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Sample records for protein c-terminal labeling

  1. Segmental expression and C-terminal labeling of protein ERp44 through protein trans-splicing.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xudong; Liu, Xiang-Qin; Meng, Qing

    2015-08-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 44 (ERp44) is a member of the protein disulfide isomerase family and functions in oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. A structurally flexible C-terminal tail (C-tail) of ERp44 plays critical roles in dynamically regulating ERp44's function in protein folding quality control. The structure-function dynamics of ERp44's C-tail may be studied further using fluorescence and other techniques, if methods are found to label the C-tail site-specifically with a fluorescent group or segmentally with other desired labels. Here we have developed such methods, employing split inteins capable of protein trans-splicing, and identifying atypical S1 split inteins able to function efficiently at a suitable split site in the ERp44 sequence. One method demonstrated segmental expression of ERp44 for segmental labeling of the C-tail, another method efficiently added a commercially available fluorescent group to the C-terminus of ERp44, and both methods may also be generally useful for studying other proteins. PMID:25907381

  2. Cysteine-free non-canonical C-intein for versatile protein C-terminal labeling through trans-splicing.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xudong; Xun, Qijing; Liu, Xiang-Qin; Meng, Qing

    2015-10-01

    Site-specific protein labeling are powerful means of protein research and engineering; however, new and improved labeling methods are greatly needed. Split inteins catalyze a protein trans-splicing reaction that can be used for enzymatic and nearly seamless protein labeling. Non-canonical S11 split intein has been used in an earlier method of protein C-terminal labeling; however, its relatively large (~150 aa) N-intein fused to the target protein often hindered protein expression, folding, and solubility. To solve this problem, here, we have designed and demonstrated a new method of protein C-terminal labeling, by first engineering a functional non-canonical S1 split intein that has an extremely small (12 aa) N-intein and a cysteine-free C-intein. An engineered Rma DnaB S1 split intein was modified to have a cysteine-free C-intein, while still retaining its robust trans-splicing function, which permitted the C-extein in a C-precursor to have a single cysteine for easy and specific linkage with desired labeling groups. The resulting new and generally useful method has two unique advantages: (1) The extremely small (12 aa) N-intein, which must be fused to the C terminus of the target protein, is less likely to hinder the protein expression, folding, and solubility; and (2) the single cysteine in the C-extein may be readily linked to a variety of labeling or modification groups using commercially available reagents. PMID:26227407

  3. Site-specific C-terminal internal loop labeling of proteins using sortase-mediated reactions

    PubMed Central

    Guimaraes, Carla P.; Witte, Martin D.; Theile, Christopher S.; Bozkurt, Gunes; Kundrat, Lenka; Blom, Annet E.M.; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2014-01-01

    Methods for site-specific modification of proteins are in high demand. Reactions that yield bioconjugates should be quantitative, site-specific, and versatile with respect to nature and size of the biological/chemical targets involved, require minimal modification of the target, display acceptable kinetics under physiological conditions, and be orthogonal to other labeling methods. Sortase-mediated transpeptidation reactions meet these criteria. Here we describe the expression and purification conditions for two orthogonal sortase A enzymes and provide the protocol that allows functionalization of any given protein at its C-terminus or for select proteins at an internal site. Sortase-mediated reactions take only a few minutes, but reaction times can be extended to increase yields. PMID:23989673

  4. Kinetics and motional dynamics of spin-labeled yeast iso-1-cytochrome c: 1. Stopped-flow electron paramagnetic resonance as a probe for protein folding/unfolding of the C-terminal helix spin-labeled at cysteine 102.

    PubMed

    Qu, K; Vaughn, J L; Sienkiewicz, A; Scholes, C P; Fetrow, J S

    1997-03-11

    The kinetics of chemically induced folding and unfolding processes in spin-labeled yeast iso-1-cytochrome c were measured by stopped-flow electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Stopped-flow EPR, based on a new dielectric resonator structure [Sienkiewicz, A., Qu, K., & Scholes, C. P. (1994) Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 68-74], gives a new temporal component to probing nanosecond molecular tumbling motions that are modulated by macromolecular processes requiring time resolution of milliseconds to seconds. The stopped-flow EPR technique presented in this work is a kinetic technique that has not been previously used with such a time resolution on spin-labeled systems, and it has the potential for application to numerous spin-labeled sites in this and other proteins. The cysteine-specific spin-label, methanethiosulfonate spin-label (MTSSL), was attached to yeast iso-1-cytochrome c at the single naturally occurring cysteine102, and the emphasis for this work was on this disulfide-attached spin-labeled prototype. This probe has the advantage of reflecting the protein tertiary fold, as shown by recent, systematic site-directed spin labeling of T4 lysozyme [Mchaourab, H. S. Lietzow, M. A., Hideg, K., & Hubbell, W. L. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 7692-7704], and protein backbone dynamics, as also shown by model peptide studies [Todd, A. P., & Millhauser, G. L. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 5515-5523]. The C-terminal cytochrome c helix where the label is attached is thought to be critical in the initial steps of protein folding and unfolding. Stopped-flow EPR resolved the monoexponential, guanidinium-induced unfolding process at pH 6.5 with an approximately 20 ms time constant; this experiment required less than 150 microL of 80 microM spin-labeled protein. We observed an approximately 50-fold decrease of this unfolding time from the 1 s range to the 20 ms time range as the guanidinium denaturant concentration was increased from 0.6 to 2.0 M. The more complex refolding kinetics of our labeled

  5. C-Terminal Protein Characterization by Mass Spectrometry: Isolation of C-Terminal Fragments from Cyanogen Bromide-Cleaved Protein

    PubMed Central

    Nika, Heinz; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

    2014-01-01

    A sample preparation method for protein C-terminal peptide isolation from cyanogen bromide (CNBr) digests has been developed. In this strategy, the analyte was reduced and carboxyamidomethylated, followed by CNBr cleavage in a one-pot reaction scheme. The digest was then adsorbed on ZipTipC18 pipette tips for conjugation of the homoserine lactone-terminated peptides with 2,2′-dithiobis (ethylamine) dihydrochloride, followed by reductive release of 2-aminoethanethiol from the derivatives. The thiol-functionalized internal and N-terminal peptides were scavenged on activated thiol sepharose, leaving the C-terminal peptide in the flow-through fraction. The use of reversed-phase supports as a venue for peptide derivatization enabled facile optimization of the individual reaction steps for throughput and completeness of reaction. Reagents were replaced directly on the support, allowing the reactions to proceed at minimal sample loss. By this sequence of solid-phase reactions, the C-terminal peptide could be recognized uniquely in mass spectra of unfractionated digests by its unaltered mass signature. The use of the sample preparation method was demonstrated with low-level amounts of a whole, intact model protein. The C-terminal fragments were retrieved selectively and efficiently from the affinity support. The use of covalent chromatography for C-terminal peptide purification enabled recovery of the depleted material for further chemical and/or enzymatic manipulation. The sample preparation method provides for robustness and simplicity of operation and is anticipated to be expanded to gel-separated proteins and in a scaled-up format to high-throughput protein profiling in complex biological mixtures. PMID:24688319

  6. Affinity labelling of proteinases with tryptic specificity by peptides with C-terminal lysine chloromethyl ketone

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, John R.; Kray, William; Shaw, Elliott

    1974-01-01

    Methods are described for the synthesis of peptides terminating in Lys-CH2Cl. The products were examined as affinity labels for several enzymes of trypsin-like specificity which are resistant to Tos-Lys-CH2Cl. In part, the inertness of the latter may be due to the sulphonamide group, since Z-Lys-CH2Cl was more effective. However, a number of tripeptides with C-terminal Lys-CH2Cl were superior in their ability to inactivate subtilisin, thrombin and plasma kallikrein. The possibility of developing enzyme-specific reagents selective for members within the trypsin-like group is demonstrated by Ala-Phe-Lys-CH2Cl, which readily inactivates plasma kallikrein but not thrombin. PMID:4422496

  7. The C-terminal tail of protein kinase D2 and protein kinase D3 regulates their intracellular distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Papazyan, Romeo; Rozengurt, Enrique; Rey, Osvaldo . E-mail: orey@mednet.ucla.edu

    2006-04-14

    We generated a set of GFP-tagged chimeras between protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and protein kinase D3 (PKD3) to examine in live cells the contribution of their C-terminal region to their intracellular localization. We found that the catalytic domain of PKD2 and PKD3 can localize to the nucleus when expressed without other kinase domains. However, when the C-terminal tail of PKD2 was added to its catalytic domain, the nuclear localization of the resulting protein was inhibited. In contrast, the nuclear localization of the CD of PKD3 was not inhibited by its C-terminal tail. Furthermore, the exchange of the C-terminal tail of PKD2 and PKD3 in the full-length proteins was sufficient to exchange their intracellular localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the short C-terminal tail of these kinases plays a critical role in determining their cytoplasmic/nuclear localization.

  8. Multifunctional role of the Pitx2 homeodomain protein C-terminal tail.

    PubMed

    Amendt, B A; Sutherland, L B; Russo, A F

    1999-10-01

    Pitx2 is a newly described bicoid-like homeodomain transcription factor that is defective in Rieger syndrome and shows a striking leftward developmental asymmetry. We have previously shown that Pitx2 (also called Ptx2 and RIEG) transactivates a reporter gene containing a bicoid enhancer and synergistically transactivates the prolactin promoter in the presence of the POU homeodomain protein Pit-1. In this report, we focused on the C-terminal region which is mutated in some Rieger patients and contains a highly conserved 14-amino-acid element. Deletion analysis of Pitx2 revealed that the C-terminal 39-amino-acid tail represses DNA binding activity and is required for Pitx2-Pit-1 interaction and Pit-1 synergism. Pit-1 interaction with the Pitx2 C terminus masks the inhibitory effect and promotes increased DNA binding activity. Interestingly, cotransfection of an expression vector encoding the C-terminal 39 amino acids of Pitx2 specifically inhibits Pitx2 transactivation activity. In contrast, the C-terminal 39-amino-acid peptide interacts with Pitx2 to increase its DNA binding activity. These data suggest that the C-terminal tail intrinsically inhibits the Pitx2 protein and that this inhibition can be overcome by interaction with other transcription factors to allow activation during development. PMID:10490637

  9. Multifunctional Role of the Pitx2 Homeodomain Protein C-Terminal Tail

    PubMed Central

    Amendt, Brad A.; Sutherland, Lillian B.; Russo, Andrew F.

    1999-01-01

    Pitx2 is a newly described bicoid-like homeodomain transcription factor that is defective in Rieger syndrome and shows a striking leftward developmental asymmetry. We have previously shown that Pitx2 (also called Ptx2 and RIEG) transactivates a reporter gene containing a bicoid enhancer and synergistically transactivates the prolactin promoter in the presence of the POU homeodomain protein Pit-1. In this report, we focused on the C-terminal region which is mutated in some Rieger patients and contains a highly conserved 14-amino-acid element. Deletion analysis of Pitx2 revealed that the C-terminal 39-amino-acid tail represses DNA binding activity and is required for Pitx2-Pit-1 interaction and Pit-1 synergism. Pit-1 interaction with the Pitx2 C terminus masks the inhibitory effect and promotes increased DNA binding activity. Interestingly, cotransfection of an expression vector encoding the C-terminal 39 amino acids of Pitx2 specifically inhibits Pitx2 transactivation activity. In contrast, the C-terminal 39-amino-acid peptide interacts with Pitx2 to increase its DNA binding activity. These data suggest that the C-terminal tail intrinsically inhibits the Pitx2 protein and that this inhibition can be overcome by interaction with other transcription factors to allow activation during development. PMID:10490637

  10. The N-terminal to C-terminal motif in protein folding and function.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Mallela M G; Englander, S Walter

    2005-01-25

    Essentially all proteins known to fold kinetically in a two-state manner have their N- and C-terminal secondary structural elements in contact, and the terminal elements often dock as part of the experimentally measurable initial folding step. Conversely, all N-C no-contact proteins studied so far fold by non-two-state kinetics. By comparison, about half of the single domain proteins in the Protein Data Bank have their N- and C-terminal elements in contact, more than expected on a random probability basis but not nearly enough to account for the bias in protein folding. Possible reasons for this bias relate to the mechanisms for initial protein folding, native state stability, and final turnover. PMID:15657118

  11. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Pratibha; Savithri, H.S.

    2015-08-15

    Plant viruses exploit the host machinery for targeting the viral genome–movement protein complex to plasmodesmata (PD). The mechanism by which the non-structural protein m (NSm) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) is targeted to PD was investigated using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of NSm and its fusion proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. GFP:NSm formed punctuate structures that colocalized with mCherry:plasmodesmata localized protein 1a (PDLP 1a) confirming that GBNV NSm localizes to PD. Unlike in other movement proteins, the C-terminal coiled coil domain of GBNV NSm was shown to be involved in the localization of NSm to PD, as deletion of this domain resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of NSm. Treatment with Brefeldin A demonstrated the role of ER in targeting GFP NSm to PD. Furthermore, mCherry:NSm co-localized with ER–GFP (endoplasmic reticulum targeting peptide (HDEL peptide fused with GFP). Co-expression of NSm with ER–GFP showed that the ER-network was transformed into vesicles indicating that NSm interacts with ER and remodels it. Mutations in the conserved hydrophobic region of NSm (residues 130–138) did not abolish the formation of vesicles. Additionally, the conserved prolines at positions 140 and 142 were found to be essential for targeting the vesicles to the cell membrane. Further, systematic deletion of amino acid residues from N- and C-terminus demonstrated that N-terminal 203 amino acids are dispensable for the vesicle formation. On the other hand, the C-terminal coiled coil domain when expressed alone could also form vesicles. These results suggest that GBNV NSm remodels the ER network by forming vesicles via its interaction through the C-terminal coiled coil domain. Interestingly, NSm interacts with NP in vitro and coexpression of these two proteins in planta resulted in the relocalization of NP to PD and this relocalization was abolished when the N-terminal unfolded region of NSm was deleted. Thus, the NSm

  12. The human SNARE protein Ykt6 mediates its own palmitoylation at C-terminal cysteine residues

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The yeast SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor) protein Ykt6 was shown to mediate palmitoylation of the fusion factor Vac8 in a reaction essential for the fusion of vacuoles. Here I present evidence that hYkt6 (human Ykt6) has self-palmitoylating activity. Incubation of recombinant hYkt6 with [3H]Pal-CoA ([3H]palmitoyl-CoA) leads to covalent attachment of palmitate to C-terminal cysteine residues. The N-terminal domain of human Ykt6 contains a Pal-CoA binding site and is required for the reaction. PMID:15479160

  13. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Doval, Carmela; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophage T7 attaches to its host using the C-terminal domains of its six fibres, which are trimers of the gp17 protein. A C-terminal fragment of gp17 consisting of amino acids 371–553 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of two forms were obtained, belonging to space group P212121 (unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 86.0, c = 118.4 Å) and space group C2221 (unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 145.6, c = 172.1 Å). They diffracted to 1.9 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Both crystals are expected to contain one trimer in the asymmetric unit. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress. PMID:22297990

  14. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Doval, Carmela; van Raaij, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Bacteriophage T7 attaches to its host using the C-terminal domains of its six fibres, which are trimers of the gp17 protein. A C-terminal fragment of gp17 consisting of amino acids 371-553 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of two forms were obtained, belonging to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 86.0, c = 118.4 Å) and space group C222(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 145.6, c = 172.1 Å). They diffracted to 1.9 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Both crystals are expected to contain one trimer in the asymmetric unit. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress. PMID:22297990

  15. Systematic Optimization of C-Terminal Amine-Based Isotope Labeling of Substrates Approach for Deep Screening of C-Terminome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; He, Quanze; Ye, Juanying; Li, Yanhong; Huang, Lin; Li, Qingqing; Huang, Jingnan; Lu, Jianan; Zhang, Xumin

    2015-10-20

    It is well-known that protein C-termini play important roles in various biological processes, and thus the precise characterization of C-termini is essential for fully elucidating protein structures and understanding protein functions. Although many efforts have been made in the field during the latest 2 decades, the progress is still far behind its counterpart, N-termini, and it necessitates more novel or optimized methods. Herein, we report an optimized C-termini identification approach based on the C-terminal amine-based isotope labeling of substrates (C-TAILS) method. We optimized the amidation reaction conditions to achieve higher yield of fully amidated product. We evaluated different carboxyl and amine blocking reagents and found the superior performance of Ac-NHS and ethanolamine. Replacement of dimethylation with acetylation for Lys blocking resulted in the identification of 232 C-terminal peptides in an Escherichia coli sample, about 42% higher than the conventional C-TAILS. A systematic data analysis revealed that the optimized method is unbiased to the number of lysine in peptides, more reproducible and with higher MASCOT scores. Moreover, the introduction of the Single-Charge Ion Inclusion (SCII) method to alleviate the charge deficiency of small peptides allowed an additional 26% increase in identification number. With the optimized method, we identified 481 C-terminal peptides corresponding to 369 C-termini in E. coli in a triplicate experiments using 80 μg each. Our optimized method would benefit the deep screening of C-terminome and possibly help discover some novel C-terminal modifications. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002409. PMID:26361894

  16. The C-terminal CGHC motif of protein disulfide isomerase supports thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junsong; Wu, Yi; Wang, Lu; Rauova, Lubica; Hayes, Vincent M.; Poncz, Mortimer; Essex, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has two distinct CGHC redox-active sites; however, the contribution of these sites during different physiologic reactions, including thrombosis, is unknown. Here, we evaluated the role of PDI and redox-active sites of PDI in thrombosis by generating mice with blood cells and vessel wall cells lacking PDI (Mx1-Cre Pdifl/fl mice) and transgenic mice harboring PDI that lacks a functional C-terminal CGHC motif [PDI(ss-oo) mice]. Both mouse models showed decreased fibrin deposition and platelet accumulation in laser-induced cremaster arteriole injury, and PDI(ss-oo) mice had attenuated platelet accumulation in FeCl3-induced mesenteric arterial injury. These defects were rescued by infusion of recombinant PDI containing only a functional C-terminal CGHC motif [PDI(oo-ss)]. PDI infusion restored fibrin formation, but not platelet accumulation, in eptifibatide-treated wild-type mice, suggesting a direct role of PDI in coagulation. In vitro aggregation of platelets from PDI(ss-oo) mice and PDI-null platelets was reduced; however, this defect was rescued by recombinant PDI(oo-ss). In human platelets, recombinant PDI(ss-oo) inhibited aggregation, while recombinant PDI(oo-ss) potentiated aggregation. Platelet secretion assays demonstrated that the C-terminal CGHC motif of PDI is important for P-selectin expression and ATP secretion through a non-αIIbβ3 substrate. In summary, our results indicate that the C-terminal CGHC motif of PDI is important for platelet function and coagulation. PMID:26529254

  17. The distinct C-terminal acidic domains of HMGB proteins are functionally relevant in Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    de Abreu da Silva, Isabel Caetano; Carneiro, Vitor Coutinho; Vicentino, Amanda Roberta Revoredo; Aguilera, Estefania Anahi; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo; Thiengo, Silvana; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Fantappié, Marcelo Rosado

    2016-04-01

    The Schistosoma mansoni High Mobility Group Box (HMGB) proteins SmHMGB1, SmHMGB2 and SmHMGB3 share highly conserved HMG box DNA binding domains but have significantly different C-terminal acidic tails. Here, we used three full-length and tailless forms of the S. mansoni HMGB proteins to examine the functional roles of their acidic tails. DNA binding assays revealed that the different lengths of the acidic tails among the three SmHMGB proteins significantly and distinctively influenced their DNA transactions. Spectroscopic analyses indicated that the longest acidic tail of SmHMGB3 contributes to the structural stabilisation of this protein. Using immunohistochemical analysis, we showed distinct patterns of SmHMGB1, SmHMGB2 and SmHMGB3 expression in different tissues of adult worms. RNA interference approaches indicated a role for SmHMGB2 and SmHMGB3 in the reproductive system of female worms, whereas for SmHMGB1 no clear phenotype was observed. Schistosome HMGB proteins can be phosphorylated, acetylated and methylated. Importantly, the acetylation and methylation of schistosome HMGBs were greatly enhanced upon removal of the acidic tail. These data support the notion that the C-terminal acidic tails dictate the differences in the structure, expression and function of schistosome HMGB proteins. PMID:26820302

  18. Assessing induced folding within the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the Henipavirus nucleoproteins by site-directed spin labeling EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Marlène; Habchi, Johnny; El Habre, Zeina; Nesme, Léo; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Belle, Valérie; Longhi, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at characterizing structural transitions within the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein (NTAIL) from the Nipah and Hendra viruses, two recently emerged pathogens gathered within the Henipavirus genus. To this end, we used site-directed spin labeling combined with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the α-helical-induced folding that Henipavirus NTAIL domains undergo in the presence of the C-terminal X domain of the phosphoprotein (PXD). For each NTAIL protein, six positions located within four previously proposed molecular recognition elements (MoREs) were targeted for spin labeling, with three of these positions (475, 481, and 487) falling within the MoRE responsible for binding to PXD (Box3). A detailed analysis of the impact of the partner protein on the labeled NTAIL variants revealed a dramatic modification in the environment of the spin labels grafted within Box3, with the observed modifications supporting the formation of an induced α-helix within this region. In the free state, the slightly lower mobility of the spin labels grafted within Box3 as compared to the other positions suggests the existence of a transiently populated α-helix, as already reported for measles virus (MeV) NTAIL. Comparison with the well-characterized MeV NTAIL-PXD system, allowed us to validate the structural models of Henipavirus NTAIL-PXD complexes that we previously proposed. In addition, this study highlighted a few notable differences between the Nipah and Hendra viruses. In particular, the observation of composite spectra for the free form of the Nipah virus NTAIL variants spin labeled in Box3 supports conformational heterogeneity of this partly pre-configured α-helix, with the pre-existence of stable α-helical segments. Altogether these results provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of the Henipavirus NTAIL-PXD binding reaction. PMID:22881220

  19. Properties of the C-terminal domain of 4.1 proteins.

    PubMed

    Scott, C; Phillips, G W; Baines, A J

    2001-07-01

    At the C-terminus of all known 4.1 proteins is a sequence domain unique to these proteins, known as the C-terminal domain (CTD). Mammalian CTDs are associated with a growing number of protein-protein interactions, although such activities have yet to be associated with invertebrate CTDs. Mammalian CTDs are generally defined by sequence alignment as encoded by exons 18-21. Comparison of known vertebrate 4.1 proteins with invertebrate (Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster) 4.1 proteins indicates that mammalian 4.1 exon 19 represents a vertebrate adaptation that extends the sequence of the CTD with a Ser/Thr-rich sequence. The CTD was first described as a 22/24-kDa domain by chymotryptic digestion of erythrocyte 4.1 (4.1R) [Leto, T.L. & Marchesi, V.T. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 4603-4608]. Here we show that in 4.1R the 22/24-kDa fragment is not stable but rapidly processed to a 15-kDa fragment by chymotrypsin. The 15-kDa fragment is extremely stable, being resistant to overnight digestion in chymotrypsin on ice. Analysis of this fragment indicates that it is derived from residues 709-858 (SwissProt accession no. P48193), and represents the CTD of 4.1R. The fragment behaves as a globular monomer in solution. Secondary-structure predictions indicate that this domain is composed of five or six beta strands with an alpha helix before the most C-terminal of these. Together these data indicate that the CTD probably represents an independent folding structure which has gained function since the divergence of vertebrates from invertebrates. PMID:11432737

  20. Amine modification of digested peptide at C-terminal end during protein digestion by protease.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshiyuki; Sugita, Yoshiaki; Takao, Koichi; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Shirahata, Akira

    2007-10-01

    We recently reported that C-terminal polyamine modification occurs when proteins are digested with trypsin in the presence of polyamine [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 356, 159-162 (2007)]. In the present study, the characteristics of this C-terminal modification in the presence of protease and amine were investigated. When hemoglobin (HB) was digested with trypsin in the presence of N-(2-pyridyl)-1,4-diaminobutane (Py4), formation of the modified peptide was dependent on time and on HB or Py4 concentration. When synthetic peptide was treated with trypsin in the presence of Py4, ca. 0.1% of the peptide was modified with Py4. When HB or cytochrome C was treated with a range of serine proteases in the presence of various amines (Py4, N-(2-pyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, tranexamic acid, isonicotinic acid hydrazide and ampicillin), the modified peptide was detected in all cases tested, thus suggesting that amine modification widely accompanies digestion by proteases. PMID:17917247

  1. MAS C-Terminal Tail Interacting Proteins Identified by Mass Spectrometry- Based Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tirupula, Kalyan C.; Zhang, Dongmei; Osbourne, Appledene; Chatterjee, Arunachal; Desnoyer, Russ; Willard, Belinda; Karnik, Sadashiva S.

    2015-01-01

    Propagation of signals from G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in cells is primarily mediated by protein-protein interactions. MAS is a GPCR that was initially discovered as an oncogene and is now known to play an important role in cardiovascular physiology. Current literature suggests that MAS interacts with common heterotrimeric G-proteins, but MAS interaction with proteins which might mediate G protein-independent or atypical signaling is unknown. In this study we hypothesized that MAS C-terminal tail (Ct) is a major determinant of receptor-scaffold protein interactions mediating MAS signaling. Mass-spectrometry based proteomic analysis was used to comprehensively identify the proteins that interact with MAS Ct comprising the PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM). We identified both PDZ and non-PDZ proteins from human embryonic kidney cell line, mouse atrial cardiomyocyte cell line and human heart tissue to interact specifically with MAS Ct. For the first time our study provides a panel of PDZ and other proteins that potentially interact with MAS with high significance. A ‘cardiac-specific finger print’ of MAS interacting PDZ proteins was identified which includes DLG1, MAGI1 and SNTA. Cell based experiments with wild-type and mutant MAS lacking the PDZ-BM validated MAS interaction with PDZ proteins DLG1 and TJP2. Bioinformatics analysis suggested well-known multi-protein scaffold complexes involved in nitric oxide signaling (NOS), cell-cell signaling of neuromuscular junctions, synapses and epithelial cells. Majority of these protein hits were predicted to be part of disease categories comprising cancers and malignant tumors. We propose a ‘MAS-signalosome’ model to stimulate further research in understanding the molecular mechanism of MAS function. Identifying hierarchy of interactions of ‘signalosome’ components with MAS will be a necessary step in future to fully understand the physiological and pathological functions of this enigmatic receptor. PMID

  2. C-terminal amino acids are essential for human heat shock protein 70 dimerization.

    PubMed

    Marcion, Guillaume; Seigneuric, Renaud; Chavanne, Evelyne; Artur, Yves; Briand, Loïc; Hadi, Tarik; Gobbo, Jessica; Garrido, Carmen; Neiers, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    The human inducible heat shock protein 70 (hHsp70), which is involved in several major pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer, is a key molecular chaperone and contributes to the proper protein folding and maintenance of a large number of protein structures. Despite its role in disease, the current structural knowledge of hHsp70 is almost exclusively based on its Escherichia coli homolog, DnaK, even though these two proteins only share ~50 % amino acid identity. For the first time, we describe a complete heterologous production and purification strategy that allowed us to obtain a large amount of soluble, full-length, and non-tagged hHsp70. The protein displayed both an ATPase and a refolding activity when combined to the human Hsp40. Multi-angle light scattering and bio-layer interferometry analyses demonstrated the ability of hHsp70 to homodimerize. The role of the C-terminal part of hHsp70 was identified and confirmed by a study of a truncated version of hHsp70 that could neither dimerize nor present refolding activity. PMID:25030382

  3. G-protein-coupled receptors for neurotransmitter amino acids: C-terminal tails, crowded signalosomes.

    PubMed Central

    El Far, Oussama; Betz, Heinrich

    2002-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a superfamily of highly diverse integral membrane proteins that transduce external signals to different subcellular compartments, including nuclei, via trimeric G-proteins. By differential activation of diffusible G(alpha) and membrane-bound G(beta)gamma subunits, GPCRs might act on both cytoplasmic/intracellular and plasma-membrane-bound effector systems. The coupling efficiency and the plasma membrane localization of GPCRs are regulated by a variety of interacting proteins. In this review, we discuss recently disclosed protein interactions found with the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail regions of two types of presynaptic neurotransmitter receptors, the group III metabotropic glutamate receptors and the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-B receptors (GABA(B)Rs). Calmodulin binding to mGluR7 and other group III mGluRs may provide a Ca(2+)-dependent switch for unidirectional (G(alpha)) versus bidirectional (G(alpha) and G(beta)gamma) signalling to downstream effector proteins. In addition, clustering of mGluR7 by PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1), a polyspecific PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg1/ZO-1) domain containing synaptic organizer protein, sheds light on how higher-order receptor complexes with regulatory enzymes (or 'signalosomes') could be formed. The interaction of GABA(B)Rs with the adaptor protein 14-3-3 and the transcription factor ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) suggests novel regulatory pathways for G-protein signalling, cytoskeletal reorganization and nuclear gene expression: processes that may all contribute to synaptic plasticity. PMID:12006104

  4. Physical association of GPR54 C-terminal with protein phosphatase 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Barry J.; Wang Zixuan; Mobley, La'Tonya; Khosravi, Davood; Fujii, Nobutaka; Navenot, Jean-Marc; Peiper, Stephen C.

    2008-12-26

    KiSS1 was discovered as a metastasis suppressor gene and subsequently found to encode kisspeptins (KP), ligands for a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR54. This ligand-receptor pair was later shown to play a critical role in the neuro-endocrine regulation of puberty. The C-terminal cytoplasmic (C-ter) domain of GPR54 contains a segment rich in proline and arginine residues that corresponds to the primary structure of four overlapping SH3 binding motifs. Yeast two hybrid experiments identified the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-C) as an interacting protein. Pull-down experiments with GST fusion proteins containing the GPR54 C-ter confirmed binding to PP2A-C in cell lysates and these complexes contained phosphatase activity. The proline arginine rich segment is necessary for these interactions. The GPR54 C-ter bound directly to purified recombinant PP2A-C, indicating the GPR54 C-ter may form complexes involving the catalytic subunit of PP2A that regulate phosphorylation of critical signaling intermediates.

  5. Structure of metabotropic glutamate receptor C-terminal domains in contact with interacting proteins

    PubMed Central

    Enz, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) regulate intracellular signal pathways that control several physiological tasks, including neuronal excitability, learning, and memory. This is achieved by the formation of synaptic signal complexes, in which mGluRs assemble with functionally related proteins such as enzymes, scaffolds, and cytoskeletal anchor proteins. Thus, mGluR associated proteins actively participate in the regulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Importantly, dysfunction of mGluRs and interacting proteins may lead to impaired signal transduction and finally result in neurological disorders, e.g., night blindness, addiction, epilepsy, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and Parkinson's disease. In contrast to solved crystal structures of extracellular N-terminal domains of some mGluR types, only a few studies analyzed the conformation of intracellular receptor domains. Intracellular C-termini of most mGluR types are subject to alternative splicing and can be further modified by phosphorylation and SUMOylation. In this way, diverse interaction sites for intracellular proteins that bind to and regulate the glutamate receptors are generated. Indeed, most of the known mGluR binding partners interact with the receptors' C-terminal domains. Within the last years, different laboratories analyzed the structure of these domains and described the geometry of the contact surface between mGluR C-termini and interacting proteins. Here, I will review recent progress in the structure characterization of mGluR C-termini and provide an up-to-date summary of the geometry of these domains in contact with binding partners. PMID:22536173

  6. Amyloid β-Protein C-Terminal Fragments: Formation of Cylindrins and β-Barrels.

    PubMed

    Do, Thanh D; LaPointe, Nichole E; Nelson, Rebecca; Krotee, Pascal; Hayden, Eric Y; Ulrich, Brittany; Quan, Sarah; Feinstein, Stuart C; Teplow, David B; Eisenberg, David; Shea, Joan-Emma; Bowers, Michael T

    2016-01-20

    In order to evaluate potential therapeutic targets for treatment of amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is essential to determine the structures of toxic amyloid oligomers. However, for the amyloid β-protein peptide (Aβ), thought to be the seminal neuropathogenetic agent in AD, its fast aggregation kinetics and the rapid equilibrium dynamics among oligomers of different size pose significant experimental challenges. Here we use ion-mobility mass spectrometry, in combination with electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and computational modeling, to test the hypothesis that Aβ peptides can form oligomeric structures resembling cylindrins and β-barrels. These structures are hypothesized to cause neuronal injury and death through perturbation of plasma membrane integrity. We show that hexamers of C-terminal Aβ fragments, including Aβ(24-34), Aβ(25-35) and Aβ(26-36), have collision cross sections similar to those of cylindrins. We also show that linking two identical fragments head-to-tail using diglycine increases the proportion of cylindrin-sized oligomers. In addition, we find that larger oligomers of these fragments may adopt β-barrel structures and that β-barrels can be formed by folding an out-of-register β-sheet, a common type of structure found in amyloid proteins. PMID:26700445

  7. C-Terminal Protein Characterization by Mass Spectrometry using Combined Micro Scale Liquid and Solid-Phase Derivatization

    PubMed Central

    Nika, Heinz; Nieves, Edward; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

    2013-01-01

    A sample preparation method for protein C-terminal peptide isolation has been developed. In this strategy, protein carboxylate glycinamidation was preceded by carboxyamidomethylation and optional α- and ϵ-amine acetylation in a one-pot reaction, followed by tryptic digestion of the modified protein. The digest was adsorbed on ZipTipC18 pipette tips for sequential peptide α- and ϵ-amine acetylation and 1-ethyl-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide-mediated carboxylate condensation with ethylenediamine. Amino group-functionalized peptides were scavenged on N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated agarose, leaving the C-terminal peptide in the flow-through fraction. The use of reversed-phase supports as a venue for peptide derivatization enabled facile optimization of the individual reaction steps for throughput and completeness of reaction. Reagents were exchanged directly on the support, eliminating sample transfer between the reaction steps. By this sequence of solid-phase reactions, the C-terminal peptide could be uniquely recognized in mass spectra of unfractionated digests of moderate complexity. The use of the sample preparation method was demonstrated with low-level amounts of a model protein. The C-terminal peptides were selectively retrieved from the affinity support and proved highly suitable for structural characterization by collisionally induced dissociation. The sample preparation method provides for robustness and simplicity of operation using standard equipment readily available in most biological laboratories and is expected to be readily expanded to gel-separated proteins. PMID:23543807

  8. Export of autotransported proteins proceeds through an oligomeric ring shaped by C-terminal domains.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Esteban; Sugawara, Etsuko; Nikaido, Hiroshi; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Fernández, Luis Angel

    2002-05-01

    An investigation was made into the oligomerization, the ability to form pores and the secretion-related properties of the 45 kDa C-terminal domain of the IgA protease (C-IgAP) from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This protease is the best studied example of the autotransporters (ATs), a large family of exoproteins from Gram-negative bacteria that includes numerous virulence factors from human pathogens. These proteins contain an N-terminal passenger domain that em bodies the secreted polypeptide, while the C-domain inserts into the outer membrane (OM) and trans locates the linked N-module into the extracellular medium. Here we report that purified C-IgAP forms an oligomeric complex of approximately 500 kDa with a ring-like structure containing a central cavity of approximately 2 nm diameter that is the conduit for the export of the N-domains. These data overcome the previous model for ATs, which postulated the passage of the N-module through the hydrophilic channel of the beta-barrel of each monomeric C-domain. Our results advocate a secretion mechanism not unlike other bacterial export systems, such as the secretins or fimbrial ushers, which rely on multimeric complexes assembled in the OM. PMID:11980709

  9. Structure of the C-terminal domain of the arginine repressor protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, Leonid T.; Cherney, Maia M.; Garen, Craig R.; Lu, George J.; James, Michael N. G.

    2008-09-01

    The structure of the core domain of the arginine repressor protein from M. tuberculosis has been determined with (1.85 Å resolution) and without (2.15 Å resolution) the arginine corepressor bound. Three additional arginine molecules have been found to bind to the core domain hexamer at high (0.2 M) arginine concentration. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) gene product encoded by open reading frame Rv1657 is an arginine repressor (ArgR). All genes involved in the l-arginine (hereafter arginine) biosynthetic pathway are essential for optimal growth of the Mtb pathogen, thus making MtbArgR a potential target for drug design. The C-terminal domains of arginine repressors (CArgR) participate in oligomerization and arginine binding. Several crystal forms of CArgR from Mtb (MtbCArgR) have been obtained. The X-ray crystal structures of MtbCArgR were determined at 1.85 Å resolution with bound arginine and at 2.15 Å resolution in the unliganded form. These structures show that six molecules of MtbCArgR are arranged into a hexamer having approximate 32 point symmetry that is formed from two trimers. The trimers rotate relative to each other by about 11° upon binding arginine. All residues in MtbCArgR deemed to be important for hexamer formation and for arginine binding have been identified from the experimentally determined structures presented. The hexamer contains six regular sites in which the arginine molecules have one common binding mode and three sites in which the arginine molecules have two overlapping binding modes. The latter sites only bind the ligand at high (200 mM) arginine concentrations.

  10. Deletion of the N- or C-Terminal Helix of Apolipophorin III To Create a Four-Helix Bundle Protein.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Pankaj; Rodriguez, Johana; Ibe, Nnejiuwa U; Weers, Paul M M

    2016-07-01

    Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) is an exchangeable apolipoprotein found in insects and plays an important function in lipid transport. The protein has an unusual five-helix bundle architecture, deviating from the common four-helix bundle motif. To understand the role of the additional helix in apoLp-III, the N-terminal or C-terminal helix was deleted to create a putative four-helix bundle protein. While the protein lacking helix-1 could be expressed in bacteria albeit at reduced yields, apoLp-III lacking helix-5 could not be produced. Mutational analysis by truncating helix-5 showed that a minimum segment of approximately one-third of the C-terminal helix is required for protein expression. The variant lacking helix-5 was produced by inserting a methionine residue between helix-4 and -5; subsequent cyanogenbromide cleavage generated the four-helix variant. Both N- and C-terminal helix deletion variants displayed significantly reduced helical content, protein stability, and tertiary structure. Despite the significantly altered structure, the variants were still fully functional. The rate of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicle solubilization was enhanced 4-5-fold compared to the wild-type protein, and the deletion variants were effective in binding to lipolyzed low density lipoprotein thereby preventing lipoprotein aggregation. These results show that the additional helix of apoLp-III is not essential for lipid binding but is required for proper folding to keep the protein into a stable conformation. PMID:27280697

  11. The C-terminal tail of tetraspanin proteins regulates their intracellular distribution in the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Coceres, V M; Alonso, A M; Nievas, Y R; Midlej, V; Frontera, L; Benchimol, M; Johnson, P J; de Miguel, N

    2015-08-01

    The parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Here, we report the cellular analysis of T.vaginalis tetraspanin family (TvTSPs). This family of membrane proteins has been implicated in cell adhesion, migration and proliferation in vertebrates. We found that the expression of several members of the family is up-regulated upon contact with vaginal ectocervical cells. We demonstrate that most TvTSPs are localized on the surface and intracellular vesicles and that the C-terminal intracellular tails of surface TvTSPs are necessary for proper localization. Analyses of full-length TvTSP8 and a mutant that lacks the C-terminal tail indicates that surface-localized TvTSP8 is involved in parasite aggregation, suggesting a role for this protein in parasite : parasite interaction. PMID:25703821

  12. A C-terminal Membrane Anchor Affects the Interactions of Prion Proteins with Lipid Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Nam K.; Shabbir, Waheed; Bove-Fenderson, Erin; Araman, Can; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa; Harris, David A.; Becker, Christian F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane attachment via a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor is critical for conversion of PrPC into pathogenic PrPSc. Therefore the effects of the anchor on PrP structure and function need to be deciphered. Three PrP variants, including full-length PrP (residues 23–231, FL_PrP), N-terminally truncated PrP (residues 90–231, T_PrP), and PrP missing its central hydrophobic region (Δ105–125, ΔCR_PrP), were equipped with a C-terminal membrane anchor via a semisynthesis strategy. Analyses of the interactions of lipidated PrPs with phospholipid membranes demonstrated that C-terminal membrane attachment induces a different binding mode of PrP to membranes, distinct from that of non-lipidated PrPs, and influences the biochemical and conformational properties of PrPs. Additionally, fluorescence-based assays indicated pore formation by lipidated ΔCR_PrP, a variant that is known to be highly neurotoxic in transgenic mice. This finding was supported by using patch clamp electrophysiological measurements of cultured cells. These results provide new evidence for the role of the membrane anchor in PrP-lipid interactions, highlighting the importance of the N-terminal and the central hydrophobic domain in these interactions. PMID:25217642

  13. The C-terminal domain is sufficient for host-binding activity of the Mu phage tail-spike protein.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidetaka; Yamada, Seiko; Toyama, Yoshiharu; Takeda, Shigeki

    2010-09-01

    The Mu phage virion contains tail-spike proteins beneath the baseplate, which it uses to adsorb to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli during the infection process. The tail spikes are composed of gene product 45 (gp45), which contains 197 amino acid residues. In this study, we purified and characterized both the full-length and the C-terminal domains of recombinant gp45 to identify the functional and structural domains. Limited proteolysis resulted in a Ser64-Gln197 sequence, which was composed of a stable C-terminal domain. Analytical ultracentrifugation of the recombinant C-terminal domain (gp45-C) indicated that the molecular weight of gp45-C was about 58 kDa and formed a trimeric protomer in solution. Coprecipitation experiments and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) demonstrated that gp45-C irreversibly binds to the E. coli membrane. These results indicate that gp45 shows behaviors similar to tail-spike proteins of other phages; however, gp45 did not show significant sequence homology with the other phage tail-spike structures that have been identified. PMID:20478417

  14. Synthesis of histone proteins by CPE ligation using a recombinant peptide as the C-terminal building block.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Toru; Yoshikawa, Ryo; Fujiyoshi, Yuki; Mishima, Yuichi; Hojo, Hironobu; Tajima, Shoji; Suetake, Isao

    2015-11-01

    The post-translational modification of histones plays an important role in gene expression. We report herein on a method for synthesizing such modified histones by ligating chemically prepared N-terminal peptides and C-terminal recombinant peptide building blocks. Based on their chemical synthesis, core histones can be categorized as two types; histones H2A, H2B and H4 which contain no Cys residues, and histone H3 which contains a Cys residue(s) in the C-terminal region. A combination of native chemical ligation and desulphurization can be simply used to prepare histones without Cys residues. For the synthesis of histone H3, the endogenous Cys residue(s) must be selectively protected, while keeping the N-terminal Cys residue of the C-terminal building block that is introduced for purposes of chemical ligation unprotected. To this end, a phenacyl group was successfully utilized to protect endogenous Cys residue(s), and the recombinant peptide was ligated with a peptide containing a Cys-Pro ester (CPE) sequence as a thioester precursor. Using this approach it was possible to prepare all of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 with any modifications. The resulting proteins could then be used to prepare a core histone library of proteins that have been post-translationally modified. PMID:26002961

  15. Characterization of RNA binding and chaperoning activities of HIV-1 Vif protein. Importance of the C-terminal unstructured tail.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Dona; Bernacchi, Serena; Xavier Guerrero, Santiago; Brachet, Franck; Larue, Valéry; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Tisne, Carine

    2014-01-01

    The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for the productive infection and dissemination of HIV-1 in non-permissive cells, containing the cellular anti-HIV defense cytosine deaminases APOBEC3 (A3G and A3F). Vif neutralizes the antiviral activities of the APOBEC3G/F by diverse mechanisms including their degradation through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and their translational inhibition. In addition, Vif appears to be an active partner of the late steps of viral replication by interacting with Pr55(Gag), reverse transcriptase and genomic RNA. Here, we expressed and purified full-length and truncated Vif proteins, and analyzed their RNA binding and chaperone properties. First, we showed by CD and NMR spectroscopies that the N-terminal domain of Vif is highly structured in solution, whereas the C-terminal domain remains mainly unfolded. Both domains exhibited substantial RNA binding capacities with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range, whereas the basic unfolded C-terminal domain of Vif was responsible in part for its RNA chaperone activity. Second, we showed by NMR chemical shift mapping that Vif and NCp7 share the same binding sites on tRNA(Lys) 3, the primer of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Finally, our results indicate that Vif has potent RNA chaperone activity and provide direct evidence for an important role of the unstructured C-terminal domain of Vif in this capacity. PMID:25144404

  16. C-Terminal Charge-Reversal Derivatization and Parallel Use of Multiple Proteases Facilitates Identification of Protein C-Termini by C-Terminomics.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Prasath; Koudelka, Tomas; Linke, Dennis; Tholey, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The identification of protein C-termini in complex proteomes is challenging due to the poor ionization efficiency of the carboxyl group. Amidating the negatively charged C-termini with ethanolamine (EA) has been suggested to improve the detection of C-terminal peptides and allows for a directed depletion of internal peptides after proteolysis using carboxyl reactive polymers. In the present study, the derivatization with N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (DMEDA) and (4-aminobutyl)guanidine (AG) leading to a positively charged C-terminus was investigated. C-terminal charge-reversed peptides showed improved coverage of b- and y-ion series in the MS/MS spectra compared to their noncharged counterparts. DMEDA-derivatized peptides resulted in many peptides with charge states of 3+, which benefited from ETD fragmentation. This makes the charge-reversal strategy particularly useful for the analysis of protein C-termini, which may also be post-translationally modified. The labeling strategy and the indirect enrichment of C-termini worked with similar efficiency for both DMEDA and EA, and their applicability was demonstrated on an E. coli proteome. Utilizing two proteases and different MS/MS activation mechanisms allowed for the identification of >400 C-termini, encompassing both canonical and truncated C-termini. PMID:26939532

  17. N- and C-terminal Transactivation Domains of GATA1 Protein Coordinate Hematopoietic Program*

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eri; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ritsuko

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factor GATA1 regulates the expression of a cluster of genes important for hematopoietic cell differentiation toward erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages. Three functional domains have been identified in GATA1, a transactivation domain located in the N terminus (N-TAD) and two zinc finger domains located in the middle of the molecule. Although N-TAD is known as a solitary transactivation domain for GATA1, clinical observations in Down syndrome leukemia suggest that there may be additional transactivation domains. In this study, we found in reporter co-transfection assays that transactivation activity of GATA1 was markedly reduced by deletion of the C-terminal 95 amino acids without significant attenuation of the DNA binding activity or self-association potential. We therefore generated transgenic mouse lines that expressed GATA1 lacking the C-terminal region (GATA1-ΔCT). When we crossed these transgenic mouse lines to the Gata1-deficient mouse, we found that the GATA1-ΔCT transgene rescued Gata1-deficient mice from embryonic lethality. The embryos rescued with an almost similar level of GATA1-ΔCT to endogenous GATA1 developed beyond embryonic 13.5 days, showing severe anemia with accumulation of immature erythroid cells, as was the case for the embryos rescued by endogenous levels of GATA1 lacking N-TAD (GATA1-ΔNT). Distinct sets of target genes were affected in the embryos rescued by GATA1-ΔCT and GATA1-ΔNT. We also found attenuated GATA1 function in cell cycle control of immature megakaryocytes in both lines of rescued embryos. These results thus demonstrate that GATA1 has two independent transactivation domains, N-TAD and C-TAD. Both N-TAD and C-TAD retain redundant as well as specific activities for proper hematopoiesis in vivo. PMID:22556427

  18. Elastase inhibition by the C-terminal domains of alpha-crystallin and small heat-shock protein.

    PubMed

    Voorter, C E; de Haard-Hoekman, W; Merck, K B; Bloemendal, H; de Jong, W W

    1994-01-11

    alpha-Crystallin, an abundant eye-lens protein and a stress protein in other tissues, shows structural and functional similarities with the small heat-shock proteins. One of the properties in common is the inhibition of elastase. We now report that the separated subunits of alpha-crystallin, alpha A and alpha B, also exhibit elastase inhibition, whereas phosphorylation of these subunits apparently has no influence on the inhibitory capacity. Furthermore, for both alpha A-crystallin and mouse HSP25 the putative C-terminal structural domain, comprising the major region of homology between these proteins, is sufficient to give elastase inhibition. With database search no homology could be found between the three proteins under investigation and any of the known consensus sequences of proteinase inhibitor families. PMID:8305474

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a C-terminal fragment of FlgJ, a putative flagellar rod cap protein from Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Yuki; Matsunami, Hideyuki; Yamane, Midori; Imada, Katsumi; Namba, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    The formation of the bacterial flagellar axial structure, including the filament, the hook and the rod, requires the attachment of a cap complex to the distal end of the growing structure. Because the rod penetrates the peptidoglycan (PG) layer, the rod cap complex is thought to have PG-hydrolyzing activity. FlgJ is a putative rod cap protein whose C-terminal region shows sequence similarity to known muramidases. In this study, FlgJ120–316, a C-terminal fragment of FlgJ which contains the muramidase region, was overproduced, purified and crystallized. Crystals were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique using PEG 3350 as a crystallizing agent and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.8, b = 43.9, c = 108.5 Å. Anomalous difference Patterson maps calculated from the diffraction data set of a selenomethionine-labelled crystal showed significant peaks in the Harker sections, indicating that the data were suitable for structure determination. PMID:19153448

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a C-terminal fragment of FlgJ, a putative flagellar rod cap protein from Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yuki; Matsunami, Hideyuki; Yamane, Midori; Imada, Katsumi; Namba, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    The formation of the bacterial flagellar axial structure, including the filament, the hook and the rod, requires the attachment of a cap complex to the distal end of the growing structure. Because the rod penetrates the peptidoglycan (PG) layer, the rod cap complex is thought to have PG-hydrolyzing activity. FlgJ is a putative rod cap protein whose C-terminal region shows sequence similarity to known muramidases. In this study, FlgJ(120-316), a C-terminal fragment of FlgJ which contains the muramidase region, was overproduced, purified and crystallized. Crystals were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique using PEG 3350 as a crystallizing agent and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 38.8, b = 43.9, c = 108.5 A. Anomalous difference Patterson maps calculated from the diffraction data set of a selenomethionine-labelled crystal showed significant peaks in the Harker sections, indicating that the data were suitable for structure determination. PMID:19153448

  1. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the fibre protein from snake adenovirus 1, an atadenovirus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhimanyu K; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; San Martín, Carmen; van Raaij, Mark J

    2013-12-01

    Adenovirus fibre proteins play an important role in determining viral tropism. The C-terminal domain of the fibre protein from snake adenovirus type 1, a member of the Atadenovirus genus, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals were obtained belonging to space groups P2(1)2(1)2(1) (two different forms), I2(1)3 and F23. The best of these diffracted synchrotron radiation to a resolution of 1.4 Å. As the protein lacks methionines or cysteines, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to change two leucine residues to methionines. Crystals of selenomethionine-derivatized crystals of the I2(1)3 form were also obtained and a multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion data set was collected. PMID:24316834

  2. [Construction and expression of six deletion mutants of human astrovirus C-terminal nsP1a/4 protein].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Niu, Ke; Zhao, Jian; Jin, Yi-ming; Sui, Ting-ting; Wang, Wen

    2013-09-01

    Human astrovirus (HAstV) is one of the leading causes of actue virual diarrhea in infants. HAstV-induced epithdlial cell apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of HAstV infection. Our previous study indicated that HAstV non-structural protein nsPla C-terminal protein nsPla/4 was the major apoptosis functional protein and probably contained the main apoptosis domains. In order to screen for astrovirus encoded apoptotic protien, nsPla/4 and six turncated proteins, which possessed nsPla/4 protein different function domain ,were cloned into green fluorescent protein (GFP) vector pEG-FP-N3. After 24-72 h transfection, the fusion protein expression in BHK21 cells, was analysis by fluorescence microscope and Western blot. The results indicated seven fusion proteins were observed successfully in BHK21 cell after transfected for 24 h. Western blot analysis showed that the level of fusion protein expressed in BHK21 cells was increased significantly at 72h compared to 48h in transfected cells. The successful expression of deletion mutants of nsPla/4 protein was an important foundation to gain further insights into the function of apoptosis domains of nsPla/4 protein and it would also provide research platform to further confirm the molecule pathogenic mechanism of human astrovirus. PMID:24386845

  3. Contribution of Chitinase A’s C-Terminal Vacuolar Sorting Determinant to the Study of Soluble Protein Compartmentation

    PubMed Central

    Stigliano, Egidio; Di Sansebastiano, Gian-Pietro; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Plant chitinases have been studied for their importance in the defense of crop plants from pathogen attacks and for their peculiar vacuolar sorting determinants. A peculiarity of the sequence of many family 19 chitinases is the presence of a C-terminal extension that seems to be important for their correct recognition by the vacuole sorting machinery. The 7 amino acids long C-terminal vacuolar sorting determinant (CtVSD) of tobacco chitinase A is necessary and sufficient for the transport to the vacuole. This VSD shares no homology with other CtVSDs such as the phaseolin’s tetrapeptide AFVY (AlaPheValTyr) and it is also sorted by different mechanisms. While a receptor for this signal has not yet been convincingly identified, the research using the chitinase CtVSD has been very informative, leading to the observation of phenomena otherwise difficult to observe such as the presence of separate vacuoles in differentiating cells and the existence of a Golgi-independent route to the vacuole. Thanks to these new insights in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-vacuole transport, GFPChi (Green Fluorescent Protein carrying the chitinase A CtVSD) and other markers based on chitinase signals will continue to help the investigation of vacuolar biogenesis in plants. PMID:24945312

  4. α-Helical to β-Helical Conformation Change in the C-Terminal of the Mammalian Prion Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jesse; Whitford, Paul; Hayre, Natha; Cox, Daniel; Onuchic, José.

    2011-03-01

    We employ all-atom structure-based models with mixed basis contact maps to explore whether there are any significant geometric or energetic constraints limiting conjectured conformational transitions between the alpha-helical (α H) and the left handed beta helical (LHBH) conformations for the C-terminal (residues 166-226) of the mammalian prion protein. The LHBH structure has been proposed to describe infectious oligomers and one class of in vitro grown fibrils, as well as possibly self- templating the conversion of normal cellular prion protein to the infectious form. Our results confirm that the kinetics of the conformation change are not strongely limited by large scale geometry modification and there exists an overall preference for the LHBH conformation.

  5. WXG100 Protein Superfamily Consists of Three Subfamilies and Exhibits an α-Helical C-Terminal Conserved Residue Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Christian; Panjikar, Santosh; Holton, Simon J.; Wilmanns, Matthias; Song, Young-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Members of the WXG100 protein superfamily form homo- or heterodimeric complexes. The most studied proteins among them are the secreted T-cell antigens CFP-10 (10 kDa culture filtrate protein, EsxB) and ESAT-6 (6 kDa early secreted antigen target, EsxA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are encoded on an operon within a gene cluster, named as ESX-1, that encodes for the Type VII secretion system (T7SS). WXG100 proteins are secreted in a full-length form and it is known that they adopt a four-helix bundle structure. In the current work we discuss the evolutionary relationship between the homo- and heterodimeric WXG100 proteins, the basis of the oligomeric state and the key structural features of the conserved sequence pattern of WXG100 proteins. We performed an iterative bioinformatics analysis of the WXG100 protein superfamily and correlated this with the atomic structures of the representative WXG100 proteins. We find, firstly, that the WXG100 protein superfamily consists of three subfamilies: CFP-10-, ESAT-6- and sagEsxA-like proteins (EsxA proteins similar to that of Streptococcus agalactiae). Secondly, that the heterodimeric complexes probably evolved from a homodimeric precursor. Thirdly, that the genes of hetero-dimeric WXG100 proteins are always encoded in bi-cistronic operons and finally, by combining the sequence alignments with the X-ray data we identify a conserved C-terminal sequence pattern. The side chains of these conserved residues decorate the same side of the C-terminal α-helix and therefore form a distinct surface. Our results lead to a putatively extended T7SS secretion signal which combines two reported T7SS recognition characteristics: Firstly that the T7SS secretion signal is localized at the C-terminus of T7SS substrates and secondly that the conserved residues YxxxD/E are essential for T7SS activity. Furthermore, we propose that the specific α-helical surface formed by the conserved sequence pattern including YxxxD/E motif is a key

  6. Dual-tagged amyloid-β precursor protein reveals distinct transport pathways of its N- and C-terminal fragments.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Christine; Muresan, Virgil; Ladescu Muresan, Zoia

    2014-03-15

    The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), a type I transmembrane protein genetically associated with Alzheimer's disease, has a complex biology that includes proteolytic processing into potentially toxic fragments, extensive trafficking and multiple, yet poorly-defined functions. We recently proposed that a significant fraction of APP is proteolytically cleaved in the neuronal soma into N- and C-terminal fragments (NTFs and CTFs), which then target independently of each other to separate destinations in the cell. Here, we prove this concept with live imaging and immunolocalization of two dual, N- and C-termini-tagged APP constructs: CFP-APP-YFP [containing the fluorescent tags, cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)] and FLAG-APP-Myc. When expressed at low levels in neuronal cells, these constructs are processed into differently tagged NTFs and CTFs that reveal distinct distributions and characteristics of transport. Like the endogenous N- and C-terminal epitopes of APP, the FLAG-tagged NTFs are present in trains of vesicles and tubules that localize to short filaments, which often immunostain for acetylated tubulin, whereas the Myc-tagged CTFs are detected on randomly distributed vesicle-like structures. The experimental treatments that selectively destabilize the acetylated microtubules abrogate the distribution of NTFs along filaments, without altering the random distribution of CTFs. These results indicate that the NTFs and CTFs are recruited to distinct transport pathways and reach separate destinations in neurons, where they likely accomplish functions independent of the parental, full-length APP. They also point to a compartment associated with acetylated microtubules in the neuronal soma--not the neurite terminals--as a major site of APP cleavage, and segregation of NTFs from CTFs. PMID:24203698

  7. Intrinsic disorder in the C-terminal domain of the Shaker voltage-activated K+ channel modulates its interaction with scaffold proteins

    PubMed Central

    Magidovich, Elhanan; Orr, Irit; Fass, Deborah; Abdu, Uri; Yifrach, Ofer

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of membrane-embedded voltage-activated potassium channels (Kv) with intracellular scaffold proteins, such as the postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) protein, is mediated by the channel C-terminal segment. This interaction underlies Kv channel clustering at unique membrane sites and is important for the proper assembly and functioning of the synapse. In the current study, we address the molecular mechanism underlying Kv/PSD-95 interaction. We provide experimental evidence, based on hydrodynamic and spectroscopic analyses, indicating that the isolated C-terminal segment of the archetypical Shaker Kv channel (ShB-C) is a random coil, suggesting that ShB-C belongs to the recently defined class of intrinsically disordered proteins. We show that isolated ShB-C is still able to bind its scaffold protein partner and support protein clustering in vivo, indicating that unfoldedness is compatible with ShB-C activity. Pulldown experiments involving C-terminal chains differing in flexibility or length further demonstrate that intrinsic disorder in the C-terminal segment of the Shaker channel modulates its interaction with the PSD-95 protein. Our results thus suggest that the C-terminal domain of the Shaker Kv channel behaves as an entropic chain and support a “fishing rod” molecular mechanism for Kv channel binding to scaffold proteins. The importance of intrinsically disordered protein segments to the complex processes of synapse assembly, maintenance, and function is discussed. PMID:17666528

  8. Internalization of a GFP-tetanus toxin C-terminal fragment fusion protein at mature mouse neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Roux, Sylvie; Colasante, Cesare; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Barbier, Julien; Curie, Thomas; Girard, Emmanuelle; Molgó, Jordi; Brûlet, Philippe

    2005-09-01

    The distribution, dynamics, internalization, and retrograde axonal traffic of a fusion protein composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the atoxic C-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin (TTC) were studied after its in vivo injection. Confocal microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that the fusion protein (GFP-TTC) rapidly clustered in motor nerve terminals of the neuromuscular junction. Clathrin-coated pits, and axolemma infoldings located between active zones appeared to be involved in the internalization of the fusion protein. Biochemical analysis of detergent-extracted neuromuscular preparations showed that the GFP-TTC fusion protein was associated with lipid microdomains. We suggest that GFP-TTC clustering in these lipid microdomains favors the recruitment of other proteins involved in its endocytosis and internalization in motor nerve terminals. During its retrograde trafficking, GFP-TTC accumulated in different axonal compartments than those used by cholera toxin B-subunit suggesting that these two proteins are transported by different pathways and cargos. PMID:16023367

  9. Internalization of a GFP-tetanus toxin C-terminal fragment fusion protein at mature mouse neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Roux, Sylvie; Colasante, Cesare; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Barbier, Julien; Curie, Thomas; Girard, Emmanuelle; Molgó, Jordi; Brûlet, Philippe

    2005-12-01

    The distribution, dynamics, internalization, and retrograde axonal traffic of a fusion protein composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP)and the atoxic C-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin (TTC) were studied after its in vivo injection. Confocal microscopy and immuno-gold electron microscopy revealed that the fusion protein (GFP-TTC) rapidly clustered in motor nerve terminals of the neuromuscular junction. Clathrin-coated pits, and axolemma infoldings located between active zones appeared to be involved in the internalization of the fusion protein. Biochemical analysis of detergent-extracted neuromuscular preparations showed that the GFP-TTC fusion protein was associated with lipid microdomains. We suggest that GFP-TTC clustering in these lipid microdomains favors the recruitment of other proteins involved in its endocytosis and internalization in motor nerve terminals. During its retrograde trafficking, GFP-TTC accumulated indifferent axonal compartments than those used by cholera toxin B-subunit suggesting that these two proteins are transported by different pathways and cargos. PMID:16456925

  10. NMR Determines Transient Structure and Dynamics in the Disordered C-Terminal Domain of WASp Interacting Protein

    PubMed Central

    Haba, Noam Y.; Gross, Renana; Novacek, Jiri; Shaked, Hadassa; Zidek, Lukas; Barda-Saad, Mira; Chill, Jordan H.

    2013-01-01

    WASp-interacting protein (WIP) is a 503-residue proline-rich polypeptide expressed in human T cells. The WIP C-terminal domain binds to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) and regulates its activation and degradation, and the WIP-WASp interaction has been shown to be critical for actin polymerization and implicated in the onset of WAS and X-linked thrombocytopenia. WIP is predicted to be an intrinsically disordered protein, a class of polypeptides that are of great interest because they violate the traditional structure-function paradigm. In this first (to our knowledge) study of WIP in its unbound state, we used NMR to investigate the biophysical behavior of WIPC, a C-terminal domain fragment of WIP that includes residues 407–503 and contains the WASp-binding site. In light of the poor spectral dispersion exhibited by WIPC and the high occurrence (25%) of proline residues, we employed 5D-NMR13C-detected NMR experiments with nonuniform sampling to accomplish full resonance assignment. Secondary chemical-shift analysis, 15N relaxation rates, and protection from solvent exchange all concurred in detecting transient structure located in motifs that span the WASp-binding site. Residues 446–456 exhibited a propensity for helical conformation, and an extended conformation followed by a short, capped helix was observed for residues 468–478. The 13C-detected approach allows chemical-shift assignment in the WIPC polyproline stretches and thus sheds light on their conformation and dynamics. The effects of temperature on chemical shifts referenced to a denatured sample of the polypeptide demonstrate that heating reduces the structural character of WIPC. Thus, we conclude that the disordered WIPC fragment is comprised of regions with latent structure connected by flexible loops, an architecture with implications for binding affinity and function. PMID:23870269

  11. Recombinant expression of soluble murine prion protein for C-terminal modification.

    PubMed

    Chu, Nam Ky; Becker, Christian F W

    2013-03-01

    Membrane attachment of prion protein (PrP) via its glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor plays a key role during conversion of cellular PrP(C) into its pathogenic isoform PrP(Sc). Strategies to access homogenous lipidated PrP via expressed protein ligation (EPL) are required to fully decipher the effect of membrane attachment. Such strategies suffer from insoluble expression of PrP-intein fusion constructs and low folding efficiencies that severely limit the available amount of homogeneous lipidated PrP. Here, we describe an alternative method for expression of soluble PrP-intein fusion proteins in Escherichia coli that provides access to natively folded PrP ready to use in EPL. PMID:23337878

  12. CK2-dependent C-terminal phosphorylation at T{sup 30} directs the nuclear transport of TSPY protein

    SciTech Connect

    Krick, Roswitha; Aschrafi, Amaz; Hasguen, Dilek; Arnemann, Joachim |. E-mail: Joachim_Arnemann@web.de

    2006-03-10

    TSPY (testis-specific protein, Y-encoded) is a member of the greater SET/NAP family of molecules with various functions, e.g., in chromatin remodeling, regulation of gene expression, and has been implicated to play a role in the malignant development of gonadoblastoma, testicular and prostate cancer. Here we demonstrate that the C-terminus has a functional role for the nucleo-cytoplasmatic shuttling of the TSPY protein. Using various combinations of in vitro mutagenesis and enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene-expression experiments we were able to show that while the deletion of C-terminus leads to a decreased stability and enhanced degradation of the protein, the selective mutation of a C-terminal CK2 phosphorylation site (T{sup 30}) prevents the TSPY protein from entering the nucleus. We conclude that phosphorylation of the (T{sup 30}) residue is a necessary and functional prerequisite for TSPY's transport into the nucleus reminding of comparable data from a related Drosophila molecule, NAP1.

  13. XCTK1: A Xenopus C-terminal Kinesin-like Protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfree, Seth; Wilhelm, Heike; Sawyer, Alan; Karsenti, Eric; Mitchison, Tim; Walczak, Claire; Reinsch, Sigrid; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    XCTK1 is 97kDa kinesin-like protein homologous to FKIF2 and KIFC3. XCTK1 is present at picomolar levels in eggs, embryos and cultured cells in a soluble high-molecular weight complex that is not associated with membranes. XCKT1 localizes to centrosomes in Xenopus A6 cells. Anti-XCTK1 antibodies also localize to spindle poles when injected into A6 cells or when added to extracts during in vitro spindle assembly reactions. XCTK1 is associated with the center of taxol-induced microtubule asters in extracts. Therefore its localization to poles is dependent on microtubule minus-ends and not on centrosomes per se. Overexpression of XCTK1 leads to centrosome destruction in cultured cells. XCTK1 was tagged at either the N- or C-terminus and transfected into Xenopus A6 cells At low expression levels, XCTK1 associated with centrosomes. At higher levels, the protein localized to insoluble cytoplasmic structures. Gamma-tubulin staining was dramatically decreased from centrosomes or altogether absent. The centrosomal SPJ antigen colocalized with XCTK1-containing structures. Upon nocodozole treatment, microtubules failed to regrow from the centrosomes indicating that overexpression of XCTK1 severely compromises centrosomal function. Current studies are aimed at determining whether XCTK1 interacts directly with centrosomal proteins and to determine the effects of XCTK1 depletion on oocyte maturation and embryogenesis.

  14. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Phosphorylation Sites Affect Capsid Stability and Transient Exposure of the C-terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Selzer, Lisa; Kant, Ravi; Wang, Joseph C-Y; Bothner, Brian; Zlotnick, Adam

    2015-11-20

    Hepatitis B virus core protein has 183 amino acids divided into an assembly domain and an arginine-rich C-terminal domain (CTD) that regulates essential functions including genome packaging, reverse transcription, and intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigated the CTD in empty hepatitis B virus (HBV) T=4 capsids. We examined wild-type core protein (Cp183-WT) and a mutant core protein (Cp183-EEE), in which three CTD serines are replaced with glutamate to mimic phosphorylated protein. We found that Cp183-WT capsids were less stable than Cp183-EEE capsids. When we tested CTD sensitivity to trypsin, we detected two different populations of CTDs differentiated by their rate of trypsin cleavage. Interestingly, CTDs from Cp183-EEE capsids exhibited a much slower rate of proteolytic cleavage when compared with CTDs of Cp183-WT capsids. Cryo-electron microscopy studies of trypsin-digested capsids show that CTDs at five-fold symmetry vertices are most protected. We hypothesize that electrostatic interactions between glutamates and arginines in Cp183-EEE, particularly at five-fold, increase capsid stability and reduce CTD exposure. Our studies show that quasi-equivalent CTDs exhibit different rates of exposure and thus might perform distinct functions during the hepatitis B virus lifecycle. Our results demonstrate a structural role for CTD phosphorylation and indicate crosstalk between CTDs within a capsid particle. PMID:26405031

  15. A protein kinase that phosphorylates the C-terminal repeat domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J M; Greenleaf, A L

    1989-01-01

    The unique C-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of the largest subunit (IIa) of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II consists of multiple repeats of the heptapeptide consensus sequence Tyr-Ser-Pro-Thr-Ser-Pro-Ser. The number of repeats ranges from 26 in yeast to 42 in Drosophila to 52 in mouse. The CTD is essential in vivo, but its structure and function are not yet understood. The CTD can be phosphorylated at multiple serine and threonine residues, generating a form of the largest subunit (II0) with markedly reduced mobility in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gels. To investigate this extensive phosphorylation, which presumably modulates functional properties of RNA polymerase II, we began efforts to purify a specific CTD kinase. Using CTD-containing fusion proteins as substrates, we have purified a CTD kinase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The enzyme extensively phosphorylates the CTD portion of both the fusion proteins and intact subunit IIa, producing products with reduced electrophoretic mobilities. The properties of the CTD kinase suggest that it is distinct from previously described protein kinases. Analogous activities were also detected in Drosophila and HeLa cell extracts. Images PMID:2657724

  16. The C-terminal Domain Supports a Novel Function for CETPI as a New Plasma Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    García-González, Victor; Gutiérrez-Quintanar, Nadia; Mas-Oliva, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Described by our group a few years ago, the cholesteryl-ester transfer protein isoform (CETPI), exclusively expressed in the small intestine and present in human plasma, lacked a functional identification for a role of physiological relevance. Now, this study introduces CETPI as a new protein with the potential capability to recognise, bind and neutralise lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Peptides derived from the C-terminal domain of CETPI showed that CETPI not only might interact with several LPS serotypes but also might displace LPS bound to the surface of cells. Peptide VSAK, derived from the last 18 residues of CETPI, protected against the cytotoxic effect of LPS on macrophages. At high concentrations, when different cell types were tested in culture, it did not exhibit cytotoxicity by itself and it did prevent the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the generation of oxidative stress conditions. In a rabbit model of septic shock, the infusion of peptide VSAK exerted a protective effect against the effects of LPS and reduced the presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) in plasma. Therefore, CETPI is proposed as a new protein with the capability to advance the possibilities for better understanding and treatment of the dangerous effects of LPS in vivo. PMID:26537318

  17. P13, an Integral Membrane Protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, Is C-Terminally Processed and Contains Surface-Exposed Domains

    PubMed Central

    Noppa, Laila; Östberg, Yngve; Lavrinovicha, Marija; Bergström, Sven

    2001-01-01

    To elucidate antigens present on the bacterial surface of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato that may be involved in pathogenesis, we characterized a protein, P13, with an apparent molecular mass of 13 kDa. The protein was immunogenic and was expressed in large amounts during in vitro cultivation compared to other known antigens. An immunofluorescence assay, immunoelectron microscopy, and protease sensitivity assays indicated that P13 is surface exposed. The deduced sequence of the P13 peptide revealed a possible signal peptidase type I cleavage site, and computer analysis predicted that P13 is an integral membrane protein with three transmembrane-spanning domains. Mass spectrometry, in vitro translation, and N- and C-terminal amino acid sequencing analyses indicated that P13 was posttranslationally processed at both ends and modified by an unknown mechanism. Furthermore, p13 belongs to a gene family with five additional members in B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. The p13 gene is located on the linear chromosome of the bacterium, in contrast to five paralogous genes, which are located on extrachromosomal plasmids. The size of the p13 transcript was consistent with a monocistronic transcript. This new gene family may be involved in functions that are specific for this spirochete and its pathogenesis. PMID:11292755

  18. Efficient DNA Transfection Mediated by the C-Terminal Domain of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Protein R

    PubMed Central

    Kichler, Antoine; Pages, Jean-Christophe; Leborgne, Christian; Druillennec, Sabine; Lenoir, Christine; Coulaud, Dominique; Delain, Etienne; Le Cam, Eric; Roques, Bernard P.; Danos, Olivier

    2000-01-01

    Viral protein R (Vpr) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is produced late in the virus life cycle and is assembled into the virion through binding to the Gag protein. It is known to play a significant role early in the viral life cycle by facilitating the nuclear import of the preintegration complex in nondividing cells. Vpr is also able to interact with nucleic acids, and we show here that it induces condensation of plasmid DNA. We have explored the possibility of using these properties in DNA transfection experiments. We report that the C-terminal half of the protein (Vpr52–96) mediates DNA transfection in a variety of human and nonhuman cell lines with efficiencies comparable to those of the best-known transfection agents. Compared with polylysine, a standard polycationic transfection reagent, Vpr52–96 was 10- to 1,000-fold more active. Vpr52–96-DNA complexes were able to reach the cell nucleus through a pH-independent mechanism. These observations possibly identify an alternate pathway for DNA transfection. PMID:10823846

  19. Solution structure of the THAP domain from Caenorhabditis elegans C-terminal binding protein (CtBP).

    PubMed

    Liew, Chu Kong; Crossley, Merlin; Mackay, Joel P; Nicholas, Hannah R

    2007-02-16

    The THAP (Thanatos-associated protein) domain is a recently discovered zinc-binding domain found in proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, cell-cycle control, apoptosis and chromatin modification. It contains a single zinc atom ligated by cysteine and histidine residues within a Cys-X(2-4)-Cys-X(35-53)-Cys-X(2)-His consensus. We have determined the NMR solution structure of the THAP domain from Caenorhabditis elegans C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) and show that it adopts a fold containing a treble clef motif, bearing similarity to the zinc finger-associated domain (ZAD) from Drosophila Grauzone. The CtBP THAP domain contains a large, positively charged surface patch and we demonstrate that this domain can bind to double-stranded DNA in an electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. These data, together with existing reports, indicate that THAP domains might exhibit a functional diversity similar to that observed for classical and GATA-type zinc fingers. PMID:17174978

  20. The structure of the C-terminal domain of the largest editosome interaction protein and its role in promoting RNA binding by RNA-editing ligase L2

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Jun; Budiarto, Tanya; Wu, Meiting; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosomatids, such as the sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei, contain a ∼20S RNA-editing complex, also called the editosome, which is required for U-insertion/deletion editing of mitochondrial mRNAs. The editosome contains a core of 12 proteins including the large interaction protein A1, the small interaction protein A6, and the editing RNA ligase L2. Using biochemical and structural data, we identified distinct domains of T. brucei A1 which specifically recognize A6 and L2. We provide evidence that an N-terminal domain of A1 interacts with the C-terminal domain of L2. The C-terminal domain of A1 appears to be required for the interaction with A6 and also plays a key role in RNA binding by the RNA-editing ligase L2 in trans. Three crystal structures of the C-terminal domain of A1 have been elucidated, each in complex with a nanobody as a crystallization chaperone. These structures permitted the identification of putative dsRNA recognition sites. Mutational analysis of conserved residues of the C-terminal domain identified Arg703, Arg731 and Arg734 as key requirements for RNA binding. The data show that the editing RNA ligase activity is modulated by a novel mechanism, i.e. by the trans-acting RNA binding C-terminal domain of A1. PMID:22561373

  1. Distributions of intramolecular distances in the reduced and denatured states of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A. Folding initiation structures in the C-terminal portions of the reduced protein.

    PubMed

    Navon, A; Ittah, V; Landsman, P; Scheraga, H A; Haas, E

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to characterize the reduced state of RNase A (r-RNase A) in terms of (i) intramolecular distances, (ii) the sequence of formation of stable loops in the initial stages of folding, and (iii) the unfolding transitions induced by GdnHCl. This is accomplished by identifying specific subdomain structures and local and long-range interactions that direct the folding process of this protein and lead to the native fold and formation of the disulfide bonds. Eleven pairs of dispersed sites in the RNase A molecule were labeled with fluorescent donor and acceptor probes, and the distributions of intramolecular distances (IDDs) were determined by means of time-resolved dynamic nonradiative excitation energy transfer (TR-FRET) measurements. The mutants were designed to search for (a) a possible nonrandom fold of the backbone in the collapsed state and (b) possible loops stabilized by long-range interactions. It was found that, under folding conditions, (i) the labeled mutants of r-RNase A in refolding buffer (the R(N) state) exhibit features of specific (nonrandom) compact but very dispersed subdomain structures (indicated by short mean distances, broad IDDs, and a weak dependence of the mean distances on segment length), (ii) the backbone fold in the C-terminal beta-like portion of the molecule appears to adopt a native-like overall fold, (iii) the N-terminal alpha-like portion of the chain is separated from the C-terminal core by very large intramolecular distances, larger than those in the crystal structure, and (iv) perturbations by addition of GdnHCl reveal several conformational transitions in different sections of the chain. Addition of GdnHCl to the native disulfide-intact protein provided a reference state for the extent of expansion of intramolecular distances under denaturing conditions. In conclusion, r-RNase A under folding conditions (the R(N) state) is poised for the final folding step(s) with a native-like trace of the chain

  2. Interaction between FOG-1 and the Corepressor C-Terminal Binding Protein Is Dispensable for Normal Erythropoiesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Samuel G.; Cantor, Alan B.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2002-01-01

    The hematopoietic, zinc-finger protein FOG-1 is essential for the development of the erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages. FOG-1's function in hematopoiesis is dependent on its ability to interact with the transcription factor GATA-1. FOG-1 has also been observed to interact with the corepressor molecule C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) through a peptide motif shared by all FOG family members. In this study, we confirmed that FOG-1 and CtBP interact by coimmunoprecipitation. We further demonstrate that a FOG-1 mutant unable to interact with CtBP has increased erythropoietic (but not megakaryocytic) rescue (relative to the wild type) of a FOG-1−/− cell line. To analyze further the physiological role of the FOG-1-CtBP interaction, we generated knock-in mice that express a FOG-1 variant unable to bind CtBP. Surprisingly, these mice are normal and fertile. Furthermore, erythropoiesis at all stages of development is normal in these mice. Erythrocyte production is similar in mutant and wild-type mice even under conditions of erythropoietic stress stimulated by either exogenously added erythropoietin or phenylhydrazine-induced anemia. Thus, despite conservation of the FOG-CtBP interaction site, the in vivo function of FOG-1 in erythroid development is not affected by its inability to interact with the corepressor CtBP. PMID:11940669

  3. Structure-function analysis of the human TFIIB-related factor II protein reveals an essential role for the C-terminal domain in RNA polymerase III transcription.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ashish; Ma, Beicong; Schramm, Laura; Hernandez, Nouria

    2005-11-01

    The transcription factors TFIIB, Brf1, and Brf2 share related N-terminal zinc ribbon and core domains. TFIIB bridges RNA polymerase II (Pol II) with the promoter-bound preinitiation complex, whereas Brf1 and Brf2 are involved, as part of activities also containing TBP and Bdp1 and referred to here as Brf1-TFIIIB and Brf2-TFIIIB, in the recruitment of Pol III. Brf1-TFIIIB recruits Pol III to type 1 and 2 promoters and Brf2-TFIIIB to type 3 promoters such as the human U6 promoter. Brf1 and Brf2 both have a C-terminal extension absent in TFIIB, but their C-terminal extensions are unrelated. In yeast Brf1, the C-terminal extension interacts with the TBP/TATA box complex and contributes to the recruitment of Bdp1. Here we have tested truncated Brf2, as well as Brf2/TFIIB chimeric proteins for U6 transcription and for assembly of U6 preinitiation complexes. Our results characterize functions of various human Brf2 domains and reveal that the C-terminal domain is required for efficient association of the protein with U6 promoter-bound TBP and SNAP(c), a type 3 promoter-specific transcription factor, and for efficient recruitment of Bdp1. This in turn suggests that the C-terminal extensions in Brf1 and Brf2 are crucial to specific recruitment of Pol III over Pol II. PMID:16227591

  4. Structure-Function Analysis of the Human TFIIB-Related Factor II Protein Reveals an Essential Role for the C-Terminal Domain in RNA Polymerase III Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ashish; Ma, Beicong; Schramm, Laura; Hernandez, Nouria

    2005-01-01

    The transcription factors TFIIB, Brf1, and Brf2 share related N-terminal zinc ribbon and core domains. TFIIB bridges RNA polymerase II (Pol II) with the promoter-bound preinitiation complex, whereas Brf1 and Brf2 are involved, as part of activities also containing TBP and Bdp1 and referred to here as Brf1-TFIIIB and Brf2-TFIIIB, in the recruitment of Pol III. Brf1-TFIIIB recruits Pol III to type 1 and 2 promoters and Brf2-TFIIIB to type 3 promoters such as the human U6 promoter. Brf1 and Brf2 both have a C-terminal extension absent in TFIIB, but their C-terminal extensions are unrelated. In yeast Brf1, the C-terminal extension interacts with the TBP/TATA box complex and contributes to the recruitment of Bdp1. Here we have tested truncated Brf2, as well as Brf2/TFIIB chimeric proteins for U6 transcription and for assembly of U6 preinitiation complexes. Our results characterize functions of various human Brf2 domains and reveal that the C-terminal domain is required for efficient association of the protein with U6 promoter-bound TBP and SNAPc, a type 3 promoter-specific transcription factor, and for efficient recruitment of Bdp1. This in turn suggests that the C-terminal extensions in Brf1 and Brf2 are crucial to specific recruitment of Pol III over Pol II. PMID:16227591

  5. Differential Roles of C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain Proteins as Vesiculators and Tubulators of Recycling Endosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Bishuang; Giridharan, Sai Srinivas Panapakkam; Zhang, Jing; Saxena, Sugandha; Bahl, Kriti; Schmidt, John A.; Sorgen, Paul L.; Guo, Wei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Endocytic recycling involves the return of membranes and receptors to the plasma membrane following their internalization into the cell. Recycling generally occurs from a series of vesicular and tubular membranes localized to the perinuclear region, collectively known as the endocytic recycling compartment. Within this compartment, receptors are sorted into tubular extensions that later undergo vesiculation, allowing transport vesicles to move along microtubules and return to the cell surface where they ultimately undergo fusion with the plasma membrane. Recent studies have led to the hypothesis that the C-terminal Eps15 homology domain (EHD) ATPase proteins are involved in the vesiculation process. Here, we address the functional roles of the four EHD proteins. We developed a novel semipermeabilized cell system in which addition of purified EHD proteins to reconstitute vesiculation allows us to assess the ability of each protein to vesiculate MICAL-L1-decorated tubular recycling endosomes (TREs). Using this assay, we show that EHD1 vesiculates membranes, consistent with enhanced TRE generation observed upon EHD1 depletion. EHD4 serves a role similar to that of EHD1 in TRE vesiculation, whereas EHD2, despite being capable of vesiculating TREs in the semipermeabilized cells, fails to do so in vivo. Surprisingly, the addition of EHD3 causes tubulation of endocytic membranes in our semipermeabilized cell system, consistent with the lack of tubulation observed upon EHD3 depletion. Our novel vesiculation assay and in vitro electron microscopy analysis, combined with in vivo data, provide evidence that the functions of both EHD1 and EHD4 are primarily in TRE membrane vesiculation, whereas EHD3 is a membrane-tubulating protein. PMID:24019528

  6. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of substrate-competitive inhibitors of C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP).

    PubMed

    Korwar, Sudha; Morris, Benjamin L; Parikh, Hardik I; Coover, Robert A; Doughty, Tyler W; Love, Ian M; Hilbert, Brendan J; Royer, William E; Kellogg, Glen E; Grossman, Steven R; Ellis, Keith C

    2016-06-15

    C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) is a transcriptional co-regulator that downregulates the expression of many tumor-suppressor genes. Utilizing a crystal structure of CtBP with its substrate 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB) and NAD(+) as a guide, we have designed, synthesized, and tested a series of small molecule inhibitors of CtBP. From our first round of compounds, we identified 2-(hydroxyimino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid as a potent CtBP inhibitor (IC50=0.24μM). A structure-activity relationship study of this compound further identified the 4-chloro- (IC50=0.18μM) and 3-chloro- (IC50=0.17μM) analogues as additional potent CtBP inhibitors. Evaluation of the hydroxyimine analogues in a short-term cell growth/viability assay showed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-analogues are 2-fold and 4-fold more potent, respectively, than the MTOB control. A functional cellular assay using a CtBP-specific transcriptional readout revealed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-hydroxyimine analogues were able to block CtBP transcriptional repression activity. This data suggests that substrate-competitive inhibition of CtBP dehydrogenase activity is a potential mechanism to reactivate tumor-suppressor gene expression as a therapeutic strategy for cancer. PMID:27156192

  7. Crystal structures of GCN2 protein kinase C-terminal domains suggest regulatory differences in yeast and mammals.

    PubMed

    He, Hongzhen; Singh, Isha; Wek, Sheree A; Dey, Souvik; Baird, Thomas D; Wek, Ronald C; Georgiadis, Millie M

    2014-05-23

    In response to amino acid starvation, GCN2 phosphorylation of eIF2 leads to repression of general translation and initiation of gene reprogramming that facilitates adaptation to nutrient stress. GCN2 is a multidomain protein with key regulatory domains that directly monitor uncharged tRNAs which accumulate during nutrient limitation, leading to activation of this eIF2 kinase and translational control. A critical feature of regulation of this stress response kinase is its C-terminal domain (CTD). Here, we present high resolution crystal structures of murine and yeast CTDs, which guide a functional analysis of the mammalian GCN2. Despite low sequence identity, both yeast and mammalian CTDs share a core subunit structure and an unusual interdigitated dimeric form, albeit with significant differences. Disruption of the dimeric form of murine CTD led to loss of translational control by GCN2, suggesting that dimerization is critical for function as is true for yeast GCN2. However, although both CTDs bind single- and double-stranded RNA, murine GCN2 does not appear to stably associate with the ribosome, whereas yeast GCN2 does. This finding suggests that there are key regulatory differences between yeast and mammalian CTDs, which is consistent with structural differences. PMID:24719324

  8. Crystal structure of the magnetobacterial protein MtxA C-terminal domain reveals a new sequence-structure relationship

    PubMed Central

    Davidov, Geula; Müller, Frank D.; Baumgartner, Jens; Bitton, Ronit; Faivre, Damien; Schüler, Dirk; Zarivach, Raz

    2015-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a diverse group of aquatic bacteria that have the magnetotaxis ability to align themselves along the geomagnetic field lines and to navigate to a microoxic zone at the bottom of chemically stratified natural water. This special navigation is the result of a unique linear assembly of a specialized organelle, the magnetosome, which contains a biomineralized magnetic nanocrystal enveloped by a cytoplasmic membrane. The Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MtxA protein (MGR_0208) was suggested to play a role in bacterial magnetotaxis due to its gene location in an operon together with putative signal transduction genes. Since no homology is found for MtxA, and to better understand the role and function of MtxA in MTBés magnetotaxis, we initiated structural and functional studies of MtxA via X-ray crystallography and deletion mutagenesis. Here, we present the crystal structure of the MtxA C-terminal domain and provide new insights into its sequence-structure relationship. PMID:26052516

  9. The APC tumor suppressor binds to C-terminal binding protein to divert nuclear beta-catenin from TCF.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Fumihiko; Bienz, Mariann

    2004-11-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is an important tumor suppressor in the colon. APC antagonizes the transcriptional activity of the Wnt effector beta-catenin by promoting its nuclear export and its proteasomal destruction in the cytoplasm. Here, we show that a third function of APC in antagonizing beta-catenin involves C-terminal binding protein (CtBP). APC is associated with CtBP in vivo and binds to CtBP in vitro through its conserved 15 amino acid repeats. Failure of this association results in elevated levels of beta-catenin/TCF complexes and of TCF-mediated transcription. Notably, CtBP is neither associated with TCF in vivo nor does mutation of the CtBP binding motifs in TCF-4 alter its transcriptional activity. This questions the idea that CtBP is a direct corepressor of TCF. Our evidence indicates that APC is an adaptor between beta-catenin and CtBP and that CtBP lowers the availability of free nuclear beta-catenin for binding to TCF by sequestering APC/beta-catenin complexes. PMID:15525529

  10. A protein kinase binds the C-terminal domain of the readthrough protein of Turnip yellows virus and regulates virus accumulation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Medina, Caren; Boissinot, Sylvaine; Chapuis, Sophie; Gereige, Dalya; Rastegar, Maryam; Erdinger, Monique; Revers, Frédéric; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a phloem-limited virus, encodes a 74kDa protein known as the readthrough protein (RT) involved in virus movement. We show here that a TuYV mutant deleted of the C-terminal part of the RT protein (TuYV-∆RTCter) was affected in long-distance trafficking in a host-specific manner. By using the C-terminal domain of the RT protein as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a phloem cDNA library from Arabidopsis thaliana we identified the calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase-7 (AtCIPK7). Transient expression of a GFP:CIPK7 fusion protein in virus-inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves led to local increase of wild-type TuYV accumulation, but not that of TuYV-∆RTCter. Surprisingly, elevated virus titer in inoculated leaves did not result in higher TuYV accumulation in systemic leaves, which indicates that virus long-distance movement was not affected. Since GFP:CIPK7 was localized in or near plasmodesmata, CIPK7 could negatively regulate TuYV export from infected cells. PMID:26402374

  11. Elliptocytosis in patients with C-terminal domain mutations of protein 4.1 correlates with encoded messenger RNA levels rather than with alterations in primary protein structure.

    PubMed

    Morinière, M; Ribeiro, L; Dalla Venezia, N; Deguillien, M; Maillet, P; Cynober, T; Delhommeau, F; Almeida, H; Tamagnini, G; Delaunay, J; Baklouti, F

    2000-03-01

    Early biochemical studies defined 4 functional domains of the erythroid protein 4.1 (4.1R). From amino-terminal to carboxy-terminal, these are 30 kd, 16 kd, 10 kd, and 22/24 kd in size. Although the functional properties of both the 30-kd and the 10-kd domain have been demonstrated in red cells, no functional activities have been assigned to either the 16-kd or the 22/24-kd domain in these cells. We here describe new mutations in the sequence encoding the C-terminal 22/24-kd domain that are associated with hereditary elliptocytosis. An unusually mild phenotype observed in heterozygous and homozygous members of 1 family suggested heterogeneity in the pattern of expression of 4.1R deficiency. Using a variety of protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) quantification strategies, we showed that, regardless of the alteration in the C-terminal primary sequence, when the protein is produced, it assembles at the cell membrane. In addition, we found that alterations in red cell morphologic features and membrane function correlate with the amount of membrane-associated protein-and therefore with the amount of mRNA accumulated-rather than with the primary structure of the variant proteins. These data suggest that an intact sequence at exons 19 through 21 encoding part of the C-terminal 22/24-kd region is not required for proper protein 4.1R assembly in mature red cells. (Blood. 2000;95:1834-1841) PMID:10688845

  12. Role of the C-terminal domains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) bZIP proteins RF2a and RF2b in regulating transcription

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Dai, Shunhong; Beachy, Roger N.

    2007-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) transcription factors RF2a and RF2b are bZIP (basic leucine zipper) proteins that interact with, and activate transcription from the RTBV (rice tungro bacilliform virus) promoter. Here we characterize the C-terminal domains of RF2a and RF2b: these domains are rich in glutamine and proline/glutamine, respectively. Affinity pull-down assays demonstrated that the C-terminal domains of RF2a and RF2b can associate to form either homodimers or heterodimers; however, they do not interact with other domains of RF2a or RF2b. Results of in vitro transcription assays using a rice whole-cell extract demonstrate that the C-terminal domains of both RF2a and RF2b activate transcription from the RTBV promoter. In addition, dimerization of the RF2a C-terminal domain is involved in regulating the transcription activation function of RF2a. The predicted helical region within the RF2a C-terminal glutamine-rich domain was determined to be involved in inter-molecular dimerization, and contributed to the regulatory functions of RF2a in these assays. PMID:17371296

  13. The C-terminal Region and SUMOylation of Cockayne Syndrome Group B Protein Play Critical Roles in Transcription-coupled Nucleotide Excision Repair.

    PubMed

    Sin, Yooksil; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Saijo, Masafumi

    2016-01-15

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a recessive disorder that results in deficiencies in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER), a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair, and cells from CS patients exhibit hypersensitivity to UV light. CS group B protein (CSB), which is the gene product of one of the genes responsible for CS, belongs to the SWI2/SNF2 DNA-dependent ATPase family and has an ATPase domain and an ubiquitin-binding domain (UBD) in the central region and the C-terminal region, respectively. The C-terminal region containing the UBD is essential for the functions of CSB. In this study, we generated several CSB deletion mutants and analyzed the functions of the C-terminal region of CSB in TC-NER. Not only the UBD but also the C-terminal 30-amino acid residues were required for UV light resistance and TC-NER. This region was needed for the interaction of CSB with RNA polymerase II, the translocation of CS group A protein to the nuclear matrix, and the association of CSB with chromatin after UV irradiation. CSB was modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier 2/3 in a UV light-dependent manner. This modification was abolished in a CSB mutant lacking the C-terminal 30 amino acid residues. However, the substitution of lysine residues in this region with arginine did not affect SUMOylation or TC-NER. By contrast, substitution of a lysine residue in the N-terminal region with arginine decreased SUMOylation and resulted in cells with defects in TC-NER. These results indicate that both the most C-terminal region and SUMOylation are important for the functions of CSB in TC-NER. PMID:26620705

  14. Extrusion of the C-terminal Helix in Navel Orangeworm Moth Pheromone-Binding Protein (AtraPBP1) Controls Pheromone Binding†

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Xu, Xianzhong; Leal, Walter S.; Ames, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is an agricultural insect pest that can be controlled by disrupting male-female communication with sex pheromones, a technique known as mating disruption. Insect pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) provide fast transport of hydrophobic pheromones through aqueous sensillar lymph and promote sensitive delivery of pheromones to receptors. Here we present a mutational analysis on a PBP from Amyelois transitella (AtraPBP1) to evaluate how the C-terminal helix in this protein controls pheromone binding as a function of pH. Pheromone binds tightly to AtraPBP1 at neutral pH, but the binding is much weaker at pH below 5. Deletion of the entire C-terminal helix (residues 129–142) causes more than 100-fold increase in pheromone binding affinity at pH 5 and only a 1.5-fold increase at pH 7. A similar pH-dependent increase in pheromone binding is also seen for the H80A/H95A double mutant that promotes extrusion of the C-terminal helix by disabling salt bridges at each end of the helix. The single mutants (H80A and H95A) also exhibit pheromone binding at pH below 5, but with ~2-fold weaker affinity. NMR and circular dichroism data demonstrate a large overall structural change in each of these mutants at pH 4.5, indicating an extrusion of the C-terminal helix that profoundly affects the overall structure of the low pH form. Our results confirm that sequestration of the C-terminal helix at low pH as seen in the recent NMR structure may serve to block pheromone binding. We propose that extrusion of these C-terminal residues at neutral pH (or by the mutations in this study) exposes a hydrophobic cleft that promotes high affinity pheromone binding. PMID:21130734

  15. Acquired immune responses to the N- and C-terminal regions of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 in individuals exposed to malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Soares, I S; Levitus, G; Souza, J M; Del Portillo, H A; Rodrigues, M M

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the naturally acquired immune response to Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP1) in individuals with recent clinical episodes of malaria from the state of Para, Brazil. Ten recombinant proteins representing the first 682 amino acids (aa) of the N-terminal region and one representing the final 111 aa of the C-terminal region were expressed in Escherichia coli as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. Both of these regions have been suggested as candidates for development of a vaccine against Plasmodium sp. The total frequencies of individuals with antibodies and cellular immune responses to PvMSP1 were high (83.8 and 75%, respectively). The recombinant proteins representing the N- and C-terminal regions were recognized by 51.4 and 64.1% of sera, respectively. The frequency of responders to the C-terminal region increased according to the number of previous malaria episodes, reaching 83.3% after four episodes. Cellular immune response was measured by in vitro proliferation and gamma interferon production. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 75 and 47.2% of individuals proliferated in response to stimulation by the N- and C-terminal regions, respectively. Also, we found that one protein representing the N terminus and a second representing the C terminus of PvMSP1 stimulated 54.5% of individuals to secrete gamma interferon. We concluded that PvMSP1 is immunogenic to a large proportion of individuals exposed to malaria. Our results also suggested that the C-terminal region of PvMSP1 containing the two epidermal growth factor-like domains is particularly immunogenic to antibodies and T cells during natural infection in humans. PMID:9125537

  16. The activity of protein phosphatase 5 towards native clients is modulated by the middle- and C-terminal domains of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Haslbeck, Veronika; Eckl, Julia M.; Drazic, Adrian; Rutz, Daniel A.; Lorenz, Oliver R.; Zimmermann, Kerstin; Kriehuber, Thomas; Lindemann, Claudia; Madl, Tobias; Richter, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 5 is involved in the regulation of kinases and transcription factors. The dephosphorylation activity is modulated by the molecular chaperone Hsp90, which binds to the TPR-domain of protein phosphatase 5. This interaction is dependent on the C-terminal MEEVD motif of Hsp90. We show that C-terminal Hsp90 fragments differ in their regulation of the phosphatase activity hinting to a more complex interaction. Also hydrodynamic parameters from analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering data suggest a compact structure for the Hsp90-protein phosphatase 5 complexes. Using crosslinking experiments coupled with mass spectrometric analysis and structural modelling we identify sites, which link the middle/C-terminal domain interface of C. elegans Hsp90 to the phosphatase domain of the corresponding kinase. Studying the relevance of the domains of Hsp90 for turnover of native substrates we find that ternary complexes with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are cooperatively formed by full-length Hsp90 and PPH-5. Our data suggest that the direct stimulation of the phosphatase activity by C-terminal Hsp90 fragments leads to increased dephosphorylation rates. These are further modulated by the binding of clients to the N-terminal and middle domain of Hsp90 and their presentation to the phosphatase within the phosphatase-Hsp90 complex. PMID:26593036

  17. Structure of the C-terminal heme-binding domain of THAP domain containing protein 4 from Homo sapiens

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N.

    2012-03-15

    The thanatos (the Greek god of death)-associated protein (THAP) domain is a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain that contains a C2-CH (Cys-Xaa{sub 2-4}-Cys-Xaa{sub 35-50}-Cys-Xaa{sub 2}-His) zinc finger that is similar to the DNA domain of the P element transposase from Drosophila. THAP-containing proteins have been observed in the proteome of humans, pigs, cows, chickens, zebrafish, Drosophila, C. elegans, and Xenopus. To date, there are no known THAP domain proteins in plants, yeast, or bacteria. There are 12 identified human THAP domain-containing proteins (THAP0-11). In all human THAP protein, the THAP domain is located at the N-terminus and is {approx}90 residues in length. Although all of the human THAP-containing proteins have a homologous N-terminus, there is extensive variation in both the predicted structure and length of the remaining protein. Even though the exact function of these THAP proteins is not well defined, there is evidence that they play a role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, chromatin modification, and transcriptional regulation. THAP-containing proteins have also been implicated in a number of human disease states including heart disease, neurological defects, and several types of cancers. Human THAP4 is a 577-residue protein of unknown function that is proposed to bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner similar to THAP1 and has been found to be upregulated in response to heat shock. THAP4 is expressed in a relatively uniform manner in a broad range of tissues and appears to be upregulated in lymphoma cells and highly expressed in heart cells. The C-terminal domain of THAP4 (residues 415-577), designated here as cTHAP4, is evolutionarily conserved and is observed in all known THAP4 orthologs. Several single-domain proteins lacking a THAP domain are found in plants and bacteria and show significant levels of homology to cTHAP4. It appears that cTHAP4 belongs to a large class of proteins that have yet to be fully

  18. Evidence for involvement of the C-terminal domain in the dimerization of the CopY repressor protein from Enterococcus hirae

    SciTech Connect

    Pazehoski, Kristina O.; Cobine, Paul A.; Winzor, Donald J.; Dameron, Charles T.

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} A metal-binding protein domain is directly involved in protein dimerization. {yields} Fusing the metal-binding domain to a monomeric protein induces dimerization. {yields} Frontal size-exclusion chromatography measures the strength of dimer interaction. {yields} Ultracentrifugation studies confirm the influence of metal binding on dimerization. -- Abstract: Metal binding to the C-terminal region of the copper-responsive repressor protein CopY is responsible for homodimerization and the regulation of the copper homeostasis pathway in Enterococcus hirae. Specific involvement of the 38 C-terminal residues of CopY in dimerization is indicated by zonal and frontal (large zone) size-exclusion chromatography studies. The studies demonstrate that the attachment of these CopY residues to the immunoglobulin-binding domain of streptococcal protein G (GB1) promotes dimerization of the monomeric protein. Although sensitivity of dimerization to removal of metal from the fusion protein is smaller than that found for CopY (as measured by ultracentrifugation studies), the demonstration that an unrelated protein (GB1) can be induced to dimerize by extending its sequence with the C-terminal portion of CopY confirms the involvement of this region in CopY homodimerization.

  19. Differential contributions of porcine bocavirus NP1 protein N- and C-terminal regions to its nuclear localization and immune regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruoxi; Fang, Liurong; Cai, Kaimei; Zeng, Songlin; Wu, Wei; An, Kang; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2016-05-01

    Porcine bocavirus (PBoV), a newly identified parvovirus in the family Parvoviridae, has been reported worldwide in swine with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, respiratory disease or diarrhoea and in asymptomatic swine. NP1 is a protein unique to the genus Bocavirus and its function is not fully understood. In this study, we show that the N-terminal region of PBoV NP1 contains two classical nuclear localization signals (cNLSs) and a non-classical NLS. The N-terminal region also inhibits the promoter activity of IFN-β and IFN-stimulated response element activity the same as full-length NP1 protein, but the PBoV NP1 C-terminal region does not. PBoV NP1 also induces NFκB activation by increasing the phosphorylation of p65, and we demonstrate that the C-terminal region (aa 168-218) is responsible for the induction of NFκB, although the cNLS region of NP1 enhances this activation. The data suggest that PBoV NP1 contains two functionally independent domains in its N- and C-terminal regions. Thus, the N-terminal region of PBoV NP1 is critical for its nuclear localization and IFN-related promoter inhibition, and the C-terminal region is critical for its induction of NFκB. PMID:26813332

  20. Transient viral DNA replication and repression of viral transcription are supported by the C-terminal domain of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein.

    PubMed

    Ferran, M C; McBride, A A

    1998-01-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein is important for viral DNA replication and transcriptional repression. It has been proposed that the full-length E1 protein consists of a small N-terminal and a larger C-terminal domain. In this study, it is shown that an E1 polypeptide containing residues 132 to 605 (which represents the C-terminal domain) is able to support transient viral DNA replication, although at a level lower than that supported by the wild-type protein. This domain can also repress E2-mediated transactivation from the P89 promoter as well as the wild-type E1 protein can. PMID:9420289

  1. Affinity labeling of lysine-149 in the anion-binding exosite of human. alpha. -thrombin with an N sup. alpha. -(dinitrofluorobenzyl)hirudin C-terminal peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Bourdon, P.; Maraganore, J.M. ); Fenton, J.W. II )

    1990-07-10

    In order to define structural regions in thrombin that interact with hirudin, the N{sup {alpha}}-dinitrofluorobenzyl analogue of an undecapeptide was synthesized corresponding to residues 54-64 of hirudin (GDFEEIPEEY(O{sup 35}SO{sub 3})L (DNFB-({sup 35}S)Hir{sub 54-64})). DNFB-({sup 35}S)Hir{sub 54-64} was reacted at a 10-fold molar excess with human {alpha}-thrombin in phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.4 and 23{degree}C for 18 h. Autoradiographs of the product in reducing SDS-polyacrylamide gels revealed a single {sup 35}S-labeled band of M{sub r} {approximately}32,500. The labeled product was coincident with a band on Coomassie Blue stained gels migrating slightly above an unlabeled thrombin band at M{sub r} {approximately}31,000. Incorporation of the {sup 35}S affinity reagent peptide was found markedly reduced when reaction with thrombin was performed in the presence of 5- and 20-fold molar excesses of unlabeled hirudin peptide, showing that a specific site was involved in complex formation. The human {alpha}-thrombin-DNFB-Hir{sub 54-64} complex was reduced, S-carboxymethylated, and treated with pepsin. Peptic fragments were separated by reverse-phase HPLC revealing two major peaks containing absorbance at 310 nm. Automated Edman degradation of the peptide fragments allowed identification of Lys-149 of human thrombin as the major site of DNFB-Hir{sub 54-64} derivatization. These data suggest that the anionic C-terminal tail of hirudin interacts with an anion-binding exosite in human thrombin removed 18-20 {angstrom} from the catalytic apparatus.

  2. C-terminal binding proteins are essential pro-survival factors that undergo caspase-dependent downregulation during neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, Trisha R; Schroeder, Emily K; Kelsey, Natalie A; Bouchard, Ron J; Linseman, Daniel A

    2013-09-01

    C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are transcriptional co-repressors that are subject to proteasome-dependent downregulation during apoptosis. Alternative mechanisms that regulate CtBP expression are currently under investigation and the role of CtBPs in neuronal survival is largely unexplored. Here, we show that CtBPs are downregulated in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) induced to undergo apoptosis by a variety of stressors. Moreover, antisense-mediated downregulation of CtBP1 is sufficient to cause CGN apoptosis. Similarly, the CtBP inhibitor, 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid, induces expression of the CtBP target Noxa and causes actinomycin-sensitive CGN apoptosis. Unexpectedly, we found that the mechanism of CtBP downregulation in CGNs undergoing apoptosis varies in a stimulus-specific manner involving either the proteasome or caspases. In the case of CGNs deprived of depolarizing potassium (5K apoptotic condition), caspases appear to play a dominant role in CtBP downregulation. However, incubation in 5K does not enhance the kinetics of CtBP1 degradation and recombinant CtBP1 is not cleaved in vitro by caspase-3. In addition, 5K has no significant effect on CtBP transcript expression. Finally, mouse embryonic stem cells display caspase-dependent downregulation of CtBP1 following exposure to staurosporine, an effect that is not observed in DGCR8 knockout cells which are deficient in miRNA processing. These data identify caspase-dependent downregulation of CtBPs as an alternative mechanism to the proteasome for regulation of these transcriptional co-repressors in neurons undergoing apoptosis. Moreover, caspases appear to regulate CtBP expression indirectly, at a post-transcriptional level, and via a mechanism that is dependent upon miRNA processing. We conclude that CtBPs are essential pro-survival proteins in neurons and their downregulation contributes significantly to neuronal apoptosis via the de-repression of pro-apoptotic genes. PMID:23859824

  3. C-terminal Binding Proteins are Essential Pro-survival Factors that Undergo Caspase-dependent Downregulation during Neuronal Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kelsey, Natalie A.; Bouchard, Ron J.; Linseman, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are transcriptional co-repressors that are subject to proteasome-dependent downregulation during apoptosis. Alternative mechanisms that regulate CtBP expression are currently under investigation and the role of CtBPs in neuronal survival is largely unexplored. Here, we show that CtBPs are downregulated in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) induced to undergo apoptosis by a variety of stressors. Moreover, antisense-mediated downregulation of CtBP1 is sufficient to cause CGN apoptosis. Similarly, the CtBP inhibitor, 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid, induces expression of the CtBP target Noxa and causes actinomycin-sensitive CGN apoptosis. Unexpectedly, we found that the mechanism of CtBP downregulation in CGNs undergoing apoptosis varies in a stimulus-specific manner involving either the proteasome or caspases. In the case of CGNs deprived of depolarizing potassium (5K apoptotic condition), caspases appear to play a dominant role in CtBP downregulation. However, incubation in 5K does not enhance the kinetics of CtBP1 degradation and recombinant CtBP1 is not cleaved in vitro by caspase-3. In addition, 5K has no significant effect on CtBP transcript expression. Finally, mouse embryonic stem cells display caspase-dependent downregulation of CtBP1 following exposure to staurosporine, an effect that is not observed in DGCR8 knockout cells which are deficient in miRNA processing. These data identify caspase-dependent downregulation of CtBPs as an alternative mechanism to the proteasome for regulation of these transcriptional co-repressors in neurons undergoing apoptosis. Moreover, caspases appear to regulate CtBP expression indirectly, at a post-transcriptional level, and via a mechanism that is dependent upon miRNA processing. We conclude that CtBPs are essential pro-survival proteins in neurons and their downregulation contributes significantly to neuronal apoptosis via the de-repression of pro-apoptotic genes. PMID:23859824

  4. The Critical Role of N- and C-Terminal Contact in Protein Stability and Folding of a Family 10 Xylanase under Extreme Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Amit; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Mazumdar-Leighton, Sudeshna; Ghosh, Amit; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Reddy, Vanga S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Stabilization strategies adopted by proteins under extreme conditions are very complex and involve various kinds of interactions. Recent studies have shown that a large proportion of proteins have their N- and C-terminal elements in close contact and suggested they play a role in protein folding and stability. However, the biological significance of this contact remains elusive. Methodology In the present study, we investigate the role of N- and C-terminal residue interaction using a family 10 xylanase (BSX) with a TIM-barrel structure that shows stability under high temperature, alkali pH, and protease and SDS treatment. Based on crystal structure, an aromatic cluster was identified that involves Phe4, Trp6 and Tyr343 holding the N- and C-terminus together; this is a unique and important feature of this protein that might be crucial for folding and stability under poly-extreme conditions. Conclusion A series of mutants was created to disrupt this aromatic cluster formation and study the loss of stability and function under given conditions. While the deletions of Phe4 resulted in loss of stability, removal of Trp6 and Tyr343 affected in vivo folding and activity. Alanine substitution with Phe4, Trp6 and Tyr343 drastically decreased stability under all parameters studied. Importantly, substitution of Phe4 with Trp increased stability in SDS treatment. Mass spectrometry results of limited proteolysis further demonstrated that the Arg344 residue is highly susceptible to trypsin digestion in sensitive mutants such as ΔF4, W6A and Y343A, suggesting again that disruption of the Phe4-Trp6-Tyr343 (F-W-Y) cluster destabilizes the N- and C-terminal interaction. Our results underscore the importance of N- and C-terminal contact through aromatic interactions in protein folding and stability under extreme conditions, and these results may be useful to improve the stability of other proteins under suboptimal conditions. PMID:20596542

  5. C-terminal extension of calmodulin-like 3 protein from Oryza sativa L.: interaction with a high mobility group target protein.

    PubMed

    Chinpongpanich, Aumnart; Phean-O-Pas, Srivilai; Thongchuang, Mayura; Qu, Li-Jia; Buaboocha, Teerapong

    2015-11-01

    A large number of calmodulin-like (CML) proteins are present in plants, but there is little detailed information on the functions of these proteins in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here, the CML3 protein from rice (OsCML3) and its truncated form lacking the C-terminal extension (OsCML3m) were found to exhibit a Ca2+-binding property and subsequent conformational change, but the ability to bind the CaM kinase II peptide was only observed for OsCML3m. Changes in their secondary structure upon Ca2+-binding measured by circular dichroism revealed that OsCML3m had a higher helical content than OsCML3. Moreover, OsCML3 was mainly localized in the plasma membrane, whereas OsCML3m was found in the nucleus. The rice high mobility group B1 (OsHMGB1) protein was identified as one of the putative OsCML3 target proteins. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis revealed that OsHMGB1 bound OsCML3, OsCML3m or OsCML3s (cysteine to serine mutation at the prenylation site) in the nucleus presumably through the methionine and phenylalanine-rich hydrophobic patches, confirming that OsHMGB1 is a target protein in planta. The effect of OsCML3 or OsCML3m on the DNA-binding ability of OsHMGB1 was measured using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. OsCML3m decreased the level of OsHMGB1 binding to pUC19 double-stranded DNA whereas OsCML3 did not. Taken together, OsCML3 probably provides a mechanism for manipulating the DNA-binding ability of OsHMGB1 in the nucleus and its C-terminal extension provides an intracellular Ca2+ regulatory switch. PMID:26423116

  6. Expression, Purification And Preliminary X-Ray Analysis of the C-Terminal Domain of An Arginine Repressor Protein From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, G.J.; Garen, C.R.; Cherney, M.M.; Cherney, L.T.; Lee, C.; James, M.N.J.

    2009-06-03

    The gene product of an open reading frame Rv1657 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a putative arginine repressor protein (ArgR), a transcriptional factor that regulates the expression of arginine-biosynthetic enzymes. Rv1657 was expressed and purified and a C-terminal domain was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected and processed to a resolution of 2.15 {angstrom}. The crystals belong to space group P1 and the Matthews coefficient suggests that the crystals contain six C-terminal domain molecules per unit cell. Previous structural and biochemical studies on the arginine repressor proteins from other organisms have likewise shown the presence of six molecules per unit cell.

  7. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a C-terminal fragment of the Epstein–Barr virus ZEBRA protein

    SciTech Connect

    Morand, Patrice; Budayova-Spano, Monika; Perrissin, Monique; Müller, Christoph W. Petosa, Carlo

    2006-03-01

    A C-terminal fragment of the Epstein–Barr virus lytic switch protein ZEBRA has been crystallized in complex with DNA. A C-terminal fragment of the Epstein–Barr virus immediate-early transcription factor ZEBRA has been expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The fragment behaves as a dimer in solution, consistent with the presence of a basic region leucine-zipper (bZIP) domain. Crystals of the fragment in complex with a DNA duplex were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 4000 and magnesium acetate as crystallization agents. Crystals diffract to better than 2.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation (λ = 0.976 Å). Crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 94.2, b = 26.5, c = 98.1 Å, β = 103.9°.

  8. Structures of the nucleoid occlusion protein SlmA bound to DNA and the C-terminal domain of the cytoskeletal protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Maria A; Zeng, Wenjie

    2016-05-01

    Cell division in most prokaryotes is mediated by FtsZ, which polymerizes to create the cytokinetic Z ring. Multiple FtsZ-binding proteins regulate FtsZ polymerization to ensure the proper spatiotemporal formation of the Z ring at the division site. The DNA-binding protein SlmA binds to FtsZ and prevents Z-ring formation through the nucleoid in a process called "nucleoid occlusion" (NO). As do most FtsZ-accessory proteins, SlmA interacts with the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) that is connected to the FtsZ core by a long, flexible linker. However, SlmA is distinct from other regulatory factors in that it must be DNA-bound to interact with the FtsZ CTD. Few structures of FtsZ regulator-CTD complexes are available, but all reveal the CTD bound as a helix. To deduce the molecular basis for the unique SlmA-DNA-FtsZ CTD regulatory interaction and provide insight into FtsZ-regulator protein complex formation, we determined structures of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, and Klebsiella pneumonia SlmA-DNA-FtsZ CTD ternary complexes. Strikingly, the FtsZ CTD does not interact with SlmA as a helix but binds as an extended conformation in a narrow, surface-exposed pocket formed only in the DNA-bound state of SlmA and located at the junction between the DNA-binding and C-terminal dimer domains. Binding studies are consistent with the structure and underscore key interactions in complex formation. Combined, these data reveal the molecular basis for the SlmA-DNA-FtsZ interaction with implications for SlmA's NO function and underscore the ability of the FtsZ CTD to adopt a wide range of conformations, explaining its ability to bind diverse regulatory proteins. PMID:27091999

  9. Structural and Functional Modularity of the Orange Carotenoid Protein: Distinct Roles for the N- and C-Terminal Domains in Cyanobacterial Photoprotection[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Leverenz, Ryan L.; Jallet, Denis; Li, Ming-De; Mathies, Richard A.; Kirilovsky, Diana; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    The orange carotenoid protein (OCP) serves as a sensor of light intensity and an effector of phycobilisome (PB)–associated photoprotection in cyanobacteria. Structurally, the OCP is composed of two distinct domains spanned by a single carotenoid chromophore. Functionally, in response to high light, the OCP converts from a dark-stable orange form, OCPO, to an active red form, OCPR. The C-terminal domain of the OCP has been implicated in the dynamic response to light intensity and plays a role in switching off the OCP’s photoprotective response through its interaction with the fluorescence recovery protein. The function of the N-terminal domain, which is uniquely found in cyanobacteria, is unclear. To investigate its function, we isolated the N-terminal domain in vitro using limited proteolysis of native OCP. The N-terminal domain retains the carotenoid chromophore; this red carotenoid protein (RCP) has constitutive PB fluorescence quenching activity comparable in magnitude to that of active, full-length OCPR. A comparison of the spectroscopic properties of the RCP with OCPR indicates that critical protein–chromophore interactions within the C-terminal domain are weakened in the OCPR form. These results suggest that the C-terminal domain dynamically regulates the photoprotective activity of an otherwise constitutively active carotenoid binding N-terminal domain. PMID:24399299

  10. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 binds to neuronal vesicles through protein interactions mediated by its C-terminal WD40 domain.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Giovanni; Onofri, Franco; Cirnaru, Maria Daniela; Kaiser, Christoph J O; Jagtap, Pravinkumar; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Pischedda, Francesca; Marte, Antonella; von Zweydorf, Felix; Vogt, Andreas; Giesert, Florian; Pan, Lifeng; Antonucci, Flavia; Kiel, Christina; Zhang, Mingjie; Weinkauf, Sevil; Sattler, Michael; Sala, Carlo; Matteoli, Michela; Ueffing, Marius; Gloeckner, Christian Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a complex protein that consists of multiple domains, including predicted C-terminal WD40 repeats. In this study, we analyzed functional and molecular features conferred by the WD40 domain. Electron microscopic analysis of the purified LRRK2 C-terminal domain revealed doughnut-shaped particles, providing experimental evidence for its WD40 fold. We demonstrate that LRRK2 WD40 binds and sequesters synaptic vesicles via interaction with vesicle-associated proteins. In fact, a domain-based pulldown approach combined with mass spectrometric analysis identified LRRK2 as being part of a highly specific protein network involved in synaptic vesicle trafficking. In addition, we found that a C-terminal sequence variant associated with an increased risk of developing PD, G2385R, correlates with a reduced binding affinity of LRRK2 WD40 to synaptic vesicles. Our data demonstrate a critical role of the WD40 domain within LRRK2 function. PMID:24687852

  11. Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 Binds to Neuronal Vesicles through Protein Interactions Mediated by Its C-Terminal WD40 Domain

    PubMed Central

    Piccoli, Giovanni; Onofri, Franco; Cirnaru, Maria Daniela; Kaiser, Christoph J. O.; Jagtap, Pravinkumar; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Pischedda, Francesca; Marte, Antonella; von Zweydorf, Felix; Vogt, Andreas; Giesert, Florian; Pan, Lifeng; Antonucci, Flavia; Kiel, Christina; Zhang, Mingjie; Weinkauf, Sevil; Sattler, Michael; Sala, Carlo; Matteoli, Michela; Ueffing, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a complex protein that consists of multiple domains, including predicted C-terminal WD40 repeats. In this study, we analyzed functional and molecular features conferred by the WD40 domain. Electron microscopic analysis of the purified LRRK2 C-terminal domain revealed doughnut-shaped particles, providing experimental evidence for its WD40 fold. We demonstrate that LRRK2 WD40 binds and sequesters synaptic vesicles via interaction with vesicle-associated proteins. In fact, a domain-based pulldown approach combined with mass spectrometric analysis identified LRRK2 as being part of a highly specific protein network involved in synaptic vesicle trafficking. In addition, we found that a C-terminal sequence variant associated with an increased risk of developing PD, G2385R, correlates with a reduced binding affinity of LRRK2 WD40 to synaptic vesicles. Our data demonstrate a critical role of the WD40 domain within LRRK2 function. PMID:24687852

  12. MLL repression domain interacts with histone deacetylases, the polycomb group proteins HPC2 and BMI-1, and the corepressor C-terminal-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zhen-Biao; Anderson, Melanie; Diaz, Manuel O.; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J.

    2003-01-01

    The MLL (mixed-lineage leukemia) gene is involved in many chromosomal translocations associated with acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemia. We previously identified a transcriptional repression domain in MLL, which contains a region with homology to DNA methyltransferase. In chromosomal translocations, the MLL repression domain is retained in the leukemogenic fusion protein and is required for transforming activity of MLL fusion proteins. We explored the mechanism of action of the MLL repression domain. Histone deacetylase 1 interacts with the MLL repression domain, partially mediating its activity; binding of Cyp33 to the adjacent MLL-PHD domain potentiates this binding. Because the MLL repression domain activity was only partially relieved with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, we explored other protein interactions with this domain. Polycomb group proteins HPC2 and BMI-1 and the corepressor C-terminal-binding protein also bind the MLL repression domain. Expression of exogenous BMI-1 potentiates MLL repression domain activity. Functional antagonism between Mll and Bmi-1 has been shown genetically in murine knockout models for Mll and Bmi-1. Our new data suggest a model whereby recruitment of BMI-1 to the MLL protein may be able to modulate its function. Furthermore, repression mediated by histone deacetylases and that mediated by polycomb group proteins may act either independently or together for MLL function in vivo. PMID:12829790

  13. Surface expression of GluR-D AMPA receptor is dependent on an interaction between its C-terminal domain and a 4.1 protein.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Sarah K; Cai, Chunlin; Mottershead, David G; Haapalahti, Jukka-Pekka; Keinänen, Kari

    2003-02-01

    Dynamic regulation of the number and activity of AMPA receptors is believed to underlie many forms of synaptic plasticity and is presumably mediated by specific protein-protein interactions involving the C-terminal domain of the receptor. Several proteins interacting with the C-terminal tails of the glutamate receptor (GluR)-A and GluR-B subunits have been identified and implicated in the regulation of endocytosis and exocytosis, clustering, and anchoring of AMPA receptors to the cytoskeleton. In contrast, little is known of the molecular interactions of the GluR-D subunit, or of the mechanisms regulating the traffic of GluR-D-containing AMPA receptors. We analyzed the subcellular localization of homomeric GluR-D receptors carrying C-terminal deletions in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and in primary neurons by immunofluorescence microscopy and ELISA. A minimal requirement for a 14-residue cytoplasmic segment for the surface expression of homomeric GluR-D receptors was identified. Previously, a similar region in the GluR-A subunit was implicated in an interaction with 4.1 family proteins. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that GluR-D associated with 4.1 protein(s) in both HEK293 cells and rat brain. Moreover, glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments showed that the same 14-residue segment is critical for 4.1 binding to GluR-A and GluR-D. Point mutations within this segment dramatically decreased the surface expression of GluR-D in HEK293 cells, with a concomitant loss of the 4.1 interaction. Our findings demonstrate a novel molecular interaction for the GluR-D subunit and suggest that the association with the 4.1 family protein(s) plays an essential role in the transport to and stabilization of GluR-D-containing AMPA receptors at the cell surface. PMID:12574408

  14. GATA Proteins Work Together with Friend of GATA (FOG) and C-terminal Binding Protein (CTBP) Co-regulators to Control Adipogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Briony H. A.; Crossley, Merlin

    2010-01-01

    GATA transcription factors have been implicated in controlling adipogenesis in Drosophila and in mammals. In mammals, both GATA2 and GATA3 have been shown to be present in preadipocytes, and their silencing allows the onset of adipogenesis. Overexpression of GATA proteins blocks adipogenesis in cellular assays. GATA factors have been found to operate through recruiting cofactors of the Friend of GATA (FOG) family. FOG proteins, in turn, recruit co-regulators, including C-terminal binding proteins (CTBPs). We have investigated whether FOGs and CTBPs influence adipogenesis. We found that both FOG1 and FOG2 are expressed in cells prior to adipogenesis but are down-regulated as adipogenesis proceeds. Overexpression of FOG1 or FOG2 interferes with adipogenesis. Mutant versions of FOG2 unable to bind CTBP or GATA proteins are impaired in their inability to inhibit adipogenesis. Finally, a mutant version of GATA2, unable to associate with FOGs, also displays abnormal activity and causes enhanced cell proliferation. These results implicate FOGs and CTBPs as partners of GATA proteins in the control of adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. PMID:20705609

  15. Functional roles of N-terminal and C-terminal domains in the overall activity of a novel single-stranded DNA binding protein of Deinococcus radiodurans

    PubMed Central

    Ujaoney, Aman K.; Basu, Bhakti; Muniyappa, K.; Apte, Shree K.

    2015-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA binding protein (Ssb) of Deinococcus radiodurans comprises N- and C-terminal oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB) folds connected by a beta hairpin connector. To assign functional roles to the individual OB folds, we generated three Ssb variants: SsbN (N-terminal without connector), SsbNC (N-terminal with connector) and SsbC (C-terminal), each harboring one OB fold. Both SsbN and SsbNC displayed weak single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding activity, compared to the full-length Ssb (SsbFL). The level of ssDNA binding activity displayed by SsbC was intermediate between SsbFL and SsbN. SsbC and SsbFL predominantly existed as homo-dimers while SsbNC/SsbN formed different oligomeric forms. In vitro, SsbNC or SsbN formed a binary complex with SsbC that displayed enhanced ssDNA binding activity. Unlike SsbFL, Ssb variants were able to differentially modulate topoisomerase-I activity, but failed to stimulate Deinococcal RecA-promoted DNA strand exchange. The results suggest that the C-terminal OB fold is primarily responsible for ssDNA binding. The N-terminal OB fold binds weakly to ssDNA but is involved in multimerization. PMID:25973364

  16. Structure and potential C-terminal dimerization of a recombinant mutant of surfactant-associated protein C in chloroform/methanol.

    PubMed

    Luy, Burkhard; Diener, Alexander; Hummel, Rolf-Peter; Sturm, Ernst; Ulrich, Wolf-Rüdiger; Griesinger, Christian

    2004-06-01

    The solution structure of a recombinant mutant [rSP-C (FFI)] of the human surfactant-associated protein C (hSP-C) in a mixture of chloroform and methanol was determined by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. rSP-C (FFI) contains a helix from Phe5 to the C-terminal Leu34 and is thus longer by two residues than the helix of porcine SP-C (pSP-C), which is reported to start at Val7 in the same solvent. Two sets of resonances at the C-terminus of the peptide were observed, which are explained by low-order oligomerization, probably dimerization of rSP-C (FFI) in its alpha-helical form. The dimerization may be induced by hydrogen bonding of the C-terminal carboxylic groups or by the strictly conserved C-terminal heptapeptide segment with a motif similar to the GxxxG dimerization motif of glycophorin A. Dimerization at the heptapeptide segment would be consistent with findings based on electrospray ionization MS data, chemical cross-linking studies, and CNBr cleavage data. PMID:15153097

  17. Structural and metal binding characterization of the C-terminal metallochaperone domain of membrane fusion protein SilB from Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34.

    PubMed

    Bersch, Beate; Derfoufi, Kheiro-Mouna; De Angelis, Fabien; Auquier, Vanessa; Ekendé, Elisabeth Ngonlong; Mergeay, Max; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Vandenbussche, Guy

    2011-03-29

    Detoxification of heavy metal ions in Proteobacteria is tightly controlled by various systems regulating their sequestration and transport. In Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, a model organism for heavy metal resistance studies, the sil determinant is potentially involved in the efflux of silver and copper ions. Proteins SilA, SilB, and SilC form a resistance nodulation cell division (RND)-based transport system in which SilB is the periplasmic adaptor protein belonging to the membrane fusion protein (MFP) family. In addition to the four domains typical of known MFPs, SilB has a fifth additional C-terminal domain, called SilB(440-521), which is characterized here. Structure and backbone dynamics of SilB(440-521) have been investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance, and the residues of the metal site were identified from (15)N- and (13)C-edited HSQC spectra. The solution structure and additional metal binding experiments demonstrated that this C-terminal domain folds independently of the rest of the protein and has a conformation and a Ag(+) and Cu(+) binding specificity similar to those determined for CusF from Escherichia coli. The small protein CusF plays a role in metal trafficking in the periplasm. The similarity with CusF suggests a potential metallochaperone role for SilB(440-521) that is discussed in the context of simultaneous expression of different determinants involved in copper resistance in C. metallidurans CH34. PMID:21299248

  18. GlyGly-CTERM and Rhombosortase: A C-Terminal Protein Processing Signal in a Many-to-One Pairing with a Rhomboid Family Intramembrane Serine Protease

    PubMed Central

    Haft, Daniel H.; Varghese, Neha

    2011-01-01

    The rhomboid family of serine proteases occurs in all domains of life. Its members contain at least six hydrophobic membrane-spanning helices, with an active site serine located deep within the hydrophobic interior of the plasma membrane. The model member GlpG from Escherichia coli is heavily studied through engineered mutant forms, varied model substrates, and multiple X-ray crystal studies, yet its relationship to endogenous substrates is not well understood. Here we describe an apparent membrane anchoring C-terminal homology domain that appears in numerous genera including Shewanella, Vibrio, Acinetobacter, and Ralstonia, but excluding Escherichia and Haemophilus. Individual genomes encode up to thirteen members, usually homologous to each other only in this C-terminal region. The domain's tripartite architecture consists of motif, transmembrane helix, and cluster of basic residues at the protein C-terminus, as also seen with the LPXTG recognition sequence for sortase A and the PEP-CTERM recognition sequence for exosortase. Partial Phylogenetic Profiling identifies a distinctive rhomboid-like protease subfamily almost perfectly co-distributed with this recognition sequence. This protease subfamily and its putative target domain are hereby renamed rhombosortase and GlyGly-CTERM, respectively. The protease and target are encoded by consecutive genes in most genomes with just a single target, but far apart otherwise. The signature motif of the Rhombo-CTERM domain, often SGGS, only partially resembles known cleavage sites of rhomboid protease family model substrates. Some protein families that have several members with C-terminal GlyGly-CTERM domains also have additional members with LPXTG or PEP-CTERM domains instead, suggesting there may be common themes to the post-translational processing of these proteins by three different membrane protein superfamilies. PMID:22194940

  19. Protein N- and C-Termini Identification Using Mass Spectrometry and Isotopic Labeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new method for protein N- and C-terminal analysis using mass spectrometry is introduced. A novel stable isotopic labeling scheme has been developed to identify terminal peptides generated from an enzyme digestion for the determination of both N- and C-termini of the protein. This method works dire...

  20. C-terminal-binding protein interacting protein binds directly to adenovirus early region 1A through its N-terminal region and conserved region 3.

    PubMed

    Bruton, R K; Rasti, M; Mapp, K L; Young, N; Carter, R Z; Abramowicz, I A; Sedgwick, G G; Onion, D F; Shuen, M; Mymryk, J S; Turnell, A S; Grand, R J A

    2007-11-22

    C-terminal-binding protein interacting protein (CtIP) was first isolated as a binding partner of C-terminal-binding protein (CtBP). It is considered to contribute to the transcriptional repression and cell cycle regulatory properties of the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of proteins and to have a role in the cellular response to DNA damage. Here, we have shown that CtIP is a novel target for the adenovirus oncoprotein early region 1A (AdE1A). AdE1A associates with CtIP in both Ad5E1-transformed cells and Ad5-infected cells and binds directly in glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assays. Two binding sites have been mapped on Ad5E1A - the N-terminal alpha-helical region (residues 1-30) and conserved region 3 (CR3) - the transcriptional activation domain. CtIP can bind AdE1A and CtBP independently, raising the possibility that ternary complexes exist in Ad-transformed and -infected cells. Significantly, reduction of CtIP expression with small interfering RNAs results in reduction of the ability of a Gal4 DNA-binding domain-CR3 construct to transactivate a Gal 4-responsive luciferase reporter and this effect is reversed by reduction of CtBP expression. Therefore, in this model, CtIP acts as a transcriptional co-activator of AdE1A when dissociated from CtBP, through the action of AdE1A. These data are consistent with observations that CtIP expression is induced by AdE1A during viral infection and that reduction of CtIP expression with RNA interference can retard virus replication. In addition, AdE1A causes disruption of the CtIP/Rb complex during viral infection by its interaction with CtIP, possibly contributing to transcriptional derepression. PMID:17546052

  1. The Crystal Structure of the C-Terminal Domain of the Salmonella enterica PduO Protein: An Old Fold with a New Heme-Binding Mode.

    PubMed

    Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío; Hickey, Neal; Hensel, Michael; Klare, Johann P; Geremia, Silvano; Tiufiakova, Tatiana; Torda, Andrew E

    2016-01-01

    The two-domain protein PduO, involved in 1,2-propanediol utilization in the pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica is an ATP:Cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase, but this is a function of the N-terminal domain alone. The role of its C-terminal domain (PduOC) is, however, unknown. In this study, comparative growth assays with a set of Salmonella mutant strains showed that this domain is necessary for effective in vivo catabolism of 1,2-propanediol. It was also shown that isolated, recombinantly-expressed PduOC binds heme in vivo. The structure of PduOC co-crystallized with heme was solved (1.9 Å resolution) showing an octameric assembly with four heme moieities. The four heme groups are highly solvent-exposed and the heme iron is hexa-coordinated with bis-His ligation by histidines from different monomers. Static light scattering confirmed the octameric assembly in solution, but a mutation of the heme-coordinating histidine caused dissociation into dimers. Isothermal titration calorimetry using the PduOC apoprotein showed strong heme binding (K d = 1.6 × 10(-7) M). Biochemical experiments showed that the absence of the C-terminal domain in PduO did not affect adenosyltransferase activity in vitro. The evidence suggests that PduOC:heme plays an important role in the set of cobalamin transformations required for effective catabolism of 1,2-propanediol. Salmonella PduO is one of the rare proteins which binds the redox-active metabolites heme and cobalamin, and the heme-binding mode of the C-terminal domain differs from that in other members of this protein family. PMID:27446048

  2. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Novel Deguelin Derivative, L80, which Disrupts ATP Binding to the C-terminal Domain of Heat Shock Protein 90.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Chan; Min, Hye-Young; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Ho Shin; Kim, Kyong-Cheol; Park, So-Jung; Seong, Myeong A; Seo, Ji Hae; Park, Hyun-Ju; Suh, Young-Ger; Kim, Kyu-Won; Hong, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Hee; Lee, Min-Young; Lee, Jeewoo; Lee, Ho-Young

    2015-08-01

    The clinical benefit of current anticancer regimens for lung cancer therapy is still limited due to moderate efficacy, drug resistance, and recurrence. Therefore, the development of effective anticancer drugs for first-line therapy and for optimal second-line treatment is necessary. Because the 90-kDa molecular chaperone heat shock protein (Hsp90) contributes to the maturation of numerous mutated or overexpressed oncogenic proteins, targeting Hsp90 may offer an effective anticancer therapy. Here, we investigated antitumor activities and toxicity of a novel deguelin-derived C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitor, designated L80. L80 displayed significant inhibitory effects on the viability, colony formation, angiogenesis-stimulating activity, migration, and invasion of a panel of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and their sublines with acquired resistance to paclitaxel with minimal toxicity to normal lung epithelial cells, hippocampal cells, vascular endothelial cells, and ocular cells. Biochemical analyses and molecular docking simulation revealed that L80 disrupted Hsp90 function by binding to the C-terminal ATP-binding pocket of Hsp90, leading to the disruption of the interaction between hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and Hsp90, downregulation of HIF-1α and its target genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), and decreased the expression of various Hsp90 client proteins. Consistent with these in vitro findings, L80 exhibited significant antitumor and antiangiogenic activities in H1299 xenograft tumors. These results suggest that L80 represents a novel C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitor with effective anticancer activities with minimal toxicities. PMID:25976766

  3. The Crystal Structure of the C-Terminal Domain of the Salmonella enterica PduO Protein: An Old Fold with a New Heme-Binding Mode

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío; Hickey, Neal; Hensel, Michael; Klare, Johann P.; Geremia, Silvano; Tiufiakova, Tatiana; Torda, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    The two-domain protein PduO, involved in 1,2-propanediol utilization in the pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica is an ATP:Cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase, but this is a function of the N-terminal domain alone. The role of its C-terminal domain (PduOC) is, however, unknown. In this study, comparative growth assays with a set of Salmonella mutant strains showed that this domain is necessary for effective in vivo catabolism of 1,2-propanediol. It was also shown that isolated, recombinantly-expressed PduOC binds heme in vivo. The structure of PduOC co-crystallized with heme was solved (1.9 Å resolution) showing an octameric assembly with four heme moieities. The four heme groups are highly solvent-exposed and the heme iron is hexa-coordinated with bis-His ligation by histidines from different monomers. Static light scattering confirmed the octameric assembly in solution, but a mutation of the heme-coordinating histidine caused dissociation into dimers. Isothermal titration calorimetry using the PduOC apoprotein showed strong heme binding (Kd = 1.6 × 10−7 M). Biochemical experiments showed that the absence of the C-terminal domain in PduO did not affect adenosyltransferase activity in vitro. The evidence suggests that PduOC:heme plays an important role in the set of cobalamin transformations required for effective catabolism of 1,2-propanediol. Salmonella PduO is one of the rare proteins which binds the redox-active metabolites heme and cobalamin, and the heme-binding mode of the C-terminal domain differs from that in other members of this protein family. PMID:27446048

  4. Inhibition of muscle-specific gene expression by Id3: requirement of the C-terminal region of the protein for stable expression and function.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, B; Han, B H; Sun, X H; Lim, R W

    1997-01-01

    We have examined the role of an Id-like protein, Id3 (also known as HLH462), in the regulation of muscle-specific gene expression. Id proteins are believed to block expression of muscle-specific genes by preventing the dimerization between ubiquitous bHLH proteins (E proteins) and myogenic bHLH proteins such as MyoD. Consistent with its putative role as an inhibitor of differentiation, Id3 mRNA was detected in proliferating skeletal muscle cells, was further induced by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and was down-regulated in differentiated muscle cultures. Overexpression of Id3 efficiently inhibited the MyoD-mediated activation of the muscle-specific creatine kinase (MCK) reporter gene. Deletion analysis indicated that the C-terminal 15 amino acids of Id3 are critical for the full inhibitory activity while deleting up to 42 residues from the C-terminus of the related protein, Id2, did not affect its ability to inhibit the MCK reporter gene. Chimeric protein containing the N-terminal region of Id3 and the C-terminus of Id2 was also non-functional in transfected cells. In contrast, wild-type Id3, the C-terminal mutants, and the Id3/Id2 chimera could all interact with the E-protein E47in vitro. Additional studies indicated that truncation of the Id3 C-terminus might have adversely affected the expression level of the mutant proteins but the Id3/Id2 chimera was stably expressed. Taken together, our results revealed a more complex requirement for the expression and proper function of the Id family proteins than was hitherto expected. PMID:9016574

  5. Seroprevalence and specificity of human responses to the Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry protein Rhop-3 determined by using a C-terminal recombinant protein.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J C; Blanton, R E; King, C L; Fujioka, H; Aikawa, M; Sam-Yellowe, T Y

    1996-01-01

    Rhoptry proteins participate in invasion of erythrocytes by malaria parasites. Antibodies to some of these proteins can inhibit invasion and partially protect monkeys from disease. To examine human serological responses to the 110-kDa component (Rhop-3) of the high-molecular-weight rhoptry protein complex, two cDNA clones corresponding to Rhop-3 were identified by immunologic screening. A recombinant protein representing the C-terminal one-third of the Rhop-3 was used to assess the seroprevalence to this protein in geographically isolated populations with different patterns of malaria transmission. The immunoglobulin G (IgG) positivity rate for the recombinant Rhop-3 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 30% in an area of Papua New Guinea where malaria is holoendemic. In Kenya, the prevalence rates were 43 and 36%, respectively, in an area of hyperendemicity and an area of seasonal transmission. By contrast, rates of IgG seroprevalence to an extract of Gambian strain of Plasmodium falciparum were 48, 90, and 97% respectively, in these populations. In these areas, the pattern of antibody recognition of Rhop-3 is more similar (1.7-fold maximum difference) than the parasite extract (5-fold difference). The difference in seroresponses may represent antigenic polymorphism in different parasite strains, while their similarity for the Rhop-3 fragment may represent conservation of this protein. Recombinant- and parasite extract-specific IgG was not found in individuals infected only with Plasmodium vivax. Cross-reactivity was seen in the IgM assay. In Mombasa (Kenya), maternal and cord Rhop-3-specific IgG activities were similar. Fetal antigen-specific IgM reactivity was generally undetectable for all antigens. PMID:8751903

  6. The catalytic subunit of shiga-like toxin 1 interacts with ribosomal stalk proteins and is inhibited by their conserved C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Andrew J; Poon, Gregory M K; Bolewska-Pedyczak, Eleonora; Srikumar, Tharan; Jeram, Stanley M; Raught, Brian; Gariépy, Jean

    2008-04-25

    Shiga-like toxin 1 (SLT-1) is a type II ribosome-inactivating protein; its A(1) domain blocks protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells by catalyzing the depurination of a single adenine base in 28 S rRNA. The molecular mechanism leading to this site-specific depurination event is thought to involve interactions with eukaryotic ribosomal proteins. Here, we present evidence that the A(1) chain of SLT-1 binds to the ribosomal proteins P0, P1, and P2. These proteins were identified from a HeLa cell lysate by tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequently confirmed to bind to SLT-1 A(1) chain by yeast-two-hybrid and pull-down experiments using candidate full-length proteins. Moreover, the removal of the last 17 amino acids of either protein P1 or P2 abolishes the interaction with the A(1) chain, whereas P0, lacking this common C terminus, still binds to the A(1) domain. In vitro pull-down experiments using fusion protein-tagged C-terminal peptides corresponding to the common 7, 11, and 17 terminal residues of P1 and P2 confirmed that the A(1) chain of SLT-1 as well as the A chain of ricin bind to this shared C-terminal peptide motif. More importantly, a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 17 amino acid C terminus of P1 and P2 was shown to inhibit the ribosome-inactivating function of the A(1) chain of SLT-1 in an in vitro transcription and translation-coupled assay. These results suggest a role for the ribosomal stalk in aiding the A(1) chain of SLT-1 and other type II ribosome-inactivating proteins in localizing its catalytic domain near the site of depurination in the 28 S rRNA. PMID:18358491

  7. Cystoviral polymerase complex protein P7 uses its acidic C-terminal tail to regulate the RNA-directed RNA polymerase P2.

    PubMed

    Alphonse, Sébastien; Arnold, Jamie J; Bhattacharya, Shibani; Wang, Hsin; Kloss, Brian; Cameron, Craig E; Ghose, Ranajeet

    2014-07-15

    In bacteriophages of the cystovirus family, the polymerase complex (PX) encodes a 75-kDa RNA-directed RNA polymerase (P2) that transcribes the double-stranded RNA genome. Also a constituent of the PX is the essential protein P7 that, in addition to accelerating PX assembly and facilitating genome packaging, plays a regulatory role in transcription. Deletion of P7 from the PX leads to aberrant plus-strand synthesis suggesting its influence on the transcriptase activity of P2. Here, using solution NMR techniques and the P2 and P7 proteins from cystovirus ϕ12, we demonstrate their largely electrostatic interaction in vitro. Chemical shift perturbations on P7 in the presence of P2 suggest that this interaction involves the dynamic C-terminal tail of P7, more specifically an acidic cluster therein. Patterns of chemical shift changes induced on P2 by the P7 C-terminus resemble those seen in the presence of single-stranded RNA suggesting similarities in binding. This association between P2 and P7 reduces the affinity of the former toward template RNA and results in its decreased activity both in de novo RNA synthesis and in extending a short primer. Given the presence of C-terminal acidic tracts on all cystoviral P7 proteins, the electrostatic nature of the P2/P7 interaction is likely conserved within the family and could constitute a mechanism through which P7 regulates transcription in cystoviruses. PMID:24813120

  8. The C-terminal Kinase and ERK-binding Domains of Drosophila S6KII (RSK) Are Required for Phosphorylation of the Protein and Modulation of Circadian Behavior*

    PubMed Central

    Tangredi, Michelle M.; Ng, Fanny S.; Jackson, F. Rob

    2012-01-01

    A detailed structure/function analysis of Drosophila p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6KII) or its mammalian homolog RSK has not been performed in the context of neuronal plasticity or behavior. We previously reported that S6KII is required for normal circadian periodicity. Here we report a site-directed mutagenesis of S6KII and analysis of mutants, in vivo, that identifies functional domains and phosphorylation sites critical for the regulation of circadian period. We demonstrate, for the first time, a role for the S6KII C-terminal kinase that is independent of its known role in activation of the N-terminal kinase. Both S6KII C-terminal kinase activity and its ERK-binding domain are required for wild-type circadian period and normal phosphorylation status of the protein. In contrast, the N-terminal kinase of S6KII is dispensable for modulation of circadian period and normal phosphorylation of the protein. We also show that particular sites of S6KII phosphorylation, Ser-515 and Thr-732, are essential for normal circadian behavior. Surprisingly, the phosphorylation of S6KII residues, in vivo, does not follow a strict sequential pattern, as implied by certain cell-based studies of mammalian RSK protein. PMID:22447936

  9. Selective chemical labeling of proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Wu, Yao-Wen

    2016-06-28

    Over the years, there have been remarkable efforts in the development of selective protein labeling strategies. In this review, we deliver a comprehensive overview of the currently available bioorthogonal and chemoselective reactions. The ability to introduce bioorthogonal handles to proteins is essential to carry out bioorthogonal reactions for protein labeling in living systems. We therefore summarize the techniques that allow for site-specific "installation" of bioorthogonal handles into proteins. We also highlight the biological applications that have been achieved by selective chemical labeling of proteins. PMID:26940577

  10. Peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane protein Mep45 of rumen anaerobe Selenomonas ruminantium forms a non-specific diffusion pore via its C-terminal transmembrane domain.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Seiji; Hayashi, Kanako; Tochigi, Saeko; Kusano, Tomonobu; Kaneko, Jun; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    The major outer membrane protein Mep45 of Selenomonas ruminantium, an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium, comprises two distinct domains: the N-terminal S-layer homologous (SLH) domain that protrudes into the periplasm and binds to peptidoglycan, and the remaining C-terminal transmembrane domain, whose function has been unknown. Here, we solubilized and purified Mep45 and characterized its function using proteoliposomes reconstituted with Mep45. We found that Mep45 forms a nonspecific diffusion channel via its C-terminal region. The channel was permeable to solutes smaller than a molecular weight of roughly 600, and the estimated pore radius was 0.58 nm. Truncation of the SLH domain did not affect the channel property. On the basis of the fact that Mep45 is the most abundant outer membrane protein in S. ruminantium, we conclude that Mep45 serves as a main pathway through which small solutes diffuse across the outer membrane of this bacterium. PMID:27310312

  11. Yeast Ty retrotransposons assemble into virus-like particles whose T-numbers depend on the C-terminal length of the capsid protein.

    PubMed

    AL-Khayat, H A; Bhella, D; Kenney, J M; Roth, J F; Kingsman, A J; Martin-Rendon, E; Saibil, H R

    1999-09-10

    The virus-like particles (VLPs) produced by the yeast Ty retrotransposons are structurally and functionally related to retroviral cores. Using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, we have examined the structures of VLPs assembled from full-length and truncated forms of the capsid structural protein. The VLPs are highly polydisperse in their radius distribution. We have found that the length of the C-terminal region of the capsid structural protein dictates the T -number, and thus the size, of the assembled particles. Each construct studied appears to assemble into at least two or three size classes, with shorter C termini giving rise to smaller particles. This assembly property provides a model for understanding the variable assembly of retroviral core proteins. The particles are assembled from trimer-clustered units and there are holes in the capsid shells. PMID:10493857

  12. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the C-terminal domain of MamM, a magnetosome-associated protein from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1

    PubMed Central

    Zeytuni, Natalie; Offer, Tal; Davidov, Geula; Zarivach, Raz

    2012-01-01

    MamM is a unique magnetosome-associated protein that shares substantial homology with cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) proteins, a group of heavy-metal-ion efflux transporters that participate in metal-ion homeostasis in all domains of life. Magnetotactic bacteria utilize CDF proteins in iron-oxide biomineralization and in magnetosome formation. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of recombinant Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MamM is reported. The C-terminal domain of MamM was crystallized in the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.1, b = 94.0, c = 53.3 Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.0 Å. PMID:22869124

  13. The C-terminal region of the transcriptional regulator THAP11 forms a parallel coiled-coil domain involved in protein dimerization.

    PubMed

    Cukier, Cyprian D; Maveyraud, Laurent; Saurel, Olivier; Guillet, Valérie; Milon, Alain; Gervais, Virginie

    2016-06-01

    Thanatos associated protein 11 (THAP11) is a cell cycle and cell growth regulator differentially expressed in cancer cells. THAP11 belongs to a distinct family of transcription factors recognizing specific DNA sequences via an atypical zinc finger motif and regulating diverse cellular processes. Outside the extensively characterized DNA-binding domain, THAP proteins vary in size and predicted domains, for which structural data are still lacking. We report here the crystal structure of the C-terminal region of human THAP11 protein, providing the first 3D structure of a coiled-coil motif from a THAP family member. We further investigate the stability, dynamics and oligomeric properties of the determined structure combining molecular dynamics simulations and biophysical experiments. Our results show that the C-ter region of THAP11 forms a left-handed parallel homo-dimeric coiled-coil structure possessing several unusual features. PMID:26975212

  14. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-07-25

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

  15. The C-terminal part of the surface-associated protein MopE of the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is secreted into the growth medium.

    PubMed

    Fjellbirkeland, A; Kruger, P G; Bemanian, V; Høgh, B T; Murrell, J C; Jensen, H B

    2001-09-01

    A protein with an apparent molecular mass of 46 kDa was detected as the major polypeptide in the culture medium of the biotechnologically important methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). The protein cross-reacted with polyclonal antibodies raised against the outer-membrane-associated protein MopE. The antiserum was used to identify a positive clone from a lambda gt11 library. The nucleotide sequence determined for the clone demonstrated that MopE and the secreted protein are encoded by the same gene, and that the secreted protein represents an N-terminally truncated form of MopE. By using monospecific antibodies against MopE in immunogold electron microscopy, the protein was localized at the cell surface and cell periphery. The mopE gene was expressed in Escherichia coli. The MopE protein synthesized was found in the periplasmic space of E. coli. No protein with sequence similarity over the entire length of MopE was detected in the databases, but some sequence similarity to the copper-repressible CorA protein of the methanotroph Methylomicrobium albus (Berson and Lidstrom 1997) was observed for the C-terminal region of MopE. PMID:11511867

  16. Assessment of the potential contribution of the highly conserved C-terminal motif (C10) of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C in transmission and infectivity.

    PubMed

    Earnhart, Christopher G; Rhodes, DeLacy V L; Smith, Alexis A; Yang, Xiuli; Tegels, Brittney; Carlyon, Jason A; Pal, Utpal; Marconi, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    OspC is produced by all species of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex and is required for infectivity in mammals. To test the hypothesis that the conserved C-terminal motif (C10) of OspC is required for function in vivo, a mutant B. burgdorferi strain (B31::ospCΔC10) was created in which ospC was replaced with an ospC gene lacking the C10 motif. The ability of the mutant to infect mice was investigated using tick transmission and needle inoculation. Infectivity was assessed by cultivation, qRT-PCR, and measurement of IgG antibody responses. B31::ospCΔC10 retained the ability to infect mice by both needle and tick challenge and was competent to survive in ticks after exposure to the blood meal. To determine whether recombinant OspC protein lacking the C-terminal 10 amino acid residues (rOspCΔC10) can bind plasminogen, the only known mammalian-derived ligand for OspC, binding analyses were performed. Deletion of the C10 motif resulted in a statistically significant decrease in plasminogen binding. Although deletion of the C10 motif influenced plasminogen binding, it can be concluded that the C10 motif is not required for OspC to carry out its critical in vivo functions in tick to mouse transmission. PMID:24376161

  17. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Valosin-Containing Protein (VCP/p97) Regulated by Its N domain and C-terminal Region

    PubMed Central

    Song, Changcheng; Wang, Qing; Song, Changzheng; Lockett, Stephen J.; Colburn, Nancy H.; Li, Chou-Chi H.; Wang, Ji Ming; Rogers, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Valosin-containing protein (VCP or p97), a member of AAA family (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities), plays a key role in many important cellular activities. A genetic deficiency of VCP can cause inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget’s disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). Previous studies showed that the VCP N domain is essential for the regulation of nuclear entry of VCP. Here we report that IBMPFD mutations, which are mainly located in the N domain, suppress the nuclear entry of VCP. Moreover, the peptide sequence G780AGPSQ in the C-terminal region regulates the retention of VCP in the nucleus. A mutant lacking this sequence can increase the nuclear distribution of IBMPFD VCP, suggesting that this sequence is a potential molecular target for correcting the deficient nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of IBMPFD VCP proteins. PMID:25447673

  18. Structure of a C-terminal fragment of its Vps53 subunit suggests similarity of Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex to a family of tethering complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Vasan, Neil; Hutagalung, Alex; Novick, Peter; Reinisch, Karin M.

    2010-08-13

    The Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex is a membrane-tethering complex that functions in traffic from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. Here we present the structure of a C-terminal fragment of the Vps53 subunit, important for binding endosome-derived vesicles, at a resolution of 2.9 {angstrom}. We show that the C terminus consists of two {alpha}-helical bundles arranged in tandem, and we identify a highly conserved surface patch, which may play a role in vesicle recognition. Mutations of the surface result in defects in membrane traffic. The fold of the Vps53 C terminus is strongly reminiscent of proteins that belong to three other tethering complexes - Dsl1, conserved oligomeric Golgi, and the exocyst - thought to share a common evolutionary origin. Thus, the structure of the Vps53 C terminus suggests that GARP belongs to this family of complexes.

  19. Involvement of a C-terminal motif in the interference of primate lentiviral Vpu proteins with CD1d-mediated antigen presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bächle, Susanna M.; Sauter, Daniel; Sibitz, Sabrina; Sandberg, Johan K.; Kirchhoff, Frank; Moll, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu is emerging as a critical factor for viral evasion from innate immunity. We have previously shown that the Vpu proteins of two HIV-1 group M subtype B strains (NL4-3 and BaL) down-regulate CD1d from the surface of infected dendritic cells (DCs) and inhibit their crosstalk with the innate invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. In the present study, we have investigated the ability of a comprehensive set of primate lentiviral Vpu proteins to interfere with CD1d-mediated immunity. We found that CD1d down-regulation is a conserved function of Vpu proteins from HIV-1 groups M, O and P as well as their direct precursors SIVcpzPtt and SIVgor. At the group M subtype level, subtype C Vpu proteins were significantly weaker CD1d antagonists than subtype B Vpu proteins. Functional characterization of different mutants and chimeras derived from active subtype B and inactive subtype C Vpu proteins revealed that residues in the cytoplasmic domain are important for CD1d down-regulation. Specifically, we identified a C-terminal APW motif characteristic for group M subtype B Vpu proteins necessary for interference with CD1d surface expression. These findings support the notion that Vpu plays an important role in lentiviral evasion from innate immunity. PMID:25872908

  20. Structure and properties of the C-terminal β-helical domain of VgrG protein from Escherichia coli O157.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kazuya; Leiman, Petr G; Arisaka, Fumio; Kanamaru, Shuji

    2014-03-01

    The bacterial Type 6 secretion system (T6SS) translocates protein toxins (also called effectors) from the cytosol of a T6SS-carrying cell to a target cell by a syringe-like supramolecular complex resembling a contractile tail of bacteriophages. Valine-glycine repeat protein G (VgrG) proteins, which are the homologues of the gp27-gp5 (gene product) cell puncturing complex of bacteriophage T4, are considered to be located at the attacking tip of the bacterial T6SS apparatus. Here, we over-expressed six VgrG proteins from pathogenic Escherichia coli O157 and CFT073 strains. Purified VgrG1 of E. coli O157 and c3393 of E. coli CFT073 form trimer in solution and are rich in β-structure. We also solved the crystal structure of a trypsin-resistant C-terminal fragment of E. coli O157 VgrG1 (VgrG1C(G561)) at 1.95 Å resolution. VgrG1C(G561) forms a three-stranded antiparallel β-helix which is structurally similar to the β-helix domain of the central spike protein (gp138) of phi92 phage, indicating a possible evolutional relationship. Comparison of four different three-stranded β-helix proteins shows how their amino acid composition determines the protein fold. PMID:24307403

  1. A conserved glutamate residue in the C-terminal deaminase domain of pentatricopeptide repeat proteins is required for RNA editing activity.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Michael L; Dang, Kim N; Diaz, Michael F; Mulligan, R Michael

    2015-04-17

    Many transcripts expressed from plant organelle genomes are modified by C-to-U RNA editing. Nuclear encoded pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins include an RNA binding domain that provides site specificity. In addition, many PPR proteins include a C-terminal DYW deaminase domain with characteristic zinc binding motifs (CXXC, HXE) and has recently been shown to bind zinc ions. The glutamate residue of the HXE motif is catalytically required in the reaction catalyzed by cytidine deaminase. In this work, we examine the activity of the DYW deaminase domain through truncation or mutagenesis of the HXE motif. OTP84 is required for editing three chloroplast sites, and transgenes expressing OTP84 with C-terminal truncations were capable of editing only one of the three cognate sites at high efficiency. These results suggest that the deaminase domain of OTP84 is required for editing two of the sites, but another deaminase is able to supply the deamination activity for the third site. OTP84 and CREF7 transgenes were mutagenized to replace the glutamate residue of the HXE motif, and transgenic plants expressing OTP84-E824A and CREF7-E554A were unable to efficiently edit the cognate editing sites for these genes. In addition, plants expressing CREF7-E554A exhibited substantially reduced capacity to edit a non-cognate site, rpoA C200. These results indicate that the DYW deaminase domains of PPR proteins are involved in editing their cognate editing sites, and in some cases may participate in editing additional sites in the chloroplast. PMID:25739442

  2. Plasmodium falciparum aldolase and the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of certain apical organellar proteins promote actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Suraya A; Martin, Stephen R; Grainger, Munira; Howell, Steven A; Green, Judith L; Holder, Anthony A

    2014-10-01

    The current model of Apicomplexan motility and host cell invasion is that both processes are driven by an actomyosin motor located beneath the plasma membrane, with the force transduced to the outside of the cell via coupling through aldolase and the cytoplasmic tail domains (CTDs) of certain type 1 membrane proteins. In Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), aldolase is thought to bind to the CTD of members of the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) family, which are micronemal proteins and represented by MTRAP in merozoites. Other type 1 membrane proteins including members of the erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA) and reticulocyte binding protein homologue (RH) protein families, which are also apical organellar proteins, have also been implicated in host cell binding in erythrocyte invasion. However, recent studies with Toxoplasma gondii have questioned the importance of aldolase in these processes. Using biolayer interferometry we show that Pf aldolase binds with high affinity to both rabbit and Pf actin, with a similar affinity for filamentous (F-) actin and globular (G-) actin. The interaction between Pf aldolase and merozoite actin was confirmed by co-sedimentation assays. Aldolase binding was shown to promote rabbit actin polymerization indicating that the interaction is more complicated than binding alone. The CTDs of some but not all type 1 membrane proteins also promoted actin polymerization in the absence of aldolase; MTRAP and RH1 CTDs promoted actin polymerization but EBA175 CTD did not. Direct actin polymerization mediated by membrane protein CTDs may contribute to actin recruitment, filament formation and stability during motor assembly, and actin-mediated movement, independent of aldolase. PMID:25261592

  3. The cold denatured state of the C-terminal domain of protein L9 is compact and contains both native and non-native structure.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bing; McClendon, Sebastian; Rospigliosi, Carla; Eliezer, David; Raleigh, Daniel P

    2010-04-01

    Cold denaturation is a general property of globular proteins, and the process provides insight into the origins of the cooperativity of protein folding and the nature of partially folded states. Unfortunately, studies of protein cold denaturation have been hindered by the fact that the cold denatured state is normally difficult to access experimentally. Special conditions such as addition of high concentrations of denaturant, encapsulation into reverse micelles, the formation of emulsified solutions, high pressure, or extremes of pH have been applied, but these can perturb the unfolded state of proteins. The cold denatured state of the C-terminal domain of the ribosomal protein L9 can be populated under native-like conditions by taking advantage of a destabilizing point mutation which leads to cold denaturation at temperatures above 0 degrees C. This state is in slow exchange with the native state on the NMR time scale. Virtually complete backbone (15)N, (13)C, and (1)H as well as side-chain (13)C(beta) and (1)H(beta) chemical shift assignments were obtained for the cold denatured state at pH 5.7, 12 degrees C. Chemical shift analysis, backbone N-H residual dipolar couplings, amide proton NOEs, and R(2) relaxation rates all indicate that the cold denatured state of CTL9 (the C-terminal domain of the ribosomal protein L9) not only contains significant native-like secondary structure but also non-native structure. The regions corresponding to the two native alpha-helices show a strong tendency to populate helical Phi and Psi angles. The segment which connects alpha-helix 2 and beta-strand 2 (residues 107-124) in the native state exhibits a significant preference to form non-native helical structure in the cold denatured state. The structure observed in the cold denatured state of the I98A mutant is similar to that observed in the pH 3.8 unfolded state of wild type CTL9 at 25 degrees C, suggesting that it is a robust feature of the denatured state ensemble of this

  4. Immunogenicity of IMS 1113 plus soluble subunit and chimeric proteins containing Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae P97 C-terminal repeat regions.

    PubMed

    Barate, Abhijit K; Cho, Youngjae; Truong, Quang Lam; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2014-03-01

    The surface adhesin P97 mediates the adherence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to swine cilia. Two reiterated repeats R1 and R2 are located at the C-terminus of P97. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity of Montanide adjuvant IMS 1113 plus soluble subunit proteins rR1, rR1R2 and their chimeric forms coupled with B subunit of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTB). Each recombinant protein in this study was capable of eliciting anti-R1 specific humoral antibodies (IgG), mucosal antibodies (IgG and IgA) and IFN-γ production. The chimeric protein rLTBR1R2 elicited the quickest humoral antibody response among the recombinant proteins. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis revealed that each recombinant protein was capable of inducing both Th1 and Th2 responses. Importantly, all of the proteins induced an anti-R1-specific Th2-biased response in both humoral and mucosal compartments, similar to the response observed in a natural infection or vaccination process. These observations indicate that rR1, rR1R2, rLTBR1 and rLTBR1R2 with IMS 1113 might represent a promising subunit vaccine strategy against porcine enzootic pneumonia in pigs. PMID:24461070

  5. The N- and C-Terminal Domains of the NS1 Protein of Influenza B Virus Can Independently Inhibit IRF-3 and Beta Interferon Promoter Activation

    PubMed Central

    Donelan, Nicola R.; Dauber, Bianca; Wang, Xiuyan; Basler, Christopher F.; Wolff, Thorsten; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2004-01-01

    The NS1 proteins of influenza A and B viruses (A/NS1 and B/NS1 proteins) have only ∼20% amino acid sequence identity. Nevertheless, these proteins show several functional similarities, such as their ability to bind to the same RNA targets and to inhibit the activation of protein kinase R in vitro. A critical function of the A/NS1 protein is the inhibition of synthesis of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) during viral infection. Recently, it was also found that the B/NS1 protein inhibits IFN-α/β synthesis in virus-infected cells. We have now found that the expression of the B/NS1 protein complements the growth of an influenza A virus with A/NS1 deleted. Expression of the full-length B/NS1 protein (281 amino acids), as well as either its N-terminal RNA-binding domain (amino acids 1 to 93) or C-terminal domain (amino acids 94 to 281), in the absence of any other influenza B virus proteins resulted in the inhibition of IRF-3 nuclear translocation and IFN-β promoter activation. A mutational analysis of the truncated B/NS1(1-93) protein showed that RNA-binding activity correlated with IFN-β promoter inhibition. In addition, a recombinant influenza B virus with NS1 deleted induces higher levels of IRF-3 activation, as determined by its nuclear translocation, and of IFN-α/β synthesis than wild-type influenza B virus. Our results support the hypothesis that the NS1 protein of influenza B virus plays an important role in antagonizing the IRF-3- and IFN-induced antiviral host responses to virus infection. PMID:15479798

  6. The trappin gene family: proteins defined by an N-terminal transglutaminase substrate domain and a C-terminal four-disulphide core.

    PubMed Central

    Schalkwijk, J; Wiedow, O; Hirose, S

    1999-01-01

    Recently, several new genes have been discovered in various species which are homologous to the well-characterized human epithelial proteinase inhibitor elafin/SKALP (skin-derived anti-leukoproteinase). Because of the high degree of conservation and the similarities in genomic organization, we propose that these genes belong to a novel gene family. At the protein level, the family members are defined by: (1) an N-terminal domain consisting of a variable number of repeats with the consensus sequence Gly-Gln-Asp-Pro-Val-Lys that can act as an anchoring motif by transglutaminase cross-linking, and (2) a C-terminal four-disulphide core or whey acidic protein (WAP) domain, which harbours a functional motif involved in binding of proteinases and possibly other proteins. We have proposed the name trappin gene family as a unifying nomenclature for this group of proteins (trappin is an acronym for TRansglutaminase substrate and wAP domain containing ProteIN, and refers to its functional property of 'getting trapped' in tissues by covalent cross-linking). Analysis of the trappin family members shows extensive diversification in bovidae and suidae, whereas the number of primate trappins is probably limited. Recent biochemical and cell biological data on the human trappin family member elafin/SKALP suggest that this molecule is induced in epidermis by cellular stress. We hypothesize that trappins play an important role in the regulation of inflammation and in protection against tissue damage in stratified epithelia. PMID:10359639

  7. C-terminal domain of CagX is responsible for its interaction with CagT protein of Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion system.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Gopal Jee; Pal, Jagannath; Kumar, Awanish; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori are the well known human pathogen associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. Pathogenesis is mainly due to the presence of 40 kb cagPAI (cag Pathogenicity Island) region that encodes the type IV secretion system (TFSS) consisting of a cytoplasmic part, a middle part/core complex (spans from inner membrane to outer membrane), and an outer membrane associated part. CagX and CagT are two important proteins of TFSS that have homology with virB9 and virB7 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens TFSS. In this study, we have shown that the CagX and CagT interact directly by using co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous CagX and CagT and MBP pull down assay. We further authenticate this observation using yeast two-hybrid assay and co-expression of both the protein coding gene in Escherichia coli. We also observed that the C-terminal region of CagX is important for CagT interaction. We reconfirm that CagT depends on CagX for its stabilization. These observations could contribute in overall visualization of assembly and architecture of TFSS because protein-protein interactions among Cag proteins are likely to have an important role in assembly. Thorough understanding about architecture and mechanism of action of cag-TFSS may lead to design controlled drug delivery system. PMID:25446105

  8. Mutation of FdC2 gene encoding a ferredoxin-like protein with C-terminal extension causes yellow-green leaf phenotype in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmei; Hu, Yan; Huang, Rui; Ma, Xiaozhi; Wang, Yang; Liao, Tingting; Zhong, Ping; Xiao, Fuliang; Sun, Changhui; Xu, Zhengjun; Deng, Xiaojian; Wang, Pingrong

    2015-09-01

    Ferredoxins (Fds) are small iron-sulfur proteins that mediate electron transfer in a wide range of metabolic reactions. Besides Fds, there is a type of Fd-like proteins designated as FdC, which have conserved elements of Fds, but contain a significant C-terminal extension. So far, only two FdC genes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have been identified in higher plants and thus the functions of FdC proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, we isolated a yellow-green leaf mutant, 501ys, in rice (Oryza sativa). The mutant exhibited yellow-green leaf phenotype and reduced chlorophyll level. The phenotype of 501ys was caused by mutation of a gene on rice chromosome 3. Map-based cloning of this mutant resulted in identification of OsFdC2 gene (LOC_Os03g48040) showing high identity with Arabidopsis FdC2 gene (AT1G32550). OsFdC2 was expressed most abundantly in leaves and its encoded protein was targeted to the chloroplast. In 501ys mutant, a missense mutation was detected in DNA sequence of the gene, resulting in an amino acid change in the encoded protein. The mutant phenotype was rescued by introduction of the wild-type gene. Therefore, we successfully identified FdC2 gene via map-based cloning approach, and demonstrated that mutation of this gene caused yellow-green leaf phenotype in rice. PMID:26259181

  9. Deletion of the C-terminal region of dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) abolishes anti-NS1-mediated platelet dysfunction and bleeding tendency.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Chun; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Lei, Huan-Yao; Lin, Shih-Chao; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Anderson, Robert; Lin, Yee-Shin

    2009-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying dengue hemorrhagic disease are incompletely understood. We previously showed that anti-dengue virus (DV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) Abs cross-react with human platelets and inhibit platelet aggregation. Based on sequence homology alignment, the cross-reactive epitopes reside in the C-terminal region of DV NS1. In this study, we compared the effects of Abs against full-length DV NS1 and NS1 lacking the C-terminal aa 271 to 352 (designated DeltaC NS1). Anti-DeltaC NS1 Abs exhibited lower platelet binding activity than that of anti-full-length NS1. Anti-full-length NS1 but not anti-DeltaC NS1 Abs inhibited platelet aggregation, which was shown to involve integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) inactivation. We found that the bleeding time in full-length NS1-hyperimmunized mice was longer than that in the normal control mice. By contrast, DeltaC NS1-hyperimmunized mice showed a bleeding time similar to that of normal control mice. Passively administered anti-DV NS1, but not anti-DeltaC NS1, Ab level decreased markedly in serum and this decrease was correlated with Ab binding to platelets. A transient platelet loss in the circulation was observed after anti-DV NS1, but not anti-DeltaC NS1, Ab administration. In summary, platelet dysfunction and bleeding tendency are induced by anti-full-length DV NS1 but not by anti-DeltaC NS1 Abs. These findings may be important not only for understanding dengue hemorrhagic disease pathogenesis but also for dengue vaccine development. PMID:19592650

  10. Structural and binding studies of C-terminal half (C-lobe) of lactoferrin protein with COX-2-specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

    PubMed

    Mir, Rafia; Singh, Nagendra; Vikram, Gopalakrishnapillai; Sinha, Mau; Bhushan, Asha; Kaur, Punit; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P

    2010-08-15

    Three COX-2-specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), etoricoxib, parecoxib, and nimesulide are widely prescribed against inflammatory conditions. However, their long term administration leads to severe conditions of cardiovascular complications and gastric ulceration. In order to minimize these side effects, C-terminal half (C-lobe) of colostrum protein lactoferrin has been indicated to be useful if co-administered with NSAIDs. Lactoferrin is an 80kDa glycoprotein with two similar halves designated as N- and C-lobes. Since NSAID-binding site is located in the C-terminal half of lactoferrin, C-lobe was prepared from lactoferrin by limited proteolysis using proteinase K. The incubation of lactoferrin with serine proteases for extended periods showed that N-lobe was completely digested but C-lobe was resistant for more than 72h indicating its long half life in the animal gut. The solution studies have shown that COX-2-specific NSAIDs bind to C-lobe with binding constants ranging from 10(-4) to 10(-5)M showing significant affinities for sequestering these compounds. In order to understand the mode of binding and sequestering properties, the complexes of C-lobe with all these three compounds, etoricoxib, parecoxib, and nimesulide were prepared and the structures of their complexes with C-lobe were determined at 2.2, 2.9, and 2.7A resolutions, respectively. The analysis of the structures of complexes of C-lobe with NSAIDs clearly show that all the three compounds bind firmly at the same ligand-binding site in the C-lobe revealing the details of the interactions between C-lobe and NSAIDs. The mode of binding of COX-2-specific NSAIDs to C-lobe is similar to that of the binding of COX-2 non-specific NSAIDs to C-lobe. PMID:20515646

  11. The structure of the C-terminal domain of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak and its interaction with model membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Senac, María del Mar; Corbalán-García, Senena; Gómez-Fernández, Juan C

    2002-01-01

    Bak is a pro-apoptotic protein widely distributed in different cell types that is associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane, apparently through a C-terminal hydrophobic domain. We used infrared spectroscopy to study the secondary structure of a synthetic peptide ((+)(3)HN-(188)ILNVLVVLGVVLLGQFVVRRFFKS(211)-COO(-)) with the same sequence as the C-terminal domain of Bak. The spectrum of this peptide in D(2)O buffer shows an amide I' band with a maximum at 1636 cm(-1), which clearly indicates the predominance of an extended beta-structure in aqueous solvent. However, the peptide incorporated in multilamellar dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes shows a different amide I' band spectrum, with a maximum at 1658 cm(-1), indicating a predominantly alpha-helical structure induced by its interaction with the membrane. It was observed that through differential scanning calorimetry the transition of the phospholipid model membrane was broadened in the presence of the peptide. Fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) in fluid DMPC vesicles showed that increasing concentrations of the peptide produced increased polarization values, which is compatible with the peptide being inserted into the membrane. High concentrations of the peptide considerably broaden the phase transition of DMPC multilamellar vesicles, and DPH polarization increased, especially at temperatures above the T(c) transition temperature of the pure phospholipid. The addition of peptide destabilized unilamellar vesicles and released encapsulated carboxyfluorescein. These results indicate that this domain is able to insert itself into membranes, where it adopts an alpha-helical structure and considerably perturbs the physical properties of the membrane. PMID:11751312

  12. Characterization of a conserved C-terminal motif (RSPRR) in ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 required for its mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent regulation.

    PubMed

    Schalm, Stefanie S; Tee, Andrew R; Blenis, John

    2005-03-25

    The mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, is a Ser/Thr kinase that promotes cell growth and proliferation by activating ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). We previously identified a conserved TOR signaling (TOS) motif in the N terminus of S6K1 that is required for its mTOR-dependent activation. Furthermore, our data suggested that the TOS motif suppresses an inhibitory function associated with the C terminus of S6K1. Here, we have characterized the mTOR-regulated inhibitory region within the C terminus. We have identified a conserved C-terminal "RSPRR" sequence that is responsible for an mTOR-dependent suppression of S6K1 activation. Deletion or mutations within this RSPRR motif partially rescue the kinase activity of the S6K1 TOS motif mutant (S6K1-F5A), and this rescued activity is rapamycin resistant. Furthermore, we have shown that the RSPRR motif significantly suppresses S6K1 phosphorylation at two phosphorylation sites (Thr-389 and Thr-229) that are crucial for S6K1 activation. Importantly, introducing both the Thr-389 phosphomimetic and RSPRR motif mutations into the catalytically inactive S6K1 mutant S6K1-F5A completely rescues its activity and renders it fully rapamycin resistant. These data show that the N-terminal TOS motif suppresses an inhibitory function mediated by the C-terminal RSPRR motif. We propose that the RSPRR motif interacts with a negative regulator of S6K1 that is normally suppressed by mTOR. PMID:15659381

  13. A phospholipase A1 antibacterial Type VI secretion effector interacts directly with the C-terminal domain of the VgrG spike protein for delivery.

    PubMed

    Flaugnatti, Nicolas; Le, Thi Thu Hang; Canaan, Stéphane; Aschtgen, Marie-Stéphanie; Nguyen, Van Son; Blangy, Stéphanie; Kellenberger, Christine; Roussel, Alain; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Journet, Laure

    2016-03-01

    The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a multiprotein machine that delivers protein effectors in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, allowing interbacterial competition and virulence. The mechanism of action of the T6SS requires the contraction of a sheath-like structure that propels a needle towards target cells, allowing the delivery of protein effectors. Here, we provide evidence that the entero-aggregative Escherichia coli Sci-1 T6SS is required to eliminate competitor bacteria. We further identify Tle1, a toxin effector encoded by this cluster and showed that Tle1 possesses phospholipase A1 and A2 activities required for the interbacterial competition. Self-protection of the attacker cell is secured by an outer membrane lipoprotein, Tli1, which binds Tle1 in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio with nanomolar affinity, and inhibits its phospholipase activity. Tle1 is delivered into the periplasm of the prey cells using the VgrG1 needle spike protein as carrier. Further analyses demonstrate that the C-terminal extension domain of VgrG1, including a transthyretin-like domain, is responsible for the interaction with Tle1 and its subsequent delivery into target cells. Based on these results, we propose an additional mechanism of transport of T6SS effectors in which cognate effectors are selected by specific motifs located at the C-terminus of VgrG proteins. PMID:26714038

  14. The C-terminal region of the non-structural protein 2B from Hepatitis A Virus demonstrates lipid-specific viroporin-like activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Ashutosh; Dey, Debajit; Banerjee, Kamalika; Nain, Anshu; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2015-10-01

    Viroporins are virally encoded, membrane-active proteins, which enhance viral replication and assist in egress of viruses from host cells. The 2B proteins in the picornaviridae family are known to have viroporin-like properties, and play critical roles during virus replication. The 2B protein of Hepatitis A Virus (2B), an unusual picornavirus, is somewhat dissimilar from its analogues in several respects. HAV 2B is approximately 2.5 times the length of other 2B proteins, and does not disrupt calcium homeostasis or glycoprotein trafficking. Additionally, its membrane penetrating properties are not yet clearly established. Here we show that the membrane interacting activity of HAV 2B is localized in its C-terminal region, which contains an alpha-helical hairpin motif. We show that this region is capable of forming small pores in membranes and demonstrates lipid specific activity, which partially rationalizes the intracellular localization of full-length 2B. Using a combination of biochemical assays and molecular dynamics simulation studies, we also show that HAV 2B demonstrates a marked propensity to dimerize in a crowded environment, and probably interacts with membranes in a multimeric form, a hallmark of other picornavirus viroporins. In sum, our study clearly establishes HAV 2B as a bona fide viroporin in the picornaviridae family.

  15. A C-terminal Hydrophobic, Solvent-protected Core and a Flexible N-terminus are Potentially Required for Human Papillomavirus 18 E7 Protein Functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.; Tian, Y; Greenaway, F; Sun, M

    2010-01-01

    The oncogenic potential of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) relies on the expression of genes specifying the E7 and E6 proteins. To investigate further the variation in oligomeric structure that has been reported for different E7 proteins, an HPV-18 E7 cloned from a Hispanic woman with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was purified to homogeneity most probably as a stable monomeric protein in aqueous solution. We determined that one zinc ion is present per HPV-18 E7 monomer by amino acid and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy analysis. Intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic results indicate that the zinc ion is important for the correct folding and thermal stability of HPV-18 E7. Hydroxyl radical mediated protein footprinting coupled to mass spectrometry and other biochemical and biophysical data indicate that near the C-terminus, the four cysteines of the two Cys-X{sub 2}-Cys motifs that are coordinated to the zinc ion form a solvent inaccessible core. The N-terminal LXCXE pRb binding motif region is hydroxyl radical accessible and conformationally flexible. Both factors, the relative flexibility of the pRb binding motif at the N-terminus and the C-terminal metal-binding hydrophobic solvent-protected core, combine together and facilitate the biological functions of HPV-18 E7.

  16. The C-terminal region of the non-structural protein 2B from Hepatitis A Virus demonstrates lipid-specific viroporin-like activity

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Ashutosh; Dey, Debajit; Banerjee, Kamalika; Nain, Anshu; Banerjee, Manidipa

    2015-01-01

    Viroporins are virally encoded, membrane-active proteins, which enhance viral replication and assist in egress of viruses from host cells. The 2B proteins in the picornaviridae family are known to have viroporin-like properties, and play critical roles during virus replication. The 2B protein of Hepatitis A Virus (2B), an unusual picornavirus, is somewhat dissimilar from its analogues in several respects. HAV 2B is approximately 2.5 times the length of other 2B proteins, and does not disrupt calcium homeostasis or glycoprotein trafficking. Additionally, its membrane penetrating properties are not yet clearly established. Here we show that the membrane interacting activity of HAV 2B is localized in its C-terminal region, which contains an alpha-helical hairpin motif. We show that this region is capable of forming small pores in membranes and demonstrates lipid specific activity, which partially rationalizes the intracellular localization of full-length 2B. Using a combination of biochemical assays and molecular dynamics simulation studies, we also show that HAV 2B demonstrates a marked propensity to dimerize in a crowded environment, and probably interacts with membranes in a multimeric form, a hallmark of other picornavirus viroporins. In sum, our study clearly establishes HAV 2B as a bona fide viroporin in the picornaviridae family. PMID:26515753

  17. A C-terminal segment of the V{sub 1}R vasopressin receptor is unstructured in the crystal structure of its chimera with the maltose-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Adikesavan, Nallini Vijayarangan; Mahmood, Syed Saad; Stanley, Nithianantham; Xu, Zhen; Wu, Nan; Thibonnier, Marc; Shoham, Menachem

    2005-04-01

    The 1.8 Å crystal structure of an MBP-fusion protein with the C-terminal cytoplasmic segment of the V1 vasopressin receptor reveals that the receptor segment is unstructured. The V{sub 1} vascular vasopressin receptor (V{sub 1}R) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in the regulation of body-fluid osmolality, blood volume and blood pressure. Signal transduction is mediated by the third intracellular loop of this seven-transmembrane protein as well as by the C-terminal cytoplasmic segment. A chimera of the maltose-binding protein (MBP) and the C-terminal segment of V{sub 1}R has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.10, b = 66.56, c = 115.72 Å, β = 95.99°. The 1.8 Å crystal structure reveals the conformation of MBP and part of the linker region of this chimera, with the C-terminal segment being unstructured. This may reflect a conformational plasticity in the C-terminal segment that may be necessary for proper function of V{sub 1}R.

  18. Expression of the C-terminal ORF2 protein of duck astrovirus for application in a serological test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yuzhou; Xie, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Dabing

    2011-01-01

    Duck astrovirus (DAstV) is an important pathogen causing duck viral hepatitis (DVH), a highly contagious and fatal disease in young ducklings. To provide an antigen for a diagnostic serum test, the C-terminus of DAstV ORF2 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. Four positive and 30 negative sera were used to validate the purified ORF2 protein by developing an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No cross-reactions were found against other duck pathogens, including duck hepatitis A virus, duck plague herpesvirus, duck reovirus, Newcastle disease virus, and Riemerella anatipestifer 12/19 (63.2%) and 26/51 (51%) sera samples from two flocks of ducks that survived DAstV infections in commercial duck farms were positive for DAstV by this method, respectively. Interestingly, DAstV-specific antibodies were also detected in 12 (28.6%) of 42 sera samples from a different flock without DVH, indicating a wide distribution of subclinical infections caused by DAstV. PMID:20863856

  19. The Cytoskeletal Protein α-Actinin Regulates Acid-sensing Ion Channel 1a through a C-terminal Interaction*

    PubMed Central

    Schnizler, Mikael K.; Schnizler, Katrin; Zha, Xiang-ming; Hall, Duane D.; Wemmie, John A.; Hell, Johannes W.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons where it generates transient cation currents when extracellular pH falls. ASIC1a confers pH-dependent modulation on postsynaptic dendritic spines and has critical effects in neurological diseases associated with a reduced pH. However, knowledge of the proteins that interact with ASIC1a and influence its function is limited. Here, we show that α-actinin, which links membrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton, associates with ASIC1a in brain and in cultured cells. The interaction depended on an α-actinin-binding site in the ASIC1a C terminus that was specific for ASIC1a versus other ASICs and for α-actinin-1 and -4. Co-expressing α-actinin-4 altered ASIC1a current density, pH sensitivity, desensitization rate, and recovery from desensitization. Moreover, reducing α-actinin expression altered acid-activated currents in hippocampal neurons. These findings suggest that α-actinins may link ASIC1a to a macromolecular complex in the postsynaptic membrane where it regulates ASIC1a activity. PMID:19028690

  20. Identification and structural analysis of C-terminally truncated collapsin response mediator protein-2 in a murine model of prion diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders that accompany an accumulation of the disease-associated form(s) of prion protein (PrPSc) in the central nervous system. The neuropathological changes in the brain begin with focal deposits of PrPSc, followed by pathomorphological abnormalities of axon terminal degeneration, synaptic loss, atrophy of dendritic trees, and eventual neuronal cell death in the lesions. However, the underlying molecular basis for these neuropathogenic abnormalities is not fully understood. Results In a proteomic analysis of soluble proteins in the brains of mice challenged intracerebrally with scrapie prion (Obihiro I strain), we found that the amount of the full-length form of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2; 61 kDa) decreased in the late stages of the disease, while the amount of its truncated form (56 kDa) increased to comparable levels observed for the full-length form. Detailed analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry showed that the 56-kDa form (named CRMP-2-ΔC) lacked the sequence from serine518 to the C-terminus, including the C-terminal phosphorylation sites important for the regulation of axonal growth and axon-dendrite specification in developing neurons. The invariable size of the mRNA transcript in Northern blot analysis suggested that the truncation was due to post-translational proteolysis. By overexpression of CRMP-2-ΔC in primary cultured neurons, we observed the augmentation of the development of neurite branch tips to the same levels as for CRMP-2T514A/T555A, a non-phosphorylated mimic of the full-length protein. This suggests that the increased level of CRMP-2-ΔC in the brain modulates the integrity of neurons, and may be involved in the pathogenesis of the neuronal abnormalities observed in the late stages of the disease. Conclusions We identified the presence of CRMP-2-ΔC in the brain of a murine model of prion disease. Of note, C-terminal

  1. C terminal retroviral-type zinc finger domain from the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein is structurally similar to the N-terminal zinc finger domain

    SciTech Connect

    South, T.L.; Blake, P.R. ); Hare, D.R.; Summers, M.F. )

    1991-06-25

    Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic and computational methods were employed for the structure determination of an 18-residue peptide with the amino acid sequence of the C-terminal retriviral-type (r.t.) zinc finger domain from the nucleocapsid protein (NCP) of HIV-1 (Zn(HIV1-F2)). Unlike results obtained for the first retroviral-type zinc finger peptide, Zn (HIV1-F1) broad signals indicative of confomational lability were observed in the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of An(HIV1-F2) at 25 C. The NMR signals narrowed upon cooling to {minus}2 C, enabling complete {sup 1}H NMR signal assignment via standard two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Distance restraints obtained from qualitative analysis of 2D nuclear Overhauser effect (NOESY) data were sued to generate 30 distance geometry (DG) structures with penalties in the range 0.02-0.03 {angstrom}{sup 2}. All structures were qualitatively consistent with the experimental NOESY spectrum based on comparisons with 2D NOESY back-calculated spectra. These results indicate that the r.t. zinc finger sequences observed in retroviral NCPs, simple plant virus coat proteins, and in a human single-stranded nucleic acid binding protein share a common structural motif.

  2. A Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Rad52 Allele Expressing a C-Terminal Truncation Protein: Activities and Intragenic Complementation of Missense Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Boundy-Mills, K. L.; Livingston, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    A nonsense allele of the yeast RAD52 gene, rad52-327, which expresses the N-terminal 65% of the protein was compared to two missense alleles, rad52-1 and rad52-2, and to a deletion allele. While the rad52-1 and the deletion mutants have severe defects in DNA repair, recombination and sporulation, the rad52-327 and rad52-2 mutants retain either partial or complete capabilities in repair and recombination. These two mutants behave similarly in most tests of repair and recombination during mitotic growth. One difference between these two alleles is that a homozygous rad52-2 diploid fails to sporulate, whereas the homozygous rad52-327 diploid sporulates weakly. The low level of sporulation by the rad52-327 diploid is accompanied by a low percentage of spore viability. Among these viable spores the frequency of crossing over for markers along chromosome VII is the same as that found in wild-type spores. rad52-327 complements rad52-2 for repair and sporulation. Weaker intragenic complementation occurs between rad52-327 and rad52-1. PMID:8417987

  3. Cdc6 Protein Activates p27KIP1-bound Cdk2 Protein Only after the Bound p27 Protein Undergoes C-terminal Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Yamamoto, Hanako; Park, Jung-ha; Mohanty, Atish R.; Arakawa-Takeuchi, Shiho; Jinno, Shigeki; Okayama, Hiroto

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian cells Cdk2 activity during the G1-S transition is mainly controlled by p27KIP1. Although the amount and subcellular localization of p27 influence Cdk2 activity, how Cdk2 activity is regulated during this phase transition still remains virtually unknown. Here we report an entirely new mechanism for this regulation. Cdc6 the AAA+ ATPase, known to assemble prereplicative complexes on chromosomal replication origins and activate p21CIP1-bound Cdk2, also activated p27-bound Cdk2 in its ATPase and cyclin binding motif-dependent manner but only after the p27 bound to the Cdk2 was phosphorylated at the C terminus. ROCK, which mediates a signal for cell anchorage to the extracellular matrix and activates the mTORC1 cascade as well as controls cytoskeleton assembly, was partly responsible for C-terminal phosphorylation of the p27. In vitro reconstitution demonstrated ROCK (Rho-associated kinase)-mediated phosphorylation of Cdk2-bound p27 at the C terminus and subsequent activation of the Cdk2 by Cdc6. PMID:22223646

  4. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor facilitates in vivo internalization of tetanus neurotoxin C-terminal fragment fusion proteins in mature mouse motor nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Roux, Sylvie; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Curie, Thomas; Girard, Emmanuelle; Miana Mena, Francisco-Javier; Barbier, Julien; Osta, Rosario; Molgó, Jordi; Brûlet, Philippe

    2006-09-01

    In a previous study it was reported that fusion proteins composed of the atoxic C-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin (TTC) and green fluorescent protein or beta-galactosidase (GFP-TTC and beta-gal-TTC, respectively) rapidly cluster at motor nerve terminals of the mouse neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Because this traffic involves presynaptic activity, probably via the secretion of active molecules, we examined whether it is affected by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Quantitative confocal microscopy and a fluorimetric assay for beta-gal activity revealed that co-injecting BDNF and the fusion proteins significantly increased the kinetics and amount of the proteins' localization at the NMJ and their internalization by motor nerve terminals. The observed increases were independent of synaptic vesicle recycling because BDNF did not affect spontaneous quantal acetylcholine release. In addition, injecting anti-BDNF antibody shortly before injecting GFP-TTC, and before co-injecting GFP-TTC and BDNF, significantly reduced the fusion protein's localization at the NMJ. Co-injecting GFP-TTC with neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) or glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), but not with nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 or ciliary neurotrophic factor, also significantly increased the fusion protein's localization at the NMJ. Thus, TTC probes may use for their neuronal internalization endocytic pathways normally stimulated by BDNF, NT-4 and GDNF binding. Different tyrosine kinase receptors with similar signalling pathways are activated by BDNF/NT-4 and GDNF binding. Thus, activated components of these signalling pathways may be involved in the TTC probes' internalization, perhaps by facilitating localization of receptors of TTC in specific membrane microdomains or by recruiting various factors needed for internalization of TTC. PMID:17004918

  5. Bipartite Topology of Treponema pallidum Repeat Proteins C/D and I: OUTER MEMBRANE INSERTION, TRIMERIZATION, AND PORIN FUNCTION REQUIRE A C-TERMINAL β-BARREL DOMAIN.

    PubMed

    Anand, Arvind; LeDoyt, Morgan; Karanian, Carson; Luthra, Amit; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G; Puthenveetil, Robbins; Vinogradova, Olga; Radolf, Justin D

    2015-05-01

    We previously identified Treponema pallidum repeat proteins TprC/D, TprF, and TprI as candidate outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and subsequently demonstrated that TprC is not only a rare OMP but also forms trimers and has porin activity. We also reported that TprC contains N- and C-terminal domains (TprC(N) and TprC(C)) orthologous to regions in the major outer sheath protein (MOSP(N) and MOSP(C)) of Treponema denticola and that TprC(C) is solely responsible for β-barrel formation, trimerization, and porin function by the full-length protein. Herein, we show that TprI also possesses bipartite architecture, trimeric structure, and porin function and that the MOSP(C)-like domains of native TprC and TprI are surface-exposed in T. pallidum, whereas their MOSP(N)-like domains are tethered within the periplasm. TprF, which does not contain a MOSP(C)-like domain, lacks amphiphilicity and porin activity, adopts an extended inflexible structure, and, in T. pallidum, is tightly bound to the protoplasmic cylinder. By thermal denaturation, the MOSP(N) and MOSP(C)-like domains of TprC and TprI are highly thermostable, endowing the full-length proteins with impressive conformational stability. When expressed in Escherichia coli with PelB signal sequences, TprC and TprI localize to the outer membrane, adopting bipartite topologies, whereas TprF is periplasmic. We propose that the MOSP(N)-like domains enhance the structural integrity of the cell envelope by anchoring the β-barrels within the periplasm. In addition to being bona fide T. pallidum rare outer membrane proteins, TprC/D and TprI represent a new class of dual function, bipartite bacterial OMP. PMID:25805501

  6. Natural immune response to the C-terminal 19-kilodalton domain of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Y P; Sayed, U; Qari, S H; Roberts, J M; Udhayakumar, V; Oloo, A J; Hawley, W A; Kaslow, D C; Nahlen, B L; Lal, A A

    1996-01-01

    We have characterized the natural immune responses to the 19-kDa domain of merozoite surface protein 1 in individuals from an area of western Kenya in which malaria is holoendemic. We used the three known natural variant forms of the yeast-expressed recombinant 19-kDa fragment that are referred to as the E-KNG, Q-KNG, and E-TSR antigens. T-cell proliferative responses in individuals older than 15 years and the profile of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody isotypes in individuals from 2 to 74 years old were determined. Positive proliferative responses to the Q-KNG antigen were observed for 54% of the individuals, and 37 and 35% of the individuals responded to the E-KNG and E-TSR constructs, respectively. Considerable heterogeneity in the T-cell proliferative responses to these three variant antigens was observed in different individuals, suggesting that the 19-kDa antigen may contain variant-specific T epitopes. Among responses of the different isotypes of the IgG antibody, IgG1 and IgG3 isotype responses were predominant, and the prevalence and levels of the responses increased with age. We also found that a higher level of IgG1 antibody response correlated with lower parasite density among young age groups, suggesting that IgG1 antibody response may play a role in protection against malaria. However, there was no correlation between the IgG3 antibody level and protection. Furthermore, we observed that although the natural antibodies cross-reacted with all three variant 19-kDa antigens, IgG3 antibodies in 12 plasma samples recognized only the E-KNG and Q-KNG constructs and not the E-TSR antigen. This result suggests that the fine specificity of IgG3 antibodies differentiates among variant-specific natural B-cell determinants in the second epidermal growth factor domain (KNG and TSR) of the antigen. PMID:8698500

  7. Cellular model of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) aggregation based on its C-terminal Gln/Asn-rich region.

    PubMed

    Budini, Mauricio; Buratti, Emanuele; Stuani, Cristiana; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Romano, Valentina; De Conti, Laura; Baralle, Francisco E

    2012-03-01

    TDP-43 is one of the major components of the neuronal and glial inclusions observed in several neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. These characteristic aggregates are a "landmark" of the disease, but their role in the pathogenesis is still obscure. In previous works, we have shown that the C-terminal Gln/Asn-rich region (residues 321-366) of TDP-43 is involved in the interaction of this protein with other members of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein protein family. Furthermore, we have shown that the interaction through this region is important for TDP-43 splicing inhibition of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator exon 9, and there were indications that it was involved in the aggregation process. Our experiments show that in cell lines and primary rat neuronal cultures, the introduction of tandem repeats carrying the 331-369-residue Gln/Asn region from TDP-43 can trigger the formation of phosphorylated and ubiquitinated aggregates that recapitulate many but not all the characteristics observed in patients. These results establish a much needed cell-based TDP-43 aggregation model useful to investigate the mechanisms involved in the formation of inclusions and the gain- and loss-of-function consequences of TDP-43 aggregation within cells. In addition, it will be a powerful tool to test novel therapeutic strategies/effectors aimed at preventing/reducing this phenomenon. PMID:22235134

  8. Specific interactions of C-terminal half (C-lobe) of lactoferrin protein with edible sugars: binding and structural studies with implications on diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mir, Rafia; Kumar, Ramasamy Prem; Singh, Nagendra; Vikram, Gopalakrishna Pillai; Sinha, Mau; Bhushan, Asha; Kaur, Punit; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P

    2010-07-01

    Bovine lactoferrin has been shown to reduce the levels of glucose in both normal subjects and non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. The binding studies have shown that various sugar molecules interact with lactoferrin indicating the presence of a sugar-binding site in the protein. Structural studies have revealed that the sugar-binding site is located in the C-terminal half (C-lobe) of bilobal lactoferrin. Since the sugar-binding site was part of the C-lobe, it was better to carry out binding and structural studies using C-lobe rather than the full protein molecule. Therefore, C-lobe was prepared by limited proteolysis of lactoferrin with enzyme proteinase K. It was purified to homogeneity for further studies. The addition of C-lobe to human serum showed significant lowering of glucose levels. The binding studies using C-lobe with nine sugars, glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, maltose, cellobiose, lactose, sucrose and dextrin gave values of binding constants in the range of 10(-4) to 10(-5)M. The structure determinations of the complexes of C-lobe with all the nine sugars showed that all of them interact with C-lobe through the same recognition site involving several hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. PMID:20371371

  9. Pinin interacts with C-terminal binding proteins for RNA alternative splicing and epithelial cell identity of human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanli; Kwok, Jamie Sui-Lam; Choi, Pui-Wah; Liu, Minghua; Yang, Junzheng; Singh, Margit; Ng, Shu-Kay; Welch, William R.; Muto, Michael G.; Tsui, Stephen KW; Sugrue, Stephen P.; Berkowitz, Ross S.; Ng, Shu-Wing

    2016-01-01

    Unlike many other human solid tumors, ovarian tumors express many epithelial markers at a high level for cell growth and local invasion. The phosphoprotein Pinin plays a key role in epithelial cell identity. We showed that clinical ovarian tumors and ovarian cancer cell lines express a high level of Pinin when compared with normal ovarian tissues and immortalized normal ovarian surface epithelial cell lines. Pinin co-localized and physically interacted with transcriptional corepressor C-terminal binding proteins, CtBP1 and CtBP2, in the nuclei of cancer cells. Knockdown of Pinin in ovarian cancer cells resulted in specific reduction of CtBP1 protein expression, cell adhesion, anchorage-independent growth, and increased drug sensitivity. Whole transcriptomic comparison of next-generation RNA sequencing data between control ovarian cancer cell lines and cancer cell lines with respective knockdown of Pinin, CtBP1, and CtBP2 expression also showed reduced expression of CtBP1 mRNA in the Pinin knockdown cell lines. The Pinin knockdown cell lines shared significant overlap of differentially expressed genes and RNA splicing aberrations with CtBP1 knockdown and in a lesser degree with CtBP2 knockdown cancer cells. Hence, Pinin and CtBP are oncotargets that closely interact with each other to regulate transcription and pre-mRNA alternative splicing and promote cell adhesion and other epithelial characteristics of ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26871283

  10. The Role of the Y Box Binding Protein 1 C-Terminal Domain in Vascular Endothelial Cell Proliferation, Apoptosis, and Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong-jie; Wang, Bing; Li, Ying; Qin, Yan; Zheng, Li-shuang; Zhou, Jin-sa; Qu, Peng-huan; Shi, Jian-hong; Zhang, Hai-song

    2016-01-01

    Different domains of the multifunctional transcription factor Y-box binding protein 1 (YB1) regulate proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis by transactivating or repressing the promoters of various genes. Here we report that the C-terminal domain of YB1 (YB1 CTD) is involved in endothelial cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tube formation. The oligo pull-down assays demonstrated that YB1 directly binds double-stranded GC box sequences in endothelial cells through the 125-220 amino acids. Adenovirus expression vectors harboring green fluorescent protein (GFP) or GFP-tagged YB1 CTD were constructed and used to infect EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Overexpression of the YB1 CTD significantly increased p21 expression, decreased cyclin B1 expression, and inhibited the proliferation of EA.hy926 cells. YB1 CTD overexpression also increased Bax and active caspase 3 expression, decreased Bcl-2 expression, and induced apoptosis in EA.hy926 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of the YB1 CTD significantly suppressed migration and tube formation in EA.hy926 cells. Finally, YB1 CTD decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in EA.hy926 cells. These findings demonstrated vital roles for YB1 in endothelial cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tube formation through transcriptional regulation of GC box-related genes. PMID:26430912

  11. Spacing requirements for interactions between the C-terminal domain of the alpha subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and the cAMP receptor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, G S; Busby, S J; Savery, N J

    1998-01-01

    During transcription initiation at bacterial promoters, the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit (alphaCTD) can interact with DNA-sequence elements (known as UP elements) and with activator proteins. We have constructed a series of semi-synthetic promoters carrying both an UP element and a consensus DNA-binding site for the Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein (CRP; a factor that activates transcription by making direct contacts with alphaCTD). At these promoters, the UP element was located at a variety of distances upstream of the CRP-binding site, which was fixed at position -41.5 bp upstream of the transcript start. At some positions, the UP element caused enhanced promoter activity whereas, at other positions, it had very little effect. In no case was the CRP-dependence of the promoter relieved. DNase I and hydroxyl-radical footprinting were used to study ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-promoter complexes formed at two of the most active of these promoters, and co-operativity between the binding of CRP and purified alpha subunits was studied. The footprints show that alphaCTD binds to the UP element as it is displaced upstream but that this displacement does not prevent alphaCTD from being contacted by CRP. Models to account for this are discussed. PMID:9461538

  12. The C-Terminal Arm of the Human Papillomavirus Major Capsid Protein Is Immunogenic and Involved in Virus-Host Interaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihai; Yan, Xiaodong; Yu, Hai; Wang, Daning; Song, Shuo; Li, Yunbing; He, Maozhou; Hong, Qiyang; Zheng, Qingbing; Zhao, Qinjian; Gu, Ying; Zhang, Jun; Janssen, Mandy E W; Cardone, Giovanni; Olson, Norman H; Baker, Timothy S; Li, Shaowei; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent malignant tumor among women worldwide. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are believed to be the major causative pathogens of mucosal epithelial cancers including cervical cancer. The HPV capsid is made up of 360 copies of major (L1) and 72 copies of minor (L2) capsid proteins. To date, limited high-resolution structural information about the HPV capsid has hindered attempts to understand details concerning the mechanisms by which HPV assembles and infects cells. In this study, we have constructed a pseudo-atomic model of the HPV59 L1-only capsid and demonstrate that the C-terminal arm of L1 participates in virus-host interactions. Moreover, when conjugated to a scaffold protein, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), this arm is immunogenic in vivo. These results provide new insights that will help elucidate HPV biology, and hence pave a way for the design of next-generation HPV vaccines. PMID:27276427

  13. Pinin interacts with C-terminal binding proteins for RNA alternative splicing and epithelial cell identity of human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanli; Kwok, Jamie Sui-Lam; Choi, Pui-Wah; Liu, Minghua; Yang, Junzheng; Singh, Margit; Ng, Shu-Kay; Welch, William R; Muto, Michael G; Tsui, Stephen Kw; Sugrue, Stephen P; Berkowitz, Ross S; Ng, Shu-Wing

    2016-03-01

    Unlike many other human solid tumors, ovarian tumors express many epithelial markers at a high level for cell growth and local invasion. The phosphoprotein Pinin plays a key role in epithelial cell identity. We showed that clinical ovarian tumors and ovarian cancer cell lines express a high level of Pinin when compared with normal ovarian tissues and immortalized normal ovarian surface epithelial cell lines. Pinin co-localized and physically interacted with transcriptional corepressor C-terminal binding proteins, CtBP1 and CtBP2, in the nuclei of cancer cells. Knockdown of Pinin in ovarian cancer cells resulted in specific reduction of CtBP1 protein expression, cell adhesion, anchorage-independent growth, and increased drug sensitivity. Whole transcriptomic comparison of next-generation RNA sequencing data between control ovarian cancer cell lines and cancer cell lines with respective knockdown of Pinin, CtBP1, and CtBP2 expression also showed reduced expression of CtBP1 mRNA in the Pinin knockdown cell lines. The Pinin knockdown cell lines shared significant overlap of differentially expressed genes and RNA splicing aberrations with CtBP1 knockdown and in a lesser degree with CtBP2 knockdown cancer cells. Hence, Pinin and CtBP are oncotargets that closely interact with each other to regulate transcription and pre-mRNA alternative splicing and promote cell adhesion and other epithelial characteristics of ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26871283

  14. The Zinc Finger and C-terminal Domains of MTA Proteins are Required for FOG-2 Mediated Transcriptional Repression via the NuRD Complex

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Andrea E.; Bassett, Brett J.; Samant, Sadhana A.; Hong, Wei; Blobel, Gerd A.; Svensson, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    FOG-2 is a transcriptional co-regulator that is required for cardiac morphogenesis as mice deficient in this factor die during mid-gestation of cardiac malformations. FOG-2 interacts with GATA4 to attenuate GATA4-dependent gene expression. The first 12 amino acids of FOG-2 (the FOG Repression Motif) are necessary to mediate this repression. To determine the mechanism by which the FOG Repression Motif functions, we identified 7 polypeptides from rat cardiac nuclear extracts that co-purified with a GST-FOG-2 fusion protein. All proteins identified are members of the NuRD nucleosome-remodeling complex. Using in vitro binding and co-immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrate that Metastasis-Associated proteins (MTA)-1, 2 and 3 and Retinoblastoma binding proteins RbAp46 and RbAp48 interact with FOG-2, but not with a mutant form of FOG-2 that is unable to repress transcription. Further, we define a novel domain located in the C-terminal portion of MTA-1 that mediates the FOG-2/MTA-1 interaction. We also demonstrate that knockdown of MTA protein expression dramatically impairs the ability of FOG-2 to repress GATA4 activity. Finally, we show that the zinc finger domain of MTA-1 is required for FOG-2 mediated transcriptional repression and that this domain interacts with RbAp46 and RbAp48 subunits of the NuRD complex. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of FOG-2/MTA/RbAp interactions for FOG-2 mediated transcriptional repression and further define the molecular interactions between the FOG Repression Motif and the NuRD complex. PMID:18067919

  15. The C-terminal silencing domain of Rap1p is essential for the repression of ribosomal protein genes in response to a defect in the secretory pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuta, K; Tsujii, R; Warner, J R; Nishiyama, M

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that a functional secretory pathway is essential for continued ribosome synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When a temperature-sensitive mutant defective in the secretory pathway is transferred to the non-permissive temperature, transcription of both rRNA genes and ribosomal protein genes is nearly abolished. In order to define the cis -acting element(s) of ribosomal protein genes sensitive to a defect in the secretory pathway, we have constructed a series of fusion genes containing the CYH2 promoter region, with various deletions, fused to lacZ. Each fusion gene for which transcription is detected is subject to the repression. Rap1p is the transcriptional activator for most ribosomal protein genes, as well as having an important role in silencing in the vicinity of telomeres and at the silent mating-type loci. To assess its role in the repression of transcription by the defect in the secretory pathway, we have introduced rap1 mutations. The replacement of wild-type Rap1p by Rap1p truncated at the C-terminal region caused substantial attenuation of the repression. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the Rap1p-truncation affects the repression of TCM1 , encoding ribosomal protein L3, which has no Rap1p-binding site in its upstream regulatory region. These results suggest that the repression of transcription of ribosomal protein genes by a secretory defect is mediated through Rap1p, but does not require a Rap1p-binding site within the UAS. PMID:9461469

  16. The unfolded state of the C-terminal domain of the ribosomal protein L9 contains both native and non-native structure.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bing; Eliezer, David; Raleigh, Daniel P

    2009-06-01

    Interest in the structural and dynamic properties of unfolded proteins has increased in recent years owing to continued interest in protein folding and misfolding. Knowledge of the unfolded state under native conditions is particularly important for obtaining a complete picture of the protein folding process. The C-terminal domain of protein L9 is a globular alpha, beta protein with an unusual mixed parallel and antiparallel beta-strand structure. The folding kinetics and equilibrium unfolding of CTL9 strongly depend on pH, and follow a simple two state model. Both the native and the unfolded state can be significantly populated at pH 3.8 in the absence of denaturant, allowing the native state and the unfolded state to be characterized under identical conditions. Backbone (15)N, (13)C, (1)H and side-chain (13)C(beta), (1)H(beta) chemical shifts, amide proton NOEs, and (15)N R(2) relaxation rates were obtained for the two conformational states at pH 3.8. All the data indicate that the pH 3.8 native state is well folded and is similar to the native state at neutral pH. There is significant residual structure in the pH 3.8 unfolded state. The regions corresponding to the two native state alpha-helices show strong preference to populate helical phi and psi angles. The segment that connects alpha-helix 2 and beta-strand 2 has a significant tendency to form non-native alpha-helical structure. Comparison with the pH 2.0 unfolded state and the urea unfolded state indicates that the tendency to adopt both native and non-native helical structure is stronger at pH 3.8, demonstrating that the unfolded state of CTL9 under native-like conditions is more structured. The implications for the folding of CTL9 are discussed. PMID:19301913

  17. Effect of N- and C-terminal deletions on the RNA N-glycosidase activity and the antigenicity of karasurin-A, a ribosome-inactivating protein from Trichosanthes kirilowii var. japonica.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Toshiya; Kurihara, Satoko; Yoshikawa, Takafumi; Mizukami, Hajime

    2004-12-01

    Karasurin-A, from root tubers of Trichosanthes kirilowii var. japonica, is a type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) that displays activity of RNA N-glycosidase to remove an adenine in the conserved sarcin/ricin loop of the largest RNA in the ribosome. We expressed recombinant proteins of karasurin-A and its various mutants with N- or C-terminal deletions in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with maltose-binding protein (MBP), and compared their enzymatic activities and antigenicities. Muteins of karasurin-A generated by deleting either the first 100 N-terminal or the last 30 C-terminal amino acid residues lost activity of RNA N-glycosidase. The mutant proteins whose 80 N-terminal or 20 C-terminal amino acids were deleted could depurinate rRNA although the activities were decreased drastically. The antigenicities of the recombinant proteins were considerably reduced by deleting 20 amino acid residues from either N- or C-terminal regions. PMID:15672231

  18. Structural Studies of the Transmembrane C-Terminal Domain of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP): Does APP Function as a Cholesterol Sensor?†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Beel, Andrew J.; Mobley, Charles K.; Kim, Hak Jun; Tian, Fang; Hadziselimovic, Arina; Jap, Bing; Prestegard, James H.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is subject to alternative pathways of proteolytic processing, leading either to production of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides or to non-amyloidogenic fragments. Here, we report the first structural study of C99, the 99-residue transmembrane C-terminal domain of APP liberated by β-secretase cleavage. We also show that cholesterol, an agent that promotes the amyloidogenic pathway, specifically binds to this protein. C99 was purified into model membranes where it was observed to homodimerize. NMR data show that the transmembrane domain of C99 is an α-helix that is flanked on both sides by mostly disordered extramembrane domains, with two exceptions. First, there is a short extracellular surface-associated helix located just after the site of α-secretase cleavage that helps to organize the connecting loop to the transmembrane domain, which is known to be essential for Aβ production. Second, there is a surface-associated helix located at the cytosolic C-terminus, adjacent to the YENPTY motif that plays critical roles in APP trafficking and protein–protein interactions. Cholesterol was seen to participate in saturable interactions with C99 that are centered at the critical loop connecting the extracellular helix to the transmembrane domain. Binding of cholesterol to C99 and, most likely, to APP may be critical for the trafficking of these proteins to cholesterol-rich membrane domains, which leads to cleavage by β- and γ-secretase and resulting amyloid-β production. It is proposed that APP may serve as a cellular cholesterol sensor that is linked to mechanisms for suppressing cellular cholesterol uptake. PMID:18702528

  19. Location and Flexibility of the Unique C-Terminal Tail of Aquifex aeolicus Co-Chaperonin Protein 10 as Derived by Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Biophysical Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong-Hua; Luke, Kathryn; Zhang, Junjie; Chiu, Wah; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2008-01-01

    Co-chaperonin protein 10 (cpn10, GroES in Escherichia coli) is a ring-shaped heptameric protein that facilitates substrate folding when in complex with cpn60 (GroEL in E. coli). The cpn10 from the hyperthermophilic, ancient bacterium Aquifex aeolicus (Aacpn10) has a 25-residue C-terminal extension in each monomer not found in any other cpn10 protein. Earlier in vitro work has shown that this tail is not needed for heptamer assembly or protein function. Without the tail, however, the heptamers (Aacpn10del-25) readily aggregate into fibrillar stacked rings. To explain this phenomenon, we performed binding experiments with a peptide construct of the tail to establish its specificity for Aacpn10del-25 and used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the GroEL–Aacpn10–ADP complex at an 8-Å resolution. We found that the GroEL–Aacpn10 structure is similar to the GroEL–GroES structure at this resolution, suggesting that Aacpn10 has molecular interactions with cpn60 similar to other cpn10s. The cryo-electron microscopy density map does not directly reveal the density of the Aacpn10 25-residue tail. However, the 3D statistical variance coefficient map computed from multiple 3D reconstructions with randomly selected particle images suggests that the tail is located at the Aacpn10 monomer–monomer interface and extends toward the cis-ring apical domain of GroEL. The tail at this location does not block the formation of a functional co-chaperonin/chaperonin complex but limits self-aggregation into linear fibrils at high temperatures. In addition, the 3D variance coefficient map identifies several regions inside the GroEL–Aacpn10 complex that have flexible conformations. This observation is in full agreement with the structural properties of an effective chaperonin. PMID:18588898

  20. The Coxiella burnetii Ankyrin Repeat Domain-Containing Protein Family Is Heterogeneous, with C-Terminal Truncations That Influence Dot/Icm-Mediated Secretion ▿

    PubMed Central

    Voth, Daniel E.; Howe, Dale; Beare, Paul A.; Vogel, Joseph P.; Unsworth, Nathan; Samuel, James E.; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterium that directs biogenesis of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) for replication. Effectors of PV maturation are likely translocated into the host cytosol by a type IV secretion system (T4SS) with homology to the Dot/Icm apparatus of Legionella pneumophila. Since secreted bacterial virulence factors often functionally mimic the activities of host proteins, prokaryotic proteins with eukaryotic features are considered candidate T4SS substrates. Genes encoding proteins with eukaryotic-type ankyrin repeat domains (Anks) were identified upon genome sequencing of the C. burnetii Nine Mile reference isolate, which is associated with a case of human acute Q fever. Interestingly, recent genome sequencing of the G and K isolates, derived from human chronic endocarditis patients, and of the Dugway rodent isolate revealed remarkable heterogeneity in the Ank gene family, with the Dugway isolate harboring the largest number of full-length Ank genes. Using L. pneumophila as a surrogate host, we identified 10 Dugway Anks and 1 Ank specific to the G and K endocarditis isolates translocated into the host cytosol in a Dot/Icm-dependent fashion. A 10-amino-acid C-terminal region appeared to be necessary for translocation, with some Anks also requiring the chaperone IcmS for secretion. Ectopically expressed Anks localized to a variety of subcellular regions in mammalian cells, including microtubules, mitochondria, and the PV membrane. Collectively, these data suggest that C. burnetii isolates translocate distinct subsets of the Ank protein family into the host cytosol, where they modulate diverse functions, some of which may be unique to C. burnetii pathotypes. PMID:19411324

  1. C-Terminal Helical Domains of Dengue Virus Type 4 E Protein Affect the Expression/Stability of prM Protein and Conformation of prM and E Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wen-Yang; Hsieh, Szu-Chia; Lai, Chih-Yun; Lin, Hong-En; Nerurkar, Vivek R.; Wang, Wei-Kung

    2012-01-01

    Background The envelope (E) protein of dengue virus (DENV) is the major immunogen for dengue vaccine development. At the C-terminus are two α-helices (EH1 and EH2) and two transmembrane domains (ET1 and ET2). After synthesis, E protein forms a heterodimer with the precursor membrane (prM) protein, which has been shown as a chaperone for E protein and could prevent premature fusion of E protein during maturation. Recent reports of enhancement of DENV infectivity by anti-prM monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) suggest the presence of prM protein in dengue vaccine is potentially harmful. A better understanding of prM-E interaction and its effect on recognition of E and prM proteins by different antibodies would provide important information for future design of safe and effective subunit dengue vaccines. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we examined a series of C-terminal truncation constructs of DENV4 prME, E and prM. In the absence of E protein, prM protein expressed poorly. In the presence of E protein, the expression of prM protein increased in a dose-dependent manner. Radioimmunoprecipitation, sucrose gradient sedimentation and pulse-chase experiments revealed ET1 and EH2 were involved in prM-E interaction and EH2 in maintaining the stability of prM protein. Dot blot assay revealed E protein affected the recognition of prM protein by an anti-prM mAb; truncation of EH2 or EH1 affected the recognition of E protein by several anti-E mAbs, which was further verified by capture ELISA. The E protein ectodomain alone can be recognized well by all anti-E mAbs tested. Conclusions/Significance A C-terminal domain (EH2) of DENV E protein can affect the expression and stability of its chaperone prM protein. These findings not only add to our understanding of the interaction between prM and E proteins, but also suggest the ectodomain of E protein alone could be a potential subunit immunogen without inducing anti-prM response. PMID:23300717

  2. Dephosphorylation of the linker regions of Smad1 and Smad2/3 by small C-terminal domain phosphatases has distinct outcomes for bone morphogenetic protein and transforming growth factor-beta pathways.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Gopal; Knockaert, Marie; Alarcón, Claudio; Montalvo, Ermelinda; Brivanlou, Ali H; Massagué, Joan

    2006-12-29

    Smad proteins transduce bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signals upon phosphorylation of their C-terminal SXS motif by receptor kinases. The activity of Smad1 in the BMP pathway and Smad2/3 in the TGFbeta pathway is restricted by pathway cross-talk and feedback through protein kinases, including MAPK, CDK2/4, p38MAPK, JNK, and others. These kinases phosphorylate Smads 1-3 at the region that links the N-terminal DNA-binding domain and the C-terminal transcriptional domain. Phosphatases that dephosphorylate the linker region are therefore likely to play an integral part in the regulation of Smad activity. We reported previously that small C-terminal domain phosphatases 1, 2, and 3 (SCP1-3) dephosphorylate Smad1 C-terminal tail, thereby attenuating BMP signaling. Here we provide evidence that SCP1-3 also dephosphorylate the linker regions of Smad1 and Smad2/3 in vitro, in mammalian cells and in Xenopus embryos. Overexpression of SCP 1, 2, or 3 decreased linker phosphorylation of Smads 1, 2 and 3. Moreover, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of SCP1/2 increased the BMP-dependent phosphorylation of the Smad1 linker region as well as the C terminus. In contrast, SCP1/2 knockdown increased the TGFbeta-dependent linker phosphorylation of Smad2/3 but not the C-terminal phosphorylation. Consequently, SCP1/2 knockdown inhibited TGFbeta transcriptional responses, but it enhanced BMP transcriptional responses. Thus, by dephosphorylating Smad2/3 at the linker (inhibitory) but not the C-terminal (activating) site, the SCPs enhance TGFbeta signaling, and by dephosphorylating Smad1 at both sites, the SCPs reset Smad1 to the basal unphosphorylated state. PMID:17085434

  3. Serum Concentrations of Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mondello, Stefania; Kobeissy, Firas; Vestri, Annarita; Hayes, Ronald L.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Berger, Rachel P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective reliable markers to assess traumatic brain injury (TBI) and predict outcome soon after injury are a highly needed tool for optimizing management of pediatric TBI. We assessed serum concentrations of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) in a cohort of 45 children with clinical diagnosis of TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] 3–15) and 40 healthy subjects, evaluated their associations with clinical characteristics and outcomes, and compared their performance to previously published data on two well-studied blood biomarkers, S100B and MBP. We observed higher serum levels of GFAP and UCH-L1 in brain-injured children compared with controls and also demonstrated a step-wise increase of biomarker concentrations over the continuum of severity from mild to severe TBI. Furthermore, while we found that only the neuronal biomarker UCH-L1 holds potential to detect acute intracranial lesions as assessed by computed tomography (CT), both markers were substantially increased in TBI patients even with a normal CT suggesting the presence of undetected microstructural injuries. Serum UCH-L1 and GFAP concentrations also strongly predicted poor outcome and performed better than S100B and MBP. Our results point to a role of GFAP and UCH-L1 as candidate biomarkers for pediatric TBI. Further studies are warranted. PMID:27319802

  4. The amyloid precursor protein C-terminal fragment C100 occurs in monomeric and dimeric stable conformations and binds γ-secretase modulators.

    PubMed

    Botev, Anne; Munter, Lisa-Marie; Wenzel, Ringo; Richter, Luise; Althoff, Veit; Ismer, Jochen; Gerling, Ulla; Weise, Christoph; Koksch, Beate; Hildebrand, Peter W; Bittl, Robert; Multhaup, Gerd

    2011-02-01

    The amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is contained within the C-terminal fragment (β-CTF) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and is intimately linked to Alzheimer's disease. In vivo, Aβ is generated by sequential cleavage of β-CTF within the γ-secretase module. To investigate γ-secretase function, in vitro assays are in widespread use which require a recombinant β-CTF substrate expressed in bacteria and purified from inclusion bodies, termed C100. So far, little is known about the conformation of C100 under different conditions of purification and refolding. Since C100 dimerization influences the efficiency and specificity of γ-secretase cleavage, it is also of great interest to determine the secondary structure and the oligomeric state of the synthetic substrate as well as the binding properties of small molecules named γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) which we could previously show to modulate APP transmembrane sequence interactions [Richter et al. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 14597-14602]. Here, we use circular dichroism and continuous-wave electron spin resonance measurements to show that C100 purified in a buffer containing SDS at micelle-forming concentrations adopts a highly stable α-helical conformation, in which it shows little tendency to aggregate or to form higher oligomers than dimers. By surface plasmon resonance analysis and molecular modeling we show that the GSM sulindac sulfide binds to C100 and has a preference for C100 dimers. PMID:21186781

  5. Serum Concentrations of Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Mondello, Stefania; Kobeissy, Firas; Vestri, Annarita; Hayes, Ronald L; Kochanek, Patrick M; Berger, Rachel P

    2016-01-01

    Objective reliable markers to assess traumatic brain injury (TBI) and predict outcome soon after injury are a highly needed tool for optimizing management of pediatric TBI. We assessed serum concentrations of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) in a cohort of 45 children with clinical diagnosis of TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] 3-15) and 40 healthy subjects, evaluated their associations with clinical characteristics and outcomes, and compared their performance to previously published data on two well-studied blood biomarkers, S100B and MBP. We observed higher serum levels of GFAP and UCH-L1 in brain-injured children compared with controls and also demonstrated a step-wise increase of biomarker concentrations over the continuum of severity from mild to severe TBI. Furthermore, while we found that only the neuronal biomarker UCH-L1 holds potential to detect acute intracranial lesions as assessed by computed tomography (CT), both markers were substantially increased in TBI patients even with a normal CT suggesting the presence of undetected microstructural injuries. Serum UCH-L1 and GFAP concentrations also strongly predicted poor outcome and performed better than S100B and MBP. Our results point to a role of GFAP and UCH-L1 as candidate biomarkers for pediatric TBI. Further studies are warranted. PMID:27319802

  6. Identification of a pathogenicity determinant of Plum pox virus in the sequence encoding the C-terminal region of protein P3+6K(1).

    PubMed

    Sáenz, P; Cervera, M T; Dallot, S; Quiot, L; Quiot, J B; Riechmann, J L; García, J A

    2000-03-01

    A full-length genomic cDNA clone of a plum pox potyvirus (PPV) isolate belonging to the M strain (PPV-PS) has been cloned downstream from a bacteriophage T7 polymerase promoter and sequenced. Transcripts from the resulting plasmid, pGPPVPS, were infectious and, in herbaceous hosts, produced symptoms that differed from those of virus progeny of pGPPV, a full-length genomic cDNA clone of the D strain PPV-R. Viable PPV-R/-PS chimeric viruses were constructed by recombination of the cDNA clones in vitro. Analysis of plants infected with the different chimeras indicated that sequences encoding the most variable regions of the potyvirus genome, the P1 and capsid protein coding sequences, were not responsible for symptom differences between the two PPV isolates in herbaceous hosts. On the contrary, complex symptomatology determinants seem to be located in the central region of the PPV genome. The results indicate that a genomic fragment that encodes 173 aa from the C-terminal part of the P3+6K(1) coding region is enough to confer, on a PPV-R background, a PS phenotype in Nicotiana clevelandii. This pathogenicity determinant also participates in symptom induction in Pisum sativum, although the region defining the PS phenotype in this host is probably restricted to 74 aa. PMID:10675393

  7. Interaction between Prion Protein's Copper-Bound Octarepeat Domain and a Charged C-Terminal Pocket Suggests a Mechanism for N-Terminal Regulation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Eric G B; Pushie, M Jake; Markham, Kate A; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Millhauser, Glenn L

    2016-07-01

    Copper plays a critical role in prion protein (PrP) physiology. Cu(2+) binds with high affinity to the PrP N-terminal octarepeat (OR) domain, and intracellular copper promotes PrP expression. The molecular details of copper coordination within the OR are now well characterized. Here we examine how Cu(2+) influences the interaction between the PrP N-terminal domain and the C-terminal globular domain. Using nuclear magnetic resonance and copper-nitroxide pulsed double electron-electron resonance, with molecular dynamics refinement, we localize the position of Cu(2+) in its high-affinity OR-bound state. Our results reveal an interdomain cis interaction that is stabilized by a conserved, negatively charged pocket of the globular domain. Interestingly, this interaction surface overlaps an epitope recognized by the POM1 antibody, the binding of which drives rapid cerebellar degeneration mediated by the PrP N terminus. The resulting structure suggests that the globular domain regulates the N-terminal domain by binding the Cu(2+)-occupied OR within a complementary pocket. PMID:27265848

  8. Fluorine-18 labeling of proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbourn, M.R.; Dence, C.S.; Welch, M.J.; Mathias, C.J.

    1987-04-01

    Two fluorine-18-labeled reagents, methyl 3-(/sup 18/F)fluoro-5-nitrobenzimidate and 4-(/sup 18/F)fluorophenacyl bromide, have been prepared for covalent attachment of fluorine-18 to proteins. Both reagents can be prepared in moderate yields (30-50%, EOB) in synthesis times of 50-70 min. Reaction of these reagents with proteins (human serum albumin, human fibrinogen, and human immunoglobulin A) is pH independent, protein concentration dependent, and takes 5-60 min at mild pH (8.0) and temperature (25-37 degrees C), in yields up to 95% (corrected). The /sup 18/F-labeled proteins are purified by size exclusion chromatography.

  9. The Small C-terminal Domain Phosphatase 1 Inhibits Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion by Dephosphorylating Ser(P)68-Twist1 to Accelerate Twist1 Protein Degradation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Fu, Junjiang; Shen, Tao; Lin, Xia; Liao, Lan; Feng, Xin-Hua; Xu, Jianming

    2016-05-27

    Twist1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that strongly promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, migration, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells. The MAPK-phosphorylated Twist1 on its serine 68 (Ser(P)(68)-Twist1) has a significantly enhanced stability and function to drive cancer cell invasion and metastasis. However, the phosphatase that dephosphorylates Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 and destabilizes Twist1 has not been identified and characterized. In this study, we screened a serine/threonine phosphatase cDNA expression library in HEK293T cells with ectopically coexpressed Twist1. We found that the small C-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (SCP1) specifically dephosphorylates Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 in both cell-free reactions and living cells. SCP1 uses its amino acid residues 43-63 to interact with the N terminus of Twist1. Increased SCP1 expression in cells decreased Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 and total Twist1 proteins, whereas knockdown of SCP1 increased Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 and total Twist1 proteins. Furthermore, the levels of SCP1 are negatively correlated with Twist1 protein levels in several cancer cell lines. SCP1-dephosphorylated Twist1 undergoes fast degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Importantly, an increase in SCP1 expression in breast cancer cells with either endogenous or ectopically expressed Twist1 largely inhibits the Twist1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype and the migration and invasion capabilities of these cells. These results indicate that SCP1 is the phosphatase that counterregulates the MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of Ser(68)-Twist1. Thus, an increase in SCP1 expression and activity may be a useful strategy for eliminating the detrimental roles of Twist1 in cancer cells. PMID:26975371

  10. Role of the C-terminal Extension of Formin 2 in Its Activation by Spire Protein and Processive Assembly of Actin Filaments.

    PubMed

    Montaville, Pierre; Kühn, Sonja; Compper, Christel; Carlier, Marie-France

    2016-02-12

    Formin 2 (Fmn2), a member of the FMN family of formins, plays an important role in early development. This formin cooperates with profilin and Spire, a WASP homology domain 2 (WH2) repeat protein, to stimulate assembly of a dynamic cytoplasmic actin meshwork that facilitates translocation of the meiotic spindle in asymmetric division of mouse oocytes. The kinase-like non-catalytic domain (KIND) of Spire directly interacts with the C-terminal extension of the formin homology domain 2 (FH2) domain of Fmn2, called FSI. This direct interaction is required for the synergy between the two proteins in actin assembly. We have recently demonstrated how Spire, which caps barbed ends via its WH2 domains, activates Fmn2. Fmn2 by itself associates very poorly to filament barbed ends but is rapidly recruited to Spire-capped barbed ends via the KIND domain, and it subsequently displaces Spire from the barbed end to elicit rapid processive assembly from profilin·actin. Here, we address the mechanism by which Spire and Fmn2 compete at barbed ends and the role of FSI in orchestrating this competition as well as in the processivity of Fmn2. We have combined microcalorimetric, fluorescence, and hydrodynamic binding assays, as well as bulk solution and single filament measurements of actin assembly, to show that removal of FSI converts Fmn2 into a Capping Protein. This activity is mimicked by association of KIND to Fmn2. In addition, FSI binds actin at filament barbed ends as a weak capper and plays a role in displacing the WH2 domains of Spire from actin, thus allowing the association of actin-binding regions of FH2 to the barbed end. PMID:26668326

  11. MicroRNA-212 Regulates the Expression of Olfactomedin 1 and C-Terminal Binding Protein 1 in Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells to Enhance Spheroid Attachment In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; So, Kam-Hei; Kodithuwakku, Suranga P; Ng, Ernest H Y; Yeung, William S B; Lee, Kai-Fai

    2015-11-01

    Successful embryo implantation requires a synchronized dialogue between a competent blastocyst and the receptive endometrium, which occurs in a limited time period known as the "window of implantation." Recent studies suggested that down-regulation of olfactomedin 1 (OLFM1) in the endometrium and fallopian tube is associated with receptive endometrium and tubal ectopic pregnancy in humans. Interestingly, the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induces miR-212 expression, which modulates OLFM1 and C-terminal binding protein 1 (CTBP1) expressions in mouse granulosa cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that embryo-derived hCG would increase miR-212 expression and down-regulate OLFM1 and CTBP1 expressions to favor embryo attachment onto the female reproductive tract. We found that hCG stimulated the expression of miR-212 and down-regulated OLFM1 but not CTBP1 mRNA in both human endometrial (Ishikawa) and fallopian (OE-E6/E7) epithelial cells. However, hCG suppressed the expression of OLFM1 and CTBP1 proteins in both cell lines. The 3'UTR of both OLFM1 and CTBP1 contained binding sites for miR-212. The miR-212 precursor suppressed luciferase expression, whereas the miR-212 inhibitor stimulated luciferase expression of the wild-type (WT)-OLFM1 and WT-CTBP1 reporter constructs. Furthermore, hCG (25 IU/ml) treatments stimulated trophoblastic (Jeg-3) spheroid (blastocyst surrogate) attachment onto Ishikawa and OE-E6/E7 cells. Transfection of miR-212 precursor increased Jeg-3 spheroid attachment onto Ishikawa cells and decreased OLFM1 and CTBP1 protein expressions, whereas the opposite occurred with miR-212 inhibitor. Taken together, hCG stimulated miR-212, which in turn down-regulated OLFM1 and CTBP1 expression in fallopian and endometrial epithelial cells to favor spheroid attachment. PMID:26377223

  12. Nuclear Trafficking of the Rabies Virus Interferon Antagonist P-Protein Is Regulated by an Importin-Binding Nuclear Localization Sequence in the C-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Caitlin L.; Wagstaff, Kylie M.; Oksayan, Sibil; Glover, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    Rabies virus P-protein is expressed as five isoforms (P1-P5) which undergo nucleocytoplasmic trafficking important to roles in immune evasion. Although nuclear import of P3 is known to be mediated by an importin (IMP)-recognised nuclear localization sequence in the N-terminal region (N-NLS), the mechanisms underlying nuclear import of other P isoforms in which the N-NLS is inactive or has been deleted have remained unresolved. Based on the previous observation that mutation of basic residues K214/R260 of the P-protein C-terminal domain (P-CTD) can result in nuclear exclusion of P3, we used live cell imaging, protein interaction analysis and in vitro nuclear transport assays to examine in detail the nuclear trafficking properties of this domain. We find that the effect of mutation of K214/R260 on P3 is largely dependent on nuclear export, suggesting that nuclear exclusion of mutated P3 involves the P-CTD-localized nuclear export sequence (C-NES). However, assays using cells in which nuclear export is pharmacologically inhibited indicate that these mutations significantly inhibit P3 nuclear accumulation and, importantly, prevent nuclear accumulation of P1, suggestive of effects on NLS-mediated import activity in these isoforms. Consistent with this, molecular binding and transport assays indicate that the P-CTD mediates IMPα2/IMPβ1-dependent nuclear import by conferring direct binding to the IMPα2/IMPβ1 heterodimer, as well as to a truncated form of IMPα2 lacking the IMPβ-binding autoinhibitory domain (ΔIBB-IMPα2), and IMPβ1 alone. These properties are all dependent on K214 and R260. This provides the first evidence that P-CTD contains a genuine IMP-binding NLS, and establishes the mechanism by which P-protein isoforms other than P3 can be imported to the nucleus. These data underpin a refined model for P-protein trafficking that involves the concerted action of multiple NESs and IMP-binding NLSs, and highlight the intricate regulation of P-protein

  13. Nuclear Trafficking of the Rabies Virus Interferon Antagonist P-Protein Is Regulated by an Importin-Binding Nuclear Localization Sequence in the C-Terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Caitlin L; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Oksayan, Sibil; Glover, Dominic J; Jans, David A; Moseley, Gregory W

    2016-01-01

    Rabies virus P-protein is expressed as five isoforms (P1-P5) which undergo nucleocytoplasmic trafficking important to roles in immune evasion. Although nuclear import of P3 is known to be mediated by an importin (IMP)-recognised nuclear localization sequence in the N-terminal region (N-NLS), the mechanisms underlying nuclear import of other P isoforms in which the N-NLS is inactive or has been deleted have remained unresolved. Based on the previous observation that mutation of basic residues K214/R260 of the P-protein C-terminal domain (P-CTD) can result in nuclear exclusion of P3, we used live cell imaging, protein interaction analysis and in vitro nuclear transport assays to examine in detail the nuclear trafficking properties of this domain. We find that the effect of mutation of K214/R260 on P3 is largely dependent on nuclear export, suggesting that nuclear exclusion of mutated P3 involves the P-CTD-localized nuclear export sequence (C-NES). However, assays using cells in which nuclear export is pharmacologically inhibited indicate that these mutations significantly inhibit P3 nuclear accumulation and, importantly, prevent nuclear accumulation of P1, suggestive of effects on NLS-mediated import activity in these isoforms. Consistent with this, molecular binding and transport assays indicate that the P-CTD mediates IMPα2/IMPβ1-dependent nuclear import by conferring direct binding to the IMPα2/IMPβ1 heterodimer, as well as to a truncated form of IMPα2 lacking the IMPβ-binding autoinhibitory domain (ΔIBB-IMPα2), and IMPβ1 alone. These properties are all dependent on K214 and R260. This provides the first evidence that P-CTD contains a genuine IMP-binding NLS, and establishes the mechanism by which P-protein isoforms other than P3 can be imported to the nucleus. These data underpin a refined model for P-protein trafficking that involves the concerted action of multiple NESs and IMP-binding NLSs, and highlight the intricate regulation of P-protein

  14. Evidence against extracellular exposure of a highly immunogenic region in the C-terminal domain of the simian immunodeficiency virus gp41 transmembrane protein.

    PubMed

    Postler, Thomas S; Martinez-Navio, José M; Yuste, Eloísa; Desrosiers, Ronald C

    2012-01-01

    The generally accepted model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein topology includes a single membrane-spanning domain. An alternate model has been proposed which features multiple membrane-spanning domains. Consistent with the alternate model, a high percentage of HIV-1-infected individuals produce unusually robust antibody responses to a region of envelope, the so-called "Kennedy epitope," that in the conventional model should be in the cytoplasm. Here we show analogous, robust antibody responses in simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques to a region of SIVmac239 envelope located in the C-terminal domain, which in the conventional model should be inside the cell. Sera from SIV-infected rhesus macaques consistently reacted with overlapping oligopeptides corresponding to a region located within the cytoplasmic domain of gp41 by the generally accepted model, at intensities comparable to those observed for immunodominant areas of the surface component gp120. Rabbit serum raised against this highly immunogenic region (HIR) reacted with SIV envelope in cell surface-staining experiments, as did monoclonal anti-HIR antibodies isolated from an SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaque. However, control experiments demonstrated that this surface staining could be explained in whole or in part by the release of envelope protein from expressing cells into the supernatant and the subsequent attachment to the surfaces of cells in the culture. Serum and monoclonal antibodies directed against the HIR failed to neutralize even the highly neutralization-sensitive strain SIVmac316. Furthermore, a potential N-linked glycosylation site located close to the HIR and postulated to be outside the cell in the alternate model was not glycosylated. An artificially introduced glycosylation site within the HIR was also not utilized for glycosylation. Together, these data support the conventional model of SIV envelope as a type Ia transmembrane

  15. A Comprehensive Sequence and Disease Correlation Analyses for the C-Terminal Region of CagA Protein of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Youlin; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Zhu, Qi; Matha, Ivan; Gao, Xiaolian

    2009-01-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is known to be associated with the development of peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and gastric lymphoma. Currently, the bacterial factors of H. pylori are reported to be important in the development of gastroduodenal diseases. CagA protein, encoded by the cagA, is the best studied virulence factor of H. pylori. The pathogenic CagA protein contains a highly polymorphic Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) repeat region in the C-terminal. This repeat region is reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal diseases. The segments containing EPIYA motifs have been designated as segments A, B, C, and D; however the classification and disease relation are still unclear. This study used 560 unique CagA sequences containing 1,796 EPIYA motifs collected from public resources, including 274 Western and 286 East Asian strains with clinical data obtained from 433 entries. Fifteen types of EPIYA or EPIYA-like sequences are defined. In addition to four previously reported major segment types, several minor segment types (e.g., segment B′, B′′) and more than 30 sequence types (e.g., ABC, ABD) were defined using our classification method. We confirm that the sequences from Western and East Asian strains contain segment C and D, respectively. We also confirm that strains with two EPIYA segment C have a greater chance of developing gastric cancer than those with one segment C. Our results shed light on the relationships between the types of CagAs, the country of origin of each sequence type, and the frequency of gastric disease. PMID:19893742

  16. Identification of T cell autoepitopes that cross-react with the C-terminal segment of the M protein of group A streptococci.

    PubMed

    Pruksakorn, S; Currie, B; Brandt, E; Phornphutkul, C; Hunsakunachai, S; Manmontri, A; Robinson, J H; Kehoe, M A; Galbraith, A; Good, M F

    1994-08-01

    Rheumatic fever (RF) follows a throat infection with different M-serotypes of beta-hemolytic group A streptococci (GAS) and can affect different tissues, predominantly the heart. It is thought to be an autoimmune illness. Although histological examination of affected heart shows an infiltrate consisting mainly of T cells, antigens or epitopes that could be putative targets of autoimmune T cells have not been identified. We have examined the T cell response to the conserved C-terminal region of the M protein--a streptococcal surface coiled-coil protein which is the target of opsonic antibodies and antibodies which cross-react with human heart tissue. Australian Aborigine, Caucasian and Thai patients, controls and mice were studied to define regions of the protein immunogenic for T cells, and T cell lines and clones were tested for cross-reactivity to myosin as well as an extract of RF-diseased mitral heart valve. Murine (B10, B10.D2, B10.BR) M peptide-specific T cells were often cross-reactive for other M peptides but did not cross-react with human heart antigens. Patients with RF or other heart diseases, or control subjects exposed more commonly to GAS were more likely to have T cell responses to the M protein, with many regions of the C-terminus being recognized. T cell lines and a clone specific for different M peptides were generated from five donors. Cross-reactivity could be shown between different M peptides, but unlike murine M peptide-specific T cells three of the human T cell lines reacted strongly to peptides representing homologous regions of cardiac and skeletal muscle myosins, and two of these lines also responded to porcine myosin and an extract of human rheumatic mitral valve. However, these last two lines were derived from a normal donor without history of RF or other heart disease. Our data demonstrate that regions of the M protein, including regions that are being considered as subunit vaccines, have the potential to stimulate pre-existing heart

  17. Production, characterisation and immunogenicity of a plant-made Plasmodium antigen--the 19 kDa C-terminal fragment of Plasmodium yoelii merozoite surface protein 1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Charles; Wang, Lina; Webster, Diane E; Campbell, Alison E; Coppel, Ross L

    2012-04-01

    Development of a safe, effective and affordable malaria vaccine is central to global disease control efforts. One of the most highly regarded proteins for inclusion in an asexual blood stage subunit vaccine is the 19-kDa C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1(19)). As production of vaccine antigens in plants can potentially overcome cost and delivery hurdles, we set out to produce MSP1(19) in plants, characterise the protein and test its immunogenicity using a mouse model. Plasmodium yoelii MSP1(19) (PyMSP1(19)) was produced in Nicotiana benthamiana using the MagnICON® deconstructed TMV-based viral vector. PyMSP1(19) yield of at least 23% total soluble protein (TSP;3-4 mg/g Fwt) were achieved using a codon-optimised construct that was targeted to the apoplast. Freeze-dried leaf powder contained at least 20 mg PyMSP1(19) per gram dry weight and the protein retained immunogenicity in this form for more than 2 years. Characterisation studies, including SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry and circular dichroism, indicated that the plant-expressed PyMSP1(19) was similar to its Escherichia coli- and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-expressed counterparts. Purified plant-made PyMSP1(19) induced strong immune responses following intraperitoneal immunisation, although titres were lower than those induced by an equivalent dose of purified E. coli-expressed PyMSP1(19). The reason for this is uncertain but may be due to differences in the oligomerisation profile of the vaccines. The plant-made PyMSP1(19) vaccine was also found to be orally immunogenic when delivered alone or following immunisation with a PyMSP1(19) DNA vaccine. This study adds to an increasing body of research supporting the feasibility of plants as both a factory for the production of malaria antigens, and as a safe and affordable platform for oral delivery of a temperature-stable malaria vaccine. PMID:22170105

  18. Characterization of the Zn(II) Binding Properties of the Human Wilms’ Tumor Suppressor Protein C-terminal Zinc Finger Peptide

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc finger proteins that bind Zn(II) using a Cys2His2 coordination motif within a ββα protein fold are the most abundant DNA binding transcription factor domains in eukaryotic systems. These classic zinc fingers are typically unfolded in the apo state and spontaneously fold into their functional ββα folds upon incorporation of Zn(II). These metal-induced protein folding events obscure the free energy cost of protein folding by coupling the protein folding and metal-ion binding thermodynamics. Herein, we determine the formation constant of a Cys2His2/ββα zinc finger domain, the C-terminal finger of the Wilms’ tumor suppressor protein (WT1-4), for the purposes of determining its free energy cost of protein folding. Measurements of individual conditional dissociation constants, Kd values, at pH values from 5 to 9 were determined using fluorescence spectroscopy by direct or competition titration. Potentiometric titrations of apo-WT1-4 followed by NMR spectroscopy provided the intrinsic pKa values of the Cys2His2 residues, and corresponding potentiometric titrations of Zn(II)–WT1-4 followed by fluorescence spectroscopy yielded the effective pKaeff values of the Cys2His2 ligands bound to Zn(II). The Kd, pKa, and pKaeff values were combined in a minimal, complete equilibrium model to yield the pH-independent formation constant value for Zn(II)–WT1-4, KfML value of 7.5 × 1012 M–1, with a limiting Kd value of 133 fM. This shows that Zn(II) binding to the Cys2His2 site in WT1-4 provides at least −17.6 kcal/mol in driving force to fold the protein scaffold. A comparison of the conditional dissociation constants of Zn(II)–WT1-4 to those from the model peptide Zn(II)–GGG–Cys2His2 over the pH range 5.0 to 9.0 and a comparison of their pH-independent KfML values demonstrates that the free energy cost of protein folding in WT1-4 is less than +2.1 kcal/mol. These results validate our GGG model system for determining the cost of protein folding in natural

  19. HC fragment (C-terminal portion of the heavy chain) of tetanus toxin activates protein kinase C isoforms and phosphoproteins involved in signal transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Gil, C; Chaib-Oukadour, I; Blasi, J; Aguilera, J

    2001-01-01

    A recent report [Gil, Chaib-Oukadour, Pelliccioni and Aguilera (2000) FEBS Lett. 481, 177-182] describes activation of signal transduction pathways by tetanus toxin (TeTx), a Zn(2+)-dependent endopeptidase synthesized by the Clostridium tetani bacillus, which is responsible for tetanus disease. In the present work, specific activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and of intracellular signal-transduction pathways, which include nerve-growth-factor (NGF) receptor trkA, phospholipase C(PLC)gamma-1 and extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, by the recombinant C-terminal portion of the TeTx heavy chain (H(C)-TeTx) is reported. The activation of PKC isoforms was assessed through their translocation from the soluble (cytosolic) compartment to the membranous compartment, showing that clear translocation of PKC-alpha, -beta, -gamma and -delta isoforms exists, whereas PKC-epsilon showed a slight decrease in its soluble fraction immunoreactivity. The PKC-zeta isoform showed no consistent response. Using immunoprecipitation assays against phosphotyrosine residues, time- and dose-dependent increases in tyrosine phosphorylation were observed in the trkA receptor, PLCgamma-1 and ERK-1/2. The effects shown by the H(C)-TeTx fragment on tyrosine phosphorylation were compared with the effects produced by NGF. The trkA and ERK-1/2 activation were corroborated using phospho-specific antibodies against trkA phosphorylated on Tyr(490), and antibodies against Thr/Tyr phosphorylated ERK-1/2. Moreover, PLCgamma-1 phosphorylation was supported by its H(C)-TeTx-induced translocation to the membranous compartment, an event related to PLCgamma-1 activation. Since H(C)-TeTx is the domain responsible for membrane binding and lacks catalytic activity, the activations described here must be exclusively triggered by the interaction of TeTx with a membrane component. PMID:11336640

  20. Modulation of Amyloid β-Protein (Aβ) Assembly by Homologous C-Terminal Fragments as a Strategy for Inhibiting Aβ Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyuan; Rahimi, Farid; Bitan, Gal

    2016-07-20

    Self-assembly of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) into neurotoxic oligomers and fibrillar aggregates is a key process thought to be the proximal event leading to development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, numerous attempts have been made to develop reagents that disrupt this process and prevent the formation of the toxic oligomers and aggregates. An attractive strategy for developing such reagents is to use peptides derived from Aβ based on the assumption that such peptides would bind to full-length Aβ, interfere with binding of additional full-length molecules, and thereby prevent formation of the toxic species. Guided by this rationale, most of the studies in the last two decades have focused on preventing formation of the core cross-β structure of Aβ amyloid fibrils using β-sheet-breaker peptides derived from the central hydrophobic cluster of Aβ. Though this approach is effective in inhibiting fibril formation, it is generally inefficient in preventing Aβ oligomerization. An alternative approach is to use peptides derived from the C-terminus of Aβ, which mediates both oligomerization and fibrillogenesis. This approach has been explored by several groups, including our own, and led to the discovery of several lead peptides with moderate to high inhibitory activity. Interestingly, the mechanisms of these inhibitory effects have been found to be diverse, and only in a small percentage of cases involved interference with β-sheet formation. Here, we review the strategy of using C-terminal fragments of Aβ as modulators of Aβ assembly and discuss the relevant challenges, therapeutic potential, and mechanisms of action of such fragments. PMID:27322435

  1. CDKF;1 and CDKD protein kinases regulate phosphorylation of serine residues in the C-terminal domain of Arabidopsis RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Hajheidari, Mohsen; Farrona, Sara; Huettel, Bruno; Koncz, Zsuzsa; Koncz, Csaba

    2012-04-01

    Phosphorylation of conserved Y₁S₂P₃T₄S₅P₆S₇ repeats in the C-terminal domain of largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII CTD) plays a central role in the regulation of transcription and cotranscriptional RNA processing. Here, we show that Ser phosphorylation of Arabidopsis thaliana RNAPII CTD is governed by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE F;1 (CDKF;1), a unique plant-specific CTD S₇-kinase. CDKF;1 is required for in vivo activation of functionally redundant CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE Ds (CDKDs), which are major CTD S₅-kinases that also phosphorylate in vitro the S₂ and S₇ CTD residues. Inactivation of CDKF;1 causes extreme dwarfism and sterility. Inhibition of CTD S₇-phosphorylation in germinating cdkf;1 seedlings is accompanied by 3'-polyadenylation defects of pre-microRNAs and transcripts encoding key regulators of small RNA biogenesis pathways. The cdkf;1 mutation also decreases the levels of both precursor and mature small RNAs without causing global downregulation of the protein-coding transcriptome and enhances the removal of introns that carry pre-microRNA stem-loops. A triple cdkd knockout mutant is not viable, but a combination of null and weak cdkd;3 alleles in a triple cdkd123* mutant permits semidwarf growth. Germinating cdkd123* seedlings show reduced CTD S₅-phosphorylation, accumulation of uncapped precursor microRNAs, and a parallel decrease in mature microRNA. During later development of cdkd123* seedlings, however, S₇-phosphorylation and unprocessed small RNA levels decline similarly as in the cdkf;1 mutant. Taken together, cotranscriptional processing and stability of a set of small RNAs and transcripts involved in their biogenesis are sensitive to changes in the phosphorylation of RNAPII CTD by CDKF;1 and CDKDs. PMID:22547781

  2. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin-binding protein G from Streptococcus. IV. Implication for the mechanism of folding of the parent protein.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanislaw; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A

    2010-05-01

    A 34-residue alpha/beta peptide [IG(28-61)], derived from the C-terminal part of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus, was studied using CD and NMR spectroscopy at various temperatures and by differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that the C-terminal part (a 16-residue-long fragment) of this peptide, which corresponds to the sequence of the beta-hairpin in the native structure, forms structure similar to the beta-hairpin only at T = 313 K, and the structure is stabilized by non-native long-range hydrophobic interactions (Val47-Val59). On the other hand, the N-terminal part of IG(28-61), which corresponds to the middle alpha-helix in the native structure, is unstructured at low temperature (283 K) and forms an alpha-helix-like structure at 305 K, and only one helical turn is observed at 313 K. At all temperatures at which NMR experiments were performed (283, 305, and 313 K), we do not observe any long-range connectivities which would have supported packing between the C-terminal (beta-hairpin) and the N-terminal (alpha-helix) parts of the sequence. Such interactions are absent, in contrast to the folding pathway of the B domain of protein G, proposed recently by Kmiecik and Kolinski (Biophys J 2008, 94, 726-736), based on Monte-Carlo dynamics studies. Alternative folding mechanisms are proposed and discussed. PMID:20049918

  3. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. Part IV. Implication for the mechanism of folding of the parent protein

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2010-01-01

    A 34-residue α/β peptide, [IG(28-61)], derived from the C-terminal part of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus was studied using CD and NMR spectroscopy at various temperatures, and by differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that the C-terminal part (a 16-residue-long fragment) of this peptide, which corresponds to the sequence of the β-hairpin in the native structure, forms structure similar to the β-hairpin only at T = 313 K, and the structure is stabilized by non-native long-range hydrophobic interactions (Val47 – Val59). On the other hand, the N-terminal part of IG(28-61), which corresponds to the middle α-helix in the native structure, is unstructured at low temperature (283 K), and forms an α-helix-like structure at 305 K and only one helical turn is observed at 313 K. At all temperatures at which NMR experiments were performed (283, 305 and 313 K), we do not observe any long-range connectivities which would have supported packing between the C-terminal (β-hairpin) and the N-terminal (α-helix) parts of the sequence. Such interactions are absent, in contrast to the folding pathway of the B domain of protein G, proposed recently by Kmiecik and Koliński [Kmiecik, S.; Kolinski, A. Biophys J 2008, 94, 726-736], based on Monte Carlo dynamics studies. Alternative folding mechanisms are proposed and discussed. PMID:20049918

  4. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Syahir, Amir; Usui, Kenji; Tomizaki, Kin-ya; Kajikawa, Kotaro; Mihara, Hisakazu

    2015-01-01

    Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano-biological events.

  5. The C-terminal portion of the tail fiber protein of bacteriophage lambda is responsible for binding to LamB, its receptor at the surface of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    2000-01-01

    Bacteriophage lambda adsorbs to its Escherichia coli K-12 host by interacting with LamB, its cell-surface receptor. We fused C-terminal portions of J, the tail fiber protein of lambda, to maltose-binding protein. Solid-phase binding assays demonstrated that a purified fusion protein comprising only the last 249 residues of J could bind to LamB trimers and inhibited recognition by anti-LamB antibodies. Electron microscopy further demonstrated that the fusion protein could also bind to LamB at the surface of intact cells. This interaction prevented lambda adsorption but affected only partially maltose uptake. PMID:10629200

  6. Specific Inhibitors of HIV Capsid Assembly Binding to the C-Terminal Domain of the Capsid Protein: Evaluation of 2-Arylquinazolines as Potential Antiviral Compounds.

    PubMed

    Machara, Aleš; Lux, Vanda; Kožíšek, Milan; Grantz Šašková, Klára; Štěpánek, Ondřej; Kotora, Martin; Parkan, Kamil; Pávová, Marcela; Glass, Bärbel; Sehr, Peter; Lewis, Joe; Müller, Barbara; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Konvalinka, Jan

    2016-01-28

    Assembly of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) represents an attractive target for antiretroviral therapy which is not exploited by currently available drugs. We established high-throughput screening for assembly inhibitors based on competition of small molecules for the binding of a known dodecapeptide assembly inhibitor to the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 CA (capsid). Screening of >70000 compounds from different libraries identified 2-arylquinazolines as low micromolecular inhibitors of HIV-1 capsid assembly. We prepared focused libraries of modified 2-arylquinazolines and tested their capacity to bind HIV-1 CA to compete with the known peptide inhibitor and to prevent the replication of HIV-1 in tissue culture. Some of the compounds showed potent binding to the C-terminal domain of CA and were found to block viral replication at low micromolar concentrations. PMID:26685880

  7. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Primosomal DnaD Protein: Highly Conserved C-Terminal Region Is Crucial for ssDNA and PriA Helicase Binding but Not for DnaA Protein-Binding and Self-Tetramerization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien-Chih; Huang, Cheng-Yang

    2016-01-01

    The role of DnaD in the recruitment of replicative helicase has been identified. However, knowledge of the DNA, PriA, and DnaA binding mechanism of this protein for the DnaA- and PriA-directed replication primosome assemblies is limited. We characterized the DNA-binding properties of DnaD from Staphylococcus aureus (SaDnaD) and analyzed its interactions with SaPriA and SaDnaA. The gel filtration chromatography analysis of purified SaDnaD and its deletion mutant proteins (SaDnaD1-195, SaDnaD1-200 and SaDnaD1-204) showed a stable tetramer in solution. This finding indicates that the C-terminal region aa 196–228 is not crucial for SaDnaD oligomerization. SaDnaD forms distinct complexes with ssDNA of different lengths. In fluorescence titrations, SaDnaD bound to ssDNA with a binding-site size of approximately 32 nt. A stable complex of SaDnaD1-195, SaDnaD1-200, and SaDnaD1-204 with ssDNA dT40 was undetectable, indicating that the C-terminal region of SaDnaD (particularly aa 205–228) is crucial for ssDNA binding. The SPR results revealed that SaDnaD1-195 can interact with SaDnaA but not with SaPriA, which may indicate that DnaD has different binding sites for PriA and DnaA. Both SaDnaD and SaDnaDY176A mutant proteins, but not SaDnaD1-195, can significantly stimulate the ATPase activity of SaPriA. Hence, the stimulation effect mainly resulted from direct contact within the protein—protein interaction, not via the DNA—protein interaction. Kinetic studies revealed that the SaDnaD-SaPriA interaction increases the Vmax of the SaPriA ATPase fivefold without significantly affecting the Km. These results indicate that the conserved C-terminal region is crucial for ssDNA and PriA helicase binding, but not for DnaA protein-binding and self-tetramerization. PMID:27304067

  8. Extreme C-terminal sites are posttranslocationally glycosylated by the STT3B isoform of the OST

    PubMed Central

    Shrimal, Shiteshu; Trueman, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    Metazoan organisms assemble two isoforms of the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) that have different catalytic subunits (STT3A or STT3B) and partially nonoverlapping roles in asparagine-linked glycosylation. The STT3A isoform of the OST is primarily responsible for co-translational glycosylation of the nascent polypeptide as it enters the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. The C-terminal 65–75 residues of a glycoprotein will not contact the translocation channel–associated STT3A isoform of the OST complex before chain termination. Biosynthetic pulse labeling of five human glycoproteins showed that extreme C-terminal glycosylation sites were modified by an STT3B-dependent posttranslocational mechanism. The boundary for STT3B-dependent glycosylation of C-terminal sites was determined to fall between 50 and 55 residues from the C terminus of a protein. C-terminal NXT sites were glycosylated more rapidly and efficiently than C-terminal NXS sites. Bioinformatics analysis of glycopeptide databases from metazoan organisms revealed a lower density of C-terminal acceptor sites in glycoproteins because of reduced positive selection of NXT sites and negative selection of NXS sites. PMID:23530066

  9. The inhibition of the GTPase activating protein-Ha-ras interaction by acidic lipids is due to physical association of the C-terminal domain of the GTPase activating protein with micellar structures.

    PubMed Central

    Serth, J; Lautwein, A; Frech, M; Wittinghofer, A; Pingoud, A

    1991-01-01

    The effects of fatty acids and phospholipids on the interaction of the full-length GTPase activating protein (GAP) as well as its isolated C-terminal domain and the Ha-ras proto-oncogene product p21 were studied by various methods, viz. GTPase activity measurements, fluorescence titrations and gel permeation chromatography. It is shown that all fatty acids and acidic phospholipids tested, provided the critical micellar concentration and the critical micellar temperature are reached, inhibit the GAP stimulated p21 GTPase activity. This is interpreted to mean that it is not the molecular structure of acidic lipid molecules per se but rather their physical state of aggregation which is responsible for the inhibitory effect of lipids on the GTPase activity. The relative inhibitory potency of various lipids was measured under defined conditions with mixed Triton X-100 micelles to follow the order: unsaturated fatty acids greater than saturated acids approximately phosphatidic acids greater than or equal to phosphatidylinositol phosphates much greater than phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine. GTPase experiments with varying concentrations of p21 and constant concentrations of GAP and lipids indicate that the binding of GAP by the lipid micelles is responsible for the inhibition, a finding which was confirmed by fluorescence titrations and gel filtrations which show that the C-terminal domain of GAP is bound by lipid micelles. PMID:2026138

  10. Role of C-terminal domain and transmembrane helices 5 and 6 in function and quaternary structure of major intrinsic proteins: analysis of aquaporin/glycerol facilitator chimeric proteins.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Laurence; Pellerin, Isabelle; Delamarche, Christian; Deschamps, Stephane; Lagree, Valerie; Froger, Alexandrine; Bonnec, Georgette; Thomas, Daniel; Hubert, Jean-Francois

    2002-06-01

    We previously observed that aquaporins and glycerol facilitators exhibit different oligomeric states when studied by sedimentation on density gradients following nondenaturing detergent solubilization. To determine the domains of major intrinsic protein (MIP) family proteins involved in oligomerization, we constructed protein chimeras corresponding to the aquaporin AQPcic substituted in the loop E (including the proximal part of transmembrane domain (TM) 5) and/or the C-terminal part (including the distal part of TM 6) by the equivalent domain of the glycerol channel aquaglyceroporin (GlpF) (chimeras called AGA, AAG, and AGG). The analogous chimeras of GlpF were also constructed (chimeras GAG, GGA, and GAA). cRNA corresponding to all constructs were injected into Xenopus oocytes. AQPcic, GlpF, AAG, AGG, and GAG were targeted to plasma membranes. Water or glycerol membrane permeability measurements demonstrated that only the AAG chimera exhibited a channel function corresponding to water transport. Analysis of all proteins expressed either in oocytes or in yeast by velocity sedimentation on sucrose gradients following solubilization by 2% n-octyl glucoside indicated that only AQPcic and AAG exist in tetrameric forms. GlpF, GAG, and GAA sediment in a monomeric form, whereas GGA and AGG were found mono/dimeric. These data bring new evidence that, within the MIP family, aquaporins and GlpFs behave differently toward nondenaturing detergents. We demonstrate that the C-terminal part of AQPcic, including the distal half of TM 6, can be substituted by the equivalent domain of GlpF (AAG chimera) without modifying the transport specificity. Our results also suggest that interactions of TM 5 of one monomer with TM 1 of the adjacent monomer are crucial for aquaporin tetramer stability. PMID:11927589

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yak1p protein kinase autophosphorylates on tyrosine residues and phosphorylates myelin basic protein on a C-terminal serine residue.

    PubMed Central

    Kassis, S; Melhuish, T; Annan, R S; Chen, S L; Lee, J C; Livi, G P; Creasy, C L

    2000-01-01

    The serine/threonine protein kinase, Yak1p, functions as a negative regulator of the cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acting downstream of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In the present work we report that overexpression of haemagglutinin-tagged full-lengthYak1p and an N-terminally truncated form (residues 148-807) lead to growth arrest in PKA compromised yak1 null yeast cells. Both forms of recombinant Yak1p kinase were catalytically active and preferred myelin basic protein (MBP) as a substrate over several other proteins. Phosphopeptide analysis of bovine MBP by tandem MS revealed two major Yak1p phosphorylation sites, Thr-97 and Ser-164. Peptides containing each site were obtained and tested as Yak1p substrates. Both forms of Yak1p phosphorylated a peptide containing the Ser-164 residue with far more efficient kinetics than MBP. The maximal velocity (V(max)) values of the full-length Yak1p reaction were 110+/-21 (Ser-164) and 8.7+/-1.7 (MBP), and those of N-terminally truncated Yak1p were 560.7+/-74.8 (Ser-164) and 34. 4+/-2.2 (MBP) pmol/min per mg of protein. Although neither form of Yak1p was able to phosphorylate two generic protein tyrosine kinase substrates, both were phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in vivo and underwent tyrosine autophosphorylation when reacted with ATP in vitro. Tandem MS showed that Tyr-530 was phosphorylated both in vivo and in vitro after reaction with ATP. Pre-treatment with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B removed all of Yak1p phosphotyrosine content and drastically reduced Yak1p activity against exogenous substrates, suggesting that the phosphotyrosine content of the enzyme is essential for its catalytic activity. Although the N-terminally truncated Yak1p was expressed at a lower level than the full-length protein, its catalytic activity and phosphotyrosine content were significantly higher than those of the full-length enzyme. Taken together, our results suggest that Yak1p is a dual specificity protein kinase which

  12. Evaluation of the use of C-terminal part of the Schistosoma mansoni 200kDa tegumental protein in schistosomiasis diagnosis and vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gardênia Braz Figueiredo de; Pacífico, Lucila Gonçalves Grossi; Pimenta, Deborah Laranjeira Ferreira; Siqueira, Liliane Maria Vidal; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Pinheiro, Carina da Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Oliveira, Sergio Costa; Fonseca, Cristina Toscano

    2014-04-01

    Schistosoma mansoni tegument is involved in essential functions for parasite survival and represents a target for screening candidates for vaccine and diagnosis. Our group using reverse vaccinology selected six candidates, previously demonstrated by proteomics studies to be expressed in the parasite tegument, among them was Sm200. In this work we have cloned and expressed a recombinant form of Sm200 C-terminal (1069-1520) region. The efficacy of rSm200 (1069-1520) in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and in the formulation of a vaccine against S. mansoni was assessed respectively in an ELISA based diagnostic assay and immunization protocols in mice. Significant differences between non-infected and acutely infected or chronically infected animals were observed and no cross-recognition was observed with sera from Ascaris suum or Ancylostoma ceylanicum infected mice. rSm200-ELISA test could also discriminate infected individuals from healthy donors not living in endemic area for schistosomiasis but failed to discriminate between individuals from a low endemic area for schistosomiasis known to have positive or negative stools after examination. Recombinant Sm200 also failed to induce protection against schistosomiasis, demonstrating that the C-terminal part of Sm200 is unable to induce protective immune response in mice. Therefore rSm200 (1069-1520)-ELISA represents an important tool to be used in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. PMID:24560833

  13. Elucidating the role of C-terminal post-translational modifications using protein semisynthesis strategies: α-synuclein phosphorylation at tyrosine 125

    PubMed Central

    Hejjaoui, Mirva; Butterfield, Sara; Fauvet, Bruno; Vercruysse, Filip; Cui, Jia; Dikiy, Igor; Prudent, Michel; Olschewski, Diana; Zhang, Yan; Eliezer, David; Lashuel, Hilal A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that supports the role of different post-translational modifications (PTMs) in modulating α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregation and toxicity, relatively little is known about the functional consequences of each modification and whether or not these modifications are regulated by each other. This lack of knowledge arises primarily from the current lack of tools and methodologies for the site-specific introduction of PTMs in α-syn. More specifically, the kinases that mediate selective and efficient phosphorylation of C-terminal tyrosine residues of α-syn remain to be identified. Unlike phospho-serine and phospho-threonine residues, which in some cases can be mimicked by serine/threonine → glutamate or aspartate substitutions, there are no natural amino acids that can mimic phosphor-tyrosine. To address these challenges, we developed a general and efficient semisynthetic strategy that enables the site-specific introduction of single or multiple PTMs and the preparation of homogeneously C-terminal modified forms of α-syn in milligram quantities. These advances have allowed us to investigate, for the first time, the effects of selective phosphorylation at Y125 on the structure, aggregation, membrane binding and subcellular localization of α-syn. The development of semisynthetic methods for the site-specific introduction of single or PTMs represents an important advance toward determining the roles of such modifications in α-syn structure, aggregation and functions in heath and disease. PMID:22339654

  14. Direct interactions between molecular chaperones heat-shock protein (Hsp) 70 and Hsp40: yeast Hsp70 Ssa1 binds the extreme C-terminal region of yeast Hsp40 Sis1.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinguo; Hou, Wenbo; Zhengang, Li; Sha, Bingdong

    2002-01-01

    Heat-shock protein 40 (Hsp40) enables Hsp70 to play critical roles in a number of cellular processes, such as protein folding, assembly, degradation and translocation in vivo. Hsp40 recognizes and binds non-native polypeptides and delivers them to Hsp70. Then Hsp40 stimulates the ATPase activity of Hsp70 to fold the polypeptides. By using yeast Hsp40 Sis1 and yeast Hsp70 Ssa1 as our model proteins, we found that the Sis1 peptide-binding fragment interacts directly with the full-length Ssa1 in vitro. Further studies showed that the C-terminal lid domain of Ssa1 could interact with Sis1 peptide-binding domain physically in vitro. The Sis1 peptide-binding fragment forms a stable complex with the Ssa1 C-terminal lid domain in solution. The interactions between these two proteins appear to be charge-charge interactions because high-ionic-strength buffer can dissociate the complex. Further mapping studies showed that the Sis1 peptide-binding fragment binds the extreme C-terminal 15 amino acid residues of Ssa1. A flexible glycine-rich region is followed by these 15 residues in the Ssa1 primary sequence. Atomic force microscopy of the Sis1-Ssa1 complex showed that only one end of the Ssa1 lid domain binds the Sis1 peptide-binding-fragment dimer at the upper level of the huge groove within the Sis1 dimer. Based on the data, we propose an "anchoring and docking" model to illustrate the mechanisms by which Hsp40 interacts with Hsp70 and delivers the non-native polypeptide to Hsp70. PMID:11743879

  15. Modification of glutathione S-transferase 3-3 mutants with 2-(S-glutathionyl)-3,5,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone. Identification of the C-terminal tryptic fragment as part of the H-site and evidence that 2-(S-glutathionyl)-3,5,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone is not specific for cysteine labelling.

    PubMed Central

    Hong, J L; Liu, L F; Wang, L Y; Tsai, S P; Hsieh, C H; Hsiao, C D; Tam, M F

    1994-01-01

    A triple mutant of rat liver glutathione S-transferase 3-3 that has all three cysteine residues replaced with serine (CallS) and a quadruple mutant with a Tyr-115 to phenylalanine substitution on CallS (CallSY115F) were reacted with 2-(S-glutathionyl)-3,5,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (GS-1,4-TCBQ). The modified proteins were analysed on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source. At an enzyme: GS-1,4-TCBQ ratio of 1:10, the enzymes were modified at multiple sites. Covalent attachment of a single inhibitor on to the protein was achieved by lowering the enzyme: GS-1,4-TCBQ ratio to 1:1. Results from m.s. analyses suggest that the inhibitor on the CallSY115F mutant exists as a glutathionyl dichlorobenzoquinone derivative. The modifiers of the CallS mutants are glutathionyl monochlorobenzoquinone derivatives. Therefore, GS-1,4-TCBQ reacts at a single site on CallSY115F, but probably cross-links two regions on wild-type and CallS mutant. To confirm our observation, CallS was modified with 1-chloro2,4-dinitrobenzene, which specifically labels Tyr-115, before reacting with GS-1,4-TCBQ. The inhibitor formed a glutathionyl dichlorobenzoquinone adduct on the dinitrophenyl-CallS mutant. In addition, the benzoquinone derivative on the protein can be partially removed by 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Peptide mapping and sequencing analysis of the GS-1,4-TCBQ-modified CallS mutant revealed that the C-terminal 16-amino-acid fragment is labelled. Molecular modelling suggests the C(5) and C(6) on the benzoquinone ring of the inhibitor interact with the oxygen atoms of Tyr-115 and Ser-209 respectively. PMID:7818487

  16. Identification of Residues in the C-terminal Domain of HIV-1 Integrase That Mediate Binding to the Transportin-SR2 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    De Houwer, Stephanie; Demeulemeester, Jonas; Thys, Wannes; Taltynov, Oliver; Zmajkovicova, Katarina; Christ, Frauke; Debyser, Zeger

    2012-01-01

    Transportin-SR2 (TRN-SR2 and TNPO3) is a cellular cofactor of HIV replication that has been implicated in the nuclear import of HIV. TRN-SR2 was originally identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen as an interaction partner of HIV integrase (IN) and in two independent siRNA screens as a cofactor of viral replication. We have now studied the interaction of TRN-SR2 and HIV IN in molecular detail and identified the TRN-SR2 interacting regions of IN. A weak interaction with the catalytic core domain (CCD) and a strong interaction with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of IN were detected. By dissecting the catalytic core domain (CCD) of IN into short structural fragments, we identified a peptide (INIP1, amino acids 170EHLKTAVQMAVFIHNFKRKGGI191) retaining the ability to interact with TRN-SR2. By dissecting the C-terminal domain (CTD) of IN, we could identify two interacting peptides (amino acids 214QKQITKIQNFRVYYR228 and 262RRKVKIIRDYGK273) that come together in the CTD tertiary structure to form an exposed antiparallel β-sheet. Through site-specific mutagenesis, we defined the following sets of amino acids in IN as important for the interaction with TRN-SR2: Phe-185/Lys-186/Arg-187/Lys-188 in the CCD and Arg-262/Arg-263/Lys-264 and Lys-266/Arg-269 in the CTD. An HIV-1 strain carrying K266A/R269A in IN was replication-defective due to a block in reverse transcription, confounding the study of nuclear import. Insight into the IN/TRN-SR2 interaction interface is necessary to guide drug discovery efforts targeting the nuclear entry step of replication. PMID:22872638

  17. Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R W; Williams, J

    1978-01-01

    1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:100104

  18. Conformational Changes and Association of Membrane-Interacting Peptides in Myelin Membrane Models: A Case of the C-Terminal Peptide of Proteolipid Protein and the Antimicrobial Peptide Melittin.

    PubMed

    Appadu, Ashtina; Jelokhani-Niaraki, Masoud; DeBruin, Lillian

    2015-11-25

    Model membranes composed of various lipid mixtures can segregate into liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases. In this study, lipid vesicles composed of mainly Lo or Ld phases as well as complex lipid systems representing the cytosolic leaflet of the myelin membrane were characterized by fluorescence resonance energy transfer with a donor/acceptor pair that preferentially partitioned into Lo or Ld phases, respectively. The fluidity of the lipid systems containing >30% cholesterol was modulated in the presence of the amphipathic peptide melittin. With all the studied lipid systems, melittin attained an α-helical conformation as determined by CD spectroscopy and attained varying degrees of membrane association and penetration as determined by intrinsic Trp fluorescence. The other protein domain utilized was a putative amphipathic helical peptide derived from the cytosolic C-terminal sequence of proteolipid protein (PLP) which is the most abundant protein in the myelin membrane. The C-terminal PLP peptide transitioned from a random coil to an α-helix in the presence of trifluoroethanol. Upon interacting with each of lipid vesicle system, the PLP peptide also folded into a helix; however, at high concentrations of the peptide with fluid lipid systems, associated helices transmuted into a β-sheet conformer. The membrane-associated aggregation of the cytosolic C-termini could be a mechanism by which the transmembrane PLP multimerizes in the myelin membrane. PMID:26561987

  19. The MIK region rather than the C-terminal domain of AP3-like class B floral homeotic proteins determines functional specificity in the development and evolution of petals.

    PubMed

    Su, Kunmei; Zhao, Suzhen; Shan, Hongyan; Kong, Hongzhi; Lu, Wenliang; Theissen, Günter; Chen, Zhiduan; Meng, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    In core eudicots, euAP3-type MADS-box genes encode a PISTILLATA (PI)-derived motif, as well as a C-terminal euAP3 motif that originated from a paleoAP3 motif of an ancestral APETALA3 (AP3)-like protein through a translational frameshift mutation. To determine the functional and evolutionary relevance of these motifs, a series of point mutation and domain-swap constructs were generated, involving CsAP3, a paleoAP3-type gene from the basal angiosperm Chloranthus spicatus encoding a truncated paleoAP3 motif, and AtAP3, a euAP3-type gene from the core eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. The chimeric constructs were expressed in A. thaliana under the control of the AP3 promoter or the CaMV 35S promoter in an ap3 mutant or wild-type background, respectively. Significant recovery of AP3 function was obtained in both complementation and ectopic expression experiments whenever the region upstream of the C-terminal motifs (MIK region) from A. thaliana was taken, even when the PI-derived motif and the truncated paleoAP3 motif of CsAP3 substituted for the corresponding sequences from AtAP3. However, no or very weak complementation or gain-of-function was seen when the MIK region was from CsAP3. Our data suggest that changes in the MIK region rather than mutations in the C-terminal domain were of crucial importance for the evolution of the functional specificity of euAP3-type proteins in stamen and petal development. PMID:18298432

  20. Tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) prothymosin alpha: Cytokine-like activities associated with the intact protein and the C-terminal region that lead to antiviral immunity via Myd88-dependent and -independent pathways respectively.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-cun; Sun, Li

    2015-11-01

    Prothymosin alpha (ProTα) is a small protein that in mammals is known to participate in diverse biological processes including immunomodulation. In teleost, the immunological function of ProTα is unknown. In the current study, we investigated the expression and function of the ProTα (named CsProTα) from the teleost fish tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). We found that CsProTα expression was abundant in immune relevant tissues and upregulated by megalocytivirus infection. Immunoblot detected secretion of CsProTα by peripheral blood leukocytes. Recombinant CsProTα (rCsProTα) as well as the C-terminal 11-residue (Ct11) were able to bind head kidney monocytes (HKM) and induce immune gene expression; however, the induction patterns caused by rCsProTα and Ct11 differed considerably. When introduced in vivo, rCsProTα and Ct11 significantly reduced megalocytivirus infection in fish tissues, whereas rCsProTα antibody significantly promoted viral replication. Blocking of Myd88 activity abolished the virus-inhibitory effect of rCsProTα but not Ct11. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that both the intact protein and the C-terminal segment of a teleost ProTα can act like cytokines and induce antiviral immunity via, however, distinct signaling pathways that differ in the requirement of Myd88. PMID:26162512

  1. Phosphorylation of Krüppel-like factor 3 (KLF3/BKLF) and C-terminal binding protein 2 (CtBP2) by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) modulates KLF3 DNA binding and activity.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Vitri; Kwok, Alister; Lee, Stella; Lee, Ming Min; Tan, Yee Mun; Nicholas, Hannah R; Isono, Kyo-ichi; Wienert, Beeke; Mak, Ka Sin; Knights, Alexander J; Quinlan, Kate G R; Cordwell, Stuart J; Funnell, Alister P W; Pearson, Richard C M; Crossley, Merlin

    2015-03-27

    Krüppel-like factor 3 (KLF3/BKLF), a member of the Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family of transcription factors, is a widely expressed transcriptional repressor with diverse biological roles. Although there is considerable understanding of the molecular mechanisms that allow KLF3 to silence the activity of its target genes, less is known about the signal transduction pathways and post-translational modifications that modulate KLF3 activity in response to physiological stimuli. We observed that KLF3 is modified in a range of different tissues and found that the serine/threonine kinase homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) can both bind and phosphorylate KLF3. Mass spectrometry identified serine 249 as the primary phosphorylation site. Mutation of this site reduces the ability of KLF3 to bind DNA and repress transcription. Furthermore, we also determined that HIPK2 can phosphorylate the KLF3 co-repressor C-terminal binding protein 2 (CtBP2) at serine 428. Finally, we found that phosphorylation of KLF3 and CtBP2 by HIPK2 strengthens the interaction between these two factors and increases transcriptional repression by KLF3. Taken together, our results indicate that HIPK2 potentiates the activity of KLF3. PMID:25659434

  2. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, shares a conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    PubMed Central

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-01-01

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate-specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1. PMID:16990250

  3. A C-terminal motif found in the β2-adrenergic receptor, P2Y1 receptor and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator determines binding to the Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor family of PDZ proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Randy A.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Premont, Richard T.; Blitzer, Jeremy T.; Rahman, Nadeem; Welsh, Michael J.; Lefkowitz, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    The Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) binds to the tail of the β2-adrenergic receptor and plays a role in adrenergic regulation of Na+/H+ exchange. NHERF contains two PDZ domains, the first of which is required for its interaction with the β2 receptor. Mutagenesis studies of the β2 receptor tail revealed that the optimal C-terminal motif for binding to the first PDZ domain of NHERF is D-S/T-x-L, a motif distinct from those recognized by other PDZ domains. The first PDZ domain of NHERF-2, a protein that is 52% identical to NHERF and also known as E3KARP, SIP-1, and TKA-1, exhibits binding preferences very similar to those of the first PDZ domain of NHERF. The delineation of the preferred binding motif for the first PDZ domain of the NHERF family of proteins allows for predictions for other proteins that may interact with NHERF or NHERF-2. For example, as would be predicted from the β2 receptor tail mutagenesis studies, NHERF binds to the tail of the purinergic P2Y1 receptor, a seven-transmembrane receptor with an intracellular C-terminal tail ending in D-T-S-L. NHERF also binds to the tail of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, which ends in D-T-R-L. Because the preferred binding motif of the first PDZ domain of the NHERF family of proteins is found at the C termini of a variety of intracellular proteins, NHERF and NHERF-2 may be multifunctional adaptor proteins involved in many previously unsuspected aspects of intracellular signaling. PMID:9671706

  4. Immunogenic properties of a recombinant fusion protein containing the C-terminal 19 kDa of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 and the innate immunity agonist FliC flagellin of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Bargieri, Daniel Y; Leite, Juliana A; Lopes, Stefanie C P; Sbrogio-Almeida, Maria Elisabete; Braga, Catarina J M; Ferreira, Luis C S; Soares, Irene S; Costa, Fabio T M; Rodrigues, Mauricio M

    2010-04-01

    In a recent study, we demonstrated the immunogenic properties of a new malaria vaccine polypeptide based on a 19 kDa C-terminal fragment of the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP1(19)) from Plasmodium vivax and an innate immunity agonist, the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium flagellin (FliC). Herein, we tested whether the same strategy, based on the MSP1(19) component of the deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, could also generate a fusion polypeptide with enhanced immunogenicity. The His(6)FliC-MSP1(19) fusion protein was expressed from a recombinant Escherichia coli and showed preserved in vitro TLR5-binding activity. In contrast to animals injected with His(6)MSP1(19), mice subcutaneously immunised with the recombinant His(6)FliC-MSP1(19) developed strong MSP1(19)-specific systemic antibody responses with a prevailing IgG1 subclass. Incorporation of other adjuvants, such as CpG ODN 1826, complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvants or Quil-A, improved the IgG responses after the second, but not the third, immunising dose. It also resulted in a more balanced IgG subclass response, as evaluated by the IgG1/IgG2c ratio, and higher cell-mediated immune response, as determined by the detection of antigen-specific interferon-gamma secretion by immune spleen cells. MSP1(19)-specific antibodies recognised not only the recombinant protein, but also the native protein expressed on the surface of P. falciparum parasites. Finally, sera from rabbits immunised with the fusion protein alone inhibited the in vitro growth of three different P. falciparum strains. In summary, these results extend our previous observations and further demonstrate that fusion of the innate immunity agonist FliC to Plasmodium antigens is a promising alternative to improve their immunogenicity. PMID:20170765

  5. New acute transforming feline retovirus with fms homology specifies a C-terminally truncated version of the c-fms protein that is different from SM-feline sarcoma virus v-fms protein

    SciTech Connect

    Besmer, P.; Lader, E.; George, P.C.; Bergold, P.J.; Qui, F.; Zuckerman, E.E.; Hardy, W.D.

    1986-10-01

    The HZ5-feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) is a new acute transforming feline retrovirus which was isolated from a multicentric fibrosarcoma of a domestic cat. The HZ5-FeSV transforms fibroblasts in vitro and is replication defective. A biologically active integrated HZ5-FeSV provirus was molecularly cloned from cellular DNA of HZ5-FeSV-infected FRE-3A rat cells. The HZ5-FeSV has oncogene homology with the fms sequences of the SM-FeSV. The genome organization of the 8.6-kilobase HZ5-FeSV provirus is 5' ..delta..gag-fms-..delta..pol-..delta..env 3'. The HZ5- and SM-FeSVs display indistinguishable in vitro transformation characteristics, and the structures of the gag-fms transforming genes in the two viruses are very similar. In the HZ5-FeSV and the SM-FeSV, identical c-fms and feline leukemia virus p10 sequences form the 5' gag-fms junction. With regard to v-fms the two viruses are homologous up to 11 amino acids before the C terminus of the SM-FeSV v-fms protein. In HZ5-FeSV a segment of 362 nucleotides then follows before the 3' recombination site with feline leukemia virus pol. The new 3' v-fms sequence encodes 27 amino acids before reaching a TGA termination signal. The relationship of this sequence with the recently characterized human c-fms sequence has been examined. The 3' HZ5-FeSV v-fms sequence is homologous with 3' c-fms sequences. A frameshift mutation (11-base-pair deletion) was found in the C-terminal fms coding sequence of the HZ5-FeSV. As a result, the HZ5-FeSV v-fms protein is predicted to be a C-terminally truncated version of c-fms. This frameshift mutation may determine the oncogenic properties of v-fms in the HZ5-FeSV.

  6. The RNA Polymerase II C-Terminal Domain Phosphatase-Like Protein FIERY2/CPL1 Interacts with eIF4AIII and Is Essential for Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Qin, Tao; Ding, Feng; Wang, Zhenyu; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is a posttranscriptional surveillance mechanism in eukaryotes that recognizes and degrades transcripts with premature translation-termination codons. The RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphatase-like protein FIERY2 (FRY2; also known as C-TERMINAL DOMAIN PHOSPHATASE-LIKE1 [CPL1]) plays multiple roles in RNA processing in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we found that FRY2/CPL1 interacts with two NMD factors, eIF4AIII and UPF3, and is involved in the dephosphorylation of eIF4AIII. This dephosphorylation retains eIF4AIII in the nucleus and limits its accumulation in the cytoplasm. By analyzing RNA-seq data combined with quantitative RT-PCR validation, we found that a subset of alternatively spliced transcripts and 5′-extended mRNAs with NMD-eliciting features accumulated in the fry2-1 mutant, cycloheximide-treated wild type, and upf3 mutant plants, indicating that FRY2 is essential for the degradation of these NMD transcripts. PMID:26887918

  7. Evidence that the C-terminal domain of a type B PutA protein contributes to aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and substrate channeling.

    PubMed

    Luo, Min; Christgen, Shelbi; Sanyal, Nikhilesh; Arentson, Benjamin W; Becker, Donald F; Tanner, John J

    2014-09-01

    Proline utilization A (PutA) is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate. Structures of type A PutAs have revealed the catalytic core consisting of proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH) modules connected by a substrate-channeling tunnel. Type B PutAs also have a C-terminal domain of unknown function (CTDUF) that is absent in type A PutAs. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), mutagenesis, and kinetics are used to determine the contributions of this domain to PutA structure and function. The 1127-residue Rhodobacter capsulatus PutA (RcPutA) is used as a representative CTDUF-containing type B PutA. The reaction progress curve for the coupled PRODH-P5CDH activity of RcPutA does not exhibit a time lag, implying a substrate channeling mechanism. RcPutA is monomeric in solution, which is unprecedented for PutAs. SAXS rigid body modeling with target-decoy validation is used to build a model of RcPutA. On the basis of homology to aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), the CTDUF is predicted to consist of a β-hairpin fused to a noncatalytic Rossmann fold domain. The predicted tertiary structural interactions of the CTDUF resemble the quaternary structural interactions in the type A PutA dimer interface. The model is tested by mutagenesis of the dimerization hairpin of a type A PutA and the CTDUF hairpin of RcPutA. Similar functional phenotypes are observed in the two sets of variants, supporting the hypothesis that the CTDUF mimics the type A PutA dimer interface. These results suggest annotation of the CTDUF as an ALDH superfamily domain that facilitates P5CDH activity and substrate channeling by stabilizing the aldehyde-binding site and sealing the substrate-channeling tunnel from the bulk medium. PMID:25137435

  8. Evidence That the C-Terminal Domain of a Type B PutA Protein Contributes to Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity and Substrate Channeling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Proline utilization A (PutA) is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate. Structures of type A PutAs have revealed the catalytic core consisting of proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH) modules connected by a substrate-channeling tunnel. Type B PutAs also have a C-terminal domain of unknown function (CTDUF) that is absent in type A PutAs. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), mutagenesis, and kinetics are used to determine the contributions of this domain to PutA structure and function. The 1127-residue Rhodobacter capsulatus PutA (RcPutA) is used as a representative CTDUF-containing type B PutA. The reaction progress curve for the coupled PRODH–P5CDH activity of RcPutA does not exhibit a time lag, implying a substrate channeling mechanism. RcPutA is monomeric in solution, which is unprecedented for PutAs. SAXS rigid body modeling with target–decoy validation is used to build a model of RcPutA. On the basis of homology to aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), the CTDUF is predicted to consist of a β-hairpin fused to a noncatalytic Rossmann fold domain. The predicted tertiary structural interactions of the CTDUF resemble the quaternary structural interactions in the type A PutA dimer interface. The model is tested by mutagenesis of the dimerization hairpin of a type A PutA and the CTDUF hairpin of RcPutA. Similar functional phenotypes are observed in the two sets of variants, supporting the hypothesis that the CTDUF mimics the type A PutA dimer interface. These results suggest annotation of the CTDUF as an ALDH superfamily domain that facilitates P5CDH activity and substrate channeling by stabilizing the aldehyde-binding site and sealing the substrate-channeling tunnel from the bulk medium. PMID:25137435

  9. Spatially Addressable Chemoselective C-terminal Ligation of an Intein Fusion Protein from a Complex Mixture to a Hydrazine-Terminated Surface

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng; Marinakos, Stella M.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Protein immobilization on surfaces is useful in many areas of research, including biological characterization, antibody purification, and clinical diagnostics. A critical limitation in the development of protein microarrays and heterogeneous protein-based assays is the enormous work and associated costs in the purification of proteins prior to their immobilization on a surface; methods to address this problem would simplify the development of interfacial diagnostics that use a protein as the recognition element. Herein, we describe an approach for the facile, site-specific immobilization of proteins on a surface without any preprocessing or sample purification steps that ligates an intein fusion protein at its C-terminus by reaction with a hydrazine group presented by a surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this methodology can directly immobilize a protein directly from cell lysate on to a protein-resistant surface. This methodology is also compatible with soft lithography and inkjet printing, so that one or more proteins can be patterned on a surface without need for purification. PMID:21142101

  10. The β1 adrenergic effects of antibodies against the C-terminal end of the ribosomal P2β protein of Trypanosoma cruzi associate with a specific pattern of epitope recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bergami, P Lopez; Gómez, KA; Levy, GV; Grippo, V; Baldi, A; Levin, MJ

    2005-01-01

    BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal P2β protein (TcP2β) develop a strong and specific antibody response against its 13 residue-long C-terminal epitope (peptide R13: EEEDDDMGFGLFD) that has a concomitant β1-adrenergic stimulating activity. However, other animals that undergo similar immunizations seem tolerant to this epitope. To evaluate further the antibody response against the ribosomal P proteins, 25 BALB/c and 25 Swiss mice were immunized with TcP2β. From the 50 animals, 31 developed a positive anti-R13 response, whereas 19 were non-responsive. From the 31 anti-R13 positive mice, 25 had anti-R13 antibodies that recognized the discontinuous motif ExDDxGF, and their presence correlated with the recording of supraventricular tachycardia. The other six had anti-R13 antibodies but with a normal electrocardiographic recording. These anti-R13 antibodies recognized the motif DDxGF shared by mammals and T. cruzi and proved to be a true anti-P autoantibody because they were similar to those elicited in Swiss, but not in BALB/c mice, by immunization with the C-terminal portion of the mouse ribosomal P protein. Our results show that the recognition of the glutamic acid in position 3 of peptide R13 defines the ability of anti-R13 antibodies to react with the motif AESDE of the second extracellular loop of the β1-adrenergic receptor, setting the molecular basis for their pathogenic β1 adrenoceptor stimulating activity. PMID:16178868

  11. Insights into the C-terminal Peptide Binding Specificity of the PDZ Domain of Neuronal Nitric-oxide Synthase: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE INTERACTION WITH THE TIGHT JUNCTION PROTEIN CLAUDIN-3.

    PubMed

    Merino-Gracia, Javier; Costas-Insua, Carlos; Canales, María Ángeles; Rodríguez-Crespo, Ignacio

    2016-05-27

    Neuronal nitric-oxide synthase, unlike its endothelial and inducible counterparts, displays a PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain located at its N terminus involved in subcellular targeting. The C termini of various cellular proteins insert within the binding groove of this PDZ domain and determine the subcellular distribution of neuronal NOS (nNOS). The molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions are poorly understood because the PDZ domain of nNOS can apparently exhibit class I, class II, and class III binding specificity. In addition, it has been recently suggested that the PDZ domain of nNOS binds with very low affinity to the C termini of target proteins, and a necessary simultaneous lateral interaction must take place for binding to occur. We describe herein that the PDZ domain of nNOS can behave as a bona fide class III PDZ domain and bind to C-terminal sequences with acidic residues at the P-2 position with low micromolar binding constants. Binding to C-terminal sequences with a hydrophobic residue at the P-2 position plus an acidic residue at the P-3 position (class II) can also occur, although interactions involving residues extending up to the P-7 position mediate this type of binding. This promiscuous behavior also extends to its association to class I sequences, which must display a Glu residue at P-3 and a Thr residue at P-2 By means of site-directed mutagenesis and NMR spectroscopy, we have been able to identify the residues involved in each specific type of binding and rationalize the mechanisms used to recognize binding partners. Finally, we have analyzed the high affinity association of the PDZ domain of nNOS to claudin-3 and claudin-14, two tight junction tetraspan membrane proteins that are essential components of the paracellular barrier. PMID:27030110

  12. The C-terminal portion of the cleaved HT motif is necessary and sufficient to mediate export of proteins from the malaria parasite into its host cell

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, Sarah J; Cryar, Adam; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Haldar, Kasturi; Osborne, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    The malaria parasite exports proteins across its plasma membrane and a surrounding parasitophorous vacuole membrane, into its host erythrocyte. Most exported proteins contain a Host Targeting motif (HT motif) that targets them for export. In the parasite secretory pathway, the HT motif is cleaved by the protease plasmepsin V, but the role of the newly generated N-terminal sequence in protein export is unclear. Using a model protein that is cleaved by an exogenous viral protease, we show that the new N-terminal sequence, normally generated by plasmepsin V cleavage, is sufficient to target a protein for export, and that cleavage by plasmepsin V is not coupled directly to the transfer of a protein to the next component in the export pathway. Mutation of the fourth and fifth positions of the HT motif, as well as amino acids further downstream, block or affect the efficiency of protein export indicating that this region is necessary for efficient export. We also show that the fifth position of the HT motif is important for plasmepsin V cleavage. Our results indicate that plasmepsin V cleavage is required to generate a new N-terminal sequence that is necessary and sufficient to mediate protein export by the malaria parasite. PMID:23279267

  13. Determination of the covalent structure of an N- and C-terminally blocked glycoprotein from endocuticle of Locusta migratoria. Combined use of plasma desorption mass spectrometry and Edman degradation to study post-translationally modified proteins.

    PubMed

    Talbo, G; Højrup, P; Rahbek-Nielsen, H; Andersen, S O; Roepstorff, P

    1991-01-30

    The complete structure of protein isolated from endocuticle of sexually mature locusts, Locusta migratoria, has been determined by a combination of automatic Edman degradation and plasma desorption mass spectrometry. The protein is extensively post-translationally modified. The N-terminal is 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) and the C-terminal proline residue is amidated. Furthermore, the protein is glycosylated by a single N-acetyl-galactosamine residue at one, two or three threonines. The N-terminal sequence was obtained by analysing the N-acetylated N,O-permethylated derivative using plasma desorption mass spectrometry. The position and type of carbohydrate were determined by combining an HPLC-based carbohydrate analysis with the peak pattern of the phenylthiohydantoin derivative in automatic sequencing and with mass information on peptides. The protein has pronounced similarity to cuticular proteins from larvae of diptera and lepidoptera, but only slight resemblance to the previously sequenced locust exocuticular proteins. This indicates a similarity between soft larval cuticles and locust endocuticle, a similarity which may extend to their mechanical properties. PMID:1997327

  14. Intact Protein Quantitation Using Pseudoisobaric Dimethyl Labeling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Houqin; Xiao, Kaijie; Li, Yunhui; Yu, Fan; Liu, Yan; Xue, Bingbing; Tian, Zhixin

    2016-07-19

    Protein structural and functional studies rely on complete qualitative and quantitative information on protein species (proteoforms); thus, it is important to quantify differentially expressed proteins at their molecular level. Here we report our development of universal pseudoisobaric dimethyl labeling (pIDL) of amino groups at both the N-terminal and lysine residues for relative quantitation of intact proteins. Initial proof-of-principle study was conducted on standard protein myoglobin and hepatocellular proteomes (HepG2 vs LO2). The amino groups from both the N-terminal and lysine were dimethylated with HXHO (X = (13)C or C) and NaBY3CN (Y = H or D). At the standard protein level, labeling efficiency, effect of product ion size, and mass resolution on quantitation accuracy were explored; and a good linear quantitation dynamic range up to 50-fold was obtained. For the hepatocellular proteome samples, 33 proteins were quantified with RSD ≤ 10% from one-dimensional reversed phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RPLC-MS/MS) analysis of the 1:1 mixed samples. The method in this study can be extended to quantitation of other intact proteome systems. The universal "one-pot" dimethyl labeling of all the amino groups in a protein without the need of preblocking of those on the lysine residues is made possible by protein identification and quantitation analysis using ProteinGoggle 2.0 with customized databases of both precursor and product ions containing heavy isotopes. PMID:27359340

  15. Display of both N- and C-terminal target fusion proteins on the Aspergillus oryzae cell surface using a chitin-binding module

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Soichiro; Ito, Junji; Adachi, Takashi; Ishida, Hiroki; Hata, Yoji; Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki

    2010-01-01

    A novel cell surface display system in Aspergillus oryzae was established by using a chitin-binding module (CBM) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an anchor protein. CBM was fused to the N or C terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the fusion proteins (GFP-CBM and CBM-GFP) were expressed using A. oryzae as a host. Western blotting and fluorescence microscopy analysis showed that both GFP-CBM and CBM-GFP were successfully expressed on the cell surface. In addition, cell surface display of triacylglycerol lipase from A. oryzae (tglA), while retaining its activity, was also successfully demonstrated using CBM as an anchor protein. The activity of tglA was significantly higher when tglA was fused to the C terminus than N terminus of CBM. Together, these results show that CBM used as a first anchor protein enables the fusion of both the N and/or C terminus of a target protein. PMID:20499230

  16. Domain Structure of the Redβ Single-Strand Annealing Protein: the C-terminal Domain is Required for Fine-Tuning DNA-binding Properties, Interaction with the Exonuclease Partner, and Recombination in vivo.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher E; Bell, Charles E

    2016-02-13

    Redβ is a component of the Red recombination system of bacteriophage λ that promotes a single strand annealing (SSA) reaction to generate end-to-end concatemers of the phage genome for packaging. Redβ interacts with λ exonuclease (λexo), the other component of the Red system, to form a "synaptosome" complex that somehow integrates the end resection and annealing steps of the reaction. Previous work using limited proteolysis and chemical modification revealed that Redβ consists of an N-terminal DNA binding domain, residues 1-177, and a flexible C-terminal "tail", residues 178-261. Here, we quantitatively compare the binding of the full-length protein (Redβ(FL)) and the N-terminal domain (Redβ(177)) to different lengths of ssDNA substrate and annealed duplex product. We find that in general, Redβ(FL) binds more tightly to annealed duplex product than to ssDNA substrate, while Redβ(177) binds more tightly to ssDNA. In addition, the C-terminal region of Redβ corresponding to residues 182-261 was purified and found to fold into an α-helical domain that is required for the interaction with λexo to form the synaptosome complex. Deletion analysis of Redβ revealed that removal of just eleven residues from the C-terminus disrupts the interaction with λexo as well as ssDNA and dsDNA recombination in vivo. By contrast, the determinants for self-oligomerization of Redβ appear to reside solely within the N-terminal domain. The subtle but significant differences in the relative binding of Redβ(FL) and Redβ(177) to ssDNA substrate and annealed duplex product may be important for Redβ to function as a SSA protein in vivo. PMID:26780547

  17. New Insights for Native Production of MSP119, the Disulfide-Rich C-Terminal Fragment from Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Planson, Anne-Gaëlle; Guijarro, J. Iñaki; Chaffotte, Alain F.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria represents a major public health problem and an important cause of mortality and morbidity. The malaria parasites are becoming resistant to drugs used to treat the disease and still no efficient vaccine has been developed. One promising vaccine candidate is the merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), which has been extensively investigated as a vaccine target. The surface protein MSP1 plays an essential role in the erythrocyte invasion process and is an accessible target for the immune system. Antibodies to the carboxy-terminal region of the protein, named MSP119, can inhibit erythrocyte invasion and parasite growth. In order to develop an effective MSP119- based vaccine against malaria, production of an antigen that is recognized by protective antibodies is mandatory. To this aim, we propose a method to produce the disulfide-rich MSP119 in its native conformation based on its in vitro oxidative refolding. The native conformation of the renatured MSP119 is carefully established by immunochemical reactivity experiments, circular dichroism and NMR. MSP119 can successfully be refolded in vitro as an isolated protein or as a fusion with the maltose binding protein. The possibility to properly fold MSP119 in vitro paves the way to new approaches for high titer production of native MSP119 using Escherichia coli as a host. PMID:23451153

  18. Upon intracellular processing, the C-terminal death domain-containing fragment of the p53-inducible PIDD/LRDD protein translocates to the nucleoli and interacts with nucleolin.

    PubMed

    Pick, Robert; Badura, Susanne; Bösser, Susanne; Zörnig, Martin

    2006-11-01

    The p53-inducible and death domain-containing PIDD/LRDD protein has been described as an adaptor protein, which forms large protein complexes with RAIDD, another death domain-containing protein, leading to recruitment, and activation of the initiator caspase-2, and p53-mediated apoptosis. Here, we describe in further detail the proteolytic processing of PIDD/LRDD that occurs in healthy cells before induction of apoptosis. We could demonstrate that the C-terminal fragment containing the PIDD death domain shuttles into the nucleoli. This translocation is mediated by or leads to the interaction of the PIDD death domain with nucleolin, a protein important for rRNA processing within nucleoli and possibly involved in the DNA damage response. Ectopically expressed LRDD and endogenous nucleolin co-localized within the nucleoli, and overexpression of both full-length LRDD and the LRDD death domain sensitized cells for UV-induced apoptosis. When expressed alone, the PIDD/LRDD death domain tended to form large filamentous structures resembling so-called death filaments. The functional consequences of the identified PIDD/nucleolin interaction remain to be elucidated, but may be related to a recently discovered new role for PIDD in the activation of NF-kappaB upon genotoxic stress. PMID:16982033

  19. LC8 dynein light chain (DYNLL1) binds to the C-terminal domain of ATM-interacting protein (ATMIN/ASCIZ) and regulates its subcellular localization

    SciTech Connect

    Rapali, Peter; Garcia-Mayoral, Maria Flor; Martinez-Moreno, Monica; Tarnok, Krisztian; Schlett, Katalin; Albar, Juan Pablo; Bruix, Marta; Nyitray, Laszlo; Rodriguez-Crespo, Ignacio

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have screened a human library with dynein light chain DYNLL1 (DLC8) as bait. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynein light chain DYNLL1 binds to ATM-kinase interacting protein (ATMIN). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATMIN has 17 SQ/TQ motifs, a motif frequently found in DYNLL1-binding partners. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two proteins interact in vitro, with ATMIN displaying at least five binding sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction of ATMIN and DYNNL1 in transfected cells can also be observed. -- Abstract: LC8 dynein light chain (now termed DYNLL1 and DYNLL2 in mammals), a dimeric 89 amino acid protein, is a component of the dynein multi-protein complex. However a substantial amount of DYNLL1 is not associated to microtubules and it can thus interact with dozens of cellular and viral proteins that display well-defined, short linear motifs. Using DYNLL1 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human heart library we identified ATMIN, an ATM kinase-interacting protein, as a DYNLL1-binding partner. Interestingly, ATMIN displays at least 18 SQ/TQ motifs in its sequence and DYNLL1 is known to bind to proteins with KXTQT motifs. Using pepscan and yeast two-hybrid techniques we show that DYNLL1 binds to multiple SQ/TQ motifs present in the carboxy-terminal domain of ATMIN. Recombinant expression and purification of the DYNLL1-binding region of ATMIN allowed us to obtain a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass in gel filtration close to 400 kDa that could bind to DYNLL1 in vitro. The NMR data-driven modelled complexes of DYNLL1 with two selected ATMIN peptides revealed a similar mode of binding to that observed between DYNLL1 and other peptide targets. Remarkably, co-expression of mCherry-DYNLL1 and GFP-ATMIN mutually affected intracellular protein localization. In GFP-ATMIN expressing-cells DNA damage induced efficiently nuclear foci formation, which was partly impeded by the presence of mCherry-DYNLL1

  20. Trace fluorescent labeling for protein crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Pusey, Marc; Barcena, Jorge; Morris, Michelle; Singhal, Anuj; Yuan, Qunying; Ng, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence can be a powerful tool to aid in the crystallization of proteins. In the trace-labeling approach, the protein is covalently derivatized with a high-quantum-yield visible-wavelength fluorescent probe. The final probe concentration typically labels ≤0.20% of the protein molecules, which has been shown to not affect the crystal nucleation or diffraction quality. The labeled protein is then used in a plate-screening experiment in the usual manner. As the most densely packed state of the protein is the crystalline form, then crystals show as the brightest objects in the well under fluorescent illumination. A study has been carried out on the effects of trace fluorescent labeling on the screening results obtained compared with nonlabeled protein, and it was found that considering the stochastic nature of the crystal nucleation process the presence of the probe did not affect the outcomes obtained. Other effects are realised when using fluorescence. Crystals are clearly seen even when buried in precipitate. This approach also finds ‘hidden’ leads, in the form of bright spots, with ∼30% of the leads found being optimized to crystals in a single-pass optimization trial. The use of visible fluorescence also enables the selection of colors that bypass interfering substances, and the screening materials do not have to be UV-transparent. PMID:26144224

  1. C-Terminal Amino Acids 471-507 of Avian Hepatitis E Virus Capsid Protein Are Crucial for Binding to Avian and Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinquan; Bilic, Ivana; Marek, Ana; Glösmann, Martin; Hess, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The infection of chickens with avian Hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) can be asymptomatic or induces clinical signs characterized by increased mortality and decreased egg production in adult birds. Due to the lack of an efficient cell culture system for avian HEV, the interaction between virus and host cells is still barely understood. In this study, four truncated avian HEV capsid proteins (ORF2-1 - ORF2-4) with an identical 338aa deletion at the N-terminus and gradual deletions from 0, 42, 99 and 136aa at the C-terminus, respectively, were expressed and used to map the possible binding site within avian HEV capsid protein. Results from the binding assay showed that three truncated capsid proteins attached to avian LMH cells, but did not penetrate into cells. However, the shortest construct, ORF2-4, lost the capability of binding to cells suggesting that the presence of amino acids 471 to 507 of the capsid protein is crucial for the attachment. The construct ORF2-3 (aa339-507) was used to study the potential binding of avian HEV capsid protein to human and other avian species. It could be demonstrated that ORF2-3 was capable of binding to QT-35 cells from Japanese quail and human HepG2 cells but failed to bind to P815 cells. Additionally, chicken serum raised against ORF2-3 successfully blocked the binding to LMH cells. Treatment with heparin sodium salt or sodium chlorate significantly reduced binding of ORF2-3 to LMH cells. However, heparinase II treatment of LMH cells had no effect on binding of the ORF2-3 construct, suggesting a possible distinct attachment mechanism of avian as compared to human HEV. For the first time, interactions between avian HEV capsid protein and host cells were investigated demonstrating that aa471 to 507 of the capsid protein are needed to facilitate interaction with different kind of cells from different species. PMID:27073893

  2. C-Terminal Amino Acids 471-507 of Avian Hepatitis E Virus Capsid Protein Are Crucial for Binding to Avian and Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinquan; Bilic, Ivana; Marek, Ana; Glösmann, Martin; Hess, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The infection of chickens with avian Hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) can be asymptomatic or induces clinical signs characterized by increased mortality and decreased egg production in adult birds. Due to the lack of an efficient cell culture system for avian HEV, the interaction between virus and host cells is still barely understood. In this study, four truncated avian HEV capsid proteins (ORF2-1 – ORF2-4) with an identical 338aa deletion at the N-terminus and gradual deletions from 0, 42, 99 and 136aa at the C-terminus, respectively, were expressed and used to map the possible binding site within avian HEV capsid protein. Results from the binding assay showed that three truncated capsid proteins attached to avian LMH cells, but did not penetrate into cells. However, the shortest construct, ORF2-4, lost the capability of binding to cells suggesting that the presence of amino acids 471 to 507 of the capsid protein is crucial for the attachment. The construct ORF2-3 (aa339-507) was used to study the potential binding of avian HEV capsid protein to human and other avian species. It could be demonstrated that ORF2-3 was capable of binding to QT-35 cells from Japanese quail and human HepG2 cells but failed to bind to P815 cells. Additionally, chicken serum raised against ORF2-3 successfully blocked the binding to LMH cells. Treatment with heparin sodium salt or sodium chlorate significantly reduced binding of ORF2-3 to LMH cells. However, heparinase II treatment of LMH cells had no effect on binding of the ORF2-3 construct, suggesting a possible distinct attachment mechanism of avian as compared to human HEV. For the first time, interactions between avian HEV capsid protein and host cells were investigated demonstrating that aa471 to 507 of the capsid protein are needed to facilitate interaction with different kind of cells from different species. PMID:27073893

  3. The biochemical properties of the ATPase activity of a 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) are governed by the C-terminal domains

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Buesa, Pascual; Pfund, Christine; Craig, Elizabeth A.

    1998-01-01

    The cytosolic 70-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70s), Ssa and Ssb, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are functionally distinct. Here we report that the ATPase activities of these two classes of Hsp70s exhibit different kinetic properties. The Ssa ATPase has properties similar to those of other Hsp70s studied, such as DnaK and Hsc70. Ssb, however, has an unusually low steady-state affinity for ATP but a higher maximal velocity. In addition, the ATPase activity of Hsp70s, like that of Ssa1, depends on the addition of K+ whereas Ssb activity does not. Suprisingly, the isolated 44-kDa ATPase domain of Ssb has a Km and Vmax for ATP hydrolysis similar to those of Ssa, rather than those of full length Ssb. Analysis of Ssa/Ssb fusion proteins demonstrates that the Ssb peptide-binding domain fused to the Ssa ATPase domain generates an ATPase of relatively high activity and low steady-state affinity for ATP similar to that of native Ssb. Therefore, at least some of the biochemical differences between the ATPases of these two classes of Hsp70s are not intrinsic to the ATPase domain itself. The differential influence of the peptide-binding domain on the ATPase domain may, in part, explain the functional uniqueness of these two classes of Hsp70s. PMID:9860955

  4. Formation of C-terminally truncated version of the Taz1 protein employs cleavage-box structure in mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gunisova, Stanislava; Bartosova, Zdenka; Kramara, Juraj; Nosek, Jozef; Tomaska, Lubomir

    2010-02-12

    When expressed in various hosts the taz1{sup +} gene encoding the fission yeast telomere-binding protein produces two forms of polypeptides: full-length (Taz1p) and truncated (Taz1p{Delta}C) version lacking almost entire Myb-domain. Whereas Taz1p binds telomeric DNA in vitro, Taz1p{Delta}C forms long filaments unable of DNA binding. The formation of Taz1p{Delta}C is a result of neither site-specific proteolysis, nor premature termination of transcription. In silico analysis of the taz1{sup +} RNA transcript revealed a stem-loop structure at the site of cleavage (cleavage box; CB). In order to explore whether it possesses inherent destabilizing effects, we cloned CB sequence into the open reading frame (ORF) of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and observed that when expressed in Escherichia coli the engineered gene produced two forms of the reporter protein. The formation of the truncated version of GST was abolished, when CB was replaced with recoded sequence containing synonymous codons thus indicating that the truncation is based on structural properties of taz1{sup +} mRNA.

  5. Indirect DNA Readout by an H-NS Related Protein: Structure of the DNA Complex of the C-Terminal Domain of Ler

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Tiago N.; Schmidt, Holger; Madrid, Cristina; Juárez, Antonio; Bernadó, Pau; Griesinger, Christian; García, Jesús; Pons, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Ler, a member of the H-NS protein family, is the master regulator of the LEE pathogenicity island in virulent Escherichia coli strains. Here, we determined the structure of a complex between the DNA-binding domain of Ler (CT-Ler) and a 15-mer DNA duplex. CT-Ler recognizes a preexisting structural pattern in the DNA minor groove formed by two consecutive regions which are narrower and wider, respectively, compared with standard B-DNA. The compressed region, associated with an AT-tract, is sensed by the side chain of Arg90, whose mutation abolishes the capacity of Ler to bind DNA. The expanded groove allows the approach of the loop in which Arg90 is located. This is the first report of an experimental structure of a DNA complex that includes a protein belonging to the H-NS family. The indirect readout mechanism not only explains the capacity of H-NS and other H-NS family members to modulate the expression of a large number of genes but also the origin of the specificity displayed by Ler. Our results point to a general mechanism by which horizontally acquired genes may be specifically recognized by members of the H-NS family. PMID:22114557

  6. Retromer in Osteoblasts Interacts With Protein Phosphatase 1 Regulator Subunit 14C, Terminates Parathyroid Hormone's Signaling, and Promotes Its Catabolic Response.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lei; Xia, Wen-Fang; Tang, Fu-Lei; Pan, Jin-Xiu; Mei, Lin; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays critical, but distinct, roles in bone remodeling, including bone formation (anabolic response) and resorption (catabolic response). Although its signaling and function have been extensively investigated, it just began to be understood how distinct functions are induced by PTH activating a common receptor, the PTH type 1 receptor (PTH1R), and how PTH1R signaling is terminated. Here, we provide evidence for vacuolar protein sorting 35 (VPS35), a major component of retromer, in regulating PTH1R trafficking, turning off PTH signaling, and promoting its catabolic function. VPS35 is expressed in osteoblast (OB)-lineage cells. VPS35-deficiency in OBs impaired PTH(1-34)-promoted PTH1R translocation to the trans-Golgi network, enhanced PTH(1-34)-driven signaling, and reduced PTH(1-34)'s catabolic response in culture and in mice. Further mechanical studies revealed that VPS35 interacts with not only PTH1R, but also protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 14C (PPP1R14C), an inhibitory subunit of PP1 phosphatase. PPP1R14C also interacts with PTH1R, which is necessary for the increased endosomal PTH1R signaling and decreased PTH(1-34)'s catabolic response in VPS35-deficient OB-lineage cells. Taken together, these results suggest that VPS35 deregulates PTH1R-signaling likely by its interaction with PTH1R and PPP1R14C. This event is critical for the control of PTH(1-34)-signaling dynamics, which may underlie PTH-induced catabolic response and adequate bone remodeling. PMID:27333042

  7. RFP tags for labeling secretory pathway proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Liyang; Zhao, Yanhua; Xu, Pingyong; Huan, Shuangyan

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Membrane protein Orai1 can be used to report the fusion properties of RFPs. • Artificial puncta are affected by dissociation constant as well as pKa of RFPs. • Among tested RFPs mOrange2 is the best choice for secretory protein labeling. - Abstract: Red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) are useful tools for live cell and multi-color imaging in biological studies. However, when labeling proteins in secretory pathway, many RFPs are prone to form artificial puncta, which may severely impede their further uses. Here we report a fast and easy method to evaluate RFPs fusion properties by attaching RFPs to an environment sensitive membrane protein Orai1. In addition, we revealed that intracellular artificial puncta are actually colocalized with lysosome, thus besides monomeric properties, pKa value of RFPs is also a key factor for forming intracellular artificial puncta. In summary, our current study provides a useful guide for choosing appropriate RFP for labeling secretory membrane proteins. Among RFPs tested, mOrange2 is highly recommended based on excellent monomeric property, appropriate pKa and high brightness.

  8. Identification of C-terminal Hsp70-interacting protein as a mediator of tumour necrosis factor action in osteoblast differentiation by targeting osterix for degradation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jianmin; Gu, Jieruo

    2015-08-01

    In patients with inflammatory arthritis, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α are overproduced in inflamed joints. This leads to local erosion of cartilage and bone, periarticular osteopenia, as well as osteoporosis. But less is known regarding the molecular mechanisms that mediate the effect of TNF-α on osteoblast function. The purpose of this study was to test that C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) has a specific role in suppressing the osteogenic activity of osteoblasts under inflammatory conditions. C2C12, MC3T3-E1 and HEK293T cell lines were cultured and cotransfected with related plasmids. After transfection, the cells were cultured further in the presence or absence of murine TNF-α and subjected to real time RT-PCR, Western blot, Ubiquitination assay, Co-immunoprecipitation, Luciferase reporter assay, Small interfering RNAs and Mineralization assay. The expression levels of TNF-α-induced CHIP and Osx were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Co-immunoprecipitation and ubiquitination assays revealed ubiquitinated Osx, confirmed that CHIP indeed interacted with Osx and identified K55 and K386 residues as the ubiquitination sites in Osx, Luciferase reporter assay and Small interfering RNAs examined whether TNF-α target the bone morphogenetic protein signalling through CHIP. We established stable cell lines with the overexpression of HA-CHIP, Mineralization assay and CHIP siRNA demonstrated the important roles of CHIP on osteoblast function in conditions in which TNF-α is overexpressed. We found that the K55 and K386 residues are ubiquitination site(s) in Osx, and that TNF-α inhibits osteoblast differentiation by promoting Osx degradation through up-regulation of E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP in osteoblast. Thus, CHIP targets Osx for ubiquitination and degradation in osteoblasts after chronic exposure to TNF-α, and inhibition of CHIP expression in osteoblasts may be a new mechanism to limit inflammation-mediated osteoporosis by promoting their

  9. C-terminal Domain (CTD) Small Phosphatase-like 2 Modulates the Canonical Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Signaling and Mesenchymal Differentiation via Smad Dephosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yulan; Xiao, Mu; Sun, Baoguo; Zhang, Zhengmao; Shen, Tao; Duan, Xueyan; Yu, Paul Borchyung; Feng, Xin-Hua; Lin, Xia

    2014-01-01

    The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway regulates a wide range of cellular responses in metazoans. A key step in the canonical BMP signaling is the phosphorylation and activation of transcription factors Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 (collectively Smad1/5/8) by the type I BMP receptors. We previously identified PPM1A as a phosphatase toward dephosphorylation of all receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), including Smad1/5/8. Here we report another nuclear phosphatase named SCP4/CTDSPL2, belonging to the FCP/SCP family, as a novel Smad phosphatase in the nucleus. SCP4 physically interacts with and specifically dephosphorylates Smad1/5/8, and as a result attenuates BMP-induced transcriptional responses. Knockdown of SCP4 in multipotent mesenchymal C2C12 cells leads to increased expression of BMP target genes and consequently promotes BMP-induced osteogenic differentiation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that SCP4, as a Smad phosphatase, plays a critical role in BMP-induced signaling and cellular functions. PMID:25100727

  10. Rqc1 and Ltn1 Prevent C-terminal Alanine-Threonine Tail (CAT-tail)-induced Protein Aggregation by Efficient Recruitment of Cdc48 on Stalled 60S Subunits.

    PubMed

    Defenouillère, Quentin; Zhang, Elodie; Namane, Abdelkader; Mouaikel, John; Jacquier, Alain; Fromont-Racine, Micheline

    2016-06-01

    Protein homeostasis is maintained by quality control mechanisms that detect and eliminate deficient translation products. Cytosolic defective proteins can arise from translation of aberrant mRNAs lacking a termination codon (NonStop) or containing a sequence that blocks translation elongation (No-Go), which results in translational arrest. Stalled ribosomes are dissociated, aberrant mRNAs are degraded by the cytoplasmic exosome, and the nascent peptides remaining in stalled 60S exit tunnels are detected by the ribosome-bound quality control complex (RQC) composed of Ltn1, Rqc1, Rqc2, and Cdc48. Whereas Ltn1 polyubiquitylates these nascent peptides, Rqc2 directs the addition of C-terminal alanine-threonine tails (CAT-tails), and a Cdc48 hexamer is recruited to extract the nascent peptides, which are addressed to the proteasome for degradation. Although the functions of most RQC components have been described, the role of Rqc1 in this quality control process remains undetermined. In this article we show that the absence of Rqc1 or Ltn1 results in the aggregation of aberrant proteins, a phenomenon that requires CAT-tail addition to the nascent peptides by Rqc2. Our results suggest that aberrant CAT-tailed protein aggregation results from a defect in Cdc48 recruitment to stalled 60S particles, a process that requires both Rqc1 and Ltn1. These protein aggregates contain Ltn1-dependent polyubiquitin chains and are degraded by the proteasome. Finally, aggregate characterization by proteomics revealed that they contain specific chaperones including Sis1, Sgt2, Ssa1/2, and Hsp82, suggesting that these protein aggregates may be addressed to aggresome-like structures when the RQC complex fails to deliver aberrant nascent peptides to the proteasome for degradation. PMID:27129255

  11. An engineered Plasmodium falciparum C-terminal 19-kilodalton merozoite surface protein 1 vaccine candidate induces high levels of interferon-gamma production associated with cellular immune responses to specific peptide sequences in Gambian adults naturally exposed to malaria

    PubMed Central

    Bisseye, C; Yindom, L M; Simporé, J; Morgan, W D; Holder, A A; Ismaili, J

    2011-01-01

    The 19-kDa C-terminal region of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP119), a major blood stage malaria vaccine candidate, is the target of cellular and humoral immune responses in humans naturally infected with Plasmodium falciparum. We have previously described engineered variants of this protein, designed to be better vaccine candidates, but the human immune response to these proteins has not been characterized fully. Here we have investigated the antigenicity of one such variant compared to wild-type MSP119-derived protein and peptides. Gambian adults produced both high T helper type 1 (Th1) [interferon (IFN)-γ] and Th0/Th2 [interleukin (IL)-13 and sCD30] responses to the wild-type MSP119 and the modified protein as wells as to peptides derived from both forms. Response to the modified MSP119 (with three amino acid substitutions: Glu27Tyr, Leu31Arg and Glu43Leu) relative to the wild-type, included higher IFN-γ production. Interestingly, some peptides evoked different patterns of cytokine responses. Modified peptides induced higher IL-13 production than the wild-type, while the conserved peptides P16 and P19 induced the highest IFN-γ and IL-13 and/or sCD30 release, respectively. We identified P16 as the immunodominant peptide that was recognized by cells from 63% of the study population, and not restricted to any particular human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR) type. These findings provide new and very useful information for future vaccine development and formulation as well as potential Th1/Th2 immunmodulation using either wild-type or modified protein in combination with their peptides. PMID:22059995

  12. Treatment with N- and C-Terminal Peptides of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Partly Compensate the Skeletal Abnormalities in IGF-I Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Lozano, Daniel; Cediel, Rafael; Esbrit, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1–36) and PTHrP (107–111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a, cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone. PMID:24503961

  13. Chemoenzymatic Labeling of Proteins: Techniques and Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Dozier, Jonathan K.; Distefano, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Site-specific modification of proteins is a major challenge in modern chemical biology due to the large number of reactive functional groups typically present in polypeptides. Because of its importance in biology and medicine, the development of methods for site-specific modification of proteins is an area of intense research. Selective protein modification procedures have been useful for oriented protein immobilization, for studies of naturally-occurring post-translational modifications, for creating antibody-drug conjugates, for the introduction of fluorophores and other small molecules on to proteins, for examining protein structure, folding, dynamics and protein-protein interactions and for the preparation of protein-polymer conjugates. One of the most important approaches for protein labeling is to incorporate bioorthogonal functionalities into proteins at specific sites via enzymatic reactions. The incorporated tags then enable reactions that are chemoselective, whose functional groups are not only inert in biological media, but also do not occur natively in proteins or other macromolecules. This review article summarizes the enzymatic strategies, which enable site-specific functionalization of proteins with a variety of different functional groups. The enzymes covered in this review include formylglycine generating enzyme, sialyltransferases, phosphopantetheinyltransferases, O-GlcNAc post-translational modification, sortagging, transglutaminase, farnesyltransferase, biotin ligase, lipoic acid ligase and N-myristoyl transferase. PMID:23837885

  14. Trace fluorescent labeling for protein crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Pusey, Marc Barcena, Jorge; Morris, Michelle; Singhal, Anuj; Yuan, Qunying; Ng, Joseph

    2015-06-27

    The presence of a covalently bound fluorescent probe at a concentration of <0.5% does not affect the outcome of macromolecule crystallization screening experiments. Additionally, the fluorescence can be used to determine new, not immediately apparent, lead crystallization conditions. Fluorescence can be a powerful tool to aid in the crystallization of proteins. In the trace-labeling approach, the protein is covalently derivatized with a high-quantum-yield visible-wavelength fluorescent probe. The final probe concentration typically labels ≤0.20% of the protein molecules, which has been shown to not affect the crystal nucleation or diffraction quality. The labeled protein is then used in a plate-screening experiment in the usual manner. As the most densely packed state of the protein is the crystalline form, then crystals show as the brightest objects in the well under fluorescent illumination. A study has been carried out on the effects of trace fluorescent labeling on the screening results obtained compared with nonlabeled protein, and it was found that considering the stochastic nature of the crystal nucleation process the presence of the probe did not affect the outcomes obtained. Other effects are realised when using fluorescence. Crystals are clearly seen even when buried in precipitate. This approach also finds ‘hidden’ leads, in the form of bright spots, with ∼30% of the leads found being optimized to crystals in a single-pass optimization trial. The use of visible fluorescence also enables the selection of colors that bypass interfering substances, and the screening materials do not have to be UV-transparent.

  15. Crystal structure of a Fab complex formed with PfMSP1-19, the C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 from Plasmodium falciparum: a malaria vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, J C; Chitarra, V; Verger, D; Holm, I; Pêtres, S; Dartevelle, S; Nato, F; Longacre, S; Bentley, G A

    2003-05-16

    Merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) is the major protein component on the surface of the merozoite, the erythrocyte-invasive form of the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Present in all species of Plasmodium, it undergoes two distinct proteolytic maturation steps during the course of merozoite development that are essential for invasion of the erythrocyte. Antibodies specific for the C-terminal maturation product, MSP1-19, can inhibit erythrocyte invasion and parasite growth. This polypeptide is therefore considered to be one of the more promising malaria vaccine candidates. We describe here the crystal structure of recombinant MSP1-19 from P.falciparum (PfMSP1-19), the most virulent species of the parasite in humans, as a complex with the Fab fragment of the monoclonal antibody G17.12. This antibody recognises a discontinuous epitope comprising 13 residues on the first epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain of PfMSP1-19. Although G17.12 was raised against the recombinant antigen expressed in an insect cell/baculovirus system, it binds uniformly to the surface of merozoites from the late schizont stage, showing that the cognate epitope is exposed on the naturally occurring MSP1 polypeptide complex. Although the epitope includes residues that have been mapped to regions recognised by invasion-inhibiting antibodies studied by other workers, G17.12 does not inhibit erythrocyte invasion or MSP1 processing. PMID:12729744

  16. Identification of a New Interaction Mode between the Src Homology 2 Domain of C-terminal Src Kinase (Csk) and Csk-binding Protein/Phosphoprotein Associated with Glycosphingolipid Microdomains♦

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Akagi, Ken-ichi; Oneyama, Chitose; Tanaka, Masakazu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Kanou, Takashi; Lee, Young-Ho; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Dobenecker, Marc-Werner; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Okada, Masato; Ikegami, Takahisa

    2013-01-01

    Proteins with Src homology 2 (SH2) domains play major roles in tyrosine kinase signaling. Structures of many SH2 domains have been studied, and the regions involved in their interactions with ligands have been elucidated. However, these analyses have been performed using short peptides consisting of phosphotyrosine followed by a few amino acids, which are described as the canonical recognition sites. Here, we report the solution structure of the SH2 domain of C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) in complex with a longer phosphopeptide from the Csk-binding protein (Cbp). This structure, together with biochemical experiments, revealed the existence of a novel binding region in addition to the canonical phosphotyrosine 314-binding site of Cbp. Mutational analysis of this second region in cells showed that both canonical and novel binding sites are required for tumor suppression through the Cbp-Csk interaction. Furthermore, the data indicate an allosteric connection between Cbp binding and Csk activation that arises from residues in the βB/βC loop of the SH2 domain. PMID:23548896

  17. The 18-kilodalton Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) contains a potential N-terminal dimerization site and a C-terminal nucleic acid-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L B; Birkelund, S; Holm, A; Ostergaard, S; Christiansen, G

    1996-02-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) is a DNA-binding protein specific for the metabolically inactive chlamydial developmental form, the elementary body. Hc1 induces DNA condensation in Escherichia coli and is a strong inhibitor of transcription and translation. These effects may, in part, be due to Hc1-mediated alterations of DNA topology. To locate putative functional domains within Hc1, polypeptides Hc1(2-57) and Hc1(53-125), corresponding to the N- and C-terminal parts of Hc1, respectively, were generated. By chemical cross-linking with ethylene glycol-bis (succinic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester), purified recombinant Hc1 was found to form dimers. The dimerization site was located in the N-terminal part of Hc1 (Hc1(2-57)). Moreover, circular dichroism measurements indicated an overall alpha-helical structure of this region. By using limited proteolysis, Southwestern blotting, and gel retardation assays, Hc1(53-125) was shown to contain a domain capable of binding both DNA and RNA. Under the same conditions, Hc1(2-57) had no nucleic acid-binding activity. Electron microscopy of Hc1-DNA and Hc1(53-125)-DNA complexes revealed differences suggesting that the N-terminal part of Hc1 may affect the DNA-binding properties of Hc1. PMID:8576073

  18. Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) C-terminal-activating region 3 contributes to LMP1-mediated cellular migration via its interaction with Ubc9.

    PubMed

    Bentz, Gretchen L; Whitehurst, Christopher B; Pagano, Joseph S

    2011-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), the principal viral oncoprotein and a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is a constitutively active membrane signaling protein that regulates multiple signal transduction pathways via its C-terminal-activating region 1 (CTAR1) and CTAR2, and also the less-studied CTAR3. Because protein sumoylation among other posttranslational modifications may regulate many signaling pathways induced by LMP1, we investigated whether during EBV latency LMP1 regulates sumoylation processes that control cellular activation and cellular responses. By immunoprecipitation experiments, we show that LMP1 interacts with Ubc9, the single reported SUMO-conjugating enzyme. Requirements for LMP1-Ubc9 interactions include enzymatically active Ubc9: expression of inactive Ubc9 (Ubc9 C93S) inhibited the LMP1-Ubc9 interaction. LMP1 CTAR3, but not CTAR1 and CTAR2, participated in the LMP1-Ubc9 interaction, and amino acid sequences found in CTAR3, including the JAK-interacting motif, contributed to this interaction. Furthermore, LMP1 expression coincided with increased sumoylation of cellular proteins, and disruption of the Ubc9-LMP1 CTAR3 interaction almost completely abrogated LMP1-induced protein sumoylation, suggesting that this interaction promotes the sumoylation of downstream targets. Additional consequences of the disruption of the LMP1 CTAR3-Ubc9 interaction revealed effects on cellular migration, a hallmark of oncogenesis. Together, these data demonstrate that LMP1 CTAR3 does in fact function in intracellular signaling and leads to biological effects. We propose that LMP1, by interaction with Ubc9, modulates sumoylation processes, which regulate signal transduction pathways that affect phenotypic changes associated with oncogenesis. PMID:21795333

  19. A strong antibody response to the periplasmic C-terminal domain of the OmpA protein of Escherichia coli is produced by immunization with purified OmpA or with whole E. coli or Salmonella typhimurium bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Puohiniemi, R; Karvonen, M; Vuopio-Varkila, J; Muotiala, A; Helander, I M; Sarvas, M

    1990-01-01

    We produced in Bacillus subtilis the complete, as well as the N-terminal two-thirds, OmpA protein of Escherichia coli (called here Bac-OmpA and Bac-OmpA-dN, respectively). These Bac-OmpA proteins were used to examine the immunological properties of different parts of OmpA, free of lipopolysaccharide and other components of the outer membrane. The full-length Bac-OmpA was indistinguishable from the authentic protein isolated from E. coli (Coli-OmpA) both as immunogen and as antigen in enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The N-terminal Bac-OmpA-dN was a poor immunogen which gave rise to significantly lower titers of anti-OmpA antibody than did the full-length OmpA preparations. When used as an antigen in EIA, the Bac-OmpA-dN detected anti-OmpA antibody in serum samples from animals immunized with the full-length OmpA much less efficiently than did either Bac-OmpA or Coli-OmpA. The periplasmic C-terminal domain therefore appears to be an immunodominant epitope of the purified OmpA protein. Also, when rabbits and mice were immunized with intact, live or dead E. coli, the antibody response detected by EIA with the full-length protein, Bac-OmpA, was much stronger than that detected with the N-terminal two-thirds, Bac-OmpA-dN. Similar results were obtained with the OmpA of Salmonella typhimurium. Because the ompA gene of enterobacteria is highly conserved, the Bac-OmpA might be useful as a group-specific EIA antigen to diagnose diseases caused by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Images PMID:2111285

  20. Structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin, two snake-venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins that target cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels: implications for movement of the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Yasuo; Brown, R. Lane; Fujimoto, Zui; Morita, Takashi; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    The structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin suggest that both proteins bind to cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels in a manner in which the concave surface occludes the pore entrance. Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels play pivotal roles in sensory transduction by retinal photoreceptors and olfactory neurons. The elapid snake toxins pseudechetoxin (PsTx) and pseudecin (Pdc) are the only known protein blockers of CNG channels. These toxins belong to a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family containing an N-terminal pathogenesis-related proteins of group 1 (PR-1) domain and a C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD). PsTx and Pdc are highly homologous proteins, but their blocking affinities on CNG channels are different: PsTx blocks both the olfactory and retinal channels with ∼15–30-fold higher affinity than Pdc. To gain further insights into their structure and function, the crystal structures of PsTx, Pdc and Zn{sup 2+}-bound Pdc were determined. The structures revealed that most of the amino-acid-residue differences between PsTx and Pdc are located around the concave surface formed between the PR-1 domain and the CRD, suggesting that the concave surface is functionally important for CNG-channel binding and inhibition. A structural comparison in the presence and absence of Zn{sup 2+} ion demonstrated that the concave surface can open and close owing to movement of the CRD upon Zn{sup 2+} binding. The data suggest that PsTx and Pdc occlude the pore entrance and that the dynamic motion of the concave surface facilitates interaction with the CNG channels.

  1. Ten tandem repeats of {beta}-hCG 109-118 enhance immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of {beta}-hCG C-terminal peptide carried by mycobacterial heat-shock protein HSP65

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yankai; Yan Rong; He Yi; Liu Wentao; Cao Rongyue; Yan Ming; Li Taiming; Liu Jingjing; Wu Jie . E-mail: wu_jie97@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-07-14

    The {beta}-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin ({beta}-hCG) is secreted by many kinds of tumors and it has been used as an ideal target antigen to develop vaccines against tumors. In view of the low immunogenicity of this self-peptide,we designed a method based on isocaudamer technique to repeat tandemly the 10-residue sequence X of {beta}-hCG (109-118), then 10 tandemly repeated copies of the 10-residue sequence combined with {beta}-hCG C-terminal 37 peptides were fused to mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 to construct a fusion protein HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 as an immunogen. In this study, we examined the effect of the tandem repeats of this 10-residue sequence in eliciting an immune by comparing the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of the two immunogens, HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 and HSP65-{beta}hCGCTP37 (without the 10 tandem repeats). Immunization of mice with the fusion protein HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 elicited much higher levels of specific anti-{beta}-hCG antibodies and more effectively inhibited the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in vivo than with HSP65-{beta}hCGCTP37, which should suggest that HSP65-X10-{beta}hCGCTP37 may be an effective protein vaccine for the treatment of {beta}-hCG-dependent tumors and multiple tandem repeats of a certain epitope are an efficient method to overcome the low immunogenicity of self-peptide antigens.

  2. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. I. Importance of hydrophobic interactions in stabilization of beta-hairpin structure.

    PubMed

    Skwierawska, Agnieszka; Makowska, Joanna; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A

    2009-06-01

    We previously studied a 16-amino acid-residue fragment of the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain (residues 46-61), [IG(46-61)] of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus, and found that hydrophobic interactions and the turn region play an important role in stabilizing the structure. Based on these results, we carried out systematic structural studies of peptides derived from the sequence of IG (46-61) by systematically shortening the peptide by one residue at a time from both the C- and the N-terminus. To determine the structure and stability of two resulting 12- and 14-amino acid-residue peptides, IG(48-59) and IG(47-60), respectively, we carried out circular dichroism, NMR, and calorimetric studies of these peptides in pure water. Our results show that IG(48-59) possesses organized three-dimensional structure stabilized by hydrophobic interactions (Tyr50-Phe57 and Trp48-Val59) at T = 283 and 305 K. At T = 313 K, the structure breaks down because of increased chain entropy, but the turn region is preserved in the same position observed for the structure of the whole protein. The breakdown of structure occurs near the melting temperature of this peptide (T(m) = 310 K) measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The melting temperature of IG(47-60) determined by DSC is T(m) = 330 K and its structure is similar to that of the native beta-hairpin at all (lower) temperatures examined (283-313 K). Both of these truncated sequences are conserved in all known amino acid sequences of the B domains of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from bacteria. Thus, this study contributes to an understanding of the mechanism of folding of this whole family of proteins, and provides information about the mechanism of formation and stabilization of a beta-hairpin structural element. PMID:19089955

  3. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. III. Dynamics of long-range hydrophobic interactions.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A

    2010-02-15

    A 20-residue peptide, IG(42-61), derived from the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus was studied using circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at various temperatures and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Unlike other related peptides studied so far, this peptide displays two heat capacity peaks in DSC measurements (at a scanning rate of 1.5 deg/min at a peptide concentration of 0.07 mM), which suggests a three-state folding/unfolding process. The results from DSC and NMR measurements suggest the formation of a dynamic network of hydrophobic interactions stabilizing the structure, which resembles a beta-hairpin shape over a wide range of temperatures (283-313 K). Our results show that IG (42-61) possesses a well-organized three-dimensional structure stabilized by long-range hydrophobic interactions (Tyr50 ... Phe57 and Trp48 ... Val59) at T = 283 K and (Trp48 ... Val59) at 305 and 313 K. The mechanism of beta-hairpin folding and unfolding, as well as the influence of peptide length on its conformational properties, are also discussed. PMID:19847914

  4. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. Part III. Dynamics of long-range hydrophobic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2010-01-01

    A 20-residue peptide, IG(42–61), derived from the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus was studied using CD, NMR spectroscopy at various temperatures and by differential scanning calorimetry. Unlike other related peptides studied so far, this peptide displays two heat capacity peaks in DSC measurements (at a scanning rate of 1.5 deg/min at a peptide concentration of 0.07mM) which suggests a three-state folding/unfolding process. The results from DSC and NMR measurements suggest the formation of a dynamic network of hydrophobic interactions stabilizing the structure, which resembles a β-hairpin shape over a wide range of temperatures (283 – 313 K). Our results show that IG(42–61) possesses a well-organized three-dimensional structure stabilized by long-range hydrophobic interactions (Tyr50 ··· Phe57 and Trp48 ··· Val59) at T = 283 K and (Trp48 ··· Val59) at 305 and 313 K. The mechanism of β-hairpin folding and unfolding, as well as the influence of peptide length on its conformational properties, are also discussed. PMID:19847914

  5. The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Lucas Y. H.; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Prow, Natalie A.; Baker, Kelly; Piyasena, Thisun B. H.; Taylor, Carmel T.; Rana, Ashok; Hastie, Marcus L.; Gorman, Jeff J.; Hall, Roy A.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP) of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1–35 and 140–210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP. PMID:26061335

  6. The C-terminal domain of FUSCA3 negatively regulates mRNA and protein levels, and mediates sensitivity to the hormones abscisic acid and gibberellic acid in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing Shi; Paz, Joelle Dela; Pathmanathan, Aathi; Chiu, Rex Shun; Tsai, Allen Yi-Lun; Gazzarrini, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    The transcription factor FUSCA3 (FUS3) controls the transition from the embryonic to the vegetative phase of development by regulating abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) levels in Arabidopsis thaliana. In a feedback loop, FUS3 accumulation is negatively and positively regulated by GA and ABA, respectively, by an uncharacterized mechanism. Here, we use a FUS3-GFP construct to show that the level of the FUS3 protein decreases dramatically during mid to late embryogenesis, whereas its mRNA is present at a high level. Deletion studies identify a C-terminal domain (CTD) that negatively regulates mRNA and protein levels, and mediates sensitivity to ABA and GA. Indeed, a CTD-truncated FUS3 variant accumulates at high level, and is insensitive to the destabilizing and stabilizing effects of GA and ABA, respectively. In contrast, fusion of various fragments of the CTD with GFP is sufficient to greatly reduce GFP fluorescence. The GFP-CTD fluorescence can be increased by ABA and paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis. Cell-free degradation assays show that FUS3 is a short-lived protein. FUS3 degradation follows the 26S proteasome in vitro and in vivo, and the CTD affects its degradation rate. In contrast to the native form, the CTD-truncated FUS3 is unable to fully rescue the fus3-3 mutant, and is thus required for FUS3 function. In conclusion, this study identifies a CTD that maintains low levels of FUS3 during embryogenesis and early germination, and is required for normal FUS3 function and sensitivity to ABA and GA. PMID:20663088

  7. The C-terminal 20 Amino Acids of Drosophila Topoisomerase 2 Are Required for Binding to a BRCA1 C Terminus (BRCT) Domain-containing Protein, Mus101, and Fidelity of DNA Segregation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Tsung Shane; Wu, Jianhong; Modrich, Paul; Hsieh, Tao-Shih

    2016-06-17

    Eukaryotic topoisomerase 2 (Top2) and one of its interacting partners, topoisomerase IIβ binding protein 1 (TopBP1) are two proteins performing essential cellular functions. We mapped the interacting domains of these two proteins using co-immunoprecipitation and pulldown experiments with truncated or mutant Drosophila Top2 with various Ser-to-Ala substitutions. We discovered that the last 20 amino acids of Top2 represent the key region for binding with Mus101 (the Drosophila homolog of TopBP1) and that phosphorylation of Ser-1428 and Ser-1443 is important for Top2 to interact with the N terminus of Mus101, which contains the BRCT1/2 domains. The interaction between Mus101 and the Top2 C-terminal regulatory domain is phosphorylation-dependent because treatment with phosphatase abolishes their association in pulldown assays. The binding affinity of N-terminal Mus101 with a synthetic phosphorylated peptide spanning the last 25 amino acids of Top2 (with Ser(P)-1428 and Ser(P)-1443) was determined by surface plasmon resonance with a Kd of 0.57 μm In an in vitro decatenation assay, Mus101 can specifically reduce the decatenation activity of Top2, and dephosphorylation of Top2 attenuates this response. Next, we endeavored to establish a cellular system for testing the biological function of Top2-Mus101 interaction. Top2-silenced S2 cells rescued by Top2Δ20, Top2 with 20 amino acids truncated from the C terminus, developed abnormally high chromosome numbers, which implies that Top2-Mus101 interaction is important for maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation during mitosis. PMID:27129233

  8. Identification of dually acylated proteins from complementary DNA resources by cell-free and cellular metabolic labeling.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Koko; Kimoto, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kanako; Kiwado, Aya; Takamitsu, Emi; Utsumi, Toshihiko

    2016-10-15

    To establish a strategy to identify dually fatty acylated proteins from cDNA resources, seven N-myristoylated proteins with cysteine (Cys) residues within the 10 N-terminal residues were selected as potential candidates among 27 N-myristoylated proteins identified from a model human cDNA resource. Seven proteins C-terminally tagged with FLAG tag or EGFP were generated and their susceptibility to protein N-myristoylation and S-palmitoylation were evaluated by metabolic labeling with [(3)H]myristic acid or [(3)H]palmitic acid either in an insect cell-free protein synthesis system or in transfected mammalian cells. As a result, EEPD1, one of five proteins (RFTN1, EEPD1, GNAI1, PDE2A, RNF11) found to be dually acylated, was shown to be a novel dually fatty acylated protein. Metabolic labeling experiments using G2A and C7S mutants of EEPD1-EGFP revealed that the palmitoylation site of EEPD1 is Cys at position 7. Analysis of the intracellular localization of EEPD1 C-terminally tagged with FLAG tag or EGFP and its G2A and C7S mutants revealed that the dual acylation directs EEPD1 to localize to the plasma membrane. Thus, dually fatty acylated proteins can be identified from cDNA resources by cell-free and cellular metabolic labeling of N-myristoylated proteins with Cys residue(s) close to the N-myristoylated N-terminus. PMID:27480498

  9. A New Mutation, hap1-2, Reveals a C Terminal Domain Function in AtMago Protein and Its Biological Effects in Male Gametophyte Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Cilano, Kevin; Mazanek, Zachary; Khan, Mahmuda; Metcalfe, Sarah; Zhang, Xiao-Ning

    2016-01-01

    The exon-exon junction complex (EJC) is a conserved eukaryotic multiprotein complex that examines the quality of and determines the availability of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) posttranscriptionally. Four proteins, MAGO, Y14, eIF4AIII and BTZ, function as core components of the EJC. The mechanisms of their interactions and the biological indications of these interactions are still poorly understood in plants. A new mutation, hap1-2. leads to premature pollen death and a reduced seed production in Arabidopsis. This mutation introduces a viable truncated transcript AtMagoΔC. This truncation abolishes the interaction between AtMago and AtY14 in vitro, but not the interaction between AtMago and AteIF4AIII. In addition to a strong nuclear presence of AtMago, both AtMago and AtMagoΔC exhibit processing-body (P-body) localization. This indicates that AtMagoΔC may replace AtMago in the EJC when aberrant transcripts are to be degraded. When introducing an NMD mutation, upf3-1, into the existing HAP1/hap1-2 mutant, plants showed a severely reduced fertility. However, the change of splicing pattern of a subset of SR protein transcripts is mostly correlated with the sr45-1 and upf3-1 mutations, not the hap1-2 mutation. These results imply that the C terminal domain (CTD) of AtMago is required for the AtMago-AtY14 heterodimerization during EJC assembly, UPF3-mediated NMD pathway and the AtMago-AtY14 heterodimerization work synergistically to regulate male gametophyte development in plants. PMID:26867216

  10. A New Mutation, hap1-2, Reveals a C Terminal Domain Function in AtMago Protein and Its Biological Effects in Male Gametophyte Development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Cilano, Kevin; Mazanek, Zachary; Khan, Mahmuda; Metcalfe, Sarah; Zhang, Xiao-Ning

    2016-01-01

    The exon-exon junction complex (EJC) is a conserved eukaryotic multiprotein complex that examines the quality of and determines the availability of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) posttranscriptionally. Four proteins, MAGO, Y14, eIF4AIII and BTZ, function as core components of the EJC. The mechanisms of their interactions and the biological indications of these interactions are still poorly understood in plants. A new mutation, hap1-2. leads to premature pollen death and a reduced seed production in Arabidopsis. This mutation introduces a viable truncated transcript AtMagoΔC. This truncation abolishes the interaction between AtMago and AtY14 in vitro, but not the interaction between AtMago and AteIF4AIII. In addition to a strong nuclear presence of AtMago, both AtMago and AtMagoΔC exhibit processing-body (P-body) localization. This indicates that AtMagoΔC may replace AtMago in the EJC when aberrant transcripts are to be degraded. When introducing an NMD mutation, upf3-1, into the existing HAP1/hap1-2 mutant, plants showed a severely reduced fertility. However, the change of splicing pattern of a subset of SR protein transcripts is mostly correlated with the sr45-1 and upf3-1 mutations, not the hap1-2 mutation. These results imply that the C terminal domain (CTD) of AtMago is required for the AtMago-AtY14 heterodimerization during EJC assembly, UPF3-mediated NMD pathway and the AtMago-AtY14 heterodimerization work synergistically to regulate male gametophyte development in plants. PMID:26867216