the mutations did not completely abolish infectivity, indicating that heparin is not the only critical factor for EAV infection. This also suggested that other viral envelope protein(s) might be involved in attachment through heparin or other cell-surface molecules, and this warrants further investigation. PMID:26739582

  6. Mammalian WTAP is a regulatory subunit of the RNA N6-methyladenosine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Ping, Xiao-Li; Sun, Bao-Fa; Wang, Lu; Xiao, Wen; Yang, Xin; Wang, Wen-Jia; Adhikari, Samir; Shi, Yue; Lv, Ying; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Xu; Li, Ang; Yang, Ying; Dahal, Ujwal; Lou, Xiao-Min; Liu, Xi; Huang, Jun; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Fan; Cheng, Tao; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Wang, Xinquan; Rendtlew Danielsen, Jannie M; Liu, Feng; Yang, Yun-Gui

    2014-02-01

    The methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3)-containing methyltransferase complex catalyzes the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) formation, a novel epitranscriptomic marker; however, the nature of this complex remains largely unknown. Here we report two new components of the human m6A methyltransferase complex, Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein (WTAP) and methyltransferase like 14 (METTL14). WTAP interacts with METTL3 and METTL14, and is required for their localization into nuclear speckles enriched with pre-mRNA processing factors and for catalytic activity of the m6A methyltransferase in vivo. The majority of RNAs bound by WTAP and METTL3 in vivo represent mRNAs containing the consensus m6A motif. In the absence of WTAP, the RNA-binding capability of METTL3 is strongly reduced, suggesting that WTAP may function to regulate recruitment of the m6A methyltransferase complex to mRNA targets. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses in combination with photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) illustrate that WTAP and METTL3 regulate expression and alternative splicing of genes involved in transcription and RNA processing. Morpholino-mediated knockdown targeting WTAP and/or METTL3 in zebrafish embryos caused tissue differentiation defects and increased apoptosis. These findings provide strong evidence that WTAP may function as a regulatory subunit in the m6A methyltransferase complex and play a critical role in epitranscriptomic regulation of RNA metabolism. PMID:24407421

  7. Mammalian WTAP is a regulatory subunit of the RNA N6-methyladenosine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Xiao-Li; Sun, Bao-Fa; Wang, Lu; Xiao, Wen; Yang, Xin; Wang, Wen-Jia; Adhikari, Samir; Shi, Yue; Lv, Ying; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Xu; Li, Ang; Yang, Ying; Dahal, Ujwal; Lou, Xiao-Min; Liu, Xi; Huang, Jun; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Fan; Cheng, Tao; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Wang, Xinquan; Danielsen, Jannie M Rendtlew; Liu, Feng; Yang, Yun-Gui

    2014-01-01

    The methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3)-containing methyltransferase complex catalyzes the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) formation, a novel epitranscriptomic marker; however, the nature of this complex remains largely unknown. Here we report two new components of the human m6A methyltransferase complex, Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein (WTAP) and methyltransferase like 14 (METTL14). WTAP interacts with METTL3 and METTL14, and is required for their localization into nuclear speckles enriched with pre-mRNA processing factors and for catalytic activity of the m6A methyltransferase in vivo. The majority of RNAs bound by WTAP and METTL3 in vivo represent mRNAs containing the consensus m6A motif. In the absence of WTAP, the RNA-binding capability of METTL3 is strongly reduced, suggesting that WTAP may function to regulate recruitment of the m6A methyltransferase complex to mRNA targets. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses in combination with photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) illustrate that WTAP and METTL3 regulate expression and alternative splicing of genes involved in transcription and RNA processing. Morpholino-mediated knockdown targeting WTAP and/or METTL3 in zebrafish embryos caused tissue differentiation defects and increased apoptosis. These findings provide strong evidence that WTAP may function as a regulatory subunit in the m6A methyltransferase complex and play a critical role in epitranscriptomic regulation of RNA metabolism. PMID:24407421

  8. An Arginine Deprivation Response Pathway Is Induced in Leishmania during Macrophage Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Rona; Zeituni-Molad, Michal; Bendelak, Keren; Rentsch, Doris; Ephros, Moshe; Wiese, Martin; Jardim, Armando; Myler, Peter J.; Zilberstein, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid sensing is an intracellular function that supports nutrient homeostasis, largely through controlled release of amino acids from lysosomal pools. The intracellular pathogen Leishmania resides and proliferates within human macrophage phagolysosomes. Here we describe a new pathway in Leishmania that specifically senses the extracellular levels of arginine, an amino acid that is essential for the parasite. During infection, the macrophage arginine pool is depleted due to its use to produce metabolites (NO and polyamines) that constitute part of the host defense response and its suppression, respectively. We found that parasites respond to this shortage of arginine by up-regulating expression and activity of the Leishmania arginine transporter (LdAAP3), as well as several other transporters. Our analysis indicates the parasite monitors arginine levels in the environment rather than the intracellular pools. Phosphoproteomics and genetic analysis indicates that the arginine-deprivation response is mediated through a mitogen-activated protein kinase-2-dependent signaling cascade. PMID:27043018

  9. An Arginine Deprivation Response Pathway Is Induced in Leishmania during Macrophage Invasion.

    PubMed

    Goldman-Pinkovich, Adele; Balno, Caitlin; Strasser, Rona; Zeituni-Molad, Michal; Bendelak, Keren; Rentsch, Doris; Ephros, Moshe; Wiese, Martin; Jardim, Armando; Myler, Peter J; Zilberstein, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Amino acid sensing is an intracellular function that supports nutrient homeostasis, largely through controlled release of amino acids from lysosomal pools. The intracellular pathogen Leishmania resides and proliferates within human macrophage phagolysosomes. Here we describe a new pathway in Leishmania that specifically senses the extracellular levels of arginine, an amino acid that is essential for the parasite. During infection, the macrophage arginine pool is depleted due to its use to produce metabolites (NO and polyamines) that constitute part of the host defense response and its suppression, respectively. We found that parasites respond to this shortage of arginine by up-regulating expression and activity of the Leishmania arginine transporter (LdAAP3), as well as several other transporters. Our analysis indicates the parasite monitors arginine levels in the environment rather than the intracellular pools. Phosphoproteomics and genetic analysis indicates that the arginine-deprivation response is mediated through a mitogen-activated protein kinase-2-dependent signaling cascade. PMID:27043018

  10. Characterization of an Arginine:Pyruvate Transaminase in Arginine Catabolism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1▿

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhe; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2007-01-01

    The arginine transaminase (ATA) pathway represents one of the multiple pathways for l-arginine catabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The AruH protein was proposed to catalyze the first step in the ATA pathway, converting the substrates l-arginine and pyruvate into 2-ketoarginine and l-alanine. Here we report the initial biochemical characterization of this enzyme. The aruH gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and its product was purified to homogeneity. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were employed to detect the presence of the transamination products 2-ketoarginine and l-alanine, thus demonstrating the proposed biochemical reaction catalyzed by AruH. The enzymatic properties and kinetic parameters of dimeric recombinant AruH were determined by a coupled reaction with NAD+ and l-alanine dehydrogenase. The optimal activity of AruH was found at pH 9.0, and it has a novel substrate specificity with an order of preference of Arg > Lys > Met > Leu > Orn > Gln. With l-arginine and pyruvate as the substrates, Lineweaver-Burk plots of the data revealed a series of parallel lines characteristic of a ping-pong kinetic mechanism with calculated Vmax and kcat values of 54.6 ± 2.5 μmol/min/mg and 38.6 ± 1.8 s−1. The apparent Km and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) were 1.6 ± 0.1 mM and 24.1 mM−1 s−1 for pyruvate and 13.9 ± 0.8 mM and 2.8 mM−1 s−1 for l-arginine. When l-lysine was used as the substrate, MS analysis suggested Δ1-piperideine-2-carboxylate as its transamination product. These results implied that AruH may have a broader physiological function in amino acid catabolism. PMID:17416668

  11. l-Arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2 independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Li-Tung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Huang, Hsin-Chun; Yang, Kuender D; Ou, Chia-Yo; Hsu, Te-Yao

    2014-01-01

    In cases of arginine depletion, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and CD3ζ chain expression are all diminished. In addition to myeloid suppressor cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) also exert T-cell immune suppressive effects through arginase-induced l-arginine depletion, especially during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated how arginase/l-arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation. Results showed that the neonatal plasma l-arginine level was lower than in adults (48·1 ± 11·3 versus 86·5 ± 14·6 μm; P = 0·003). Neonatal PMN had a greater abundance of arginase I protein than adult PMN. Both transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation were responsible for the higher arginase I expression of neonatal PMN. Exogenous l-arginine enhanced neonate lymphocyte proliferation but not that of adult cells. The RNA-binding protein HuR was important but was not the only modulation factor in l-arginine-regulated neonatal T-cell proliferation. l-Arginine-mediated neonatal lymphocyte proliferation could not be blocked by interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibodies. These results suggest that the altered arginase/l-arginine cascade may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to altered neonatal immune responses. Exogenous l-arginine could enhance neonate lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2-independent pathway. PMID:24697328

  12. Characterization of arginine decarboxylase from Dianthus caryophyllus.

    PubMed

    Ha, Byung Hak; Cho, Ki Joon; Choi, Yu Jin; Park, Ky Young; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2004-04-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.9) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines in higher plants, whereas ornithine decarboxylase represents the sole pathway of polyamine biosynthesis in animals. Previously, we characterized a genomic clone from Dianthus caryophyllus, in which the deduced polypeptide of ADC was 725 amino acids with a molecular mass of 78 kDa. In the present study, the ADC gene was subcloned into the pGEX4T1 expression vector in combination with glutathione S-transferase (GST). The fusion protein GST-ADC was water-soluble and thus was purified by sequential GSTrap-arginine affinity chromatography. A thrombin-mediated on-column cleavage reaction was employed to release free ADC from GST. Hiload superdex gel filtration FPLC was then used to obtain a highly purified ADC. The identity of the ADC was confirmed by immunoblot analysis, and its specific activity with respect to (14)C-arginine decarboxylation reaction was determined to be 0.9 CO(2) pkat mg(-1) protein. K(m) and V(max) of the reaction between ADC and the substrate were 0.077 +/- 0.001 mM and 6.0 +/- 0.6 pkat mg(-1) protein, respectively. ADC activity was reduced by 70% in the presence of 0.1 mM Cu(2+) or CO(2+), but was only marginally affected by Mg(2+), or Ca(2+) at the same concentration. Moreover, spermine at 1 mM significantly reduced its activity by 30%. PMID:15120115

  13. Temporal profile of arginine vasopressin release from the neurohypophysis in response to hypertonic saline and hypotension measured using a fluorescent fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Yao, Song T; Antunes, Vagner R; Bradley, Peter M J; Kasparov, Sergey; Ueta, Yoichi; Paton, Julian F R; Murphy, David

    2011-09-30

    Methods currently employed to study the release of hormones such as arginine vasopressin (AVP), while sensitive, suffer from a low temporal resolution such that the monitoring of AVP release on a moment-to-moment basis is not possible. Here, we describe a new approach to indirectly monitor the temporal profile of AVP release from the neurohypophysis of transgenic rats expressing an AVP-eGFP fusion gene. Using fibre-optic probes (termed 'optrodes') we were able to indirectly monitor AVP release via a reporter moiety in real-time. This method is a major advance over current methods used to monitor AVP release. Intravenous administration of hypertonic saline (3M NaCl) induced a rapid (latency of 2-3s) increase in fluorescence detected in the neurohypophysis that lasted on average for 60s - a response that was highly reproducible. Infusion of sodium nitroprusside induced a rapid fall in blood pressure accompanied by a rapid, stimulus-locked increase in fluorescent signal that returned to baseline with the recovery of blood pressure to pre-stimulus levels - again this response was highly reproducible. Withdrawal of blood (to simulate haemorrhage) also resulted in a stimulus-locked increase in fluorescence that return to baseline after the withdrawn blood was returned to the animal. In conclusion, we developed a highly sensitive approach that allows the indirect measurement of AVP release via the monitoring of a reporter gene in real-time. This technology can be adapted to permit the study of a whole array of neurohormones/chemicals in transgenic animals expressing a fluorescent reporter construct. PMID:21855574

  14. Ameliorative Effects of Curcumin on Fibrinogen-Like Protein-2 Gene Expression, Some Oxido-Inflammatory and Apoptotic Markers in a Rat Model of l-Arginine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Shafik, Noha M; Abou-Fard, Ghada M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the ameliorative effects of curcumin on fibrinogen like protein-2 (fgl-2), some oxido-inflammatory and apoptotic markers in rat-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). Seventy-five albino rats were divided into control group, l-arginine (l-Arg)-induced AP group, curcumin pre-treated group before AP induction, curcumin post-treated group after AP induction, and curcumin injected group only. AP group showed severe necrotizing pancreatitis confirmed by histopathological changes and elevations in serum amylase and lipase activities, levels of epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78, tissue content of protein carbonyls, levels of tumor necrosis factor α, and caspase-3 as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Significant elevation in pancreatic fgl-2 mRNA expression was detected in AP group. Improvement of all parameters was detected with increase of caspase-3 in both curcumin-treated groups that confirmed curcumin ameliorative effects against AP through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of micro-thrombosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. PMID:26862043

  15. PRELP (proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein) promotes osteoblastic differentiation of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by regulating the β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiying; Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Chengzhi; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Liang; Wang, Huaxin; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-02-12

    Proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP) is a collagen-binding proteoglycan highly expressed in the developing bones. Recent studies indicated that PRELP could inhibit osteoclastogenesis as a NF-κB inhibitor. However, its role during osteoblast differentiation is still unclear. In this study, we confirmed that the expression of PRELP increased with the osteogenesis induction of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Down-regulation of PRELP expression by shRNA reduced ALP activity, mineralization and expression of osteogenic marker gene Runx2. Our microarray analysis data suggested that β-catenin may act as a hub gene in the PRELP-mediated gene network. We validated furtherly that PRELP knockdown could inhibit the level of connexin43, a key regulator of osteoblast differentiation by affecting β-catenin protein expression, and its nuclear translocation in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. Therefore, this study established a new role of PRELP in modulating β-catenin/connexin43 pathway and osteoblast differentiation. PMID:26809092

  16. Structure and Function of Flavivirus NS5 Methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou,Y.; Ray, D.; Zhao, Y.; Dong, H.; Ren, S.; Li, Z.; Guo, Y.; Bernard, K.; Shi, P.; Li, H.

    2007-01-01

    The plus-strand RNA genome of flavivirus contains a 5' terminal cap 1 structure (m{sup 7}GpppAmG). The flaviviruses encode one methyltransferase, located at the N-terminal portion of the NS5 protein, to catalyze both guanine N-7 and ribose 2'-OH methylations during viral cap formation. Representative flavivirus methyltransferases from dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile virus (WNV) sequentially generate GpppA {yields} m{sup 7}GpppA {yields} m{sup 7}GpppAm. The 2'-O methylation can be uncoupled from the N-7 methylation, since m{sup 7}GpppA-RNA can be readily methylated to m{sup 7}GpppAm-RNA. Despite exhibiting two distinct methylation activities, the crystal structure of WNV methyltransferase at 2.8 {angstrom} resolution showed a single binding site for S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), the methyl donor. Therefore, substrate GpppA-RNA should be repositioned to accept the N-7 and 2'-O methyl groups from SAM during the sequential reactions. Electrostatic analysis of the WNV methyltransferase structure showed that, adjacent to the SAM-binding pocket, is a highly positively charged surface that could serve as an RNA binding site during cap methylations. Biochemical and mutagenesis analyses show that the N-7 and 2'-O cap methylations require distinct buffer conditions and different side chains within the K{sub 61}-D{sub 146}-K{sub 182}-E{sub 218} motif, suggesting that the two reactions use different mechanisms. In the context of complete virus, defects in both methylations are lethal to WNV; however, viruses defective solely in 2'-O methylation are attenuated and can protect mice from later wild-type WNV challenge. The results demonstrate that the N-7 methylation activity is essential for the WNV life cycle and, thus, methyltransferase represents a novel target for flavivirus therapy.

  17. Specificity of the SUV4-20H1 and SUV4-20H2 protein lysine methyltransferases and methylation of novel substrates.

    PubMed

    Weirich, Sara; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Jeltsch, Albert

    2016-06-01

    The SUV4-20H1 and SUV4-20H2 enzymes methylate histone H4 at K20, and they have overlapping and distinct biological effects. Here, by in vitro methylation studies we confirmed that both the murine SUV4-20H enzymes strongly favor the monomethylated H4K20 peptide substrate. We also show that both enzymes only generate dimethylated H4K20 products. We determined the substrate sequence recognition motif of both enzymes using SPOT peptide arrays showing that SUV4-20H1 recognizes an (RY)-Kme1-(IVLM)-(LFI)-X-D sequence. In contrast, SUV4-20H2 shows less specificity and recognizes an X-Kme1-(IVLMK)-(LVFI)-X-(DEV) sequence, which is partially overlapping with SUV4-20H1 but has relaxed specificity at the -1 and +4 positions (if the target H4K20me1 is positon 0). Based on our data, we identify novel peptide substrates for SUV4-20H1 (K1423 of Zinc finger protein castor homolog 1) and SUV4-20H2 (K1423 of Zinc finger protein castor homolog 1, K215 of Protein Mis18-beta and K308 of Centromere protein U). All these lysine residues were already identified to be methylated in human cells, but the responsible PKMT was not known. In addition, we also tested the activity of SUV4-20H enzymes on ERK1, which was recently reported to be methylated by SUV4-20H1 at K302 and K361. However the sequences surrounding both methylation sites do not fit to the specificity profile of SUV4-20H1 and we could not detect methylation of ERK1 by any of the SUV4-20H enzymes. The possible reasons of this discrepancy and its consequences are discussed. PMID:27105552

  18. Single crystal EPR study of electronic structure and exchange interactions for copper(II)(L-arginine)2(SO4).(H2O)6: a model system to study exchange interactions between unpaired spins in proteins.

    PubMed

    Santana, R C; Cunha, R O; Carvalho, J F; Vencato, I; Calvo, R

    2005-02-01

    We report EPR measurements at 9.77 and 34.1 GHz in powder and single crystal samples of the ternary copper amino acid complex Cu(L-arginine)(2)(SO(4)).(H(2)O)(6). The single crystal Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectra display a single resonance for all magnetic field orientations in the ca and cb crystal planes. In the ab plane they display two resonances for most orientations of the magnetic field, and only one resonance for orientations close to the crystal axes. This behavior is a result of the selective collapse of the resonances corresponding to the four copper sites in the unit cell produced by the exchange interactions between copper ions. From the characteristics of the collapse and the angular dependences of the position and width of the resonances we evaluate the g-tensors of the copper molecules and estimate exchange interactions |J(1)/k(B)|=0.9 K and |J(2)/k(B)|=0.009 K between copper neighbors at 5.908 A and at 15.684 A, respectively. J(1) is assigned to a syn-anti equatorial-apical carboxylate bridge with a total bond length of 7.133 A. J(2) is assigned to a long bridge of 12 atoms with a total bond length of 19.789 A, that includes two hydrogen bonds. The results are discussed in terms of the crystal and electronic structure of Cu(L-arginine)(2)(SO(4)).(H(2)O)(6). We show that J(2) is in excellent agreement with the observed magnetic interaction between the reduced quinone acceptors in the photosynthetic reaction center protein of the bacterium Rb. sphaeroides, which is transmitted along a similar chemical path containing two hydrogen bonds. Our findings indicate that it is valid to estimate values for the exchange interactions between redox centers in proteins transmitted along long chemical paths containing sigma and H-bonds, from data obtained in model systems, and emphasize the importance of measuring exchange interactions in biologically relevant model systems. PMID:15621273

  19. Potential ergogenic effects of arginine and creatine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Børsheim, Elisabet; Wolfe, Robert R

    2004-10-01

    The rationale for the use of nutritional supplements to enhance exercise capacity is based on the assumption that they will confer an ergogenic effect above and beyond that afforded by regular food ingestion alone. The proposed or advertised ergogenic effect of many supplements is based on a presumptive metabolic pathway and may not necessarily translate to quantifiable changes in a variable as broadly defined as exercise performance. L-arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid that has received considerable attention due to potential effects on growth hormone secretion and nitric oxide production. In some clinical circumstances (e.g., burn injury, sepsis) in which the demand for arginine cannot be fully met by de novo synthesis and normal dietary intake, exogenous arginine has been shown to facilitate the maintenance of lean body mass and functional capacity. However, the evidence that supplemental arginine may also confer an ergogenic effect in normal healthy individuals is less compelling. In contrast to arginine, numerous studies have reported that supplementation with the arginine metabolite creatine facilitates an increase in anaerobic work capacity and muscle mass when accompanied by resistance training programs in both normal and patient populations. Whereas improvement in the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis is largely responsible for improvements in acute work capacity, the direct effect of creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle protein synthesis is less clear. The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of arginine and its metabolite creatine in the context of a nutrition supplement for use in conjunction with an exercise stimulus in both healthy and patient populations. PMID:15465806

  20. Purification of phospholipid methyltransferase from rat liver microsomal fraction.

    PubMed Central

    Pajares, M A; Villalba, M; Mato, J M

    1986-01-01

    Phospholipid methyltransferase, the enzyme that converts phosphatidylethanolamine into phosphatidylcholine with S-adenosyl-L-methionine as the methyl donor, was purified to apparent homogeneity from rat liver microsomal fraction. When analysed by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis only one protein, with molecular mass about 50 kDa, is detected. This protein could be phosphorylated at a single site by incubation with [alpha-32P]ATP and the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. A less-purified preparation of the enzyme is mainly composed of two proteins, with molecular masses about 50 kDa and 25 kDa, the 50 kDa form being phosphorylated at the same site as the homogeneous enzyme. After purification of both proteins by electro-elution, the 25 kDa protein forms a dimer and migrates on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with molecular mass about 50 kDa. Peptide maps of purified 25 kDa and 50 kDa proteins are identical, indicating that both proteins are formed by the same polypeptide chain(s). It is concluded that rat liver phospholipid methyltransferase can exist in two forms, as a monomer of 25 kDa and as a dimer of 50 kDa. The dimer can be phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:3800912

  1. ARGININE DEIMINASE PLAYS MULTIPLE REGULATORY ROLES IN THE BIOLOGY OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA

    PubMed Central

    Touz, Maria Carolina; Ropolo, Andrea Silvana; Rivero, Maria Romina; Vranych, Cecilia Veronica; Conrad, John Thomas; Svard, Staffan Gunnar; Nash, Theodore Elliot

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia utilizes arginine deiminase (gADI) to produce energy from free L-arginine under anaerobic conditions. In this work, we demonstrate that in addition to its known role as a metabolic enzyme, it also functions as a pepidtyl-arginine deiminase converting protein-bound arginine into citrulline. gADI specifically binds to and citrullinates the arginine in the conserved CRGKA tail of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) affecting both antigenic switching and antibody mediated cell death. During encystation gADI translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and appear to play a regulatory role in the expression of encystation specific genes. gADI is also sumoylated, which may modulate its activity. Our findings reveal a dual role played by gADI and define novel regulatory pathways used by Giardia for survival. PMID:18697833

  2. Regulation of neurotoxin and protease formation in Clostridium botulinum Okra B and Hall A by arginine.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson-Curtis, S I; Johnson, E A

    1989-01-01

    Supplementation of a minimal medium with high levels of arginine (20 g/liter) markedly decreased neurotoxin titers and protease activities in cultures of Clostridium botulinum Okra B and Hall A. Nitrogenous nutrients that are known to be derived from arginine, including proline, glutamate, and ammonia, also decreased protease and toxin but less so than did arginine. Proteases synthesized during growth were rapidly inactivated after growth stopped in media containing high levels of arginine. Separation of extracellular proteins by electrophoresis and immunoblots with antibodies to toxin showed that the decrease in toxin titers in media containing high levels of arginine was caused by both reduced synthesis of protoxin and impaired proteolytic activation. In contrast, certain other nutritional conditions stimulated protease and toxin formation in C. botulinum and counteracted the repression by arginine. Supplementation of the minimal medium with casein or casein hydrolysates increased protease activities and toxin titers. Casein supplementation of a medium containing high levels of arginine prevented protease inactivation. High levels of glucose (50 g/liter) also delayed the inactivation of proteases in both the minimal medium and a medium containing high levels of arginine. These observations suggest that the availability of nitrogen and energy sources, particularly arginine, affects the production and proteolytic processing of toxins and proteases in C. botulinum. Images PMID:2669631

  3. The role of the arginine metabolome in pain: implications for sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Nitya; Morris, Claudia R

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common hemoglobinopathy in the US, affecting approximately 100,000 individuals in the US and millions worldwide. Pain is the hallmark of SCD, and a subset of patients experience pain virtually all of the time. Of interest, the arginine metabolome is associated with several pain mechanisms highlighted in this review. Since SCD is an arginine deficiency syndrome, the contribution of the arginine metabolome to acute and chronic pain in SCD is a topic in need of further attention. Normal arginine metabolism is impaired in SCD through various mechanisms that contribute to endothelial dysfunction, vaso-occlusion, pulmonary complications, risk of leg ulcers, and early mortality. Arginine is a semiessential amino acid that serves as a substrate for protein synthesis and is the precursor to nitric oxide (NO), polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine, and agmatine. Since arginine is involved in multiple metabolic processes, a deficiency of this amino acid has the potential to disrupt many cellular and organ functions. NO is a potent vasodilator that is depleted in SCD and may contribute to vaso-occlusive pain. As the obligate substrate for NO production, arginine also plays a mechanistic role in SCD-related pain, although its contribution to pain pathways likely extends beyond NO. Low global arginine bioavailability is associated with pain severity in both adults and children with SCD as well as other non-SCD pain syndromes. Preliminary clinical studies of arginine therapy in SCD demonstrate efficacy in treating acute vaso-occlusive pain, as well as leg ulcers and pulmonary hypertension. Restoration of arginine bioavailability through exogenous supplementation of arginine is, therefore, a promising therapeutic target. Phase II clinical trials of arginine therapy for sickle-related pain are underway and a Phase III randomized controlled trial is anticipated in the near future. PMID:27099528

  4. The role of the arginine metabolome in pain: implications for sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Nitya; Morris, Claudia R

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common hemoglobinopathy in the US, affecting approximately 100,000 individuals in the US and millions worldwide. Pain is the hallmark of SCD, and a subset of patients experience pain virtually all of the time. Of interest, the arginine metabolome is associated with several pain mechanisms highlighted in this review. Since SCD is an arginine deficiency syndrome, the contribution of the arginine metabolome to acute and chronic pain in SCD is a topic in need of further attention. Normal arginine metabolism is impaired in SCD through various mechanisms that contribute to endothelial dysfunction, vaso-occlusion, pulmonary complications, risk of leg ulcers, and early mortality. Arginine is a semiessential amino acid that serves as a substrate for protein synthesis and is the precursor to nitric oxide (NO), polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine, and agmatine. Since arginine is involved in multiple metabolic processes, a deficiency of this amino acid has the potential to disrupt many cellular and organ functions. NO is a potent vasodilator that is depleted in SCD and may contribute to vaso-occlusive pain. As the obligate substrate for NO production, arginine also plays a mechanistic role in SCD-related pain, although its contribution to pain pathways likely extends beyond NO. Low global arginine bioavailability is associated with pain severity in both adults and children with SCD as well as other non-SCD pain syndromes. Preliminary clinical studies of arginine therapy in SCD demonstrate efficacy in treating acute vaso-occlusive pain, as well as leg ulcers and pulmonary hypertension. Restoration of arginine bioavailability through exogenous supplementation of arginine is, therefore, a promising therapeutic target. Phase II clinical trials of arginine therapy for sickle-related pain are underway and a Phase III randomized controlled trial is anticipated in the near future. PMID:27099528

  5. The crystal structure of a novel SAM-dependent methyltransferase PH1915 from Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, W.; Xu, X.; Pavlova, M.; Edwards, A.; Joachimiak, A.; Savchenko, A.; Christendat, D.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Toronto; Univ. Health Network

    2005-01-01

    The S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases represent a diverse and biologically important class of enzymes. These enzymes utilize the ubiquitous methyl donor SAM as a cofactor to methylate proteins, small molecules, lipids, and nucleic acids. Here we present the crystal structure of PH1915 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, a predicted SAM-dependent methyltransferase. This protein belongs to the Cluster of Orthologous Group 1092, and the presented crystal structure is the first representative structure of this protein family. Based on sequence and 3D structure analysis, we have made valuable functional insights that will facilitate further studies for characterizing this group of proteins. Specifically, we propose that PH1915 and its orthologs are rRNA- or tRNA-specific methyltransferases.

  6. Convergent Mechanistic Features between the Structurally Diverse N- and O-Methyltransferases: Glycine N-Methyltransferase and Catechol O-Methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianyu; Klinman, Judith P

    2016-07-27

    Although an enormous and still growing number of biologically diverse methyltransferases have been reported and identified, a comprehensive understanding of the enzymatic methyl transfer mechanism is still lacking. Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT), a member of the family that acts on small metabolites as the substrate, catalyzes methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to glycine to form S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and sarcosine. We report primary carbon ((12)C/(14)C) and secondary ((1)H3/(3)H3) kinetic isotope effects at the transferred methyl group, together with (1)H3/(3)H3 binding isotope effects for wild-type GNMT and a series of Tyr21 mutants. The data implicate a compaction effect in the methyl transfer step that is conferred by the protein structure. Furthermore, a remarkable similarity of properties is observed between GNMT and catechol O-methyltransferase, despite significant differences between these enzymes with regard to their active site structures and catalyzed reactions. We attribute these results to a catalytically relevant reduction in the methyl donor-acceptor distance that is dependent on a tyrosine side chain positioned behind the methyl-bearing sulfur of AdoMet. PMID:27355841

  7. Dietary arginine and linear growth: the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars B; El-Naaman, Bianca; Bugge, Anna; Nielsen, Birgit M; Heitman, Berit L

    2013-03-28

    The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity was significant for the third and fourth quintile of arginine intake (2.5-2.8 and 2.8-3.2 g/d, respectively) compared with the first quintile ( < 2.2 g/d) (P for trend = 0.04). Protein intake (excluding arginine) was significantly associated with growth velocity; however, the association was weaker than the association between arginine intake and growth velocity (P for trend = 0.14). The results of the present study suggest a dose-dependent physiological role of habitual protein intake, and specifically arginine intake, on linear growth in normally growing children. However, since the study was designed in healthy children, we cannot firmly conclude whether arginine supplementation represents a relevant clinical strategy. Further research is needed to investigate whether dietary arginine may represent a nutritional strategy potentially advantageous for the prevention and treatment of short stature. PMID:23046689

  8. Melatonin biosynthesis requires N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase activity of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in rice

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Yeong; Choi, Geun-Hee; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2015-01-01

    Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) methylates N-acetylserotonin into melatonin; that is, it has N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT) activity. The ASMT activity of COMT was first detected in Arabidopsis thaliana COMT (AtCOMT). To confirm the involvement of COMT on melatonin synthesis in other plant species, the ASMT activity of a COMT from rice (Oryza sativa) (OsCOMT) was evaluated. Purified recombinant OsCOMT protein from Escherichia coli was used to validate the high ASMT activity of OsCOMT, similar to that of AtCOMT. The K m and V max values for the ASMT activity of OsCOMT were 243 µM and 2400 pmol min−1 mg protein−1, which were similar to those of AtCOMT. Similar to AtCOMT, OsCOMT was localized in the cytoplasm. In vitro ASMT activity was significantly inhibited by either caffeic acid or quercetin in a dose-dependent manner. Analogously, in vivo production of melatonin was significantly inhibited by quercetin in 4-week-old detached rice leaves. Lastly, the transgenic rice plants overexpressing rice COMT showed an increase in melatonin levels whereas transgenic rice plants suppressing the rice COMT had a significant decrease on melatonin levels, suggestive of the direct role of COMT in melatonin biosynthesis in plants. PMID:26276868

  9. An arginine-rich motif of ring finger protein 4 (RNF4) oversees the recruitment and degradation of the phosphorylated and SUMOylated Krüppel-associated box domain-associated protein 1 (KAP1)/TRIM28 protein during genotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Li, Xu; Kong, Xiang-Qian; Luo, Cheng; Chang, Che-Chang; Chung, Yiyin; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Li, Keqin Kathy; Ann, David K

    2014-07-25

    Krüppel-associated box domain-associated protein 1 (KAP1) is a universal transcriptional corepressor that undergoes multiple posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including SUMOylation and Ser-824 phosphorylation. However, the functional interplay of KAP1 PTMs in regulating KAP1 turnover during DNA damage response remains unclear. To decipher the role and cross-talk of multiple KAP1 PTMs, we show here that DNA double strand break-induced KAP1 Ser-824 phosphorylation promoted the recruitment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 4 (RNF4), and subsequent RNF4-mediated, SUMO-dependent degradation. Besides the SUMO interacting motif (SIM), a previously unrecognized, but evolutionarily conserved, arginine-rich motif (ARM) in RNF4 acts as a novel recognition motif for selective target recruitment. Results from combined mutagenesis and computational modeling studies suggest that RNF4 utilizes concerted bimodular recognition, namely SIM for Lys-676 SUMOylation and ARM for Ser(P)-824 of simultaneously phosphorylated and SUMOylated KAP1 (Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1). Furthermore, we proved that arginines 73 and 74 within the ARM of RNF4 are required for efficient recruitment to KAP1 or accelerated degradation of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) under stress. In parallel, results of bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays validated the role of the ARM in recognizing Ser(P)-824 in living cells. Taken together, we establish that the ARM is required for RNF4 to efficiently target Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1, conferring ubiquitin Lys-48-mediated proteasomal degradation in the context of double strand breaks. The conservation of such a motif may possibly explain the requirement for timely substrate selectivity determination among a myriad of SUMOylated proteins under stress conditions. Thus, the ARM dynamically regulates the SIM-dependent recruitment of targets to RNF4, which could be critical to dynamically fine-tune the

  10. An Arginine-rich Motif of Ring Finger Protein 4 (RNF4) Oversees the Recruitment and Degradation of the Phosphorylated and SUMOylated Krüppel-associated Box Domain-associated Protein 1 (KAP1)/TRIM28 Protein during Genotoxic Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Li, Xu; Kong, Xiang-Qian; Luo, Cheng; Chang, Che-Chang; Chung, Yiyin; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Li, Keqin Kathy; Ann, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Krüppel-associated box domain-associated protein 1 (KAP1) is a universal transcriptional corepressor that undergoes multiple posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including SUMOylation and Ser-824 phosphorylation. However, the functional interplay of KAP1 PTMs in regulating KAP1 turnover during DNA damage response remains unclear. To decipher the role and cross-talk of multiple KAP1 PTMs, we show here that DNA double strand break-induced KAP1 Ser-824 phosphorylation promoted the recruitment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 4 (RNF4), and subsequent RNF4-mediated, SUMO-dependent degradation. Besides the SUMO interacting motif (SIM), a previously unrecognized, but evolutionarily conserved, arginine-rich motif (ARM) in RNF4 acts as a novel recognition motif for selective target recruitment. Results from combined mutagenesis and computational modeling studies suggest that RNF4 utilizes concerted bimodular recognition, namely SIM for Lys-676 SUMOylation and ARM for Ser(P)-824 of simultaneously phosphorylated and SUMOylated KAP1 (Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1). Furthermore, we proved that arginines 73 and 74 within the ARM of RNF4 are required for efficient recruitment to KAP1 or accelerated degradation of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) under stress. In parallel, results of bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays validated the role of the ARM in recognizing Ser(P)-824 in living cells. Taken together, we establish that the ARM is required for RNF4 to efficiently target Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1, conferring ubiquitin Lys-48-mediated proteasomal degradation in the context of double strand breaks. The conservation of such a motif may possibly explain the requirement for timely substrate selectivity determination among a myriad of SUMOylated proteins under stress conditions. Thus, the ARM dynamically regulates the SIM-dependent recruitment of targets to RNF4, which could be critical to dynamically fine-tune the

  11. An Arabidopsis thaliana methyltransferase Capable of Methylating Farnesoic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yang,Y.; Yuan, J.; Ross, J.; Noel, J.; Pichersky, E.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported the identification of a new family of plant methyltransferases (MTs), named the SABATH family, that use S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to methylate a carboxyl moiety or a nitrogen-containing functional group on a diverse array of plant compounds. The Arabidopsis genome alone contains 24 distinct SABATH genes. To identify the catalytic specificities of members of this protein family in Arabidopsis, we screened recombinantly expressed and purified enzymes with a large number of potential substrates. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana gene At3g44860 encodes a protein with high catalytic specificity towards farnesoic acid (FA). Under steady-state conditions, this farnesoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (FAMT) exhibits K{sub M} values of 41 and 71 {mu}M for FA and SAM, respectively. A three-dimensional model of FAMT constructed based upon similarity to the experimentally determined structure of Clarkia breweri salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) suggests a reasonable model for FA recognition in the FAMT active site. In plants, the mRNA levels of At3g44860 increase in response to the exogenous addition of several compounds previously shown to induce plant defense responses at the transcriptional level. Although methyl farnesoate (MeFA) has not yet been detected in Arabidopsis, the presence of a FA-specific carboxyl methyltransferase in Arabidopsis capable of producing MeFA, an insect juvenile hormone made by some plants as a presumed defense against insect herbivory, suggests that MeFA or chemically similar compounds are likely to serve as new specialized metabolites in Arabidopsis.

  12. 21 CFR 582.5145 - Arginine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arginine. 582.5145 Section 582.5145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5145 Arginine. (a) Product. Arginine...

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants affected in anaerobic growth on arginine: evidence for a four-gene cluster encoding the arginine deiminase pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Vander Wauven, C; Piérard, A; Kley-Raymann, M; Haas, D

    1984-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO was able to grow in the absence of exogenous terminal electron acceptors, provided that the medium contained 30 to 40 mM L-arginine and 0.4% yeast extract. Under strictly anaerobic conditions (O2 at less than 1 ppm), growth could be measured as an increase in protein and proceeded in a non-exponential way; arginine was largely converted to ornithine but not entirely consumed at the end of growth. In the GasPak anaerobic jar (Becton Dickinson and Co.), the wild-type strain PAO1 grew on arginine-yeast extract medium in 3 to 5 days; mutants could be isolated that were unable to grow under these conditions. All mutants (except one) were defective in at least one of the three enzymes of the arginine deiminase pathway (arcA, arcB, and arcC mutants) or in a novel function that might be involved in anaerobic arginine uptake (arcD mutants). The mutations arcA (arginine deiminase), arcB (catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferase), arcC (carbamate kinase), and arcD were highly cotransducible and mapped in the 17-min chromosome region. Some mutations in the arc cluster led to low, noninducible levels of all three arginine deiminase pathway enzymes and thus may affect control elements required for induction of the postulated arc operon. Two fluorescent pseudomonads (P. putida and P. fluorescens) and P. mendocina, as well as one PAO mutant, possessed an inducible arginine deiminase pathway and yet were unable to grow fermentatively on arginine. The ability to use arginine-derived ATP for growth may provide P. aeruginosa with a selective advantage when oxygen and nitrate are scarce. PMID:6438064

  14. Clinical pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen arginine.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Dario; Clementi, Emilio

    2010-11-01

    Currently, several ibuprofen compounds are available on the market, mainly differing in terms of pharmaceutical composition that influence the pharmacokinetic profile and eventually the onset of drug action. This review will mainly deal with the clinical pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen arginine, an alternative formulation specifically designed to improve the absorption of ibuprofen. Indeed, available data from studies in healthy volunteers have consistently shown that the formulation of ibuprofen arginine is characterized by prompt absorption of ibuprofen as compared to the conventional formulation at all tested doses with higher peak plasma concentration and lower Tmax values. This trend has been confirmed also in studies dealing with chiral ibuprofen pharmacokinetics. Most importantly, the shortening in the absorption time observed either with racemic mixture or with the S(+)-enantiomer of ibuprofen arginine did not imply a faster drug elimination eventually leading to inadequate daily drug exposure, as documented by T1/2 and AUC values being comparable to those measured with the free acid form. Taken together, the pharmacokinetic/dynamic characteristics of ibuprofen arginine can be considered particularly favorable for several clinical conditions, such as moderate/severe pain, in which a rapid pharmacologic effect is required. PMID:20925647

  15. Crystal structure of dengue virus methyltransferase without S-adenosyl-L-methionine.

    PubMed

    Noble, Christian G; Li, Shi-Hua; Dong, Hongping; Chew, Sock Hui; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2014-11-01

    Flavivirus methyltransferase is a genetically-validated antiviral target. Crystal structures of almost all available flavivirus methyltransferases contain S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), the methyl donor molecule that co-purifies with the enzymes. This raises a possibility that SAM is an integral structural component required for the folding of dengue virus (DENV) methyltransferase. Here we exclude this possibility by solving the crystal structure of DENV methyltransferase without SAM. The SAM ligand was removed from the enzyme through a urea-mediated denaturation-and-renaturation protocol. The crystal structure of the SAM-depleted enzyme exhibits a vacant SAM-binding pocket, with a conformation identical to that of the SAM-enzyme co-crystal structure. Functionally, equivalent enzymatic activities (N-7 methylation, 2'-O methylation, and GMP-enzyme complex formation) were detected for the SAM-depleted and SAM-containing recombinant proteins. These results clearly indicate that the SAM molecule is not an essential component for the correct folding of DENV methyltransferase. Furthermore, the results imply a potential antiviral approach to search for inhibitors that can bind to the SAM-binding pocket and compete against SAM binding. To demonstrate this potential, we have soaked crystals of DENV methyltransferase without a bound SAM with the natural product Sinefungin and show that preformed crystals are capable of binding ligands in this pocket. PMID:25241250

  16. DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) controls the expression of the cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) gene of Aeromonas hydrophila via tRNA modifying enzyme-glucose-inhibited division protein (GidA)

    PubMed Central

    Erova, Tatiana E.; Kosykh, Valeri G.; Sha, Jian; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is both a human and animal pathogen, and the cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) is a crucial virulence factor of this bacterium because of its associated hemolytic, cytotoxic, and enterotoxic activities. Previously, to define the role of some regulatory genes in modulating Act production, we showed that deletion of a glucose-inhibited division gene (gidA) encoding tRNA methylase reduced Act levels, while overproduction of DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) led to a concomitant increase in Act-associated biological activities of a diarrheal isolate SSU of A. hydrophila. Importantly, there are multiple GATC binding sites for Dam within an upstream sequence of the gidA gene and one such target site in the act gene upstream region. We showed the dam gene to be essential for the viability of A. hydrophila SSU, and, therefore, to better understand the interaction of the encoding genes, Dam and GidA, in act gene regulation, we constructed a gidA in-frame deletion mutant of Escherichia coli GM28 (dam+) and GM33 (Δdam) strains. We then tested the expressional activity of the act and gidA genes by using a promoterless pGlow-TOPO vector containing a reporter green fluorescent protein (GFP). Our data indicated that in GidA+ strains of E. coli, constitutive methylation of the GATC site(s) by Dam negatively regulated act and gidA gene expression as measured by GFP production. However, in the ΔgidA strains, irrespective of the presence or absence of constitutively active Dam, we did not observe any alteration in the expression of the act gene signifying the role of GidA in positively regulating Act production. To determine the exact mechanism of how Dam and GidA influence Act, a real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay was performed. The analysis indicated an increase in gidA and act gene expression in the A. hydrophila Dam-overproducing strain, and these data matched with Act production in the E. coli GM28 strain. Thus, the extent of DNA methylation caused by

  17. Genes encoding farnesyl cysteine carboxyl methyltransferase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Y; Davey, J; Kawagishi-Kobayashi, M; Yamamoto, M

    1997-01-01

    The mam4 mutation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe causes mating deficiency in h- cells but not in h+ cells. h- cells defective in mam4 do not secrete active mating pheromone M-factor. We cloned mam4 by complementation. The mam4 gene encodes a protein of 236 amino acids, with several potential membrane-spanning domains, which is 44% identical with farnesyl cysteine carboxyl methyltransferase encoded by STE14 and required for the modification of a-factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of membrane fractions revealed that mam4 is responsible for the methyltransferase activity in S. pombe. Cells defective in mam4 produced farnesylated but unmethylated cysteine and small peptides but no intact M-factor. These observations strongly suggest that the mam4 gene product is farnesyl cysteine carboxyl methyltransferase that modifies M-factor. Furthermore, transcomplementation of S. pombe mam4 allowed us to isolate an apparent homolog of mam4 from Xenopus laevis (Xmam4). In addition to its sequence similarity to S. pombe mam4, the product of Xmam4 was shown to have a farnesyl cysteine carboxyl methyltransferase activity in S. pombe cells. The isolation of a vertebrate gene encoding farnesyl cysteine carboxyl methyltransferase opens the way to in-depth studies of the role of methylation in a large body of proteins, including Ras superfamily proteins. PMID:9032282

  18. Dietary arginine affects energy metabolism through polyamine turnover in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Synne M; Holen, Elisabeth; Aksnes, Anders; Rønnestad, Ivar; Zerrahn, Jens-Erik; Espe, Marit

    2013-12-14

    In the present study, quadruplicate groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed plant protein-based diets with increasing arginine inclusions (range 28·8-37·4 g/kg DM) to investigate whether arginine supplementation affects growth and lipid accumulation through an elevated polyamine turnover. Dietary lysine was held at a constant concentration, just below the requirement. All other amino acids were balanced and equal in the diets. Arginine supplementation increased protein and fat accretion, without affecting the hepatosomatic or visceralsomatic indices. Dietary arginine correlated with putrescine in the liver (R 0·78, P= 0·01) and with ornithine in the muscle, liver and plasma (P= 0·0002, 0·003 and 0·0002, respectively). The mRNA of ornithine decarboxylase, the enzyme producing putrescine, was up-regulated in the white adipose tissue of fish fed the high-arginine inclusion compared with those fed the low-arginine diet. Concomitantly, spermidine/spermine-(N1)-acetyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine turnover that consumes acetyl-CoA, showed an increased activity in the liver of fish fed the arginine-supplemented diets. In addition, lower acetyl-CoA concentrations were observed in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet, while ATP, which is used in the process of synthesising spermidine and spermine, did not show a similar trend. Gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme for β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, was up-regulated in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet. Taken together, the data support that increased dietary arginine activates polyamine turnover and β-oxidation in the liver of juvenile Atlantic salmon and may act to improve the metabolic status of the fish. PMID:23656796

  19. Arginine metabolic endotypes in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wedes, Samuel H.; Hsu, Jean W.; Bohren, Kurt M.; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Jahoor, Farook; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Decreased synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthases (NOS) is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Multiple factors may contribute to decreased NO bioavailability, including increased activity of arginase, the enzyme that converts arginine to ornithine and urea, which may compete with NOS for arginine; inadequate de novo arginine production from citrulline; and increased concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NOS. We hypothesized that PAH patients with the lowest arginine availability secondary to increased arginase activity and/or inadequate de novo arginine synthesis might have a slower rate of NO synthesis and greater pulmonary vascular resistance. Nine patients with group 1 PAH and 10 healthy controls were given primed, constant intravenous infusions of 15N2-arginine, 13C,2H4-citrulline, 15N2-ornithine, and 13C-urea in the postabsorptive state. The results showed that, compared with healthy controls, PAH patients had a tendency toward increased arginine clearance and ornithine flux but no difference in arginine and citrulline flux, de novo arginine synthesis, or NO synthesis. Arginine-to-ADMA ratio was increased in PAH patients. Two endotypes of patients with low and high arginase activity were identified; compared with the low-arginase group, the patients with high arginase had increased arginine flux, slower NO synthesis, and lower plasma concentrations of ADMA. These results demonstrate that increased breakdown of arginine by arginase occurs in PAH and affects NO synthesis. Furthermore, there is no compensatory increase in de novo arginine synthesis to overcome this increased utilization of arginine by arginase. PMID:25992277

  20. Downregulation of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) leucine-rich repeat, non-arginine-aspartate receptor-like protein kinase reduces expression of numerous genes involved in plant pathogen defense.

    PubMed

    Parrott, David L; Huang, Li; Fischer, Andreas M

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition receptors represent a first line of plant defense against pathogens. Comparing the flag leaf transcriptomes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) near-isogenic lines varying in the allelic state of a locus controlling senescence, we have previously identified a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase gene (LRR-RLK; GenBank accession: AK249842), which was strongly upregulated in leaves of early-as compared to late-senescing germplasm. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that this gene codes for a subfamily XII, non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) LRR-RLK. Virus-induced gene silencing resulted in a two-fold reduction of transcript levels as compared to controls. Transcriptomic comparison of leaves from untreated plants, from plants treated with virus only without any plant sequences (referred to as 'empty virus' control), and from plants in which AK249842 expression was knocked down identified numerous genes involved in pathogen defense. These genes were strongly induced in 'empty virus' as compared to untreated controls, but their expression was significantly reduced (again compared to 'empty virus' controls) when AK249842 was knocked down, indicating that their expression partially depends on the LRR-RLK investigated here. Expression analysis, using datasets from BarleyBase/PLEXdb, demonstrated that AK249842 transcript levels are heavily influenced by the allelic state of the well-characterized mildew resistance a (Mla) locus, and that the gene is induced after powdery mildew and stem rust infection. Together, our data suggest that AK249842 is a barley pattern recognition receptor with a tentative role in defense against fungal pathogens, setting the stage for its full functional characterization. PMID:26820571

  1. The Protein Arginine Methylase 5 (PRMT5/SKB1) Gene Is Required for the Maintenance of Root Stem Cells in Response to DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuling; Zhao, Yan; Yue, Minghui; Xue, Yongbiao; Bao, Shilai

    2016-04-20

    Plant root stem cells and their surrounding microenvironment, namely the stem cell niche, are hypersensitive to DNA damage. However, the molecular mechanisms that help maintain the genome stability of root stem cells remain elusive. Here we show that the root stem cells in the skb1 (Shk1 kinase binding protein 1) mutant undergoes DNA damage-induced cell death, which is enhanced when combined with a lesion of the Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) or the ATM/RAD3-related (ATR) genes, suggesting that the SKB1 plays a synergistically effect with ATM and ATR in DNA damage pathway. We also provide evidence that SKB1 is required for the maintenance of quiescent center (QC), a root stem cell niche, under DNA damage treatments. Furthermore, we report decreased and ectopic expression of SHORTROOT (SHR) in response to DNA damage in the skb1 root tips, while the expression of SCARECROW (SCR) remains unaffected. Our results uncover a new mechanism of plant root stem cell maintenance under DNA damage conditions that requires SKB1. PMID:27090604

  2. Membrane-Bound Dynamic Structure of an Arginine-Rich Cell-Penetrating Peptide, the Protein Transduction Domain of HIV TAT, from Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yongchao; Waring, Alan J.; Ruchala, Piotr; Hong, Mei

    2010-01-01

    The protein transduction domain of HIV-1 TAT, TAT(48-60), is an efficient cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) that diffuses across the lipid membranes of cells despite eight cationic Arg and Lys residues. To understand its mechanism of membrane translocation against the free energy barrier, we have conducted solid-state NMR experiments to determine the site-specific conformation, dynamics, and lipid interaction of the TAT peptide in anionic lipid bilayers. We found that TAT(48-60) is a highly dynamic and nearly random-coil peptide in the lipid bilayer, and inserts into the membrane-water interface near the glycerol backbone region. Arg-phosphate salt bridge interaction was revealed by short guanidinium-phosphate distances and restricted dynamics of the guanidinium. Together with the observation of strong peptide-water cross peaks in 1H spin diffusion spectra, these results indicate that TAT binding to the membrane-water interface is stabilized not only by electrostatic attraction to the anionic lipids, but also by intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the lipid phosphates and water, which may take the role of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in canonical secondary structures. The random-coil structure of TAT and another CPP, penetratin, suggests that the lack of amphipathic structure is essential for rapid translocation of these Arg-rich CPPs across the lipid membrane without causing permanent damages to the membrane integrity. PMID:20550193

  3. An engineered split M.HhaI-zinc finger fusion lacks the intended methyltransferase specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, Glenna E.; Chandrasegaran, Srinivasan; Ostermeier, Marc

    2008-12-05

    The ability to site-specifically methylate DNA in vivo would have wide applicability to the study of basic biomedical problems as well as enable studies on the potential of site-specific DNA methylation as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diseases. Natural DNA methyltransferases lack the specificity required for these applications. Nomura and Barbas [W. Nomura, C.F. Barbas 3rd, In vivo site-specific DNA methylation with a designed sequence-enabled DNA methylase, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 (2007) 8676-8677] have reported that an engineered DNA methyltransferase comprised of fragments of M.HhaI methyltransferase and zinc finger proteins has very high specificity for the chosen target site. Our analysis of this engineered enzyme shows that the fusion protein methylates target and non-target sites with similar efficiency.

  4. Two key arginine residues in the coat protein of Bamboo mosaic virus differentially affect the accumulation of viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chien-Jen; Hu, Chung-Chi; Lin, Na-Sheng; Lee, Ya-Chien; Meng, Menghsiao; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2014-02-01

    The interactions between viral RNAs and coat proteins (CPs) are critical for the efficient completion of infection cycles of RNA viruses. However, the specificity of the interactions between CPs and genomic or subgenomic RNAs remains poorly understood. In this study, Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) was used to analyse such interactions. Using reversible formaldehyde cross-linking and mass spectrometry, two regions in CP, each containing a basic amino acid (R99 and R227, respectively), were identified to bind directly to the 5' untranslated region of BaMV genomic RNA. Analyses of the alanine mutations of R99 and R227 revealed that the secondary structures of CP were not affected significantly, whereas the accumulation of BaMV genomic, but not subgenomic, RNA was severely decreased at 24 h post-inoculation in the inoculated protoplasts. In the absence of CP, the accumulation levels of genomic and subgenomic RNAs were decreased to 1.1%-1.5% and 33%-40% of that of the wild-type (wt), respectively, in inoculated leaves at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi). In contrast, in the presence of mutant CPs, the genomic RNAs remained about 1% of that of wt, whereas the subgenomic RNAs accumulated to at least 87%, suggesting that CP might increase the accumulation of subgenomic RNAs. The mutations also restricted viral movement and virion formation in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves at 5 dpi. These results demonstrate that R99 and R227 of CP play crucial roles in the accumulation, movement and virion formation of BaMV RNAs, and indicate that genomic and subgenomic RNAs interact differently with BaMV CP. PMID:24393453

  5. The effects of arginine deficiency on the water and solute metabolism in weanling rats

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, P. J.; Ferguson, D. R.; McGowan, G. K.

    1966-01-01

    1. Weanling rats fed on a synthetic diet, which was completely deficient in arginine, grew more slowly than rats fed on a similar diet which included arginine. 2. No differences in the haemoglobin level or plasma protein concentration or electrophoretic pattern were found in the two groups of rats. 3. The arginine-deficient rats drank less water, and excreted less urine, which was more concentrated than that of the control animals, although the solute output was reduced, and the extrarenal water losses were the same. 4. The arginine-deficient animals excreted less urea, non-protein nitrogen, creatinine and total solutes. The blood urea concentration of the deficient animals was significantly higher than that of the controls, indicating that arginine deficiency had impaired the excretion of urea. 5. There was no difference between the renal weights of both groups of animals when related to total body weight, nor was there a difference in the histological appearance of the kidneys. 6. The amounts of arginine vasopression and oxytocin/kg body wt. stored in the neurohypophyses of both arginine-deficient and control animals were the same. PMID:5912205

  6. Crystal structure of MboIIA methyltransferase.

    SciTech Connect

    Osipiuk, J.; Walsh, M. A.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Gdansk; Medical Research Council France

    2003-09-15

    DNA methyltransferases (MTases) are sequence-specific enzymes which transfer a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to the amino group of either cytosine or adenine within a recognized DNA sequence. Methylation of a base in a specific DNA sequence protects DNA from nucleolytic cleavage by restriction enzymes recognizing the same DNA sequence. We have determined at 1.74 {angstrom} resolution the crystal structure of a {beta}-class DNA MTase MboIIA (M {center_dot} MboIIA) from the bacterium Moraxella bovis, the smallest DNA MTase determined to date. M {center_dot} MboIIA methylates the 3' adenine of the pentanucleotide sequence 5'-GAAGA-3'. The protein crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit which we propose to resemble the dimer when M {center_dot} MboIIA is not bound to DNA. The overall structure of the enzyme closely resembles that of M {center_dot} RsrI. However, the cofactor-binding pocket in M {center_dot} MboIIA forms a closed structure which is in contrast to the open-form structures of other known MTases.

  7. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Set7, a putative histone methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Mevius, Damiaan E H F; Shen, Yunpeng; Morishita, Masayo; di Luccio, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Dysfunction of histone-modifying enzymes affects chromatin regulation and is involved in carcinogenesis, tumour progression and other diseases. Histone methyltransferases are a family of key histone-modifying enzymes, but their structures, functions and mechanisms are incompletely understood, thus constraining drug-design efforts. Here, preliminary steps towards structure-function studies of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Set7, a putative histone methyltransferase and the first yeast full-length SET-domain-containing protein to be studied using X-ray crystallography, are reported. The methods from cloning to X-ray diffraction and phasing are discussed and the results will aid in prospective studies of histone-modifying enzymes. PMID:27050258

  8. The RNA Binding Motif Protein 15B (RBM15B/OTT3) Is a Functional Competitor of Serine-Arginine (SR) Proteins and Antagonizes the Positive Effect of the CDK11p110-Cyclin L2α Complex on Splicing*

    PubMed Central

    Loyer, Pascal; Busson, Adeline; Trembley, Janeen H.; Hyle, Judith; Grenet, Jose; Zhao, Wei; Ribault, Catherine; Montier, Tristan; Kidd, Vincent J.; Lahti, Jill M.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report the identification of the RNA binding motif protein RBM15B/OTT3 as a new CDK11p110 binding partner that alters the effects of CDK11 on splicing. RBM15B was initially identified as a binding partner of the Epstein-Barr virus mRNA export factor and, more recently, as a cofactor of the nuclear export receptor NXF1. In this study, we found that RBM15B co-elutes with CDK11p110, cyclin L2α, and serine-arginine (SR) proteins, including SF2/ASF, in a large nuclear complex of ∼1-MDa molecular mass following size exclusion chromatography. Using co-immunoprecipitation experiments and in vitro pulldown assays, we mapped two distinct domains of RBM15B that are essential for its direct interaction with the N-terminal extension of CDK11p110, cyclin L2α, and SR proteins such as 9G8 and SF2/ASF. Finally, we established that RBM15B is a functional competitor of the SR proteins SF2/ASF and 9G8, inhibits formation of the functional spliceosomal E complex, and antagonizes the positive effect of the CDK11p110-cyclin L2α complex on splicing both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21044963

  9. The RNA binding motif protein 15B (RBM15B/OTT3) is a functional competitor of serine-arginine (SR) proteins and antagonizes the positive effect of the CDK11p110-cyclin L2α complex on splicing.

    PubMed

    Loyer, Pascal; Busson, Adeline; Trembley, Janeen H; Hyle, Judith; Grenet, Jose; Zhao, Wei; Ribault, Catherine; Montier, Tristan; Kidd, Vincent J; Lahti, Jill M

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report the identification of the RNA binding motif protein RBM15B/OTT3 as a new CDK11(p110) binding partner that alters the effects of CDK11 on splicing. RBM15B was initially identified as a binding partner of the Epstein-Barr virus mRNA export factor and, more recently, as a cofactor of the nuclear export receptor NXF1. In this study, we found that RBM15B co-elutes with CDK11(p110), cyclin L2α, and serine-arginine (SR) proteins, including SF2/ASF, in a large nuclear complex of ∼1-MDa molecular mass following size exclusion chromatography. Using co-immunoprecipitation experiments and in vitro pulldown assays, we mapped two distinct domains of RBM15B that are essential for its direct interaction with the N-terminal extension of CDK11(p110), cyclin L2α, and SR proteins such as 9G8 and SF2/ASF. Finally, we established that RBM15B is a functional competitor of the SR proteins SF2/ASF and 9G8, inhibits formation of the functional spliceosomal E complex, and antagonizes the positive effect of the CDK11(p110)-cyclin L2α complex on splicing both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21044963

  10. Amazing stability of the arginine-phosphate electrostatic interaction.

    PubMed

    Woods, Amina S; Ferré, Sergi

    2005-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions between a basic epitope containing adjacent arginine residues and an acidic epitope containing a phosphorylated serine are involved in receptor heteromerization. In the present study, we demonstrate that this arginine-phosphate electrostatic interaction possesses a "covalent-like" stability. Hence, these bonds can withstand fragmentation by mass spectrometric collision-induced dissociation at energies similar to those that fragment covalent bonds and they demonstrate an extremely low dissociation constant by plasmon resonance. The present work also highlights the importance of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation events in the modulation of this electrostatic attraction. Phosphorylation of the acidic epitope, a casein kinase one consensus site, makes it available to interact with the basic epitope. On the other hand, phosphorylation of serine and/or threonine residues adjacent to the basic epitope, a protein kinase A consensus site, slows down the attraction between the epitopes. Although analyzed here in the frame of receptor heteromerization, the arginine-phosphate electrostatic interaction most likely represents a general mechanism in protein-protein interactions. PMID:16083292

  11. Geometry of guanidinium groups in arginines.

    PubMed

    Malinska, Maura; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    The restraints in common usage today have been obtained based on small molecule X-ray crystal structures available 25 years ago and recent reports have shown that the values of bond lengths and valence angles can be, in fact, significantly different from those stored in libraries, for example for the peptide bond or the histidine ring geometry. We showed that almost 50% of outliers found in protein validation reports released in the Protein Data Bank on 23 March 2016 come from geometry of guanidine groups in arginines. Therefore, structures of small molecules and atomic resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive new target values for the geometry of this group. The most significant difference was found for NE-CZ-NH1 and NE-CZ-NH2 angles, showing that the guanidinium group is not symmetric. The NE-CZ-NH1 angle is larger, 121.5(10)˚, than NE-CZ-NH2, 119.2(10)˚, due to the repulsive interaction between NH1 and CD1 atom. PMID:27326702

  12. Multimethylation of Rickettsia OmpB Catalyzed by Lysine Methyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Abeykoon, Amila; Wang, Guanghui; Chao, Chien-Chung; Chock, P. Boon; Gucek, Marjan; Ching, Wei-Mei; Yang, David C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of rickettsial OmpB (outer membrane protein B) has been implicated in bacterial virulence. Rickettsial methyltransferases RP789 and RP027-028 are the first biochemically characterized methyltransferases to catalyze methylation of outer membrane protein (OMP). Methylation in OMP remains poorly understood. Using semiquantitative integrated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, we characterize methylation of (i) recombinantly expressed fragments of Rickettsia typhi OmpB exposed in vitro to trimethyltransferases of Rickettsia prowazekii RP027-028 and of R. typhi RT0101 and to monomethyltransferases of R. prowazekii RP789 and of R. typhi RT0776, and (ii) native OmpBs purified from R. typhi and R. prowazekii strains Breinl, RP22, and Madrid E. We found that in vitro trimethylation occurs at relatively specific locations in OmpB with consensus motifs, KX(G/A/V/I)N and KT(I/L/F), whereas monomethylation is pervasive throughout OmpB. Native OmpB from virulent R. typhi contains mono- and trimethyllysines at locations well correlated with methylation in recombinant OmpB catalyzed by methyltransferases in vitro. Native OmpBs from highly virulent R. prowazekii strains Breinl and RP22 contain multiple clusters of trimethyllysine in contrast to a single cluster in OmpB from mildly virulent R. typhi. Furthermore, OmpB from the avirulent strain Madrid E contains mostly monomethyllysine and no trimethyllysine. The native OmpB from Madrid E was minimally trimethylated by RT0101 or RP027-028, consistent with a processive mechanism of trimethylation. This study provides the first in-depth characterization of methylation of an OMP at the molecular level and may lead to uncovering the link between OmpB methylation and rickettsial virulence. PMID:24497633

  13. Dietary L-Arginine Supplementation Affects the Skeletal Longissimus Muscle Proteome in Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xianyong; Zheng, Chuntian; Hu, Youjun; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuefen; Jiang, Zongyong

    2015-01-01

    Forty-eight Duroc x Landrace x Large White gilts were used to determine the relationship between proteome changes of longissimus muscle and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in arginine-supplemented pigs. Beginning at 60 kg BW, pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented or not with 1% L-arginine until they reached a BW of 100 kg. Supplementation with 1% L-arginine did not affect the growth performance or carcass traits, while it increased IMF content by 32% (P < 0.01), it also decreased the drip loss at 48 h post-mortem and the b* meat color value at 24 h post-mortem; supplementation with 1% dietary L-arginine did not change the proportion of SFA and MUFA in muscle lipids. The proteome changes in longissimus muscle between the control and supplemented pigs showed that L-arginine significantly influenced the abundance of proteins related to energy metabolism, fiber type and structure. The increase in IMF content was positively correlated with the increased abundance of slow twitch troponin I (TNNI1) protein and negatively correlated with myosin heavy chain IIb (MyHC IIb) protein content. It is suggested that the proteome changes in longissimus muscle contributed to the greater IMF content in L-arginine supplemented pigs. PMID:25635834

  14. Depletion of arginine in yeast cells decreases the resistance to hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Kazuki; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Iguchi, Akinori; Shigematsu, Toru

    2015-07-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HP) inhibits growth and inactivates microorganisms by destabilizing non-covalent molecular interactions. Arginine contributes to stress resistance because it has a guanidine side chain, which assists in the refolding of aggregated proteins. We attempted to analyze the contribution of arginine to high HP stress using a pressure-sensitive mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a metabolomics approach. Our results showed that the content of 136 out of 250 detected metabolites differed in the mutant and parent strains. Decreased metabolites were involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and arginine biosynthesis. The expression of genes contributing to arginine biosynthesis was significantly lower in the mutant strain than in the parent strain. When arginine was supplemented to the medium, the mutant strain showed more tolerance to pressure. These results suggest that yeast cells survived due to the contribution of arginine to high pressure resistance. This indicates that depletion of arginine caused by decreased activity of the biosynthesis pathway confers sensitivity to HP.

  15. Relations among arginine, citrulline, ornithine, and leucine kinetics in adult burn patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y M; Ryan, C M; Burke, J F; Tompkins, R G; Young, V R

    1995-11-01

    Plasma fluxes of arginine, citrulline, and leucine, and the rate of conversion of labeled citrulline to arginine (Qcit-->arg) were determined in nine severely burned patients (mean: 56% body surface burn area, mean 10 d postinjury) while they received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) including an L-amino acid mixture that supplied a generous amount of nitrogen (mean: 0.39 +/- 0.02 g.kg-1.d-1). Plasma fluxes were also studied in these patients during a basal state (low-dose intravenous glucose) by using a primed, 4-h constant intravenous tracer-infusion protocol. Stable-nuclide labeled tracers were L-[15N-15N-guanidino,5,5,2H2]arginine; L-[13C-ureido]citrulline; L-[1-13C]leucine; and NaH13CO3 (prime only), with blood and expired air samples drawn at intervals to determine isotopic abundance of arginine, citrulline, ornithine, and alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC; for leucine) in plasma and 13CO2 in breath. Leucine kinetics (flux and disappearance into protein synthesis) confirmed the anticipated higher protein turnover in these burn patients compared with healthy control subjects. The plasma arginine fluxes were correspondingly higher in burn patients than in healthy control subjects. However, the citrulline flux and rate of conversion of citrulline to arginine were not higher than values obtained in our laboratories in healthy adult subjects. We hypothesize that the higher rates of arginine loss from the body after burn injury would need to be balanced by an appropriate exogenous intake of preformed arginine to maintain protein homeostasis and promote recovery from this catabolic condition. PMID:7572742

  16. Granulocyte functions are independent of arginine availability.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Katharina; Prüfer, Steve; Michel, Christian S; Habermeier, Alice; Luckner-Minden, Claudia; Giese, Thomas; Bomalaski, John; Langhans, Claus-Dieter; Kropf, Pascale; Müller, Ingrid; Closs, Ellen I; Radsak, Markus P; Munder, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Arginine depletion via myeloid cell arginase is critically involved in suppression of the adaptive immune system during cancer or chronic inflammation. On the other hand, arginine depletion is being developed as a novel anti-tumor metabolic strategy to deprive arginine-auxotrophic cancer cells of this amino acid. In human immune cells, arginase is mainly expressed constitutively in PMNs. We therefore purified human primary PMNs from healthy donors and analyzed PMN function as the main innate effector cell and arginase producer in the context of arginine deficiency. We demonstrate that human PMN viability, activation-induced IL-8 synthesis, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of ROS, and fungicidal activity are not impaired by the absence of arginine in vitro. Also, profound pharmacological arginine depletion in vivo via ADI-PEG20 did not inhibit PMN functions in a mouse model of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis; PMN invasion into the lung, activation, and successful PMN-dependent clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus and survival of mice were not impaired. These novel findings add to a better understanding of immunity during inflammation-associated arginine depletion and are also important for the development of therapeutic arginine depletion as anti-metabolic tumor therapy. PMID:25104794

  17. Arginines Plasma Concentration and Oxidative Stress in Mild to Moderate COPD

    PubMed Central

    Zinellu, Angelo; Fois, Alessandro Giuseppe; Sotgia, Salvatore; Sotgiu, Elisabetta; Zinellu, Elisabetta; Bifulco, Fabiana; Mangoni, Arduino A; Pirina, Pietro; Carru, Ciriaco

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated plasma concentrations of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) have been observed in respiratory conditions such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Since oxidative stress has been shown to increase the activity of arginine methylating enzymes, hence increased ADMA synthesis, and to reduce ADMA degrading enzymes, hence increased ADMA concentrations, we assessed methylated arginines concentrations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterized by increased oxidative stress. Methods Plasma arginine, ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS, and plasma proteins SH, PSH) and antioxidants (taurine and paraoxonase 1, PON1, activity) were measured in 43 COPD patients with mild (n = 29) or moderate (n = 14) disease and 43 age- and sex-matched controls. Results TBARS significantly increased with COPD presence and severity (median 2.93 vs 3.18 vs 3.64 μmol/L, respectively in controls, mild and moderate group, p<0.0001 by ANOVA) whereas PSH decreased (6.69±1.15 vs 6.04±0.85 vs 5.33±0.96 μmol/gr prot, p<0.0001 by ANOVA). Increased ADMA/arginine ratio, primarily due to reduced arginine concentrations, was also observed with COPD presence and severity (median 0.0067 vs 0.0075 vs 0.0100, p<0.0001 by ANOVA). In multiple logistic regression analysis, only TBARS (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25–0.77; p = 0.0045) and ADMA/Arginine ratio (OR 1.72, 95% CI 2.27–13.05; p = 0.02) were independently associated with COPD severity. Conclusion COPD presence and severity are associated with increased oxidative stress and alterations in arginine metabolism. The reduced arginine concentrations in COPD may offer a new target for therapeutic interventions increasing arginine availability. PMID:27479314

  18. Predicting the substrates of cloned plant O-methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Gudrun; Wehinger, Elke; Schröder, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Plant O-methyltransferases (OMTs) have important roles in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Sequencing projects and homology-based cloning strategies yield sequences for proteins with similarities to known OMTs, but the identification of the physiological substrates is not trivial. We investigated with a cDNA cloned from Catharanthus roseus the possibilities for predicting the substrates of OMTs, using the information from previous work and two newly identified motifs that were based on information from the crystal structures of two plant OMTs. The results, confirmed by functional analysis of the recombinant protein, indicated that a careful analysis of the deduced protein sequence can provide clues for predicting the substrates of cloned OMTs. PMID:11754938

  19. Structural basis for S-adenosylmethionine binding and methyltransferase activity by mitochondrial transcription factor B1.

    PubMed

    Guja, Kip E; Venkataraman, Krithika; Yakubovskaya, Elena; Shi, Hui; Mejia, Edison; Hambardjieva, Elena; Karzai, A Wali; Garcia-Diaz, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    Eukaryotic transcription factor B (TFB) proteins are homologous to KsgA/Dim1 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) methyltransferases. The mammalian TFB1, mitochondrial (TFB1M) factor is an essential protein necessary for mitochondrial gene expression. TFB1M mediates an rRNA modification in the small ribosomal subunit and thus plays a role analogous to KsgA/Dim1 proteins. This modification has been linked to mitochondrial dysfunctions leading to maternally inherited deafness, aminoglycoside sensitivity and diabetes. Here, we present the first structural characterization of the mammalian TFB1 factor. We have solved two X-ray crystallographic structures of TFB1M with (2.1 Å) and without (2.0 Å) its cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine. These structures reveal that TFB1M shares a conserved methyltransferase core with other KsgA/Dim1 methyltransferases and shed light on the structural basis of S-adenosyl-L-methionine binding and methyltransferase activity. Together with mutagenesis studies, these data suggest a model for substrate binding and provide insight into the mechanism of methyl transfer, clarifying the role of this factor in an essential process for mitochondrial function. PMID:23804760

  20. Mechanism of arginine regulation of acetylglutamate synthase, the first enzyme of arginine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Vaello, Enea; Fernández-Murga, María L; Rubio, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase (NAGS), the first enzyme of arginine biosynthesis in bacteria/plants and an essential urea cycle activator in animals, is, respectively, arginine-inhibited and activated. Arginine binds to the hexameric ring-forming amino acid kinase (AAK) domain of NAGS. We show that arginine inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa NAGS by altering the functions of the distant, substrate binding/catalytic GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) domain, increasing K(m)(Glu), decreasing V(max) and triggering substrate inhibition by AcCoA. These effects involve centrally the interdomain linker, since we show that linker elongation or two-residue linker shortening hampers and mimics, respectively, arginine inhibition. We propose a regulatory mechanism in which arginine triggers the expansion of the hexameric NAGS ring, altering AAK-GNAT domain interactions, and the modulation by these interactions of GNAT domain functions, explaining arginine regulation. PMID:19084009

  1. Dynamics and reactivity in Thermus aquaticus N6-adenine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan; Zinovjev, Kirill; Roca, Maite; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2014-11-19

    M.TaqI is a DNA methyltransferase from Thermus aquaticus that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the N6 position of an adenine, a process described only in prokaryotes. We have used full atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations to explore the protein-SAM-DNA ternary complex where the target adenine is flipped out into the active site. Key protein-DNA interactions established by the target adenine in the active site are described in detail. The relaxed structure was used for a combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics exploration of the reaction mechanism using the string method. According to our free energy calculations the reaction takes place through a stepwise mechanism where the methyl transfer precedes the abstraction of the proton from the exocyclic amino group. The methyl transfer is the rate-determining step, and the obtained free energy barrier is in good agreement with the value derived from the experimental rate constant. Two possible candidates to extract the leftover proton have been explored: a water molecule found in the active site and Asn105, a residue activated by the hydrogen bonds formed through the amide hydrogens. The barrier for the proton abstraction is smaller when Asn105 acts as a base. The reaction mechanisms can be different in other N6-DNA-methyltransferases, as determined from the exploration of the reaction mechanism in the Asn105Asp M.TaqI mutant. PMID:25347783

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the arginine repressor of the hyperthermophile Thermotoga neapolitana

    SciTech Connect

    Massant, Jan Peeters, Eveline; Charlier, Daniel; Maes, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    The arginine repressor of the hyperthermophile T. neapolitana was crystallized with and without its corepressor arginine. Both crystals diffracted to high resolution and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with similar unit-cell parameters. The arginine repressor of Thermotoga neapolitana (ArgRTnp) is a member of the family of multifunctional bacterial arginine repressors involved in the regulation of arginine metabolism. This hyperthermophilic repressor shows unique DNA-binding features that distinguish it from its homologues. ArgRTnp exists as a homotrimeric protein that assembles into hexamers at higher protein concentrations and/or in the presence of arginine. ArgRTnp was crystallized with and without its corepressor arginine using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of the aporepressor diffracted to a resolution of 2.1 Å and belong to the orthorhombic P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} space group, with unit-cell parameters a = 117.73, b = 134.15, c = 139.31 Å. Crystals of the repressor in the presence of its corepressor arginine diffracted to a resolution of 2.4 Å and belong to the same space group, with similar unit-cell parameters.

  3. Genomic Survey, Gene Expression Analysis and Structural Modeling Suggest Diverse Roles of DNA Methyltransferases in Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Rohini; Kumari, Romika; Tiwari, Sneha; Goyal, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases), namely Methyltransferase (MET), Chromomethylase (CMT) and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM), which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2) subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA) MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes. PMID:24586452

  4. Control of TSC2-Rheb signaling axis by arginine regulates mTORC1 activity.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Bernadette; Maetzel, Dorothea; Maddocks, Oliver Dk; Otten, Gisela; Ratcliff, Matthew; Smith, Graham R; Dunlop, Elaine A; Passos, João F; Davies, Owen R; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Tee, Andrew R; Sarkar, Sovan; Korolchuk, Viktor I

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is the key signaling hub that regulates cellular protein homeostasis, growth, and proliferation in health and disease. As a prerequisite for activation of mTORC1 by hormones and mitogens, there first has to be an available pool of intracellular amino acids. Arginine, an amino acid essential during mammalian embryogenesis and early development is one of the key activators of mTORC1. Herein, we demonstrate that arginine acts independently of its metabolism to allow maximal activation of mTORC1 by growth factors via a mechanism that does not involve regulation of mTORC1 localization to lysosomes. Instead, arginine specifically suppresses lysosomal localization of the TSC complex and interaction with its target small GTPase protein, Rheb. By interfering with TSC-Rheb complex, arginine relieves allosteric inhibition of Rheb by TSC. Arginine cooperates with growth factor signaling which further promotes dissociation of TSC2 from lysosomes and activation of mTORC1. Arginine is the main amino acid sensed by the mTORC1 pathway in several cell types including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Dependence on arginine is maintained once hESCs are differentiated to fibroblasts, neurons, and hepatocytes, highlighting the fundamental importance of arginine-sensing to mTORC1 signaling. Together, our data provide evidence that different growth promoting cues cooperate to a greater extent than previously recognized to achieve tight spatial and temporal regulation of mTORC1 signaling. PMID:26742086

  5. Diminished L-arginine bioavailability in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moss, Monique B; Brunini, Tatiana M C; Soares De Moura, Roberto; Novaes Malagris, Lúcia E; Roberts, Norman B; Ellory, J Clive; Mann, Giovanni E; Mendes Ribeiro, Antônio C

    2004-10-01

    L-Arginine is the precursor of NO (nitric oxide), a key endogenous mediator involved in endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and platelet function. Although the concentration of intracellular L-arginine is well above the Km for NO synthesis, in many cells and pathological conditions the transport of L-arginine is essential for NO production (L-arginine paradox). The present study was designed to investigate the modulation of L-arginine/NO pathway in systemic arterial hypertension. Transport of L-arginine into RBCs (red blood cells) and platelets, NOS (NO synthase) activity and amino acid profiles in plasma were analysed in hypertensive patients and in an animal model of hypertension. Influx of L-arginine into RBCs was mediated by the cationic amino acid transport systems y+ and y+L, whereas, in platelets, influx was mediated only via system y+L. Chromatographic analyses revealed higher plasma levels of L-arginine in hypertensive patients (175+/-19 micromol/l) compared with control subjects (137+/-8 micromol/l). L-Arginine transport via system y+L, but not y+, was significantly reduced in RBCs from hypertensive patients (60+/-7 micromol.l(-1).cells(-1).h(-1); n=16) compared with controls (90+/-17 micromol.l(-1).cells(-1).h(-1); n=18). In human platelets, the Vmax for L-arginine transport via system y+L was 86+/-17 pmol.10(9) cells(-1).min(-1) in controls compared with 36+/-9 pmol.10(9) cells(-1).min(-1) in hypertensive patients (n=10; P<0.05). Basal NOS activity was decreased in platelets from hypertensive patients (0.12+/-0.02 pmol/10(8) cells; n=8) compared with controls (0.22+/-0.01 pmol/10(8) cells; n=8; P<0.05). Studies with spontaneously hypertensive rats demonstrated that transport of L-arginine via system y+L was also inhibited in RBCs. Our findings provide the first evidence that hypertension is associated with an inhibition of L-arginine transport via system y+L in both humans and animals, with reduced availability of L-arginine limiting NO synthesis

  6. Cadmium-induced crystallization of proteins: II. Crystallization of the Salmonella typhimurium histidine-binding protein in complex with L-histidine, L-arginine, or L-lysine.

    PubMed Central

    Trakhanov, S.; Kreimer, D. I.; Parkin, S.; Ames, G. F.; Rupp, B.

    1998-01-01

    To further investigate favorable effects of divalent cations on the formation of protein crystals, three complexes of Salmonella typhimurium histidine-binding protein were crystallized with varying concentrations of cadmium salts. For each of the three histidine-binding protein complexes, cadmium cations were found to promote or improve crystallization. The optimal cadmium concentration is ligand specific and falls within a narrow concentration range. In each case, crystals grown in the presence of cadmium diffract to better than 2.0 angstroms resolution and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1). From our results and from the analysis of cadmium sites in well-refined protein structures, we propose that cadmium addition provides a generally useful technique to modify crystal morphology and to improve diffraction quality. PMID:9541391

  7. Cadmium-induced crystallization of proteins: II. Crystallization of the Salmonella typhimurium histidine-binding protein in complex with L-histidine, L-arginine, or L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Trakhanov, S; Kreimer, D I; Parkin, S; Ames, G F; Rupp, B

    1998-03-01

    To further investigate favorable effects of divalent cations on the formation of protein crystals, three complexes of Salmonella typhimurium histidine-binding protein were crystallized with varying concentrations of cadmium salts. For each of the three histidine-binding protein complexes, cadmium cations were found to promote or improve crystallization. The optimal cadmium concentration is ligand specific and falls within a narrow concentration range. In each case, crystals grown in the presence of cadmium diffract to better than 2.0 angstroms resolution and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1). From our results and from the analysis of cadmium sites in well-refined protein structures, we propose that cadmium addition provides a generally useful technique to modify crystal morphology and to improve diffraction quality. PMID:9541391

  8. Occurrence of Arginine Deiminase Pathway Enzymes in Arginine Catabolism by Wine Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S.; Pritchard, G. G.; Hardman, M. J.; Pilone, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    l-Arginine, an amino acid found in significant quantities in grape juice and wine, is known to be catabolized by some wine lactic acid bacteria. The correlation between the occurrence of arginine deiminase pathway enzymes and the ability to catabolize arginine was examined in this study. The activities of the three arginine deiminase pathway enzymes, arginine deiminase, ornithine transcarbamylase, and carbamate kinase, were measured in cell extracts of 35 strains of wine lactic acid bacteria. These enzymes were present in all heterofermentative lactobacilli and most leuconostocs but were absent in all the homofermentative lactobacilli and pediococci examined. There was a good correlation among arginine degradation, formation of ammonia and citrulline, and the occurrence of arginine deiminase pathway enzymes. Urea was not detected during arginine degradation, suggesting that the catabolism of arginine did not proceed via the arginase-catalyzed reaction, as has been suggested in some earlier studies. Detection of ammonia with Nessler's reagent was shown to be a simple, rapid test to assess the ability of wine lactic acid bacteria to degrade arginine, although in media containing relatively high concentrations (>0.5%) of fructose, ammonia formation is inhibited. PMID:16534912

  9. Methylosome Protein 50 and PKCδ/p38δ Protein Signaling Control Keratinocyte Proliferation via Opposing Effects on p21Cip1 Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Saha, Kamalika; Eckert, Richard L

    2015-05-22

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a key epigenetic regulator that symmetrically dimethylates arginine residues on histones H3 and H4 to silence gene expression. PRMT5 is frequently observed in a complex with the cofactor methylosome protein 50 (MEP50), which is required for PRMT5 activity. PKCδ/p38δ signaling, a key controller of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, increases p21(Cip1) expression to suppress keratinocyte proliferation. We now show that MEP50 enhances keratinocyte proliferation and survival via mechanisms that include silencing of p21(Cip1) expression. This is associated with enhanced PRMT5-MEP50 interaction at the p21(Cip1) promoter and enhanced arginine dimethylation of the promoter-associated histones H3 and H4. It is also associated with a MEP50-dependent reduction in the level of p53, a key controller of p21(Cip1) gene expression. We confirm an important biological role for MEP50 and PRMT5 in regulating keratinocyte proliferation using a stratified epidermal equivalent model that mimics in vivo epidermal keratinocyte differentiation. In this model, PRMT5 or MEP50 knockdown results in reduced keratinocyte proliferation. We further show that PKCδ/p38δ signaling suppresses MEP50 expression, leading to reduced H3/H4 arginine dimethylation at the p21(Cip1) promoter, and that this is associated with enhanced p21(Cip1) expression and reduced cell proliferation. These findings describe an opposing action between PKCδ/p38δ MAPK signaling and PRMT5/MEP50 epigenetic silencing mechanisms in regulating cell proliferation. PMID:25851901

  10. Identification and Characterization of a Putative Arginine Kinase Homolog from Myxococcus xanthus Required for Fruiting Body Formation and Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bragg, Jonathan; Rajkovic, Andrei; Anderson, Chance; Curtis, Rachael; Van Houten, Jason; Begres, Brittany; Naples, Colin; Snider, Mark; Fraga, Dean

    2012-01-01

    Arginine kinases catalyze the reversible transfer of a high-energy phosphoryl group from ATP to l-arginine to form phosphoarginine, which is used as an energy buffer in insects, crustaceans, and some unicellular organisms. It plays an analogous role to that of phosphocreatine in vertebrates. Recently, putative arginine kinases were identified in several bacterial species, including the social Gram-negative soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. It is still unclear what role these proteins play in bacteria and whether they have evolved to acquire novel functions in the species in which they are found. In this study, we biochemically purified and characterized a putative M. xanthus arginine kinase, Ark, and demonstrated that it has retained the ability to catalyze the phosphorylation of arginine by using ATP. We also constructed a null mutation in the ark gene and demonstrated its role in both certain stress responses and development. PMID:22389486

  11. A Picrinine N-Methyltransferase Belongs to a New Family of γ-Tocopherol-Like Methyltransferases Found in Medicinal Plants That Make Biologically Active Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Levac, Dylan; Cázares, Paulo; Yu, Fang; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Members of the Apocynaceae plant family produce a large number of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) with different substitution patterns that are responsible for their various biological activities. A novel N-methyltransferase involved in the vindoline pathway in Catharanthus roseus showing distinct similarity to γ-tocopherol C-methyltransferases was used in a bioinformatic screen of transcriptomes from Vinca minor, Rauvolfia serpentina, and C. roseus to identify 10 γ-tocopherol-like N-methyltransferases from a large annotated transcriptome database of different MIA-producing plant species (www.phytometasyn.ca). The biochemical function of two members of this group cloned from V. minor (VmPiNMT) and R. serpentina (RsPiNMT) have been characterized by screening their biochemical activities against potential MIA substrates harvested from the leaf surfaces of MIA-accumulating plants. The approach was validated by identifying the MIA picrinine from leaf surfaces of Amsonia hubrichtii as a substrate of VmPiNMT and RsPiNMT. Recombinant proteins were shown to have high substrate specificity and affinity for picrinine, converting it to N-methylpicrinine (ervincine). Developmental studies with V. minor and R. serpentina showed that RsPiNMT and VmPiNMT gene expression and biochemical activities were highest in younger leaf tissues. The assembly of at least 150 known N-methylated MIAs within members of the Apocynaceae family may have occurred as a result of the evolution of the γ-tocopherol-like N-methyltransferase family from γ-tocopherol methyltransferases. PMID:26848097

  12. Biological evaluation of tanshindiols as EZH2 histone methyltransferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jimin; Kim, Hyun-Young; Byun, Byung Jin; Chae, Chong-Hak; Lee, Ji Young; Ryu, Shi Yong; Park, Woo-Kyu; Cho, Heeyeong; Choi, Gildon

    2014-06-01

    EZH2 is the core subunit of Polycomb repressive complex 2 catalyzing the methylation of histone H3 lysine-27 and closely involved in tumorigenesis. To discover small molecule inhibitors for EZH2 methyltransferase activity, we performed an inhibitor screen with catalytically active EZH2 protein complex and identified tanshindiols as EZH2 inhibitors. Tanshindiol B and C potently inhibited the methyltransferase activity in in vitro enzymatic assay with IC50 values of 0.52μM and 0.55μM, respectively. Tanshindiol C exhibited growth inhibition of several cancer cells including Pfeiffer cell line, a diffuse large B cell lymphoma harboring EZH2 A677G activating mutation. Tanshindiol treatment in Pfeiffer cells significantly decreased the tri-methylated form of histone H3 lysine-27, a substrate of EZH2, as revealed by Western blot analysis and histone methylation ELISA. Based on enzyme kinetics and docking studies, we propose that tanshindiol-mediated inhibition of EZH2 activity is competitive for the substrate S-adenosylmethionine. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that tanshindiols possess a unique anti-cancer activity whose mechanism involves the inhibition of EZH2 activity and would provide chemically valuable information for designing a new class of potent EZH2 inhibitors. PMID:24767850

  13. Arginine behaviour after arginine or citrulline administration in older subjects.

    PubMed

    Moinard, C; Maccario, J; Walrand, S; Lasserre, V; Marc, J; Boirie, Y; Cynober, L

    2016-02-14

    Arginine (ARG) and its precursor citrulline (CIT) are popular dietary supplements, especially for the elderly. However, age-related reductions in lean body mass and alterations in organ functions could change their bioavailability. Pharmacokinetics and tolerance to amino acid (AA) loads are poorly documented in elderly subjects. The objective here was to characterise the plasma kinetics of CIT and ARG in a single-dosing study design. Eight fasting elderly men underwent two separate isomolar oral loading tests (10 g of CIT or 9·94 g of ARG). Blood was withdrawn over an 8-h period to measure plasma AA concentrations. Only CIT, ornithine and ARG plasma concentrations were changed. Volume of distribution was not dependent on AA administered. Conversely, parameters related to ARG kinetics were strongly dependent on AA administered: after ARG load, elimination was higher (ARG>CIT; P=0·041) and admission period+time at peak concentration was lower (ARG

  14. Structural characterization of CalO1: a putative orsellinic acid methyltransferase in the calicheamicin-biosynthetic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Aram; Singh, Shanteri; Bingman, Craig A.; Thorson, Jon S.; Phillips, Jr, George N.

    2011-11-07

    The X-ray structure determination at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution of the putative orsellinic acid C3 O-methyltransferase (CalO1) involved in calicheamicin biosynthesis is reported. Comparison of CalO1 with a homology model of the functionally related calicheamicin orsellinic acid C2 O-methyltransferase (CalO6) implicates several residues that are likely to contribute to the regiospecificity of alkylation. Consistent with the proposed requirement of an acyl-carrier-protein-bound substrate, this structural study also reveals structural determinants within CalO1 that are anticipated to accommodate an association with an acyl carrier protein.

  15. Differential role of arginine mutations on the structure and functions of α-crystallin☆

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Alok Kumar; Nandi, Sandip Kumar; Chakraborty, Ayon; Nagaraj, Ram H.; Biswas, Ashis

    2016-01-01

    Background α-Crystallin is a major protein of the eye lens in vertebrates. It is composed of two subunits, αA- and αB-crystallin. α-Crystallin is an oligomeric protein having these two subunits in 3:1 ratio. It belongs to small heat shock protein family and exhibits molecular chaperone function, which plays an important role in maintaining the lens transparency. Apart from chaperone function, both subunits also exhibit anti-apoptotic property. Comparison of their primary sequences reveals that αA- and αB-crystallin posses 13 and 14 arginine residues, respectively. Several of them undergo mutations which eventually lead to various eye diseases such as congenital cataract, juvenile cataract, and retinal degeneration. Interestingly, many arginine residues of these subunits are modified during glycation and even some are truncated during aging. All these facts indicate the importance of arginine residues in α-crystallin. Scope of review In this review, we will emphasize the recent in vitro and in vivo findings related to congenital cataract causing arginine mutations in α-crystallin. Major conclusions Congenital cataract causing arginine mutations alters the structure and decreases the chaperone function of α-crystallin. These mutations also affect the lens morphology and phenotypes. Interestingly, non-natural arginine mutations (generated for mimicking the glycation and truncation environment) improve the chaperone function of α-crystallin which may play an important role in maintaining the eye lens transparency during aging. General significance The neutralization of positive charge on the guanidino group of arginine residues is not always detrimental to the functionality of α-crystallin. PMID:26080000

  16. Arginine- and Polyamine-Induced Lactic Acid Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zheng; Tang, M Matt; Wu, Xueliang; Phillips, Nancy; Galkowski, Dariusz; Jarvis, Gary A; Fan, Huizhou

    2016-01-01

    Microbe-derived lactic acid protects women from pathogens in their genital tract. The purpose of this study was to determine lactic acid susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and identify potential acid resistance mechanisms present in this pathogen. Tested in vitro, lactic acid killed all 10 gonococcal strains analyzed in a low pH-dependent manner. Full inactivation occurred at pH 4.5. At low pH, lactic acid treatment resulted in the entry of the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide into the microbial cells, suggesting that hydrogen ions from lactic acid compromise the integrity of the bacterial cell wall/membrane. Most likely, hydrogen ions also inactivate intracellular proteins since arginine rendered significant protection against lactic acid presumably through action of the gonococcal arginine decarboxylase, an enzyme located in the bacterial cytoplasm. Surprisingly, arginine also lessened lactic acid-mediated cell wall/membrane disruption. This effect is probably mediated by agmatine, a triamine product of arginine decarboxylase, since agmatine demonstrated a stronger protective effect on GC than arginine at equal molar concentration. In addition to agmatine, diamines cadaverine and putrescine, which are generated by bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes, also induced significant resistance to lactic acid-mediated GC killing and cell wall/membrane disruption. These findings suggest that the arginine-rich semen protects gonococci through both neutralization-dependent and independent mechanisms, whereas polyamine-induced acid resistance contributes to the increased risk of gonorrhea in women with bacterial vaginosis. PMID:26808268

  17. Arginine- and Polyamine-Induced Lactic Acid Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zheng; Tang, M. Matt; Wu, Xueliang; Phillips, Nancy; Galkowski, Dariusz; Jarvis, Gary A.; Fan, Huizhou

    2016-01-01

    Microbe-derived lactic acid protects women from pathogens in their genital tract. The purpose of this study was to determine lactic acid susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and identify potential acid resistance mechanisms present in this pathogen. Tested in vitro, lactic acid killed all 10 gonococcal strains analyzed in a low pH-dependent manner. Full inactivation occurred at pH 4.5. At low pH, lactic acid treatment resulted in the entry of the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide into the microbial cells, suggesting that hydrogen ions from lactic acid compromise the integrity of the bacterial cell wall/membrane. Most likely, hydrogen ions also inactivate intracellular proteins since arginine rendered significant protection against lactic acid presumably through action of the gonococcal arginine decarboxylase, an enzyme located in the bacterial cytoplasm. Surprisingly, arginine also lessened lactic acid-mediated cell wall/membrane disruption. This effect is probably mediated by agmatine, a triamine product of arginine decarboxylase, since agmatine demonstrated a stronger protective effect on GC than arginine at equal molar concentration. In addition to agmatine, diamines cadaverine and putrescine, which are generated by bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes, also induced significant resistance to lactic acid-mediated GC killing and cell wall/membrane disruption. These findings suggest that the arginine-rich semen protects gonococci through both neutralization-dependent and independent mechanisms, whereas polyamine-induced acid resistance contributes to the increased risk of gonorrhea in women with bacterial vaginosis. PMID:26808268

  18. Genetic and biochemical characterization of arginine biosynthesis in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Victor M; Girard, Lourdes; Hernández-Lucas, Ismael; Vázquez, Alejandra; Ortíz-Ortíz, Catalina; Díaz, Rafael; Dunn, Michael F

    2015-08-01

    L-Ornithine production in the alfalfa microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti occurs as an intermediate step in arginine biosynthesis. Ornithine is required for effective symbiosis but its synthesis in S. meliloti has been little studied. Unlike most bacteria, S. meliloti 1021 is annotated as encoding two enzymes producing ornithine: N-acetylornithine (NAO) deacetylase (ArgE) hydrolyses NAO to acetate and ornithine, and glutamate N-acetyltransferase (ArgJ) transacetylates l-glutamate with the acetyl group from NAO, forming ornithine and N-acetylglutamate (NAG). NAG is the substrate for the second step of arginine biosynthesis catalysed by NAG kinase (ArgB). Inactivation of argB in strain 1021 resulted in arginine auxotrophy. The activity of purified ArgB was significantly inhibited by arginine but not by ornithine. The purified ArgJ was highly active in NAO deacetylation/glutamate transacetylation and was significantly inhibited by ornithine but not by arginine. The purified ArgE protein (with a 6His-Sumo affinity tag) was also active in deacetylating NAO. argE and argJ single mutants, and an argEJ double mutant, are arginine prototrophs. Extracts of the double mutant contained aminoacylase (Ama) activity that deacetylated NAO to form ornithine. The purified products of three candidate ama genes (smc00682 (hipO1), smc02256 (hipO2) and smb21279) all possessed NAO deacetylase activity. hipO1 and hipO2, but not smb21279, expressed in trans functionally complemented an Escherichia coli ΔargE : : Km mutant. We conclude that Ama activity accounts for the arginine prototrophy of the argEJ mutant. Transcriptional assays of argB, argE and argJ, fused to a promoterless gusA gene, showed that their expression was not significantly affected by exogenous arginine or ornithine. PMID:26271664

  19. Induction of Viral, 7-Methyl-Guanosine Cap-Independent Translation and Oncolysis by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Interacting Kinase-Mediated Effects on the Serine/Arginine-Rich Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Michael C.; Bryant, Jeffrey D.; Dobrikova, Elena Y.; Shveygert, Mayya; Bradrick, Shelton S.; Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Bigner, Darell D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein synthesis, the most energy-consuming process in cells, responds to changing physiologic priorities, e.g., upon mitogen- or stress-induced adaptations signaled through the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The prevailing status of protein synthesis machinery is a viral pathogenesis factor, particularly for plus-strand RNA viruses, where immediate translation of incoming viral RNAs shapes host-virus interactions. In this study, we unraveled signaling pathways centered on the ERK1/2 and p38α MAPK-interacting kinases MNK1/2 and their role in controlling 7-methyl-guanosine (m7G) “cap”-independent translation at enterovirus type 1 internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs). Activation of Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 signals induced viral IRES-mediated translation in a manner dependent on MNK1/2. This effect was not due to MNK's known functions as eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G binding partner or eIF4E(S209) kinase. Rather, MNK catalytic activity enabled viral IRES-mediated translation/host cell cytotoxicity through negative regulation of the Ser/Arg (SR)-rich protein kinase (SRPK). Our investigations suggest that SRPK activity is a major determinant of type 1 IRES competency, host cell cytotoxicity, and viral proliferation in infected cells. IMPORTANCE We are targeting unfettered enterovirus IRES activity in cancer with PVSRIPO, the type 1 live-attenuated poliovirus (PV) (Sabin) vaccine containing a human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2) IRES. A phase I clinical trial of PVSRIPO with intratumoral inoculation in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) is showing early promise. Viral translation proficiency in infected GBM cells is a core requirement for the antineoplastic efficacy of PVSRIPO. Therefore, it is critically important to understand the mechanisms controlling viral cap-independent translation in infected host cells. PMID:25187541

  20. Targeting argininosuccinate synthetase negative melanomas using combination of arginine degrading enzyme and cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Savaraj, Niramol; Wu, Chunjing; Li, Ying-Ying; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; You, Min; Bomalaski, John; He, Wei; Kuo, Macus Tien; Feun, Lynn G

    2015-03-20

    Loss of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) expression in melanoma makes these tumor cells vulnerable to arginine deprivation. Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) which degrades arginine to citrulline and ammonia has been used clinically and partial responses and stable disease have been noted with minimal toxicity. In order to improve the therapeutic efficacy of ADI-PEG20, we have combined ADI-PEG20 with a DNA damaging agent, cisplatin. We have shown that the combination of the two drugs together significantly improved the therapeutic efficacy when compared to ADI-PEG20 alone or cisplatin alone in 4 melanoma cell lines, regardless of their BRAF mutation. In-vivo study also exhibited the same effect as in-vitro with no added toxicity to either agent alone. The underlying mechanism is complex, but increased DNA damage upon arginine deprivation due to decreased DNA repair proteins, FANCD2, ATM, and CHK1/2 most likely leads to increased apoptosis. This action is further intensified by increased proapoptotic protein, NOXA, and decreased antiapoptotic proteins, SURVIVIN, BCL2 and XIAP. The autophagic process which protects cells from apoptosis upon ADI-PEG20 treatment also dampens upon cisplatin administration. Thus, the combination of arginine deprivation and cisplatin function in concert to kill tumor cells which do not express ASS without added toxicity to normal cells. PMID:25749046

  1. Cancers and the NSD family of histone lysine methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Masayo; di Luccio, Eric

    2011-12-01

    Both genetic and epigenetic alterations are responsible for the stepwise initiation and progression of cancers. Only epigenetic aberrations can be reversible, allowing the malignant cell population to revert to a more benign phenotype. The epigenetic therapy of cancers is emerging as an effective and valuable approach to both the chemotherapy and the chemoprevention of cancer. The utilization of epigenetic targets that include histone methyltransferase (HMTase), Histone deacetylatase, and DNA methyltransferase, are emerging as key therapeutic targets. The nuclear receptor binding SET domain (NSD) protein is a family of three HMTases, NSD1, NSD2/MMSET/WHSC1, and NSD3/WHSC1L1, and plays a critical part in chromatin integrity as evidenced by a growing number of conditions linked to the alterations and/or amplification of NSD1, NSD2, and/or NSD3. NSD1, NSD2 and NSD3 are associated with multiple cancers. The amplification of either NSD1 or NSD2 triggers the cellular transformation and thus is key in the early carcinogenesis events. In most cases, reducing the levels of NSD proteins would suppress cancer growth. NSD1 and NSD2 were isolated as genes linked to developmental diseases, such as Sotos syndrome and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, respectively, implying versatile aspects of the NSD proteins. The NSD pathways, however, are not well understood. It is noteworthy that the NSD family is phylogenetically distinct compared to other known lysine-HMTases, Here, we review the current knowledge on NSD1/NSD2/NSD3 in tumorigenesis and prospect their special value for developing novel anticancer drugs. PMID:21664949

  2. Diabetic nephropathy is resistant to oral L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation.

    PubMed

    You, Hanning; Gao, Ting; Cooper, Timothy K; Morris, Sidney M; Awad, Alaa S

    2014-12-01

    Our recent publication showed that pharmacological blockade of arginases confers kidney protection in diabetic nephropathy via a nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS)3-dependent mechanism. Arginase competes with endothelial NOS (eNOS) for the common substrate L-arginine. Lack of L-arginine results in reduced NO production and eNOS uncoupling, which lead to endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we hypothesized that L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation would ameliorate diabetic nephropathy. DBA mice injected with multiple low doses of vehicle or streptozotocin (50 mg/kg ip for 5 days) were provided drinking water with or without L-arginine (1.5%, 6.05 g·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or L-citrulline (1.66%, 5.73 g·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 9 wk. Nonsupplemented diabetic mice showed significant increases in albuminuria, blood urea nitrogen, glomerular histopathological changes, kidney macrophage recruitment, kidney TNF-α and fibronectin mRNA expression, kidney arginase activity, kidney arginase-2 protein expression, and urinary oxidative stress along with a significant reduction of nephrin and eNOS protein expression and kidney nitrite + nitrate compared with normal mice after 9 wk of diabetes. Surprisingly, L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation in diabetic mice did not affect any of these parameters despite greatly increasing kidney and plasma arginine levels. These findings demonstrate that chronic L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation does not prevent or reduce renal injury in a model of type 1 diabetes. PMID:25320354

  3. Detection of a novel arginine vasopression defect by dideoxy fingerprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamani, M.R.S.; Phillips, J.A. III; Copeland, K.C. Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT )

    1993-09-01

    Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is a familial form of diabetes insipidus. This disorder is associated with variable levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and diabetes insipidus of varying severity, which responds to exogenous AVP. To determine the molecular basis of autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus, the AVP genes of members of a large kindred were analyzed. A new method, called dideoxy fingerprinting, was used to detect an AVP mutation that was characterized by DNA sequencing. The novel defect found changes the last codon of the AVP signal peptide from alanine to threonine, which should perturb cleavage of mature AVP from its precursor protein and inhibit its secretion or action. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Arginine deprivation using pegylated arginine deiminase has activity against primary acute myeloid leukemia cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Miraki-Moud, Farideh; Ghazaly, Essam; Ariza-McNaughton, Linda; Hodby, Katharine A; Clear, Andrew; Anjos-Afonso, Fernando; Liapis, Konstantinos; Grantham, Marianne; Sohrabi, Fareeda; Cavenagh, Jamie; Bomalaski, John S; Gribben, John G; Szlosarek, Peter W; Bonnet, Dominique; Taussig, David C

    2015-06-25

    The strategy of enzymatic degradation of amino acids to deprive malignant cells of important nutrients is an established component of induction therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Here we show that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells from most patients with AML are deficient in a critical enzyme required for arginine synthesis, argininosuccinate synthetase-1 (ASS1). Thus, these ASS1-deficient AML cells are dependent on importing extracellular arginine. We therefore investigated the effect of plasma arginine deprivation using pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) against primary AMLs in a xenograft model and in vitro. ADI-PEG 20 alone induced responses in 19 of 38 AMLs in vitro and 3 of 6 AMLs in vivo, leading to caspase activation in sensitive AMLs. ADI-PEG 20-resistant AMLs showed higher relative expression of ASS1 than sensitive AMLs. This suggests that the resistant AMLs survive by producing arginine through this metabolic pathway and ASS1 expression could be used as a biomarker for response. Sensitive AMLs showed more avid uptake of arginine from the extracellular environment consistent with their auxotrophy for arginine. The combination of ADI-PEG 20 and cytarabine chemotherapy was more effective than either treatment alone resulting in responses in 6 of 6 AMLs tested in vivo. Our data show that arginine deprivation is a reasonable strategy in AML that paves the way for clinical trials. PMID:25896651

  5. Targeting Arginine-Dependent Cancers with Arginine-Degrading Enzymes: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Melissa M.; Sheaff, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Arginine deprivation is a novel antimetabolite strategy for the treatment of arginine-dependent cancers that exploits differential expression and regulation of key urea cycle enzymes. Several studies have focused on inactivation of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1) in a range of malignancies, including melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mesothelial and urological cancers, sarcomas, and lymphomas. Epigenetic silencing has been identified as a key mechanism for loss of the tumor suppressor role of ASS1 leading to tumoral dependence on exogenous arginine. More recently, dysregulation of argininosuccinate lyase has been documented in a subset of arginine auxotrophic glioblastoma multiforme, HCC and in fumarate hydratase-mutant renal cancers. Clinical trials of several arginine depletors are ongoing, including pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20, Polaris Group) and bioengineered forms of human arginase. ADI-PEG20 is furthest along the path of clinical development from combinatorial phase 1 to phase 3 trials and is described in more detail. The challenge will be to identify tumors sensitive to drugs such as ADI-PEG20 and integrate these agents into multimodality drug regimens using imaging and tissue/fluid-based biomarkers as predictors of response. Lastly, resistance pathways to arginine deprivation require further study to optimize arginine-targeted therapies in the oncology clinic. PMID:24453997

  6. Camphorquinone-10-sulfonic acid and derivatives: convenient reagents for reversible modification of arginine residues

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, C.S.; Pelzig, M.; Glass, J.D.

    1980-02-01

    Camphorquinone-10-sulfonic acid hydrate was prepared by the action of selenous acid on camphor-10-sulfonic acid. Camphorquinone-10-sulfonylnorleucine was prepared either from the sulfonic acid via the sulfonyl chloride or by selenous acid oxidation of camphor-10-sulfonylnorleucine. These reagents are useful for specific, reversible modification of the guanidino groups of arginine residues. Camphorquinonsulfonic acid is a crystalline water-soluble reagent that is especially suitable for use with small arginine-containing molecules, because the sulfonic acid group of the reagent is a convenient handle for analytical and preparative separation of products. Camphorquinonesulfonylnorleucine is more useful for work with large polypeptides and proteins, because hydrolysates of modified proteins may be analyzed for norleucine to determine the extent of arginine modification. The adducts of the camphorquinone derivatives with the guanidino group are stable to 0.5 M hydroxylamine solutions at pH 7, the recommended conditions for cleavage of the corresponding cyclohexanedione adducts. At pH 8-9 the adducts of the camphorquinone derivatives with the guanidino group are cleaved by o-phenylenediamine. The modification and regeneration of arginine, of the dipeptide arginylaspartic acid, of ribonuclease S-peptide, and of soybean trypsin inhibitor are presented as demonstrations of the use of the reagents.The use of camphorquinonesulfonyl chloride to prepare polymers containing arginine-specific ligands is discussed.

  7. RNA methyltransferase NSUN2 promotes stress-induced HUVEC senescence

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hao; Hu, Han; Pang, Lijun; Xing, Junyue; Liu, Zhenyun; Luo, Yuhong; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Te; Gorospe, Myriam; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Wengong

    2016-01-01

    The tRNA methyltransferase NSUN2 delays replicative senescence by regulating the translation of CDK1 and CDKN1B mRNAs. However, whether NSUN2 influences premature cellular senescence remains untested. Here we show that NSUN2 methylates SHC mRNA in vitro and in cells, thereby enhancing the translation of the three SHC proteins, p66SHC, p52SHC, and p46SHC. Our results further show that the elevation of SHC expression by NSUN2-mediated mRNA methylation increased the levels of ROS, activated p38MAPK, thereby accelerating oxidative stress- and high-glucose-induced senescence of human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). Our findings highlight the critical impact of NSUN2-mediated mRNA methylation in promoting premature senescence. PMID:26992231

  8. COBALAMIN- AND COBAMIDE-DEPENDENT METHYLTRANSFERASES

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Rowena G.; Koutmos, Markos; Datta, Supratim

    2008-01-01

    Methyltransferases that employ cobalamin cofactors, or their analogues the cobamides, as intermediates in catalysis of methyl transfer play vital roles in energy generation in anaerobic unicellular organisms. In a broader range of organisms they are involved in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Although the individual methyl transfer reactions catalyzed are simple SN2 displacements, the required change in coordination at the cobalt of the cobalamin or cobamide cofactors and the lability of the reduced Co+1 intermediates introduces the necessity for complex conformational changes during the catalytic cycle. Recent spectroscopic and structural studies on several of these methyltransferases have helped to reveal the strategies by which these conformational changes are facilitated and controlled. PMID:19059104

  9. The Histone Methyltransferase Inhibitor A-366 Uncovers a Role for G9a/GLP in the Epigenetics of Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    He, Yupeng; Ferguson, Debra; Jagadeeswaran, Sujatha; Osterling, Donald J.; Gao, Wenqing; Spence, Julie K.; Pliushchev, Marina; Sweis, Ramzi F.; Buchanan, Fritz G.; Michaelides, Michael R.; Shoemaker, Alexander R.; Tse, Chris; Chiang, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    Histone methyltransferases are epigenetic regulators that modify key lysine and arginine residues on histones and are believed to play an important role in cancer development and maintenance. These epigenetic modifications are potentially reversible and as a result this class of enzymes has drawn great interest as potential therapeutic targets of small molecule inhibitors. Previous studies have suggested that the histone lysine methyltransferase G9a (EHMT2) is required to perpetuate malignant phenotypes through multiple mechanisms in a variety of cancer types. To further elucidate the enzymatic role of G9a in cancer, we describe herein the biological activities of a novel peptide-competitive histone methyltransferase inhibitor, A-366, that selectively inhibits G9a and the closely related GLP (EHMT1), but not other histone methyltransferases. A-366 has significantly less cytotoxic effects on the growth of tumor cell lines compared to other known G9a/GLP small molecule inhibitors despite equivalent cellular activity on methylation of H3K9me2. Additionally, the selectivity profile of A-366 has aided in the discovery of a potentially important role for G9a/GLP in maintenance of leukemia. Treatment of various leukemia cell lines in vitro resulted in marked differentiation and morphological changes of these tumor cell lines. Furthermore, treatment of a flank xenograft leukemia model with A-366 resulted in growth inhibition in vivo consistent with the profile of H3K9me2 reduction observed. In summary, A-366 is a novel and highly selective inhibitor of G9a/GLP that has enabled the discovery of a role for G9a/GLP enzymatic activity in the growth and differentiation status of leukemia cells. PMID:26147105

  10. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Catechol-O-Methyltransferase and Serine-Threonine Protein Kinase Genes in the Pakistani Schizophrenic Population: A Study with Special Emphasis on Cannabis and Smokeless Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Rukhsana; Siddiqui, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric disorder in which abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex lead to impaired synthesis of dopamine. It is associated with hallucination, psychosis and hearing impairments. Many susceptible genes have been identified in schizophrenia such as catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and serine/threonine kinase (AKT1). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes have not been identified in Pakistan. Therefore, we investigated the allelic and genotypic frequencies in COMT and AKT1 genes in the Pakistani population. Polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing were used to identify SNPs in the genes. The present study shows that COMT Val and COMT Met allelic frequencies for the controls were p=0.52, q=0.48 and for the schizophrenic cases they were p=0.34, q=0.66 respectively. The distribution of polymorphism in COMT Val158Met genotype by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was P=0.61 for controls and P=0.005 for cases. The data reveal that SNP rs1130214 T allele mutation was found neither in patients nor in controls in the 5' untranslated region (UTR). This proves that no association of AKT1 and positive association of COMT with schizophrenia exist in the population of Pakistan. Moreover, a study based on a single family showed COMT Met allele inheritance in schizophrenic offspring. This suggested that COMT allele alteration influences susceptibility to at least some forms of psychosis in the Pakistani population. Interestingly, according to our socio-economical survey, COMT genotype has no association with cannabis but it is strongly associated with tobacco. The Pakistani population with Val158Met SNP showed more susceptibility towards developing schizophrenia. This study highlights the genetic differences between Pakistani and other Caucasian populations. PMID:25801838

  11. Arginine, scurvy and Cartier's "tree of life"

    PubMed Central

    Durzan, Don J

    2009-01-01

    Several conifers have been considered as candidates for "Annedda", which was the source for a miraculous cure for scurvy in Jacques Cartier's critically ill crew in 1536. Vitamin C was responsible for the cure of scurvy and was obtained as an Iroquois decoction from the bark and leaves from this "tree of life", now commonly referred to as arborvitae. Based on seasonal and diurnal amino acid analyses of candidate "trees of life", high levels of arginine, proline, and guanidino compounds were also probably present in decoctions prepared in the severe winter. The semi-essential arginine, proline and all the essential amino acids, would have provided additional nutritional benefits for the rapid recovery from scurvy by vitamin C when food supply was limited. The value of arginine, especially in the recovery of the critically ill sailors, is postulated as a source of nitric oxide, and the arginine-derived guanidino compounds as controlling factors for the activities of different nitric oxide synthases. This review provides further insights into the use of the candidate "trees of life" by indigenous peoples in eastern Canada. It raises hypotheses on the nutritional and synergistic roles of arginine, its metabolites, and other biofactors complementing the role of vitamin C especially in treating Cartier's critically ill sailors. PMID:19187550

  12. When Is It Appropriate to Use Arginine in Critical Illness?

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayshil J; Miller, Keith R; Rosenthal, Cameron; Rosenthal, Martin D

    2016-08-01

    In health, arginine is considered a nonessential amino acid but can become an essential amino acid (ie, conditionally essential amino acid) during periods of metabolic or traumatic stress as endogenous arginine supply is inadequate to meet physiologic demands. Arginine depletion in critical illness is associated with impairments in microcirculatory blood flow, impaired wound healing, and T-cell dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to (1) describe arginine metabolism and role in health and critical illness, (2) describe the relationship between arginine and asymmetric dimethylarginine, and (3) review studies of supplemental arginine in critically ill patients. PMID:27252277

  13. Comparative Distribution and Retention of Arsenic in Arsenic (+3 Oxidation State) Methyltransferase Knockout and Wild Type Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mouse arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) gene encodes a ~ 43 kDa protein that catalyzes conversion of inorganic arsenic into methylated products. Heterologous expression of AS3MT or its silencing by RNA interference controls arsenic methylation phenotypes...

  14. Structural Analysis and Insights into the Oligomeric State of an Arginine-Dependent Transcriptional Regulator from Bacillus halodurans.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Woo; Kang, Jina; Yeo, Hyun Ku; Lee, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    The arginine repressor (ArgR) is an arginine-dependent transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in the arginine biosynthesis and catabolic pathways. ArgR is a functional homolog of the arginine-dependent repressor/activator AhrC from Bacillus subtilis, and belongs to the ArgR/AhrC family of transcriptional regulators. In this research, we determined the structure of the ArgR (Bh2777) from Bacillus halodurans at 2.41 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. The ArgR from B. halodurans appeared to be a trimer in a size exclusion column and in the crystal structure. However, it formed a hexamer in the presence of L-arginine in multi-angle light scattering (MALS) studies, indicating the oligomerization state was dependent on the presence of L-arginine. The trimeric structure showed that the C-terminal domains form the core, which was made by inter-subunit interactions mainly through hydrophobic contacts, while the N-terminal domains containing a winged helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif were arranged around the periphery. The arrangement of trimeric structure in the B. halodurans ArgR was different from those of other ArgR homologs previously reported. We finally showed that the B. halodurans ArgR has an arginine-dependent DNA binding property by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. PMID:27171430

  15. Structural Analysis and Insights into the Oligomeric State of an Arginine-Dependent Transcriptional Regulator from Bacillus halodurans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Woo; Kang, Jina; Yeo, Hyun Ku; Lee, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    The arginine repressor (ArgR) is an arginine-depend