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Sample records for protein tdp-43 promotes

  1. Frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated disease protein TDP-43 promotes dendritic branching

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yubing; Ferris, Jacob; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2009-01-01

    Background TDP-43 is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein implicated in the pathogenesis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases. In diseased neurons, TDP-43 is depleted in the nucleus, suggesting a loss-of-function pathogenic mechanism. However, the normal function of TDP-43 in postmitotic neurons is largely unknown. Results Here we demonstrate that overexpression of Drosophila TDP-43 (dTDP-43) in vivo significantly increases dendritic branching of sensory neurons in Drosophila larvae. Loss of dTDP-43 function, either in a genetic null mutant or through RNAi knockdown, decreased dendritic branching. Further genetic analysis demonstrated a cell-autonomous role for dTDP-43 in dendrite formation. Moreover, human TDP-43 (hTDP-43) promoted dendritic branching in Drosophila neurons, and this function was attenuated by mutations associated with ALS. Conclusion These findings reveal an essential role for TDP-43 in dendritic structural integrity, supporting the notion that loss of normal TDP-43 function in diseased neurons may compromise neuronal connectivity before neuronal cell loss in FTD and ALS. PMID:19781077

  2. Disease-associated mutations of TDP-43 promote turnover of the protein through the proteasomal pathway.

    PubMed

    Araki, Wataru; Minegishi, Seiji; Motoki, Kazumi; Kume, Hideaki; Hohjoh, Hirohiko; Araki, Yumiko M; Tamaoka, Akira

    2014-12-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) is a major component of most ubiquitin-positive neuronal and glial inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). A number of missense mutations in the TARDBP gene have been identified in patients with familial and sporadic ALS, as well as familial FTLD with ALS. In the diseased states, TDP-43 proteins exhibit characteristic alterations, including truncation, abnormal phosphorylation, and altered subcellular distribution. However, the mechanisms by which TDP-43 mutations induce neurodegeneration remain unclear at present. In the current study, we analyzed protein turnover and subcellular distribution of wild-type TDP-43 and two disease-associated mutants (G298S and A382T) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells stably expressing TDP-43 with a C-terminal tag. Cycloheximide chase experiments revealed more rapid turnover of TDP-43 mutant proteins than their wild-type counterpart. The decrease in the TDP-43 level after cycloheximide treatment was partially recovered upon co-treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, epoxomicin, but not the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, suggesting involvement of the proteasomal pathway in TDP-43 degradation. Analysis of the subcellular distribution of TDP-43 revealed predominant localization in the nuclear fraction, whereas the relative level in the cytoplasm remained unaltered in cells expressing either mutant protein, compared with wild-type protein. Our results suggest that higher turnover of disease-associated mutant TDP-43 proteins through the ubiquitin proteasome system is pathogenetically relevant and highlight the significance of proteolysis in the pathogenetic mechanism of TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:24477737

  3. TDP-43 regulates endogenous retrovirus-K viral protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Manghera, Mamneet; Ferguson-Parry, Jennifer; Douville, Renée N

    2016-10-01

    The concomitant expression of neuronal TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and human endogenous retrovirus-K (ERVK) is a hallmark of ALS. Since the involvement of TDP-43 in retrovirus replication remains controversial, we sought to evaluate whether TDP-43 exerts an effect on ERVK expression. In this study, TDP-43 bound the ERVK promoter in the context of inflammation or proteasome inhibition, with no effect on ERVK transcription. However, over-expression of ALS-associated aggregating forms of TDP-43, but not wild-type TDP-43, significantly enhanced ERVK viral protein accumulation. Human astrocytes and neurons further demonstrated cell-type specific differences in their ability to express and clear ERVK proteins during inflammation and proteasome inhibition. Astrocytes, but not neurons, were able to clear excess ERVK proteins through stress granule formation and autophagy. In vitro findings were validated in autopsy motor cortex tissue from patients with ALS and neuro-normal controls. We further confirmed marked enhancement of ERVK in cortical neurons of patients with ALS. Despite evidence of enhanced stress granule and autophagic response in ALS cortical neurons, these cells failed to clear excess ERVK protein accumulation. This highlights how multiple cellular pathways, in conjunction with disease-associated mutations, can converge to modulate the expression and clearance of viral gene products from genomic elements such as ERVK. In ALS, ERVK protein aggregation is a novel aspect of TDP-43 misregulation contributing towards the pathology of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27370226

  4. Review: Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43): mechanisms of neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, T. F.; Josephs, K. A.; Petrucelli, L.

    2011-01-01

    Since the identification of phosphorylated and truncated transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) as a primary component of ubiquitinated inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions, and the discovery that mutations in the TDP-43 gene cause ALS, much effort has been directed towards establishing how TDP-43 contributes to the development of neurodegeneration. Although few in vivo models are presently available, findings thus far strongly support the involvement of abnormally modified TDP-43 in promoting TDP-43 aggregation and cellular mislocalization. Therefore, TDP-43-mediated neurotoxicity is likely to result from a combination of toxic gains of function conferred by TDP-43 inclusions as well as from the loss of normal TDP-43 function. Nonetheless, the exact neurotoxic TDP-43 species remain unclear, as do the mechanism(s) by which they cause neuronal death. Moreover, little is currently known about the roles of TDP-43, both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm, making it difficult to truly appreciate the detrimental consequences of aberrant TDP-43 function. This review will summarize what is currently understood regarding normal TDP-43 function and the involvement of TDP-43 in neurodegeneration, and will also highlight some of the many remaining questions in need of further investigation. PMID:20202122

  5. The Tau Tubulin Kinases TTBK1/2 Promote Accumulation of Pathological TDP-43

    PubMed Central

    Liachko, Nicole F.; Loomis, Elaine; Greenup, Lynne; Murrell, Jill R.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Raskind, Murray A.; Montine, Thomas J.; Bird, Thomas D.; Leverenz, James B.; Kraemer, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Pathological aggregates of phosphorylated TDP-43 characterize amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP), two devastating groups of neurodegenerative disease. Kinase hyperactivity may be a consistent feature of ALS and FTLD-TDP, as phosphorylated TDP-43 is not observed in the absence of neurodegeneration. By examining changes in TDP-43 phosphorylation state, we have identified kinases controlling TDP-43 phosphorylation in a C. elegans model of ALS. In this kinome-wide survey, we identified homologs of the tau tubulin kinases 1 and 2 (TTBK1 and TTBK2), which were also identified in a prior screen for kinase modifiers of TDP-43 behavioral phenotypes. Using refined methodology, we demonstrate TTBK1 and TTBK2 directly phosphorylate TDP-43 in vitro and promote TDP-43 phosphorylation in mammalian cultured cells. TTBK1/2 overexpression drives phosphorylation and relocalization of TDP-43 from the nucleus to cytoplasmic inclusions reminiscent of neuropathologic changes in disease states. Furthermore, protein levels of TTBK1 and TTBK2 are increased in frontal cortex of FTLD-TDP patients, and TTBK1 and TTBK2 co-localize with TDP-43 inclusions in ALS spinal cord. These kinases may represent attractive targets for therapeutic intervention for TDP-43 proteinopathies such as ALS and FTLD-TDP. PMID:25473830

  6. The tau tubulin kinases TTBK1/2 promote accumulation of pathological TDP-43.

    PubMed

    Liachko, Nicole F; McMillan, Pamela J; Strovas, Timothy J; Loomis, Elaine; Greenup, Lynne; Murrell, Jill R; Ghetti, Bernardino; Raskind, Murray A; Montine, Thomas J; Bird, Thomas D; Leverenz, James B; Kraemer, Brian C

    2014-12-01

    Pathological aggregates of phosphorylated TDP-43 characterize amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP), two devastating groups of neurodegenerative disease. Kinase hyperactivity may be a consistent feature of ALS and FTLD-TDP, as phosphorylated TDP-43 is not observed in the absence of neurodegeneration. By examining changes in TDP-43 phosphorylation state, we have identified kinases controlling TDP-43 phosphorylation in a C. elegans model of ALS. In this kinome-wide survey, we identified homologs of the tau tubulin kinases 1 and 2 (TTBK1 and TTBK2), which were also identified in a prior screen for kinase modifiers of TDP-43 behavioral phenotypes. Using refined methodology, we demonstrate TTBK1 and TTBK2 directly phosphorylate TDP-43 in vitro and promote TDP-43 phosphorylation in mammalian cultured cells. TTBK1/2 overexpression drives phosphorylation and relocalization of TDP-43 from the nucleus to cytoplasmic inclusions reminiscent of neuropathologic changes in disease states. Furthermore, protein levels of TTBK1 and TTBK2 are increased in frontal cortex of FTLD-TDP patients, and TTBK1 and TTBK2 co-localize with TDP-43 inclusions in ALS spinal cord. These kinases may represent attractive targets for therapeutic intervention for TDP-43 proteinopathies such as ALS and FTLD-TDP. PMID:25473830

  7. The N-terminus of TDP-43 promotes its oligomerization and enhances DNA binding affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chung-ke; Wu, Tzong-Huah; Wu, Chu-Ya; Chiang, Ming-hui; Toh, Elsie Khai-Woon; Hsu, Yin-Chih; Lin, Ku-Feng; Liao, Yu-heng; Huang, Tai-huang; Huang, Joseph Jen-Tse

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The N-terminus of TDP-43 contains an independently folded structural domain (NTD). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural domains of TDP-43 are arranged in a beads-on-a-string fashion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NTD promotes TDP-43 oligomerization in a concentration-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NTD may assist nucleic acid-binding activity of TDP-43. -- Abstract: TDP-43 is a DNA/RNA-binding protein associated with different neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-U). Here, the structural and physical properties of the N-terminus on TDP-43 have been carefully characterized through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence anisotropy studies. We demonstrate for the first time the importance of the N-terminus in promoting TDP-43 oligomerization and enhancing its DNA-binding affinity. An unidentified structural domain in the N-terminus is also disclosed. Our findings provide insights into the N-terminal domain function of TDP-43.

  8. RNA-processing protein TDP-43 regulates FOXO-dependent protein quality control in stress response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Baldie, Gerard; Periz, Goran; Wang, Jiou

    2014-10-01

    Protein homeostasis is critical for cell survival and functions during stress and is regulated at both RNA and protein levels. However, how the cell integrates RNA-processing programs with post-translational protein quality control systems is unknown. Transactive response DNA-binding protein (TARDBP/TDP-43) is an RNA-processing protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here, we report a conserved role for TDP-43, from C. elegans to mammals, in the regulation of protein clearance via activation of FOXO transcription factors. In response to proteotoxic insults, TDP-43 redistributes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, promoting nuclear translocation of FOXOs and relieving an inhibition of FOXO activity in the nucleus. The interaction between TDP-43 and the FOXO pathway in mammalian cells is mediated by their competitive binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Consistent with FOXO-dependent protein quality control, TDP-43 regulates the levels of misfolded proteins. Therefore, TDP-43 mediates stress responses and couples the regulation of RNA metabolism and protein quality control in a FOXO-dependent manner. The results suggest that compromising the function of TDP-43 in regulating protein homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25329970

  9. Casein Kinase II Induced Polymerization of Soluble TDP-43 into Filaments Is Inhibited by Heat Shock Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mary; Lin, Wen-Lang; Cook, Casey; Dunmore, Judy; Tay, William; Menkosky, Kyle; Cao, Xiangkun; Petrucelli, Leonard; DeTure, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Trans-activation Response DNA-binding Protein-43 (TDP-43) lesions are observed in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration with ubiquitin inclusions (FTLD-TDP) and 25–50% of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) cases. These abnormal protein inclusions are composed of either amorphous TDP-43 aggregates or highly ordered filaments. The filamentous TDP-43 accumulations typically contain clean 10–12 nm filaments though wider 18–20 nm coated filaments may be observed. The TDP-43 present within these lesions is phosphorylated, truncated and ubiquitinated, and these modifications appear to be abnormal as they are linked to both a cellular heat shock response and microglial activation. The mechanisms associated with this abnormal TDP-43 accumulation are believed to result in a loss of TDP-43 function, perhaps due to the post-translational modifications or resulting from physical sequestration of the TDP-43. The formation of TDP-43 inclusions involves cellular translocation and conversion of TDP-43 into fibrillogenic forms, but the ability of these accumulations to sequester normal TDP-43 and propagate this behavior between neurons pathologically is mostly inferred. The lack of methodology to produce soluble full length TDP-43 and recapitulate this polymerization into filaments as observed in disease has limited our understanding of these pathogenic cascades. Results The protocols described here generate soluble, full-length and untagged TDP-43 allowing for a direct assessment of the impact of various posttranslational modifications on TDP-43 function. We demonstrate that Casein Kinase II (CKII) promotes the polymerization of this soluble TDP-43 into 10 nm diameter filaments that resemble the most common TDP-43 structures observed in disease. Furthermore, these filaments are recognized as abnormal by Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) which can inhibit TDP-43 polymerization or directly promote TDP-43 filament depolymerization. Conclusion These

  10. TDP-43: the relationship between protein aggregation and neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Baloh, Robert H

    2011-10-01

    Accumulations of aggregated proteins are a key feature of the pathology of all of the major neurodegenerative diseases. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was brought into this fold quite recently with the discovery of TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding protein, 43 kDa) inclusions in nearly all ALS cases. In part this discovery was fueled by the recognition of the clinical overlap between ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration, where ubiquitinated TDP-43 inclusions were first identified. Later the identification of TDP-43 mutations in rare familial forms of ALS confirmed that altered TDP-43 function can be a primary cause of the disease. However, the simple concept that TDP-43 is an aggregation-prone protein that forms toxic inclusions capable of promoting neurodegeneration has not been upheld by initial investigations. This review discusses observations from human pathology, cell culture and animal model systems, to highlight our somewhat murky understanding of the relationship between TDP-43 aggregation and neurodegeneration. PMID:21777387

  11. Mutant TDP-43 in motor neurons promotes the onset and progression of ALS in rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cao; Tong, Jianbin; Bi, Fangfang; Zhou, Hongxia; Xia, Xu-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive motor neuron degeneration, which ultimately leads to paralysis and death. Mutation of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been linked to the development of an inherited form of ALS. Existing TDP-43 transgenic animals develop a limited loss of motor neurons and therefore do not faithfully reproduce the core phenotype of ALS. Here, we report the creation of multiple lines of transgenic rats in which expression of ALS-associated mutant human TDP-43 is restricted to either motor neurons or other types of neurons and skeletal muscle and can be switched on and off. All of these rats developed progressive paralysis reminiscent of ALS when the transgene was switched on. Rats expressing mutant TDP-43 in motor neurons alone lost more spinal motor neurons than rats expressing the disease gene in varying neurons and muscle cells, although these rats all developed remarkable denervation atrophy of skeletal muscles. Intriguingly, progression of the disease was halted after transgene expression was switched off; in rats with limited loss of motor neurons, we observed a dramatic recovery of motor function, but in rats with profound loss of motor neurons, we only observed a moderate recovery of motor function. Our finding suggests that mutant TDP-43 in motor neurons is sufficient to promote the onset and progression of ALS and that motor neuron degeneration is partially reversible, at least in mutant TDP-43 transgenic rats. PMID:22156203

  12. Phosphorylation promotes neurotoxicity in a C. elegans model of TDP-43 proteinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liachko, Nicole F.; Guthrie, Chris R.; Kraemer, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders characterized by neuronal and glial lesions containing aggregated pathological TDP-43 protein in the cytoplasm, nucleus, or neurites are collectively referred to as TDP-43 proteinopathies. Lesions containing aggregated TDP-43 protein are a hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions (FTLD-U). In addition, mutations in human TDP-43 cause ALS. We have developed a C. elegans model of TDP-43 proteinopathies to study the cellular, molecular, and genetic underpinnings of TDP-43 mediated neurotoxicity. Expression of normal human TDP-43 in all C. elegans neurons causes moderate motor defects, while ALS-mutant G290A, A315T, or M337V TDP-43 transgenes cause severe motor dysfunction. The model recapitulates some characteristic features of ALS and FTLD-U including age-induced decline in motor function, decreased lifespan, and degeneration of motor neurons accompanied by hyperphosphorylation, truncation, and ubiquitination of TDP-43 protein that accumulates in detergent insoluble protein deposits. In C. elegans, TDP-43 neurotoxicity is independent of activity of the cell death caspase CED-3. Furthermore, phosphorylation of TDP-43 at serine residues 409/410 drives mutant TDP-43 toxicity. This model provides a tractable system for further dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TDP-43 neuropathology. PMID:21123567

  13. Novel monoclonal antibodies to normal and pathologically altered human TDP-43 proteins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The RNA/DNA-binding protein, TDP-43, is the key component of ubiquitinated inclusions characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the majority of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP) referred to collectively as TDP-43 proteinopathies. To further elucidate mechanisms of pathological TDP-43 processing and identify TDP-43 epitopes that could be useful as potential biomarkers of TDP-43 proteinopathies, we developed a panel of novel monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed at regions extending across the length of TDP-43. Here, we confirm previous observations that there is no or minimal accumulation of TDP-43 N-terminal domains in neocortical inclusions in human TDP-43 proteinopathy tissues and we identify a subset of these MAbs that are specific for human versus mouse TDP-43. Notably, one of these MAbs recognized an epitope that preferentially detected pathological TDP-43 inclusions with negligible reactivity for normal nuclear TDP-43 resembling anti-phospho-TDP-43 specific antibodies that only bind pathological TDP-43. Hence, we infer that this new MAb recognizes a phosphorylation independent but disease-specific pathologic conformation in abnormal TDP-43. These data suggest that the novel MAbs reported here will be useful for patient-oriented research as well as for studies of animal and cell-based models of TDP-43 proteinopathies including ALS and FTLD-TDP. PMID:24690345

  14. Novel monoclonal antibodies to normal and pathologically altered human TDP-43 proteins.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Linda K; Irwin, David J; Walker, Adam K; Xu, Yan; Riddle, Dawn M; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M Y

    2014-01-01

    The RNA/DNA-binding protein, TDP-43, is the key component of ubiquitinated inclusions characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the majority of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP) referred to collectively as TDP-43 proteinopathies. To further elucidate mechanisms of pathological TDP-43 processing and identify TDP-43 epitopes that could be useful as potential biomarkers of TDP-43 proteinopathies, we developed a panel of novel monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed at regions extending across the length of TDP-43. Here, we confirm previous observations that there is no or minimal accumulation of TDP-43 N-terminal domains in neocortical inclusions in human TDP-43 proteinopathy tissues and we identify a subset of these MAbs that are specific for human versus mouse TDP-43. Notably, one of these MAbs recognized an epitope that preferentially detected pathological TDP-43 inclusions with negligible reactivity for normal nuclear TDP-43 resembling anti-phospho-TDP-43 specific antibodies that only bind pathological TDP-43. Hence, we infer that this new MAb recognizes a phosphorylation independent but disease-specific pathologic conformation in abnormal TDP-43. These data suggest that the novel MAbs reported here will be useful for patient-oriented research as well as for studies of animal and cell-based models of TDP-43 proteinopathies including ALS and FTLD-TDP. PMID:24690345

  15. Metabolism and mis-metabolism of the neuropathological signature protein TDP-43.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Chen; Bose, Jayarama Krishnan; Majumder, Pritha; Lee, Kuen-Haur; Huang, Jen-Tse Joseph; Huang, Jeffrey K; Shen, Che-Kun James

    2014-07-15

    TDP-43 (also known as TARDBP) is a pathological signature protein of neurodegenerative diseases, with TDP-43 proteinopathies including frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)-TDP and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-TDP. These TDP-43 proteinopathies are characterized by cytoplasmic insoluble TDP-43-positive aggregates in the diseased cells, the formation of which requires the seeding of TDP-25 fragment generated by caspase cleavage of TDP-43. We have investigated the metabolism and mis-metabolism of TDP-43 in cultured cells and found that endogenous and exogenously overexpressed TDP-43 is degraded not only by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and macroautophagy, but also by the chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) mediated through an interaction between Hsc70 (also known as HSPA8) and ubiquitylated TDP-43. Furthermore, proteolytic cleavage of TDP-43 by caspase(s) is a necessary intermediate step for degradation of the majority of the TDP-43 protein, with the TDP-25 and TDP-35 fragments being the main substrates. Finally, we have determined the threshold level of the TDP-25 fragment that is necessary for formation of the cytosolic TDP-43-positive aggregates in cells containing the full-length TDP-43 at an elevated level close to that found in patients with TDP-43 proteinopathies. A comprehensive model of the metabolism and mis-metabolism of TDP-43 in relation to these findings is presented. PMID:24860144

  16. Phosphorylation of TAR DNA-binding Protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) by Truncated Casein Kinase 1δ Triggers Mislocalization and Accumulation of TDP-43.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Genjiro; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Kametani, Fuyuki; Hirai, Shinobu; Okado, Haruo; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Saitoe, Minoru; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Masai, Hisao; Hasegawa, Masato

    2016-03-11

    Intracellular aggregates of phosphorylated TDP-43 are a major component of ubiquitin-positive inclusions in the brains of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and ALS and are considered a pathological hallmark. Here, to gain insight into the mechanism of intracellular TDP-43 accumulation, we examined the relationship between phosphorylation and aggregation of TDP-43. We found that expression of a hyperactive form of casein kinase 1 δ (CK1δ1-317, a C-terminally truncated form) promotes mislocalization and cytoplasmic accumulation of phosphorylated TDP-43 (ubiquitin- and p62-positive) in cultured neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Insoluble phosphorylated TDP-43 prepared from cells co-expressing TDP-43 and CK1δ1-317 functioned as seeds for TDP-43 aggregation in cultured cells, indicating that CK1δ1-317-induced aggregated TDP-43 has prion-like properties. A striking toxicity and alterations of TDP-43 were also observed in yeast expressing TDP-43 and CK1δ1-317. Therefore, abnormal activation of CK1δ causes phosphorylation of TDP-43, leading to the formation of cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregates, which, in turn, may trigger neurodegeneration. PMID:26769969

  17. TDP-43 Phosphorylation by casein kinase Iε promotes oligomerization and enhances toxicity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Choksi, Darshana K; Roy, Bidisha; Chatterjee, Shreyasi; Yusuff, Tanzeen; Bakhoum, Mathieu F; Sengupta, Urmi; Ambegaokar, Suren; Kayed, Rakez; Jackson, George R

    2014-02-15

    Dominant mutations in transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. TDP-43 inclusions occur in neurons, glia and muscle in this disease and in sporadic and inherited forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Cytoplasmic localization, cleavage, aggregation and phosphorylation of TDP-43 at the Ser409/410 epitope have been associated with disease pathogenesis. TDP-43 aggregation is not a common feature of mouse models of TDP-43 proteinopathy, and TDP-43 is generally not thought to acquire an amyloid conformation or form fibrils. A number of putative TDP-43 kinases have been identified, but whether any of these functions to regulate TDP-43 phosphorylation or toxicity in vivo is not known. Here, we demonstrate that human TDP-43(Q331K) undergoes cytoplasmic localization and aggregates when misexpressed in Drosophila when compared with wild-type and M337V forms. Coexpression of Q331K with doubletime (DBT), the fly homolog of casein kinase Iε (CKIε), enhances toxicity. There is at best modest basal phosphorylation of misexpressed human TDP-43 in Drosophila, but coexpression with DBT increases Ser409/410 phosphorylation of all TDP-43 isoforms tested. Phosphorylation of TDP-43 in the fly is specific for DBT, as it is not observed using the validated tau kinases GSK-3β, PAR-1/MARK2 or CDK5. Coexpression of DBT with TDP-43(Q331K) enhances the formation of high-molecular weight oligomeric species coincident with enhanced toxicity, and treatment of recombinant oligomeric TDP-43 with rat CKI strongly enhances its toxicity in mammalian cell culture. These data identify CKIε as a potent TDP-43 kinase in vivo and implicate oligomeric species as the toxic entities in TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:24105464

  18. Heat-shock protein dysregulation is associated with functional and pathological TDP-43 aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsiang-Yu; Hou, Shin-Chen; Way, Tzong-Der; Wong, Chi-Huey; Wang, I.-Fan

    2013-11-01

    Conformational disorders are involved in various neurodegenerative diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the major contributors to neurodegenerative disease; however, ROS that affect the structural changes in misfolded disease proteins have yet to be well characterized. Here we demonstrate that the intrinsic propensity of TDP-43 to aggregate drives the assembly of TDP-43-positive stress granules and soluble toxic TDP-43 oligomers in response to a ROS insult via a disulfide crosslinking-independent mechanism. Notably, ROS-induced TDP-43 protein assembly correlates with the dynamics of certain TDP-43-associated chaperones. The heat-shock protein (HSP)-90 inhibitor 17-AAG prevents ROS-induced TDP-43 aggregation, alters the type of TDP-43 multimers and reduces the severity of pathological TDP-43 inclusions. In summary, our study suggests that a common mechanism could be involved in the pathogenesis of conformational diseases that result from HSP dysregulation.

  19. Inflammation Induces TDP-43 Mislocalization and Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Ana Sofia; Patel, Priyanka; Dutta, Kallol; Julien, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major component in aggregates of ubiquitinated proteins in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Here we report that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation can promote TDP-43 mislocalization and aggregation. In culture, microglia and astrocytes exhibited TDP-43 mislocalization after exposure to LPS. Likewise, treatment of the motoneuron-like NSC-34 cells with TNF-alpha (TNF-α) increased the cytoplasmic levels of TDP-43. In addition, the chronic intraperitoneal injection of LPS at a dose of 1mg/kg in TDP-43A315T transgenic mice exacerbated the pathological TDP-43 accumulation in the cytoplasm of spinal motor neurons and it enhanced the levels of TDP-43 aggregation. These results suggest that inflammation may contribute to development or exacerbation of TDP-43 proteinopathies in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26444430

  20. Inflammation Induces TDP-43 Mislocalization and Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Correia, Ana Sofia; Patel, Priyanka; Dutta, Kallol; Julien, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major component in aggregates of ubiquitinated proteins in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Here we report that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation can promote TDP-43 mislocalization and aggregation. In culture, microglia and astrocytes exhibited TDP-43 mislocalization after exposure to LPS. Likewise, treatment of the motoneuron-like NSC-34 cells with TNF-alpha (TNF-α) increased the cytoplasmic levels of TDP-43. In addition, the chronic intraperitoneal injection of LPS at a dose of 1mg/kg in TDP-43(A315T) transgenic mice exacerbated the pathological TDP-43 accumulation in the cytoplasm of spinal motor neurons and it enhanced the levels of TDP-43 aggregation. These results suggest that inflammation may contribute to development or exacerbation of TDP-43 proteinopathies in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26444430

  1. Global analysis of TDP-43 interacting proteins reveals strong association with RNA splicing and translation machinery

    PubMed Central

    Freibaum, Brian D.; Chitta, Raghu; High, Anthony A.; Taylor, J. Paul

    2010-01-01

    TDP-43 is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family of proteins. Recently, TDP-43 was shown to be a major disease protein in the ubiquitinated inclusions characteristic of most cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), tau-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and inclusion body myopathy. In these diseases, TDP-43 is redistributed from its predominantly nuclear location to ubiquitin-positive, cytoplasmic foci. The extent to which TDP-43 drives pathophysiology is unknown, but the identification of mutations in TDP-43 in familial forms of ALS and FTLD-U suggests an important role for this protein in pathogenesis. Little is known about TDP-43 function and only a few TDP-43 interacting proteins have been previously identified, which makes further insight into both the normal and pathological functions of TDP-43 difficult. Here we show, via a global proteomic approach, that TDP-43 has extensive interaction with proteins that regulate RNA metabolism. Some interactions with TDP-43 were found to be dependent on RNA-binding, whereas other interactions are RNA-independent. Disease-causing mutations in TDP-43 (A315T and M337V) do not alter its interaction profile. TDP-43 interacting proteins largely cluster into two distinct interaction networks, a nuclear/splicing cluster and a cytoplasmic/translation cluster, strongly suggesting that TDP-43 has multiple roles in RNA metabolism and functions in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Finally, we found numerous TDP-43 interactors that are known components of stress granules and, indeed, we find that TDP-43 is also recruited to stress granules. PMID:20020773

  2. UBE2E ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and ubiquitin isopeptidase Y regulate TDP-43 protein ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Hans, Friederike; Fiesel, Fabienne C; Strong, Jennifer C; Jäckel, Sandra; Rasse, Tobias M; Geisler, Sven; Springer, Wolfdieter; Schulz, Jörg B; Voigt, Aaron; Kahle, Philipp J

    2014-07-01

    Trans-activation element DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) characterizes insoluble protein aggregates in distinct subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. TDP-43 mediates many RNA processing steps within distinct protein complexes. Here we identify novel TDP-43 protein interactors found in a yeast two-hybrid screen using an adult human brain cDNA library. We confirmed the TDP-43 interaction of seven hits by co-immunoprecipitation and assessed their co-localization in HEK293E cells. As pathological TDP-43 is ubiquitinated, we focused on the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2E3 and the ubiquitin isopeptidase Y (UBPY). When cells were treated with proteasome inhibitor, ubiquitinated and insoluble TDP-43 species accumulated. All three UBE2E family members could enhance the ubiquitination of TDP-43, whereas catalytically inactive UBE2E3(C145S) was much less efficient. Conversely, silencing of UBE2E3 reduced TDP-43 ubiquitination. We examined 15 of the 48 known disease-associated TDP-43 mutants and found that one was excessively ubiquitinated. This strong TDP-43(K263E) ubiquitination was further enhanced by proteasomal inhibition as well as UBE2E3 expression. Conversely, UBE2E3 silencing and expression of UBPY reduced TDP-43(K263E) ubiquitination. Moreover, wild-type but not active site mutant UBPY reduced ubiquitination of TDP-43 C-terminal fragments and of a nuclear import-impaired mutant. In Drosophila melanogaster, UBPY silencing enhanced neurodegenerative TDP-43 phenotypes and the accumulation of insoluble high molecular weight TDP-43 and ubiquitin species. Thus, UBE2E3 and UBPY participate in the regulation of TDP-43 ubiquitination, solubility, and neurodegeneration. PMID:24825905

  3. Templated Aggregation of TAR DNA-binding Protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) by Seeding with TDP-43 Peptide Fibrils.

    PubMed

    Shimonaka, Shotaro; Nonaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Genjiro; Hisanaga, Shin-Ichi; Hasegawa, Masato

    2016-04-22

    TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been identified as the major component of ubiquitin-positive neuronal and glial inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Aggregation of TDP-43 to amyloid-like fibrils and spreading of the aggregates are suggested to account for the pathogenesis and progression of these diseases. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of TDP-43 aggregation, we attempted to identify the amino acid sequence required for the aggregation. By expressing a series of deletion mutants lacking 20 amino acid residues in the C-terminal region in SH-SY5Y cells, we established that residues 274-313 in the glycine-rich region are essential for aggregation. In vitro aggregation experiments using synthetic peptides of 40 amino acids from this sequence and adjacent regions showed that peptides 274-313 and 314-353 formed amyloid-like fibrils. Transduction of these fibrils induced seed-dependent aggregation of TDP-43 in cells expressing wild-type TDP-43 or TDP-43 lacking nuclear localization signal. These cells showed different phosphorylated C-terminal fragments of TDP-43 and different trypsin-resistant bands. These results suggest that residues 274-353 are responsible for the conversion of TDP-43 to amyloid-like fibrils and that templated aggregation of TDP-43 by seeding with different peptides induces various types of TDP-43 pathologies, i.e. the peptides appear to act like prion strains. PMID:26887947

  4. [RNA processing TDP-43 protein has a main pathological role in FTLD and ALS].

    PubMed

    Koza, Paulina

    2015-01-01

    TDP-43 is mainly a nuclear protein belonging to the heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins family. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene transcription and RNA processing. In 2006, TDP-43 was characterized as the main component of ubiquitin-positive inclusions observed in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) cases. Since then, its central role in a number of neurodegenerative diseases was confirmed, originating the TDP-43 proteinopathies term. Pathological TDP-43 redistributes and accumulates in the cytoplasm forming toxic aggregates. Plethora of animal models recapitulating features typical for human TDP-43 proteinopathies has been generated. However, the mechanism involving TDP-43 and causing functional disturbances, like dementia and motoneurons degeneration, remains unknown. Loss and gain of function hypotheses are proposed, but they still need to be verified. PMID:26689008

  5. Accumulation of TAR DNA Binding Protein-43 (TDP-43) in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Cyntia; St-Amour, Isabelle; Schneider, Julie; Bennett, David A.; Calon, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) plays a central role in the neuropathology of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but the relationship between TDP-43 abnormalities and Alzheimer disease (AD) remains unclear. To determine whether TDP-43 can serve as a neuropathological marker of AD, we performed biochemical characterization and quantification of TDP-43 in homogenates from parietal neocortex of subjects with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (NCI, n = 12), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 12), or AD (n = 12). Immunoblots revealed increased detergent-insoluble TDP-43 in the cortex of 0/12, 3/12 and 6/12 individuals with NCI, MCI or AD, respectively. Detergent-insoluble TDP-43 was positively correlated with the accumulation of soluble Aβ42, amyloid plaques and paired helical filament tau. In contrast, phospho-TDP-43 was decreased in the cytosolic fraction and detergent-soluble membrane/nuclear fraction from AD patients and correlated with antemortem cognitive function. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that the frequencies of individuals with TPD-43 or phospo-TDP-43 cytoplasmic inclusions were higher in AD than in NCI, with MCI at an intermediate level. These data indicate that abnormalities of TDP-43 occur in an important subset of MCI and AD patients and that they correlate with the clinical and neuropathological features of AD. PMID:21865887

  6. Tar DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) regulates axon growth in vitro and in vivo☆

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Vineeta Bhasker; Baskaran, Pranetha; Shaw, Christopher E.; Guthrie, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular inclusions of the TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) have been reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD-TDP). Rare mutations in TARDBP have been linked to both ALS and FTD-TDP suggesting that TDP-43 dysfunction is mechanistic in causing disease. TDP-43 is a predominantly nuclear protein with roles in regulating RNA transcription, splicing, stability and transport. In ALS, TDP-43 aberrantly accumulates in the cytoplasm of motor neurons where it forms aggregates. However it has until recently been unclear whether the toxic effects of TDP-43 involve recruitment to motor axons, and what effects this might have on axonal growth and integrity. Here we use chick embryonic motor neurons, in vivo and in vitro, to model the acute effects of TDP-43. We show that wild-type and two TDP-43 mutant proteins cause toxicity in chick embryonic motor neurons in vivo. Moreover, TDP-43 is increasingly mislocalised to axons over time in vivo, axon growth to peripheral targets is truncated, and expression of neurofilament-associated antigen is reduced relative to control motor neurons. In primary spinal motor neurons in vitro, a progressive translocation of TDP-43 to the cytoplasm occurs over time, similar to that observed in vivo. This coincides with the appearance of cytoplasmic aggregates, a reduction in the axonal length, and cellular toxicity, which was most striking for neurons expressing TDP-43 mutant forms. These observations suggest that the capacity of spinal motor neurons to produce and maintain an axon is compromised by dysregulation of TDP-43 and that the disruption of cytoskeletal integrity may play a role in the pathogenesis of ALS and FTD-TDP. PMID:24423647

  7. An acetylation switch controls TDP-43 function and aggregation propensity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Todd J; Hwang, Andrew W; Restrepo, Clark R; Yuan, Chao-Xing; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M Y

    2015-01-01

    TDP-43 pathology is a disease hallmark that characterizes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP). Although a critical role for TDP-43 as an RNA-binding protein has emerged, the regulation of TDP-43 function is poorly understood. Here, we identify lysine acetylation as a novel post-translational modification controlling TDP-43 function and aggregation. We provide evidence that TDP-43 acetylation impairs RNA binding and promotes accumulation of insoluble, hyper-phosphorylated TDP-43 species that largely resemble pathological inclusions in ALS and FTLD-TDP. Moreover, biochemical and cell-based assays identify oxidative stress as a signalling cue that promotes acetylated TDP-43 aggregates that are readily engaged by the cellular defense machinery. Importantly, acetylated TDP-43 lesions are found in ALS patient spinal cord, indicating that aberrant TDP-43 acetylation and loss of RNA binding are linked to TDP-43 proteinopathy. Thus, modulating TDP-43 acetylation represents a plausible strategy to fine-tune TDP-43 activity, which could provide new therapeutic avenues for TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:25556531

  8. An acetylation switch controls TDP-43 function and aggregation propensity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Todd J.; Hwang, Andrew W.; Restrepo, Clark R.; Yuan, Chao-Xing; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.Y.

    2015-01-01

    TDP-43 pathology is a disease hallmark that characterizes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP). Although a critical role for TDP-43 as an RNA-binding protein has emerged, the regulation of TDP-43 function is poorly understood. Here we identify lysine acetylation as a novel post-translational modification controlling TDP-43 function and aggregation. We provide evidence that TDP-43 acetylation impairs RNA-binding and promotes accumulation of insoluble, hyper-phosphorylated TDP-43 species that largely resemble pathological inclusions in ALS and FTLD-TDP. Moreover, biochemical and cell-based assays identify oxidative stress as a signaling cue that promotes acetylated TDP-43 aggregates that are readily engaged by the cellular defense machinery. Importantly, acetylated TDP-43 lesions are found in ALS patient spinal cord, indicating that aberrant TDP-43 acetylation and loss of RNA binding are linked to TDP-43 proteinopathy. Thus, modulating TDP-43 acetylation represents a plausible strategy to fine-tune TDP-43 activity, which could provide new therapeutic avenues for TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:25556531

  9. Fragile X protein mitigates TDP-43 toxicity by remodeling RNA granules and restoring translation.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Alyssa N; Yamada, Shizuka B; Siddegowda, Bhavani Bagevalu; Estes, Patricia S; Zaepfel, Benjamin L; Johannesmeyer, Jeffrey S; Lockwood, Donovan B; Pham, Linh T; Hart, Michael P; Cassel, Joel A; Freibaum, Brian; Boehringer, Ashley V; Taylor, J Paul; Reitz, Allen B; Gitler, Aaron D; Zarnescu, Daniela C

    2015-12-15

    RNA dysregulation is a newly recognized disease mechanism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we identify Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein (dFMRP) as a robust genetic modifier of TDP-43-dependent toxicity in a Drosophila model of ALS. We find that dFMRP overexpression (dFMRP OE) mitigates TDP-43 dependent locomotor defects and reduced lifespan in Drosophila. TDP-43 and FMRP form a complex in flies and human cells. In motor neurons, TDP-43 expression increases the association of dFMRP with stress granules and colocalizes with polyA binding protein in a variant-dependent manner. Furthermore, dFMRP dosage modulates TDP-43 solubility and molecular mobility with overexpression of dFMRP resulting in a significant reduction of TDP-43 in the aggregate fraction. Polysome fractionation experiments indicate that dFMRP OE also relieves the translation inhibition of futsch mRNA, a TDP-43 target mRNA, which regulates neuromuscular synapse architecture. Restoration of futsch translation by dFMRP OE mitigates Futsch-dependent morphological phenotypes at the neuromuscular junction including synaptic size and presence of satellite boutons. Our data suggest a model whereby dFMRP is neuroprotective by remodeling TDP-43 containing RNA granules, reducing aggregation and restoring the translation of specific mRNAs in motor neurons. PMID:26385636

  10. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear accumulations of the protein are neurotoxic in Drosophila models of TDP-43 proteinopathies.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Laetitia; Frébourg, Thierry; Campion, Dominique; Lecourtois, Magalie

    2011-02-01

    Recently, the TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a major constituent of nuclear and/or cytoplasmic ubiquitin-positive inclusions in patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Pathological proteins are abnormally hyperphosphorylated and partially cleaved to generate C-terminal fragments. In this issue, we addressed the mechanism underlying TDP-43 toxicity in vivo, using Drosophila as an experimental model. We developed new Drosophila transgenic models expressing different variants of full-length human TDP-43 proteins presenting different subcellular localizations: a wild-type form of hTDP-43 and two mutants forms of the protein, hTDP-43mutNLS and hTDP43mutNES, which lack nuclear localization signals (NLS) and nuclear export signals (NES), respectively. Using an inducible GAL4 system, we found that both nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulations of TDP-43 in adult neurons lead to reduction of lifespan in Drosophila, the gradient of toxicity being hTDP-43>hTDP-43mutNLS>hTDP43mutNES. This toxicity occurs regardless of inclusions formation. In the other hand, in retina, muscle and glial cells, only the accumulation of cytoplasmic species of TDP-43 was toxic. Biochemical data showed that human TDP-43 proteins expressed in adult fly neurons are abnormally phosphorylated on the disease-specific Ser409/Ser410 site and processed. In conclusion, our data show that TDP-43 expression in flies recapitulates several biochemical key features of human TDP-43 proteinopathies, including abnormal phosphorylation on a disease-specific site and processing of the protein. Moreover, our TDP-43 Drosophila models indicate that distinct pathways of TDP-43 toxicity might operate depending on the cell type. PMID:20951205

  11. Wild-type human TDP-43 expression causes TDP-43 phosphorylation, mitochondrial aggregation, motor deficits and early mortality in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ya-Fei; Gendron, Tania F.; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Lin, Wen-Lang; D’Alton, Simon; Sheng, Hong; Casey, Monica Castanedes; Tong, Jimei; Knight, Joshua; Yu, Xin; Rademakers, Rosa; Boylan, Kevin; Hutton, Mike; McGowan, Eileen; Dickson, Dennis W.; Lewis, Jada; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a principal component of ubiquitinated inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutations in TARDBP, the gene encoding TDP-43, are associated with sporadic and familial ALS, yet multiple neurodegenerative diseases exhibit TDP-43 pathology without known TARDBP mutations. While TDP-43 has been ascribed a number of roles in normal biology, including mRNA splicing and transcription regulation, elucidating disease mechanisms associated with this protein is hindered by the lack of models to dissect such functions. We have generated transgenic (TDP-43PrP) mice expressing full-length human TDP-43 (hTDP-43) driven by the mouse prion promoter to provide a tool to analyze the role of wild-type hTDP-43 in the brain and spinal cord. Expression of hTDP-43 caused a dose dependant down regulation of mouse TDP-43 RNA and protein. Moderate overexpression of hTDP-43 resulted in TDP-43 truncation, increased cytoplasmic and nuclear ubiquitin levels, as well as intranuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates that were immunopositive for phosphorylated TDP-43. Of note, abnormal juxtanuclear aggregates of mitochondria were observed, accompanied by enhanced levels of Fis1 and phosphorylated DLP1, key components of the mitochondrial fission machinery. Conversely, a marked reduction in mitofusin 1 expression, which plays an essential role in mitochondrial fusion, was observed in TDP-43PrP mice. Finally, TDP-43PrP mice showed reactive gliosis, axonal and myelin degeneration, gait abnormalities and early lethality. This TDP-43 transgenic line provides a valuable tool for identifying potential roles of wild-type TDP-43 within the central nervous system and for studying TDP-43-associated neurotoxicity. PMID:20702714

  12. TDP-43-induced death is associated with altered regulation of BIM and Bcl-xL and attenuated by caspase-mediated TDP-43 cleavage.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Lee, Kikyo; Matsuoka, Masaaki

    2011-04-15

    Abnormal aggregates of transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) and its hyperphosphorylated and N-terminal truncated C-terminal fragments (CTFs) are deposited as major components of ubiquitinated inclusions in most cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions (FTLD-U). The mechanism underlying the contribution of TDP-43 to the pathogenesis of these neurodegenerative diseases remains unknown. In this study, we found that a 2-5-fold increase in TDP-43 expression over the endogenous level induced death of NSC34 motor neuronal cells and primary cortical neurons. TDP-43-induced death is associated with up-regulation of Bim expression and down-regulation of Bcl-xL expression. siRNA-mediated reduction of Bim expression attenuates TDP-43-induced death. Accumulated evidence indicates that caspases are activated in neurons of ALS and FTLD-U patients, and activated caspase-mediated cleavage of TDP-43 generates CTFs of TDP-43. Here, we further found that the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress- or staurosporine-mediated activation of caspases leads to cleavage of TDP-43 at Asp(89) and Asp(169), generating CTF35 (TDP-43-(90-414)) and CTF27 (TDP-43-(170-414)) in cultured neuronal cells. In contrast to TDP-43, CTF27 is unable to induce death while it forms aggregates. CTF35 was weaker than full-length TDP-43 in inducing death. A cleavage-resistant mutant of TDP-43 (TDP-43-D89E/D169E) showed stronger death-inducing activity than wild-type TDP-43. These results suggest that disease-related activation of caspases may attenuate TDP-43-induced toxicity by promoting TDP-43 cleavage. PMID:21339291

  13. [Conjoint pathological cascades mediated by RNA-binding proteins, TDP-43, FUS and ataxin-2].

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    Recently, critical RNA-binding proteins that are directly associated with the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) have also been identified, including TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma (FUS) protein and ataxin-2. TDP-43 and FUS are normally localized in the nucleus, in sites affected by ALS and FTLD-U, but both are mislocalized to the cytoplasm and form cytoplasmic inclusions. They are transported to the nucleus via nuclear import receptors, but also contribute to the formation of stress granules (SGs), which are intracytoplasmic structures incorporating RNA. C-terminal truncations of TDP-43 eliminate the nuclear transport signal and cause mislocalization of the protein to the cytoplasm, where it accumulates and forms SGs. ALS-associated FUS mutations impair nuclear transport and cause mislocalization of FUS to the cytoplasm, where it also contributes to assembly of SGs. Furthermore, the ALS susceptibility factor ataxin-2 is recently identified as a potent modifier of TDP-43 toxicity and growing evidence indicates that intermediate-length polyglutamine expansions in ataxin-2 are a genetic risk factor for ALS. Interestingly, ataxin-2 is also a cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein and a constituent protein of SGs, suggesting that it is a part of the common pathological cascade formed by TDP-43, FUS and ataxin-2. Thus, we propose that aberrant distribution of the RNA-binding proteins TDP-43, FUS, and ataxin-2 into the cytoplasm leads to impairment of the RNA quality control system, forming the core of the ALS/FTLD-U degenerative cascade. PMID:23196570

  14. Redox signalling directly regulates TDP-43 via cysteine oxidation and disulphide cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Todd J; Hwang, Andrew W; Unger, Travis; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M Y

    2012-03-01

    TDP-43 is the major disease protein in ubiquitin-positive inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) characterized by TDP-43 pathology (FTLD-TDP). Accumulation of insoluble TDP-43 aggregates could impair normal TDP-43 functions and initiate disease progression. Thus, it is critical to define the signalling mechanisms regulating TDP-43 since this could open up new avenues for therapeutic interventions. Here, we have identified a redox-mediated signalling mechanism directly regulating TDP-43. Using in vitro and cell-based studies, we demonstrate that oxidative stress promotes TDP-43 cross-linking via cysteine oxidation and disulphide bond formation leading to decreased TDP-43 solubility. Biochemical analysis identified several cysteine residues located within and adjacent to the second RNA-recognition motif that contribute to both intra- and inter-molecular interactions, supporting TDP-43 as a target of redox signalling. Moreover, increased levels of cross-linked TDP-43 species are found in FTLD-TDP brains, indicating that aberrant TDP-43 cross-linking is a prominent pathological feature of this disease. Thus, TDP-43 is dynamically regulated by a redox regulatory switch that links oxidative stress to the modulation of TDP-43 and its downstream targets. PMID:22193716

  15. Redox signalling directly regulates TDP-43 via cysteine oxidation and disulphide cross-linking

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Todd J; Hwang, Andrew W; Unger, Travis; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M Y

    2012-01-01

    TDP-43 is the major disease protein in ubiquitin-positive inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) characterized by TDP-43 pathology (FTLD-TDP). Accumulation of insoluble TDP-43 aggregates could impair normal TDP-43 functions and initiate disease progression. Thus, it is critical to define the signalling mechanisms regulating TDP-43 since this could open up new avenues for therapeutic interventions. Here, we have identified a redox-mediated signalling mechanism directly regulating TDP-43. Using in vitro and cell-based studies, we demonstrate that oxidative stress promotes TDP-43 cross-linking via cysteine oxidation and disulphide bond formation leading to decreased TDP-43 solubility. Biochemical analysis identified several cysteine residues located within and adjacent to the second RNA-recognition motif that contribute to both intra- and inter-molecular interactions, supporting TDP-43 as a target of redox signalling. Moreover, increased levels of cross-linked TDP-43 species are found in FTLD-TDP brains, indicating that aberrant TDP-43 cross-linking is a prominent pathological feature of this disease. Thus, TDP-43 is dynamically regulated by a redox regulatory switch that links oxidative stress to the modulation of TDP-43 and its downstream targets. PMID:22193716

  16. USP7 and TDP-43: Pleiotropic Regulation of Cryptochrome Protein Stability Paces the Oscillation of the Mammalian Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitane, Hikari; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Lanjakornsiripan, Darin; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian Cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, function as principal regulators of a transcription-translation-based negative feedback loop underlying the mammalian circadian clockwork. An F-box protein, FBXL3, promotes ubiquitination and degradation of CRYs, while FBXL21, the closest paralog of FBXL3, ubiquitinates CRYs but leads to stabilization of CRYs. Fbxl3 knockout extremely lengthened the circadian period, and deletion of Fbxl21 gene in Fbxl3-deficient mice partially rescued the period-lengthening phenotype, suggesting a key role of CRY protein stability for maintenance of the circadian periodicity. Here, we employed a proteomics strategy to explore regulators for the protein stability of CRYs. We found that ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7 also known as HAUSP) associates with CRY1 and CRY2 and stabilizes CRYs through deubiquitination. Treatment with USP7-specific inhibitor or Usp7 knockdown shortened the circadian period of the cellular rhythm. We identified another CRYs-interacting protein, TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43), an RNA-binding protein. TDP-43 stabilized CRY1 and CRY2, and its knockdown also shortened the circadian period in cultured cells. The present study identified USP7 and TDP-43 as the regulators of CRY1 and CRY2, underscoring the significance of the stability control process of CRY proteins for period determination in the mammalian circadian clockwork. PMID:27123980

  17. TDP-43 toxicity is mediated by the unfolded protein response-unrelated induction of C/EBP homologous protein expression.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Matsuoka, Masaaki

    2012-03-01

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) neuronal toxicity plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions. In our previous study, we showed that low-grade overexpression of TDP-43, which is thought to mimic the gain-of-function of TDP-43, caused neuronal death, mediated by the upregulation of Bim and the downregulation of Bcl-xL in vitro. In this study, we show that TDP-43 overexpression caused the upregulation of C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) and that disruption of the CHOP gene markedly attenuated TDP-43-induced cell death. These results indicate that increases in CHOP expression contribute to TDP-43-induced cell death. We also show that the TDP-43-induced upregulation of CHOP expression is mediated by both the upregulation of the mRNA level of CHOP and the attenuation of thedegradation of CHOP, which is independent on the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 or other pathway related to the unfolded protein response (UPR) to endoplasmic reticulum stress. This study provides the first example of the CHOP-mediated cell death that is independent of the UPR. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22057717

  18. Hu antigen R (HuR) is a positive regulator of the RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS/TLS: implications for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liang; Zheng, Lei; Si, Ying; Luo, Wenyi; Dujardin, Gwendal; Kwan, Thaddaeus; Potochick, Nicholas R; Thompson, Sunnie R; Schneider, David A; King, Peter H

    2014-11-14

    Posttranscriptional gene regulation is governed by a network of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that interact with regulatory elements in the mRNA to modulate multiple molecular processes, including splicing, RNA transport, RNA stability, and translation. Mounting evidence indicates that there is a hierarchy within this network whereby certain RBPs cross-regulate other RBPs to coordinate gene expression. HuR, an RNA-binding protein we linked previously to aberrant VEGF mRNA metabolism in models of SOD1-associated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, has been identified as being high up in this hierarchy, serving as a regulator of RNA regulators. Here we investigated the role of HuR in regulating two RBPs, TDP-43 and FUS/TLS, that have been linked genetically to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We found that HuR promotes the expression of both RBPs in primary astrocytes and U251 cells under normal and stressed (hypoxic) conditions. For TDP-43, we found that HuR binds to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and regulates its expression through translational efficiency rather than RNA stability. With HuR knockdown, there was a shift of TDP-43 and FUS mRNAs away from polysomes, consistent with translational silencing. The TDP-43 splicing function was attenuated upon HuR knockdown and could be rescued by ectopic TDP-43 lacking the 3' UTR regulatory elements. Finally, conditioned medium from astrocytes in which HuR or TDP-43 was knocked down produced significant motor neuron and cortical neuron toxicity in vitro. These findings indicate that HuR regulates TDP-43 and FUS/TLS expression and that loss of HuR-mediated RNA processing in astrocytes can alter the molecular and cellular landscape to produce a toxic phenotype. PMID:25239623

  19. Overexpression of ALS-associated p.M337V human TDP-43 in mice worsens disease features compared to wild-type human TDP-43 mice.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Jonathan; Wils, Hans; Kleinberger, Gernot; Joris, Geert; Cuijt, Ivy; Ceuterick-de Groote, Chantal; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Kumar-Singh, Samir

    2013-08-01

    Mutations in TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are associated with familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), while wild-type TDP-43 is a pathological hallmark of patients with sporadic ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Various in vitro and in vivo studies have also demonstrated toxicity of both mutant and wild-type TDP-43 to neuronal cells. To study the potential additional toxicity incurred by mutant TDP-43 in vivo, we generated mutant human TDP-43 (p.M337V) transgenic mouse lines driven by the Thy-1.2 promoter (Mt-TAR) and compared them in the same experimental setting to the disease phenotype observed in wild-type TDP-43 transgenic lines (Wt-TAR) expressing comparable TDP-43 levels. Overexpression of mutant TDP-43 leads to a worsened dose-dependent disease phenotype in terms of motor dysfunction, neurodegeneration, gliosis, and development of ubiquitin and phosphorylated TDP-43 pathology. Furthermore, we show that cellular aggregate formation or accumulation of TDP-43 C-terminal fragments (CTFs) are not primarily responsible for development of the observed disease phenotype in both mutant and wild-type TDP-43 mice. PMID:23475610

  20. TDP-43 and frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Hu, William T; Grossman, Murray

    2009-09-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein of about 43 kDa (TDP-43) is the main ubiquitinated peptide in tau-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). TDP-43 is typically a nuclear protein, and its aggregation and cytoplasmic translocation are thought to represent major steps in the pathogenesis of FTLD due to TDP-43 proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP). Certain clinical syndromes of frontotemporal dementia are preferentially associated with pathologic findings of FTLD-TDP, and TDP-43 pathology represents the connection between FTLD-TDP and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Recent advances in clinical, genetic, and pathologic studies of FTLD-TDP and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have shed light on the potentially pathogenic role of TDP-43 and identified TDP-43 itself as a candidate biomarker for antemortem diagnosis of FTLD-TDP. PMID:19664364

  1. Altered localization and functionality of TAR DNA Binding Protein 43 (TDP-43) in niemann- pick disease type C.

    PubMed

    Dardis, A; Zampieri, S; Canterini, S; Newell, K L; Stuani, C; Murrell, J R; Ghetti, B; Fiorenza, M T; Bembi, B; Buratti, E

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the occurrence of visceral and neurological symptoms. At present, the molecular mechanisms causing neurodegeneration in this disease are unknown. Here we report the altered expression and/or mislocalization of the TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in both NPC mouse and in a human neuronal model of the disease. We also report the neuropathologic study of a NPC patient's brain, showing that while TDP-43 is below immunohistochemical detection in nuclei of cerebellar Purkinje cells, it has a predominant localization in the cytoplasm of these cells. From a functional point of view, the TDP-43 mislocalization, that occurs in a human experimental neuronal model system, is associated with specific alterations in TDP-43 controlled genes. Most interestingly, treatment with N-Acetyl-cysteine (NAC) or beta-cyclodextrin (CD) can partially restore TDP-43 nuclear localization. Taken together, the results of these studies extend the role of TDP-43 beyond the Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/frontotemporal dementia (FTD)/Alzheimer disease (AD) spectrum. These findings may open novel research/therapeutic avenues for a better understanding of both NPC disease and the TDP-43 proteinopathy disease mechanism. PMID:27193329

  2. Structural transformation of the amyloidogenic core region of TDP-43 protein initiates its aggregation and cytoplasmic inclusion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei-Lei; Che, Mei-Xia; Zhao, Jian; Zhou, Chen-Jie; Xie, Mu-Yun; Li, Hai-Yin; He, Jian-Hua; Hu, Hong-Yu

    2013-07-01

    TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa) is a major deposited protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia with ubiquitin. A great number of genetic mutations identified in the flexible C-terminal region are associated with disease pathologies. We investigated the molecular determinants of TDP-43 aggregation and its underlying mechanisms. We identified a hydrophobic patch (residues 318-343) as the amyloidogenic core essential for TDP-43 aggregation. Biophysical studies demonstrated that the homologous peptide formed a helix-turn-helix structure in solution, whereas it underwent structural transformation from an α-helix to a β-sheet during aggregation. Mutation or deletion of this core region significantly reduced the aggregation and cytoplasmic inclusions of full-length TDP-43 (or TDP-35 fragment) in cells. Thus, structural transformation of the amyloidogenic core initiates the aggregation and cytoplasmic inclusion formation of TDP-43. This particular core region provides a potential therapeutic target to design small-molecule compounds for mitigating TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:23689371

  3. Rodent models of TDP-43 proteinopathy: investigating the mechanisms of TDP-43-mediated neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Tania F; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2011-11-01

    Since the identification of phosphorylated and truncated transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) as a primary component of ubiquitinated inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions, much effort has been directed towards ascertaining how TDP-43 contributes to the pathogenesis of disease. As with other protein misfolding disorders, TDP-43-mediated neuronal death is likely caused by both a toxic gain and loss of TDP-43 function. Indeed, the presence of cytoplasmic TDP-43 inclusions is associated with loss of nuclear TDP-43. Moreover, post-translational modifications of TDP-43, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and cleavage into C-terminal fragments, may bestow toxic properties upon TDP-43 and cause TDP-43 dysfunction. However, the exact neurotoxic TDP-43 species remain unclear, as do the mechanism(s) by which they cause neurotoxicity. Additionally, given our incomplete understanding of the roles of TDP-43, both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm, it is difficult to truly appreciate the detrimental consequences of aberrant TDP-43 function. The development of TDP-43 transgenic animal models is expected to narrow these gaps in our knowledge. The aim of this review is to highlight the key findings emerging from TDP-43 transgenic animal models and the insight they provide into the mechanisms driving TDP-43-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:21811811

  4. TDP-43 toxicity in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Armakola, Maria; Hart, Michael P.; Gitler, Aaron D.

    2010-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an emerging tool for investigating the molecular pathways that underpin several human neurodegenerative disorders associated with protein misfolding. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating adult onset neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting motor neurons. The protein TDP-43 has recently been demonstrated to play an important role in the disease, however the mechanisms by which TDP-43 contributes to pathogenesis are unclear. To explore the mechanistic details that result in aberrant accumulation of TDP-43 and to discover potential strategies for therapeutic intervention, we employed a yeast TDP-43 proteinopathy model system. These studies allowed us to determine the regions of TDP-43 required for aggregation and toxicity and to define the effects of ALS-linked mutant forms of TDP-43. We have also been able to harness the power of yeast genetics to identify potent modifiers of TDP-43 toxicity using high-throughput yeast genetic screens. Here, we describe the methods and approaches that we have used in order to gain insight into TDP-43 biology and its role in disease. These approaches are readily adaptable to other neurodegenerative disease proteins. PMID:21115123

  5. [Neuropathology of TDP-43 proteinopathy].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Haruhiko; Hasegawa, Masato

    2013-12-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein family, a group of proteins involved in pre-mRNA splicing, RNA stability, transport, and metabolism. TDP-43 was identified as the major component of pathological protein aggregates present in a subset of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), which is now referred to as FTLD-TDP. TDP-43 is also deposited in the sporadic form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as well as in familial ALS with mutations in the gene for TDP-43. Based on histopathology, the accumulation of TDP-43 in the brain cortex is classified into 4 types, type A through D, depending on the forms of TDP-43 accumulation in the cerebral cortex. Type A pathology is frequently observed in frontotemporal dementia and progressive non-fluent aphasia. Type B pathology occurs in FTLD with ALS and ALS with lesions that extend to the cerebral cortex. Type C pathology is associated with semantic dementia. In FTLD and ALS, TDP-43 forms insoluble aggregates and gets phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and fragmented. The fragment patterns on immunoblot of brain homogenates correspond to each histopathological type, indicating their relevance to the pathogenesis of TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:24323933

  6. [Intracellular seeded aggregation of TDP-43].

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Takashi; Hasegawa, Masato

    2012-01-01

    TAR-DNA binding protein of 43kDa(TDP-43) is the component protein of inclusions in brains of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we report a seed-dependent TDP-43 aggregation model using SH-SY5Y cells into which detergent-insoluble TDP-43 from diseased brains is introduced to provide seeds for aggregation. When these seeds were introduced into cells expressing HA-tagged TDP-43, round aggregates composed of phosphorylated and ubiquitinated HA-tagged TDP-43 were formed. Biochemical fractionation revealed the presence of Sarkosyl-insoluble phosphorylated full-length TDP-43 as well as its C-terminal fragments. Cells bearing TDP-43 inclusions exhibited increased levels of cell death and proteasome dysfunction. This seeding model reproduces characteristic features of affected neurons in brains with TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:23196514

  7. Conjoint pathologic cascades mediated by ALS/FTLD-U linked RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS.

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2011-10-25

    The RNA-binding proteins TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) and fused in sarcoma (FUS) play central roles in neurodegeneration associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U). Normally localized in the nucleus, in sites affected by ALS and FTLD-U they are mislocalized to the cytoplasm and form cytoplasmic inclusions. TDP-43 and FUS are transported to the nucleus in a Ran-GTPase-dependent manner via nuclear import receptors, but they also contribute to the formation of stress granules (SGs), which are intracytoplasmic structures incorporating RNA. C-terminal truncations of TDP-43 eliminate the nuclear transport signal and cause mislocalization of the protein to the cytoplasm, where it accumulates and forms SGs. ALS-associated FUS mutations impair nuclear transport and cause mislocalization of FUS to the cytoplasm, where it also contributes to assembly of SGs. Furthermore, the ALS susceptibility factor ataxin-2, recently identified as a potent modifier of TDP-43 toxicity, is also a predicted cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein and a constituent protein of SGs, suggesting that it is a part of the common pathologic cascade formed by TDP-43 and FUS. Thus, we propose that excessive mislocalization of the RNA-binding proteins TDP-43, FUS, and ataxin-2 into the cytoplasm leads to impairment of the RNA quality control system, forming the core of the ALS/FTLD-U degenerative cascade. In this review, we discuss the molecular basis of the novel disease spectrum of ALS/FTLD-U, including the neurodegenerative mechanism of the cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS and the possibility of a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:21956718

  8. The ALS-associated proteins FUS and TDP-43 function together to affect Drosophila locomotion and life span.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Wu; Brent, Jonathan R; Tomlinson, Andrew; Shneider, Neil A; McCabe, Brian D

    2011-10-01

    The fatal adult motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) shares some clinical and pathological overlap with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), an early-onset neurodegenerative disorder. The RNA/DNA-binding proteins fused in sarcoma (FUS; also known as TLS) and TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) have recently been shown to be genetically and pathologically associated with familial forms of ALS and FTD. It is currently unknown whether perturbation of these proteins results in disease through mechanisms that are independent of normal protein function or via the pathophysiological disruption of molecular processes in which they are both critical. Here, we report that Drosophila mutants in which the homolog of FUS is disrupted exhibit decreased adult viability, diminished locomotor speed, and reduced life span compared with controls. These phenotypes were fully rescued by wild-type human FUS, but not ALS-associated mutant FUS proteins. A mutant of the Drosophila homolog of TDP-43 had similar, but more severe, deficits. Through cross-rescue analysis, we demonstrated that FUS acted together with and downstream of TDP-43 in a common genetic pathway in neurons. Furthermore, we found that these proteins associated with each other in an RNA-dependent complex. Our results establish that FUS and TDP-43 function together in vivo and suggest that molecular pathways requiring the combined activities of both of these proteins may be disrupted in ALS and FTD. PMID:21881207

  9. Characterization of a series of 4-aminoquinolines that stimulate caspase-7 mediated cleavage of TDP-43 and inhibit its function.

    PubMed

    Cassel, Joel A; McDonnell, Mark E; Velvadapu, Venkata; Andrianov, Vyacheslav; Reitz, Allen B

    2012-09-01

    Dysfunction of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is associated with neurodegeneration in diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Here we examine the effects of a series of 4-aminoquinolines with affinity for TDP-43 upon caspase-7-induced cleavage of TDP-43 and TDP-43 cellular function. These compounds were mixed inhibitors of biotinylated TG6 binding to TDP-43, binding to both free and occupied TDP-43. Incubation of TDP-43 and caspase-7 in the presence of these compounds stimulated caspase-7 mediated cleavage of TDP-43. This effect was antagonized by the oligonucleotide TG12, prevented by denaturing TDP-43, and exhibited a similar relation of structure to function as for the displacement of bt-TG6 binding to TDP-43. In addition, the compounds did not affect caspase-7 enzyme activity. In human neuroglioma H4 cells, these compounds lowered levels of TDP-43 and increased TDP-43 C-terminal fragments via a caspase-dependent mechanism. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that this was due to induction of caspases 3 and 7 leading to increased PARP cleavage in H4 cells with similar rank order of the potency among the compounds tests for displacement of bt-TG6 binding. Exposure to these compounds also reduced HDAC-6, ATG-7, and increased LC3B, consistent with the effects of TDP-43 siRNA described by other investigators. These data suggest that such compounds may be useful biochemical probes to further understand both the normal and pathological functions of TDP-43, and its cleavage and metabolism promoted by caspases. PMID:22659571

  10. Divergent phenotypes in mutant TDP-43 transgenic mice highlight potential confounds in TDP-43 transgenic modeling.

    PubMed

    D'Alton, Simon; Altshuler, Marcelle; Cannon, Ashley; Dickson, Dennis W; Petrucelli, Leonard; Lewis, Jada

    2014-01-01

    The majority of cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are pathologically defined by the cleavage, cytoplasmic redistribution and aggregation of TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43). To examine the contribution of these potentially toxic mechanisms in vivo, we generated transgenic mice expressing human TDP-43 containing the familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked M337V mutation and identified two lines that developed neurological phenotypes of differing severity and progression. The first developed a rapid cortical neurodegenerative phenotype in the early postnatal period, characterized by fragmentation of TDP-43 and loss of endogenous murine Tdp-43, but entirely lacking aggregates of ubiquitin or TDP-43. A second, low expressing line was aged to 25 months without a severe neurodegenerative phenotype, despite a 30% loss of mouse Tdp-43 and accumulation of lower molecular weight TDP-43 species. Furthermore, TDP-43 fragments generated during neurodegeneration were not C-terminal, but rather were derived from a central portion of human TDP-43. Thus we find that aggregation is not required for cell loss, loss of murine Tdp-43 is not necessarily sufficient in order to develop a severe neurodegenerative phenotype and lower molecular weight TDP-43 positive species in mouse models should not be inherently assumed to be representative of human disease. Our findings are significant for the interpretation of other transgenic studies of TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:24466128

  11. Asparaginyl endopeptidase cleaves TDP-43 in brain.

    PubMed

    Herskowitz, Jeremy H; Gozal, Yair M; Duong, Duc M; Dammer, Eric B; Gearing, Marla; Ye, Keqiang; Lah, James J; Peng, Junmin; Levey, Allan I; Seyfried, Nicholas T

    2012-08-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a nuclear protein involved in RNA splicing and a major protein component in ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Under disease conditions, TDP-43 redistributes to the cytoplasm where it can be phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and proteolytically cleaved. Enzymes responsible for TDP-43 proteolytic processing in brain remain largely unreported. Using a MS approach, we identified two truncated TDP-43 peptides, terminating C-terminal to asparagines 291 (N291) and 306 (N306). The only documented mammalian enzyme capable of cleaving C-terminal to asparagine is asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP). TDP-43-immunoreactive fragments (~35 and 32 kDa) predicted to be generated by AEP cleavage at N291 and N306 were observed by Western blot analyses of postmortem frontotemporal lobar degeneration brain tissue and cultured human cells over-expressing TDP-43. Studies in vitro determined that AEP can directly cleave TDP-43 at seven sites, including N291 and N306. Western blots of brain homogenates isolated from AEP-null mice and wild-type littermate controls revealed that TDP-43 proteolytic fragments were substantially reduced in the absence of AEP in vivo. Taken together, we conclude that TDP-43 is cleaved by AEP in brain. Moreover, these data highlight the utility of combining proteomic strategies in vitro and in vivo to provide insight into TDP-43 biology that will fuel the design of more detailed models of disease pathogenesis. PMID:22718532

  12. From transcriptomic to protein level changes in TDP-43 and FUS loss-of-function cell models.

    PubMed

    Colombrita, Claudia; Onesto, Elisa; Buratti, Emanuele; de la Grange, Pierre; Gumina, Valentina; Baralle, Francisco E; Silani, Vincenzo; Ratti, Antonia

    2015-12-01

    The full definition of the physiological RNA targets regulated by TDP-43 and FUS RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) represents an important issue in understanding the pathogenic mechanisms associated to these two proteins in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. In the last few years several high-throughput screenings have generated a plethora of data, which are difficult to compare due to the different experimental designs and models explored. In this study by using the Affymetrix Exon Arrays, we were able to assess and compare the effects of both TDP-43 and FUS loss-of-function on the whole transcriptome using the same human neuronal SK-N-BE cell model. We showed that TDP-43 and FUS depletion induces splicing and gene expression changes mainly distinct for the two RBPs, although they may regulate common pathways, including neuron differentiation and cytoskeleton organization as evidenced by functional annotation analysis. In particular, TDP-43 and FUS were found to regulate splicing and expression of genes related to neuronal (SEPT6, SULT4A1, TNIK) and RNA metabolism (DICER, ELAVL3/HuC, POLDIP3). Our extended analysis at protein level revealed that these changes have also impact on the protein isoform ratio and content, not always in a direct correlation with transcriptomic data. Contrarily to a loss-of-function mechanism, we showed that mutant TDP-43 proteins maintained their splicing activity in human ALS fibroblasts and experimental cell lines. Our findings further contribute to define the biological functions of these two RBPs in physiological and disease state, strongly encouraging the evaluation of the identified transcriptomic changes at protein level in neuronal experimental models. PMID:26514432

  13. Structural analysis of disease-related TDP-43 D169G mutation: linking enhanced stability and caspase cleavage efficiency to protein accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chien-Hao; Grauffel, Cédric; Wu, Lien-Szu; Kuo, Pan-Hsien; Doudeva, Lyudmila G.; Lim, Carmay; Shen, Che-Kun James; Yuan, Hanna S.

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein TDP-43 forms intracellular inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While TDP-43 mutations have been identified in ALS patients, how these mutations are linked to ALS remains unclear. Here we examined the biophysical properties of six ALS-linked TDP-43 mutants and found that one of the mutants, D169G, had higher thermal stability than wild-type TDP-43 and that it was cleaved by caspase 3 more efficiently, producing increased levels of the C-terminal 35 kD fragments (TDP-35) in vitro and in neuroblastoma cells. The crystal structure of the TDP-43 RRM1 domain containing the D169G mutation in complex with DNA along with molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the D169G mutation induces a local conformational change in a β turn and increases the hydrophobic interactions in the RRM1 core, thus enhancing the thermal stability of the RRM1 domain. Our results provide the first crystal structure of TDP-43 containing a disease-linked D169G mutation and a disease-related mechanism showing that D169G mutant is more susceptible to proteolytic cleavage by caspase 3 into the pathogenic C-terminal 35-kD fragments due to its increased stability in the RRM1 domain. Modulation of TDP-43 stability and caspase cleavage efficiency could present an avenue for prevention and treatment of TDP-43-linked neurodegeneration. PMID:26883171

  14. A novel Drosophila model of TDP-43 proteinopathies: N-terminal sequences combined with the Q/N domain induce protein functional loss and locomotion defects

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Giulia; Klima, Raffaella; Feiguin, Fabian; Cragnaz, Lucia; Romano, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43, also known as TBPH in Drosophila melanogaster and TARDBP in mammals) is the main protein component of the pathological inclusions observed in neurons of patients affected by different neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The number of studies investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration is constantly growing; however, the role played by TDP-43 in disease onset and progression is still unclear. A fundamental shortcoming that hampers progress is the lack of animal models showing aggregation of TDP-43 without overexpression. In this manuscript, we have extended our cellular model of aggregation to a transgenic Drosophila line. Our fly model is not based on the overexpression of a wild-type TDP-43 transgene. By contrast, we engineered a construct that includes only the specific TDP-43 amino acid sequences necessary to trigger aggregate formation and capable of trapping endogenous Drosophila TDP-43 into a non-functional insoluble form. Importantly, the resulting recombinant product lacks functional RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and, thus, does not have specific TDP-43-physiological functions (i.e. splicing regulation ability) that might affect the animal phenotype per se. This novel Drosophila model exhibits an evident degenerative phenotype with reduced lifespan and early locomotion defects. Additionally, we show that important proteins involved in neuromuscular junction function, such as syntaxin (SYX), decrease their levels as a consequence of TDP-43 loss of function implying that the degenerative phenotype is a consequence of TDP-43 sequestration into the aggregates. Our data lend further support to the role of TDP-43 loss-of-function in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. The novel transgenic Drosophila model presented in this study will help to gain further insight into the

  15. A novel Drosophila model of TDP-43 proteinopathies: N-terminal sequences combined with the Q/N domain induce protein functional loss and locomotion defects.

    PubMed

    Langellotti, Simona; Romano, Valentina; Romano, Giulia; Klima, Raffaella; Feiguin, Fabian; Cragnaz, Lucia; Romano, Maurizio; Baralle, Francisco E

    2016-06-01

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43, also known as TBPH in Drosophila melanogaster and TARDBP in mammals) is the main protein component of the pathological inclusions observed in neurons of patients affected by different neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The number of studies investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration is constantly growing; however, the role played by TDP-43 in disease onset and progression is still unclear. A fundamental shortcoming that hampers progress is the lack of animal models showing aggregation of TDP-43 without overexpression. In this manuscript, we have extended our cellular model of aggregation to a transgenic Drosophila line. Our fly model is not based on the overexpression of a wild-type TDP-43 transgene. By contrast, we engineered a construct that includes only the specific TDP-43 amino acid sequences necessary to trigger aggregate formation and capable of trapping endogenous Drosophila TDP-43 into a non-functional insoluble form. Importantly, the resulting recombinant product lacks functional RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and, thus, does not have specific TDP-43-physiological functions (i.e. splicing regulation ability) that might affect the animal phenotype per se. This novel Drosophila model exhibits an evident degenerative phenotype with reduced lifespan and early locomotion defects. Additionally, we show that important proteins involved in neuromuscular junction function, such as syntaxin (SYX), decrease their levels as a consequence of TDP-43 loss of function implying that the degenerative phenotype is a consequence of TDP-43 sequestration into the aggregates. Our data lend further support to the role of TDP-43 loss-of-function in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. The novel transgenic Drosophila model presented in this study will help to gain further insight into the molecular

  16. Distinct and shared functions of ALS-associated proteins TDP-43, FUS and TAF15 revealed by multisystem analyses

    PubMed Central

    Kapeli, Katannya; Pratt, Gabriel A.; Vu, Anthony Q.; Hutt, Kasey R.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Sundararaman, Balaji; Batra, Ranjan; Freese, Peter; Lambert, Nicole J.; Huelga, Stephanie C.; Chun, Seung J.; Liang, Tiffany Y.; Chang, Jeremy; Donohue, John P.; Shiue, Lily; Zhang, Jiayu; Zhu, Haining; Cambi, Franca; Kasarskis, Edward; Hoon, Shawn; Ares Jr., Manuel; Burge, Christopher B.; Ravits, John; Rigo, Frank; Yeo, Gene W.

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein (RBP) TAF15 is implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To compare TAF15 function to that of two ALS-associated RBPs, FUS and TDP-43, we integrate CLIP-seq and RNA Bind-N-Seq technologies, and show that TAF15 binds to ∼4,900 RNAs enriched for GGUA motifs in adult mouse brains. TAF15 and FUS exhibit similar binding patterns in introns, are enriched in 3′ untranslated regions and alter genes distinct from TDP-43. However, unlike FUS and TDP-43, TAF15 has a minimal role in alternative splicing. In human neural progenitors, TAF15 and FUS affect turnover of their RNA targets. In human stem cell-derived motor neurons, the RNA profile associated with concomitant loss of both TAF15 and FUS resembles that observed in the presence of the ALS-associated mutation FUS R521G, but contrasts with late-stage sporadic ALS patients. Taken together, our findings reveal convergent and divergent roles for FUS, TAF15 and TDP-43 in RNA metabolism. PMID:27378374

  17. TARDBP mutation analysis in TDP-43 proteinopathies and deciphering the toxicity of mutant TDP-43

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Tania F.; Rademakers, Rosa; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    The identification of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin inclusions (FTLD-U) has defined a new class of neurodegenerative conditions: the TDP-43 proteinopathies. This breakthrough was quickly followed by mutation analysis of TARDBP, the gene encoding TDP-43. Herein, we provide a review of our previously published efforts that led to the identification of 3 TARDBP mutations (p.M337V, p.N345K, and p.I383V) in familial ALS patients, 2 of which were novel. With over 40 TARDBP mutations now discovered, there exists conclusive evidence that TDP-43 plays a direct role in neurodegeneration. The onus is now on researchers to elucidate the mechanisms by which mutant TDP-43 confers toxicity, and to exploit these findings to gain a better understanding of how TDP-43 contributes to the pathogenesis of disease. Our biochemical analysis of TDP-43 in ALS patient lymphoblastoid cell lines revealed a substantial increase in TDP-43 truncation products, including a ~25 kDa fragment, compared to control lymphoblastoid cell lines. We discuss the putative harmful consequence of abnormal TDP-43 fragmentation, as well as highlight additional mechanisms of toxicity associated with mutant TDP-43. PMID:22751173

  18. TARDBP mutation analysis in TDP-43 proteinopathies and deciphering the toxicity of mutant TDP-43.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Tania F; Rademakers, Rosa; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    The identification of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin inclusions has defined a new class of neurodegenerative conditions: the TDP-43 proteinopathies. This breakthrough was quickly followed by mutation analysis of TARDBP, the gene encoding TDP-43. Herein, we provide a review of our previously published efforts that led to the identification of 3 TARDBP mutations (p.M337V, p.N345K, and p.I383V) in familial ALS patients, two of which were novel. With over 40 TARDBP mutations now discovered, there exists conclusive evidence that TDP-43 plays a direct role in neurodegeneration. The onus is now on researchers to elucidate the mechanisms by which mutant TDP-43 confers toxicity, and to exploit these findings to gain a better understanding of how TDP-43 contributes to the pathogenesis of disease. Our biochemical analysis of TDP-43 in ALS patient lymphoblastoid cell lines revealed a substantial increase in TDP-43 truncation products, including a ≈ 25 kDa fragment, compared to control lymphoblastoid cell lines. We discuss the putative harmful consequence of abnormal TDP-43 fragmentation, as well as highlight additional mechanisms of toxicity associated with mutant TDP-43. PMID:22751173

  19. Requirements for stress granule recruitment of fused in sarcoma (FUS) and TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43).

    PubMed

    Bentmann, Eva; Neumann, Manuela; Tahirovic, Sabina; Rodde, Ramona; Dormann, Dorothee; Haass, Christian

    2012-06-29

    Cytoplasmic inclusions containing TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) or Fused in sarcoma (FUS) are a hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and several subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). FUS-positive inclusions in FTLD and ALS patients are consistently co-labeled with stress granule (SG) marker proteins. Whether TDP-43 inclusions contain SG markers is currently still debated. We determined the requirements for SG recruitment of FUS and TDP-43 and found that cytoplasmic mislocalization is a common prerequisite for SG recruitment of FUS and TDP-43. For FUS, the arginine-glycine-glycine zinc finger domain, which is the protein's main RNA binding domain, is most important for SG recruitment, whereas the glycine-rich domain and RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain have a minor contribution and the glutamine-rich domain is dispensable. For TDP-43, both the RRM1 and the C-terminal glycine-rich domain are required for SG localization. ALS-associated point mutations located in the glycine-rich domain of TDP-43 do not affect SG recruitment. Interestingly, a 25-kDa C-terminal fragment of TDP-43, which is enriched in FTLD/ALS cortical inclusions but not spinal cord inclusions, fails to be recruited into SG. Consistently, inclusions in the cortex of FTLD patients, which are enriched for C-terminal fragments, are not co-labeled with the SG marker poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP-1), whereas inclusions in spinal cord, which contain full-length TDP-43, are frequently positive for this marker protein. PMID:22563080

  20. TDP-43 activates microglia through NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weihua; Beers, David R; Bell, Shaughn; Wang, Jinghong; Wen, Shixiang; Baloh, Robert H; Appel, Stanley H

    2015-11-01

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a multifunctional nucleic acid binding protein present in ubiquitinated inclusions in tissues of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The ALS-associated mutations in the glycine-rich C-terminal domain of TDP-43 established a causal link between TDP-43 and disease, and conferred both loss- and gain-of-function properties in neurons. Since it has not been established whether these intra-neuronal changes are sufficient to cause ALS or whether non-cell autonomous neuronal-glial signaling could be involved, we investigated the extracellular effects of TDP-43 proteins on microglial activation and motoneuron toxicity. Wild-type, truncated 25kD C-terminal fragments, or mutant forms of TDP-43 all activated microglia and upregulated NOX2, TNF-α, and IL-1β, with WT forms being significantly less effective in activating microglia. This response to TDP-43 was mediated by its interaction with the microglial surface CD14 receptor and subsequent stimulation of the NF-κB and AP-1 pathways, as well as the intracellular inflammasome. At the cell surface, CD14 blocking antibodies suppressed microglial NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokine production mediated by TDP-43. Intracellularly, the NLRP3 inflammasome was induced and functional caspase-1 was produced augmenting the release of mature IL-1β. Further, TDP-43-mediated activation of microglia caused a proinflammatory cascade that was toxic to motoneurons. In the absence of microglia, TDP-43 was not toxic to motoneurons. The ability of TDP-43 to promote CD14-mediated activation of microglial NF-κB and AP-1 pathways, as well as the NLRP3 inflammasome, suggests the involvement of a non-cell autonomous proinflammatory signaling that enhances motoneuron injury, and may offer novel therapeutic targets in ALS. PMID:26222336

  1. Cellular model of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) aggregation based on its C-terminal Gln/Asn-rich region.

    PubMed

    Budini, Mauricio; Buratti, Emanuele; Stuani, Cristiana; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Romano, Valentina; De Conti, Laura; Baralle, Francisco E

    2012-03-01

    TDP-43 is one of the major components of the neuronal and glial inclusions observed in several neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. These characteristic aggregates are a "landmark" of the disease, but their role in the pathogenesis is still obscure. In previous works, we have shown that the C-terminal Gln/Asn-rich region (residues 321-366) of TDP-43 is involved in the interaction of this protein with other members of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein protein family. Furthermore, we have shown that the interaction through this region is important for TDP-43 splicing inhibition of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator exon 9, and there were indications that it was involved in the aggregation process. Our experiments show that in cell lines and primary rat neuronal cultures, the introduction of tandem repeats carrying the 331-369-residue Gln/Asn region from TDP-43 can trigger the formation of phosphorylated and ubiquitinated aggregates that recapitulate many but not all the characteristics observed in patients. These results establish a much needed cell-based TDP-43 aggregation model useful to investigate the mechanisms involved in the formation of inclusions and the gain- and loss-of-function consequences of TDP-43 aggregation within cells. In addition, it will be a powerful tool to test novel therapeutic strategies/effectors aimed at preventing/reducing this phenomenon. PMID:22235134

  2. TDP-43 is intercellularly transmitted across axon terminals

    PubMed Central

    Feiler, Marisa S.; Strobel, Benjamin; Freischmidt, Axel; Helferich, Anika M.; Kappel, Julia; Brewer, Bryson M.; Li, Deyu; Thal, Dietmar R.; Walther, Paul; Ludolph, Albert C.; Danzer, Karin M.

    2015-01-01

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kD (TDP-43) is an aggregation-prone prion-like domain-containing protein and component of pathological intracellular aggregates found in most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. TDP-43 oligomers have been postulated to be released and subsequently nucleate TDP-43 oligomerization in recipient cells, which might be the molecular correlate of the systematic symptom spreading observed during ALS progression. We developed a novel protein complementation assay allowing quantification of TDP-43 oligomers in living cells. We demonstrate the exchange of TDP-43 between cell somata and the presence of TDP-43 oligomers in microvesicles/exosomes and show that microvesicular TDP-43 is preferentially taken up by recipient cells where it exerts higher toxicity than free TDP-43. Moreover, studies using microfluidic neuronal cultures suggest both anterograde and retrograde trans-synaptic spreading of TDP-43. Finally, we demonstrate TDP-43 oligomer seeding by TDP-43–containing material derived from both cultured cells and ALS patient brain lysate. Thus, using an innovative detection technique, we provide evidence for preferentially microvesicular uptake as well as both soma-to-soma “horizontal” and bidirectional “vertical” synaptic intercellular transmission and prion-like seeding of TDP-43. PMID:26598621

  3. ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations produce aberrant RNA splicing and adult-onset motor neuron disease without aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Eveline S; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Huelga, Stephanie C; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Ditsworth, Dara; Kordasiewicz, Holly B; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Parone, Philippe A; Da Cruz, Sandrine; Clutario, Kevin M; Swing, Debbie; Tessarollo, Lino; Marsala, Martin; Shaw, Christopher E; Yeo, Gene W; Cleveland, Don W

    2013-02-19

    Transactivating response region DNA binding protein (TDP-43) is the major protein component of ubiquitinated inclusions found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusions. Two ALS-causing mutants (TDP-43(Q331K) and TDP-43(M337V)), but not wild-type human TDP-43, are shown here to provoke age-dependent, mutant-dependent, progressive motor axon degeneration and motor neuron death when expressed in mice at levels and in a cell type-selective pattern similar to endogenous TDP-43. Mutant TDP-43-dependent degeneration of lower motor neurons occurs without: (i) loss of TDP-43 from the corresponding nuclei, (ii) accumulation of TDP-43 aggregates, and (iii) accumulation of insoluble TDP-43. Computational analysis using splicing-sensitive microarrays demonstrates alterations of endogenous TDP-43-dependent alternative splicing events conferred by both human wild-type and mutant TDP-43(Q331K), but with high levels of mutant TDP-43 preferentially enhancing exon exclusion of some target pre-mRNAs affecting genes involved in neurological transmission and function. Comparison with splicing alterations following TDP-43 depletion demonstrates that TDP-43(Q331K) enhances normal TDP-43 splicing function for some RNA targets but loss-of-function for others. Thus, adult-onset motor neuron disease does not require aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43, with ALS-linked mutants producing loss and gain of splicing function of selected RNA targets at an early disease stage. PMID:23382207

  4. TDP-43 Aggregation In Neurodegeneration: Are Stress Granules The Key?

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, Colleen M.; Cenik, Basar; Sephton, Chantelle F.; Johnson, Brett A.; Herz, Joachim; Yu, Gang

    2012-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein TDP-43 is strongly linked to neurodegeneration. Not only are mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 associated with ALS and FTLD, but this protein is also a major constituent of pathological intracellular inclusions in these diseases. Recent studies have significantly expanded our understanding of TDP-43 physiology. TDP-43 is now known to play important roles in neuronal RNA metabolism. It binds to and regulates the splicing and stability of numerous RNAs encoding proteins involved in neuronal development, synaptic function and neurodegeneration. Thus, a loss of these essential functions is an attractive hypothesis regarding the role of TDP-43 in neurodegeneration. Moreover, TDP-43 is an aggregation-prone protein and, given the role of toxic protein aggregates in neurodegeneration, a toxic gain-of-function mechanism is another rational hypothesis. Importantly, ALS related mutations modulate the propensity of TDP-43 to aggregate in cell culture. Several recent studies have documented that cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregates co-localize with stress granule markers. Stress granules are cytoplasmic inclusions that repress translation of a subset of RNAs in times of cellular stress, and several proteins implicated in neurodegeneration (i.e. Ataxin-2 and SMN) interact with stress granules. Thus, understanding the interplay between TDP-43 aggregation, stress granules and the effect of ALS-associated TDP-43 mutations may be the key to understanding the role of TDP-43 in neurodegeneration. We propose two models of TDP-43 aggregate formation. The “independent model” stipulates that TDP-43 aggregation is independent of stress granule formation, in contrast to the “precursor model” which presents the idea that stress granule formation contributes to a TDP-43 aggregate “seed” and that chronic stress leads to concentration-dependent TDP-43 aggregation. PMID:22405725

  5. Astrocytic TDP-43 pathology in Alexander disease.

    PubMed

    Walker, Adam K; Daniels, Christine M LaPash; Goldman, James E; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Messing, Albee

    2014-05-01

    Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the presence of eosinophilic inclusions known as Rosenthal fibers (RFs) within astrocytes, and is caused by dominant mutations in the coding region of the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP is the major astrocytic intermediate filament, and in AxD patient brain tissue GFAP is a major component of RFs. TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is the major pathological protein in almost all cases of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ∼50% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), designated as FTLD-TDP. In ALS and FTLD-TDP, TDP-43 becomes insoluble, ubiquitinated, and pathologically phosphorylated and accumulates in cytoplasmic inclusions in both neurons and glia of affected brain and spinal cord regions. Previously, TDP-43 was detected in RFs of human pilocytic astrocytomas; however, involvement of TDP-43 in AxD has not been determined. Here we show that TDP-43 is present in RFs in AxD patient brains, and that insoluble phosphorylated full-length and high molecular weight TDP-43 accumulates in white matter of such brains. Phosphorylated TDP-43 also accumulates in the detergent-insoluble fraction from affected brain regions of Gfap(R236H/+) knock-in mice, which harbor a GFAP mutation homologous to one that causes AxD in humans, and TDP-43 colocalizes with astrocytic RF pathology in Gfap(R236H/+) mice and transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type GFAP. These findings suggest common pathogenic mechanisms in ALS, FTLD, and AxD, and this is the first report of TDP-43 involvement in a neurological disorder primarily affecting astrocytes. PMID:24806671

  6. TDP-43 in CNS development and function: clues to TDP-43-associated neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sephton, Chantelle F.; Cenik, Basar; Cenik, Bercin Kutluk; Herz, Joachim; Yu, Gang

    2012-01-01

    From the earliest stages of embryogenesis and throughout life, transcriptional regulation is carefully orchestrated in order to generate, shape, and reshape the central nervous system (CNS). TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), is identified as a regulator of essential transcriptional events in the CNS. Evidence for its importance comes from the identification of TDP-43 protein aggregates and genetic mutations in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Efforts are being made to learn more about the biological function of TDP-43 and gain a better understanding of its role in neurodegeneration. TDP-43 RNA targets and protein interactions have now been identified and in vivo evidence shows that TDP-43 is essential in CNS development and function. This review will highlight aspects of these findings. PMID:22944662

  7. The Role of TDP-43 in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiao-Long; Tan, Meng-Shan; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2016-07-01

    The transactive response DNA binding protein (TDP-43) has long been characterized as a main hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U, also known as FTLD-TDP). Several studies have indicated TDP-43 deposits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains and have robust connection with AD clinical phenotype. FTLD-U, which was symptomatically connected with AD, may be predictable for the comprehension of the role TDP-43 in AD. TDP-43 may contribute to AD through both β-amyloid (Aβ)-dependent and Aβ-independent pathways. In this article, we summarize the latest studies concerning the role of TDP-43 in AD and explore TDP-43 modulation as a potential therapeutic strategy for AD. However, to date, little of pieces of the research on TDP-43 have been performed to investigate the role in AD; more investigations need to be confirmed in the future. PMID:26081142

  8. Phosphorylated TDP-43 becomes resistant to cleavage by calpain: A regulatory role for phosphorylation in TDP-43 pathology of ALS/FTLD.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takenari; Teramoto, Sayaka; Kwak, Shin

    2016-06-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) pathology, which includes the presence of abnormal TDP-43-containing inclusions with a loss of nuclear TDP-43 in affected neurons, is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and/or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). TDP-43 in the pathological brains and spinal cords of ALS/FTLD patients is abnormally fragmented and phosphorylated. It is believed that the generation of aggregation-prone TDP-43 fragments initiates TDP-43 pathology, and we previously reported that calpain has an important role in the generation of such aggregation-prone TDP-43 fragments. However, the role of phosphorylation in TDP-43 pathology has not been largely elucidated, despite previous observations that several kinases and their kinases are involved in TDP-43 phosphorylation. Here, we investigated the role of TDP-43 phosphorylation in the calpain-dependent cleavage of TDP-43 and found that phosphorylated, full-length TDP-43 and calpain-dependent TDP-43 fragments were more resistant to cleavage by calpain than endogenous full-length TDP-43 was. These results suggest that both phosphorylated and calpain-cleaved TDP-43 fragments persist intracellularly for a length of time that is sufficient for self-aggregation, thereby serving as seeds for inclusions. PMID:26723245

  9. Molecular Neuropathology of TDP-43 Proteinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    The identification of TDP-43 as the major component of the pathologic inclusions in most forms of sporadic and familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) resolved a long-standing enigma concerning the nature of the ubiquitinated disease protein under these conditions. Anti-TDP-43 immunohistochemistry and the recent development of novel tools, such as phosphorylation-specific TDP-43 antibodies, have increased our knowledge about the spectrum of pathological changes associated with FTLD-U and ALS and moreover, facilitated the neuropathological routine diagnosis of these conditions. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding on the molecular neuropathology and pathobiology of TDP-43 in FTLD and ALS. PMID:19333444

  10. TDP-43-The key to understanding amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zuoshang; Yang, Chunxing

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that causes motor neuron degeneration leading to progressive muscle atrophy, weakness, paralysis and death. The majority of ALS (>95%) shows intracellular aggregation of transactive response DNA binding protein (TDP-43) as a prominent pathological feature. TDP-43 is normally a nuclear protein. In ALS, TDP-43 accumulates and aggregates in the cytoplasm (thus forming TDP-43 proteinopathy) and is depleted from the nucleus in CNS cells, including motor neurons and glia. While TDP-43 aggregation can harm cells through a gain of toxicity, it can also cause a loss of TDP-43 function in conjunction with its nuclear depletion. TDP-43 regulates its own expression to maintain itself at a constant level. Perturbation of this level by either increasing or decreasing TDP-43 in animal models leads to neurodegeneration and ALS phenotypes. The evidence supports the hypothesis that TDP-43 dysfunction is a critical driver of neurodegeneration in the vast majority of ALS cases. PMID:26942097

  11. The Overexpression of TDP-43 Protein in the Neuron and Oligodendrocyte Cells Causes the Progressive Motor Neuron Degeneration in the SOD1 G93A Transgenic Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Tang, Chunyan; Zhu, Lei; Li, Jiao; Liang, Huiting; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Renshi

    2016-01-01

    The recent investigation suggested that the TDP-43 protein was closely related to the motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the pathogenesis contributed to motor neuron degeneration largely remained unknown. Therefore, we detected the alteration of TDP-43 expression and distribution in the adult spinal cord of the SOD1 G93A transgenic mouse model for searching the possible pathogenesis of ALS. We examined the TDP-43 expression and distribution in the different anatomic regions, segments and neural cells in the adult spinal cord at the different stages of the SOD1 wild-type and G93A transgenic model by the fluorescent immunohistochemical technology. We revealed that the amount of TDP-43 positive cell was cervical>lumbar>thoracic segment, that in the ventral horn was more than that in the dorsal horn, a few of TDP-43 protein sparsely expressed and distributed in the other regions, the TDP-43 protein weren't detected in the white matter and the central canal. The TDP-43 protein was mostly expressed and distributed in the nuclear of neuron cells and the cytoplasm of oligodendrocyte cells of the gray matter surrounding the central canal of spinal cord by the granular shape in the SOD1 wild-type and G93A transgenic mice. The amount of TDP-43 positive cell significantly increased at the onset and progression stages of ALS following with the increase of neuron death in spinal cord, particularly in the ventral horn of cervical segment at the progression stage. Our results suggested that the overexpression of TDP-43 protein in the neuron and oligodendrocyte cell causes the progressive motor neuron degeneration in the ALS-like mouse model. PMID:27570488

  12. The Overexpression of TDP-43 Protein in the Neuron and Oligodendrocyte Cells Causes the Progressive Motor Neuron Degeneration in the SOD1 G93A Transgenic Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Tang, Chunyan; Zhu, Lei; Li, Jiao; Liang, Huiting; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Renshi

    2016-01-01

    The recent investigation suggested that the TDP-43 protein was closely related to the motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the pathogenesis contributed to motor neuron degeneration largely remained unknown. Therefore, we detected the alteration of TDP-43 expression and distribution in the adult spinal cord of the SOD1 G93A transgenic mouse model for searching the possible pathogenesis of ALS. We examined the TDP-43 expression and distribution in the different anatomic regions, segments and neural cells in the adult spinal cord at the different stages of the SOD1 wild-type and G93A transgenic model by the fluorescent immunohistochemical technology. We revealed that the amount of TDP-43 positive cell was cervical>lumbar>thoracic segment, that in the ventral horn was more than that in the dorsal horn, a few of TDP-43 protein sparsely expressed and distributed in the other regions, the TDP-43 protein weren't detected in the white matter and the central canal. The TDP-43 protein was mostly expressed and distributed in the nuclear of neuron cells and the cytoplasm of oligodendrocyte cells of the gray matter surrounding the central canal of spinal cord by the granular shape in the SOD1 wild-type and G93A transgenic mice. The amount of TDP-43 positive cell significantly increased at the onset and progression stages of ALS following with the increase of neuron death in spinal cord, particularly in the ventral horn of cervical segment at the progression stage. Our results suggested that the overexpression of TDP-43 protein in the neuron and oligodendrocyte cell causes the progressive motor neuron degeneration in the ALS-like mouse model. PMID:27570488

  13. Two mutations G335D and Q343R within the amyloidogenic core region of TDP-43 influence its aggregation and inclusion formation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei-Lei; Zhao, Jian; Yin, Xiao-Fang; He, Wen-Tian; Yang, Hui; Che, Mei-Xia; Hu, Hong-Yu

    2016-01-01

    TDP-43 is a DNA/RNA binding protein associated with TDP-43 proteinopathies. Many mutations have been identified in the flexible C-terminal region, which is implicated in the disease pathology. We investigated four point mutations in the amyloidogenic core region (residues 311-360) of TDP-43 by biochemical and spectroscopic methods. We found that the G335D mutation enhances the aggregation and inclusion formation of TDP-43 and this mutant in TDP-35 (the C-terminal fragment of 35 kDa) exaggerates the antagonist effect on RNA processing by endogenous TDP-43; whereas Q343R gives an opposite effect. As a comparison, M337V and Q331K have very little impact on the aggregation and inclusion formation of TDP-43 or TDP-35. NMR structural analysis showed that the G335D mutant in the core region forms a loop linker between the two α-helices and promotes α-to-β transition, but Q343R loses the second helix and consequently the structural transformation. Thus, the propensity of structural transformation in the amyloidogenic core of TDP-43 determines its aggregation and inclusion formation. This study may provide a molecular mechanism of the TDP-43 proteinopathies caused by genetic mutations. PMID:27030292

  14. Two mutations G335D and Q343R within the amyloidogenic core region of TDP-43 influence its aggregation and inclusion formation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lei-Lei; Zhao, Jian; Yin, Xiao-Fang; He, Wen-Tian; Yang, Hui; Che, Mei-Xia; Hu, Hong-Yu

    2016-01-01

    TDP-43 is a DNA/RNA binding protein associated with TDP-43 proteinopathies. Many mutations have been identified in the flexible C-terminal region, which is implicated in the disease pathology. We investigated four point mutations in the amyloidogenic core region (residues 311–360) of TDP-43 by biochemical and spectroscopic methods. We found that the G335D mutation enhances the aggregation and inclusion formation of TDP-43 and this mutant in TDP-35 (the C-terminal fragment of 35 kDa) exaggerates the antagonist effect on RNA processing by endogenous TDP-43; whereas Q343R gives an opposite effect. As a comparison, M337V and Q331K have very little impact on the aggregation and inclusion formation of TDP-43 or TDP-35. NMR structural analysis showed that the G335D mutant in the core region forms a loop linker between the two α-helices and promotes α-to-β transition, but Q343R loses the second helix and consequently the structural transformation. Thus, the propensity of structural transformation in the amyloidogenic core of TDP-43 determines its aggregation and inclusion formation. This study may provide a molecular mechanism of the TDP-43 proteinopathies caused by genetic mutations. PMID:27030292

  15. Glial TDP-43 regulates axon wrapping, GluRIIA clustering and fly motility by autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Giulia; Appocher, Chiara; Scorzeto, Michele; Klima, Raffaella; Baralle, Francisco E.; Megighian, Aram; Feiguin, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the glial function of TDP-43 are becoming increasingly associated with the neurological symptoms observed in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), however, the physiological role of this protein in the glia or the mechanisms that may lead to neurodegeneration are unknown. To address these issues, we modulated the expression levels of TDP-43 in the Drosophila glia and found that the protein was required to regulate the subcellular wrapping of motoneuron axons, promote synaptic growth and the formation of glutamate receptor clusters at the neuromuscular junctions. Interestingly, we determined that the glutamate transporter EAAT1 mediated the regulatory functions of TDP-43 in the glia and demonstrated that genetic or pharmacological compensations of EAAT1 activity were sufficient to modulate glutamate receptor clustering and locomotive behaviors in flies. The data uncovers autonomous and non-autonomous functions of TDP-43 in the glia and suggests new experimentally based therapeutic strategies in ALS. PMID:26276811

  16. An ALS-mutant TDP-43 neurotoxic peptide adopts an anti-parallel β-structure and induces TDP-43 redistribution.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Xu, Meng; Yang, Mengxue; Yang, Yanlian; Li, Yang; Deng, Jianwen; Ruan, Linhao; Liu, Jianghong; Du, Sidan; Liu, Xuehui; Feng, Wei; Fushimi, Kazuo; Bigio, Eileen H; Mesulam, Marsel; Wang, Chen; Wu, Jane Y

    2014-12-20

    TDP-43 proteinopathies are clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases that had been considered distinct from classical amyloid diseases. Here, we provide evidence for the structural similarity between TDP-43 peptides and other amyloid proteins. Atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy examination of peptides spanning a previously defined amyloidogenic fragment revealed a minimal core region that forms amyloid fibrils similar to the TDP-43 fibrils detected in FTLD-TDP brain tissues. An ALS-mutant A315E amyloidogenic TDP-43 peptide is capable of cross-seeding other TDP-43 peptides and an amyloid-β peptide. Sequential Nuclear Overhauser Effects and double-quantum-filtered correlation spectroscopy in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the A315E-mutant TDP-43 peptide indicate that it adopts an anti-parallel β conformation. When added to cell cultures, the amyloidogenic TDP-43 peptides induce TDP-43 redistribution from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Neuronal cultures in compartmentalized microfluidic-chambers demonstrate that the TDP-43 peptides can be taken up by axons and induce axonotoxicity and neuronal death, thus recapitulating key neuropathological features of TDP-43 proteinopathies. Importantly, a single amino acid change in the amyloidogenic TDP-43 peptide that disrupts fibril formation also eliminates neurotoxicity, supporting that amyloidogenesis is critical for TDP-43 neurotoxicity. PMID:25113748

  17. Prion-like properties of pathological TDP-43 aggregates from diseased brains.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Takashi; Masuda-Suzukake, Masami; Arai, Tetsuaki; Hasegawa, Yoko; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Obi, Tomokazu; Yoshida, Mari; Murayama, Shigeo; Mann, David M A; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Hasegawa, Masato

    2013-07-11

    TDP-43 is the major component protein of ubiquitin-positive inclusions in brains of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we report the characterization of prion-like properties of aggregated TDP-43 prepared from diseased brains. When insoluble TDP-43 from ALS or FTLD-TDP brains was introduced as seeds into SH-SY5Y cells expressing TDP-43, phosphorylated and ubiquitinated TDP-43 was aggregated in a self-templating manner. Immunoblot analyses revealed that the C-terminal fragments of insoluble TDP-43 characteristic of each disease type acted as seeds, inducing seed-dependent aggregation of TDP-43 in these cells. The seeding ability of insoluble TDP-43 was unaffected by proteinase treatment but was abrogated by formic acid. One subtype of TDP-43 aggregate was resistant to boiling treatment. The insoluble fraction from cells harboring TDP-43 aggregates could also trigger intracellular TDP-43 aggregation. These results indicate that insoluble TDP-43 has prion-like properties that may play a role in the progression of TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:23831027

  18. Transposable Elements in TDP-43-Mediated Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hammell, Molly; Dubnau, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Elevated expression of specific transposable elements (TEs) has been observed in several neurodegenerative disorders. TEs also can be active during normal neurogenesis. By mining a series of deep sequencing datasets of protein-RNA interactions and of gene expression profiles, we uncovered extensive binding of TE transcripts to TDP-43, an RNA-binding protein central to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we find that association between TDP-43 and many of its TE targets is reduced in FTLD patients. Third, we discovered that a large fraction of the TEs to which TDP-43 binds become de-repressed in mouse TDP-43 disease models. We propose the hypothesis that TE mis-regulation contributes to TDP-43 related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22957047

  19. TDP-43 mediates degeneration in a novel Drosophila model of disease caused by mutations in VCP/p97

    PubMed Central

    Ritson, Gillian P.; Custer, Sara K.; Freibaum, Brian D.; Guinto, Jake B.; Geffel, Dyanna; Moore, Jennifer; Tang, Waixing; Winton, Matthew J.; Neumann, Manuela; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M-Y.; Forman, Mark S.; Taylor, J. Paul

    2010-01-01

    Inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget’s disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) is a dominantly inherited degenerative disorder caused by mutations in the valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene. VCP (p97 in mouse, TER94 in D. melanogaster, and CDC48 in S. cerevisiae) is a highly conserved AAA+-ATPase that regulates a wide array of cellular processes. The mechanism of IBMPFD pathogenesis is unknown. To elucidate the pathogenic mechanism, we developed and characterized a Drosophila model of IBMPFD (mutant VCP–related degeneration). Based on genetic screening of this model we identified three RNA-binding proteins that dominantly suppressed degeneration; one of these was TBPH, the Drosophila homolog of TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43). Here we demonstrate that VCP and TDP-43 interact genetically and that disease-causing mutations in VCP lead to redistribution of TDP-43 to the cytoplasm in vitro and in vivo, replicating the major pathology observed in IBMPFD and other TDP-43 proteinopathies. We also demonstrate that TDP-43 redistribution from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is sufficient to induce cytotoxicity. Furthermore, we determined that a pathogenic mutation in TDP-43 promotes redistribution to the cytoplasm and enhances the genetic interaction with VCP. Taken together, our results show that degeneration associated with VCP mutations is mediated in part by toxic gain-of-function of TDP-43 in the cytoplasm. We suggest that these findings are likely relevant to the pathogenic mechanism of a broad array of TDP-43 proteinopathies, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:20519548

  20. TDP-43 mediates degeneration in a novel Drosophila model of disease caused by mutations in VCP/p97.

    PubMed

    Ritson, Gillian P; Custer, Sara K; Freibaum, Brian D; Guinto, Jake B; Geffel, Dyanna; Moore, Jennifer; Tang, Waixing; Winton, Matthew J; Neumann, Manuela; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Forman, Mark S; Taylor, J Paul

    2010-06-01

    Inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) is a dominantly inherited degenerative disorder caused by mutations in the valosin-containing protein (VCP7) gene. VCP (p97 in mouse, TER94 in Drosophila melanogaster, and CDC48 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is a highly conserved AAA(+) (ATPases associated with multiple cellular activities) ATPase that regulates a wide array of cellular processes. The mechanism of IBMPFD pathogenesis is unknown. To elucidate the pathogenic mechanism, we developed and characterized a Drosophila model of IBMPFD (mutant-VCP-related degeneration). Based on genetic screening of this model, we identified three RNA-binding proteins that dominantly suppressed degeneration; one of these was TBPH, the Drosophila homolog of TAR (trans-activating response region) DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). Here we demonstrate that VCP and TDP-43 interact genetically and that disease-causing mutations in VCP lead to redistribution of TDP-43 to the cytoplasm in vitro and in vivo, replicating the major pathology observed in IBMPFD and other TDP-43 proteinopathies. We also demonstrate that TDP-43 redistribution from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is sufficient to induce cytotoxicity. Furthermore, we determined that a pathogenic mutation in TDP-43 promotes redistribution to the cytoplasm and enhances the genetic interaction with VCP. Together, our results show that degeneration associated with VCP mutations is mediated in part by toxic gain of function of TDP-43 in the cytoplasm. We suggest that these findings are likely relevant to the pathogenic mechanism of a broad array of TDP-43 proteinopathies, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:20519548

  1. Oxidative stress induced by glutathione depletion reproduces pathological modifications of TDP-43 linked to TDP-43 proteinopathies.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Yohei; Katsuno, Masahisa; Takagi, Shinnosuke; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Niwa, Jun-ichi; Hasegawa, Masato; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

    2012-03-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major component of ubiquitin-positive inclusion of TDP-43 proteinopathies including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions, which is now referred to as FTLD-TDP. TDP-43 in the aberrant inclusion is known to be hyperphosphorylated at C-terminal sites, to be truncated at the N-terminal region, and to re-distribute from nucleus to cytoplasm or neurite. The pathogenic role of these modifications, however, has not been clarified. Furthermore, there is no evidence about the initial cause of these modifications. Herein we show that ethacrynic acid (EA), which is able to increase cellular oxidative stress through glutathione depletion, induces TDP-43 C-terminal phosphorylation at serine 403/404 and 409/410, insolubilization, C-terminal fragmentation, and cytoplasmic distribution in NSC34 cells and primary cortical neurons. In the investigation using a nonphosphorylable mutant of TDP-43, there was no evidence that C-terminal phosphorylation of TDP-43 contributes to its solubility or distribution under EA induction. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress induced by glutathione depletion is associated with the process of the pathological TDP-43 modifications and provide new insight for TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:22198567

  2. TDP-43 and FUS: a nuclear affair.

    PubMed

    Dormann, Dorothee; Haass, Christian

    2011-07-01

    Misfolded TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and Fused-In-Sarcoma (FUS) protein have recently been identified as pathological hallmarks of the neurodegenerative disorders amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) characterized by the presence of ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U). Although TDP-43 and FUS are normally located predominantly in the nucleus, pathological TDP-43 and FUS inclusions are mostly found in the cytosol. Cytosolic deposition is paralleled by a striking nuclear depletion of either protein. Based on a number of recent findings, we postulate that defects in nuclear import are an important step towards TDP-43 and FUS dysfunction. Failure of nuclear transport can arise from mutations within a nuclear localization signal or from age-related decline of nuclear import mechanisms. We propose that nuclear import defects in combination with additional hits, for example cellular stress and genetic risk factors, may be a central underlying cause of ALS and FTLD-U pathology. PMID:21700347

  3. TDP-43 is directed to stress granules by sorbitol, a novel physiological osmotic and oxidative stressor.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Colleen M; Cenik, Basar; Sephton, Chantelle F; Dries, Daniel R; Mayer, Paul; Good, Shannon K; Johnson, Brett A; Herz, Joachim; Yu, Gang

    2011-03-01

    TDP-43, or TAR DNA-binding protein 43, is a pathological marker of a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions. TDP-43 is an RNA/DNA-binding protein implicated in transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. Recent work also suggests that TDP-43 associates with cytoplasmic stress granules, which are transient structures that form in response to stress. In this study, we establish sorbitol as a novel physiological stressor that directs TDP-43 to stress granules in Hek293T cells and primary cultured glia. We quantify the association of TDP-43 with stress granules over time and show that stress granule association and size are dependent on the glycine-rich region of TDP-43, which harbors the majority of pathogenic mutations. Moreover, we establish that cells harboring wild-type and mutant TDP-43 have distinct stress responses: mutant TDP-43 forms significantly larger stress granules, and is incorporated into stress granules earlier, than wild-type TDP-43; in striking contrast, wild-type TDP-43 forms more stress granules over time, but the granule size remains relatively unchanged. We propose that mutant TDP-43 alters stress granule dynamics, which may contribute to the progression of TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:21173160

  4. TDP-43 in aging and Alzheimer's disease - a review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrea C; Dugger, Brittany N; Dickson, Dennis W; Wang, Deng-Shun

    2011-01-01

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), an RNA and DNA binding protein involved in transcriptional repression, RNA splicing and RNA metabolism during the stress response, is the major component of neuronal inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin inclusions, now referred to as FTLD-TDP. While initially thought to be relatively specific to ALS and FTLD-TDP, TDP-43 pathology has now been detected in a number of other neurodegenerative diseases, many associated with tau pathology, including Guam Parkinson dementia complex and Alzheimer's disease (AD). TDP-43 pathology is detected in 25% to 50% of AD cases, especially those with more severe clinical phenotype and greater Alzheimer type pathology, as well as AD cases with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). HS is characterized by selective neuronal loss affecting CA1 sector of the hippocampus, and most cases of HS, with or without AD, have TDP-43 pathology. Whether TDP-43 pathology is merely an incidental finding in AD or actually contributing to the more severe clinical phenotype remains unresolved. Presence of TDP-43 in normal elderly, who are at increased risk for AD, would strengthen the argument that it is not merely a secondary or incidental finding in end stage AD. Limited studies suggest that TDP-43 pathology is infrequent in neurologically normal elderly (3% or less). We provide an overview of what is known about TDP-43 in AD, normal aging and in other disorders and suggest that TDP-43 proteinopathies be considered in two classes - primary and secondary. PMID:21326809

  5. Cytoplasmic Inclusions of TDP-43 in Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Potential Role for Caspases

    PubMed Central

    Rohn, Troy T.

    2009-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) proteinopathies are classified based upon the extent of modified TDP-43 inclusions and include a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin immunoreactive, tau negative inclusions (FTLD-U) and FTLD with motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND). In addition, TDP-43 inclusions have also been identified in a number of other neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, corticobasal degeneration, Lewy body related diseases and Pick's disease. Current understanding suggests that in these diseases, TDP-43 is relocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and sequestered into inclusions that contain modified TDP-43. Major modifications of TDP-43 have been identified as being hyperphosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage by caspases. In this review a summary of the major findings regarding the proteolytic modification of TDP-43 will be discussed as well as potential toxic-gain mechanisms these fragments may cause including cytoskeletal disruptions. PMID:19554515

  6. Tunicamycin produces TDP-43 cytoplasmic inclusions in cultured brain organotypic slices.

    PubMed

    Leggett, Cadman; McGehee, Daniel S; Mastrianni, James; Yang, Wenbin; Bai, Tao; Brorson, James R

    2012-06-15

    The cellular distribution of TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) is disrupted in several neurodegenerative disorders, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U subtype) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In these conditions, TDP-43 is found in neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, with loss of the normal nuclear expression. The mechanisms leading to TDP-43 redistribution and its role in disease pathophysiology remain unknown. We describe an in vitro neural tissue model that reproduces TDP-43 relocalization and inclusion formation. Two week-old coronal organotypic mouse brain slice cultures were treated with tunicamycin for 7 days. In cortical regions of treated slice cultures, cytoplasmic inclusions of TDP-43 immunoreactivity were observed, with loss of nuclear TDP-43 immunoreactivity. These inclusions were found in both astrocytes and neurons, and were of both skein-like and round morphologies. In contrast, TDP-43 cytoplasmic inclusions were not found in slices treated with staurosporine to induce apoptosis, or with trans-4-carboxy-l-proline (PDC) to induce chronic glutamate excitotoxicity. Furthermore, TDP-43 cytoplasmic inclusions did not co-localize with cleaved caspase-3, suggesting that TDP-43 mislocalization does not generally accompany caspase activation or apoptosis. The induction of TDP-43 cytoplasmic translocation in cerebrocortical slice cultures by tunicamycin provides a platform for further mechanistic investigations of pathological processing of TDP-43. PMID:22459357

  7. Dysregulation of the ALS-associated gene TDP-43 leads to neuronal death and degeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Igaz, Lionel M; Kwong, Linda K; Lee, Edward B; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Swanson, Eric; Unger, Travis; Malunda, Joe; Xu, Yan; Winton, Matthew J; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y

    2011-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are characterized by cytoplasmic protein aggregates in the brain and spinal cord that include TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43). TDP-43 is normally localized in the nucleus with roles in the regulation of gene expression, and pathological cytoplasmic aggregates are associated with depletion of nuclear protein. Here, we generated transgenic mice expressing human TDP-43 with a defective nuclear localization signal in the forebrain (hTDP-43-ΔNLS), and compared them with mice expressing WT hTDP-43 (hTDP-43-WT) to determine the effects of mislocalized cytoplasmic TDP-43 on neuronal viability. Expression of either hTDP-43-ΔNLS or hTDP-43-WT led to neuron loss in selectively vulnerable forebrain regions, corticospinal tract degeneration, and motor spasticity recapitulating key aspects of FTLD and primary lateral sclerosis. Only rare cytoplasmic phosphorylated and ubiquitinated TDP-43 inclusions were seen in hTDP-43-ΔNLS mice, suggesting that cytoplasmic inclusions were not required to induce neuronal death. Instead, neurodegeneration in hTDP-43 and hTDP-43-ΔNLS-expressing neurons was accompanied by a dramatic downregulation of the endogenous mouse TDP-43. Moreover, mice expressing hTDP-43-ΔNLS exhibited profound changes in gene expression in cortical neurons. Our data suggest that perturbation of endogenous nuclear TDP-43 results in loss of normal TDP-43 function(s) and gene regulatory pathways, culminating in degeneration of selectively vulnerable affected neurons. PMID:21206091

  8. The dual functions of the extreme N-terminus of TDP-43 in regulating its biological activity and inclusion formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Jie; Caulfield, Thomas; Xu, Ya-Fei; Gendron, Tania F; Hubbard, Jaime; Stetler, Caroline; Sasaguri, Hiroki; Whitelaw, Ena C; Cai, Shuyi; Lee, Wing Cheung; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2013-08-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is the principal component of ubiquitinated inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the most common pathological subtype of frontotemporal dementia-frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP). To date, the C-terminus of TDP-43, which is aggregation-prone and contains almost all ALS-associated mutations, has garnered much attention while the functions of the N-terminus of TDP-43 remain largely unknown. To bridge this gap in our knowledge, we utilized novel cell culture and computer-assisted models to evaluate which region(s) of TDP-43 regulate its folding, self-interaction, biological activity and aggregation. We determined that the extreme N-terminus of TDP-43, specifically the first 10 residues, regulates folding of TDP-43 monomers necessary for proper homodimerization and TDP-43-regulated splicing. Despite such beneficial functions, we discovered an interesting dichotomy: full-length TDP-43 aggregation, which is believed to be a pathogenic process, also requires the extreme N-terminus of TDP-43. As such, we provide new insight into the structural basis for TDP-43 function and aggregation, and we suggest that stabilization of TDP-43 homodimers, the physiologically active form of TDP-43, may be a promising therapeutic strategy for ALS and FTLD-TDP. PMID:23575225

  9. Quantification of the Relative Contributions of Loss-of-function and Gain-of-function Mechanisms in TAR DNA-binding Protein 43 (TDP-43) Proteinopathies.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Roberta; Capitini, Claudia; Fani, Giulia; Dobson, Christopher M; Cecchi, Cristina; Chiti, Fabrizio

    2016-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin positive inclusions (FTLD-U) are two clinically distinct neurodegenerative conditions sharing a similar histopathology characterized by the nuclear clearance of TDP-43 and its associated deposition into cytoplasmic inclusions in different areas of the central nervous system. Given the concomitant occurrence of TDP-43 nuclear depletion and cytoplasmic accumulation, it has been proposed that TDP-43 proteinopathies originate from either a loss-of-function (LOF) mechanism, a gain-of-function (GOF) process, or both. We have addressed this issue by transfecting murine NSC34 and N2a cells with siRNA for endogenous murine TDP-43 and with human recombinant TDP-43 inclusion bodies (IBs). These two strategies allowed the depletion of nuclear TDP-43 and the accumulation of cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregates to occur separately and independently. Endogenous and exogenous TDP-43 were monitored and quantified using both immunofluorescence and Western blotting analysis, and nuclear functional TDP-43 was measured by monitoring the sortilin 1 mRNA splicing activity. Various degrees of TDP-43 cytoplasmic accumulation and nuclear TDP-43 depletion were achieved and the resulting cellular viability was evaluated, leading to a quantitative global analysis on the relative effects of LOF and GOF on the overall cytotoxicity. These were found to be ∼55% and 45%, respectively, in both cell lines and using both readouts of cell toxicity, showing that these two mechanisms are likely to contribute apparently equally to the pathologies of ALS and FTLD-U. PMID:27445339

  10. ALS Mutations Disrupt Phase Separation Mediated by α-Helical Structure in the TDP-43 Low-Complexity C-Terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Conicella, Alexander E; Zerze, Gül H; Mittal, Jeetain; Fawzi, Nicolas L

    2016-09-01

    RNA-binding protein TDP-43 mediates essential RNA processing but forms cytoplasmic neuronal inclusions via its C-terminal domain (CTD) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It remains unclear if aggregated TDP-43 is neurotoxic and if ∼50 ALS-associated missense mutations in TDP-43 CTD promote aggregation, or if loss of normal function plays a role in disease. Recent work points to the ability of related proteins to assemble into functional phase-separated ribonucleoprotein granules via their structurally disordered prion-like domains. Here, we provide atomic details on the structure and assembly of the low-complexity CTD of TDP-43 into liquid-liquid phase-separated in vitro granules and demonstrate that ALS-associated variants disrupt interactions within granules. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, simulation, and microscopy, we find that a subregion cooperatively but transiently folds into a helix that mediates TDP-43 phase separation. ALS-associated mutations disrupt phase separation by inhibiting interaction and helical stabilization. Therefore, ALS-associated mutations can disrupt TDP-43 interactions, affecting function beyond encouraging aggregation. PMID:27545621

  11. Poly-A binding protein-1 localization to a subset of TDP-43 inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis occurs more frequently in patients harboring an expansion in C9orf72.

    PubMed

    McGurk, Leeanne; Lee, Virginia M; Trojanowksi, John Q; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Lee, Edward B; Bonini, Nancy M

    2014-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset motor neuron disease in which the loss of spinal cord motor neurons leads to paralysis and death within a few years of clinical disease onset. In almost all cases of ALS, transactive response DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) forms cytoplasmic neuronal inclusions. A second causative gene for a subset of ALS is fused in sarcoma, an RNA binding protein that also forms cytoplasmic inclusions in spinal cord motor neurons. Poly-A binding protein-1 (PABP-1) is a marker of stress granules (i.e. accumulations of proteins and RNA indicative of translational arrest in cells under stress). We report on the colocalization of PABP-1 to both TDP-43 and fused-in-sarcoma inclusions in 4 patient cohorts: ALS without a mutation, ALS with an intermediate polyglutamine repeat expansion in ATXN2, ALS with a GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72, and ALS with basophilic inclusion body disease. Notably, PABP-1 colocalization to TDP-43 was twice as frequent in ALS with C9orf72 expansions compared to ALS with no mutation. This study highlights PABP-1 as a protein that is important to the pathology of ALS and indicates that the proteomic profile of TDP-43 inclusions in ALS may differ depending on the causative genetic mutation. PMID:25111021

  12. RNP2 of RNA Recognition Motif 1 Plays a Central Role in the Aberrant Modification of TDP-43

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Shinnosuke; Iguchi, Yohei; Katsuno, Masahisa; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Ikenaka, Kensuke; Fujioka, Yusuke; Honda, Daiyu; Niwa, Jun-ichi; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Adachi, Hiroaki; Sobue, Gen

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylated and truncated TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a major component of ubiquitinated cytoplasmic inclusions in neuronal and glial cells of two TDP-43 proteinopathies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Modifications of TDP-43 are thus considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of TDP-43 proteinopathies. However, both the initial cause of these abnormal modifications and the TDP-43 region responsible for its aggregation remain uncertain. Here we report that the 32 kDa C-terminal fragment of TDP-43, which lacks the RNP2 motif of RNA binding motif 1 (RRM1), formed aggregates in cultured cells, and that similar phenotypes were obtained when the RNP2 motif was either deleted from or mutated in full-length TDP-43. These aggregations were ubiquitinated, phosphorylated and truncated, and sequestered the 25 kDa C-terminal TDP-43 fragment seen in the neurons of TDP-43 proteinopathy patients. In addition, incubation with RNase decreased the solubility of TDP-43 in cell lysates. These findings suggest that the RNP2 motif of RRM1 plays a substantial role in pathological TDP-43 modifications and that it is possible that disruption of RNA binding may underlie the process of TDP-43 aggregation. PMID:23840565

  13. RNP2 of RNA recognition motif 1 plays a central role in the aberrant modification of TDP-43.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shinnosuke; Iguchi, Yohei; Katsuno, Masahisa; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Ikenaka, Kensuke; Fujioka, Yusuke; Honda, Daiyu; Niwa, Jun-ichi; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Adachi, Hiroaki; Sobue, Gen

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylated and truncated TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a major component of ubiquitinated cytoplasmic inclusions in neuronal and glial cells of two TDP-43 proteinopathies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Modifications of TDP-43 are thus considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of TDP-43 proteinopathies. However, both the initial cause of these abnormal modifications and the TDP-43 region responsible for its aggregation remain uncertain. Here we report that the 32 kDa C-terminal fragment of TDP-43, which lacks the RNP2 motif of RNA binding motif 1 (RRM1), formed aggregates in cultured cells, and that similar phenotypes were obtained when the RNP2 motif was either deleted from or mutated in full-length TDP-43. These aggregations were ubiquitinated, phosphorylated and truncated, and sequestered the 25 kDa C-terminal TDP-43 fragment seen in the neurons of TDP-43 proteinopathy patients. In addition, incubation with RNase decreased the solubility of TDP-43 in cell lysates. These findings suggest that the RNP2 motif of RRM1 plays a substantial role in pathological TDP-43 modifications and that it is possible that disruption of RNA binding may underlie the process of TDP-43 aggregation. PMID:23840565

  14. Folding of the RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) Domains of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)-linked Protein TDP-43 Reveals an Intermediate State*

    PubMed Central

    Mackness, Brian C.; Tran, Meme T.; McClain, Shannan P.; Matthews, C. Robert; Zitzewitz, Jill A.

    2014-01-01

    Pathological alteration of TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein-43), a protein involved in various RNA-mediated processes, is a hallmark feature of the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Fragments of TDP-43, composed of the second RNA recognition motif (RRM2) and the disordered C terminus, have been observed in cytoplasmic inclusions in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases, suggesting that conformational changes involving RRM2 together with the disordered C terminus play a role in aggregation and toxicity. The biophysical data collected by CD and fluorescence spectroscopies reveal a three-state equilibrium unfolding model for RRM2, with a partially folded intermediate state that is not observed in RRM1. Strikingly, a portion of RRM2 beginning at position 208, which mimics a cleavage site observed in patient tissues, increases the population of this intermediate state. Mutually stabilizing interactions between the domains in the tethered RRM1 and RRM2 construct reduce the population of the intermediate state and enhance DNA/RNA binding. Despite the high sequence homology of the two domains, a network of large hydrophobic residues in RRM2 provides a possible explanation for the increased stability of RRM2 compared with RRM1. The cluster analysis suggests that the intermediate state may play a functional role by enhancing access to the nuclear export signal contained within its sequence. The intermediate state may also serve as a molecular hazard linking productive folding and function with pathological misfolding and aggregation that may contribute to disease. PMID:24497641

  15. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeong-Ho; Yu, Tae-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ban, Byung-Kwan; Jang, Deok-Jin; Lee, Jin-A

    2013-08-01

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival.

  16. Loss of murine TDP-43 disrupts motor function and plays an essential role in embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Theresa; Wheeler, Jeanna M.; Robinson, Linda C.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M. Y.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal TDP-43 aggregation is a prominent feature in the neuropathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Mutations in TARDBP, the gene encoding TDP-43, cause some cases of ALS. The normal function of TDP-43 remains incompletely understood. To better understand TDP-43 biology, we generated mutant mice carrying a genetrap disruption of Tardbp. Mice homozygous for loss of TDP-43 are not viable. TDP-43 deficient embryos die about day 7.5 of embryonic development thereby demonstrating that TDP-43 protein is essential for normal prenatal development and survival. However, heterozygous Tardbp mutant mice exhibit signs of motor disturbance and muscle weakness. Compared with wild type control littermates, Tardbp+/− animals have significantly decreased forelimb grip strength and display deficits in a standard inverted grid test despite no evidence of pathologic changes in motor neurons. Thus, TDP-43 is essential for viability, and mild reduction in TDP-43 function is sufficient to cause motor deficits without degeneration of motor neurons. PMID:20198480

  17. TDP-43 expression in mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Bradley J; Bäumer, Dirk; Parkinson, Nicholas J; Scaber, Jakub; Ansorge, Olaf; Talbot, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Background Redistribution of nuclear TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) to the cytoplasm and ubiquitinated inclusions of spinal motor neurons and glial cells is characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathology. Recent evidence suggests that TDP-43 pathology is common to sporadic ALS and familial ALS without SOD1 mutation, but not SOD1-related fALS cases. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether TDP-43 abnormalities occur in non-ALS forms of motor neuron disease. Here, we characterise TDP-43 localisation, expression levels and post-translational modifications in mouse models of ALS and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Results TDP-43 mislocalisation to ubiquitinated inclusions or cytoplasm was notably lacking in anterior horn cells from transgenic mutant SOD1G93A mice. In addition, abnormally phosphorylated or truncated TDP-43 species were not detected in fractionated ALS mouse spinal cord or brain. Despite partial colocalisation of TDP-43 with SMN, depletion of SMN- and coilin-positive Cajal bodies in motor neurons of affected SMA mice did not alter nuclear TDP-43 distribution, expression or biochemistry in spinal cords. Conclusion These results emphasise that TDP-43 pathology characteristic of human sporadic ALS is not a core component of the neurodegenerative mechanisms caused by SOD1 mutation or SMN deficiency in mouse models of ALS and SMA, respectively. PMID:18957104

  18. Cytoplasmic translocation, aggregation, and cleavage of TDP-43 by enteroviral proteases modulate viral pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fung, G; Shi, J; Deng, H; Hou, J; Wang, C; Hong, A; Zhang, J; Jia, W; Luo, H

    2015-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that infection by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a positive-stranded RNA enterovirus, results in the accumulation of insoluble ubiquitin-protein aggregates, which resembles the common feature of neurodegenerative diseases. The importance of protein aggregation in viral pathogenesis has been recognized; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain ill-defined. Transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is an RNA-binding protein that has an essential role in regulating RNA metabolism at multiple levels. Cleavage and cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43 serves as a major molecular marker for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration and contributes significantly to disease progression. In this study, we reported that TDP-43 is translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during CVB3 infection through the activity of viral protease 2A, followed by the cleavage mediated by viral protease 3C. Cytoplasmic translocation of TDP-43 is accompanied by reduced solubility and increased formation of protein aggregates. The cleavage takes place at amino-acid 327 between glutamine and alanine, resulting in the generation of an N- and C-terminal cleavage fragment of ~35 and ~8 kDa, respectively. The C-terminal product of TDP-43 is unstable and quickly degraded through the proteasome degradation pathway, whereas the N-terminal truncation of TDP-43 acts as a dominant-negative mutant that inhibits the function of native TDP-43 in alternative RNA splicing. Lastly, we demonstrated that knockdown of TDP-43 results in an increase in viral titers, suggesting a protective role for TDP-43 in CVB3 infection. Taken together, our findings suggest a novel model by which cytoplasmic redistribution and cleavage of TDP-43 as a consequence of CVB3 infection disrupts the solubility and transcriptional activity of TDP-43. Our results also reveal a mechanism evolved by enteroviruses to support efficient viral infection. PMID

  19. Cytoplasmic mislocalization of TDP-43 is toxic to neurons and enhanced by a mutation associated with familial ALS

    PubMed Central

    Barmada, Sami J.; Skibinski, Gaia; Korb, Erica; Rao, Elizabeth J.; Wu, Jane Y.; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 — the major protein component of neuronal aggregates characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies (FTLDu) — have been linked to familial forms of both disorders. Aggregates of TDP-43 in cortical and spinal motoneurons in ALS, or in neurons of the frontal and temporal cortices in FTLD, are closely linked to neuron loss and atrophy in these areas. However, the mechanism by which TDP-43 mutations lead to neurodegeneration is unclear. To investigate the pathogenic role of TDP-43 mutations, we established a model of TDP-43 proteinopathies by expressing fluorescently tagged wildtype and mutant TDP-43 in primary rat cortical neurons. Expression of mutant TDP-43 was toxic to neurons, and mutant-specific toxicity was associated with increased cytoplasmic mislocalization of TDP-43. Inclusion bodies were not necessary for the toxicity and did not affect the risk of cell death. Cellular survival was unaffected by the total amount of exogenous TDP-43 in the nucleus, but the amount of cytoplasmic TDP-43 was a strong and independent predictor of neuronal death. These results suggest that mutant TDP-43 is mislocalized to the cytoplasm, where it exhibits a toxic gain-of-function and induces cell death. PMID:20071528

  20. TDP-43 binds and transports G-quadruplex-containing mRNAs into neurites for local translation.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Akira; Kimura, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Yuto; Watanabe, Sumiko; Ishihama, Akira

    2016-05-01

    Growth and differentiation of the neurites depends on long-distance transport of a specific set of mRNAs to restricted area and their local translation. Here, we found that a TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa in size (TDP-43) plays an essential role in intracellular transport of mRNA. For identification of target RNAs recognized by TDP-43, we purified TDP-43 in soluble dimer form and subjected to in vitro systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) screening. All the TDP-43-bound RNAs were found to contain G-quadruplex (G4). Using a double-fluorescent probe system, G4-containing RNAs were found to be transported, together with TDP-43, into the distal neurites. Two lines of evidence indicated that loss of function of TDP-43 results in the neurodegenerative disorder: (i) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked mutant TDP-43M337V lacks the activity of binding and transport of G4-containing mRNAs; and (ii) RNA containing G4-forming GGGGCC repeat expansion from the ALS-linked C9orf72 gene absorbs TDP-43, thereby reducing the intracellular pool of functional TDP-43. Taken together, we propose that TDP-43 within neurons plays an essential role of mRNA transport into distal neurites for local translation, and thus, dysfunctions of TDP-43 cause neural diseases such as ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. PMID:26915990

  1. Dual vulnerability of TDP-43 to calpain and caspase-3 proteolysis after neurotoxic conditions and traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhihui; Lin, Fan; Robertson, Claudia S; Wang, Kevin K W

    2014-09-01

    Transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathy has recently been reported in chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a neurodegenerative condition linked to prior history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). While TDP-43 appears to be vulnerable to proteolytic modifications under neurodegenerative conditions, the mechanism underlying the contribution of TDP-43 to the pathogenesis of TBI remains unknown. In this study, we first mapped out the calpain or caspase-3 TDP-43 fragmentation patterns by in vitro protease digestion. Concurrently, in cultured cerebrocortical neurons subjected to cell death challenges, we identified distinct TDP-43 breakdown products (BDPs) of 35, 33, and 12 kDa that were indicative of dual calpain/caspase attack. Cerebrocortical culture incubated with calpain and caspase-fragmented TDP-43 resulted in neuronal injury. Furthermore, increased TDP-43 BDPs as well as redistributed TDP-43 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm were observed in the mouse cortex in two TBI models: controlled cortical impact injury and overpressure blast-wave-induced brain injury. Finally, TDP-43 and its 35 kDa fragment levels were also elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of severe TBI patients. This is the first evidence that TDP-43 might be involved in acute neuroinjury and TBI pathology, and that TDP-43 and its fragments may have biomarker utilities in TBI patients. PMID:24917042

  2. Dual vulnerability of TDP-43 to calpain and caspase-3 proteolysis after neurotoxic conditions and traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhihui; Lin, Fan; Robertson, Claudia S; Wang, Kevin K W

    2014-01-01

    Transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathy has recently been reported in chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a neurodegenerative condition linked to prior history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). While TDP-43 appears to be vulnerable to proteolytic modifications under neurodegenerative conditions, the mechanism underlying the contribution of TDP-43 to the pathogenesis of TBI remains unknown. In this study, we first mapped out the calpain or caspase-3 TDP-43 fragmentation patterns by in vitro protease digestion. Concurrently, in cultured cerebrocortical neurons subjected to cell death challenges, we identified distinct TDP-43 breakdown products (BDPs) of 35, 33, and 12 kDa that were indicative of dual calpain/caspase attack. Cerebrocortical culture incubated with calpain and caspase-fragmented TDP-43 resulted in neuronal injury. Furthermore, increased TDP-43 BDPs as well as redistributed TDP-43 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm were observed in the mouse cortex in two TBI models: controlled cortical impact injury and overpressure blast-wave-induced brain injury. Finally, TDP-43 and its 35 kDa fragment levels were also elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of severe TBI patients. This is the first evidence that TDP-43 might be involved in acute neuroinjury and TBI pathology, and that TDP-43 and its fragments may have biomarker utilities in TBI patients. PMID:24917042

  3. Phosphorylation of S409/410 of TDP-43 is a consistent feature in all sporadic and familial forms of TDP-43 proteinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Manuela; Kwong, Linda K.; Lee, Edward B.; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Flatley, Andrew; Xu, Yan; Forman, Mark; Troost, Dirk; Kretzschmar, Hans A.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation of hyperphosphorylated, ubiquitinated and N-terminally truncated TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) is the pathological hallmark lesion in most familial and sporadic forms of FTLD-U and ALS, which can be subsumed as TDP-43 proteinopathies. In order to get more insight into the role of abnormal phosphorylation in the disease process, the identification of specific phosphorylation sites and the generation of phosphorylation-specific antibodies are mandatory. Here, we developed and characterized novel rat monoclonal antibodies (1D3 and 7A9) raised against phosphorylated S409/410 of TDP-43. These antibodies were used to study the presence of S409/410 phosphorylation by immunohistochemistry and biochemical analysis in a large series of 64 FTLD-U cases with or without motor neuron disease including familial cases with mutations in progranulin (n=5), valosin-containing protein (n=4) and linkage to chromosome 9p (n=4), 18 ALS cases as well as other neurodegenerative diseases with concomitant TDP-43 pathology (n=5). Our data demonstrate, that phosphorylation of S409/410 of TDP-43 is a highly consistent feature in pathologic inclusions in the whole spectrum of sporadic and familial forms of TDP-43 proteinopathies. Physiological nuclear TDP-43 was not detectable with these mAbs by immunohistochemistry and by immunoblot analyses. While the accumulation of phosphorylated C-terminal fragments was a robust finding in the cortical brain regions of FTLD-U and ALS, usually being much more abundant than the phsphorylated full-length TDP-43 band, spinal cord samples revealed a predominance of full-length TDP-43 over C-terminal fragments. This argues for a distinct TDP-43 species composition in inclusions in cortical versus spinal cord cells. Overall, these mAbs are powerful tools for the highly specific detection of disease-associated abnormal TDP-43 species and will be extremely useful for the neuropathological routine diagnostics of TDP-43 proteinopathies and for the

  4. The RNA-binding motif 45 (RBM45) protein accumulates in inclusion bodies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP) patients.

    PubMed

    Collins, Mahlon; Riascos, David; Kovalik, Tina; An, Jiyan; Krupa, Kelly; Krupa, Kristin; Hood, Brian L; Conrads, Thomas P; Renton, Alan E; Traynor, Bryan J; Bowser, Robert

    2012-11-01

    RNA-binding protein pathology now represents one of the best characterized pathologic features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients with TDP-43 or FUS pathology (FTLD-TDP and FTLD-FUS). Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we identified altered levels of the RNA-binding motif 45 (RBM45) protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of ALS patients. This protein contains sequence similarities to TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and fused-in-sarcoma (FUS) that are contained in cytoplasmic inclusions of ALS and FTLD-TDP or FTLD-FUS patients. To further characterize RBM45, we first verified the presence of RBM45 in CSF and spinal cord tissue extracts of ALS patients by immunoblot. We next used immunohistochemistry to examine the subcellular distribution of RBM45 and observed in a punctate staining pattern within nuclei of neurons and glia in the brain and spinal cord. We also detected RBM45 cytoplasmic inclusions in 91 % of ALS, 100 % of FTLD-TDP and 75 % of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases. The most extensive RBM45 pathology was observed in patients that harbor the C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion. These RBM45 inclusions were observed in spinal cord motor neurons, glia and neurons of the dentate gyrus. By confocal microscopy, RBM45 co-localizes with ubiquitin and TDP-43 in inclusion bodies. In neurons containing RBM45 cytoplasmic inclusions we often detected the protein in a punctate pattern within the nucleus that lacked either TDP-43 or ubiquitin. We identified RBM45 using a proteomic screen of CSF from ALS and control subjects for candidate biomarkers, and link this RNA-binding protein to inclusion pathology in ALS, FTLD-TDP and AD. PMID:22993125

  5. Electrostatic Repulsion Governs TDP-43 C-terminal Domain Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Mompeán, Miguel; Chakrabartty, Avijit; Buratti, Emanuele; Laurents, Douglas V

    2016-04-01

    TDP-43 is a protein that forms aggregates implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In response to a recent study, this Formal Comment argues that the pH-dependent solubility of this protein is better explained by the mutual repulsion of charged groups than by the formation of hydrogen bonds. PMID:27096426

  6. Fine structural analysis of the neuronal inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Helen; Atherton, Joe; Cairns, Nigel J.

    2009-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is a major component of the pathological inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy, also called FTLD with ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions (FTLD-U), and motor neuron disease (MND). TDP-43 is predominantly expressed in the nucleus and regulates gene expression and splicing. In FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, neuronal inclusions present variably as cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), dystrophic neurites (DNs), and intranuclear inclusions (NIIs), leading to a fourfold neuropathological classification correlating with genotype. There have been few fine structural studies of these inclusions. Thus, we undertook an immunoelectron microscopic study of FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, including sporadic and familial cases with progranulin (GRN) mutation. TDP-43-immunoreactive inclusions comprised two components: granular and filamentous. Filament widths, expressed as mean (range) were: NCI, 9 nm (4–16 nm); DN, 10 nm (5–16 nm); NII, 18 nm (9–50 nm). Morphologically distinct inclusion components may reflect the process of TDP-43 aggregation and interaction with other proteins: determining these latter may contribute towards understanding the heterogeneous pathogenesis of FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:18974920

  7. TDP-43 loss of function increases TFEB activity and blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qin; Wang, Hongfeng; Hao, Zongbing; Fu, Cheng; Hu, Qingsong; Gao, Feng; Ren, Haigang; Chen, Dong; Han, Junhai; Ying, Zheng; Wang, Guanghui

    2016-01-18

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by selective loss of motor neurons in brain and spinal cord. TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) was identified as a major component of disease pathogenesis in ALS, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and other neurodegenerative disease. Despite the fact that TDP-43 is a multi-functional protein involved in RNA processing and a large number of TDP-43 RNA targets have been discovered, the initial toxic effect and the pathogenic mechanism underlying TDP-43-linked neurodegeneration remain elusive. In this study, we found that loss of TDP-43 strongly induced a nuclear translocation of TFEB, the master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy, through targeting the mTORC1 key component raptor. This regulation in turn enhanced global gene expressions in the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) and increased autophagosomal and lysosomal biogenesis. However, loss of TDP-43 also impaired the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes through dynactin 1 downregulation, leading to accumulation of immature autophagic vesicles and overwhelmed ALP function. Importantly, inhibition of mTORC1 signaling by rapamycin treatment aggravated the neurodegenerative phenotype in a TDP-43-depleted Drosophila model, whereas activation of mTORC1 signaling by PA treatment ameliorated the neurodegenerative phenotype. Taken together, our data indicate that impaired mTORC1 signaling and influenced ALP may contribute to TDP-43-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:26702100

  8. Mass spectrometric analysis of accumulated TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis brains

    PubMed Central

    Kametani, Fuyuki; Obi, Tomokazu; Shishido, Takeo; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Murayama, Shigeo; Saito, Yuko; Yoshida, Mari; Hasegawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    TDP-43 is the major disease-associated protein involved in the pathogenesis and progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions linked to TDP-43 pathology (FTLD-TDP). Abnormal phosphorylation, truncation and cytoplasmic mis-localization are known to be the characteristics for the aggregated forms of TDP-43, and gain of toxic abnormal TDP-43 or loss of function of physiological TDP-43 have been suggested as the cause of neurodegeneration. However, most of the post-translational modifications or truncation sites in the abnormal TDP-43 in brains of patients remain to be identified by protein chemical analysis. In this study, we carried out a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Sarkosyl-insoluble pathological TDP-43 from brains of ALS patients and identified several novel phosphorylation sites, deamidation sites, and cleavage sites. Almost all modifications were localized in the Gly-rich C-terminal half. Most of the cleavage sites identified in this study are novel and are located in N-terminal half, suggesting that these sites may be more accessible to proteolytic enzymes. The data obtained in this study provide a foundation for the molecular mechanisms of TDP-43 aggregation and ALS pathogenesis. PMID:26980269

  9. Regulation of TDP-43 aggregation by phosphorylation and p62/SQSTM1.

    PubMed

    Brady, Owen A; Meng, Peter; Zheng, Yanqiu; Mao, Yuxin; Hu, Fenghua

    2011-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) proteinopathy has been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases, such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Phosphorylated and ubiquitinated TDP-43 C-terminal fragments have been found in cytoplasmic inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. However, the factors and pathways that regulate TDP-43 aggregation are still not clear. We found that the C-terminal 15 kDa fragment of TDP-43 is sufficient to induce aggregation but the aggregation phenotype is modified by additional sequences. Aggregation is accompanied by phosphorylation at serine residues 409/410. Mutation of 409/410 to phosphomimetic aspartic acid residues significantly reduces aggregation. Inhibition of either proteasome or autophagy dramatically increases TDP-43 aggregation. Furthermore, TDP-43 aggregates colocalize with markers of autophagy and the adaptor protein p62/SQSTM1. Over-expression of p62/SQSTM1 reduces TDP-43 aggregation in an autophagy and proteasome-dependent manner. These studies suggest that aggregation of TDP-43 C-terminal fragments is regulated by phosphorylation events and both the autophagy and proteasome-mediated degradation pathways. PMID:21062285

  10. Mass spectrometric analysis of accumulated TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis brains.

    PubMed

    Kametani, Fuyuki; Obi, Tomokazu; Shishido, Takeo; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Murayama, Shigeo; Saito, Yuko; Yoshida, Mari; Hasegawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    TDP-43 is the major disease-associated protein involved in the pathogenesis and progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions linked to TDP-43 pathology (FTLD-TDP). Abnormal phosphorylation, truncation and cytoplasmic mis-localization are known to be the characteristics for the aggregated forms of TDP-43, and gain of toxic abnormal TDP-43 or loss of function of physiological TDP-43 have been suggested as the cause of neurodegeneration. However, most of the post-translational modifications or truncation sites in the abnormal TDP-43 in brains of patients remain to be identified by protein chemical analysis. In this study, we carried out a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Sarkosyl-insoluble pathological TDP-43 from brains of ALS patients and identified several novel phosphorylation sites, deamidation sites, and cleavage sites. Almost all modifications were localized in the Gly-rich C-terminal half. Most of the cleavage sites identified in this study are novel and are located in N-terminal half, suggesting that these sites may be more accessible to proteolytic enzymes. The data obtained in this study provide a foundation for the molecular mechanisms of TDP-43 aggregation and ALS pathogenesis. PMID:26980269

  11. Fine structural analysis of the neuronal inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Julian R; Tang, Helen; Atherton, Joe; Cairns, Nigel J

    2008-12-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is a major component of the pathological inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy, also called FTLD with ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions (FTLD-U), and motor neuron disease (MND). TDP-43 is predominantly expressed in the nucleus and regulates gene expression and splicing. In FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, neuronal inclusions present variably as cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), dystrophic neurites (DNs), and intranuclear inclusions (NIIs), leading to a fourfold neuropathological classification correlating with genotype. There have been few fine structural studies of these inclusions. Thus, we undertook an immunoelectron microscopic study of FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, including sporadic and familial cases with progranulin (GRN) mutation. TDP-43-immunoreactive inclusions comprised two components: granular and filamentous. Filament widths, expressed as mean (range) were: NCI, 9 nm (4-16 nm); DN, 10 nm (5-16 nm); NII, 18 nm (9-50 nm). Morphologically distinct inclusion components may reflect the process of TDP-43 aggregation and interaction with other proteins: determining these latter may contribute towards understanding the heterogeneous pathogenesis of FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:18974920

  12. Binding of TDP-43 to the 3'UTR of its cognate mRNA enhances its solubility.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yulong; Arslan, Pharhad E; Won, Amy; Yip, Christopher M; Chakrabartty, Avi

    2014-09-23

    TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a broad range of neurodegenerative diseases termed TDP-43 proteinopathies, which encompass a spectrum of diseases ranging from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis to frontotemporal dementia. Pathologically misfolded and aggregated forms of TDP-43 are found in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies of affected neurons in these diseases. The mechanism by which TDP-43 misfolding causes disease is not well-understood. Current hypotheses postulate that the TDP-43 aggregation process plays a major role in pathogenesis. We amplify that hypothesis and suggest that binding of cognate ligands to TDP-43 can stabilize the native functional state of the protein and ameliorate aggregation. We expressed recombinant TDP-43 containing an N-terminal Venus yellow fluorescent protein tag in Escherichia coli and induced its aggregation by altering solvent salt concentrations and examined the extent to which various oligonucleotide molecules affect its aggregation in vitro using aggregation-induced turbidity assays. We show that vYFP-TDP-43 binding to its naturally occurring RNA target that comprises a sequence on the 3'UTR region of its mRNA improves its solubility, suggesting interplay among TDP-43 solubility, oligonucleotide binding, and TDP-43 autoregulation. PMID:25171271

  13. Genetic strategies to study TDP-43 in rodents and to develop preclinical therapeutics for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, David B; Gitcho, Michael A; Kraemer, Brian C; Klein, Ronald L

    2011-10-01

    The neuropathological hallmark of the majority of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and a class of frontotemporal lobar degeneration is ubiquitinated cytoplasmic aggregates composed of transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43). Genetic manipulation of TDP-43 in animal models has been used to study the protein's role in pathogenesis. Transgenic rodents for TDP-43 have recapitulated key aspects of ALS such as paralysis, loss of spinal motor neurons and muscle atrophy. Viral vectors are an alternate approach to express pathological proteins in animals. Use of the recombinant adeno-associated virus vector serotype 9 has permitted widespread transgene expression throughout the central nervous system after intravenous administration. Expressing TDP-43 in rats with this method produced a phenotype that was consistent with and similar to TDP-43 transgenic lines. Increased levels of TDP-43 in the nucleus are toxic to neurons and sufficient to produce ALS-like symptoms. Animal models based on TDP-43 will address the relationships between TDP-43 expression levels, pathology, neuronal loss, muscle atrophy, motor function and causative mechanisms of disease. New targets that modify TDP-43 function, or targets from previous ALS models and other models of spinal cord diseases, could be tested for efficacy in the recent rodent models of ALS based on TDP-43. The vector approach could be an important therapeutic channel because the entire spinal cord can be affected from a one-time peripheral administration. PMID:21777407

  14. RNA targets of TDP-43 identified by UV-CLIP are deregulated in ALS.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shangxi; Sanelli, Teresa; Dib, Samar; Sheps, David; Findlater, Joseph; Bilbao, Juan; Keith, Julia; Zinman, Lorne; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Robertson, Janice

    2011-07-01

    TDP-43 is a predominantly nuclear DNA/RNA binding protein involved in transcriptional regulation and RNA processing. TDP-43 is also a component of the cytoplasmic inclusion bodies characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions (FTLD-U). We have investigated the premise that abnormalities of TDP-43 in disease would be reflected by changes in processing of its target RNAs. To this end, we have firstly identified RNA targets of TDP-43 using UV-Cross-Linking and Immunoprecipitation (UV-CLIP) of SHSY5Y cells, a human neuroblastoma cell line. We used conventional cloning strategies to identify, after quality control steps, 127 targets. Results show that TDP-43 binds mainly to introns at UG/TG repeat motifs (49%) and polypyrimidine rich sequences (17.65%). To determine if the identified RNA targets of TDP-43 were abnormally processed in ALS versus control lumbar spinal cord RNA, we performed RT-PCR using primers designed according to the location of TDP-43 binding within the gene, and prior evidence of alternative splicing of exons adjacent to this site. Of eight genes meeting these criteria, five were differentially spliced in ALS versus control. This supports the premise that abnormalities of TDP-43 in ALS are reflected in changes of RNA processing. PMID:21421050

  15. Temporal lobar predominance of TDP-43 neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Hu, William T; Josephs, Keith A; Knopman, David S; Boeve, Bradley F; Dickson, Dennis W; Petersen, Ronald C; Parisi, Joseph E

    2008-08-01

    TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) immunoreactive neuronal inclusions are detected in 20-30% of Alzheimer disease (AD) brains, but the distribution of this pathology has not been rigorously studied. In this report, we describe region-specific distribution and density of TDP-43 positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) in clinically demented individuals with high probability AD pathology, all with Braak neurofibrillary tangle stages of V or VI. Sections of hippocampus, amygdala, as well as temporal, frontal, and parietal neocortex, were analyzed with TDP-43 immunohistochemistry, and the density of NCIs was assessed using a semiquantitative scoring method. Of the 29 cases, six had TDP-43 positive NCIs in the amygdala only and seven had TDP-43 inclusions restricted to amygdala and hippocampus. In 16 cases, TDP-43 immunoreactivity was more widespread, affecting temporal, frontal or parietal neocortex. These findings indicate that medial temporal lobe limbic structures are vulnerable to TDP-43 pathology in advanced AD, and that the amygdala appears to be the most susceptible region. The distribution of the lesions in this cross-sectional analysis may suggest a progression of TDP-43 pathology in AD, with limbic structures in the medial temporal lobe affected first, followed by higher order association cortices. PMID:18592255

  16. Significance and limitation of the pathological classification of TDP-43 proteinopathy.

    PubMed

    Arai, Tetsuaki

    2014-12-01

    Based on the cerebral tans-activation response DNA protein 43 (TDP-43) immunohistochemistry, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology (FTLD-TDP) is classified into four subtypes: type A has numerous neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and dystrophic neurites (DNs); type B has numerous NCIs with few DNs; type C is characterized by DNs which are often longer and thicker than DNs in type A, with few NCIs; and type D has numerous neuronal intranuclear inclusions and DNs with few NCIs. The relevance of this classification system is supported by clinical, biochemical and genetic correlations, although there is still significant heterogeneity, especially in cases with type A pathology. The subtypes of TDP-43 pathology should be determined in cases with other neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, to evaluate the pathological significance of TDP-43 abnormality in them. The results of the biochemical analyses of the diseased brains and the cellular models suggest that different strains of TDP-43 with different conformations may determine the clinicopathological phenotypes of TDP-43 proteinopathy, like prion disease. Clarifying the mechanism of the conformational changes of TDP-43 leading to the formation of multiple abnormal strains may be important for differential diagnosis and developing disease-modifying therapy for TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:25196969

  17. Alteration of POLDIP3 Splicing Associated with Loss of Function of TDP-43 in Tissues Affected with ALS

    PubMed Central

    Shiga, Atsushi; Ishihara, Tomohiko; Miyashita, Akinori; Kuwabara, Misaki; Kato, Taisuke; Watanabe, Norihiro; Yamahira, Akie; Kondo, Chigusa; Yokoseki, Akio; Takahashi, Masuhiro; Kuwano, Ryozo; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Onodera, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease caused by selective loss of motor neurons. In the ALS motor neurons, TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is dislocated from the nucleus to cytoplasm and forms inclusions, suggesting that loss of a nuclear function of TDP-43 may underlie the pathogenesis of ALS. TDP-43 functions in RNA metabolism include regulation of transcription, mRNA stability, and alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. However, a function of TDP-43 in tissue affected with ALS has not been elucidated. We sought to identify the molecular indicators reflecting on a TDP-43 function. Using exon array analysis, we observed a remarkable alteration of splicing in the polymerase delta interacting protein 3 (POLDIP3) as a result of the depletion of TDP-43 expression in two types of cultured cells. In the cells treated with TDP-43 siRNA, wild-type POLDIP3 (variant-1) decreased and POLDIP3 lacking exon 3 (variant-2) increased. The RNA binding ability of TDP-43 was necessary for inclusion of POLDIP3 exon 3. Moreover, we found an increment of POLDIP3 variant-2 mRNA in motor cortex, spinal cord and spinal motor neurons collected by laser capture microdissection with ALS. Our results suggest a loss of TDP-43 function in tissues affected with ALS, supporting the hypothesis that a loss of function of TDP-43 underlies the pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:22900096

  18. Transcriptomic Changes Due to Cytoplasmic TDP-43 Expression Reveal Dysregulation of Histone Transcripts and Nuclear Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Amlie-Wolf, Alexandre; Ryvkin, Paul; Tong, Rui; Dragomir, Isabelle; Suh, EunRan; Xu, Yan; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Gregory, Brian D.; Kwong, Linda K.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Wang, Li-San; Lee, Edward B.

    2015-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is normally a nuclear RNA-binding protein that exhibits a range of functions including regulation of alternative splicing, RNA trafficking, and RNA stability. However, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP), TDP-43 is abnormally phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and cleaved, and is mislocalized to the cytoplasm where it forms distinctive aggregates. We previously developed a mouse model expressing human TDP-43 with a mutation in its nuclear localization signal (ΔNLS-hTDP-43) so that the protein preferentially localizes to the cytoplasm. These mice did not exhibit a significant number of cytoplasmic aggregates, but did display dramatic changes in gene expression as measured by microarray, suggesting that cytoplasmic TDP-43 may be associated with a toxic gain-of-function. Here, we analyze new RNA-sequencing data from the ΔNLS-hTDP-43 mouse model, together with published RNA-sequencing data obtained previously from TDP-43 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) knockdown mice to investigate further the dysregulation of gene expression in the ΔNLS model. This analysis reveals that the transcriptomic effects of the overexpression of the ΔNLS-hTDP-43 transgene are likely due to a gain of cytoplasmic function. Moreover, cytoplasmic TDP-43 expression alters transcripts that regulate chromatin assembly, the nucleolus, lysosomal function, and histone 3’ untranslated region (UTR) processing. These transcriptomic alterations correlate with observed histologic abnormalities in heterochromatin structure and nuclear size in transgenic mouse and human brains. PMID:26510133

  19. Transcriptomic Changes Due to Cytoplasmic TDP-43 Expression Reveal Dysregulation of Histone Transcripts and Nuclear Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Amlie-Wolf, Alexandre; Ryvkin, Paul; Tong, Rui; Dragomir, Isabelle; Suh, EunRan; Xu, Yan; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Gregory, Brian D; Kwong, Linda K; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Wang, Li-San; Lee, Edward B

    2015-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is normally a nuclear RNA-binding protein that exhibits a range of functions including regulation of alternative splicing, RNA trafficking, and RNA stability. However, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP), TDP-43 is abnormally phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and cleaved, and is mislocalized to the cytoplasm where it forms distinctive aggregates. We previously developed a mouse model expressing human TDP-43 with a mutation in its nuclear localization signal (ΔNLS-hTDP-43) so that the protein preferentially localizes to the cytoplasm. These mice did not exhibit a significant number of cytoplasmic aggregates, but did display dramatic changes in gene expression as measured by microarray, suggesting that cytoplasmic TDP-43 may be associated with a toxic gain-of-function. Here, we analyze new RNA-sequencing data from the ΔNLS-hTDP-43 mouse model, together with published RNA-sequencing data obtained previously from TDP-43 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) knockdown mice to investigate further the dysregulation of gene expression in the ΔNLS model. This analysis reveals that the transcriptomic effects of the overexpression of the ΔNLS-hTDP-43 transgene are likely due to a gain of cytoplasmic function. Moreover, cytoplasmic TDP-43 expression alters transcripts that regulate chromatin assembly, the nucleolus, lysosomal function, and histone 3' untranslated region (UTR) processing. These transcriptomic alterations correlate with observed histologic abnormalities in heterochromatin structure and nuclear size in transgenic mouse and human brains. PMID:26510133

  20. A phosphomimetic mutant TDP-43 (S409/410E) induces Drosha instability and cytotoxicity in Neuro 2A cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Yoon; Lee, Hee-Woo; Shim, Yu-Mi; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Jeon, Gye Sun; Sung, Jung-Joon

    2015-08-14

    Two DNA/RNA binding proteins, TDP-43 and FUS/TLSU, are involved in RNA processing, and their aberrant mutations induce inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions. Wild type TDP-43 and FUS (wtTDP-43 and wtFUS) are mainly localized in the nucleus and biochemically interact with the microRNA processing enzyme Drosha. In this study, we investigated Drosha stability in Neuro 2A cells by gain and loss of function studies of wtTDP-43 and wtFUS and cycloheximide mediated protein degradation assay. We also generated three different phosphomimetic mutants of TDP-43 (S379E, S403/404E and S409/410E) by using a site-directed mutagenesis method and examined Drosha stability to elucidate a correlation between the phosphorylated TDP-43 mutants and Drosha stability. Overexpression of wtTDP-43 and/or wtFUS increased Drosha stability in Neuro 2A cells and double knockdown of wtTDP-43 and wtFUS reduced its stability. However, knockdown of wtTDP-43 or wtFUS did not affect Drosha stability in Neuro 2A cells. Interestingly, a phosphomimetic mutant TDP-43 (S409/410E) significantly reduced Drosha stability via prevention of protein-protein interactions between wtFUS and Drosha, and induced cytotoxicity in Neuro 2A cells. Our findings suggest that TDP-43 and FUS controls Drosha stability in Neuro 2A cells and that a phosphomimetic mutant TDP-43 (S409/410E) which is associated with Drosha instability can induce neuronal toxicity. PMID:26102026

  1. Pharmacological reduction of ER stress protects against TDP-43 neuronal toxicity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Patten, Shunmoogum A; Aggad, Dina; Julien, Carl; Maios, Claudia; Kabashi, Edor; Drapeau, Pierre; Parker, J Alex

    2013-07-01

    C. elegans and D. rerio expressing mutant TAR DNA Binding Protein 43 (TDP-43) are powerful in vivo animal models for the genetics and pharmacology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Using these small-animal models of ALS, we previously identified methylene blue (MB) as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 toxicity. Consequently here we investigated how MB might exert its neuroprotective properties and found that it acts through reduction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. We tested other compounds known to be active in the ER unfolded protein response in worms and zebrafish expressing mutant human TDP-43 (mTDP-43). We identified three compounds: salubrinal, guanabenz and a new structurally related compound phenazine, which also reduced paralysis, neurodegeneration and oxidative stress in our mTDP-43 models. Using C. elegans genetics, we showed that all four compounds act as potent suppressors of mTDP-43 toxicity through reduction of the ER stress response. Interestingly, these compounds operate through different branches of the ER unfolded protein pathway to achieve a common neuroprotective action. Our results indicate that protein-folding homeostasis in the ER is an important target for therapeutic development in ALS and other TDP-43-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23567652

  2. The role of TDP-43 in the pathogenesis of ALS and FTLD.

    PubMed

    Baralle, Marco; Buratti, Emanuele; Baralle, Francisco E

    2013-12-01

    TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43) is an hnRNP (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein) protein whose role in cellular processes has come to the forefront of neurodegeneration research after the observation that it is the main component of brain inclusions in ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and FTLD (frontotemporal lobar degeneration) patients. Functionally, this aberrant aggregation and mislocalization implies that, in the affected neurons, transcripts regulated by TDP-43 may be altered. Since then, a considerable amount of data has been gathered on TDP-43 interactions and on the genes that are influenced by its absence or overexpression. At present, however, most of these data come from high-throughput searches, making it problematic to separate the direct effects of TDP-43 from secondary misregulations occurring at different levels of the gene expression process. Furthermore, our knowledge of the biochemistry of TDP-43, its RNA-binding characteristics, its nuclear and cytoplasmic targets, and the details of its interactions with other proteins is still incomplete. The understanding of these features could hold the key for uncovering TDP-43's role in ALS and FTLD pathogenesis. We describe in the present paper our work on TDP-43 RNA binding, self-regulation and aggregation processes, and attempt to relate them to the neurodegenerative pathologies. PMID:24256250

  3. Novel Mutations in TARDBP (TDP-43) in Patients with Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Nicola J.; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Baker, Matt; Gass, Jennifer M.; Finch, NiCole A.; Xu, Ya-Fei; Stewart, Heather; Kelley, Brendan J.; Kuntz, Karen; Crook, Richard J. P.; Sreedharan, Jemeen; Vance, Caroline; Sorenson, Eric; Lippa, Carol; Bigio, Eileen H.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Knopman, David S.; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Petersen, Ronald C.; Cashman, Neil R.; Hutton, Mike; Shaw, Christopher E.; Boylan, Kevin B.; Boeve, Bradley; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Caselli, Richard J.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Rademakers, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    The TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin inclusions (FTLD-U), defining a novel class of neurodegenerative conditions: the TDP-43 proteinopathies. The first pathogenic mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 (TARDBP) were recently reported in familial and sporadic ALS patients, supporting a direct role for TDP-43 in neurodegeneration. In this study, we report the identification and functional analyses of two novel and one known mutation in TARDBP that we identified as a result of extensive mutation analyses in a cohort of 296 patients with variable neurodegenerative diseases associated with TDP-43 histopathology. Three different heterozygous missense mutations in exon 6 of TARDBP (p.M337V, p.N345K, and p.I383V) were identified in the analysis of 92 familial ALS patients (3.3%), while no mutations were detected in 24 patients with sporadic ALS or 180 patients with other TDP-43–positive neurodegenerative diseases. The presence of p.M337V, p.N345K, and p.I383V was excluded in 825 controls and 652 additional sporadic ALS patients. All three mutations affect highly conserved amino acid residues in the C-terminal part of TDP-43 known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. Biochemical analysis of TDP-43 in ALS patient cell lines revealed a substantial increase in caspase cleaved fragments, including the ∼25 kDa fragment, compared to control cell lines. Our findings support TARDBP mutations as a cause of ALS. Based on the specific C-terminal location of the mutations and the accumulation of a smaller C-terminal fragment, we speculate that TARDBP mutations may cause a toxic gain of function through novel protein interactions or intracellular accumulation of TDP-43 fragments leading to apoptosis. PMID:18802454

  4. Oxr1 improves pathogenic cellular features of ALS-associated FUS and TDP-43 mutations.

    PubMed

    Finelli, Mattéa J; Liu, Kevin X; Wu, Yixing; Oliver, Peter L; Davies, Kay E

    2015-06-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of motor neuron-like cells. Mutations in the RNA- and DNA-binding proteins, fused in sarcoma (FUS) and transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), are responsible for 5-10% of familial and 1% of sporadic ALS cases. Importantly, aggregation of misfolded FUS or TDP-43 is also characteristic of several neurodegenerative disorders in addition to ALS, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Moreover, splicing deregulation of FUS and TDP-43 target genes as well as mitochondrial abnormalities are associated with disease-causing FUS and TDP-43 mutants. While progress has been made to understand the functions of these proteins, the exact mechanisms by which FUS and TDP-43 cause ALS remain unknown. Recently, we discovered that, in addition to being up-regulated in spinal cords of ALS patients, the novel protein oxidative resistance 1 (Oxr1) protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. To further understand the function of Oxr1, we present here the first interaction study of the protein. We show that Oxr1 binds to Fus and Tdp-43 and that certain ALS-associated mutations in Fus and Tdp-43 affect their Oxr1-binding properties. We further demonstrate that increasing Oxr1 levels in cells expressing specific Fus and Tdp-43 mutants improves the three main cellular features associated with ALS: cytoplasmic mis-localization and aggregation, splicing changes of a mitochondrial gene and mitochondrial defects. Taken together, these findings suggest that OXR1 may have therapeutic benefits for the treatment of ALS and related neurodegenerative disorders with TDP-43 pathology. PMID:25792726

  5. Oxr1 improves pathogenic cellular features of ALS-associated FUS and TDP-43 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, Mattéa J.; Liu, Kevin X.; Wu, Yixing; Oliver, Peter L.; Davies, Kay E.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of motor neuron-like cells. Mutations in the RNA- and DNA-binding proteins, fused in sarcoma (FUS) and transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), are responsible for 5–10% of familial and 1% of sporadic ALS cases. Importantly, aggregation of misfolded FUS or TDP-43 is also characteristic of several neurodegenerative disorders in addition to ALS, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Moreover, splicing deregulation of FUS and TDP-43 target genes as well as mitochondrial abnormalities are associated with disease-causing FUS and TDP-43 mutants. While progress has been made to understand the functions of these proteins, the exact mechanisms by which FUS and TDP-43 cause ALS remain unknown. Recently, we discovered that, in addition to being up-regulated in spinal cords of ALS patients, the novel protein oxidative resistance 1 (Oxr1) protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. To further understand the function of Oxr1, we present here the first interaction study of the protein. We show that Oxr1 binds to Fus and Tdp-43 and that certain ALS-associated mutations in Fus and Tdp-43 affect their Oxr1-binding properties. We further demonstrate that increasing Oxr1 levels in cells expressing specific Fus and Tdp-43 mutants improves the three main cellular features associated with ALS: cytoplasmic mis-localization and aggregation, splicing changes of a mitochondrial gene and mitochondrial defects. Taken together, these findings suggest that OXR1 may have therapeutic benefits for the treatment of ALS and related neurodegenerative disorders with TDP-43 pathology. PMID:25792726

  6. CUL2-mediated clearance of misfolded TDP-43 is paradoxically affected by VHL in oligodendrocytes in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Tsukasa; Tamaki, Yoshitaka; Ayaki, Takashi; Shodai, Akemi; Kaji, Seiji; Morimura, Toshifumi; Banno, Yoshinori; Nishitsuji, Kazuchika; Sakashita, Naomi; Maki, Takakuni; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Ito, Hidefumi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Urushitani, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The molecular machinery responsible for cytosolic accumulation of misfolded TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains elusive. Here we identified a cullin-2 (CUL2) RING complex as a novel ubiquitin ligase for fragmented forms of TDP-43. The von Hippel Lindau protein (VHL), a substrate binding component of the complex, preferentially recognized misfolded TDP-43 at Glu246 in RNA-recognition motif 2. Recombinant full-length TDP-43 was structurally fragile and readily cleaved, suggesting that misfolded TDP-43 is cleared by VHL/CUL2 in a step-wise manner via fragmentation. Surprisingly, excess VHL stabilized and led to inclusion formation of TDP-43, as well as mutant SOD1, at the juxtanuclear protein quality control center. Moreover, TDP-43 knockdown elevated VHL expression in cultured cells, implying an aberrant interaction between VHL and mislocalized TDP-43 in ALS. Finally, cytoplasmic inclusions especially in oligodendrocytes in ALS spinal cords were immunoreactive to both phosphorylated TDP-43 and VHL. Thus, our results suggest that an imbalance in VHL and CUL2 may underlie oligodendrocyte dysfunction in ALS, and highlight CUL2 E3 ligase emerges as a novel therapeutic potential for ALS. PMID:26751167

  7. The JNK/c-Jun signaling axis contributes to the TDP-43-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Matsuoka, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is closely linked to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U). The contribution of the upregulation of TDP-43 expression to the pathogenesis has been strongly suggested by the observation that the level of TDP-43 expression is increased in both ALS and FTLD-U patients. We previously found that the low-grade (twice to five times more than the endogenous level) overexpression of TDP-43 induces neuronal cell death through the upregulation of Bim and CHOP expression and the downregulation of Bcl-xL expression. In this study, we further show that the low-grade overexpression of TDP-43 increases the level of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the co-incubation with a JNK inhibitor, the expression of a dominant-negative JNK, or the expression of a dominant-negative c-Jun inhibited the TDP-43-induced death in NSC34 motor neuronal cells. These data together suggest that the JNK/c-Jun signaling axis contributes to the TDP-43-induced cell death. PMID:23001869

  8. Studies of alternative isoforms provide insight into TDP-43 autoregulation and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    D'Alton, Simon; Altshuler, Marcelle; Lewis, Jada

    2015-01-01

    TDP-43 is a soluble, nuclear protein that undergoes cytoplasmic redistribution and aggregation in the majority of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. TDP-43 autoregulates the abundance of its own transcript TARDBP by binding to an intron in the 3′ untranslated region, although the mechanisms underlying this activity have been debated. Herein, we provide the most extensive analysis of TARDBP transcript yet undertaken. We detail the existence of a plethora of complex splicing events and alternative poly(A) use and provide data that explain the discrepancies reported to date regarding the autoregulatory capacity of TDP-43. Additionally, although many splice isoforms emanating from the TARDBP locus contain the regulated intron in the 3′ UTR, we find only evidence for autoregulation of the transcript encoding full-length TDP-43. Finally, we use a novel cytoplasmic isoform of TDP to induce disease-like loss of soluble, nuclear TDP-43, which results in aberrant splicing and up-regulation of endogenous TARDBP. These results reveal a previously underappreciated complexity to TDP-43 regulated splicing and suggest that loss of TDP-43 autoregulatory capacity may contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:26089325

  9. Axonal transport of TDP-43 mRNA granules in neurons is impaired by ALS-causing mutations

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Monica A.; Williams, Luis A.; Winborn, Christina S.; Han, Steve S. W.; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Winborn, Brett; Freibaum, Brian D.; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Clare, Alison J.; Badders, Nisha M.; Bilican, Bilada; Chaum, Edward; Chandran, Siddharthan; Shaw, Christopher E.; Eggan, Kevin C.; Maniatis, Tom; Taylor, J. Paul

    2014-01-01

    Summary The RNA binding protein TDP-43 regulates RNA metabolism at multiple levels, including transcription, RNA splicing, and mRNA stability. TDP-43 is a major component of the cytoplasmic inclusions characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and some types of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The importance of TDP-43 in disease is underscored by the fact that dominant missense mutations are sufficient to cause disease, although the role of TDP-43 in pathogenesis is unknown. Here we show that TDP-43 forms cytoplasmic mRNP granules that undergo bidirectional, microtubule-dependent transport in neurons in vitro and in vivo and facilitate delivery of target mRNA to distal neuronal compartments. TDP-43 mutations impair this mRNA transport function in vivo and in vitro, including in stem cell-derived motor neurons from ALS patients bearing any one of three different TDP-43 ALS-causing mutations. Thus, TDP43 mutations that cause ALS lead to partial loss of a novel cytoplasmic function of TDP-43. PMID:24507191

  10. Molecular dissection of TDP-43 proteinopathies.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masato; Nonaka, Takashi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Tamaoka, Akira; Yamashita, Makiko; Kametani, Fuyuki; Yoshida, Mari; Arai, Tetsuaki; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2011-11-01

    TDP-43 has been identified as a major component of ubiquitin-positive tau-negative cytoplasmic inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We raised antibodies to phosphopeptides representing 36 out of 64 candidate phosphorylation sites of human TDP-43 and showed that the antibodies to pS379, pS403/404, pS409, pS410 and pS409/410 labeled the inclusions, but not the nuclei. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that the antibodies recognized TDP-43 at ~45 kDa, smearing substances and 18-26 kDa C-terminal fragments. Furthermore, the band patterns of the C-terminal fragments differed between neuropathological subtypes, but were indistinguishable between brain regions and spinal cord in each individual patient. Protease treatment of Sarkosyl-insoluble TDP-43 suggests that the different band patterns of the C-terminal fragments reflect different conformations of abnormal TDP-43 molecules between the diseases. These results suggest that molecular species of abnormal TDP-43 are different between the diseases and that they propagate from affected cells to other cells during disease progression and determine the clinicopathological phenotypes of the diseases. PMID:21678031

  11. TDP-43 Inhibits NF-κB Activity by Blocking p65 Nuclear Translocation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingyan; Cynader, Max S; Jia, William

    2015-01-01

    TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding protein 43) is a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) that has been found to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases. TDP-43's involvement in nuclear factor-kappaB pathways has been reported in both neurons and microglial cells. The NF-κB pathway targets hundreds of genes, many of which are involved in inflammation, immunity and cancer. p50/p65 (p50/RelA) heterodimers, as the major Rel complex in the NF-κB family, are induced by diverse external physiological stimuli and modulate transcriptional activity in almost all cell types. Both p65 and TDP-43 translocation occur through the classic nuclear transportation system. In this study, we report that TDP-43 overexpression prevents TNF-α induced p65 nuclear translocation in a dose dependent manner, and that this further inhibits p65 transactivation activity. The inhibition by TDP-43 does not occur through preventing IκB degradation but probably by competing for the nuclear transporter-importin α3 (KPNA4). This competition is dependent on the presence of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) in TDP-43. Silencing TDP-43 using a specific siRNA also increased p65 nuclear localization upon TNF-α stimulation, suggesting that endogenous TDP-43 may be a default suppressor of the NF-κB pathway. Our results indicate that TDP-43 may play an important role in regulating the levels of NF-κB activity by controlling the nuclear translocation of p65. PMID:26571498

  12. TDP-43 Inhibits NF-κB Activity by Blocking p65 Nuclear Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingyan; Cynader, Max S.; Jia, William

    2015-01-01

    TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding protein 43) is a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) that has been found to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases. TDP-43’s involvement in nuclear factor-kappaB pathways has been reported in both neurons and microglial cells. The NF-κB pathway targets hundreds of genes, many of which are involved in inflammation, immunity and cancer. p50/p65 (p50/RelA) heterodimers, as the major Rel complex in the NF-κB family, are induced by diverse external physiological stimuli and modulate transcriptional activity in almost all cell types. Both p65 and TDP-43 translocation occur through the classic nuclear transportation system. In this study, we report that TDP-43 overexpression prevents TNF-α induced p65 nuclear translocation in a dose dependent manner, and that this further inhibits p65 transactivation activity. The inhibition by TDP-43 does not occur through preventing IκB degradation but probably by competing for the nuclear transporter-importin α3 (KPNA4). This competition is dependent on the presence of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) in TDP-43. Silencing TDP-43 using a specific siRNA also increased p65 nuclear localization upon TNF-α stimulation, suggesting that endogenous TDP-43 may be a default suppressor of the NF-κB pathway. Our results indicate that TDP-43 may play an important role in regulating the levels of NF-κB activity by controlling the nuclear translocation of p65. PMID:26571498

  13. TDP-43 inclusion bodies formed in bacteria are structurally amorphous, non-amyloid and inherently toxic to neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Capitini, Claudia; Conti, Simona; Perni, Michele; Guidi, Francesca; Cascella, Roberta; De Poli, Angela; Penco, Amanda; Relini, Annalisa; Cecchi, Cristina; Chiti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of ubiquitin-positive, tau- and α-synuclein-negative intracellular inclusions of TDP-43 in the central nervous system represents the major hallmark correlated to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions. Such inclusions have variably been described as amorphous aggregates or more structured deposits having an amyloid structure. Following the observations that bacterial inclusion bodies generally consist of amyloid aggregates, we have overexpressed full-length TDP-43 and C-terminal TDP-43 in E. coli, purified the resulting full-length and C-terminal TDP-43 containing inclusion bodies (FL and Ct TDP-43 IBs) and subjected them to biophysical analyses to assess their structure/morphology. We show that both FL and Ct TDP-43 aggregates contained in the bacterial IBs do not bind amyloid dyes such as thioflavin T and Congo red, possess a disordered secondary structure, as inferred using circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopies, and are susceptible to proteinase K digestion, thus possessing none of the hallmarks for amyloid. Moreover, atomic force microscopy revealed an irregular structure for both types of TDP-43 IBs and confirmed the absence of amyloid-like species after proteinase K treatment. Cell biology experiments showed that FL TDP-43 IBs were able to impair the viability of cultured neuroblastoma cells when added to their extracellular medium and, more markedly, when transfected into their cytosol, where they are at least in part ubiquitinated and phosphorylated. These data reveal an inherently high propensity of TDP-43 to form amorphous aggregates, which possess, however, an inherently high ability to cause cell dysfunction. This indicates that a gain of toxic function caused by TDP-43 deposits is effective in TDP-43 pathologies, in addition to possible loss of function mechanisms originating from the cellular mistrafficking of the protein. PMID:24497973

  14. A 43-kDa TDP-43 species is present in aggregates associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Bosque, Patrick J; Boyer, Philip J; Mishra, Priya

    2013-01-01

    The transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) is a major component of the abnormal intracellular inclusions that occur in two common neurodegenerative diseases of humans: (1) a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Genetics, experiments in cultured cells and animals, and analogy with other neurodegenerative diseases indicate that the process of TDP-43 aggregation is fundamental to the pathogenesis of these 2 diseases, but the process by which this aggregation occurs is not understood. Biochemical fractionation has revealed truncated, phosphorylated and ubiquitinated forms of TDP-43 in a detergent-insoluble fraction from diseased CNS tissue, while these forms are absent from controls. However, a large amount of the normally predominant 43-kDa form of TDP-43 is present in the detergent-insoluble fraction even from control brains, so it has not been possible to determine if this form of TDP-43 is part of pathological aggregates in frontotemporal lobe degeneration. We used semi-denaturing detergent-agarose gel electrophoresis to isolate high molecular weight aggregates containing TDP-43 that are present in the cerebral cortex of individuals with frontotemporal lobar degeneration but not that of controls. These aggregates include the same covalently modified forms of TDP-43 seen in detergent-insoluble extracts. In addition, aggregates include a 43-kDa TDP-43 species. This aggregated 43-kDa form of TDP-43 is absent or present only at low levels in controls. The presence of 43-kDa TDP-43 in aggregates raises the possibility that covalent modification is not a primary step in the pathogenic aggregation of TDP-43 associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:23704877

  15. A 43-kDa TDP-43 Species Is Present in Aggregates Associated with Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bosque, Patrick J.; Boyer, Philip J.; Mishra, Priya

    2013-01-01

    The transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) is a major component of the abnormal intracellular inclusions that occur in two common neurodegenerative diseases of humans: (1) a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Genetics, experiments in cultured cells and animals, and analogy with other neurodegenerative diseases indicate that the process of TDP-43 aggregation is fundamental to the pathogenesis of these 2 diseases, but the process by which this aggregation occurs is not understood. Biochemical fractionation has revealed truncated, phosphorylated and ubiquitinated forms of TDP-43 in a detergent-insoluble fraction from diseased CNS tissue, while these forms are absent from controls. However, a large amount of the normally predominant 43-kDa form of TDP-43 is present in the detergent-insoluble fraction even from control brains, so it has not been possible to determine if this form of TDP-43 is part of pathological aggregates in frontotemporal lobe degeneration. We used semi-denaturing detergent-agarose gel electrophoresis to isolate high molecular weight aggregates containing TDP-43 that are present in the cerebral cortex of individuals with frontotemporal lobar degeneration but not that of controls. These aggregates include the same covalently modified forms of TDP-43 seen in detergent-insoluble extracts. In addition, aggregates include a 43-kDa TDP-43 species. This aggregated 43-kDa form of TDP-43 is absent or present only at low levels in controls. The presence of 43-kDa TDP-43 in aggregates raises the possibility that covalent modification is not a primary step in the pathogenic aggregation of TDP-43 associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:23704877

  16. TDP-43 Inclusion Bodies Formed in Bacteria Are Structurally Amorphous, Non-Amyloid and Inherently Toxic to Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Capitini, Claudia; Conti, Simona; Perni, Michele; Guidi, Francesca; Cascella, Roberta; De Poli, Angela; Penco, Amanda; Relini, Annalisa; Cecchi, Cristina; Chiti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of ubiquitin-positive, tau- and α-synuclein-negative intracellular inclusions of TDP-43 in the central nervous system represents the major hallmark correlated to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions. Such inclusions have variably been described as amorphous aggregates or more structured deposits having an amyloid structure. Following the observations that bacterial inclusion bodies generally consist of amyloid aggregates, we have overexpressed full-length TDP-43 and C-terminal TDP-43 in E. coli, purified the resulting full-length and C-terminal TDP-43 containing inclusion bodies (FL and Ct TDP-43 IBs) and subjected them to biophysical analyses to assess their structure/morphology. We show that both FL and Ct TDP-43 aggregates contained in the bacterial IBs do not bind amyloid dyes such as thioflavin T and Congo red, possess a disordered secondary structure, as inferred using circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopies, and are susceptible to proteinase K digestion, thus possessing none of the hallmarks for amyloid. Moreover, atomic force microscopy revealed an irregular structure for both types of TDP-43 IBs and confirmed the absence of amyloid-like species after proteinase K treatment. Cell biology experiments showed that FL TDP-43 IBs were able to impair the viability of cultured neuroblastoma cells when added to their extracellular medium and, more markedly, when transfected into their cytosol, where they are at least in part ubiquitinated and phosphorylated. These data reveal an inherently high propensity of TDP-43 to form amorphous aggregates, which possess, however, an inherently high ability to cause cell dysfunction. This indicates that a gain of toxic function caused by TDP-43 deposits is effective in TDP-43 pathologies, in addition to possible loss of function mechanisms originating from the cellular mistrafficking of the protein. PMID:24497973

  17. [TDP-43 proteinopathies - from frontotemporal lobar degeneration to inclusion body myositis].

    PubMed

    Kierdaszuk, Biruta; Berdyński, Mariusz; Zekanowski, Cezary; Kamińska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    TDP-43, a newly described neurodegenerative protein, is of great interest to both neurologists and geneticists. At the beginning, its dysfunction was recognized in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions and in mixed forms. However, it was also proved that TDP-43 inclusions are in addition present in many other diseases, for example in inclusion body myositis. Furthermore, many genes and different loci may be involved in pathological TDP-43 accumulation in cells and tissues. Mutations in the TARDPB gene, progranulin gene (PGRNVCP) as well as a gene on chromosome 9p were found. The present paper is a summary on possible involvement of TDP-43 in various neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23023438

  18. Maple Syrup Decreases TDP-43 Proteotoxicity in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Aaron, Catherine; Beaudry, Gabrielle; Parker, J Alex; Therrien, Martine

    2016-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease causing death of the motor neurons. Proteotoxicity caused by TDP-43 protein is an important aspect of ALS pathogenesis, with TDP-43 being the main constituent of the aggregates found in patients. We have previously tested the effect of different sugars on the proteotoxicity caused by the expression of mutant TDP-43 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we tested maple syrup, a natural compound containing many active molecules including sugars and phenols, for neuroprotective activity. Maple syrup decreased several age-dependent phenotypes caused by the expression of TDP-43(A315T) in C. elegans motor neurons and requires the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 to be effective. PMID:27071850

  19. TDP-43 pathology in polyglutamine diseases: with reference to amyotrphic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Yasuko; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2014-02-01

    A nuclear protein, transactivation response (TAR) DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), is the major component of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin inclusions (FTLD-U) and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS). While initially thought to be relatively specific to FTLD-U and ALS, TDP-43 pathology has now been detected in a number of other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In such tauopathies and α-synucleinopathies, occurrence of TDP-43-positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions may be associated with other distinct molecular pathologic processes primarily involving their own pathological proteins, tau and α-synuclein, respectively (secondary TDP-43 proteinopathies). On the other hand, in several polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, TDP-43 appears to play an important pathomechanistic role. Interestingly, intermediate-length polyQ expansions (27-33 Qs) in ataxin 2, the causative gene of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2, have recently been reported to be a genetic risk factor for SALS. Here, with a review of the literature, we discuss the relationship between ALS and polyQ diseases from the viewpoint of TDP-43 neuropathology. PMID:23889603

  20. Increased cytoplasmic TARDBP mRNA in affected spinal motor neurons in ALS caused by abnormal autoregulation of TDP-43

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Akihide; Sugai, Akihiro; Kato, Taisuke; Ishihara, Tomohiko; Shiga, Atsushi; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Koyama, Misaki; Konno, Takuya; Hirokawa, Sachiko; Yokoseki, Akio; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Onodera, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disorder. In motor neurons of ALS, TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43), a nuclear protein encoded by TARDBP, is absent from the nucleus and forms cytoplasmic inclusions. TDP-43 auto-regulates the amount by regulating the TARDBP mRNA, which has three polyadenylation signals (PASs) and three additional alternative introns within the last exon. However, it is still unclear how the autoregulatory mechanism works and how the status of autoregulation in ALS motor neurons without nuclear TDP-43 is. Here we show that TDP-43 inhibits the selection of the most proximal PAS and induces splicing of multiple alternative introns in TARDBP mRNA to decrease the amount of cytoplasmic TARDBP mRNA by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. When TDP-43 is depleted, the TARDBP mRNA uses the most proximal PAS and is increased in the cytoplasm. Finally, we have demonstrated that in ALS motor neurons—especially neurons with mislocalized TDP-43—the amount of TARDBP mRNA is increased in the cytoplasm. Our observations indicate that nuclear TDP-43 contributes to the autoregulation and suggests that the absence of nuclear TDP-43 induces an abnormal autoregulation and increases the amount of TARDBP mRNA. The vicious cycle might accelerate the disease progression of ALS. PMID:27257061

  1. Increased cytoplasmic TARDBP mRNA in affected spinal motor neurons in ALS caused by abnormal autoregulation of TDP-43.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Akihide; Sugai, Akihiro; Kato, Taisuke; Ishihara, Tomohiko; Shiga, Atsushi; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Koyama, Misaki; Konno, Takuya; Hirokawa, Sachiko; Yokoseki, Akio; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Onodera, Osamu

    2016-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disorder. In motor neurons of ALS, TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43), a nuclear protein encoded by TARDBP, is absent from the nucleus and forms cytoplasmic inclusions. TDP-43 auto-regulates the amount by regulating the TARDBP mRNA, which has three polyadenylation signals (PASs) and three additional alternative introns within the last exon. However, it is still unclear how the autoregulatory mechanism works and how the status of autoregulation in ALS motor neurons without nuclear TDP-43 is. Here we show that TDP-43 inhibits the selection of the most proximal PAS and induces splicing of multiple alternative introns in TARDBP mRNA to decrease the amount of cytoplasmic TARDBP mRNA by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. When TDP-43 is depleted, the TARDBP mRNA uses the most proximal PAS and is increased in the cytoplasm. Finally, we have demonstrated that in ALS motor neurons-especially neurons with mislocalized TDP-43-the amount of TARDBP mRNA is increased in the cytoplasm. Our observations indicate that nuclear TDP-43 contributes to the autoregulation and suggests that the absence of nuclear TDP-43 induces an abnormal autoregulation and increases the amount of TARDBP mRNA. The vicious cycle might accelerate the disease progression of ALS. PMID:27257061

  2. Depletion of TDP-43 affects Drosophila motoneurons terminal synapsis and locomotive behavior.

    PubMed

    Feiguin, Fabian; Godena, Vinay K; Romano, Giulia; D'Ambrogio, Andrea; Klima, Raffaella; Baralle, Francisco E

    2009-05-19

    Pathological modifications in the highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein TDP-43 were recently associated to neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a late-onset disorder that affects predominantly motoneurons [Neumann, M. et al. (2006) Ubiquitinated TDP-43 in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Science 314, 130-133, Sreedharan, J. et al. (2008) TDP-43 mutations in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Science 319, 1668-1672, Kabashi, E. et al. (2008) TARDBP mutations in individuals with sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat. Genet. 40, 572-574]. However, the function of TDP-43 in vivo is unknown and a possible direct role in neurodegeneration remains speculative. Here, we report that flies lacking Drosophila TDP-43 appeared externally normal but presented deficient locomotive behaviors, reduced life span and anatomical defects at the neuromuscular junctions. These phenotypes were rescued by expression of the human protein in a restricted group of neurons including motoneurons. Our results demonstrate the role of this protein in vivo and suggest an alternative explanation to ALS pathogenesis that may be more due to the lack of TDP 43 function than to the toxicity of the aggregates. PMID:19379745

  3. TDP-43 pathology and neuronal loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Brettschneider, Johannes; Arai, Kimihito; Del Tredici, Kelly; Toledo, Jon B.; Robinson, John L.; Lee, Edward B.; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Irwin, David J.; Fang, Lubin; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Ludolph, Albert C.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Braak, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    We examined the phosphorylated 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (pTDP-43) inclusions as well as neuronal loss in full-length spinal cords and five selected regions of the central nervous system from 36 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 10 age-matched normal controls. The most severe neuronal loss and pTDP-43 lesions were seen in lamina IX motor nuclei columns 4, 6, and 8 of lower cervical segments and in columns 9–11 of lumbosacral segments. Severity of pTDP-43 pathology and neuronal loss correlated closely with gray and white matter oligodendroglial involvement and was linked to onset of disease, with severe involvement of columns 4, 6, and 8 of upper extremity onset cases and severe involvement of columns of 9, 10, and 11 in cases with lower extremity onset. Severe TDP-43 lesions and neuronal loss were observed in stage 4 cases and sometimes included Onuf’s nucleus. Notably, three cases displayed pTDP-43 aggregates in the midbrain oculomotor nucleus, which we had not seen previously even in cases with advanced (i.e., stage 4) pathology. pTDP-43 aggregates were observed in neurons of Clarke’s column in 30.6 % of cases but rarely in the intermediolateral nucleus (IML). Gray matter oligodendroglial pTDP-43 inclusions were present in areas devoid of neuronal pTDP-43 aggregates and neuronal loss. Taken together, our findings indicate that (1) the dorsolateral motor nuclei columns of the cervical and lumbosacral anterior horn may be the earliest foci of pTDP-43 pathology in the spinal cord, (2) gray matter oligodendroglial involvement is an early event in the ALS disease process that possibly heralds subsequent involvement of neurons by pTDP-43 pathology, and (3) in some very advanced cases, there is oculomotor nucleus involvement, which may constitute an additional neuropathological stage (designated here as stage 5) of pTDP-43 pathology in ALS. PMID:24916269

  4. Sequential distribution of pTDP-43 pathology in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD).

    PubMed

    Brettschneider, Johannes; Del Tredici, Kelly; Irwin, David J; Grossman, Murray; Robinson, John L; Toledo, Jon B; Lee, Edward B; Fang, Lubin; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Ludolph, Albert C; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Braak, Heiko; Trojanowski, John Q

    2014-03-01

    We examined regional distribution patterns of phosphorylated 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (pTDP-43) intraneuronal inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Immunohistochemistry was performed on 70 μm sections from FTLD-TDP autopsy cases (n = 39) presenting with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. Two main types of cortical pTDP-43 pathology emerged, characterized by either predominantly perikaryal pTDP-43 inclusions (cytoplasmic type, cFTLD) or long aggregates in dendrites (neuritic type, nFTLD). Cortical involvement in nFTLD was extensive and frequently reached occipital areas, whereas cases with cFTLD often involved bulbar somatomotor neurons and the spinal cord. We observed four patterns indicative of potentially sequential dissemination of pTDP-43: cases with the lowest burden of pathology (pattern I) were characterized by widespread pTDP-43 lesions in the orbital gyri, gyrus rectus, and amygdala. With increasing burden of pathology (pattern II) pTDP-43 lesions emerged in the middle frontal and anterior cingulate gyrus as well as in anteromedial temporal lobe areas, the superior and medial temporal gyri, striatum, red nucleus, thalamus, and precerebellar nuclei. More advanced cases showed a third pattern (III) with involvement of the motor cortex, bulbar somatomotor neurons, and the spinal cord anterior horn, whereas cases with the highest burden of pathology (pattern IV) were characterized by pTDP-43 lesions in the visual cortex. We interpret the four neuropathological patterns in bvFTD to be consistent with the hypothesis that pTDP-43 pathology can spread sequentially and may propagate along axonal pathways. PMID:24407427

  5. Sequential distribution of pTDP-43 pathology in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD)

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Murray; Robinson, John L.; Toledo, Jon B.; Fang, Lubin; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Ludolph, Albert C.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Braak, Heiko; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2014-01-01

    We examined regional distribution patterns of phosphorylated 43-kDa TAr DNA-binding protein (pTDP-43) intraneuronal inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Immunohistochemistry was performed on 70 μm sections from FTLD-TDP autopsy cases (n = 39) presenting with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. Two main types of cortical pTDP-43 pathology emerged, characterized by either predominantly perikaryal pTDP-43 inclusions (cytoplasmic type, cFTLD) or long aggregates in dendrites (neuritic type, nFTLD). Cortical involvement in nFTLD was extensive and frequently reached occipital areas, whereas cases with cFTLD often involved bulbar somatomotor neurons and the spinal cord. We observed four patterns indicative of potentially sequential dissemination of pTDP-43: cases with the lowest burden of pathology (pattern I) were characterized by widespread pTDP-43 lesions in the orbital gyri, gyrus rectus, and amygdala. With increasing burden of pathology (pattern II) pTDP-43 lesions emerged in the middle frontal and anterior cingulate gyrus as well as in anteromedial temporal lobe areas, the superior and medial temporal gyri, striatum, red nucleus, thalamus, and precerebellar nuclei. More advanced cases showed a third pattern (III) with involvement of the motor cortex, bulbar somatomotor neurons, and the spinal cord anterior horn, whereas cases with the highest burden of pathology (pattern IV) were characterized by pTDP-43 lesions in the visual cortex. We interpret the four neuropathological patterns in bvFTD to be consistent with the hypothesis that pTDP-43 pathology can spread sequentially and may propagate along axonal pathways. PMID:24407427

  6. TDP-43 Proteinopathy and Motor Neuron Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Ann C.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Stern, Robert A.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Cantu, Robert C.; Kowall, Neil W.; Perl, Daniel P.; Hedley-Whyte, E. Tessa; Price, Bruce; Sullivan, Chris; Morin, Peter; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Wulff, Megan; Budson, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is increased in association with head injury. Repetitive head injury is also associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tauopathy characterized by neurofibrillary tangles throughout the brain in the relative absence of β-amyloid deposits. We examined 12 cases of CTE and, in 10, found a widespread TAR DNA-binding protein of approximately 43 kd (TDP-43) proteinopathy affecting the frontal and temporal cortices, medial temporal lobe, basal ganglia, diencephalon, and brainstem. Three athletes with CTE also developed a progressive motor neuron disease with profound weakness, atrophy, spasticity, and fasciculations several years before death. In these 3 cases, there were abundant TDP-43–positive inclusions and neurites in the spinal cord in addition to tau neurofibrillary changes, motor neuron loss, and corticospinal tract degeneration. The TDP-43 proteinopathy associated with CTE is similar to that found in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions, in that widespread regions of the brain are affected. Akin to frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions, in some individuals with CTE, the TDP-43 proteinopathy extends to involve the spinal cord and is associated with motor neuron disease. This is the first pathological evidence that repetitive head trauma experienced in collision sports might be associated with the development of a motor neuron disease. PMID:20720505

  7. Acute and chronically increased immunoreactivity to phosphorylation-independent but not pathological TDP-43 after a single traumatic brain injury in humans.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Victoria E; Stewart, William; Trojanowski, John Q; Smith, Douglas H

    2011-12-01

    The pathologic phosphorylation and sub-cellular translocation of neuronal transactive response-DNA binding protein (TDP-43) was identified as the major disease protein in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusions, now termed FTLD-TDP, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). More recently, TDP-43 proteinopathy has been reported in dementia pugilistica or chronic traumatic encephalopathy caused by repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI). While a single TBI has been linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease and an increased frequency of neurofibrillary tangles, TDP-43 proteinopathy has not been examined with survival following a single TBI. Using immunohistochemistry specific for both pathological phosphorylated TDP-43 (p-TDP-43) and phosphorylation-independent TDP-43 (pi-TDP-43), we examined acute (n = 23: Survival < 2 weeks) and long-term (n = 39; 1-47 years survival) survivors of a single TBI versus age-matched controls (n = 47). Multiple regions were examined including the hippocampus, medial temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and brainstem. No association was found between a history of single TBI and abnormally phosphorylated TDP-43 (p-TDP-43) inclusions. Specifically, just 3 of 62 TBI cases displayed p-TDP-43 pathology versus 2 of 47 control cases. However, while aggregates of p-TDP-43 were not increased acutely or long-term following TBI, immunoreactivity to phosphorylation-independent TDP-43 was commonly increased in the cytoplasm following TBI with both acute and long-term survival. Moreover, while single TBI can induce multiple long-term neurodegenerative changes, the absence of TDP-43 proteinopathy may indicate a fundamental difference in the processes induced following single TBI from those of repetitive TBI. PMID:22101322

  8. Cerebrospinal Fluid TDP-43 in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients with and without the C9ORF72 Hexanucleotide Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Junttila, Anna; Kuvaja, Mari; Hartikainen, Päivi; Siloaho, Maritta; Helisalmi, Seppo; Moilanen, Virpi; Kiviharju, Anna; Jansson, Lilja; Tienari, Pentti J.; Remes, Anne Marja; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    Background TDP-43 is the main protein component of ubiquitinated inclusions in a subgroup of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The C9ORF72 hexanucleotide expansion is one of the main mutations associated with TDP-43 pathology in FTLD and ALS. Our aim was to analyze cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) TDP-43 levels and Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in FTLD and ALS patients and to test whether the C9ORF72 expansion carrier status affects these variables. Methods The patient cohort consisted of 90 clinically well-characterized FTLD (n = 69) and ALS (n = 21) patients. There were 30 patients with the C9ORF72 expansion and 60 patients without the expansion. CSF TDP-43, AΒ1-42, t-tau, and phospho-tau levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits. Results There was no difference in CSF TDP-43 levels between the C9ORF72 expansion carriers and the noncarriers. CSF TDP-43 levels were higher in ALS patients than in FTLD patients, and this finding was independent of the C9ORF72 expansion carrier status. Males had significantly higher TDP-43 levels than females (p = 0.008 in the total cohort). Conclusion CSF TDP-43 does not seem to distinguish the C9ORF72 expansion carriers from noncarriers. However, higher CSF TDP-43 levels were detected in ALS than in FTLD, which might be an indicator of a more rapid progression of TDP-43 pathology in ALS. PMID:27195002

  9. Ubiquitinated, p62 immunopositive cerebellar cortical neuronal inclusions are evident across the spectrum of TDP-43 proteinopathies but are only rarely additionally immunopositive for phosphorylation-dependent TDP-43.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew; Maekawa, Satomi; Bodi, Istvan; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa

    2011-06-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP), frontotemporal lobar degeneration with motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTLD-MND/ALS) and MND/ALS are thought to represent a clinicopathological spectrum of TDP-43 proteinopathies. The cerebellum has been little studied in these conditions, probably because of the lack of cerebellar signs in most cases. We examined p62 immunohistochemistry on cerebellar sections from 43 TDP-43 proteinopathies (including cases of FTLD-TDP, FTLD-MND/ALS and MND/ALS) together with 72 cases of other neurodegenerative diseases, seven controls and three other disease conditions. In 11 of the TDP-43 proteinopathies (26%) there were numerous p62-positive cerebellar inclusions, predominantly within the granular layer, but also the molecular and Purkinje cell layer. Furthermore, only one of the remaining 82 cases (a familial tauopathy) showed similar p62 positivity. Immunohistochemistry for ubiquitin was positive in the granular layer inclusions. The immunohistochemistry for phosphorylation-independent TDP-43, hyperphosphorylated tau, α-synuclein, fusion sarcoma protein (FUS), and neurofilament was negative. In only one case (a case of FTLD-TDP) were the inclusions positive for phosphorylation-dependent TDP43 (p-TDP-43). Those TDP-43 proteinopathy cases that showed the cerebellar inclusions also tended to display other common features, such as a notable excess of p62 pathology when compared to TDP-43 pathology, especially within the pyramidal neurones of the hippocampus but also in some cases within the neocortex. The results suggest that p62-positive inclusions within the cerebellum are seen in a proportion of cases across the range of the TDP-43 proteinopathy spectrum and they appear to be relatively specific for this group of diseases. The question as to whether these cerebellar-positive cases represent a distinct subgroup remains to be answered. Furthermore, the relationship of the p62

  10. On the development of markers for pathological TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with and without dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geser, F.; O'Dwyer, L.; Hardiman, O.; Bede, P.; Bokde, A. L. W.; Prvulovic, D.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Hampel, H.

    2011-01-01

    Pathological 43-kDa transactive responsive sequence DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) has been recognized as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin positive, tau and α-synuclein negative inclusions (FTLD-U) and the transitional forms between these multisystem conditions. In order to develop TDP-43 into a successful ALS biomarker, the natural history of TDP-43 pathology needs to be characterized and the underlying pathophysiology established. Here we propose a spatial and temporal “two-axis” model of central nervous system vulnerability for TDP-43 linked degeneration and discuss recent studies on potential biomarkers related to pathological TDP-43 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, and skeletal muscle. The model includes the following “two arms”: First, a “motor neuron disease” or “spinal cord/brainstem to motor cortex” axis (with degeneration possibly ascending from the lower motor neurons to the upper motor neurons); and secondly, a “dementia” or “corticoid/allocortical to neocortex” axis (with a probable spread of TDP-43 linked degeneration from the mediotemporal lobe to wider mesocortical and neocortical brain areas). At the cellular level, there is a gradual disappearance of normal TDP-43 in the nucleus in combination with the formation of pathological aggregates in the cell body and cellular processes, which can also be used to identify the stage of the disease process. Moreover, TDP-43 lesions in subpial/subependymal or perivascular localizations have been noted in TDP-43 linked neurodegeneration, and this might account for increased CSF and blood TDP-43 levels through mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. PMID:21911035

  11. Drosophila TDP-43 dysfunction in glia and muscle cells cause cytological and behavioural phenotypes that characterize ALS and FTLD

    PubMed Central

    Diaper, Danielle C.; Adachi, Yoshitsugu; Lazarou, Luke; Greenstein, Max; Simoes, Fabio A.; Di Domenico, Angelique; Solomon, Daniel A.; Lowe, Simon; Alsubaie, Rawan; Cheng, Daryl; Buckley, Stephen; Humphrey, Dickon M.; Shaw, Christopher E.; Hirth, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by cytoplasmic aggregates and nuclear clearance of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). Studies in Drosophila, zebrafish and mouse demonstrate that the neuronal dysfunction of TDP-43 is causally related to disease formation. However, TDP-43 aggregates are also observed in glia and muscle cells, which are equally affected in ALS and FTLD; yet, it is unclear whether glia- or muscle-specific dysfunction of TDP-43 contributes to pathogenesis. Here, we show that similar to its human homologue, Drosophila TDP-43, Tar DNA-binding protein homologue (TBPH), is expressed in glia and muscle cells. Muscle-specific knockdown of TBPH causes age-related motor abnormalities, whereas muscle-specific gain of function leads to sarcoplasmic aggregates and nuclear TBPH depletion, which is accompanied by behavioural deficits and premature lethality. TBPH dysfunction in glia cells causes age-related motor deficits and premature lethality. In addition, both loss and gain of Drosophila TDP-43 alter mRNA expression levels of the glutamate transporters Excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) and EAAT2. Taken together, our results demonstrate that both loss and gain of TDP-43 function in muscle and glial cells can lead to cytological and behavioural phenotypes in Drosophila that also characterize ALS and FTLD and identify the glutamate transporters EAAT1/2 as potential direct targets of TDP-43 function. These findings suggest that together with neuronal pathology, glial- and muscle-specific TDP-43 dysfunction may directly contribute to the aetiology and progression of TDP-43-related ALS and FTLD. PMID:23727833

  12. Drosophila TDP-43 dysfunction in glia and muscle cells cause cytological and behavioural phenotypes that characterize ALS and FTLD.

    PubMed

    Diaper, Danielle C; Adachi, Yoshitsugu; Lazarou, Luke; Greenstein, Max; Simoes, Fabio A; Di Domenico, Angelique; Solomon, Daniel A; Lowe, Simon; Alsubaie, Rawan; Cheng, Daryl; Buckley, Stephen; Humphrey, Dickon M; Shaw, Christopher E; Hirth, Frank

    2013-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by cytoplasmic aggregates and nuclear clearance of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). Studies in Drosophila, zebrafish and mouse demonstrate that the neuronal dysfunction of TDP-43 is causally related to disease formation. However, TDP-43 aggregates are also observed in glia and muscle cells, which are equally affected in ALS and FTLD; yet, it is unclear whether glia- or muscle-specific dysfunction of TDP-43 contributes to pathogenesis. Here, we show that similar to its human homologue, Drosophila TDP-43, Tar DNA-binding protein homologue (TBPH), is expressed in glia and muscle cells. Muscle-specific knockdown of TBPH causes age-related motor abnormalities, whereas muscle-specific gain of function leads to sarcoplasmic aggregates and nuclear TBPH depletion, which is accompanied by behavioural deficits and premature lethality. TBPH dysfunction in glia cells causes age-related motor deficits and premature lethality. In addition, both loss and gain of Drosophila TDP-43 alter mRNA expression levels of the glutamate transporters Excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) and EAAT2. Taken together, our results demonstrate that both loss and gain of TDP-43 function in muscle and glial cells can lead to cytological and behavioural phenotypes in Drosophila that also characterize ALS and FTLD and identify the glutamate transporters EAAT1/2 as potential direct targets of TDP-43 function. These findings suggest that together with neuronal pathology, glial- and muscle-specific TDP-43 dysfunction may directly contribute to the aetiology and progression of TDP-43-related ALS and FTLD. PMID:23727833

  13. CDC7 inhibition blocks pathological TDP-43 phosphorylation and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liachko, Nicole F.; McMillan, Pamela J.; Guthrie, Chris R.; Bird, Thomas D.; Leverenz, James B.; Kraemer, Brian C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Kinase hyperactivity occurs in both neurodegenerative disease and cancer. Lesions containing hyperphosphorylated aggregated TDP-43 characterize amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions. Dual phosphorylation of TDP-43 at serines 409/410 drives neurotoxicity in disease models; therefore, TDP-43 specific kinases are candidate targets for intervention. Methods To find therapeutic targets for the prevention of TDP-43 phosphorylation, we assembled and screened a comprehensive RNA interference library targeting kinases in TDP-43 transgenic C. elegans. Results We show CDC7 robustly phosphorylates TDP-43 at pathological residues S409/410 in C. elegans, in vitro, and in human cell culture. In FTLD-TDP cases, CDC7 immunostaining overlaps with the phospho-TDP-43 pathology found in frontal cortex. Furthermore PHA767491, a small molecule inhibitor of CDC7, reduces TDP-43 phosphorylation and prevents TDP-43 dependent neurodegeneration in TDP-43 transgenic animals. Interpretation Taken together these data support CDC7 as a novel therapeutic target for TDP-43 proteinopathies including FTLD-TDP and ALS. PMID:23424178

  14. Selective occurrence of TDP-43-immunoreactive inclusions in the lower motor neurons in Machado-Joseph disease.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chun-Feng; Yamada, Mitsunori; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Yokoseki, Akio; Miki, Yukari; Hoshi, Yasuhiro; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Onodera, Osamu; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2009-10-01

    Pathological transactivation-responsive DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a component of ubiquitinated inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with motor neuron disease, as well as in sporadic and some forms of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To clarify whether pathological TDP-43 is present in other neurodegenerative diseases involving the motor neuron system, we immunohistochemically examined the brain and spinal cord affected by two CAG repeat (polyglutamine) diseases, Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), using polyclonal antibody against TDP-43. In all the MJD cases, TDP-43-immunoreactive (ir) neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), although few in number, were found only in the lower motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. TDP-43-ir NCIs appeared as linear wisp-like, skein-like, or thick, somewhat rod-like bodies. These inclusions were also visualized with antibodies against phosphoserines 409 and 410 of TDP-43, and ubiquitin, but were not recognized by antibody against expanded polyglutamine stretches or ataxin-3. The ultrastructure of the TDP-43-ir NCIs was similar to that of the inclusions seen in sporadic ALS, consisting of bundles of parallel filaments. None of the SBMA cases showed abnormal TDP-43 immunoreactivity in any of the regions examined. Immunoblot analysis failed to recognize hyperphosphorylated TDP-43 at ~23 kDa in two MJD cases examined. However, the immunohistochemical findings strongly suggested that in MJD, in addition to the polyglutamine-dependent disease process, TDP-43-related pathogenesis is associated with degeneration and death of the lower motor neurons. PMID:19526244

  15. The heat shock response plays an important role in TDP-43 clearance: evidence for dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han-Jou; Mitchell, Jacqueline C; Novoselov, Sergey; Miller, Jack; Nishimura, Agnes L; Scotter, Emma L; Vance, Caroline A; Cheetham, Michael E; Shaw, Christopher E

    2016-05-01

    Detergent-resistant, ubiquitinated and hyperphosphorylated Tar DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions are the pathological hallmark in ∼95% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and ∼60% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration cases. We sought to explore the role for the heat shock response in the clearance of insoluble TDP-43 in a cellular model of disease and to validate our findings in transgenic mice and human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis tissues. The heat shock response is a stress-responsive protective mechanism regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which increases the expression of chaperones that refold damaged misfolded proteins or facilitate their degradation. Here we show that manipulation of the heat shock response by expression of dominant active HSF1 results in a dramatic reduction of insoluble and hyperphosphorylated TDP-43 that enhances cell survival, whereas expression of dominant negative HSF1 leads to enhanced TDP-43 aggregation and hyperphosphorylation. To determine which chaperones were mediating TDP-43 clearance we over-expressed a range of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and identified DNAJB2a (encoded by DNAJB2, and also known as HSJ1a) as a potent anti-aggregation chaperone for TDP-43. DNAJB2a has a J domain, allowing it to interact with HSP70, and ubiquitin interacting motifs, which enable it to engage the degradation of its client proteins. Using functionally deleted DNAJB2a constructs we demonstrated that TDP-43 clearance was J domain-dependent and was not affected by ubiquitin interacting motif deletion or proteasome inhibition. This indicates that TDP-43 is maintained in a soluble state by DNAJB2a, leaving the total levels of TDP-43 unchanged. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the levels of HSF1 and heat shock proteins are significantly reduced in affected neuronal tissues from a TDP-43 transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and patients with

  16. The heat shock response plays an important role in TDP-43 clearance: evidence for dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Han-Jou; Mitchell, Jacqueline C.; Novoselov, Sergey; Miller, Jack; Nishimura, Agnes L.; Scotter, Emma L.; Vance, Caroline A.; Cheetham, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Detergent-resistant, ubiquitinated and hyperphosphorylated Tar DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions are the pathological hallmark in ∼95% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and ∼60% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration cases. We sought to explore the role for the heat shock response in the clearance of insoluble TDP-43 in a cellular model of disease and to validate our findings in transgenic mice and human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis tissues. The heat shock response is a stress-responsive protective mechanism regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which increases the expression of chaperones that refold damaged misfolded proteins or facilitate their degradation. Here we show that manipulation of the heat shock response by expression of dominant active HSF1 results in a dramatic reduction of insoluble and hyperphosphorylated TDP-43 that enhances cell survival, whereas expression of dominant negative HSF1 leads to enhanced TDP-43 aggregation and hyperphosphorylation. To determine which chaperones were mediating TDP-43 clearance we over-expressed a range of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and identified DNAJB2a (encoded by DNAJB2, and also known as HSJ1a) as a potent anti-aggregation chaperone for TDP-43. DNAJB2a has a J domain, allowing it to interact with HSP70, and ubiquitin interacting motifs, which enable it to engage the degradation of its client proteins. Using functionally deleted DNAJB2a constructs we demonstrated that TDP-43 clearance was J domain-dependent and was not affected by ubiquitin interacting motif deletion or proteasome inhibition. This indicates that TDP-43 is maintained in a soluble state by DNAJB2a, leaving the total levels of TDP-43 unchanged. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the levels of HSF1 and heat shock proteins are significantly reduced in affected neuronal tissues from a TDP-43 transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and patients with

  17. Interaction of RNA with a C-terminal fragment of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated TDP43 reduces cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Akira; Nakayama, Yusaku; Shibasaki, Ai; Taki, Ayami; Yuno, Sachiko; Takeda, Kayo; Yahara, Masao; Tanabe, Naoki; Kinjo, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating neurodegenerative disease, is formation of inclusion bodies (IBs) from misfolded proteins in neuronal cells. TAR RNA/DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP43) is an ALS-causative protein forming IBs in ALS patients. The relation between localization of the IBs and neurotoxicity remains largely unknown. We characterized aggregation of fluorescently tagged TDP43 and its carboxyl-terminal fragments (CTFs) by analytical fluorescence imaging techniques. Quantitative time-lapse analysis in individual live cells showed that fluorescent-protein-tagged TDP43 was cleaved and a 35 kDa TDP43 CTF (TDP35) formed ubiquitin (Ub)-negative cytoplasmic IBs. Although TDP35 formed mildly toxic Ub-negative IBs in the cytoplasm, TDP25, another type of a TDP43 CTF, efficiently formed sufficiently toxic Ub-positive IBs. One- or two-color fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS/FCCS) revealed that coaggregation of TDP25 with TDP43 was initiated by depletion of the RNA that binds to TDP25. Moreover, nuclear localization tagging TDP25 reduced the rate of neuronal cell death. These observations point to the need to elucidate the novel sequestration mechanism and details of the toxicity of the misfolded and aggregation-prone TDP43 CTFs (as well as the RNA binding and nuclear retention) in order to identify possible preventive interventions against ALS. PMID:26757674

  18. Reversible Behavioral Phenotypes in a Conditional Mouse Model of TDP-43 Proteinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Alfieri, Julio A.; Pino, Natalia S.

    2014-01-01

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) mislocalization and aggregation are hallmark features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We have previously shown in mice that inducible overexpression of a cytoplasmically localized form of TDP-43 (TDP-43-ΔNLS) in forebrain neurons evokes neuropathological changes that recapitulate several features of TDP-43 proteinopathies. Detailed behavioral phenotyping could provide further validation for its usage as a model for FTD. In the present study, we performed a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate motor, cognitive, and social phenotypes in this model. We found that transgene (Tg) induction by doxycycline removal at weaning led to motor abnormalities including hyperlocomotion in the open field test, impaired coordination and balance in the rotarod test, and increased spasticity as shown by a clasping phenotype. Cognitive assessment demonstrated impaired recognition and spatial memory, measured by novel object recognition and Y-maze tests. Remarkably, TDP-43-ΔNLS mice displayed deficits in social behavior, mimicking a key aspect of FTD. To determine whether these symptoms were reversible, we suppressed Tg expression for 14 d in 1.5-month-old mice showing an established behavioral phenotype but modest neurodegeneration and found that motor and cognitive deficits were ameliorated; however, social performance remained altered. When Tg expression was suppressed in 6.5-month-old mice showing overt neurodegeneration, motor deficits were irreversible. These results indicate that TDP-43-ΔNLS mice display several core behavioral features of FTD with motor neuron disease, possibly due to functional changes in surviving neurons, and might serve as a valuable tool to unveil the underlying mechanisms of this and other TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:25392493

  19. Elevated expression of TDP-43 in the forebrain of mice is sufficient to cause neurological and pathological phenotypes mimicking FTLD-U.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuen-Jer; Yang, Chun-Hung; Fang, Yen-Hsin; Cho, Kuan-Hung; Chien, Wei-Lin; Wang, Wei-Ting; Wu, Tzu-Wei; Lin, Ching-Po; Fu, Wen-Mei; Shen, Che-Kun James

    2010-08-01

    TDP-43 is a multifunctional DNA/RNA-binding factor that has been implicated in the regulation of neuronal plasticity. TDP-43 has also been identified as the major constituent of the neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) that are characteristic of a range of neurodegenerative diseases, including the frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin(+) inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have generated a FTLD-U mouse model (CaMKII-TDP-43 Tg) in which TDP-43 is transgenically overexpressed in the forebrain resulting in phenotypic characteristics mimicking those of FTLD-U. In particular, the transgenic (Tg) mice exhibit impaired learning/memory, progressive motor dysfunction, and hippocampal atrophy. The cognitive and motor impairments are accompanied by reduced levels of the neuronal regulators phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein and increased levels of gliosis in the brains of the Tg mice. Moreover, cells with TDP-43(+), ubiquitin(+) NCIs and TDP-43-deleted nuclei appear in the Tg mouse brains in an age-dependent manner. Our data provide direct evidence that increased levels of TDP-43 protein in the forebrain is sufficient to lead to the formation of TDP-43(+), ubiquitin(+) NCIs and neurodegeneration. This FTLD-U mouse model should be valuable for the mechanistic analysis of the role of TDP-43 in the pathogenesis of FTLD-U and for the design of effective therapeutic approaches of the disease. PMID:20660618

  20. TDP-43 modification in the hSOD1(G93A) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Cai, MuDan; Lee, Kang-Woo; Choi, Sun-Mi; Yang, Eun Jin

    2015-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult onset disease that produces gradual motor neuron cell death in the spinal cord (SP). Recently, transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), a critical component of insoluble ubiquitinated inclusions, has received attention in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and ALS. TDP-43 modifications, including hyperphosphorylation, truncation, and ubiquitination, have been reported in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). However, the pathogenic mechanism of TDP-43 in ALS is unclear. To determine the association between TDP-43 and neurotoxicity in an ALS model, we characterized TDP-43 expression in hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice (Tg) as an ALS animal model. TDP-43 was expressed by astrocytes and microglial cells in the SP of hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice. In addition, the expression of phosphorylated and truncated TDP-43 increased in the SP of ALS mice compared with age-matched non-Tg. Furthermore, the serum iron concentration and expression of transferrin, a homeostasis-related iron protein, in the SP were increased relative to non-Tg. The protein expression level of HO-1 related to oxidative stress was increased in the SP of hSOD1(G93A) Tg relative to non-Tg. We show that an increase of TDP-43 modification, including phosphorylation or truncation, associates with dysfunctional iron homeostasis and an increase in oxidative stress in the SP of symptomatic hSOD1(G93A) Tg. These findings suggest that modified TDP-43 may be involved in motor neuron death in the SP of a SOD1(G93A)-expressing familial ALS (fALS) animal model. PMID:25213598

  1. A high-fat jelly diet restores bioenergetic balance and extends lifespan in the presence of motor dysfunction and lumbar spinal cord motor neuron loss in TDP-43A315T mutant C57BL6/J mice.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Karen S; Halang, Luise; Woods, Ina; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2016-09-01

    Transgenic transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) mice expressing the A315T mutation under control of the murine prion promoter progressively develop motor function deficits and are considered a new model for the study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, premature sudden death resulting from intestinal obstruction halts disease phenotype progression in 100% of C57BL6/J congenic TDP-43(A315T) mice. Similar to our recent results in SOD1(G93A) mice, TDP-43(A315T) mice fed a standard pellet diet showed increased 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation at postnatal day (P)80, indicating elevated energetic stress during disease progression. We therefore investigated the effects of a high-fat jelly diet on bioenergetic status and lifespan in TDP-43(A315T) mice. In contrast to standard pellet-fed mice, mice fed high-fat jelly showed no difference in AMPK activation up to P120 and decreased phosphorylation of acetly-CoA carboxylase (ACC) at early-stage time points. Exposure to a high-fat jelly diet prevented sudden death and extended survival, allowing development of a motor neuron disease phenotype with significantly decreased body weight from P80 onward that was characterised by deficits in Rotarod abilities and stride length measurements. Development of this phenotype was associated with a significant motor neuron loss as assessed by Nissl staining in the lumbar spinal cord. Our work suggests that a high-fat jelly diet improves the pre-clinical utility of the TDP-43(A315T) model by extending lifespan and allowing the motor neuron disease phenotype to progress, and indicates the potential benefit of this diet in TDP-43-associated ALS. PMID:27491077

  2. Early retinal neurodegeneration and impaired Ran-mediated nuclear import of TDP-43 in progranulin-deficient FTLD

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Michael E.; Taubes, Alice; Chen, Robert; Miller, Bruce L.; Sephton, Chantelle F.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.; Minami, Sakura; Boscardin, John; Martens, Lauren Herl; Seeley, William W.; Yu, Gang; Herz, Joachim; Filiano, Anthony J.; Arrant, Andrew E.; Roberson, Erik D.; Kraft, Timothy W.; Farese, Robert V.; Green, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the most common cause of dementia in people under 60 yr of age and is pathologically associated with mislocalization of TAR DNA/RNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in approximately half of cases (FLTD-TDP). Mutations in the gene encoding progranulin (GRN), which lead to reduced progranulin levels, are a significant cause of familial FTLD-TDP. Grn-KO mice were developed as an FTLD model, but lack cortical TDP-43 mislocalization and neurodegeneration. Here, we report retinal thinning as an early disease phenotype in humans with GRN mutations that precedes dementia onset and an age-dependent retinal neurodegenerative phenotype in Grn-KO mice. Retinal neuron loss in Grn-KO mice is preceded by nuclear depletion of TDP-43 and accompanied by reduced expression of the small GTPase Ran, which is a master regulator of nuclear import required for nuclear localization of TDP-43. In addition, TDP-43 regulates Ran expression, likely via binding to its 3′-UTR. Augmented expression of Ran in progranulin-deficient neurons restores nuclear TDP-43 levels and improves their survival. Our findings establish retinal neurodegeneration as a new phenotype in progranulin-deficient FTLD, and suggest a pathological loop involving reciprocal loss of Ran and nuclear TDP-43 as an underlying mechanism. PMID:25155018

  3. On the development of markers for pathological TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with and without dementia.

    PubMed

    Geser, F; Prvulovic, D; O'Dwyer, L; Hardiman, O; Bede, P; Bokde, A L W; Trojanowski, J Q; Hampel, H

    2011-12-01

    Pathological 43-kDa transactive response sequence DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) has been recognized as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin positive, tau and α-synuclein negative inclusions (FTLD-U) and the transitional forms between these multisystem conditions. In order to develop TDP-43 into a successful ALS biomarker, the natural history of TDP-43 pathology needs to be characterized and the underlying pathophysiology established. Here we propose a spatial and temporal "two-axes" model of central nervous system vulnerability for TDP-43 linked degeneration and review recent studies on potential biomarkers related to pathological TDP-43 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, and skeletal muscle. The model includes the following two arms: Firstly, a "motor neuron disease" or "spinal cord/brainstem to motor cortex" axis (with degeneration possibly ascending from the lower motor neurons to the upper motor neurons); and secondly, a "dementia" or "corticoid/allocortex to neocortex" axis (with a probable spread of TDP-43 linked degeneration from the mediotemporal lobe to wider mesocortical and neocortical brain areas). At the cellular level, there is a gradual disappearance of normal TDP-43 in the nucleus in combination with the formation of pathological aggregates in the cell body and cellular processes, which can also be used to identify the stage of the disease process. Moreover, TDP-43 lesions in subpial/subependymal or perivascular localizations have been noted, and this might account for increased CSF and blood TDP-43 levels through mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. PMID:21911035

  4. Methylene blue protects against TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity in C. elegans and D. rerio.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Patten, Shunmoogum A; Ciura, Sorana; Maios, Claudia; Therrien, Martine; Drapeau, Pierre; Kabashi, Edor; Parker, J Alex

    2012-01-01

    The DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are found in protein aggregates in a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related dementia, but little is known about the neurotoxic mechanisms. We have generated Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish animal models expressing mutant human TDP-43 (A315T or G348C) or FUS (S57Δ or R521H) that reflect certain aspects of ALS including motor neuron degeneration, axonal deficits, and progressive paralysis. To explore the potential of our humanized transgenic C. elegans and zebrafish in identifying chemical suppressors of mutant TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity, we tested three compounds with potential neuroprotective properties: lithium chloride, methylene blue and riluzole. We identified methylene blue as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity in both our models. Our results indicate that methylene blue can rescue toxic phenotypes associated with mutant TDP-43 and FUS including neuronal dysfunction and oxidative stress. PMID:22848727

  5. Methylene Blue Protects against TDP-43 and FUS Neuronal Toxicity in C. elegans and D. rerio

    PubMed Central

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Patten, Shunmoogum A.; Ciura, Sorana; Maios, Claudia; Therrien, Martine; Drapeau, Pierre; Kabashi, Edor; Parker, J. Alex

    2012-01-01

    The DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are found in protein aggregates in a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related dementia, but little is known about the neurotoxic mechanisms. We have generated Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish animal models expressing mutant human TDP-43 (A315T or G348C) or FUS (S57Δ or R521H) that reflect certain aspects of ALS including motor neuron degeneration, axonal deficits, and progressive paralysis. To explore the potential of our humanized transgenic C. elegans and zebrafish in identifying chemical suppressors of mutant TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity, we tested three compounds with potential neuroprotective properties: lithium chloride, methylene blue and riluzole. We identified methylene blue as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity in both our models. Our results indicate that methylene blue can rescue toxic phenotypes associated with mutant TDP-43 and FUS including neuronal dysfunction and oxidative stress. PMID:22848727

  6. Heterogeneity of cerebral TDP-43 pathology in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Evidence for clinico-pathologic subtypes.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Ryoko; Tada, Mari; Shiga, Atsushi; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Konno, Takuya; Sato, Tomoe; Nozaki, Hiroaki; Kato, Taisuke; Horie, Masao; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Onodera, Osamu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are types of major TDP-43 (43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein) proteinopathy. Cortical TDP-43 pathology has been analyzed in detail in cases of FTLD-TDP, but is still unclear in cases of ALS. We attempted to clarify the cortical and subcortical TDP-43 pathology in Japanese cases of sporadic ALS (n = 96) using an antibody specific to phosphorylated TDP-43 (pTDP-43). The cases were divided into two groups: those without pTDP-43-positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in the hippocampal dentate granule cells (Type 1, n = 63), and those with such inclusions (Type 2, n = 33). Furthermore, the Type 2 cases were divided into two subgroups based on semi-quantitative estimation of pTDP-43-positive dystrophic neurites (DNs) in the temporal neocortex: Type 2a (accompanied by no or few DNs, n = 22) and Type 2b (accompanied by abundant DNs, n = 11). Clinico-pathologic analysis revealed that cognitive impairment was a feature in patients with Type 2a and Type 2b, but not in those with Type 1, and that importantly, Type 2b is a distinct subtype characterized by a poor prognosis despite the less severe loss of lower motor neurons, the unusual subcortical dendrospinal pTDP-43 pathology, and more prominent glial involvement in cortical pTDP-43 pathology than other two groups. Considering the patient survival time and severity of motor neuron loss in each group, transition from Type 1 to Type 2, or from Type 2a to Type 2b during the disease course appeared unlikely. Therefore, each of these three groups was regarded as an independent subtype. PMID:27338935

  7. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia and beyond: the TDP-43 diseases

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lage, Maria; Kwong, Linda K.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the significance of pathological 43-kDa transactivating responsive sequence DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) for human disease has been recognized in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin positive inclusions (FTLD-U), a number of publications have emerged reporting on this pathology in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Given the heterogeneous and, in part, conflicting nature of the recent findings, we here review pathological TDP-43 and its relationship to human disease with a special focus on ALS and FTLD-U. To this end, we propose a classification scheme in which pathological TDP-43 is the major disease defining pathology in one group, or is present in addition to other neurodegenerative hallmark pathologies in a second category. We conclude that the TDP-43 proteinopathies represent a novel class of neurodegenerative disorders akin to α-synucleinopathies and tauopathies, with the concept of ALS and FTLD-U to be widened to a broad clinico-pathological multisystem disease, i.e., TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:19271105

  8. TDP-43 and FUS/TLS: emerging roles in RNA processing and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Cleveland, Don W.

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are neurodegenerative diseases with clinical and pathological overlap. Landmark discoveries of mutations in the transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) and fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS) as causative of ALS and FTLD, combined with the abnormal aggregation of these proteins, have initiated a shifting paradigm for the underlying pathogenesis of multiple neurodegenerative diseases. TDP-43 and FUS/TLS are both RNA/DNA-binding proteins with striking structural and functional similarities. Their association with ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases is redirecting research efforts toward understanding the role of RNA processing regulation in neurodegeneration. PMID:20400460

  9. Phosphorylated TDP-43 in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and ALS

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Masato; Arai, Tetsuaki; Nonaka, Takashi; Kametani, Fuyuki; Yoshida, Mari; Hashizume, Yoshio; Beach, Thomas G.; Buratti, Emanuele; Baralle, Francisco; Morita, Mitsuya; Nakano, Imaharu; Oda, Tatsuro; Tsuchiya, Kuniaki; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2009-01-01

    Objective TDP-43 is deposited as cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in brains of subjects with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Previous studies reported that abnormal phosphorylation takes place in deposited TDP-43. The aim of this study was to identify the phosphorylation sites and responsible kinases, and to clarify the pathological significance of phosphorylation of TDP-43. Methods We generated multiple antibodies specific to phosphorylated TDP-43 by immunizing phosphopeptides of TDP-43, and analyzed FTLD-U and ALS brains by immunohistochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy and immunoblots. Additionally, we performed investigations aimed at identifying the responsible kinases and we assessed the effects of phosphorylation on TDP-43 oligomerization and fibrillization. Results We identified multiple phosphorylation sites in carboxyl-terminal regions of deposited TDP-43. Phosphorylation-specific antibodies stained more inclusions than antibodies to ubiquitin and, unlike existing commercially-available anti-TDP-43 antibodies, did not stain normal nuclei. Ultrastructurally, these antibodies labeled abnormal fibers of 15 nm diameter, and on immunoblots recognized hyperphosphorylated TDP-43 at 45 kDa, with additional 22–28 kDa fragments in sarkosyl-insoluble fractions from FTLD-U and ALS brains. The phosphorylated epitopes were generated by casein kinase 1 and 2, and phosphorylation led to increased oligomerization and fibrillization of TDP-43. Interpretation These results suggest that phosphorylated TDP-43 is a major component of the inclusions, and that abnormal phosphorylation of TDP-43 is a critical step in the pathogenesis of FTLD-U and ALS. Phosphorylation-specific antibodies will be powerful tools for the investigation of these disorders. PMID:18546284

  10. TDP-43 affects splicing profiles and isoform production of genes involved in the apoptotic and mitotic cellular pathways

    PubMed Central

    De Conti, Laura; Akinyi, Maureen V.; Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Romano, Maurizio; Baralle, Marco; Buratti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, high-throughput screening analyses have broadly defined the RNA cellular targets of TDP-43, a nuclear factor involved in neurodegeneration. A common outcome of all these studies is that changing the expression levels of this protein can alter the expression of several hundred RNAs within cells. What still remains to be clarified is which changes represent direct cellular targets of TDP-43 or just secondary variations due to the general role played by this protein in RNA metabolism. Using an HTS-based splicing junction analysis we identified at least six bona fide splicing events that are consistent with being controlled by TDP-43. Validation of the data, both in neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines demonstrated that TDP-43 substantially alters the levels of isoform expression in four genes potentially important for neuropathology: MADD/IG20, STAG2, FNIP1 and BRD8. For MADD/IG20 and STAG2, these changes could also be confirmed at the protein level. These alterations were also observed in a cellular model that successfully mimics TDP-43 loss of function effects following its aggregation. Most importantly, our study demonstrates that cell cycle alterations induced by TDP-43 knockdown can be recovered by restoring the STAG2, an important component of the cohesin complex, normal splicing profile. PMID:26261209

  11. An optimized InCell Western screening technique identifies hexachlorophene as a novel potent TDP43 targeting drug.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Malathi; Peralta, Diego A; Gibson, Chelsea; Zitnyar, Ashley; Jinwal, Umesh K

    2015-08-10

    TAR DNA binding protein (TDP43) is a DNA- and RNA-binding protein that is implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders termed as "TDP43 proteinopathies" including Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal lobe dementia (FTLD). We have developed an InCell Western (ICW) technique for screening TDP targeting drugs in 96 well plates. We tested 281 compounds and identified a novel compound hexachlorophene (referred to as B10) that showed potent reduction in TDP43 levels. The effect of B10 on TDP protein level was validated in two different cellular models: endogenous TDP43 expressing N9 microglial cells and TDP43-over-expressing HEK293 and HeLa cells. We also analyzed effect of B10 on various pathological forms of TDP such as the C25 cleaved fragment that localizes to the cytosol, insoluble high molecular weight species, and ALS-linked mutants. Our data suggest that B10 effectively reduces all forms of TDP. Overall, our data suggest that B10 could serve as a potential drug molecule for the treatment of AD, ALS and other TDP43 proteinopathies. PMID:25987361

  12. Selective Forelimb Impairment in Rats Expressing a Pathological TDP-43 25 kDa C-terminal Fragment to Mimic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dayton, Robert D; Gitcho, Michael A; Orchard, Elysse A; Wilson, Jon D; Wang, David B; Cain, Cooper D; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Petrucelli, Leonard; Mathis, J Michael; Klein, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Pathological inclusions containing transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) are common in several neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 normally localizes predominantly to the nucleus, but during disease progression, it mislocalizes to the cytoplasm. We expressed TDP-43 in rats by an adeno-associated virus (AAV9) gene transfer method that transduces neurons throughout the central nervous system (CNS). To mimic the aberrant cytoplasmic TDP-43 found in disease, we expressed a form of TDP-43 with mutations in the nuclear localization signal sequence (TDP-NLS). The TDP-NLS was detected in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of transduced neurons. Unlike wild-type TDP-43, expression of TDP-NLS did not induce mortality. However, the TDP-NLS induced disease-relevant motor impairments over 24 weeks. We compared the TDP-NLS to a 25 kDa C-terminal proaggregatory fragment of TDP-43 (TDP-25). The clinical phenotype of forelimb impairment was pronounced with the TDP-25 form, supporting a role of this C-terminal fragment in pathogenesis. The results advance previous rodent models by inducing cytoplasmic expression of TDP-43 in the spinal cord, and the non-lethal phenotype enabled long-term study. Approaching a more relevant disease state in an animal model that more closely mimics underlying mechanisms in human disease could unlock our ability to develop therapeutics. PMID:23689600

  13. TDP-43 and ubiquitinated cytoplasmic aggregates in sporadic ALS are low frequency and widely distributed in the lower motor neuron columns independent of disease spread.

    PubMed

    Bodansky, Aaron; Kim, Jae Mun Hugo; Tempest, Lynne; Velagapudi, Amit; Libby, Ryan; Ravits, John

    2010-05-01

    Ubiqitinated and TDP-43 immunoreactive cytoplasmic aggregates are hallmark features of ALS molecular pathology. Since clinically most ALS begins focally and advances contiguously, it is important to characterize their distribution. Our objective was to determine the extent and distribution of TDP-43 immunoreactive aggregates in the lower motor neuron columns as a function of disease onset, and to correlate ubiquitinated with TDP-43 aggregates in the lumbar region. We examined TDP-43 cytoplasmic aggregates at four separate neuraxis levels - hypoglossal nucleus and cervical, thoracic, and lumbar anterior horns - in five controls and 20 sporadic ALS nervous systems from patients whose disease began in various sites, i.e. five bulbar, five arm, five trunk, and five leg onsets. We correlated ubiquitinated to TDP-43 aggregates on adjacent histological sections for the lumbar regions. We found that TDP-43 cytoplasmic aggregates are seen in about 8% of motor neurons but there is marked variability between nervous systems, ranging from 0.4% to 20.6%. The aggregates are uniformly distributed within individual nervous systems. There is no obvious correlation between site of disease onset and rate of spread. Almost all ubiquitinated aggregates correlate to TDP-43 aggregates. Thus, TDP-43 immunoreactive cytoplasmic aggregates have a low overall average frequency that does not correlate with either disease course or clinical spread and is the prime ubiquitinated protein. PMID:20225928

  14. TDP-43 is a component of ubiquitin-positive tau-negative inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Tetsuaki . E-mail: arai@prit.go.jp; Hasegawa, Masato . E-mail: masato@prit.go.jp; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Ikeda, Kenji; Nonaka, Takashi; Mori, Hiroshi; Mann, David; Tsuchiya, Kuniaki; Yoshida, Mari; Hashizume, Yoshio; Oda, Tatsuro

    2006-12-22

    Ubiquitin-positive tau-negative neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions and dystrophic neurites are common pathological features in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with or without symptoms of motor neuron disease and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Using biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses, we have identified a TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), a nuclear factor that functions in regulating transcription and alternative splicing, as a component of these structures in FTLD. Furthermore, skein-like inclusions, neuronal intranuclear inclusions, and glial inclusions in the spinal cord of ALS patients are also positive for TDP-43. Dephosphorylation treatment of the sarkosyl insoluble fraction has shown that abnormal phosphorylation takes place in accumulated TDP-43. The common occurrence of intracellular accumulations of TDP-43 supports the hypothesis that these disorders represent a clinicopathological entity of a single disease, and suggests that they can be newly classified as a proteinopathy of TDP-43.

  15. A molecular mechanism realizing sequence-specific recognition of nucleic acids by TDP-43

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yoh; Fukuoka, Mami; Nagasawa, Kenichi; Nakagome, Kenta; Shimizu, Hideaki; Mukaiyama, Atsushi; Akiyama, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a DNA/RNA-binding protein containing two consecutive RNA recognition motifs (RRM1 and RRM2) in tandem. Functional abnormality of TDP-43 has been proposed to cause neurodegeneration, but it remains obscure how the physiological functions of this protein are regulated. Here, we show distinct roles of RRM1 and RRM2 in the sequence-specific substrate recognition of TDP-43. RRM1 was found to bind a wide spectrum of ssDNA sequences, while no binding was observed between RRM2 and ssDNA. When two RRMs are fused in tandem as in native TDP-43, the fused construct almost exclusively binds ssDNA with a TG-repeat sequence. In contrast, such sequence-specificity was not observed in a simple mixture of RRM1 and RRM2. We thus propose that the spatial arrangement of multiple RRMs in DNA/RNA binding proteins provides steric effects on the substrate-binding site and thereby controls the specificity of its substrate nucleotide sequences. PMID:26838063

  16. High TDP43 expression is required for TRIM16-induced inhibition of cancer cell growth and correlated with good prognosis of neuroblastoma and breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Patrick Y; Tan, Owen; Liu, Bing; Trahair, Toby; Liu, Tao; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray D; Marshall, Glenn M; Cheung, Belamy B

    2016-05-01

    Tripartite Motif-containing protein 16 (TRIM16) is a member of a large family of tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins, that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple cancers. However, the mechanism by which TRIM16 acts as a tumour suppressor is currently unknown. We used the versatile yeast two-hybrid assay on a cDNA library from human testes, which has relative high TRIM16 expression, to identify potential TRIM16-binding proteins. We identified transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP43) as a novel TRIM16 binding protein. Co-immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that TDP43 bound TRIM16 in neuroblastoma and breast cancer cells. Enforced over-expression of TRIM16 increased the protein half-life of TDP43, through the inhibition of the proteosomal degradation pathway. High levels of TRIM16 and TDP43 are associated with good prognosis in both human neuroblastoma and breast cancer tissues. Importantly, we found TDP43 expression was required for TRIM16-induced inhibition of neuroblastoma and breast cancer cell growth and the repressive effect of TRIM16 on cell cycle regulatory proteins, E2F1 and pRb. Taken together, our data suggest that TRIM16 and TDP43 are both good prognosis indicators; also we showed that TRIM16 inhibits cancer cell viability by a novel mechanism involving interaction and stabilisation of TDP43 with consequent effects on E2F1 and pRb proteins. PMID:26902425

  17. Futsch/MAP1B mRNA Is a Translational Target of TDP-43 and Is Neuroprotective in a Drosophila Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Alyssa N.; Siddegowda, Bhavani Bagevalu; Estes, Patricia S.; Johannesmeyer, Jeffrey; Kovalik, Tina; Daniel, Scott G.; Pearson, Antony; Bowser, Robert

    2014-01-01

    TDP-43 is an RNA-binding protein linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that is known to regulate the splicing, transport, and storage of specific mRNAs into stress granules. Although TDP-43 has been shown to interact with translation factors, its role in protein synthesis remains unclear, and no in vivo translation targets have been reported to date. Here we provide evidence that TDP-43 associates with futsch mRNA in a complex and regulates its expression at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in Drosophila. In the context of TDP-43-induced proteinopathy, there is a significant reduction of futsch mRNA at the NMJ compared with motor neuron cell bodies where we find higher levels of transcript compared with controls. TDP-43 also leads to a significant reduction in Futsch protein expression at the NMJ. Polysome fractionations coupled with quantitative PCR experiments indicate that TDP-43 leads to a futsch mRNA shift from actively translating polysomes to nontranslating ribonuclear protein particles, suggesting that in addition to its effect on localization, TDP-43 also regulates the translation of futsch mRNA. We also show that futsch overexpression is neuroprotective by extending life span, reducing TDP-43 aggregation, and suppressing ALS-like locomotor dysfunction as well as NMJ abnormalities linked to microtubule and synaptic stabilization. Furthermore, the localization of MAP1B, the mammalian homolog of Futsch, is altered in ALS spinal cords in a manner similar to our observations in Drosophila motor neurons. Together, our results suggest a microtubule-dependent mechanism in motor neuron disease caused by TDP-43-dependent alterations in futsch mRNA localization and translation in vivo. PMID:25429138

  18. Aggregation of the 35-kDa fragment of TDP-43 causes formation of cytoplasmic inclusions and alteration of RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Che, Mei-Xia; Jiang, Ya-Jun; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Lei-Lei; Hu, Hong-Yu

    2011-07-01

    TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is a nuclear factor functioning in RNA processing. It is also a major deposited protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin (FTLD-U). To understand the mechanism underlying the inclusion body formation and possible functional alteration, we studied some TDP-43 fragments and their effects on RNA processing in cell models. The results show that the 35-kDa fragment of TDP-43 (namely TDP-35, residues 90-414), but not TDP-25A (184-414), is capable of forming cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and altering pre-mRNA splicing. The inclusions formed by TDP-35 can also recruit full-length TDP-43 to cytoplasmic deposition from functionally nuclear localization. The in vitro studies demonstrate that TDP-35, rather than TDP-43 and TDP-25A, is prone to aggregation, and it further serves as a seed to facilitate aggregation of full-length TDP-43. This suggests that fragmentation of TDP-43 leads to cellular redistribution, inclusion body formation, and altered RNA processing, which are implicated in the molecular pathogenesis of ALS and FTLD. PMID:21450909

  19. Structural insights into the multi-determinant aggregation of TDP-43 in motor neuron-like cells.

    PubMed

    Bozzo, F; Salvatori, I; Iacovelli, F; Mirra, A; Rossi, S; Cozzolino, M; Falconi, M; Valle, C; Carrì, M T

    2016-10-01

    TDP-43 is aggregated in patients with ALS and FLTD through mechanisms still incompletely understood. Since aggregation in the cytosol is most probably responsible for the delocalization and loss of proper RNA-binding function of TDP-43 in the nucleus, interception of the formation of aggregates may represent a useful therapeutic option. In this study, we investigated the relative importance of the N-terminal and C-terminal moieties of TDP-43 in the aggregation process and the weight of each of the six cysteine residues in determining unfolding and aggregation of the different domains. We report that cytoplasmic inclusions formed by WT and mutant TDP-43 in motor neuron-like NSC34 cells are redox-sensitive only in part, and contain at least two components, i.e. oligomers and large aggregates, that are made of different molecular species. The two N-terminal cysteine residues contribute to the seeding for the first step in oligomerization, which is then accomplished by mechanisms depending on the four cysteines in the RNA-recognition motifs. Cysteine-independent large aggregates contain unfolded isoforms of the protein, held together by unspecific hydrophobic interactions. Interestingly, truncated isoforms are entrapped exclusively in oligomers. Ab initio modeling of TDP-43 structure, molecular dynamics and molecular docking analysis indicate a differential accessibility of cysteine residues that contributes to aggregation propensity. We propose a model of TDP-43 aggregation involving cysteine-dependent and cysteine-independent stages that may constitute a starting point to devise strategies counteracting the formation of inclusions in TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:27317832

  20. Therapeutic modulation of eIF2α phosphorylation rescues TDP-43 toxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Jun; Raphael, Alya R; LaDow, Eva S; McGurk, Leeanne; Weber, Ross A; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Finkbeiner, Steven; Gitler, Aaron D; Bonini, Nancy M

    2014-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, late-onset neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting motor neurons. A unifying feature of many proteins associated with ALS, including TDP-43 and ataxin-2, is that they localize to stress granules. Unexpectedly, we found that genes that modulate stress granules are strong modifiers of TDP-43 toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster. eIF2α phosphorylation is upregulated by TDP-43 toxicity in flies, and TDP-43 interacts with a central stress granule component, polyA-binding protein (PABP). In human ALS spinal cord neurons, PABP accumulates abnormally, suggesting that prolonged stress granule dysfunction may contribute to pathogenesis. We investigated the efficacy of a small molecule inhibitor of eIF2α phosphorylation in ALS models. Treatment with this inhibitor mitigated TDP-43 toxicity in flies and mammalian neurons. These findings indicate that the dysfunction induced by prolonged stress granule formation might contribute directly to ALS and that compounds that mitigate this process may represent a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:24336168

  1. Therapeutic modulation of eIF2α-phosphorylation rescues TDP-43 toxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Jun; Raphael, Alya R.; LaDow, Eva S.; McGurk, Leeanne; Weber, Ross; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Finkbeiner, Steven; Gitler, Aaron D.; Bonini, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, late-onset neurodegenerative disease primarily impacting motor neurons. A unifying feature of many proteins associated with ALS, including TDP-43 and Ataxin-2, is that they localize to stress granules. Unexpectedly, we found that genes that modulate stress granules are striking modifiers of TDP-43 toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster, eIF2α phosphorylation is upregulated by TDP-43 toxicity in flies, and TDP-43 interacts with a central stress granule component polyA binding protein (PABP). In human ALS spinal cord neurons, PABP accumulates abnormally, suggesting that prolonged stress granule dysfunction may contribute to pathogenesis. We investigated the efficacy of a small molecule inhibitor of eIF2α-phosphorylation in ALS models. This treatment mitigated TDP-43 toxicity in flies and mammalian neurons. These findings indicate that dysfunction induced by prolonged stress granule formation may contribute directly to ALS and that compounds that mitigate this process may represent a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:24336168

  2. Distinct partitioning of ALS associated TDP-43, FUS and SOD1 mutants into cellular inclusions

    PubMed Central

    Farrawell, Natalie E.; Lambert-Smith, Isabella A.; Warraich, Sadaf T.; Blair, Ian P.; Saunders, Darren N.; Hatters, Danny M.; Yerbury, Justin J.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease associated with protein misfolding and aggregation. Most cases are characterized by TDP-43 positive inclusions, while a minority of familial ALS cases are instead FUS and SOD1 positive respectively. Cells can generate inclusions of variable type including previously characterized aggresomes, IPOD or JUNQ structures depending on the misfolded protein. SOD1 invariably forms JUNQ inclusions but it remains unclear whether other ALS protein aggregates arise as one of these previously described inclusion types or form unique structures. Here we show that FUS variably partitioned to IPOD, JUNQ or alternate structures, contain a mobile fraction, were not microtubule dependent and initially did not contain ubiquitin. TDP-43 inclusions formed in a microtubule independent manner, did not contain a mobile fraction but variably colocalized to JUNQ inclusions and another alternate structure. We conclude that the RNA binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS do not consistently fit the currently characterised inclusion models suggesting that cells have a larger repertoire for generating inclusions than currently thought, and imply that toxicity in ALS does not stem from a particular aggregation process or aggregate structure. PMID:26293199

  3. Phosphorylated TDP-43 pathology and hippocampal sclerosis in progressive supranuclear palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Osamu; Davidson, Yvonne; Bigio, Eileen H.; Ishizu, Hideki; Terada, Seishi; Arai, Tetsuaki; Hasegawa, Masato; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Sikkink, Stephen; Pickering-Brown, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    TDP-43 is characteristically accumulated in TDP-43 proteinopathies such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration and motor neurone disease, but is also present in some tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease, argyrophilic grain disease, and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). However, several studies have suggested that cases of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) lack TDP-43 pathology. We have therefore examined limbic regions of the brain in 19 PSP cases, as well as in 12 CBD cases, using phosphorylation-dependent anti-TDP-43 antibodies. We observed TDP-43-positive inclusions in five PSP cases (26%), as well as in two CBD cases (17%). The amygdala and hippocampal dentate gyrus were most frequently affected in PSP. Regional tau burden tended to be higher in TDP-43-positive PSP cases, and a significant correlation between tau and TDP-43 burden was noted in the occipitotemporal gyrus. Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) was found in 3/5 TDP-43-positive PSP cases, but HS was significantly more frequent in TDP-43-positive than TDP-43 negative PSP cases. Dementia was present in 13/19 (58%) of the PSP cases, in 4/5 TDP-43-positive cases, in all 3 TDP-43-positive cases with HS, in 1/2 TDP-43-positive cases without HS, and 7/14 cases lacking both. TDP-43 and tau were frequently colocalized in the amygdala, but not in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Immunoblotting demonstrated the characteristic (for TDP-43 proteinopathies) 45 and 25 kDa bands and high molecular weight smear in the TDP-43-positive PSP case. These findings suggest that (1) although PSP is nominally a tauopathy, pathological TDP-43 can accumulate in the limbic system in some cases, and (2) TDP-43 pathology may be concurrent with HS. PMID:20512649

  4. Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: two pathological patterns shown by analysis of distribution of TDP-43-immunoreactive neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions.

    PubMed

    Nishihira, Yasushi; Tan, Chun-Feng; Onodera, Osamu; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Yamada, Mitsunori; Morita, Takashi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2008-08-01

    A nuclear protein, 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43), was recently identified as a component of the ubiquitinated inclusions (UIs) in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-U) and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS). In the present study using immunohistochemistry, we examined various regions of the nervous system in a series of 35 SALS cases using a polyclonal antibody against TDP-43. Seven of the 35 cases had disease durations of more than 10 years with artificial respiratory support (ARS; duration: 69-156 months). In all cases, TDP-43-immunoreactive (ir) neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs and GCIs) were found together in many regions, including the histologically affected lower motor neuron nuclei. Cluster analysis of the distribution pattern of TDP-43-ir NCIs for cases without ARS (n = 28) identified two types (type 1, n = 16; type 2, n = 12). Type 2 was distinguished from type 1 by the presence of TDP-43-ir NCIs in the frontotemporal cortex, hippocampal formation, neostriatum and substantia nigra, and was significantly associated with dementia. Eleven of the 28 cases showed UIs in the hippocampal dentate granule cells, all of which had type-2 distribution pattern. Cases with ARS (n = 7) were also classified into the same types (type 1, n = 5; type 2, n = 2). Cases having type-1 distribution pattern (n = 21) showed no evident neuronal loss in most of the non-motor neuron nuclei where TDP-43-ir NCIs were present, whereas cases having type-2 distribution pattern (n = 14) often showed evident neuronal loss in the frontotemporal cortices, amygdaloid nuclei and substantia nigra. These findings indicate that SALS is a multisystem degenerative disease widely affecting both neurons and glial cells with a heterogeneous pattern of TDP-43-ir NCI distribution (SALS showing type-2 distribution pattern being closely linked to FTLD-U), and that long-term survival supported by a respirator has no apparent influence on the TDP-43 neuronal

  5. Overexpression of TDP-43 causes partially p53-dependent G2/M arrest and p53-independent cell death in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kikyo; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Aiso, Sadakazu; Matsuoka, Masaaki

    2012-01-11

    It has been hypothesized that the dysregulation of transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) in neurons is closely linked to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions. However, it remains undefined whether the dysregulation of TDP-43 in non-neuronal cells, such as glial cells, contributes to the pathogenesis of these neurodegenerative diseases. Primarily using HeLa cells, we show that a low-grade overexpression of TDP-43, 2- to 5-fold greater than endogenous expression, which is thought to mimic the gain of function of TDP-43, induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and cell death in cultured non-neuronal cells. Since the activation of p53 may induce G2/M arrest and/or cell death in many abnormal situations, we examined the mechanism underlying G2/M arrest from the standpoint of p53 regulation. It was determined that the TDP-43-induced G2/M arrest was attenuated, while TDP-43-induced death was not attenuated, in cells in which the p53 function was compromised. These data collectively indicate that TDP-43 causes G2/M arrest in a partially p53-dependent manner and it causes cell death in a p53-independent manner in cycling cells. Because it is likely that the impaired proliferation in glial cells causes a decrease in the neuron-supporting ability, these findings further suggests that the gain of function of TDP-43 may cause neurotoxicity by inducing cell cycle arrest and death in glial cells. PMID:22133803

  6. Premature death of TDP-43 (A315T) transgenic mice due to gastrointestinal complications prior to development of full neurological symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Mohammad A; Panahi, Marzieh; Yadav, Shilpi; Hennings, Leah; Kiaei, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal distribution, modification and aggregation of transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are the hallmarks of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, especially frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Transgenic mouse lines overexpressing wild-type or mutant TDP-43 exhibit ALS-like symptom, motor abnormalities and early paralysis followed by death. Reports on lifespan and phenotypic behaviour in Prp-TDP-43 (A315T) vary, and these animals are not fully characterized. Although it has been proposed that the approximate 20% loss of motor neurons at end stage is responsible for the severe weakness and death in TDP-43 mice, this degree of neurologic damage appears insufficient to cause death. Hence we studied these mice to further characterize and determine the reason for the death. Our characterization of TDP-43 transgenic mice showed that these mice develop ALS-like symptoms that later become compounded by gastrointestinal (GI) complications that resulted in death. This is the first report of a set of pathological evidence in the GI track that is strong indicator for the cause of death of Prp-hTDP-43 (A315T) transgenic mice. PMID:23317354

  7. Premature death of TDP-43 (A315T) transgenic mice due to gastrointestinal complications prior to development of full neurological symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Mohammad A; Panahi, Marzieh; Yadav, Shilpi; Hennings, Leah; Kiaei, Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Abnormal distribution, modification and aggregation of transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are the hallmarks of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, especially frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Transgenic mouse lines overexpressing wild-type or mutant TDP-43 exhibit ALS-like symptom, motor abnormalities and early paralysis followed by death. Reports on lifespan and phenotypic behaviour in Prp-TDP-43 (A315T) vary, and these animals are not fully characterized. Although it has been proposed that the approximate 20% loss of motor neurons at end stage is responsible for the severe weakness and death in TDP-43 mice, this degree of neurologic damage appears insufficient to cause death. Hence we studied these mice to further characterize and determine the reason for the death. Our characterization of TDP-43 transgenic mice showed that these mice develop ALS-like symptoms that later become compounded by gastrointestinal (GI) complications that resulted in death. This is the first report of a set of pathological evidence in the GI track that is strong indicator for the cause of death of Prp-hTDP-43 (A315T) transgenic mice. PMID:23317354

  8. Low molecular weight species of TDP-43 generated by abnormal splicing form inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and result in motor neuron death.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shangxi; Sanelli, Teresa; Chiang, Helen; Sun, Yulong; Chakrabartty, Avijit; Keith, Julia; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Zinman, Lorne; Robertson, Janice

    2015-07-01

    The presence of lower molecular weight species comprising the C-terminal region of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a characteristic of TDP-43 proteinopathy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Here, we have identified a novel splice variant of TDP-43 that is upregulated in ALS and generates a 35-kDa N-terminally truncated species through use of an alternate translation initiation codon (ATG(Met85)), denoted here as Met(85)-TDP-35. Met(85)-TDP-35 expressed ectopically in human neuroblastoma cells exhibited reduced solubility, cytoplasmic distribution, and aggregation. Furthermore, Met(85)-TDP-35 sequestered full-length TDP-43 from the nucleus to form cytoplasmic aggregates. Expression of Met(85)-TDP-35 in primary motor neurons resulted in the formation of Met(85)-TDP-35-positive cytoplasmic aggregates and motor neuron death. A neo-epitope antibody specific for Met(85)-TDP-35 labeled the 35-kDa lower molecular weight species on immunoblots of urea-soluble extracts from ALS-FTLD disease-affected tissues and co-labeled TDP-43-positive inclusions in ALS spinal cord sections, confirming the physiological relevance of this species. These results show that the 35-kDa low molecular weight species in ALS-FTLD can be generated from an abnormal splicing event and use of a downstream initiation codon and may represent a mechanism by which TDP-43 elicits its pathogenicity. PMID:25788357

  9. A nonsense mutation in mouse Tardbp affects TDP43 alternative splicing activity and causes limb-clasping and body tone defects.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Thomas; McGoldrick, Philip; Fratta, Pietro; de Oliveira, Hugo M; Kent, Rosie; Phatak, Vinaya; Brandner, Sebastian; Blanco, Gonzalo; Greensmith, Linda; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in TARDBP, encoding Tar DNA binding protein-43 (TDP43), cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Attempts to model TDP43 dysfunction in mice have used knockouts or transgenic overexpressors, which have revealed the difficulties of manipulating TDP43, whose level is tightly controlled by auto-regulation. In a complementary approach, to create useful mouse models for the dissection of TDP43 function and pathology, we have identified a nonsense mutation in the endogenous mouse Tardbp gene through screening an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutant mouse archive. The mutation is predicted to cause a Q101X truncation in TDP43. We have characterised Tardbp(Q101X) mice to investigate this mutation in perturbing TDP43 biology at endogenous expression levels. We found the Tardbp(Q101X) mutation is homozygous embryonic lethal, highlighting the importance of TDP43 in early development. Heterozygotes (Tardbp(+/Q101X) ) have abnormal levels of mutant transcript, but we find no evidence of the truncated protein and mice have similar full-length TDP43 protein levels as wildtype littermates. Nevertheless, Tardbp(+/Q101X) mice have abnormal alternative splicing of downstream gene targets, and limb-clasp and body tone phenotypes. Thus the nonsense mutation in Tardbp causes a mild loss-of-function phenotype and behavioural assessment suggests underlying neurological abnormalities. Due to the role of TDP43 in ALS, we investigated potential interactions with another known causative gene, mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Tardbp(+/Q101X) mice were crossed with the SOD1(G93Adl) transgenic mouse model of ALS. Behavioural and physiological assessment did not reveal modifying effects on the progression of ALS-like symptoms in the double mutant progeny from this cross. In summary, the Tardbp(Q101X) mutant mice are a useful tool for the dissection of TDP43 protein regulation, effects on splicing, embryonic development and neuromuscular phenotypes

  10. A Nonsense Mutation in Mouse Tardbp Affects TDP43 Alternative Splicing Activity and Causes Limb-Clasping and Body Tone Defects

    PubMed Central

    Fratta, Pietro; de Oliveira, Hugo M.; Kent, Rosie; Phatak, Vinaya; Brandner, Sebastian; Blanco, Gonzalo; Greensmith, Linda; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in TARDBP, encoding Tar DNA binding protein-43 (TDP43), cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Attempts to model TDP43 dysfunction in mice have used knockouts or transgenic overexpressors, which have revealed the difficulties of manipulating TDP43, whose level is tightly controlled by auto-regulation. In a complementary approach, to create useful mouse models for the dissection of TDP43 function and pathology, we have identified a nonsense mutation in the endogenous mouse Tardbp gene through screening an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutant mouse archive. The mutation is predicted to cause a Q101X truncation in TDP43. We have characterised TardbpQ101X mice to investigate this mutation in perturbing TDP43 biology at endogenous expression levels. We found the TardbpQ101X mutation is homozygous embryonic lethal, highlighting the importance of TDP43 in early development. Heterozygotes (Tardbp+/Q101X) have abnormal levels of mutant transcript, but we find no evidence of the truncated protein and mice have similar full-length TDP43 protein levels as wildtype littermates. Nevertheless, Tardbp+/Q101X mice have abnormal alternative splicing of downstream gene targets, and limb-clasp and body tone phenotypes. Thus the nonsense mutation in Tardbp causes a mild loss-of-function phenotype and behavioural assessment suggests underlying neurological abnormalities. Due to the role of TDP43 in ALS, we investigated potential interactions with another known causative gene, mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Tardbp+/Q101X mice were crossed with the SOD1G93Adl transgenic mouse model of ALS. Behavioural and physiological assessment did not reveal modifying effects on the progression of ALS-like symptoms in the double mutant progeny from this cross. In summary, the TardbpQ101X mutant mice are a useful tool for the dissection of TDP43 protein regulation, effects on splicing, embryonic development and neuromuscular phenotypes. These mice are

  11. Autophagy induction enhances TDP43 turnover and survival in neuronal ALS models

    PubMed Central

    Barmada, Sami J.; Serio, Andrea; Arjun, Arpana; Bilican, Bilada; Daub, Aaron; Ando, D. Michael; Tsvetkov, Andrey; Pleiss, Michael; Li, Xingli; Peisach, Daniel; Shaw, Christopher; Chandran, Siddharthan; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) have distinct clinical features but a common pathology—cytoplasmic inclusions rich in TDP43. Rare TDP43 mutations cause ALS or FTD, but abnormal TDP43 levels and localization may cause disease even if TDP43 lacks a mutation. Here we showed that individual neurons vary in their ability to clear TDP43 and are exquisitely sensitive to TDP43 levels. To measure TDP43 clearance, we developed and validated a single-cell optical method that overcomes the confounding effects of aggregation and toxicity, and discovered that pathogenic mutations significantly shorten TDP43 half-life. Novel compounds that stimulate autophagy improved TDP43 clearance and localization, and enhanced survival in primary murine neurons and in human stem cell–derived neurons and astrocytes harboring mutant TDP43. These findings indicate that the levels and localization of TDP43 critically determine neurotoxicity and show that autophagy induction mitigates neurodegeneration by acting directly on TDP43 clearance. PMID:24974230

  12. TDP-43 N terminus encodes a novel ubiquitin-like fold and its unfolded form in equilibrium that can be shifted by binding to ssDNA.

    PubMed

    Qin, Haina; Lim, Liang-Zhong; Wei, Yuanyuan; Song, Jianxing

    2014-12-30

    Transactivation response element (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is the principal component of ubiquitinated inclusions characteristic of most forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia-frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP), as well as an increasing spectrum of other neurodegenerative diseases. Previous structural and functional studies on TDP-43 have been mostly focused on its recognized domains. Very recently, however, its extreme N terminus was identified to be a double-edged sword indispensable for both physiology and proteinopathy, but thus far its structure remains unknown due to the severe aggregation. Here as facilitated by our previous discovery that protein aggregation can be significantly minimized by reducing salt concentrations, by circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy we revealed that the TDP-43 N terminus encodes a well-folded structure in concentration-dependent equilibrium with its unfolded form. Despite previous failure in detecting any sequence homology to ubiquitin, the folded state was determined to adopt a novel ubiquitin-like fold by the CS-Rosetta program with NMR chemical shifts and 78 unambiguous long-range nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) constraints. Remarkably, this ubiquitin-like fold could bind ssDNA, and the binding shifted the conformational equilibrium toward reducing the unfolded population. To the best of our knowledge, the TDP-43 N terminus represents the first ubiquitin-like fold capable of directly binding nucleic acid. Our results provide a molecular mechanism rationalizing the functional dichotomy of TDP-43 and might also shed light on the formation and dynamics of cellular ribonucleoprotein granules, which have been recently linked to ALS pathogenesis. As a consequence, one therapeutic strategy for TDP-43-causing diseases might be to stabilize its ubiquitin-like fold by ssDNA or designed molecules. PMID:25503365

  13. Inter-domain interactions of TDP-43 as decoded by NMR.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuanyuan; Lim, Liangzhong; Wang, Lu; Song, Jianxing

    2016-04-29

    TDP-43 inclusions have been found in ∼97% ALS as well as an increasing spectrum of other neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. TDP-43 contains an ubiquitin-like fold, two RRMs and a prion-like domain, but whether they interact with each other remains unknown due to being intrinsically aggregation-prone. Nevertheless, this knowledge is pivotal to understanding physiological functions and pathological roles of TDP-43. Here as facilitated by our previous discovery which allowed NMR characterization of TDP-43 and its five dissected fragments, we successfully decoded that TDP-43 does have dynamic inter-domain interactions, which are coordinated by the intrinsically-disordered prion-like domain. Thus, TDP-43 appears to undergo conformational exchanges between "closed" and "open" states which are needed for its functions. Our study thus offers a mechanism by which cellular processes might control TDP-43 physiology and proteinopathy by mediating its inter-domain interactions. PMID:27040765

  14. Primary lateral sclerosis: upper-motor-predominant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with frontotemporal lobar degeneration--immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses of TDP-43.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Takayuki; Fu, Yong-Juan; Shiga, Atsushi; Ishidaira, Haruka; Tan, Chun-Feng; Tani, Takashi; Koike, Ryoko; Onodera, Osamu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is clinically defined as a disorder selectively affecting the upper motor neuron (UMN) system. However, recently it has also been considered that PLS is heterogeneous in its clinical presentation. To elucidate the association of PLS, or disorders mimicking PLS, with 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) abnormality, we examined two adult patients with motor neuron disease, which clinically was limited almost entirely to the UMN system, and was followed by progressive frontotemporal atrophy. In the present study, the distribution and severity, and biochemical profile of phosphorylated TDP-43 (pTDP-43) in the brains and spinal cords were examined immunohistochemically and biochemically. Pathologically, in both cases, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin inclusions (FTLD-U) was evident, with the most severe degeneration in the motor cortex. An important feature in both cases was the presence of Bunina bodies and/or ubiquitin inclusions, albeit very rarely, in the well preserved lower motor neurons. The amygdala and neostriatum were also affected. pTDP-43 immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of many positively stained neuronal cytoplamic inclusions (NCIs) and dystrophic neurites/neuropil threads in the affected frontotemporal cortex and subcortical gray matter. By contrast, such pTDP-43 lesions, including NCIs, were observed in only a few lower motor neurons. pTDP-43 immunoblotting revealed that fragments of ∼25-kDa were present in the cortices, but not in the spinal cord in both cases. Genetically, neither of the patients had any mutation in the TDP-43 gene. In conclusion, we consider that although PLS may be a clinically significant disease entity, at autopsy, the majority of such clinical cases would present as upper-motor-predominant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with FTLD-TDP. PMID:22098653

  15. Rab1-dependent ER-Golgi transport dysfunction is a common pathogenic mechanism in SOD1, TDP-43 and FUS-associated ALS.

    PubMed

    Soo, Kai Y; Halloran, Mark; Sundaramoorthy, Vinod; Parakh, Sonam; Toth, Reka P; Southam, Katherine A; McLean, Catriona A; Lock, Peter; King, Anna; Farg, Manal A; Atkin, Julie D

    2015-11-01

    Several diverse proteins are linked genetically/pathologically to neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) including SOD1, TDP-43 and FUS. Using a variety of cellular and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that ALS-associated mutant TDP-43, FUS and SOD1 inhibit protein transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus in neuronal cells. ER-Golgi transport was also inhibited in embryonic cortical and motor neurons obtained from a widely used animal model (SOD1(G93A) mice), validating this mechanism as an early event in disease. Each protein inhibited transport by distinct mechanisms, but each process was dependent on Rab1. Mutant TDP-43 and mutant FUS both inhibited the incorporation of secretory protein cargo into COPII vesicles as they bud from the ER, and inhibited transport from ER to the ER-Golgi intermediate (ERGIC) compartment. TDP-43 was detected on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane, whereas FUS was present within the ER, suggesting that transport is inhibited from the cytoplasm by mutant TDP-43, and from the ER by mutant FUS. In contrast, mutant SOD1 destabilised microtubules and inhibited transport from the ERGIC compartment to Golgi, but not from ER to ERGIC. Rab1 performs multiple roles in ER-Golgi transport, and over-expression of Rab1 restored ER-Golgi transport, and prevented ER stress, mSOD1 inclusion formation and induction of apoptosis, in cells expressing mutant TDP-43, FUS or SOD1. Rab1 also co-localised extensively with mutant TDP-43, FUS and SOD1 in neuronal cells, and Rab1 formed inclusions in motor neurons of spinal cords from sporadic ALS patients, which were positive for ubiquitinated TDP-43, implying that Rab1 is misfolded and dysfunctional in sporadic disease. These results demonstrate that ALS-mutant forms of TDP-43, FUS, and SOD1 all perturb protein transport in the early secretory pathway, between ER and Golgi compartments. These data also imply that restoring Rab1-mediated ER

  16. Disease causing mutants of TDP-43 nucleic acid binding domains are resistant to aggregation and have increased stability and half-life

    PubMed Central

    Austin, James A.; Wright, Gareth S. A.; Watanabe, Seiji; Grossmann, J. Günter; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Yamanaka, Koji; Hasnain, S. Samar

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades many secrets of the age-related human neural proteinopathies have been revealed. A common feature of these diseases is abnormal, and possibly pathogenic, aggregation of specific proteins in the effected tissue often resulting from inherent or decreased structural stability. An archetype example of this is superoxide dismutase-1, the first genetic factor to be linked with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutant or posttranslationally modified TAR DNA binding protein-32 (TDP-43) is also strongly associated with ALS and an increasingly large number of other neurodegenerative diseases, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Cytoplasmic mislocalization and elevated half-life is a characteristic of mutant TDP-43. Furthermore, patient age at the onset of disease symptoms shows a good inverse correlation with mutant TDP-43 half-life. Here we show that ALS and FTLD-associated TDP-43 mutations in the central nucleic acid binding domains lead to elevated half-life and this is commensurate with increased thermal stability and inhibition of aggregation. It is achieved without impact on secondary, tertiary, or quaternary structure. We propose that tighter structural cohesion contributes to reduced protein turnover, increasingly abnormal proteostasis and, ultimately, faster onset of disease symptoms. These results contrast our perception of neurodegenerative diseases as misfolded proteinopathies and delineate a novel path from the molecular characteristics of mutant TDP-43 to aberrant cellular effects and patient phenotype. PMID:24591609

  17. p62 positive, TDP-43 negative, neuronal cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in the cerebellum and hippocampus define the pathology of C9orf72-linked FTLD and MND/ALS.

    PubMed

    Al-Sarraj, Safa; King, Andrew; Troakes, Claire; Smith, Bradley; Maekawa, Satomi; Bodi, Istvan; Rogelj, Boris; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Shaw, Christopher E

    2011-12-01

    Neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) containing phosphorylated TDP-43 (p-TDP-43) are the pathological hallmarks of motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (MND/ALS) and FTLD-TDP. The vast majority of NCIs in the brain and spinal cord also label for ubiquitin and p62, however, we have previously reported a subset of TDP-43 proteinopathy patients who have unusual and abundant p62 positive, TDP-43 negative inclusions in the cerebellum and hippocampus. Here we sought to determine whether these cases carry the hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72. Repeat primer PCR was performed in 36 MND/ALS, FTLD-MND/ALS and FTLD-TDP cases and four controls. Fourteen individuals with the repeat expansion were detected. In all the 14 expansion mutation cases there were abundant globular and star-shaped p62 positive NCIs in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus, the vast majority of which were p-TDP-43 negative. p62 positive NCIs were also abundant in the cerebellar granular and molecular layers in all cases and in Purkinje cells in 12/14 cases but they were only positive for p-TDP-43 in the granular layer of one case. Abundant p62 positive, p-TDP-43 negative neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs) were seen in 12/14 cases in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus and in 6/14 cases in the cerebellar granular layer. This unusual combination of inclusions appears pathognomonic for C9orf72 repeat expansion positive MND/ALS and FTLD-TDP which we believe form a pathologically distinct subset of TDP-43 proteinopathies. Our results suggest that proteins other than TDP-43 are binding p62 and aggregating in response to the mutation which may play a mechanistic role in neurodegeneration. PMID:22101323

  18. Mixed tau, TDP-43 and p62 pathology in FTLD associated with a C9ORF72 repeat expansion and p.Ala239Thr MAPT (tau) variant.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Troakes, Claire; Smith, Bradley N; Maekawa, Satomi; Iovino, Mariangela; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Shaw, Christopher E

    2013-02-01

    A massive intronic GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 has recently been identified as the most common cause of familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We have previously demonstrated that C9ORF72 mutant cases have a specific pathological profile with abundant p62-positive, TDP-43-negative cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions within cerebellar granular cells of the cerebellum and pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in addition to classical TDP-43 pathology. Here, we report mixed tau and TDP-43 pathology in a woman with behavioural variant FTLD who had the C9ORF72 mutation, and the p.Ala239Thr variant in MAPT (microtubule associated protein tau) gene not previously associated with tau pathology. Two of her brothers, who carried the C9ORF72 mutation, but not the MAPT variant, developed classical ALS without symptomatic cognitive changes. The dominant neuropathology in this woman with FTLD was a tauopathy with Pick's disease-like features. TDP-43 labelling was mainly confined to Pick bodies, but p62-positive, TDP-43-negative inclusions, characteristic of C9ORF72 mutations, were present in the cerebellum and hippocampus. Mixed pathology to this degree is unusual. One might speculate that the presence of the C9ORF72 mutation might influence tau deposition in what was previously thought to be a "benign" variant in MAPT in addition to the aggregation of TDP-43 and other as yet unidentified proteins decorated with ubiquitin and p62. PMID:23053136

  19. β-N-methylamino-L-alanine induces changes in both GSK3 and TDP-43 in human neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Saez, Emma; de Munck, Estefanía; Arahuetes, Rosa M; Solas, M Teresa; Martínez, Ana M; Miguel, Begoña G

    2013-01-01

    β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) is a neurotoxic amino acid produced by most cyanobacteria, which are extensively distributed in different environments all over the world. L-BMAA has been linked to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. This work aims to analyze the toxicological action of L-BMAA related to alterations observed in different neurodegenerative illness as Alzheimer disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Our results demonstrate that neuroblastoma cells treated with L-BMAA show an increase in glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSk3β) and induce accumulation of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) truncated forms (C-terminal fragments), phosphorylated  and high molecular weight forms of TDP-43, that appears frequently in some neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23665941

  20. Alterations in stress granule dynamics driven by TDP-43 and FUS: a link to pathological inclusions in ALS?

    PubMed Central

    Aulas, Anaïs; Vande Velde, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are RNA-containing cytoplasmic foci formed in response to stress exposure. Since their discovery in 1999, over 120 proteins have been described to be localized to these structures (in 154 publications). Most of these components are RNA binding proteins (RBPs) or are involved in RNA metabolism and translation. SGs have been linked to several pathologies including inflammatory diseases, cancer, viral infection, and neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In ALS and FTD, the majority of cases have no known etiology and exposure to external stress is frequently proposed as a contributor to either disease initiation or the rate of disease progression. Of note, both ALS and FTD are characterized by pathological inclusions, where some well-known SG markers localize with the ALS related proteins TDP-43 and FUS. We propose that TDP-43 and FUS serve as an interface between genetic susceptibility and environmental stress exposure in disease pathogenesis. Here, we will discuss the role of TDP-43 and FUS in SG dynamics and how disease-linked mutations affect this process. PMID:26557057

  1. Corticobasal degeneration with olivopontocerebellar atrophy and TDP-43 pathology: an unusual clinicopathologic variant of CBD

    PubMed Central

    Kouri, Naomi; Oshima, Kenichi; Takahashi, Makio; Murray, Melissa E.; Ahmed, Zeshan; Parisi, Joseph E.; Yen, Shu-Hui C.; Dickson, Dennis W.

    2013-01-01

    CBD is a disorder affecting cognition and movement due to a progressive neurodegeneration associated with distinctive neuropathologic features, including abnormal phosphorylated tau protein in neurons and glia in cortex, basal ganglia, diencephalon and brainstem, as well as ballooned neurons and astrocytic plaques. We identified three cases of CBD with olivopontocerebellar atrophy (CBD-OPCA) that did not have α-synuclein-positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Two patients had clinical features suggestive of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and the third case had cerebellar ataxia thought to be due to idiopathic OPCA. Neuropathologic features of CBD-OPCA are compared to typical CBD, as well as MSA and PSP. CBD-OPCA and MSA had marked neuronal loss in pontine nuclei, inferior olivary nucleus, and Purkinje cell layer. Neuronal loss and grumose degeneration in the cerebellar dentate nucleus was comparable in CBD-OPCA and PSP. Image analysis of tau pathology showed greater infratentorial tau burden, especially in pontine base, in CBD-OPCA compared with typical CBD. Additionally, CBD-OPCA had TDP-43 immunoreactive neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions and threads throughout the basal ganglia and in olivopontocerebellar system. CBD-OPCA met neuropathologic research diagnostic criteria for CBD and shared tau biochemical characteristics with typical CBD. These results suggest that CBD-OPCA is a distinct clinicopathologic variant of CBD with olivopontocerebellar TDP-43 pathology. PMID:23371366

  2. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy and chromosome 9p repeat expansion in C9ORF72: clinicopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Bigio, Eileen H; Weintraub, Sandra; Rademakers, Rosa; Baker, Matt; Ahmadian, Saman S; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Mao, Qinwen; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Mishra, Manjari; Ganti, Rakhee A; Mesulam, M-Marsel

    2013-04-01

    Mutations in C9ORF72 resulting in expanded hexanucleotide repeats were recently reported to be the underlying genetic abnormality in chromosome 9p-linked frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kD (TDP-43) proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND). Several subsequent publications described the neuropathology as being similar to that of FTLD-TDP and ALS without C9ORF72 mutations, except that cases with mutations have p62 and ubiquitin positive, TDP-43 negative inclusions in cerebellum, hippocampus, neocortex, and basal ganglia. The identity of this protein is as yet unknown, and its significance is unclear. With the goal of potentially uncovering the significance of these inclusions, we compared the clinical, pathologic and genetic characteristics in cases with C9ORF72 mutations to those without. We confirmed the apparent specificity of p62 positive, TDP-43 negative inclusions to cases with C9ORF72 mutations. In hippocampus, these inclusions correlated with hippocampal atrophy. No additional correlations were uncovered. However, this is the first report to show that although most cases with C9ORF72 mutations were TDP type B, some of the pathologic characteristics in these cases were more similar to TDP types A and C than to type B cases. These include greater cortical and hippocampal atrophy, greater ventricular dilatation, more neuronal loss and gliosis in temporal lobe and striatum, and TDP-43 positive fine neuritic profiles in the hippocampus, implying that the C9ORF72 mutation modifies the pathologic phenotype of FTLD-TDP type B. PMID:22702520

  3. AAV9 supports wide-scale transduction of the CNS and TDP-43 disease modeling in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kasey L; Dayton, Robert D; Klein, Ronald L

    2015-01-01

    AAV9 has emerged as an efficient adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype for gene transfer to the central nervous system. We have used this technique to study aspects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by administering AAV encoding the ALS-related gene transactive response DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) to neonatal rats. However, inducing the expression in adult subjects would be preferable to mimic the adult onset of symptoms in ALS. We expressed either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or TDP-43 in adult rats after an intravenous (i.v.) route of administration to attempt wide-scale transduction of the spinal cord for disease modeling. In order to optimize the gene transfer, we made comparisons of efficiency by age, gender, and across several AAV serotypes (AAV1, AAV8, AAV9, and AAV10). The data indicate more efficient neuronal transduction in neonates, with little evidence of glial transduction at either age, no gender-related differences in transduction, and that AAV9 was efficient in adults relative to the other serotypes tested. Based on these data, AAV9 TDP-43 was expressed at three vector doses in adult female rats yielding highly consistent, dose-dependent motor deficits. AAV9 can be delivered i.v. to adult rats to achieve consistent pathophysiological changes and a relevant adult-onset system for disease modeling. PMID:26445725

  4. Detection of TDP-43 Oligomers in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration–TDP

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Patricia F.; Chen, Yun-Ru; Liu, Xiao-Bo; DeCarli, Charles; Seeley, William W.; Jin, Lee-Way

    2016-01-01

    Objective The proteinaceous inclusions in TDP-43 proteinopathies such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)-TDP are made of high–molecular-weight aggregates of TDP-43. These aggregates have not been classified as amyloids, as prior amyloid staining results were not conclusive. Here we used a specific TDP-43 amyloid oligomer antibody called TDP-O to determine the presence and abundance of TDP-43 oligomers among different subtypes of FTLD-TDP as well as in hippocampal sclerosis (HS), which represents a non-FTLD pathology with TDP-43 inclusions. Methods Postmortem tissue from the hippocampus and anterior orbital gyrus from 54 prospectively assessed and diagnosed subjects was used for immunostaining with TDP-O. Electron microscopy was used to assess the subcellular locations of TDP-O–decorated structures. Results TDP-43 inclusions staining with TDP-O were present in FTLD-TDP and were most conspicuous for FTLD-TDP type C, the subtype seen in most patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia. TDP-O immunoreactivity was absent in the hippocampus of HS patients despite abundant TDP-43 inclusions. Ultrastructurally, TDP-43 oligomers resided in granular or tubular structures, frequently in close proximity to, but not within, neuronal lysosomes. Interpretation TDP-43 forms amyloid oligomers in the human brain, which may cause neurotoxicity in a manner similar to other amyloid oligomers. Oligomer formation may contribute to the conformational heterogeneity of TDP-43 aggregates and mark the different properties of TDP-43 inclusions between FTLD-TDP and HS. PMID:25921485

  5. Developmentally Regulated RNA-binding Protein 1 (Drb1)/RNA-binding Motif Protein 45 (RBM45), a Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Trafficking Protein, Forms TAR DNA-binding Protein 43 (TDP-43)-mediated Cytoplasmic Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Mashiko, Takafumi; Sakashita, Eiji; Kasashima, Katsumi; Tominaga, Kaoru; Kuroiwa, Kenji; Nozaki, Yasuyuki; Matsuura, Tohru; Hamamoto, Toshiro; Endo, Hitoshi

    2016-07-15

    Cytoplasmic protein aggregates are one of the pathological hallmarks of neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Several RNA-binding proteins have been identified as components of inclusion bodies. Developmentally regulated RNA-binding protein 1 (Drb1)/RNA-binding motif protein 45 is an RNA-binding protein that was recently described as a component in ALS- and FTLD-related inclusion bodies. However, the molecular mechanism underlying cytoplasmic Drb1 aggregation remains unclear. Here, using an in vitro cellular model, we demonstrated that Drb1 co-localizes with cytoplasmic aggregates mediated by TAR DNA-binding protein 43, a major component of ALS and FTLD-related inclusion bodies. We also defined the domains involved in the subcellular localization of Drb1 to clarify the role of Drb1 in the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates in ALS and FTLD. Drb1 predominantly localized in the nucleus via a classical nuclear localization signal in its carboxyl terminus and is a shuttling protein between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Furthermore, we identify a double leucine motif serving as a nuclear export signal. The Drb1 mutant, presenting mutations in both nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signal, is prone to aggregate in the cytoplasm. The mutant Drb1-induced cytoplasmic aggregates not only recruit TAR DNA-binding protein 43 but also decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, these results indicate that perturbation of Drb1 nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking induces toxic cytoplasmic aggregates, suggesting that mislocalization of Drb1 is involved in the cause of cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. PMID:27226551

  6. 14-3-3 eta isoform colocalizes TDP-43 on the coarse granules in the anterior horn cells of patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Umahara, Takahiko; Uchihara, Toshiki; Shibata, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Ayako; Hanyu, Haruo

    2016-09-01

    The immunolocalization of the 14-3-3 eta isoform in the anterior horn cells (AHCs) of patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and controls was examined. Compared with the immunolocalization of other 14-3-3 isoforms, the immunolocalization of the 14-3-3 eta isoform was either synaptic at the periphery of AHCs, spindle-shaped in neurites, or granular in the cytoplasm. By double labeling with phosphorylated (p-)TDP-43, the transactivation response DNA binding protein of 43kDa (TDP-43) demonstrated frequent colocalization of the 14-3-3 eta isoform in granular structures (90%) and spindle-shaped structures (85.4%), but not in p-TDP-43-positive round inclusions. It is speculated that the 14-3-3 eta isoform is associated with not only a synaptic pathology of ALS but also TDP-positive small lesions in the cytoplasm and neurites. The absence of eta-like immunoreactivity in p-TDP-43-positive large inclusions suggests the restricted relevance of the 14-3-3 eta isoform during ALS pathogenesis to some phases of the p-TDP pathology. PMID:27256400

  7. TARDBP/TDP-43 regulates autophagy in both MTORC1-dependent and MTORC1-independent manners.

    PubMed

    Ying, Zheng; Xia, Qin; Hao, Zongbing; Xu, Delai; Wang, Mingmei; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Guanghui

    2016-04-01

    In a recent paper we addressed the mechanism by which defective autophagy contributes to TARDBP/TDP-43-mediated neurodegenerative disorders. We demonstrated that TARDBP regulates MTORC1-TFEB signaling by targeting RPTOR/raptor, a key component and an adaptor protein of MTORC1. Loss of TARDBP decreased the mRNA stability of RPTOR and this regulation in turn enhanced autophagosomal and lysosomal biogenesis in an MTORC1-dependent manner. Meanwhile, loss of TARDBP could also impair autophagosome-lysosome fusion in an MTORC1-independent manner. Importantly, we found that modulation of MTOR activity by treatment with rapamycin and phosphatidic acid had strong effects on the neurodegenerative phenotypes of TBPH (Drosophila TARDBP)-depleted flies. Taken together, our data reveal that multiple dysfunctions in the autophagic process contribute to TARDBP-linked neurodegeneration and may help to identify potential therapeutic targets in the future. PMID:27050460

  8. TDP-43 in the hypoglossal nucleus identifies amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Glenda M; Kiernan, Matthew C; Kril, Jillian J; Mito, Remika; Masuda-Suzukake, Masami; Hasegawa, Masato; McCann, Heather; Bartley, Lauren; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Kwok, John B J; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R; Tan, Rachel H

    2016-07-15

    The hypoglossal nucleus was recently identified as a key brain region in which the presence of TDP-43 pathology could accurately discriminate TDP-43 proteinopathy cases with clinical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The objective of the present study was to assess the hypoglossal nucleus in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and determine whether TDP-43 in this region is associated with clinical ALS. Twenty-nine cases with neuropathological FTLD-TDP and clinical bvFTD that had not been previously assessed for hypoglossal TDP-43 pathology were included in this study. Of these 29 cases, 41% (n=12) had a dual diagnosis of bvFTD-ALS at presentation, all 100% (n=12) of which demonstrated hypoglossal TDP-43 pathology. Of the 59% (n=17) cohort that presented with pure bvFTD, 35% (n=6) were identified with hypoglossal TDP-43 pathology. Review of the case files of all pure bvFTD cases revealed evidence of possible or probable ALS in 5 of the 6 hypoglossal-positive cases (83%) towards the end of disease, and this was absent from all cases without such pathology. In conclusion, the present study validates grading the presence of TDP-43 in the hypoglossal nucleus for the pathological identification of bvFTD cases with clinical ALS, and extends this to include the identification of cases with possible ALS at end-stage. PMID:27288806

  9. Delineation of the core aggregation sequences of TDP-43 C-terminal fragment.

    PubMed

    Saini, Akash; Chauhan, Virander Singh

    2011-11-01

    Ubiquitinated cytoplasmic inclusions of TDP-43 and its C-terminal cleavage products are the pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions. The C-terminal fragments (CTFs) of TDP-43 are increasingly considered to play an important role in its aggregation and in disease. Here, we employed a set of synthetic peptides spanning the length of the TDP-43 CTF (220-414) in order to find out its core aggregation domains. Two regions, one in the RRM-2 domain (246-255) and the other in the C-terminal domain (311-320) of TDP-43, stand out as highly aggregation prone. Studies done on recombinant purified TDP-43 CTF and its three mutants, in which these sequences were deleted individually and together, suggested that the 311-320 region has a more crucial role to play than the 246-255 in its aggregation. The study helps in defining specific peptide sequences that might form the core of TDP-43 aggregation. Identification of these sequences could help in designing peptide based inhibitors of TDP-43 aggregation. PMID:21905193

  10. Comparison of Parallel High-Throughput RNA Sequencing Between Knockout of TDP-43 and Its Overexpression Reveals Primarily Nonreciprocal and Nonoverlapping Gene Expression Changes in the Central Nervous System of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hazelett, Dennis J.; Chang, Jer-Cherng; Lakeland, Daniel L.; Morton, David B.

    2012-01-01

    The human Tar-DNA binding protein, TDP-43, is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurodegenerative disorders. TDP-43 contains two conserved RNA-binding motifs and has documented roles in RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA splicing and repression of transcription. Here, using Drosophila melanogaster as a model, we generated loss-of-function and overexpression genotypes of Tar-DNA binding protein homolog (TBPH) to study their effect on the transcriptome of the central nervous system (CNS). By using massively parallel sequencing methods (RNA-seq) to profile the CNS, we find that loss of TBPH results in widespread gene activation and altered splicing, much of which are reversed by rescue of TBPH expression. Conversely, TBPH overexpression results in decreased gene expression. Although previous studies implicated both absence and mis-expression of TDP-43 in ALS, our data exhibit little overlap in the gene expression between them, suggesting that the bulk of genes affected by TBPH loss-of-function and overexpression are different. In combination with computational approaches to identify likely TBPH targets and orthologs of previously identified vertebrate TDP-43 targets, we provide a comprehensive analysis of enriched gene ontologies. Our data suggest that TDP-43 plays a role in synaptic transmission, synaptic release, and endocytosis. We also uncovered a potential novel regulation of the Wnt and BMP pathways, many of whose targets appear to be conserved. PMID:22870402

  11. Structural Dynamics of Human Argonaute2 and Its Interaction with siRNAs Designed to Target Mutant tdp43

    PubMed Central

    Bhandare, Vishwambhar

    2016-01-01

    The human Argonaute2 protein (Ago2) is a key player in RNA interference pathway and small RNA recognition by Ago2 is the crucial step in siRNA mediated gene silencing mechanism. The present study highlights the structural and functional dynamics of human Ago2 and the interaction mechanism of Ago2 with a set of seven siRNAs for the first time. The human Ago2 protein adopts two conformations such as “open” and “close” during the simulation of 25 ns. One of the domains named as PAZ, which is responsible for anchoring the 3′-end of siRNA guide strand, is observed as a highly flexible region. The interaction between Ago2 and siRNA, analyzed using a set of siRNAs (targeting at positions 128, 251, 341, 383, 537, 1113, and 1115 of mRNA) designed to target tdp43 mutants causing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) disease, revealed the stable and strong recognition of siRNA by the Ago2 protein during dynamics. Among the studied siRNAs, the siRNA341 is identified as a potent siRNA to recognize Ago2 and hence could be used further as a possible siRNA candidate to target the mutant tdp43 protein for the treatment of ALS patients. PMID:27110240

  12. ALS-Causing Mutations Significantly Perturb the Self-Assembly and Interaction with Nucleic Acid of the Intrinsically Disordered Prion-Like Domain of TDP-43

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Liangzhong; Wei, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yimei; Song, Jianxing

    2016-01-01

    TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) C-terminus encodes a prion-like domain widely presented in RNA-binding proteins, which functions to form dynamic oligomers and also, amazingly, hosts most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-causing mutations. Here, as facilitated by our previous discovery, by circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we have successfully determined conformations, dynamics, and self-associations of the full-length prion-like domains of the wild type and three ALS-causing mutants (A315E, Q331K, and M337V) in both aqueous solutions and membrane environments. The study decodes the following: (1) The TDP-43 prion-like domain is intrinsically disordered only with some nascent secondary structures in aqueous solutions, but owns the capacity to assemble into dynamic oligomers rich in β-sheet structures. By contrast, despite having highly similar conformations, three mutants gained the ability to form amyloid oligomers. The wild type and three mutants all formed amyloid fibrils after incubation as imaged by electron microscopy. (2) The interaction with nucleic acid enhances the self-assembly for the wild type but triggers quick aggregation for three mutants. (3) A membrane-interacting subdomain has been identified over residues Met311-Gln343 indispensable for TDP-43 neurotoxicity, which transforms into a well-folded Ω-loop-helix structure in membrane environments. Furthermore, despite having very similar membrane-embedded conformations, three mutants will undergo further self-association in the membrane environment. Our study implies that the TDP-43 prion-like domain appears to have an energy landscape, which allows the assembly of the wild-type sequence into dynamic oligomers only under very limited condition sets, and ALS-causing point mutations are sufficient to remodel it to more favor the amyloid formation or irreversible aggregation, thus supporting the emerging view that the pathologic aggregation

  13. Hyperphosphorylation as a defense mechanism to reduce TDP-43 aggregation.

    PubMed

    Li, Huei-Ying; Yeh, Po-An; Chiu, Hsiu-Chiang; Tang, Chiou-Yang; Tu, Benjamin Pang-hsien

    2011-01-01

    Several neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions (FTLD-U) are characterized by inclusion bodies formed by TDP-43 (TDP). We established cell and transgenic Drosophila models expressing TDP carboxyl terminal fragment (ND251 and ND207), which developed aggregates recapitulating important features of TDP inclusions in ALS/FTLD-U, including hyperphosphorylation at previously reported serine(403,404,409,410) residues, polyubiquitination and colocalization with optineurin. These models were used to address the pathogenic role of hyperphosphorylation in ALS/FTLD-U. We demonstrated that hyperphosphorylation and ubiquitination occurred temporally later than aggregation in cells. Expression of CK2α which phosphorylated TDP decreased the aggregation propensity of ND251 or ND207; this effect could be blocked by CK2 inhibitor DMAT. Mutation of serines(379,403,404,409,410) to alanines (S5A) to eliminate phosphorylation increased the aggregation propensity and number of aggregates of TDP, but mutation to aspartic acids (S5D) or glutamic acids (S5E) to simulate hyperphosphorylation had the opposite effect. Functionally, ND251 or ND207 aggregates decreased the number of neurites of Neuro2a cells induced by retinoic acid or number of cells by MTT assay. S5A mutation aggravated, but S5E mutation alleviated these cytotoxic effects of aggregates. Finally, ND251 or ND251S5A developed aggregates in neurons, and salivary gland of transgenic Drosophila, but ND251S5E did not. Taken together, our data indicate that hyperphosphorylation may represent a compensatory defense mechanism to stop or prevent pathogenic TDP from aggregation. Therefore, enhancement of phosphorylation may serve as an effective therapeutic strategy against ALS/FTLD-U. PMID:21850253

  14. Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of long duration is associated with relatively mild TDP-43 pathology.

    PubMed

    Nishihira, Yasushi; Tan, Chun-Feng; Hoshi, Yasuhiro; Iwanaga, Keisuke; Yamada, Megumi; Kawachi, Izumi; Tsujihata, Mitsuhiro; Hozumi, Isao; Morita, Takashi; Onodera, Osamu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    Recently, sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS), a fatal neurological disease, has been shown to be a multisystem proteinopathy of TDP-43 in which both neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system are widely affected. In general, the natural history of SALS is short (<5 years). However, it is also known that a few patients may survive for 10 years or more, even without artificial respiratory support (ARS). In the present study using TDP-43 immunohistochemistry, we examined various regions of the nervous system in six patients with SALS of long duration (10-20 years) without ARS, in whom lower motor-predominant disease with Bunina bodies and ubiquitinated inclusions (UIs) in the affected lower motor neurons was confirmed. One case also showed UIs in the hippocampal dentate granule cells (UDG). In all cases, except one with UDG, the occurrence of TDP-43-immunoreactive (ir) neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) was confined to a few regions in the spinal cord and brainstem, including the anterior horns. In one case with UDG, TDP-43-ir NCIs were also detected in the substantia nigra, and some regions of the cerebrum, including the hippocampal dentate gyrus (granule cells). The number of neurons displaying NCIs in each region was very small (1-3 per region, except the dentate gyrus). On the other hand, the occurrence of TDP-43-ir glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) was more widespread in the central nervous system, including the cerebral white matter. Again, however, the number of glial cells displaying GCIs in each region was very small (1-3 per region). In conclusion, compared to the usual form of SALS, TDP-43 pathology shown in SALS of long duration was apparently mild in degree and limited in distribution, corresponding to the relatively benign clinical courses observed. It is now apparent that SALS of long duration is actually part of a TDP-43 proteinopathy spectrum. PMID:18923836

  15. ER–mitochondria associations are regulated by the VAPB–PTPIP51 interaction and are disrupted by ALS/FTD-associated TDP-43

    PubMed Central

    Stoica, Radu; De Vos, Kurt J.; Paillusson, Sébastien; Mueller, Sarah; Sancho, Rosa M.; Lau, Kwok-Fai; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Lin, Wen-Lang; Xu, Ya-Fei; Lewis, Jada; Dickson, Dennis W.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Mitchell, Jacqueline C.; Shaw, Christopher E.; Miller, Christopher C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) form tight structural associations and these facilitate a number of cellular functions. However, the mechanisms by which regions of the ER become tethered to mitochondria are not properly known. Understanding these mechanisms is not just important for comprehending fundamental physiological processes but also for understanding pathogenic processes in some disease states. In particular, disruption to ER–mitochondria associations is linked to some neurodegenerative diseases. Here we show that the ER-resident protein VAPB interacts with the mitochondrial protein tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein-51 (PTPIP51) to regulate ER–mitochondria associations. Moreover, we demonstrate that TDP-43, a protein pathologically linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and fronto-temporal dementia perturbs ER–mitochondria interactions and that this is associated with disruption to the VAPB–PTPIP51 interaction and cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Finally, we show that overexpression of TDP-43 leads to activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and that GSK-3β regulates the VAPB–PTPIP51 interaction. Our results describe a new pathogenic mechanism for TDP-43. PMID:24893131

  16. ER-mitochondria associations are regulated by the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction and are disrupted by ALS/FTD-associated TDP-43

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Radu; de Vos, Kurt J.; Paillusson, Sébastien; Mueller, Sarah; Sancho, Rosa M.; Lau, Kwok-Fai; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Lin, Wen-Lang; Xu, Ya-Fei; Lewis, Jada; Dickson, Dennis W.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Mitchell, Jacqueline C.; Shaw, Christopher E.; Miller, Christopher C. J.

    2014-06-01

    Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) form tight structural associations and these facilitate a number of cellular functions. However, the mechanisms by which regions of the ER become tethered to mitochondria are not properly known. Understanding these mechanisms is not just important for comprehending fundamental physiological processes but also for understanding pathogenic processes in some disease states. In particular, disruption to ER-mitochondria associations is linked to some neurodegenerative diseases. Here we show that the ER-resident protein VAPB interacts with the mitochondrial protein tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein-51 (PTPIP51) to regulate ER-mitochondria associations. Moreover, we demonstrate that TDP-43, a protein pathologically linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and fronto-temporal dementia perturbs ER-mitochondria interactions and that this is associated with disruption to the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction and cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Finally, we show that overexpression of TDP-43 leads to activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and that GSK-3β regulates the VAPB-PTPIP51 interaction. Our results describe a new pathogenic mechanism for TDP-43.

  17. Pathological tau deposition in Motor Neurone Disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration associated with TDP-43 proteinopathy.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Roya; Liu, Xiawei; Wu, Dongyue; Robinson, Andrew C; Tanaguchi-Watanabe, Sayuri; Rollinson, Sara; Shi, Jing; Tian, Jinzhou; Hamdalla, Hisham H M; Ealing, John; Richardson, Anna; Jones, Matthew; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Davidson, Yvonne S; Strong, Michael J; Hasegawa, Masato; Snowden, Julie S; Mann, David M A

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that patients with motor neurone disease (MND) and those with MND combined with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) (ie FTD + MND) or with FTD alone might exist on a continuum based on commonalities of neuropathology and/or genetic risk. Moreover, it has been reported that both a neuronal and a glial cell tauopathy can accompany the TDP-43 proteinopathy in patients with motor neurone disease (MND) with cognitive changes, and that the tauopathy may be fundamental to disease pathogenesis and clinical phenotype. In the present study, we sought to substantiate these latter findings, and test this concept of a pathological continuum, in a consecutive series of 41 patients with MND, 16 with FTD + MND and 23 with FTD without MND. Paraffin sections of frontal, entorhinal, temporal and occipital cortex and hippocampus were immunostained for tau pathology using anti-tau antibodies, AT8, pThr(175) and pThr(217), and for amyloid β protein (Aβ) using 4G8 antibody. Twenty four (59 %) patients with MND, 7 (44 %) patients with FTD + MND and 10 (43 %) patients with FTD showed 'significant' tau pathology (ie more than just an isolated neurofibrillary tangle or a few neuropil threads in one or more brain regions examined). In most instances, this bore the histological characteristics of an Alzheimer's disease process involving entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, temporal cortex, frontal cortex and occipital cortex in decreasing frequency, accompanied by a deposition of Aβ up to Thal phase 3, though 2 patients with MND, and 1 with FTD did show tau pathology beyond Braak stage III. Four other patients with MND showed novel neuronal tau pathology, within the frontal cortex alone, specifically detected by pThr(175) antibody, which was characterised by a fine granular or more clumped aggregation of tau without neurofibrillary tangles or neuropil threads. However, none of these 4 patients had clinically evident cognitive disorder, and

  18. Positive Florbetapir PET Amyloid Imaging in a Subject with Frequent Cortical Neuritic Plaques and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration with TDP43-Positive Inclusions

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Geidy E.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Sue, Lucia I.; Hidalgo, Jose A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bedell, Barry J.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Suh, Eunran; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Joshi, Abhinay D.; Pontecorvo, Michael J.; Mintun, Mark A.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal accumulation and modification of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) have recently been discovered to be defining histopathological features of particular subtypes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and are also common in aging, particularly coexisting with hippocampal sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. This case report describes a 72 year old Hispanic male with no family history of neurological disease, who presented at age 59 with obsessive behavior, anxiety, agitation and dysphasia. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the amyloid ligand 18F florbetapir (Amyvid) was positive. Postmortem examination revealed frequent diffuse and neuritic amyloid plaques throughout the cerebral cortex, thalamus and striatum, Braak stage II neurofibrillary degeneration and frequent frontal and temporal cortex TDP-43-positive neurites with rare nuclear inclusions. The case is unusual and instructive because of the co-existence of frequent cortical and diencephalic amyloid plaques with extensive TDP-43-positive histopathology in the setting of early-onset dementia and because it demonstrates that a positive cortical amyloid imaging signal in a subject with dementia does not necessarily establish that AD is the sole cause. PMID:24927705

  19. Common variants at 7p21 are associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions

    PubMed Central

    Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Sleiman, Patrick M. A.; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Wang, Li-San; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Dickson, Dennis W.; Rademakers, Rosa; Boeve, Bradley F.; Grossman, Murray; Arnold, Steven E.; Mann, David M.A.; Pickering-Brown, Stuart M.; Seelaar, Harro; Heutink, Peter; van Swieten, John C.; Murrell, Jill R.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Spina, Salvatore; Grafman, Jordan; Hodges, John; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Gilman, Sid'; Lieberman, Andrew P.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Woltjer, Randall L.; Bigio, Eileen H; Mesulam, Marsel; al-Sarraj, Safa; Troakes, Claire; Rosenberg, Roger N.; White, Charles L.; Ferrer, Isidro; Lladó, Albert; Neumann, Manuela; Kretzschmar, Hans A.; Hulette, Christine Marie; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Miller, Bruce L; Alzualde, Ainhoa; de Munain, Adolfo Lopez; McKee, Ann C.; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Hardy, John; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Lashley, Tammaryn; Mackenzie, Ian R.A.; Feldman, Howard H.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Dekosky, Steven T.; van der Zee, Julie; Kumar-Singh, Samir; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Mayeux, Richard; Vonsattel, Jean Paul G.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Kril, Jillian J; Kwok, John B.J.; Halliday, Glenda M.; Bird, Thomas D.; Ince, Paul G.; Shaw, Pamela J.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Morris, John C.; McLean, Catriona Ann; DeCarli, Charles; Ellis, William G.; Freeman, Stefanie H.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Growdon, John H.; Perl, Daniel P.; Sano, Mary; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Beach, Thomas G.; Reiman, Eric M.; Woodruff, Bryan K.; Cummings, Jeffrey; Vinters, Harry V.; Miller, Carol A.; Chui, Helena C.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Hartikainen, Päivi; Seilhean, Danielle; Galasko, Douglas; Masliah, Eliezer; Cotman, Carl W.; Tuñón, M. Teresa; Martínez, M. Cristina Caballero; Munoz, David G.; Carroll, Steven L.; Marson, Daniel; Riederer, Peter F.; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the second most common cause of presenile dementia. The predominant neuropathology is FTLD with TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) inclusions (FTLD-TDP)1. FTLD-TDP is frequently familial resulting from progranulin (GRN) mutations. We assembled an international collaboration to identify susceptibility loci for FTLD-TDP, using genome-wide association (GWA). We found that FTLD-TDP associates with multiple SNPs mapping to a single linkage disequilibrium (LD) block on 7p21 that contains TMEM106B in a GWA study (GWAS) on 515 FTLD-TDP cases. Three SNPs retained genome-wide significance following Bonferroni correction; top SNP rs1990622 (P=1.08×10−11; odds ratio (OR) minor allele (C) 0.61, 95% CI 0.53-0.71). The association replicated in 89 FTLD-TDP cases (rs1990622; P=2×10−4). TMEM106B variants may confer risk by increasing TMEM106B expression. TMEM106B variants also contribute to genetic risk for FTLD-TDP in patients with GRN mutations. Our data implicate TMEM106B as a strong risk factor for FTLD-TDP suggesting an underlying pathogenic mechanism. PMID:20154673

  20. Comparison of phosphorylated TDP-43-positive inclusions in oculomotor neurons in patients with non-ALS and ALS disorders.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yuji; Fujita, Yukio; Takatama, Masamitsu; Okamoto, Koichi

    2012-04-15

    TDP-43 has been identified as a major component of the pathological inclusions in most forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the present study, paraffin sections of the midbrain in 112 patients with various non-ALS disorders and 27 patients with sporadic ALS were immunostained with antibody against phosphorylated TDP-43 (pTDP-43). pTDP-43-positive inclusions in oculomotor neurons were detected in 18 of 112 patients with non-ALS disorders (16.1%). The appearance of the inclusions showed fine filamentous structures rather than the skein-like inclusions seen in the anterior horn cells of ALS spinal cords. The incidence was increased in the age range of 80-89 years old (10/37 cases; 27.0%), in which 6 of 10 cases demonstrated AD pathology in the temporal lobes. Twenty-seven ALS patients were examined and the findings were compared with those of non-ALS patients. There were 13 cases demonstrating pTDP-43-positive inclusions (48.1%) which showed stronger immunoreactivities in ALS cases. This is the first report demonstrating fine filamentous pTDP-43-positive inclusions in oculomotor neurons in non-ALS disorders. Although the mechanisms underlying pTDP-43 in oculomotor neurons are currently unknown, its detection is of interest, and the expression may occur not only in ALS but also during the aging process. PMID:22257502

  1. Semi-Automated Digital Image Analysis of Pick's Disease and TDP-43 Proteinopathy.

    PubMed

    Irwin, David J; Byrne, Matthew D; McMillan, Corey T; Cooper, Felicia; Arnold, Steven E; Lee, Edward B; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Xie, Sharon X; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Grossman, Murray; Trojanowski, John Q

    2016-01-01

    Digital image analysis of histology sections provides reliable, high-throughput methods for neuropathological studies but data is scant in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), which has an added challenge of study due to morphologically diverse pathologies. Here, we describe a novel method of semi-automated digital image analysis in FTLD subtypes including: Pick's disease (PiD, n=11) with tau-positive intracellular inclusions and neuropil threads, and TDP-43 pathology type C (FTLD-TDPC, n=10), defined by TDP-43-positive aggregates predominantly in large dystrophic neurites. To do this, we examined three FTLD-associated cortical regions: mid-frontal gyrus (MFG), superior temporal gyrus (STG) and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) by immunohistochemistry. We used a color deconvolution process to isolate signal from the chromogen and applied both object detection and intensity thresholding algorithms to quantify pathological burden. We found object-detection algorithms had good agreement with gold-standard manual quantification of tau- and TDP-43-positive inclusions. Our sampling method was reliable across three separate investigators and we obtained similar results in a pilot analysis using open-source software. Regional comparisons using these algorithms finds differences in regional anatomic disease burden between PiD and FTLD-TDP not detected using traditional ordinal scale data, suggesting digital image analysis is a powerful tool for clinicopathological studies in morphologically diverse FTLD syndromes. PMID:26538548

  2. "New Old Pathologies": AD, PART, and Cerebral Age-Related TDP-43 With Sclerosis (CARTS).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Peter T; Trojanowski, John Q; Abner, Erin L; Al-Janabi, Omar M; Jicha, Gregory A; Schmitt, Frederick A; Smith, Charles D; Fardo, David W; Wang, Wang-Xia; Kryscio, Richard J; Neltner, Janna H; Kukull, Walter A; Cykowski, Matthew D; Van Eldik, Linda J; Ighodaro, Eseosa T

    2016-06-01

    The pathology-based classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases is a work in progress that is important for both clinicians and basic scientists. Analyses of large autopsy series, biomarker studies, and genomics analyses have provided important insights about AD and shed light on previously unrecognized conditions, enabling a deeper understanding of neurodegenerative diseases in general. After demonstrating the importance of correct disease classification for AD and primary age-related tauopathy, we emphasize the public health impact of an underappreciated AD "mimic," which has been termed "hippocampal sclerosis of aging" or "hippocampal sclerosis dementia." This pathology affects >20% of individuals older than 85 years and is strongly associated with cognitive impairment. In this review, we provide an overview of current hypotheses about how genetic risk factors (GRN, TMEM106B, ABCC9, and KCNMB2), and other pathogenetic influences contribute to TDP-43 pathology and hippocampal sclerosis. Because hippocampal sclerosis of aging affects the "oldest-old" with arteriolosclerosis and TDP-43 pathologies that extend well beyond the hippocampus, more appropriate terminology for this disease is required. We recommend "cerebral age-related TDP-43 and sclerosis" (CARTS). A detailed case report is presented, which includes neuroimaging and longitudinal neurocognitive data. Finally, we suggest a neuropathology-based diagnostic rubric for CARTS. PMID:27209644

  3. Globular Glial Mixed Four Repeat Tau and TDP-43 Proteinopathy with Motor Neuron Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Ryoko; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Tada, Mari; Tanaka, Hidetomo; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shiga, Atsushi; Miura, Takeshi; Aoki, Kenju; Aikawa, Akane; Ishizawa, Shin; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may be accompanied by frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We report a case of glial mixed tau and TDP-43 proteinopathies in a Japanese patient diagnosed clinically as having ALS-D. Autopsy revealed loss of lower motor neurons and degeneration of the pyramidal tracts in the spinal cord and brain stem. The brain showed frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), the most severe neuronal loss and gliosis being evident in the precentral gyrus. Although less severe, such changes were also observed in other brain regions, including the basal ganglia and substantia nigra. AT8 immunostaining revealed that predominant occurrence of astrocytic tau lesions termed globular astrocytic inclusions (GAIs) was a feature of the affected regions. These GAIs were Gallyas-Braak negative. Neuronal and oligodendrocytic tau lesions were comparatively scarce. pS409/410 immunostaining also revealed similar neuronal and glial TDP-43 lesions. Interestingly, occasional co-localization of tau and TDP-43 was evident in the GAIs. Immunoblot analyses revealed band patterns characteristic of a 4-repeat (4R) tauopathy, corticobasal degeneration and a TDP-43 proteinopathy, ALS/FTLD-TDP Type B. No mutations were found in the MAPT or TDP-43 genes. We consider that this patient harbored a distinct, sporadic globular glial mixed 4R tau and TDP-43 proteinopathy associated with motor neuron disease and FTD. PMID:25787090

  4. Hippocampal sclerosis in Lewy body disease is a TDP-43 proteinopathy similar to FTLD-TDP Type A.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Naoya; Murray, Melissa E; Ogaki, Kotaro; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Rutherford, Nicola J; Rademakers, Rosa; Ross, Owen A; Dickson, Dennis W

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HpScl) is frequent in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology (FTLD-TDP), but it also occurs in dementia of the elderly with or without accompanying Alzheimer type pathology. HpScl has been hypothesized to be a neurodegenerative process given its association with TDP-43 pathology, but this is still controversial. TDP-43 pathology is found in Lewy body disease (LBD), but no study has focused on the pathologic and genetic characteristics of HpScl in LBD. We found HpScl in 5.2% of 669 LBD cases (289 transitional and 380 diffuse). Older age, higher Braak neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) stage, and presence of TDP-43 pathology were associated with HpScl. There was no difference in the frequency of HpScl between transitional and diffuse LBD, suggesting that Lewy-related pathology appears to have no direct association with HpScl. All HpScl cases had TDP-43 pathology consistent with Type A pattern. HpScl cases harbored genetic variation in TMEM106B that has been previously associated with FTLD-TDP. Interestingly, the severity of TDP-43-positive fine neurites in CA1 sector, a possible pathologic precursor of HpScl, was associated with the TMEM106B variant. These results demonstrate HpScl in LBD is a TDP-43 proteinopathy and is similar to FTLD-TDP Type A. Furthermore, a subset of LBD cases without HpScl ("pre-HpScl") had similar pathologic and genetic characteristics to typical HpScl, suggesting that the spectrum of HpScl pathology may be wider than previously thought. Some cases with many extracellular NFTs also had a similar profile. We suggest that HpScl is "masked" in these cases. PMID:25367383

  5. Hippocampal sclerosis in Lewy body disease is a TDP-43 proteinopathy similar to FTLD-TDP Type A

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Naoya; Murray, Melissa E.; Ogaki, Kotaro; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Rutherford, Nicola J.; Rademakers, Rosa; Ross, Owen A.; Dickson, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HpScl) is frequent in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology (FTLD-TDP), but it also occurs in dementia of the elderly with or without accompanying Alzheimer type pathology. HpScl has been hypothesized to be a neurodegenerative process given its association with TDP-43 pathology, but this is still controversial. TDP-43 pathology is found in Lewy body disease (LBD), but no study has focused on the pathologic and genetic characteristics of HpScl in LBD. We found HpScl in 5.2% of 669 LBD cases (289 transitional and 380 diffuse). Older age, higher Braak neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) stage, and presence of TDP-43 pathology were associated with HpScl. There was no difference in the frequency of HpScl between transitional and diffuse LBD, suggesting that Lewy related pathology appears to have no direct association with HpScl. All HpScl cases had TDP-43 pathology consistent with Type A pattern. HpScl cases harbored genetic variation in TMEM106B that has been previously associated with FTLD-TDP. Interestingly, the severity of TDP-43-positive fine neurites in CA1 sector, a possible pathologic precursor of HpScl, was associated with the TMEM106B variant. These results demonstrate HpScl in LBD is a TDP-43 proteinopathy and is similar to FTLD-TDP Type A. Furthermore, a subset of LBD cases without HpScl (“pre-HpScl”) had similar pathologic and genetic characteristics to typical HpScl, suggesting that the spectrum of HpScl pathology may be wider than previously thought. Some cases with many extracellular NFTs also had a similar profile. We suggest that HpScl is “masked” in these cases. PMID:25367383

  6. Oligogenic inheritance of optineurin (OPTN) and C9ORF72 mutations in ALS highlights localisation of OPTN in the TDP-43-negative inclusions of C9ORF72-ALS.

    PubMed

    Bury, Joanna J; Highley, J Robin; Cooper-Knock, Johnathan; Goodall, Emily F; Higginbottom, Adrian; McDermott, Christopher J; Ince, Paul G; Shaw, Pamela J; Kirby, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by motor neurone loss resulting in muscle weakness, spasticity and ultimately death. 5-10% are caused by inherited mutations, most commonly C9ORF72, SOD1, TARDBP and FUS. Rarer genetic causes of ALS include mutation of optineurin (mt OPTN). Furthermore, optineurin protein has been localized to the ubiquitylated aggregates in several neurodegenerative diseases, including ALS. This study: (i) investigated the frequency of mt OPTN in ALS patients in England; (ii) characterized the clinical and neuropathological features of ALS associated with a mt OPTN; and (iii) investigated optineurin neuropathology in C9ORF72-related ALS (C9ORF72-ALS). We identified a heterozygous p.E322K missense mutation in exon 10 of OPTN in one familial ALS patient who additionally had a C9ORF72 mutation. This patient had bulbar, limb and respiratory disease without cognitive problems. Neuropathology revealed motor neurone loss, trans-activation response DNA protein 43 (TDP-43)-positive neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions together with TDP-43-negative neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in extra motor regions that are characteristic of C9ORF72-ALS. We have demonstrated that both TDP-43-positive and negative inclusion types had positive staining for optineurin by immunohistochemistry. We went on to show that optineurin was present in TDP-43-negative cytoplasmic extra motor inclusions in C9ORF72-ALS cases that do not carry mt OPTN. We conclude that: (i) OPTN mutations are associated with ALS; (ii) optineurin protein is present in a subset of the extramotor inclusions of C9ORF72-ALS; (iii) It is not uncommon for multiple ALS-causing mutations to occur in the same patient; and (iv) studies of optineurin are likely to provide useful dataregarding the pathophysiology of ALS and neurodegeneration. PMID:26303227

  7. Gain and loss of function of ALS-related mutations of TARDBP (TDP-43) cause motor deficits in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kabashi, Edor; Lin, Li; Tradewell, Miranda L; Dion, Patrick A; Bercier, Valérie; Bourgouin, Patrick; Rochefort, Daniel; Bel Hadj, Samar; Durham, Heather D; Vande Velde, Christine; Rouleau, Guy A; Drapeau, Pierre

    2010-02-15

    TDP-43 has been found in inclusion bodies of multiple neurological disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in the TDP-43 encoding gene, TARDBP, have been subsequently reported in sporadic and familial ALS patients. In order to investigate the pathogenic nature of these mutants, the effects of three consistently reported TARDBP mutations (A315T, G348C and A382T) were tested in cell lines, primary cultured motor neurons and living zebrafish embryos. Each of the three mutants and wild-type (WT) human TDP-43 localized to nuclei when expressed in COS1 and Neuro2A cells by transient transfection. However, when expressed in motor neurons from dissociated spinal cord cultures these mutant TARDBP alleles, but less so for WT TARDBP, were neurotoxic, concomitant with perinuclear localization and aggregation of TDP-43. Finally, overexpression of mutant, but less so of WT, human TARDBP caused a motor phenotype in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos consisting of shorter motor neuronal axons, premature and excessive branching as well as swimming deficits. Interestingly, knock-down of zebrafisfh tardbp led to a similar phenotype, which was rescued by co-expressing WT but not mutant human TARDBP. Together these approaches showed that TARDBP mutations cause motor neuron defects and toxicity, suggesting that both a toxic gain of function as well as a novel loss of function may be involved in the molecular mechanism by which mutant TDP-43 contributes to disease pathogenesis. PMID:19959528

  8. The Influence of Pathological Mutations and Proline Substitutions in TDP-43 Glycine-Rich Peptides on Its Amyloid Properties and Cellular Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chia-Sui; Wang, Cindy Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Bryan Po-Wen; He, Ruei-Yu; Liu, Gerard Chun-Hao; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Wenlung; Chern, Yijuang; Huang, Joseph Jen-Tse

    2014-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) was identified as the major ubiquitinated component deposited in the inclusion bodies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) in 2006. Later on, numerous ALS-related mutations were found in either the glycine or glutamine/asparagine-rich region on the TDP-43 C-terminus, which hinted on the importance of mutations on the disease pathogenesis. However, how the structural conversion was influenced by the mutations and the biological significance of these peptides remains unclear. In this work, various peptides bearing pathogenic or de novo designed mutations were synthesized and displayed their ability to form twisted amyloid fibers, cause liposome leakage, and mediate cellular toxicity as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), circular dichroism (CD), Thioflavin T (ThT) assay, Raman spectroscopy, calcein leakage assay, and cell viability assay. We have also shown that replacing glycines with prolines, known to obstruct β-sheet formation, at the different positions in these peptides may influence the amyloidogenesis process and neurotoxicity. In these cases, GGG308PPP mutant was not able to form beta-amyloid, cause liposome leakage, nor jeopardized cell survival, which hinted on the importance of the glycines (308–310) during amyloidogenesis. PMID:25090004

  9. The influence of pathological mutations and proline substitutions in TDP-43 glycine-rich peptides on its amyloid properties and cellular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chia-Sui; Wang, Cindy Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Bryan Po-Wen; He, Ruei-Yu; Liu, Gerard Chun-Hao; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Wenlung; Chern, Yijuang; Huang, Joseph Jen-Tse

    2014-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) was identified as the major ubiquitinated component deposited in the inclusion bodies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) in 2006. Later on, numerous ALS-related mutations were found in either the glycine or glutamine/asparagine-rich region on the TDP-43 C-terminus, which hinted on the importance of mutations on the disease pathogenesis. However, how the structural conversion was influenced by the mutations and the biological significance of these peptides remains unclear. In this work, various peptides bearing pathogenic or de novo designed mutations were synthesized and displayed their ability to form twisted amyloid fibers, cause liposome leakage, and mediate cellular toxicity as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), circular dichroism (CD), Thioflavin T (ThT) assay, Raman spectroscopy, calcein leakage assay, and cell viability assay. We have also shown that replacing glycines with prolines, known to obstruct β-sheet formation, at the different positions in these peptides may influence the amyloidogenesis process and neurotoxicity. In these cases, GGG308PPP mutant was not able to form beta-amyloid, cause liposome leakage, nor jeopardized cell survival, which hinted on the importance of the glycines (308-310) during amyloidogenesis. PMID:25090004

  10. Neurodegeneration. C9ORF72 repeat expansions in mice cause TDP-43 pathology, neuronal loss, and behavioral deficits.

    PubMed

    Chew, Jeannie; Gendron, Tania F; Prudencio, Mercedes; Sasaguri, Hiroki; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Castanedes-Casey, Monica; Lee, Chris W; Jansen-West, Karen; Kurti, Aishe; Murray, Melissa E; Bieniek, Kevin F; Bauer, Peter O; Whitelaw, Ena C; Rousseau, Linda; Stankowski, Jeannette N; Stetler, Caroline; Daughrity, Lillian M; Perkerson, Emilie A; Desaro, Pamela; Johnston, Amelia; Overstreet, Karen; Edbauer, Dieter; Rademakers, Rosa; Boylan, Kevin B; Dickson, Dennis W; Fryer, John D; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2015-06-01

    The major genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a G4C2 repeat expansion in C9ORF72. Efforts to combat neurodegeneration associated with "c9FTD/ALS" are hindered by a lack of animal models recapitulating disease features. We developed a mouse model to mimic both neuropathological and clinical c9FTD/ALS phenotypes. We expressed (G4C2)66 throughout the murine central nervous system by means of somatic brain transgenesis mediated by adeno-associated virus. Brains of 6-month-old mice contained nuclear RNA foci, inclusions of poly(Gly-Pro), poly(Gly-Ala), and poly(Gly-Arg) dipeptide repeat proteins, as well as TDP-43 pathology. These mouse brains also exhibited cortical neuron and cerebellar Purkinje cell loss, astrogliosis, and decreased weight. (G4C2)66 mice also developed behavioral abnormalities similar to clinical symptoms of c9FTD/ALS patients, including hyperactivity, anxiety, antisocial behavior, and motor deficits. PMID:25977373

  11. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 and TDP43 trigger motoneuron death that is mediated via sodium channels and nitroxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Fabiola; Cortes, Nicole; Abarzua, Sebastian; Dyrda, Agnieszka; van Zundert, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motor neurons. Multiple disease-causing mutations, including in the genes for SOD1 and TDP-43, have been identified in ALS. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of ALS: we have shown that media conditioned by astrocytes carrying mutant SOD1G93A contains toxic factor(s) that kill motoneurons by activating voltage-sensitive sodium (Nav) channels. In contrast, a recent study suggests that astrocytes expressing mutated TDP43 contribute to ALS pathology, but do so via cell-autonomous processes and lack non-cell-autonomous toxicity. Here we investigate whether astrocytes that express diverse ALS-causing mutations release toxic factor(s) that induce motoneuron death, and if so, whether they do so via a common pathogenic pathway. We exposed primary cultures of wild-type spinal cord cells to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes (ACM) that express SOD1 (ACM-SOD1G93A and ACM-SOD1G86R) or TDP43 (ACM-TDP43A315T) mutants; we show that such exposure rapidly (within 30–60 min) increases dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence (indicative of nitroxidative stress) and leads to extensive motoneuron-specific death within a few days. Co-application of the diverse ACMs with anti-oxidants Trolox or esculetin (but not with resveratrol) strongly improves motoneuron survival. We also find that co-incubation of the cultures in the ACMs with Nav channel blockers (including mexiletine, spermidine, or riluzole) prevents both intracellular nitroxidative stress and motoneuron death. Together, our data document that two completely unrelated ALS models lead to the death of motoneuron via non-cell-autonomous processes, and show that astrocytes expressing mutations in SOD1 and TDP43 trigger such cell death through a common pathogenic pathway that involves nitroxidative stress, induced at least in part by Nav channel activity. PMID:24570655

  12. The role of mutant TAR DNA-binding protein 43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Jonathan; Kleinberger, Gernot; Wils, Hans; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2011-08-01

    TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43) has been identified as a key protein of ubiquitinated inclusions in brains of patients with ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) or FTLD (frontotemporal lobar degeneration), defining a new pathological disease spectrum. Recently, coding mutations have been identified in the TDP-43 gene (TARDBP), which further confirmed the pathogenic nature of the protein. Today, several animal models have been generated to gain more insight into the disease-causing pathways of the FTLD/ALS spectrum. This mini-review summarizes the current status of TDP-43 models, with a focus on mutant TDP-43. PMID:21787329

  13. Identification of possible siRNA molecules for TDP43 mutants causing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: In silico design and molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Bhandare, Vishwambhar Vishnu; Ramaswamy, Amutha

    2016-04-01

    The DNA binding protein, TDP43 is a major protein involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological disorders such as frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer disease, etc. In the present study, we have designed possible siRNAs for the glycine rich region of tardbp mutants causing ALS disorder based on a systematic theoretical approach including (i) identification of respective codons for all mutants (reported at the protein level) based on both minimum free energy and probabilistic approaches, (ii) rational design of siRNA, (iii) secondary structure analysis for the target accessibility of siRNA, (iii) determination of the ability of siRNA to interact with mRNA and the formation/stability of duplex via molecular dynamics study for a period of 15ns and (iv) characterization of mRNA-siRNA duplex stability based on thermo-physical analysis. The stable GC-rich siRNA expressed strong binding affinity towards mRNA and forms stable duplex in A-form. The linear dependence between the thermo-physical parameters such as Tm, GC content and binding free energy revealed the ability of the identified siRNAs to interact with mRNA in comparable to that of the experimentally reported siRNAs. Hence, this present study proposes few siRNAs as the possible gene silencing agents in RNAi therapy based on the in silico approach. PMID:26854610

  14. TDP-43 or FUS-induced misfolded human wild-type SOD1 can propagate intercellularly in a prion-like fashion

    PubMed Central

    Pokrishevsky, Edward; Grad, Leslie I.; Cashman, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which appears to spread through the neuroaxis in a spatiotemporally restricted manner, is linked to heritable mutations in genes encoding SOD1, TDP-43, FUS, C9ORF72, or can occur sporadically without recognized genetic mutations. Misfolded human wild-type (HuWt) SOD1 has been detected in both familial and sporadic ALS patients, despite mutations in SOD1 accounting for only 2% of total cases. We previously showed that accumulation of pathological TDP-43 or FUS coexist with misfolded HuWtSOD1 in patient motor neurons, and can trigger its misfolding in cultured cells. Here, we used immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation to demonstrate that TDP-43 or FUS-induced misfolded HuWtSOD1 can propagate from cell-to-cell via conditioned media, and seed cytotoxic misfolding of endogenous HuWtSOD1 in the recipient cells in a prion-like fashion. Knockdown of SOD1 using siRNA in recipient cells, or incubation of conditioned media with misfolded SOD1-specific antibodies, inhibits intercellular transmission, indicating that HuWtSOD1 is an obligate seed and substrate of propagated misfolding. In this system, intercellular spread of SOD1 misfolding is not accompanied by transmission of TDP-43 or FUS pathology. Our findings argue that pathological TDP-43 and FUS may exert motor neuron pathology in ALS through the initiation of propagated misfolding of SOD1. PMID:26926802

  15. TAR DNA-binding protein 43 in neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Plotkin, Alice S.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a highly conserved nuclear protein, was identified as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and in the most common variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), FTLD-U, which is characterized by cytoplasmic inclusions that stain positive for ubiquitin but negative for tau and α-synuclein. Since then, rapid advances have been made in our understanding of the physiological function of TDP-43 and the role of this protein in neurodegeneration. These advances link ALS and FTLD-U (now designated FTLD-TDP) to a shared mechanism of disease. In this Review, we summarize the current evidence regarding the normal function of TDP-43 and the TDP-43 pathology observed in FTLD-TDP, ALS, and other neurodegenerative diseases wherein TDP-43 pathology co-occurs with other disease-specific lesions (for example, with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease). Moreover, we discuss the accumulating data that support our view that FTLD-TDP and ALS represent two ends of a spectrum of primary TDP-43 proteinopathies. Finally, we comment on the importance of recent advances in TDP-43-related research to neurological practice, including the new opportunities to develop better diagnostics and disease-modifying therapies for ALS, FTLD-TDP, and related disorders exhibiting TDP-43 pathology. PMID:20234357

  16. TARDBP 3′-UTR variant in autopsy-confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gitcho, Michael A.; Bigio, Eileen H.; Mishra, Manjari; Johnson, Nancy; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marsel; Rademakers, Rosa; Chakraverty, Sumi; Cruchaga, Carlos; Morris, John C.; Goate, Alison M.

    2009-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43, TARDBP, have been reported in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) and, more recently, in families with a heterogeneous clinical phenotype including both ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). In our previous study, sequencing analyses identified one variant in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of the TARDBP gene in two affected members of one family with bvFTD and ALS and in one unrelated clinically assessed case of FALS. Since that study, brain tissue has become available and provides autopsy confirmation of FTLD-TDP in the proband and ALS in the brother of the bvFTD-ALS family and the neuropathology of those two cases is reported here. The 3′-UTR variant was not found in 982 control subjects (1,964 alleles). To determine the functional significance of this variant, we undertook quantitative gene expression analysis. Allele-specific amplification showed a significant increase of 22% (P < 0.05) in disease-specific allele expression with a twofold increase in total TARDBP mRNA. The segregation of this variant in a family with clinical bvFTD and ALS adds to the spectrum of clinical phenotypes previously associated with TARDBP variants. In summary, TARDBP variants may result in clinically and neuropathologically heterogeneous phenotypes linked by a common molecular pathology called TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:19618195

  17. Survival in the pre-senile dementia frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy: effects of genetic, demographic and neuropathological variables.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R A

    2016-01-01

    Factors associated with survival were studied in 84 neuropathologically documented cases of the pre-senile dementia frontotemporal dementia lobar degeneration (FTLD) with transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis estimated mean survival as 7.9 years (range: 1-19 years, SD = 4.64). Familial and sporadic cases exhibited similar survival, including progranulin (GRN) gene mutation cases. No significant differences in survival were associated with sex, disease onset, Braak disease stage, or disease subtype, but higher survival was associated with lower post-mortem brain weight. Survival was significantly reduced in cases with associated motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND) but increased with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or hippocampal sclerosis (HS) co-morbidity. Cox regression analysis suggested that reduced survival was associated with increased densities of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI) while increased survival was associated with greater densities of enlarged neurons (EN) in the frontal and temporal lobes. The data suggest that: (1) survival in FTLD-TDP is more prolonged than typical in pre-senile dementia but shorter than some clinical subtypes such as the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), (2) MND co-morbidity predicts poor survival, and (3) NCI may develop early and EN later in the disease. The data have implications for both neuropathological characterization and subtyping of FTLD-TDP. PMID:27543771

  18. Activation of HIPK2 Promotes ER Stress-Mediated Neurodegeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sebum; Shang, Yulei; Redmond, Stephanie A; Urisman, Anatoly; Tang, Amy A; Li, Kathy H; Burlingame, Alma L; Pak, Ryan A; Jovičić, Ana; Gitler, Aaron D; Wang, Jinhua; Gray, Nathanael S; Seeley, William W; Siddique, Teepu; Bigio, Eileen H; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q; Chan, Jonah R; Huang, Eric J

    2016-07-01

    Persistent accumulation of misfolded proteins causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a prominent feature in many neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we report the identification of homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) as the essential link that promotes ER-stress-induced cell death via the IRE1α-ASK1-JNK pathway. ER stress, induced by tunicamycin or SOD1(G93A), activates HIPK2 by phosphorylating highly conserved serine and threonine residues (S359/T360) within the activation loop of the HIPK2 kinase domain. In SOD1(G93A) mice, loss of HIPK2 delays disease onset, reduces cell death in spinal motor neurons, mitigates glial pathology, and improves survival. Remarkably, HIPK2 activation positively correlates with TDP-43 proteinopathy in NEFH-tTA/tetO-hTDP-43ΔNLS mice, sporadic ALS and C9ORF72 ALS, and blocking HIPK2 kinase activity protects motor neurons from TDP-43 cytotoxicity. These results reveal a previously unrecognized role of HIPK2 activation in ER-stress-mediated neurodegeneration and its potential role as a biomarker and therapeutic target for ALS. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27321923

  19. Overexpression of heat shock factor 1 maintains TAR DNA binding protein 43 solubility via induction of inducible heat shock protein 70 in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Folorunso, Oluwarotimi; Taglialatela, Giulio; Pierce, Anson

    2016-07-01

    TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a nuclear protein that has been shown to have altered homeostasis in the form of neuronal nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates in some familial and almost all cases of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as well as 51% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and 57% of Alzheimer's disease cases. Heat shock proteins (HSPs), such as HSP70, recognize misfolded or aggregated proteins and refold, disaggregate, or turn them over and are upregulated by the master transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Here, we explore the effect of HSF1 overexpression on proteotoxic stress-related alterations in TDP-43 solubility, proteolytic processing, and cytotoxicity. HSF1 overexpression reduced TDP-43-positive puncta concomitantly with upregulating HSP70 and HSP90 protein levels. HSF1 overexpression or pharmacological activation sustained TDP-43 solubility and significantly reduced truncation of TDP-43 in response to inhibition of the proteasome with Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-al, and this was reversed by HSF1 inhibition. HSF1 activation conferred protection against toxicity associated with TDP-43 C-terminal fragments without globally increasing the activity of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) while concomitantly reducing the induction of autophagy, suggesting that HSF1 protection is an early event. In support of this, inhibition of HSP70 ATPase activity further reduced TDP-43 solubility. HSF1 knockout significantly increased TDP-43 insolubility and accelerated TDP-43 fragmentation in response to proteotoxic stress. Overall, this study shows that HSF1 overexpression protects against TDP-43 pathology by upregulation of chaperones, especially HSP70, rather than enhancing autophagy or the UPS during times of proteotoxic stress. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26994698

  20. RNA-binding proteins with prion-like domains in ALS and FTLD-U.

    PubMed

    Gitler, Aaron D; Shorter, James

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease) is a debilitating, and universally fatal, neurodegenerative disease that devastates upper and lower motor neurons. The causes of ALS are poorly understood. A central role for RNA-binding proteins and RNA metabolism in ALS has recently emerged. The RNA-binding proteins, TDP-43 and FUS, are principal components of cytoplasmic inclusions found in motor neurons of ALS patients and mutations in TDP-43 and FUS are linked to familial and sporadic ALS. Pathology and genetics also connect TDP-43 and FUS with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U). It was unknown whether mechanisms of FUS aggregation and toxicity were similar or different to those of TDP-43. To address this issue, we have employed yeast models and pure protein biochemistry to define mechanisms underlying TDP-43 and FUS aggregation and toxicity, and to identify genetic modifiers relevant for human disease. We have identified prion-like domains in FUS and TDP-43 and provide evidence that these domains are required for aggregation. Our studies have defined key similarities as well as important differences between the two proteins. Collectively, however, our findings lead us to suggest that FUS and TDP-43, though similar RNA-binding proteins, likely aggregate and confer disease phenotypes via distinct mechanisms. PMID:21847013

  1. Non-human primate model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with cytoplasmic mislocalization of TDP-43

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Azusa; Sasaguri, Hiroki; Kimura, Nobuyuki; Tajiri, Mio; Ohkubo, Takuya; Ono, Fumiko; Sakaue, Fumika; Kanai, Kazuaki; Hirai, Takashi; Sano, Tatsuhiko; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Kobayashi, Masaki; Yamamoto, Mariko; Yokota, Shigefumi; Kubodera, Takayuki; Tomori, Masaki; Sakaki, Kyohei; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Hirai, Yukihiko; Kumagai, Jiro; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Mochizuki, Hideki; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Uchihara, Toshiki; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motoneuron loss. Redistribution of transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and the presence of cystatin C-positive Bunina bodies are considered pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but their significance has not been fully elucidated. Since all reported rodent transgenic models using wild-type transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 failed to recapitulate these features, we expected a species difference and aimed to make a non-human primate model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We overexpressed wild-type human transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 in spinal cords of cynomolgus monkeys and rats by injecting adeno-associated virus vector into the cervical cord, and examined the phenotype using behavioural, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical analyses. These monkeys developed progressive motor weakness and muscle atrophy with fasciculation in distal hand muscles first. They also showed regional cytoplasmic transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 mislocalization with loss of nuclear transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 staining in the lateral nuclear group of spinal cord innervating distal hand muscles and cystatin C-positive cytoplasmic aggregates, reminiscent of the spinal cord pathology of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 mislocalization was an early or presymptomatic event and was later associated with neuron loss. These findings suggest that the transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 mislocalization leads to α-motoneuron degeneration. Furthermore, truncation of transactive response deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein 43 was not a prerequisite for motoneuronal degeneration, and

  2. Pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal lobar degeneration in transgenic mice produced with TDP-43 genomic fragments.

    PubMed

    Swarup, Vivek; Phaneuf, Daniel; Bareil, Christine; Robertson, Janice; Rouleau, Guy A; Kriz, Jasna; Julien, Jean-Pierre

    2011-09-01

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 ubiquitinated inclusions are a hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions. Yet, mutations in TARDBP, the gene encoding these inclusions are associated with only 3% of sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Recent transgenic mouse studies have revealed a high degree of toxicity due to transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 proteins when overexpressed under the control of strong neuronal gene promoters, resulting in early paralysis and death, but without the presence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like ubiquitinated transactive response DNA-binding protein 43-positive inclusions. To better mimic human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, we generated transgenic mice that exhibit moderate and ubiquitous expression of transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 species using genomic fragments that encode wild-type human transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 or familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutant transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (G348C) and (A315T). These novel transgenic mice develop many age-related pathological and biochemical changes reminiscent of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis including ubiquitinated transactive response DNA-binding protein 43-positive inclusions, transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 cleavage fragments, intermediate filament abnormalities, axonopathy and neuroinflammation. All three transgenic mouse models (wild-type, G348C and A315T) exhibited impaired learning and memory capabilities during ageing, as well as motor dysfunction. Real-time imaging with the use of biophotonic transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 transgenic mice carrying a glial fibrillary acidic protein-luciferase reporter revealed that the behavioural defects were preceded by induction of astrogliosis, a finding consistent with a role for reactive astrocytes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

  3. MTHFSD and DDX58 are novel RNA-binding proteins abnormally regulated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    MacNair, Laura; Xiao, Shangxi; Miletic, Denise; Ghani, Mahdi; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Keith, Julia; Zinman, Lorne; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Robertson, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Tar DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is an RNA-binding protein normally localized to the nucleus of cells, where it elicits functions related to RNA metabolism such as transcriptional regulation and alternative splicing. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, TDP-43 is mislocalized from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of diseased motor neurons, forming ubiquitinated inclusions. Although mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43, TARDBP, are found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, these are rare. However, TDP-43 pathology is common to over 95% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases, suggesting that abnormalities of TDP-43 play an active role in disease pathogenesis. It is our hypothesis that a loss of TDP-43 from the nucleus of affected motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis will lead to changes in RNA processing and expression. Identifying these changes could uncover molecular pathways that underpin motor neuron degeneration. Here we have used translating ribosome affinity purification coupled with microarray analysis to identify the mRNAs being actively translated in motor neurons of mutant TDP-43(A315T) mice compared to age-matched non-transgenic littermates. No significant changes were found at 5 months (presymptomatic) of age, but at 10 months (symptomatic) the translational profile revealed significant changes in genes involved in RNA metabolic process, immune response and cell cycle regulation. Of 28 differentially expressed genes, seven had a ≥ 2-fold change; four were validated by immunofluorescence labelling of motor neurons in TDP-43(A315T) mice, and two of these were confirmed by immunohistochemistry in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases. Both of these identified genes, DDX58 and MTHFSD, are RNA-binding proteins, and we show that TDP-43 binds to their respective mRNAs and we identify MTHFSD as a novel component of stress granules. This discovery-based approach has for the first time revealed translational changes in motor neurons of a TDP-43 mouse model

  4. RBM45 homo-oligomerization mediates association with ALS-linked proteins and stress granules

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Collins, Mahlon; Geiser, Rachel; Bakkar, Nadine; Riascos, David; Bowser, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation of RNA-binding proteins is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). RBM45 is an RNA-binding protein that forms cytoplasmic inclusions in neurons and glia in ALS and FTLD. To explore the role of RBM45 in ALS and FTLD, we examined the contribution of the protein’s domains to its function, subcellular localization, and interaction with itself and ALS-linked proteins. We find that RBM45 forms homo-oligomers and physically associates with the ALS-linked proteins TDP-43 and FUS in the nucleus. Nuclear localization of RBM45 is mediated by a bipartite nuclear-localization sequence (NLS) located at the C-terminus. RBM45 mutants that lack a functional NLS accumulate in the cytoplasm and form TDP-43 positive stress granules. Moreover, we identify a novel structural element, termed the homo-oligomer assembly (HOA) domain, that is highly conserved across species and promote homo-oligomerization of RBM45. RBM45 mutants that fail to form homo-oligomers exhibit significantly reduced association with ALS-linked proteins and inclusion into stress granules. These results show that RMB45 may function as a homo-oligomer and that its oligomerization contributes to ALS/FTLD RNA-binding protein aggregation. PMID:26391765

  5. Loss of RAD-23 Protects Against Models of Motor Neuron Disease by Enhancing Mutant Protein Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Angela M.; Lamitina, Todd; Liachko, Nicole F.; Sabatella, Mariangela; Lu, Jiayin; Zhang, Lei; Ostrow, Lyle W.; Gupta, Preetika; Wu, Chia-Yen; Doshi, Shachee; Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Jelena; Lans, Hannes; Wang, Jiou; Kraemer, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Misfolded proteins accumulate and aggregate in neurodegenerative disease. The existence of these deposits reflects a derangement in the protein homeostasis machinery. Using a candidate gene screen, we report that loss of RAD-23 protects against the toxicity of proteins known to aggregate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Loss of RAD-23 suppresses the locomotor deficit of Caenorhabditis elegans engineered to express mutTDP-43 or mutSOD1 and also protects against aging and proteotoxic insults. Knockdown of RAD-23 is further neuroprotective against the toxicity of SOD1 and TDP-43 expression in mammalian neurons. Biochemical investigation indicates that RAD-23 modifies mutTDP-43 and mutSOD1 abundance, solubility, and turnover in association with altering the ubiquitination status of these substrates. In human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord, we find that RAD-23 abundance is increased and RAD-23 is mislocalized within motor neurons. We propose a novel pathophysiological function for RAD-23 in the stabilization of mutated proteins that cause neurodegeneration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this work, we identify RAD-23, a component of the protein homeostasis network and nucleotide excision repair pathway, as a modifier of the toxicity of two disease-causing, misfolding-prone proteins, SOD1 and TDP-43. Reducing the abundance of RAD-23 accelerates the degradation of mutant SOD1 and TDP-43 and reduces the cellular content of the toxic species. The existence of endogenous proteins that act as “anti-chaperones” uncovers new and general targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26490867

  6. The self-interaction of native TDP-43 C terminus inhibits its degradation and contributes to early proteinopathies.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-Fan; Chang, Hsiang-Yu; Hou, Shin-Chen; Liou, Gunn-Guang; Way, Tzong-Der; James Shen, C-K

    2012-01-01

    The degraded, misfolded C terminus of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 is associated with a wide spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the precise mechanism of pathological cleavage of the TAR DNA-binding protein-43 remains unknown. Here we show that the TAR DNA-binding protein-43 C-terminal protein physically interacts with itself or with the cellular-folded yeast prion domain of Sup35 forming dynamic aggregates. This prion-like nature governs known cellular functions of the TAR DNA-binding protein-43, including subcellular localisation and exon skipping of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Significantly, mutants with a failure to engage in prion-like interactions are processed into an ~24-kDa C-terminal fragment of the TAR DNA-binding protein-43. The estimated cleavage site of degraded TAR DNA-binding protein-43 fragments corresponds to the pathological cleavage site identified in patients with the TAR DNA-binding protein-43 proteinopathies. Consistently, epigallocatechin gallate constrains prion-like interactions, attenuating pathological-like degradation. Thus, the native folding of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 C terminus acts as a guardian of pathogenesis, which is directly associated with loss-of-function. PMID:22473010

  7. Autophagy activators rescue and alleviate pathogenesis of a mouse model with proteinopathies of the TAR DNA-binding protein 43.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-Fang; Guo, Bo-Shen; Liu, Yu-Chih; Wu, Cheng-Chun; Yang, Chun-Hung; Tsai, Kuen-Jer; Shen, Che-Kun James

    2012-09-11

    TDP-43 is a multifunctional DNA/RNA-binding protein that has been identified as the major component of the cytoplasmic ubiquitin (+) inclusions (UBIs) in diseased cells of frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Unfortunately, effective drugs for these neurodegenerative diseases are yet to be developed. We have tested the therapeutic potential of rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and three other autophagy activators (spermidine, carbamazepine, and tamoxifen) in a FTLD-U mouse model with TDP-43 proteinopathies. Rapamycin treatment has been reported to be beneficial in some animal models of neurodegenerative diseases but not others. Furthermore, the effects of rapamycin treatment in FTLD-U have not been investigated. We show that rapamycin treatment effectively rescues the learning/memory impairment of these mice at 3 mo of age, and it significantly slows down the age-dependent loss of their motor function. These behavioral improvements upon rapamycin treatment are accompanied by a decreased level of caspase-3 and a reduction of neuron loss in the forebrain of FTLD-U mice. Furthermore, the number of cells with cytosolic TDP-43 (+) inclusions and the amounts of full-length TDP-43 as well as its cleavage products (35 kDa and 25 kDa) in the urea-soluble fraction of the cellular extract are significantly decreased upon rapamycin treatment. These changes in TDP-43 metabolism are accompanied by rapamycin-induced decreases in mTOR-regulated phospho-p70 S6 kinase (P-p70) and the p62 protein, as well as increases in the autophagic marker LC3. Finally, rapamycin as well as spermidine, carbamazepine, and tamoxifen could also rescue the motor dysfunction of 7-mo-old FTLD-U mice. These data suggest that autophagy activation is a potentially useful route for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases with TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:22932872

  8. Poly-A binding protein-1 localization to a subset of TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis occurs more frequently in patients harboring an expansion in C9orf72

    PubMed Central

    McGurk, Leeanne; Lee, Virginia, M.; Trojanowksi, John Q.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Lee, Edward B.; Bonini, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset motor neuron disease in which the loss of spinal cord motor neurons leads to paralysis and death within a few years of clinical disease onset. In almost all cases of ALS, TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) forms cytoplasmic neuronal inclusions. A second causative gene for a subset of ALS is fused in sarcoma (FUS), an RNA binding protein that also forms cytoplasmic inclusions in spinal cord motor neurons. Poly A binding protein 1 (PABP-1) is a marker of stress granules, i.e. accumulations of proteins and RNA indicative of translational arrest in cells under stress. We report on the colocalization PABP-1 to both TDP-43 and FUS inclusions in 4 patient cohorts: ALS without a mutation, ALS with an intermediate poly glutamine repeat expansion in ATXN2, ALS with a GGGGCC-hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72, and ALS with basophilic inclusion body disease. Notably, PABP-1 colocalization to TDP-43 was twice as frequent in ALS with C9orf72 expansions compared to ALS with no mutation. This study highlights PABP-1 as a protein important to the pathology of ALS and indicates that the proteomic profile of TDP-43 inclusions in ALS may be different depending on the causative genetic mutation. PMID:25111021

  9. Neurodegenerative diseases: quantitative predictions of protein-RNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Davide; Agostini, Federico; Klus, Petr; Marchese, Domenica; Rodriguez, Silvia; Bolognesi, Benedetta; Tartaglia, Gian Gaetano

    2013-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that RNA plays an active role in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. We recently introduced a theoretical framework, catRAPID, to predict the binding ability of protein and RNA molecules. Here, we use catRAPID to investigate ribonucleoprotein interactions linked to inherited intellectual disability, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Creutzfeuld-Jakob, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. We specifically focus on (1) RNA interactions with fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP; (2) protein sequestration caused by CGG repeats; (3) noncoding transcripts regulated by TAR DNA-binding protein 43 TDP-43; (4) autogenous regulation of TDP-43 and FMRP; (5) iron-mediated expression of amyloid precursor protein APP and α-synuclein; (6) interactions between prions and RNA aptamers. Our results are in striking agreement with experimental evidence and provide new insights in processes associated with neuronal function and misfunction. PMID:23264567

  10. Altered Proteins in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Elobeid, Adila; Libard, Sylwia; Leino, Marina; Popova, Svetlana N.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of common altered brain proteins in 296 cognitively unimpaired subjects ranging from age 50 to 102 years. The incidence and the stage of hyperphosphorylated-τ (HPτ), β-amyloid, α-synuclein (αS), and transactive response DNA (TDP) binding protein 43 (TDP43)-immunoreactivity (-IR) increased with age. HPτ-IR was observed in 98% of the subjects; the locus coeruleus was solely affected in 46%, and 79% of the subjects were in Braak stages a to II. β-Amyloid was seen in 47% of subjects and the Thal phase correlated with the HPτ Braak stage and age. Intermediate Alzheimer disease-related pathology (ADRP) was seen in 12%; 52% of the subjects with HPτ-IR fulfilled criteria for definite primary age-related tauopathy (PART). The incidence of concomitant pathology (αS, TDP43) did not differ between those with PART and those with ADRP but the former were younger. TDP43-IR was observed in 36%; the most frequently affected region was the medulla; αS-IR was observed in 19% of subjects. In 41% of the subjects from 80 to 89 years at death, 3 altered proteins were seen in the brain. Thus, altered proteins are common in the brains of cognitively unimpaired aged subjects; this should be considered while developing diagnostic biomarkers, particularly for identifying subjects at early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26979082

  11. Altered Proteins in the Aging Brain.

    PubMed

    Elobeid, Adila; Libard, Sylwia; Leino, Marina; Popova, Svetlana N; Alafuzoff, Irina

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the prevalence of common altered brain proteins in 296 cognitively unimpaired subjects ranging from age 50 to 102 years. The incidence and the stage of hyperphosphorylated-τ (HPτ), β-amyloid, α-synuclein (αS), and transactive response DNA (TDP) binding protein 43 (TDP43)-immunoreactivity (-IR) increased with age. HPτ-IR was observed in 98% of the subjects; the locus coeruleus was solely affected in 46%, and 79% of the subjects were in Braak stages a to II. β-Amyloid was seen in 47% of subjects and the Thal phase correlated with the HPτ Braak stage and age. Intermediate Alzheimer disease-related pathology (ADRP) was seen in 12%; 52% of the subjects with HPτ-IR fulfilled criteria for definite primary age-related tauopathy (PART). The incidence of concomitant pathology (αS, TDP43) did not differ between those with PART and those with ADRP but the former were younger. TDP43-IR was observed in 36%; the most frequently affected region was the medulla; αS-IR was observed in 19% of subjects. In 41% of the subjects from 80 to 89 years at death, 3 altered proteins were seen in the brain. Thus, altered proteins are common in the brains of cognitively unimpaired aged subjects; this should be considered while developing diagnostic biomarkers, particularly for identifying subjects at early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26979082

  12. A Novel GRN Mutation (GRN c.708+6_+9delTGAG) in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration with TDP-43-positive Inclusions: Clinicopathologic Report of 6 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Bit-Ivan, Esther N.; Suh, Eunran; Shim, H-S; Weintraub, Sandra; Hyman, Bradley T.; Arnold, Steven E.; McCarty-Wood, Elisabeth; Van Deerlin, Viviana M.; Schneider, Julie A.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Baker, Matt C.; Rademakers, Rosa; Mesulam, Marsel; Bigio, Eileen H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), the underlying pathology that is most often linked to the clinical diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), is rapidly increasing. Mutations in 7 known genes (MAPT, GRN, C9orf72, VCP, CHMP2B, and rarely TARDBP and FUS) are associated with FTD and the pathologic classification of FTLD has recently been modified to reflect these discoveries. Mutations in one of these genes (GRN), which encodes progranulin, have been implicated in up to one quarter of FTLD cases with TAR DNA-binding protein 43-positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP); there currently are more than 60 known pathogenic mutations of the gene. We present the clinical, pathologic, and genetic findings of 6 cases from 4 families, 5 of which were shown to have a novel GRN c.708+6_+9delTGAG mutation. PMID:24709683

  13. G3BP1 promotes stress-induced RNA granule interactions to preserve polyadenylated mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Aulas, Anaïs; Caron, Guillaume; Gkogkas, Christos G.; Mohamed, Nguyen-Vi; Destroismaisons, Laurie; Sonenberg, Nahum; Leclerc, Nicole; Parker, J. Alex

    2015-01-01

    G3BP1, a target of TDP-43, is required for normal stress granule (SG) assembly, but the functional consequences of failed SG assembly remain unknown. Here, using both transformed cell lines and primary neurons, we investigated the functional impact of this disruption in SG dynamics. While stress-induced translational repression and recruitment of key SG proteins was undisturbed, depletion of G3BP1 or its upstream regulator TDP-43 disturbed normal interactions between SGs and processing bodies (PBs). This was concomitant with decreased SG size, reduced SG–PB docking, and impaired preservation of polyadenylated mRNA. Reintroduction of G3BP1 alone was sufficient to rescue all of these phenotypes, indicating that G3BP1 is essential for normal SG–PB interactions and SG function. PMID:25847539

  14. Valosin-containing protein immunoreactivity in tauopathies, synucleinopathies, polyglutamine diseases and intranuclear inclusion body disease.

    PubMed

    Mori, Fumiaki; Tanji, Kunikazu; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Sasaki, Hidenao; Yoshida, Mari; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2013-12-01

    Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is associated with multiple cellular functions, including ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. Mutations in VCP are known to cause inclusion body myopathy with Paget's disease and frontotemporal dementia and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS; ALS14), both of which are characterized by trans-activation response DNA protein 43 (TDP-43)-positive neuronal cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions. Recently, immunoreactivity for fALS-associated proteins (TDP-43, fused in sarcoma (FUS), optineurin and ubiquilin-2) were reported to be present in cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions in various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the extent and frequency of VCP-immunoreactive structures in these neurodegenerative diseases are uncertain. We immunohistochemically examined the brains of 72 cases with neurodegenerative diseases and five control cases. VCP immunoreactivity was present in Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, and neuronal nuclear inclusions in five polyglutamine diseases and intranuclear inclusion body disease, as well as in Marinesco bodies in aged control subjects. However, other neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions in tauopathies and TDP-43 proteinopathies were unstained. These findings suggest that VCP may have common mechanisms in the formation or degradation of cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions of neurons, but not of glial cells, in several neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:23782134

  15. The tip of the iceberg: RNA-binding proteins with prion-like domains in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    King, Oliver D; Gitler, Aaron D; Shorter, James

    2012-06-26

    Prions are self-templating protein conformers that are naturally transmitted between individuals and promote phenotypic change. In yeast, prion-encoded phenotypes can be beneficial, neutral or deleterious depending upon genetic background and environmental conditions. A distinctive and portable 'prion domain' enriched in asparagine, glutamine, tyrosine and glycine residues unifies the majority of yeast prion proteins. Deletion of this domain precludes prionogenesis and appending this domain to reporter proteins can confer prionogenicity. An algorithm designed to detect prion domains has successfully identified 19 domains that can confer prion behavior. Scouring the human genome with this algorithm enriches a select group of RNA-binding proteins harboring a canonical RNA recognition motif (RRM) and a putative prion domain. Indeed, of 210 human RRM-bearing proteins, 29 have a putative prion domain, and 12 of these are in the top 60 prion candidates in the entire genome. Startlingly, these RNA-binding prion candidates are inexorably emerging, one by one, in the pathology and genetics of devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U), Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. For example, FUS and TDP-43, which rank 1st and 10th among RRM-bearing prion candidates, form cytoplasmic inclusions in the degenerating motor neurons of ALS patients and mutations in TDP-43 and FUS cause familial ALS. Recently, perturbed RNA-binding proteostasis of TAF15, which is the 2nd ranked RRM-bearing prion candidate, has been connected with ALS and FTLD-U. We strongly suspect that we have now merely reached the tip of the iceberg. We predict that additional RNA-binding prion candidates identified by our algorithm will soon surface as genetic modifiers or causes of diverse neurodegenerative conditions. Indeed, simple prion-like transfer mechanisms involving the prion

  16. Redox-Promoting Protein Motions in Rubredoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Myles, Dean A A; He, Junhong; Meilleur, Flora; Weiss, Kevin L; Agarwal, Pratul K; Borreguero Calvo, Jose M; Barthes, Mariette; Brown, Craig; Herwig, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Proteins are dynamic objects, constantly undergoing conformational fluctuations, yet the linkage between internal protein motion and function is widely debated. This manuscript reports on the characterization of temperature-activated collective and individual atomic motions of oxidized rubredoxin, a small 53 residue protein from thermophilic Pyrococcus furiosus (RdPf), by neutron scattering and computational simulations. The changes in motion have been explored in connection to their role in promoting reduction of the Fe+3 ion which is responsible for the electron transfer function of RdPf. Just above the dynamical transition temperature of 220 K which marks the onset of significant anharmonic motions of the protein, the computer simulations show both a significant reorientation of the average electrostatic force experienced by the Fe+3 ion and a dramatic rise in its strength. At higher temperatures, additional anharmonic modes become activated which dominate the electrostatic fluctuations experienced by the ion. At 360 K, close to the optimal growth temperature of Pyrococcus furiosus, computer simulations show that three anharmonic modes involving two conserved residues located at the protein active site (Ile7 and Ile40) give rise to the majority of the electrostatic fluctuations experienced by the Fe+3 ion and include displacements which allow solvent access to the ion. The low-frequency, high amplitude motions of these residues at low temperatures may be precursors of the high temperature, anharmonic motions necessary for protein function.

  17. Autophagy promotes DNA-protein crosslink clearance.

    PubMed

    Mu, Haibo; Liu, Qianjin; Niu, Hong; Wang, Dongdong; Tang, Jiangjiang; Duan, Jinyou

    2016-02-01

    Toxic DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) can result from exposure to radiation or chemotherapeutic agents. DPCs can also accumulate during aging or stress. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying clearance of DPCs remain largely unknown. Here, we have identified an important role of autophagy in the processing of DPCs induced by three representative agents: formaldehyde, a chemical used widely in industry; UV light; and camptothecin, a cytotoxic anticancer drug. Autophagy inhibitors, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ), promoted the accumulation of DPCs in damaged cells and injured organs. siRNA-mediated silencing of Atg5 or Atg7, two essential components for the formation of the autophagosome, gave similar results. In contrast, the autophagy inducer rapamycin (RAP) attenuated DPCs in vitro and in vivo. Our findings reveal the importance of autophagy in controlling the level of DPCs, and may open up a new avenue for understanding the formation and clearance of this detrimental DNA adduct. PMID:26921017

  18. Promoters and proteins from Clostridium thermocellum and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wu, J. H. David; Newcomb, Michael

    2012-11-13

    The present invention relates to an inducible and a high expression nucleic acid promoter isolated from Clostridium thermocellum. These promoters are useful for directing expression of a protein or polypeptide encoded by a nucleic acid molecule operably associated with the nucleic acid promoters. The present invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs including the C. thermocellum promoters, and expression vectors and hosts containing such nucleic acid constructs. The present invention also relates to protein isolated from Clostridium thermocellum, including a repressor protein. The present invention also provides methods of using the isolated promoters and proteins from Clostridium thermocellum, including methods for directing inducible in vitro and in vivo expression of a protein or polypeptide in a host, and methods of producing ethanol from a cellulosic biomass.

  19. Comparative interactomics analysis of different ALS-associated proteins identifies converging molecular pathways.

    PubMed

    Blokhuis, Anna M; Koppers, Max; Groen, Ewout J N; van den Heuvel, Dianne M A; Dini Modigliani, Stefano; Anink, Jasper J; Fumoto, Katsumi; van Diggelen, Femke; Snelting, Anne; Sodaar, Peter; Verheijen, Bert M; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Veldink, Jan H; Aronica, Eleonora; Bozzoni, Irene; den Hertog, Jeroen; van den Berg, Leonard H; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen

    2016-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurological disease with no effective treatment available. An increasing number of genetic causes of ALS are being identified, but how these genetic defects lead to motor neuron degeneration and to which extent they affect common cellular pathways remains incompletely understood. To address these questions, we performed an interactomic analysis to identify binding partners of wild-type (WT) and ALS-associated mutant versions of ATXN2, C9orf72, FUS, OPTN, TDP-43 and UBQLN2 in neuronal cells. This analysis identified several known but also many novel binding partners of these proteins. Interactomes of WT and mutant ALS proteins were very similar except for OPTN and UBQLN2, in which mutations caused loss or gain of protein interactions. Several of the identified interactomes showed a high degree of overlap: shared binding partners of ATXN2, FUS and TDP-43 had roles in RNA metabolism; OPTN- and UBQLN2-interacting proteins were related to protein degradation and protein transport, and C9orf72 interactors function in mitochondria. To confirm that this overlap is important for ALS pathogenesis, we studied fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), one of the common interactors of ATXN2, FUS and TDP-43, in more detail in in vitro and in vivo model systems for FUS ALS. FMRP localized to mutant FUS-containing aggregates in spinal motor neurons and bound endogenous FUS in a direct and RNA-sensitive manner. Furthermore, defects in synaptic FMRP mRNA target expression, neuromuscular junction integrity, and motor behavior caused by mutant FUS in zebrafish embryos, could be rescued by exogenous FMRP expression. Together, these results show that interactomics analysis can provide crucial insight into ALS disease mechanisms and they link FMRP to motor neuron dysfunction caused by FUS mutations. PMID:27164932

  20. Stress granules in neurodegeneration--lessons learnt from TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa and fused in sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Bentmann, Eva; Haass, Christian; Dormann, Dorothee

    2013-09-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic foci that rapidly form when cells are exposed to stress. They transiently store mRNAs encoding house-keeping proteins and allow the selective translation of stress-response proteins (e.g. heat shock proteins). Besides mRNA, SGs contain RNA-binding proteins, such as T cell internal antigen-1 and poly(A)-binding protein 1, which can serve as characteristic SG marker proteins. Recently, some of these SG marker proteins were found to label pathological TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43)- or fused in sarcoma (FUS)-positive cytoplasmic inclusions in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. In addition, protein aggregates in other neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. tau inclusions in Alzheimer's disease) show a co-localization with T cell internal antigen-1 as well. Moreover, several RNA-binding proteins that are commonly found in SGs have been genetically linked to neurodegeneration. This suggests that SGs might play an important role in the pathogenesis of these proteinopathies, either by acting as a seed for pathological inclusions, by mediating translational repression or by trapping essential RNA-binding proteins, or by a combination of these mechanisms. This minireview gives an overview of the general biology of SGs and highlights the recently identified connection of SGs with TDP-43, FUS and other proteins involved in neurodegenerative diseases. We propose that pathological inclusions containing RNA-binding proteins, such as TDP-43 and FUS, might arise from SGs and discuss how SGs might contribute to neurodegeneration via toxic gain or loss-of-function mechanisms. PMID:23587065

  1. Redox-Promoting Protein Motions in Rubredoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Borreguero Calvo, Jose M; He, Junhong; Meilleur, Flora; Weiss, Kevin L; Myles, Dean A A; Herwig, Kenneth W; Agarwal, Pratul K

    2011-01-01

    Proteins are dynamic objects, constantly undergoing conformational fluctuations, yet the linkage between internal protein motion and function is widely debated. This study reports on the characterization of temperature-activated collective and individual atomic motions of oxidized rubredoxin, a small 53 residue protein from thermophilic Pyrococcus furiosus (RdPf). Computational modeling allows detailed investigations of protein motions as a function of temperature, and neutron scattering experiments are used to compare to computational results. Just above the dynamical transition temperature which marks the onset of significant anharmonic motions of the protein, the computational simulations show both a significant reorientation of the average electrostatic force experienced by the coordinated Fe{sup 3+} ion and a dramatic rise in its strength. At higher temperatures, additional anharmonic modes become activated and dominate the electrostatic fluctuations experienced by the ion. At 360 K, close to the optimal growth temperature of P. furiosus, simulations show that three anharmonic modes including motions of two conserved residues located at the protein active site (Ile7 and Ile40) give rise to the majority of the electrostatic fluctuations experienced by the Fe{sup 3+} ion. The motions of these residues undergo displacements which may facilitate solvent access to the ion.

  2. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies. PMID:24747185

  3. Dye-promoted precipitation of serum proteins. Mechanism and application.

    PubMed

    Birkenmeier, G; Kopperschläger, G

    1991-11-01

    Immobilized dyes have been used primarily for purification of nucleotide dependent enzymes and proteins from plasma and other sources. Due to their low costs, high protein binding capacity and resistance to degradation dyes bear the potential as ligand for affinity separation of proteins on a large scale. In this paper dyes have been used for precipitation of proteins. Using albumin, prealbumin, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and immunoglobulin G as model proteins we could demonstrate that dye-promoted precipitation depends on several factors which include the structure of the dye, the pH of the solution, the dye/protein molar ratio and the intrinsic properties of the proteins. It revealed that most of the dyes tested were endowed with the precipitating potential. The efficacy of precipitation was found to increase with the complexity of the dye structure. However, the amount of a dye required for total precipitation was found to be different for a given protein. Electrostatic as well as hydrophobic forces are involved in the mechanism of precipitation. It was demonstrated that by optimizing the conditions, mixtures of proteins can be resolved by dye-promoted precipitation. The high sensitivity of the reaction offers the possibility of using this method for rapid concentration of very diluted protein solutions. PMID:1367693

  4. Transcriptional induction of the heat shock protein B8 mediates the clearance of misfolded proteins responsible for motor neuron diseases

    PubMed Central

    Crippa, Valeria; D’Agostino, Vito G.; Cristofani, Riccardo; Rusmini, Paola; Cicardi, Maria E.; Messi, Elio; Loffredo, Rosa; Pancher, Michael; Piccolella, Margherita; Galbiati, Mariarita; Meroni, Marco; Cereda, Cristina; Carra, Serena; Provenzani, Alessandro; Poletti, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are often associated with the presence of misfolded protein inclusions. The chaperone HSPB8 is upregulated in mice, the human brain and muscle structures affected during NDs progression. HSPB8 exerts a potent pro-degradative activity on several misfolded proteins responsible for familial NDs forms. Here, we demonstrated that HSPB8 also counteracts accumulation of aberrantly localized misfolded forms of TDP-43 and its 25 KDa fragment involved in most sporadic cases of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (sALS) and of Fronto Lateral Temporal Dementia (FLTD). HSPB8 acts with BAG3 and the HSP70/HSC70-CHIP complex enhancing the autophagic removal of misfolded proteins. We performed a high-through put screening (HTS) to find small molecules capable of inducing HSPB8 in neurons for therapeutic purposes. We identified two compounds, colchicine and doxorubicin, that robustly up-regulated HSPB8 expression. Both colchicine and doxorubicin increased the expression of the master regulator of autophagy TFEB, the autophagy linker p62/SQSTM1 and the autophagosome component LC3. In line, both drugs counteracted the accumulation of TDP-43 and TDP-25 misfolded species responsible for motoneuronal death in sALS. Thus, analogs of colchicine and doxorubicin able to induce HSPB8 and with better safety and tolerability may result beneficial in NDs models. PMID:26961006

  5. Protein disulfide isomerase-immunopositive inclusions in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Yasuyuki; Kaneko, Satoshi; Ito, Hidefumi; Horibe, Tomohisa; Nagashima, Masato; Nakamura, Masataka; Fujita, Kengo; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Koji

    2011-11-01

    The major pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and swollen neurites. Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1-immunopositive NCIs are observed in patients with familial ALS (FALS), and TAR DNA-binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43)-immunopositive NCIs are found in patients with sporadic ALS (SALS). Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a member of the thioredoxin superfamily and is believed to accelerate the folding of disulfide-bonded proteins by catalyzing the disulfide interchange reaction, which is the rate-limiting step during protein folding in the luminal space of the endoplasmic reticulum. Post mortem spinal cord specimens from five patients with SALS and one with FALS (I113T), and five normal controls were utilized in this immunohistochemical study. We found PDI-immunopositive swollen neurites and NCIs in the patients with ALS. Furthermore, PDI was colocalized with TDP-43 and SOD1 in NCIs. The accumulation of misfolding proteins may disturb axon transport and make swollen neurites. As the motor neuron is the longest cell in the nervous system, the motor system may selectively be disturbed. In conclusion, we assume that PDI is S-nitrosylated in the affected neurons, which inhibits its enzymatic activity and thus allows protein misfolding to occur in ALS. PMID:21745122

  6. Cytoplasmic protein aggregates interfere with nucleocytoplasmic transport of protein and RNA.

    PubMed

    Woerner, Andreas C; Frottin, Frédéric; Hornburg, Daniel; Feng, Li R; Meissner, Felix; Patra, Maria; Tatzelt, Jörg; Mann, Matthias; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Hartl, F Ulrich; Hipp, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-like protein aggregation is associated with neurodegeneration and other pathologies. The nature of the toxic aggregate species and their mechanism of action remain elusive. Here, we analyzed the compartment specificity of aggregate toxicity using artificial β-sheet proteins, as well as fragments of mutant huntingtin and TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43). Aggregation in the cytoplasm interfered with nucleocytoplasmic protein and RNA transport. In contrast, the same proteins did not inhibit transport when forming inclusions in the nucleus at or around the nucleolus. Protein aggregation in the cytoplasm, but not the nucleus, caused the sequestration and mislocalization of proteins containing disordered and low-complexity sequences, including multiple factors of the nuclear import and export machinery. Thus, impairment of nucleocytoplasmic transport may contribute to the cellular pathology of various aggregate deposition diseases. PMID:26634439

  7. Curcumin inhibits HIV-1 by promoting Tat protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amjad; Banerjea, Akhil C

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat is an intrinsically unfolded protein playing a pivotal role in viral replication by associating with TAR region of viral LTR. Unfolded proteins are degraded by 20S proteasome in an ubiquitin independent manner. Curcumin is known to activate 20S proteasome and promotes the degradation of intrinsically unfolded p53 tumor suppressor protein. Since HIV-1 Tat protein is largerly unfolded, we hypothesized that Tat may also be targeted through this pathway. Curcumin treated Tat transfected HEK-293T cells showed a dose and time dependent degradation of Tat protein. Contrary to this HIV-1 Gag which is a properly folded protein, remained unaffected with curcumin. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that curcumin treatment did not affect Tat gene transcription. Curcumin increased the rate of Tat protein degradation as shown by cycloheximide (CHX) chase assay. Degradation of the Tat protein is accomplished through proteasomal pathway as proteasomal inhibitor MG132 blocked Tat degradation. Curcumin also decreased Tat mediated LTR promoter transactivation and inhibited virus production from HIV-1 infected cells. Taken together our study reveals a novel observation that curcumin causes potent degradation of Tat which may be one of the major mechanisms behind its anti HIV activity. PMID:27283735

  8. Curcumin inhibits HIV-1 by promoting Tat protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amjad; Banerjea, Akhil C.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat is an intrinsically unfolded protein playing a pivotal role in viral replication by associating with TAR region of viral LTR. Unfolded proteins are degraded by 20S proteasome in an ubiquitin independent manner. Curcumin is known to activate 20S proteasome and promotes the degradation of intrinsically unfolded p53 tumor suppressor protein. Since HIV-1 Tat protein is largerly unfolded, we hypothesized that Tat may also be targeted through this pathway. Curcumin treated Tat transfected HEK-293T cells showed a dose and time dependent degradation of Tat protein. Contrary to this HIV-1 Gag which is a properly folded protein, remained unaffected with curcumin. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that curcumin treatment did not affect Tat gene transcription. Curcumin increased the rate of Tat protein degradation as shown by cycloheximide (CHX) chase assay. Degradation of the Tat protein is accomplished through proteasomal pathway as proteasomal inhibitor MG132 blocked Tat degradation. Curcumin also decreased Tat mediated LTR promoter transactivation and inhibited virus production from HIV-1 infected cells. Taken together our study reveals a novel observation that curcumin causes potent degradation of Tat which may be one of the major mechanisms behind its anti HIV activity. PMID:27283735

  9. Interactions between RNA-binding proteins and P32 homologues in trypanosomes and human cells.

    PubMed

    Polledo, Juan Manuel; Cervini, Gabriela; Romaniuk, María Albertina; Cassola, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are involved in many aspects of mRNA metabolism such as splicing, nuclear export, translation, silencing, and decay. To cope with these tasks, these proteins use specialized domains such as the RNA recognition motif (RRM), the most abundant and widely spread RNA-binding domain. Although this domain was first described as a dedicated RNA-binding moiety, current evidence indicates these motifs can also engage in direct protein-protein interactions. Here, we discuss recent evidence describing the interaction between the RRM of the trypanosomatid RBP UBP1 and P22, the homolog of the human multifunctional protein P32/C1QBP. Human P32 was also identified while performing a similar interaction screening using both RRMs of TDP-43, an RBP involved in splicing regulation and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Furthermore, we show that this interaction is mediated by RRM1. The relevance of this interaction is discussed in the context of recent TDP-43 interactomic approaches that identified P32, and the numerous evidences supporting interactions between P32 and RBPs. Finally, we discuss the vast universe of interactions involving P32, supporting its role as a molecular chaperone regulating the function of its ligands. PMID:26385742

  10. An Artificial Reaction Promoter Modulates Mitochondrial Functions via Chemically Promoting Protein Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, Yutaka; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Hotta, Kohji; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Oka, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation, which modulates protein function, is an important process in intracellular signalling. In mitochondria, protein acetylation regulates a number of enzymatic activities and, therefore, modulates mitochondrial functions. Our previous report showed that tributylphosphine (PBu3), an artificial reaction promoter that promotes acetylransfer reactions in vitro, also promotes the reaction between acetyl-CoA and an exogenously introduced fluorescent probe in mitochondria. In this study, we demonstrate that PBu3 induces the acetylation of mitochondrial proteins and a decrease in acetyl-CoA concentration in PBu3-treated HeLa cells. This indicates that PBu3 can promote the acetyltransfer reaction between acetyl-CoA and mitochondrial proteins in living cells. PBu3-induced acetylation gradually reduced mitochondrial ATP concentrations in HeLa cells without changing the cytoplasmic ATP concentration, suggesting that PBu3 mainly affects mitochondrial functions. In addition, pyruvate, which is converted into acetyl-CoA in mitochondria and transiently increases ATP concentrations in the absence of PBu3, elicited a further decrease in mitochondrial ATP concentrations in the presence of PBu3. Moreover, the application and removal of PBu3 reversibly alternated mitochondrial fragmentation and elongation. These results indicate that PBu3 enhances acetyltransfer reactions in mitochondria and modulates mitochondrial functions in living cells. PMID:27374857

  11. An Artificial Reaction Promoter Modulates Mitochondrial Functions via Chemically Promoting Protein Acetylation.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Yutaka; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Hotta, Kohji; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Oka, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation, which modulates protein function, is an important process in intracellular signalling. In mitochondria, protein acetylation regulates a number of enzymatic activities and, therefore, modulates mitochondrial functions. Our previous report showed that tributylphosphine (PBu3), an artificial reaction promoter that promotes acetylransfer reactions in vitro, also promotes the reaction between acetyl-CoA and an exogenously introduced fluorescent probe in mitochondria. In this study, we demonstrate that PBu3 induces the acetylation of mitochondrial proteins and a decrease in acetyl-CoA concentration in PBu3-treated HeLa cells. This indicates that PBu3 can promote the acetyltransfer reaction between acetyl-CoA and mitochondrial proteins in living cells. PBu3-induced acetylation gradually reduced mitochondrial ATP concentrations in HeLa cells without changing the cytoplasmic ATP concentration, suggesting that PBu3 mainly affects mitochondrial functions. In addition, pyruvate, which is converted into acetyl-CoA in mitochondria and transiently increases ATP concentrations in the absence of PBu3, elicited a further decrease in mitochondrial ATP concentrations in the presence of PBu3. Moreover, the application and removal of PBu3 reversibly alternated mitochondrial fragmentation and elongation. These results indicate that PBu3 enhances acetyltransfer reactions in mitochondria and modulates mitochondrial functions in living cells. PMID:27374857

  12. Adaptable Lipid Matrix Promotes Protein-Protein Association in Membranes.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Andrey S; Polyansky, Anton A; Fleck, Markus; Volynsky, Pavel E; Efremov, Roman G

    2015-09-01

    The cell membrane is "stuffed" with proteins, whose transmembrane (TM) helical domains spontaneously associate to form functionally active complexes. For a number of membrane receptors, a modulation of TM domains' oligomerization has been shown to contribute to the development of severe pathological states, thus calling for detailed studies of the atomistic aspects of the process. Despite considerable progress achieved so far, several crucial questions still remain: How do the helices recognize each other in the membrane? What is the driving force of their association? Here, we assess the dimerization free energy of TM helices along with a careful consideration of the interplay between the structure and dynamics of protein and lipids using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in the hydrated lipid bilayer for three different model systems - TM fragments of glycophorin A, polyalanine and polyleucine peptides. We observe that the membrane driven association of TM helices exhibits a prominent entropic character, which depends on the peptide sequence. Thus, a single TM peptide of a given composition induces strong and characteristic perturbations in the hydrophobic core of the bilayer, which may facilitate the initial "communication" between TM helices even at the distances of 20-30 Å. Upon tight helix-helix association, the immobilized lipids accommodate near the peripheral surfaces of the dimer, thus disturbing the packing of the surrounding. The dimerization free energy of the modeled peptides corresponds to the strength of their interactions with lipids inside the membrane being the lowest for glycophorin A and similarly higher for both homopolymers. We propose that the ability to accommodate lipid tails determines the dimerization strength of TM peptides and that the lipid matrix directly governs their association. PMID:26575933

  13. Functional analysis of bipartite begomovirus coat protein promoter sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Lacatus, Gabriela; Sunter, Garry

    2008-06-20

    We demonstrate that the AL2 gene of Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) activates the CP promoter in mesophyll and acts to derepress the promoter in vascular tissue, similar to that observed for Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV). Binding studies indicate that sequences mediating repression and activation of the TGMV and CaLCuV CP promoter specifically bind different nuclear factors common to Nicotiana benthamiana, spinach and tomato. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates that TGMV AL2 can interact with both sequences independently. Binding of nuclear protein(s) from different crop species to viral sequences conserved in both bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses, including TGMV, CaLCuV, Pepper golden mosaic virus and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus suggests that bipartite begomoviruses bind common host factors to regulate the CP promoter. This is consistent with a model in which AL2 interacts with different components of the cellular transcription machinery that bind viral sequences important for repression and activation of begomovirus CP promoters.

  14. Co-aggregation of RNA binding proteins in ALS spinal motor neurons: evidence of a common pathogenic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Keller, Brian A; Volkening, Kathryn; Droppelmann, Cristian A; Ang, Lee Cyn; Rademakers, Rosa; Strong, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    While the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains to be clearly delineated, there is mounting evidence that altered RNA metabolism is a commonality amongst several of the known genetic variants of the disease. In this study, we evaluated the expression of 10 ALS-associated proteins in spinal motor neurons (MNs) in ALS patients with mutations in C9orf72 (C9orf72(GGGGCC)-ALS; n = 5), SOD1 (mtSOD1-ALS; n = 9), FUS/TLS (mtFUS/TLS-ALS; n = 2), or TARDBP (mtTDP-43-ALS; n = 2) and contrasted these to cases of sporadic ALS (sALS; n = 4) and familial ALS without known mutations (fALS; n = 2). We performed colorimetric immunohistochemistry (IHC) using antibodies against TDP-43, FUS/TLS, SOD1, C9orf72, ubiquitin, sequestosome 1 (p62), optineurin, phosphorylated high molecular weight neurofilament, peripherin, and Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RGNEF). We observed that RGNEF-immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) can co-localize with TDP-43, FUS/TLS and p62 within spinal MNs. We confirmed their capacity to interact by co-immunoprecipitations. We also found that mtSOD1-ALS cases possess a unique IHC signature, including the presence of C9orf72-immunoreactive diffuse NCIs, which allows them to be distinguished from other variants of ALS at the level of light microscopy. These findings support the hypothesis that alterations in RNA metabolism are a core pathogenic pathway in ALS. We also conclude that routine IHC-based analysis of spinal MNs may aid in the identification of families not previously suspected to harbor SOD1 mutations. PMID:22941224

  15. Drosophila Valosin-Containing Protein is required for dendrite pruning through a regulatory role in mRNA metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rumpf, Sebastian; Bagley, Joshua A.; Thompson-Peer, Katherine L.; Zhu, Sijun; Gorczyca, David; Beckstead, Robert B.; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2014-01-01

    The dendritic arbors of the larval Drosophila peripheral class IV dendritic arborization neurons degenerate during metamorphosis in an ecdysone-dependent manner. This process—also known as dendrite pruning—depends on the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS), but the specific processes regulated by the UPS during pruning have been largely elusive. Here, we show that mutation or inhibition of Valosin-Containing Protein (VCP), a ubiquitin-dependent ATPase whose human homolog is linked to neurodegenerative disease, leads to specific defects in mRNA metabolism and that this role of VCP is linked to dendrite pruning. Specifically, we find that VCP inhibition causes an altered splicing pattern of the large pruning gene molecule interacting with CasL and mislocalization of the Drosophila homolog of the human RNA-binding protein TAR–DNA-binding protein of 43 kilo-Dalton (TDP-43). Our data suggest that VCP inactivation might lead to specific gain-of-function of TDP-43 and other RNA-binding proteins. A similar combination of defects is also seen in a mutant in the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme ubcD1 and a mutant in the 19S regulatory particle of the proteasome, but not in a 20S proteasome mutant. Thus, our results highlight a proteolysis-independent function of the UPS during class IV dendritic arborization neuron dendrite pruning and link the UPS to the control of mRNA metabolism. PMID:24799714

  16. The yeast ubiquitin protease, Ubp3p, promotes protein stability.

    PubMed Central

    Brew, Christine T; Huffaker, Tim C

    2002-01-01

    Stu1p is a microtubule-associated protein required for spindle assembly. In this article we show that the temperature-sensitive stu1-5 allele is synthetically lethal in combination with ubp3, gim1-gim5, and kem1 mutations. The primary focus of this article is on the stu1-5 ubp3 interaction. Ubp3 is a deubiquitination enzyme and a member of a large family of cysteine proteases that cleave ubiquitin moieties from protein substrates. UBP3 is the only one of 16 UBP genes in yeast whose loss is synthetically lethal with stu1-5. Stu1p levels in stu1-5 cells are several-fold lower than the levels in wild-type cells and the stu1-5 temperature sensitivity can be rescued by additional copies of stu1-5. These results indicate that the primary effect of the stu1-5 mutation is to make the protein less stable. The levels of Stu1p are even lower in ubp3Delta stu1-5 cells, suggesting that Ubp3p plays a role in promoting protein stability. We also found that ubp3Delta produces growth defects in combination with mutations in other genes that decrease protein stability. Overall, these data support the idea that Ubp3p has a general role in the reversal of protein ubiquitination. PMID:12454057

  17. Strand invasion promoted by recombination protein of coliphage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybalchenko, Nataliya; Golub, Efim I.; Bi, Baoyuan; Radding, Charles M.

    2004-12-01

    Studies of phage in vivo have indicated that its own recombination enzymes, protein and exonuclease, are capable of catalyzing two dissimilar pathways of homologous recombination that are widely distributed in nature: single-strand annealing and strand invasion. The former is an enzymatic splicing of overlapping ends of broken homologous DNA molecules, whereas the latter is characterized by the formation of a three-stranded synaptic intermediate and subsequent strand exchange. Previous studies in vitro have shown that protein has annealing activity, and that exonuclease, acting on branched substrates, can produce a perfect splice that requires only ligation for completion. The present study shows that protein can initiate strand invasion in vitro, as evidenced both by the formation of displacement loops (D-loops) in superhelical DNA and by strand exchange between colinear single-stranded and double-stranded molecules. Thus, protein can catalyze steps that are central to both strand annealing and strand invasion pathways of recombination. These observations add protein to a set of diverse proteins that appear to promote recognition of homology by a unitary mechanism governed by the intrinsic dynamic properties of base pairs in DNA. genetic recombination | phage λ

  18. Comparison of ADH3 promoter with commonly used promoters for recombinant protein production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Karaoglan, Mert; Karaoglan, Fidan Erden; Inan, Mehmet

    2016-05-01

    Recombinant protein production under the control of the PADH3 was compared with Pichia pastoris PAOX1 and PGAP. The single-copy-clones expressing Aspergillus niger xylanase (XylB) gene with the three different promoters were tested in shake flask and 5 L fed-batch fermentation processes. Recombinant protein production with PADH3, PAOX1 and PGAP were initiated by addition of ethanol, methanol and glucose, respectively in the culture medium. The fermentation process was carried out for 72 h at 30 °C, pH 5 and 30% dissolved oxygen. Extracellular protein production yield for PADH3 (3725 U/mL) was higher than for PAOX1 (2095 U/mL) and PGAP (580 U/mL) at fermentor scale under the conditions tested. These results show that the PADH3 promoter is a promising tool for large scale production of recombinant proteins and can be an alternative to the PAOX1 and PGAP. PMID:26835836

  19. Bacterial promoter repression by DNA looping without protein-protein binding competition.

    PubMed

    Becker, Nicole A; Greiner, Alexander M; Peters, Justin P; Maher, L James

    2014-05-01

    The Escherichia coli lactose operon provides a paradigm for understanding gene control by DNA looping where the lac repressor (LacI) protein competes with RNA polymerase for DNA binding. Not all promoter loops involve direct competition between repressor and RNA polymerase. This raises the possibility that positioning a promoter within a tightly constrained DNA loop is repressive per se, an idea that has previously only been considered in vitro. Here, we engineer living E. coli bacteria to measure repression due to promoter positioning within such a tightly constrained DNA loop in the absence of protein-protein binding competition. We show that promoters held within such DNA loops are repressed ∼100-fold, with up to an additional ∼10-fold repression (∼1000-fold total) dependent on topological positioning of the promoter on the inner or outer face of the DNA loop. Chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggest that repression involves inhibition of both RNA polymerase initiation and elongation. These in vivo results show that gene repression can result from tightly looping promoter DNA even in the absence of direct competition between repressor and RNA polymerase binding. PMID:24598256

  20. Interplay between chaperones and protein disorder promotes the evolution of protein networks.

    PubMed

    Pechmann, Sebastian; Frydman, Judith

    2014-06-01

    Evolution is driven by mutations, which lead to new protein functions but come at a cost to protein stability. Non-conservative substitutions are of interest in this regard because they may most profoundly affect both function and stability. Accordingly, organisms must balance the benefit of accepting advantageous substitutions with the possible cost of deleterious effects on protein folding and stability. We here examine factors that systematically promote non-conservative mutations at the proteome level. Intrinsically disordered regions in proteins play pivotal roles in protein interactions, but many questions regarding their evolution remain unanswered. Similarly, whether and how molecular chaperones, which have been shown to buffer destabilizing mutations in individual proteins, generally provide robustness during proteome evolution remains unclear. To this end, we introduce an evolutionary parameter λ that directly estimates the rate of non-conservative substitutions. Our analysis of λ in Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Homo sapiens sequences reveals how co- and post-translationally acting chaperones differentially promote non-conservative substitutions in their substrates, likely through buffering of their destabilizing effects. We further find that λ serves well to quantify the evolution of intrinsically disordered proteins even though the unstructured, thus generally variable regions in proteins are often flanked by very conserved sequences. Crucially, we show that both intrinsically disordered proteins and highly re-wired proteins in protein interaction networks, which have evolved new interactions and functions, exhibit a higher λ at the expense of enhanced chaperone assistance. Our findings thus highlight an intricate interplay of molecular chaperones and protein disorder in the evolvability of protein networks. Our results illuminate the role of chaperones in enabling protein evolution, and underline the importance of the cellular

  1. Interplay between Chaperones and Protein Disorder Promotes the Evolution of Protein Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pechmann, Sebastian; Frydman, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Evolution is driven by mutations, which lead to new protein functions but come at a cost to protein stability. Non-conservative substitutions are of interest in this regard because they may most profoundly affect both function and stability. Accordingly, organisms must balance the benefit of accepting advantageous substitutions with the possible cost of deleterious effects on protein folding and stability. We here examine factors that systematically promote non-conservative mutations at the proteome level. Intrinsically disordered regions in proteins play pivotal roles in protein interactions, but many questions regarding their evolution remain unanswered. Similarly, whether and how molecular chaperones, which have been shown to buffer destabilizing mutations in individual proteins, generally provide robustness during proteome evolution remains unclear. To this end, we introduce an evolutionary parameter λ that directly estimates the rate of non-conservative substitutions. Our analysis of λ in Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Homo sapiens sequences reveals how co- and post-translationally acting chaperones differentially promote non-conservative substitutions in their substrates, likely through buffering of their destabilizing effects. We further find that λ serves well to quantify the evolution of intrinsically disordered proteins even though the unstructured, thus generally variable regions in proteins are often flanked by very conserved sequences. Crucially, we show that both intrinsically disordered proteins and highly re-wired proteins in protein interaction networks, which have evolved new interactions and functions, exhibit a higher λ at the expense of enhanced chaperone assistance. Our findings thus highlight an intricate interplay of molecular chaperones and protein disorder in the evolvability of protein networks. Our results illuminate the role of chaperones in enabling protein evolution, and underline the importance of the cellular

  2. The enamel protein amelotin is a promoter of hydroxyapatite mineralization.

    PubMed

    Abbarin, Nastaran; San Miguel, Symone; Holcroft, James; Iwasaki, Kengo; Ganss, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) is a recently discovered protein that is specifically expressed during the maturation stage of dental enamel formation. It is localized at the interface between the enamel surface and the apical surface of ameloblasts. AMTN knock-out mice have hypomineralized enamel, whereas transgenic mice overexpressing AMTN have a compact but disorganized enamel hydroxyapatite (HA) microstructure, indicating a possible involvement of AMTN in regulating HA mineralization directly. In this study, we demonstrated that recombinant human (rh) AMTN dissolved in a metastable buffer system, based on light scattering measurements, promotes HA precipitation. The mineral precipitates were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Colloidal gold immunolabeling of AMTN in the mineral deposits showed that protein molecules were associated with HA crystals. The binding affinity of rh-AMTN to HA was found to be comparable to that of amelogenin, the major protein of the forming enamel matrix. Overexpression of AMTN in mouse calvaria cells also increased the formation of calcium deposits in the culture medium. Overexpression of AMTN during the secretory stage of enamel formation in vivo resulted in rapid and uncontrolled enamel mineralization. Site-specific mutagenesis of the potential serine phosphorylation motif SSEEL reduced the in vitro mineral precipitation to less than 25%, revealing that this motif is important for the HA mineralizing function of the protein. A synthetic short peptide containing the SSEEL motif was only able to facilitate mineralization in its phosphorylated form ((P)S(P) SEEL), indicating that this motif is necessary but not sufficient for the mineralizing properties of AMTN. These findings demonstrate that AMTN has a direct influence on biomineralization by promoting HA mineralization and suggest a critical role for AMTN in the formation of the compact aprismatic enamel surface layer during the maturation

  3. Multi-protein Delivery by Nanodiamonds Promotes Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, L.; Gatica, M.; Kim, H.; Osawa, E.; Ho, D.

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-studied regulators of cartilage and bone development that have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the promotion of bone formation in certain procedures. BMPs are seeing more use in oral and maxillofacial surgeries because of recent FDA approval of InFUSE® for sinus augmentation and localized alveolar ridge augmentation. However, the utility of BMPs in medical and dental applications is limited by the delivery method. Currently, BMPs are delivered to the surgical site by the implantation of bulky collagen sponges. Here we evaluate the potential of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) as a delivery vehicle for BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nanodiamonds are biocompatible, 4- to 5-nm carbon nanoparticles that have previously been used to deliver a wide variety of molecules, including proteins and peptides. We find that both BMP-2 and bFGF are readily loaded onto NDs by physisorption, forming a stable colloidal solution, and are triggered to release in slightly acidic conditions. Simultaneous delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF by ND induces differentiation and proliferation in osteoblast progenitor cells. Overall, we find that NDs provide an effective injectable alternative for the delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF to promote bone formation. PMID:24045646

  4. Multi-protein delivery by nanodiamonds promotes bone formation.

    PubMed

    Moore, L; Gatica, M; Kim, H; Osawa, E; Ho, D

    2013-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-studied regulators of cartilage and bone development that have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the promotion of bone formation in certain procedures. BMPs are seeing more use in oral and maxillofacial surgeries because of recent FDA approval of InFUSE(®) for sinus augmentation and localized alveolar ridge augmentation. However, the utility of BMPs in medical and dental applications is limited by the delivery method. Currently, BMPs are delivered to the surgical site by the implantation of bulky collagen sponges. Here we evaluate the potential of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) as a delivery vehicle for BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nanodiamonds are biocompatible, 4- to 5-nm carbon nanoparticles that have previously been used to deliver a wide variety of molecules, including proteins and peptides. We find that both BMP-2 and bFGF are readily loaded onto NDs by physisorption, forming a stable colloidal solution, and are triggered to release in slightly acidic conditions. Simultaneous delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF by ND induces differentiation and proliferation in osteoblast progenitor cells. Overall, we find that NDs provide an effective injectable alternative for the delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF to promote bone formation. PMID:24045646

  5. Tumor promotion by caspase-resistant retinoblastoma protein

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Helena L.; Bird, Jeff; Wasson, Katherine; Cardiff, Robert D.; Varki, Nissi; Eckmann, Lars; Wang, Jean Y. J.

    2005-01-01

    The retinoblastoma (RB) protein regulates cell proliferation and cell death. RB is cleaved by caspase during apoptosis. A mutation of the caspase-cleavage site in the RB C terminus has been made in the mouse Rb-1 locus; the resulting Rb-MI mice are resistant to endotoxin-induced apoptosis in the intestine. The Rb-MI mice do not exhibit increased tumor incidence, because the MI mutation does not disrupt the Rb tumor suppressor function. In this study, we show that Rb-MI can promote the formation of colonic adenomas in the p53-null genetic background. Consistent with this tumor phenotype, Rb-MI reduces colorectal epithelial apoptosis and ulceration caused by dextran sulfate sodium. By contrast, Rb-MI does not affect the lymphoma phenotype of p53-null mice, in keeping with its inability to protect thymocytes and splenocytes from apoptosis. The Rb-MI protein is expressed and phosphorylated in the tumors, thereby inactivating its growth suppression function. These results suggest that RB tumor suppressor function, i.e., inhibition of proliferation, is inactivated by phosphorylation, whereas RB tumor promoting function, i.e., inhibition of apoptosis, is inactivated by caspase cleavage. PMID:16227443

  6. ESCRT-0 dysfunction compromises autophagic degradation of protein aggregates and facilitates ER stress-mediated neurodegeneration via apoptotic and necroptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Ryuji; Hasegawa, Takafumi; Tamai, Keiichi; Sugeno, Naoto; Yoshida, Shun; Kobayashi, Junpei; Kikuchi, Akio; Baba, Toru; Futatsugi, Akira; Sato, Ikuro; Satoh, Kennichi; Takeda, Atsushi; Aoki, Masashi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Endosomal sorting required for transport (ESCRT) complexes orchestrate endo-lysosomal sorting of ubiquitinated proteins, multivesicular body formation and autophagic degradation. Defects in the ESCRT pathway have been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases, but the underlying molecular mechanisms that link them to neurodegeneration remain unknown. In this study, we showed that forebrain-specific ablation of ESCRT-0/Hrs induced marked hippocampal neuronal cell loss accompanied by the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, including α-synuclein, TDP-43 and huntingtin as well as the autophagic substrate SQSTM1/p62. Consistent with this, silencing of Hrs in cultured cells not only led to α-synuclein and TDP-43 accumulation in addition to impaired autophagic flux but also suppressed cell viability through the induction of ER stress followed by the activation of JNK and RIPK1, a key regulator of necroptosis. Moreover, necrostatin-1, a specific inhibitor of RIPK1, and pan-caspase inhibitors partially reduced the neurotoxicity in the Hrs-silenced cells. Altogether, these findings suggest that the disruption of ESCRT-0/Hrs in the nervous system compromises autophagic/lysosomal degradation of neurodegenerative disease-related proteins, which thereby triggers ER stress-mediated apoptotic and necroptotic cell death. PMID:27112194

  7. Dopamine signaling promotes the xenobiotic stress response and protein homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Kishore K; Matlack, Tarmie L; Rongo, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    Multicellular organisms encounter environmental conditions that adversely affect protein homeostasis (proteostasis), including extreme temperatures, toxins, and pathogens. It is unclear how they use sensory signaling to detect adverse conditions and then activate stress response pathways so as to offset potential damage. Here, we show that dopaminergic mechanosensory neurons in C. elegans release the neurohormone dopamine to promote proteostasis in epithelia. Signaling through the DA receptor DOP-1 activates the expression of xenobiotic stress response genes involved in pathogenic resistance and toxin removal, and these genes are required for the removal of unstable proteins in epithelia. Exposure to a bacterial pathogen (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) results in elevated removal of unstable proteins in epithelia, and this enhancement requires DA signaling. In the absence of DA signaling, nematodes show increased sensitivity to pathogenic bacteria and heat-shock stress. Our results suggest that dopaminergic sensory neurons, in addition to slowing down locomotion upon sensing a potential bacterial feeding source, also signal to frontline epithelia to activate the xenobiotic stress response so as to maintain proteostasis and prepare for possible infection. PMID:27261197

  8. Protein promoting vibrations: Subpicosecond enzyme dynamics and catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mincer, Joshua S.

    The coupling of protein dynamics to enzymatic reactions is explored, specifically with reference to subpicosecond quasioscillatory motions, protein promoting vibrations (PPVS), that dynamically modulate the reaction potential energy surface on the same timescale as the reaction barrier passage itself. Computational algorithms to study these motions are presented. The first identifies a PPV in a specific enzymatic reaction, if it exists. The second identifies protein residues, the motions of which drive the PPV. Application to the enzyme horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH) explains experimental mutagenesis studies and makes predictions for the many residues as yet not studied. PPV contribution to rate enhancement in HLADH is considered in light of these studies. The reaction rate theory developed by Antoniou and Schwartz is generalized to include an electron coordinate, allowing for the modeling of enzymes that catalyze proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions. Model system calculations yield kinetic parameters and primary HID kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) in qualitative agreement with experiment and allow for insights into KIE temperature dependence as well as KIE masking when these reactions are coupled to a PPV. Finally, PPV coupling to bond cleavage reactions in general is investigated in the specific context of PPV coupling to reaction center electron density in the enzyme purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

  9. Engineering therapeutic protein disaggregases.

    PubMed

    Shorter, James

    2016-05-15

    Therapeutic agents are urgently required to cure several common and fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by protein misfolding and aggregation, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Protein disaggregases that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native structure, function, and localization could mitigate neurodegeneration by simultaneously reversing 1) any toxic gain of function of the misfolded form and 2) any loss of function due to misfolding. Potentiated variants of Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase and protein disaggregase from yeast, have been engineered to robustly disaggregate misfolded proteins connected with ALS (e.g., TDP-43 and FUS) and PD (e.g., α-synuclein). However, Hsp104 has no metazoan homologue. Metazoa possess protein disaggregase systems distinct from Hsp104, including Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40, as well as HtrA1, which might be harnessed to reverse deleterious protein misfolding. Nevertheless, vicissitudes of aging, environment, or genetics conspire to negate these disaggregase systems in neurodegenerative disease. Thus, engineering potentiated human protein disaggregases or isolating small-molecule enhancers of their activity could yield transformative therapeutics for ALS, PD, and AD. PMID:27255695

  10. Engineering therapeutic protein disaggregases

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, James

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic agents are urgently required to cure several common and fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by protein misfolding and aggregation, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Protein disaggregases that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native structure, function, and localization could mitigate neurodegeneration by simultaneously reversing 1) any toxic gain of function of the misfolded form and 2) any loss of function due to misfolding. Potentiated variants of Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase and protein disaggregase from yeast, have been engineered to robustly disaggregate misfolded proteins connected with ALS (e.g., TDP-43 and FUS) and PD (e.g., α-synuclein). However, Hsp104 has no metazoan homologue. Metazoa possess protein disaggregase systems distinct from Hsp104, including Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40, as well as HtrA1, which might be harnessed to reverse deleterious protein misfolding. Nevertheless, vicissitudes of aging, environment, or genetics conspire to negate these disaggregase systems in neurodegenerative disease. Thus, engineering potentiated human protein disaggregases or isolating small-molecule enhancers of their activity could yield transformative therapeutics for ALS, PD, and AD. PMID:27255695

  11. Toscana virus NSs protein promotes degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Kalveram, Birte; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2013-04-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV), which is transmitted by Phlebotomus spp. sandflies, is a major etiologic agent of aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in the Mediterranean. Like other members of the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae, TOSV encodes a nonstructural protein (NSs) in its small RNA segment. Although the NSs of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been identified as an important virulence factor, which suppresses host general transcription, inhibits transcription from the beta interferon promoter, and promotes the proteasomal degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), little is known about the functions of NSs proteins encoded by less-pathogenic members of this genus. In this study we report that TOSV is able to downregulate PKR with similar efficiency as RVFV, while infection with the other phleboviruses-i.e., Punta Toro virus, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, or Frijoles virus-has no effect on cellular PKR levels. In contrast to RVFV, however, cellular transcription remains unaffected during TOSV infection. TOSV NSs protein promotes the proteasome-dependent downregulation of PKR and is able to interact with kinase-inactive PKR in infected cells. PMID:23325696

  12. Toscana Virus NSs Protein Promotes Degradation of Double-Stranded RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Kalveram, Birte

    2013-01-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV), which is transmitted by Phlebotomus spp. sandflies, is a major etiologic agent of aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in the Mediterranean. Like other members of the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae, TOSV encodes a nonstructural protein (NSs) in its small RNA segment. Although the NSs of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been identified as an important virulence factor, which suppresses host general transcription, inhibits transcription from the beta interferon promoter, and promotes the proteasomal degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), little is known about the functions of NSs proteins encoded by less-pathogenic members of this genus. In this study we report that TOSV is able to downregulate PKR with similar efficiency as RVFV, while infection with the other phleboviruses—i.e., Punta Toro virus, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, or Frijoles virus—has no effect on cellular PKR levels. In contrast to RVFV, however, cellular transcription remains unaffected during TOSV infection. TOSV NSs protein promotes the proteasome-dependent downregulation of PKR and is able to interact with kinase-inactive PKR in infected cells. PMID:23325696

  13. Lytic Promoters Express Protein during Herpes Simplex Virus Latency

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Tiffany A.; Tscharke, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has provided the prototype for viral latency with previously well-defined acute or lytic and latent phases. More recently, the deep quiescence of HSV latency has been questioned with evidence that lytic genes can be transcribed in this state. However, to date the only evidence that these transcripts might be translated has come from immunological studies that show activated T cells persist in the nervous system during latency. Here we use a highly sensitive Cre-marking model to show that lytic and latent phases are less clearly defined in two significant ways. First, around half of the HSV spread leading to latently infected sites occurred beyond the initial acute infection and second, we show direct evidence that lytic promoters can drive protein expression during latency. PMID:27348812

  14. Generation of an Artificial Double Promoter for Protein Expression in Bacillus subtilis through a Promoter Trap System

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingming; Zhang, Weiwei; Ji, Shengyue; Cao, Pinghua; Chen, Yulin; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is an attractive host for production of recombinant proteins. Promoters and expression plasmid backbones have direct impacts on the efficiency of gene expression. To screen and isolate strong promoters, a promoter trap vector pShuttleF was developed in this study. Using the vector, approximately 1000 colonies containing likely promoters from Bacillus licheniformis genomic DNA were obtained. Amongst them, pShuttle-09 exhibited the highest β-Gal activities in both Escherichia coli and B. subtilis. The activity of pShuttle-09 in B. subtilis was eight times of that of the P43 promoter, a commonly used strong promoter for B. subtilis. A sequence analysis showed that pShuttle-09 contained PluxS and truncated luxS in-frame fused with the reporter gene as well as another fragment upstream of PluxS containing a putative promoter. This putative promoter was a hybrid promoter and its β-Gal activity was higher than PluxS. Reconstructing the hybrid promoter from pShuttle-09 to PlapS further improved the β-Gal production by 60%. The usefulness of our promoter trap system is likely due to random shuffling and recombination of DNA fragments and adoption of a rapid and high-throughput screening. Thus, our data provide additional evidence to support the concept of using a promoter trap system to create new promoters. PMID:23409173

  15. Harmine promotes osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, Takayuki; Lee, Ji-Won; Hibino, Ayaka; Asai, Midori; Hojo, Hironori; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Teruya, Toshiaki; Nagai, Kazuo; Chung, Ung-Il; Yagasaki, Kazumi; and others

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Harmine promotes the activity and mRNA expression of ALP. {yields} Harmine enhances the expressions of osteocalcin mRNA and protein. {yields} Harmine induces osteoblastic mineralization. {yields} Harmine upregulates the mRNA expressions of BMPs, Runx2 and Osterix. {yields} BMP signaling pathways are involved in the actions of harmine. -- Abstract: Bone mass is regulated by osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. We previously reported that harmine, a {beta}-carboline alkaloid, inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of harmine on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralization. Harmine promoted alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in MC3T3-E1 cells without affecting their proliferation. Harmine also increased the mRNA expressions of the osteoblast marker genes ALP and Osteocalcin. Furthermore, the mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells was enhanced by treatment with harmine. Harmine also induced osteoblast differentiation in primary calvarial osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 cells. Structure-activity relationship studies using harmine-related {beta}-carboline alkaloids revealed that the C3-C4 double bond and 7-hydroxy or 7-methoxy group of harmine were important for its osteogenic activity. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist noggin and its receptor kinase inhibitors dorsomorphin and LDN-193189 attenuated harmine-promoted ALP activity. In addition, harmine increased the mRNA expressions of Bmp-2, Bmp-4, Bmp-6, Bmp-7 and its target gene Id1. Harmine also enhanced the mRNA expressions of Runx2 and Osterix, which are key transcription factors in osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, BMP-responsive and Runx2-responsive reporters were activated by harmine treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that harmine enhances osteoblast differentiation probably by inducing the expressions of

  16. Mapping of the Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein and coat protein subgenomic RNA promoters in vivo.

    PubMed

    Grdzelishvili, V Z; Chapman, S N; Dawson, W O; Lewandowski, D J

    2000-09-15

    The Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein (MP) and coat protein (CP) are expressed from 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs). The transcription start site of the MP sgRNA, previously mapped to positions 4838 (Y. Watanabe, T. Meshi, and Y. Okada (1984), FEBS Lett. 173, 247-250) and 4828 (K. Lehto, G. L. Grantham, and W. O. Dawson (1990), Virology 174, 145-157) for the TMV OM and U1 strains, respectively, has been reexamined and mapped to position 4838 for strain U1. Sequences of the MP and CP sgRNA promoters were delineated by deletion analysis. The boundaries for minimal and full MP sgRNA promoter activity were localized between -35 and +10 and -95 and +40, respectively, relative to the transcription start site. The minimal CP sgRNA promoter was mapped between -69 and +12, whereas the boundaries of the fully active promoter were between -157 and +54. Computer analysis predicted two stem-loop structures (SL1 and SL2) upstream of the MP sgRNA transcription start site. Deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis suggested that SL1 secondary structure, but not its sequence, was required for MP sgRNA promoter activity, whereas a 39-nt deletion removing most of the SL2 region increased MP sgRNA accumulation fourfold. Computer-predicted folding of the fully active CP sgRNA promoter revealed one long stem-loop structure. Deletion analysis suggested that the upper part of this stem-loop, located upstream of the transcription start site, was essential for transcription and that the lower part of the stem had an enhancing role. PMID:11017798

  17. Parathyroid Hormone–Related Protein Promotes Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Ardura, Juan Antonio; Rayego-Mateos, Sandra; Rámila, David; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process that contributes to renal fibrogenesis. TGF-β1 and EGF stimulate EMT. Recent studies suggested that parathyroid hormone–related protein (PTHrP) promotes fibrogenesis in the damaged kidney, apparently dependent on its interaction with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but whether it also interacts with TGF-β and EGF to modulate EMT is unknown. Here, PTHrP(1-36) increased TGF-β1 in cultured tubuloepithelial cells and TGF-β blockade inhibited PTHrP-induced EMT-related changes, including upregulation of α-smooth muscle actin and integrin-linked kinase, nuclear translocation of Snail, and downregulation of E-cadherin and zonula occludens-1. PTHrP(1-36) also induced EGF receptor (EGFR) activation; inhibition of protein kinase C and metalloproteases abrogated this activation. Inhibition of EGFR activation abolished these EMT-related changes, the activation of ERK1/2, and upregulation of TGF-β1 and VEGF by PTHrP(1-36). Moreover, inhibition of ERK1/2 blocked EMT induced by either PTHrP(1-36), TGF-β1, EGF, or VEGF. In vivo, obstruction of mouse kidneys led to changes consistent with EMT and upregulation of TGF-β1 mRNA, p-EGFR protein, and PTHrP. Taken together, these data suggest that PTHrP, TGF-β, EGF, and VEGF might cooperate through activation of ERK1/2 to induce EMT in renal tubuloepithelial cells. PMID:19959711

  18. Prion Protein Promotes Kidney Iron Uptake via Its Ferrireductase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Swati; Tripathi, Ajai; Qian, Juan; Beserra, Amber; Suda, Srinivas; McElwee, Matthew; Turner, Jerrold; Hopfer, Ulrich; Singh, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Brain iron-dyshomeostasis is an important cause of neurotoxicity in prion disorders, a group of neurodegenerative conditions associated with the conversion of prion protein (PrPC) from its normal conformation to an aggregated, PrP-scrapie (PrPSc) isoform. Alteration of iron homeostasis is believed to result from impaired function of PrPC in neuronal iron uptake via its ferrireductase activity. However, unequivocal evidence supporting the ferrireductase activity of PrPC is lacking. Kidney provides a relevant model for this evaluation because PrPC is expressed in the kidney, and ∼370 μg of iron are reabsorbed daily from the glomerular filtrate by kidney proximal tubule cells (PT), requiring ferrireductase activity. Here, we report that PrPC promotes the uptake of transferrin (Tf) and non-Tf-bound iron (NTBI) by the kidney in vivo and mainly NTBI by PT cells in vitro. Thus, uptake of 59Fe administered by gastric gavage, intravenously, or intraperitoneally was significantly lower in PrP-knock-out (PrP−/−) mouse kidney relative to PrP+/+ controls. Selective in vivo radiolabeling of plasma NTBI with 59Fe revealed similar results. Expression of exogenous PrPC in immortalized PT cells showed localization on the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles and increased transepithelial transport of 59Fe-NTBI and to a smaller extent 59Fe-Tf from the apical to the basolateral domain. Notably, the ferrireductase-deficient mutant of PrP (PrPΔ51–89) lacked this activity. Furthermore, excess NTBI and hemin caused aggregation of PrPC to a detergent-insoluble form, limiting iron uptake. Together, these observations suggest that PrPC promotes retrieval of iron from the glomerular filtrate via its ferrireductase activity and modulates kidney iron metabolism. PMID:25572394

  19. Prion protein promotes kidney iron uptake via its ferrireductase activity.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Swati; Tripathi, Ajai; Qian, Juan; Beserra, Amber; Suda, Srinivas; McElwee, Matthew; Turner, Jerrold; Hopfer, Ulrich; Singh, Neena

    2015-02-27

    Brain iron-dyshomeostasis is an important cause of neurotoxicity in prion disorders, a group of neurodegenerative conditions associated with the conversion of prion protein (PrP(C)) from its normal conformation to an aggregated, PrP-scrapie (PrP(Sc)) isoform. Alteration of iron homeostasis is believed to result from impaired function of PrP(C) in neuronal iron uptake via its ferrireductase activity. However, unequivocal evidence supporting the ferrireductase activity of PrP(C) is lacking. Kidney provides a relevant model for this evaluation because PrP(C) is expressed in the kidney, and ∼370 μg of iron are reabsorbed daily from the glomerular filtrate by kidney proximal tubule cells (PT), requiring ferrireductase activity. Here, we report that PrP(C) promotes the uptake of transferrin (Tf) and non-Tf-bound iron (NTBI) by the kidney in vivo and mainly NTBI by PT cells in vitro. Thus, uptake of (59)Fe administered by gastric gavage, intravenously, or intraperitoneally was significantly lower in PrP-knock-out (PrP(-/-)) mouse kidney relative to PrP(+/+) controls. Selective in vivo radiolabeling of plasma NTBI with (59)Fe revealed similar results. Expression of exogenous PrP(C) in immortalized PT cells showed localization on the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles and increased transepithelial transport of (59)Fe-NTBI and to a smaller extent (59)Fe-Tf from the apical to the basolateral domain. Notably, the ferrireductase-deficient mutant of PrP (PrP(Δ51-89)) lacked this activity. Furthermore, excess NTBI and hemin caused aggregation of PrP(C) to a detergent-insoluble form, limiting iron uptake. Together, these observations suggest that PrP(C) promotes retrieval of iron from the glomerular filtrate via its ferrireductase activity and modulates kidney iron metabolism. PMID:25572394

  20. Heat shock protein 27 promotes cell proliferation through activator protein-1 in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, SAI; HU, YANGMIN; HUANG, YUWEN; XU, HUIMIN; WU, GONGXIONG; DAI, HAIBIN

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is an important regulator involved in the development of lung cancer. However, limited evidence exists concerning the underlying molecular mechanisms of its action. The results of the present study revealed that HSP27 was highly expressed in the lung cancer tissues of mice. In an in vitro model, the overexpression of HSP27 promoted cell proliferation, while HSP27 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation. HSP27 promoted cell proliferation in vitro by directly upregulating the expression of HSP27 target genes, which required the activation of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling pathway. This was evaluated by the phosphorylation status of an important pathway component, c-Jun in lung cancer tissue and cells. These results suggested that HSP27 has a promotional role in lung cancer, and therefore indicated a novel mechanism involving lung cancer cell proliferation, which may underlie poor responses to therapy. Therefore, HSP27 may be a suitable therapeutic target for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:26137108

  1. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein MDI promotes local protein synthesis and mtDNA replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Xu, Hong

    2016-05-17

    Early embryonic development features rapid nuclear DNA replication cycles, but lacks mtDNA replication. To meet the high-energy demands of embryogenesis, mature oocytes are furnished with vast amounts of mitochondria and mtDNA However, the cellular machinery driving massive mtDNA replication in ovaries remains unknown. Here, we describe a Drosophila AKAP protein, MDI that recruits a translation stimulator, La-related protein (Larp), to the mitochondrial outer membrane in ovaries. The MDI-Larp complex promotes the synthesis of a subset of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins by cytosolic ribosomes on the mitochondrial surface. MDI-Larp's targets include mtDNA replication factors, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and electron-transport chain subunits. Lack of MDI abolishes mtDNA replication in ovaries, which leads to mtDNA deficiency in mature eggs. Targeting Larp to the mitochondrial outer membrane independently of MDI restores local protein synthesis and rescues the phenotypes of mdi mutant flies. Our work suggests that a selective translational boost by the MDI-Larp complex on the outer mitochondrial membrane might be essential for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial biogenesis during oogenesis. PMID:27053724

  2. Cellular Prion Protein Promotes Brucella Infection into Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Watarai, Masahisa; Kim, Suk; Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Makino, Sou-ichi; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Shirahata, Toshikazu; Sakaguchi, Suehiro; Katamine, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    The products of the Brucella abortus virB gene locus, which are highly similar to conjugative DNA transfer system, enable the bacterium to replicate within macrophage vacuoles. The replicative phagosome is thought to be established by the interaction of a substrate of the VirB complex with macrophages, although the substrate and its host cellular target have not yet been identified. We report here that Hsp60, a member of the GroEL family of chaperonins, of B. abortus is capable of interacting directly or indirectly with cellular prion protein (PrPC) on host cells. Aggregation of PrPC tail-like formation was observed during bacterial swimming internalization into macrophages and PrPC was selectively incorporated into macropinosomes containing B. abortus. Hsp60 reacted strongly with serum from human brucellosis patients and was exposed on the bacterial surface via a VirB complex–associated process. Under in vitro and in vivo conditions, Hsp60 of B. abortus bound to PrPC. Hsp60 of B. abortus, expressed on the surface of Lactococcus lactis, promoted the aggregation of PrPC but not PrPC tail formation on macrophages. The PrPC deficiency prevented swimming internalization and intracellular replication of B. abortus, with the result that phagosomes bearing the bacteria were targeted into the endocytic network. These results indicate that signal transduction induced by the interaction between bacterial Hsp60 and PrPC on macrophages contributes to the establishment of B. abortus infection. PMID:12847134

  3. Promotion of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling by Tetraspanins and Glycosphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Szymczak, Lindsey C.; Aydin, Taner; Yun, Sijung; Constas, Katharine; Schaeffer, Arielle; Ranjan, Sinthu; Kubba, Saad; Alam, Emad; McMahon, Devin E.; He, Jingpeng; Shwartz, Neta; Tian, Chenxi; Plavskin, Yevgeniy; Lindy, Amanda; Dad, Nimra Amir; Sheth, Sunny; Amin, Nirav M.; Zimmerman, Stephanie; Liu, Dennis; Schwarz, Erich M.; Smith, Harold; Krause, Michael W.; Liu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of secreted molecules. BMPs play essential roles in multiple developmental and homeostatic processes in metazoans. Malfunction of the BMP pathway can cause a variety of diseases in humans, including cancer, skeletal disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Identification of factors that ensure proper spatiotemporal control of BMP signaling is critical for understanding how this pathway is regulated. We have used a unique and sensitive genetic screen to identify the plasma membrane-localized tetraspanin TSP-21 as a key new factor in the C. elegans BMP-like “Sma/Mab” signaling pathway that controls body size and postembryonic M lineage development. We showed that TSP-21 acts in the signal-receiving cells and genetically functions at the ligand-receptor level. We further showed that TSP-21 can associate with itself and with two additional tetraspanins, TSP-12 and TSP-14, which also promote Sma/Mab signaling. TSP-12 and TSP-14 can also associate with SMA-6, the type I receptor of the Sma/Mab pathway. Finally, we found that glycosphingolipids, major components of the tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, are required for Sma/Mab signaling. Our findings suggest that the tetraspanin-enriched membrane microdomains are important for proper BMP signaling. As tetraspanins have emerged as diagnostic and prognostic markers for tumor progression, and TSP-21, TSP-12 and TSP-14 are all conserved in humans, we speculate that abnormal BMP signaling due to altered expression or function of certain tetraspanins may be a contributing factor to cancer development. PMID:25978409

  4. Ubiquitin promoter-terminator cassette promotes genetically stable expression of the taste-modifying protein miraculin in transgenic lettuce.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Shohael, Abdullah Mohammad; Kim, You-Wang; Yano, Megumu; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    Lettuce is a commercially important leafy vegetable that is cultivated worldwide, and it is also a target crop for plant factories. In this study, lettuce was selected as an alternative platform for recombinant miraculin production because of its fast growth, agronomic value, and wide availability. The taste-modifying protein miraculin is a glycoprotein extracted from the red berries of the West African native shrub Richadella dulcifica. Because of its limited natural availability, many attempts have been made to produce this protein in suitable alternative hosts. We produced transgenic lettuce with miraculin gene driven either by the ubiquitin promoter/terminator cassette from lettuce or a 35S promoter/nos terminator cassette. Miraculin gene expression and miraculin accumulation in both cassettes were compared by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression level of the miraculin gene and protein in transgenic lettuce was higher and more genetically stable in the ubiquitin promoter/terminator cassette than in the 35S promoter/nos terminator cassette. These results demonstrated that the ubiquitin promoter/terminator cassette is an efficient platform for the genetically stable expression of the miraculin protein in lettuce and hence this platform is of benefit for recombinant miraculin production on a commercial scale. PMID:21830129

  5. Identification of procollagen promoter DNA-binding proteins: effects of dexamethasone

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, C.; Cutroneo, K.R.

    1987-05-01

    Glucocorticoids selectively decrease procollagen synthesis by decreasing procollagen mRNA transcription. Dexamethasone coordinately decreased total cellular type I and type III procollagen mRNAs in mouse embryonic skin fibroblasts. Since sequence specific DNA-binding proteins are known to modulate eukaryotic gene expression the authors identified in mouse fibroblasts nuclear proteins which bind to types I and III procollagen promoter DNAs. Nuclear proteins were electrophoresed, blotted onto nitrocellulose and probed with /sup 32/P-end-labeled type I and type III procollagen promoter DNAs in the presence of equimolar amounts of /sup 32/P-end-labeled vector DNA. Differences in total DNA binding were noted by the densitometric scans of the nuclear proteins. Dexamethasone treatment enhanced total DNA binding. Increasing the NaCl concentration decreased the number of promoter DNA-binding proteins without altering the relative specificity for the promoter DNAs. Promoter DNA binding to nuclear proteins was also inhibited by increasing concentrations of E. coli DNA. The number of DNA-binding proteins was greater for type III procollagen promoter DNA. The effect of dexamethasone treatment on promoter DNA binding to nuclear proteins was determined.

  6. Converging mechanisms in ALS and FTD: Disrupted RNA and protein homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Shuo-Chien; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Cleveland, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Breakthrough discoveries identifying common genetic causes for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) have transformed our view of these disorders. They share unexpectedly similar signatures, including dysregulation in common molecular players including TDP-43, FUS/TLS, ubiquilin-2, VCP, and expanded hexanucleotide repeats within the C9ORF72 gene. Dysfunction in RNA processing and protein homeostasis is an emerging theme. We present the case here that these two processes are intimately linked, with disease-initiated perturbation of either leading to further deviation of both protein and RNA homeostasis through a feed-forward loop including cell-to-cell prion-like spread that may represent the mechanism for relentless disease progression. PMID:23931993

  7. Methods for promoting wound healing and muscle regeneration with the cell signaling protein Nell1

    DOEpatents

    Culiat, Cymbeline T

    2014-11-04

    The present invention provides methods for promoting wound healing and treating muscle atrophy in a mammal in need. The method comprises administering to the mammal a Nell1 protein or a Nell1 nucleic acid molecule.

  8. Methods for promoting wound healing and muscle regeneration with the cell signaling protein Nell1

    DOEpatents

    Culiat, Cymbeline T.

    2011-03-22

    The present invention provides methods for promoting wound healing and treating muscle atrophy in a mammal in need. The method comprises administering to the mammal a Nell1 protein or a Nell1 nucleic acid molecule.

  9. Prefoldin Promotes Proteasomal Degradation of Cytosolic Proteins with Missense Mutations by Maintaining Substrate Solubility

    PubMed Central

    Young, Barry P.; Loewen, Christopher J.; Mayor, Thibault

    2016-01-01

    Misfolded proteins challenge the ability of cells to maintain protein homeostasis and can accumulate into toxic protein aggregates. As a consequence, cells have adopted a number of protein quality control pathways to prevent protein aggregation, promote protein folding, and target terminally misfolded proteins for degradation. In this study, we employed a thermosensitive allele of the yeast Guk1 guanylate kinase as a model misfolded protein to investigate degradative protein quality control pathways. We performed a flow cytometry based screen to identify factors that promote proteasomal degradation of proteins misfolded as the result of missense mutations. In addition to the E3 ubiquitin ligase Ubr1, we identified the prefoldin chaperone subunit Gim3 as an important quality control factor. Whereas the absence of GIM3 did not impair proteasomal function or the ubiquitination of the model substrate, it led to the accumulation of the poorly soluble model substrate in cellular inclusions that was accompanied by delayed degradation. We found that Gim3 interacted with the Guk1 mutant allele and propose that prefoldin promotes the degradation of the unstable model substrate by maintaining the solubility of the misfolded protein. We also demonstrated that in addition to the Guk1 mutant, prefoldin can stabilize other misfolded cytosolic proteins containing missense mutations. PMID:27448207

  10. Prefoldin Promotes Proteasomal Degradation of Cytosolic Proteins with Missense Mutations by Maintaining Substrate Solubility.

    PubMed

    Comyn, Sophie A; Young, Barry P; Loewen, Christopher J; Mayor, Thibault

    2016-07-01

    Misfolded proteins challenge the ability of cells to maintain protein homeostasis and can accumulate into toxic protein aggregates. As a consequence, cells have adopted a number of protein quality control pathways to prevent protein aggregation, promote protein folding, and target terminally misfolded proteins for degradation. In this study, we employed a thermosensitive allele of the yeast Guk1 guanylate kinase as a model misfolded protein to investigate degradative protein quality control pathways. We performed a flow cytometry based screen to identify factors that promote proteasomal degradation of proteins misfolded as the result of missense mutations. In addition to the E3 ubiquitin ligase Ubr1, we identified the prefoldin chaperone subunit Gim3 as an important quality control factor. Whereas the absence of GIM3 did not impair proteasomal function or the ubiquitination of the model substrate, it led to the accumulation of the poorly soluble model substrate in cellular inclusions that was accompanied by delayed degradation. We found that Gim3 interacted with the Guk1 mutant allele and propose that prefoldin promotes the degradation of the unstable model substrate by maintaining the solubility of the misfolded protein. We also demonstrated that in addition to the Guk1 mutant, prefoldin can stabilize other misfolded cytosolic proteins containing missense mutations. PMID:27448207

  11. Multistage skin tumor promotion: involvement of a protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Mamrack, M.; Slaga, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current information suggests that chemical carcinogenesis is a multistep process with one of the best studied models in this regard being the two-stage carcinogenesis system using mouse skin. The effects of several carcinogens and tumor promoters in various sequences of application were studied to examine the nature of the process. The actions of several tumor inhibitors were compared. (ACR)

  12. Detection of hyperphosphorylated tau protein and α-synuclein in spinal cord of patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanjun; Wang, Luning; Zhu, Mingwei; Zhang, Honghong; Hu, Yazhuo; Han, Zhitao; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Weiqin; Wang, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuropathological features of the spinal cord in patients suffering with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Spinal cord tissue collected from three AD patients and eight controls was selected for the study. Data were collected at T2, T8, T10, L4, and S2 spinal levels. The sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and Gallyas–Braak staining methods and then were immunostained with antibodies such as phosphorylated tau protein (AT8), α-synuclein, Aβ, amyloid precursor protein, ubiquitin, and TDP-43. Pathological changes exhibited by the biomarkers were detected by microscopy. Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) were detectable in spinal anterior horn motor neurons in two of the three AD patients. AT8-positive axons or axon-like structures and AT8 expression in glial cells were detected in all three AD cases. Hyperphosphorylation of tau protein was detected in spinal anterior horn cells, glial cells, and axons, and its severity was associated with NFTs in the brain tissue. α-Synuclein-positive Lewy bodies and scattered Lewy-like neuritis were detected in the medial horn of the thoracic spinal cord and ventral sacral gray matter, respectively, in one patient who had AD with Lewy bodies. Neither amyloid deposition nor amyloid precursor protein and TDP-43 expression was detected in the spinal cord of AD patients. Spinal cord of AD patients was observed to contain phosphorylated tau protein and α-synuclein immunoreactive structures, which may play a role in dyskinesia and autonomic dysfunction in advanced AD. PMID:27013875

  13. Myofibrillar disruption and RNA-binding protein aggregation in a mouse model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1D.

    PubMed

    Bengoechea, Rocio; Pittman, Sara K; Tuck, Elizabeth P; True, Heather L; Weihl, Conrad C

    2015-12-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1D (LGMD1D) is caused by dominantly inherited missense mutations in DNAJB6, an Hsp40 co-chaperone. LGMD1D muscle has rimmed vacuoles and inclusion bodies containing DNAJB6, Z-disc proteins and TDP-43. DNAJB6 is expressed as two isoforms; DNAJB6a and DNAJB6b. Both isoforms contain LGMD1D mutant residues and are expressed in human muscle. To identify which mutant isoform confers disease pathogenesis and generate a mouse model of LGMD1D, we evaluated DNAJB6 expression and localization in skeletal muscle as well as generating DNAJB6 isoform specific expressing transgenic mice. DNAJB6a localized to myonuclei while DNAJB6b was sarcoplasmic. LGMD1D mutations in DNAJB6a or DNAJB6b did not alter this localization in mouse muscle. Transgenic mice expressing the LGMD1D mutant, F93L, in DNAJB6b under a muscle-specific promoter became weak, had early lethality and developed muscle pathology consistent with myopathy after 2 months; whereas mice expressing the same F93L mutation in DNAJB6a or overexpressing DNAJB6a or DNAJB6b wild-type transgenes remained unaffected after 1 year. DNAJB6b localized to the Z-disc and DNAJB6b-F93L expressing mouse muscle had myofibrillar disorganization and desmin inclusions. Consistent with DNAJB6 dysfunction, keratin 8/18, a DNAJB6 client also accumulated in DNAJB6b-F93L expressing mouse muscle. The RNA-binding proteins hnRNPA1 and hnRNPA2/B1 accumulated and co-localized with DNAJB6 at sarcoplasmic stress granules suggesting that these proteins maybe novel DNAJB6b clients. Similarly, hnRNPA1 and hnRNPA2/B1 formed sarcoplasmic aggregates in patients with LGMD1D. Our data support that LGMD1D mutations in DNAJB6 disrupt its sarcoplasmic function suggesting a role for DNAJB6b in Z-disc organization and stress granule kinetics. PMID:26362252

  14. Unconventional secretion of misfolded proteins promotes adaptation to proteasome dysfunction in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Gu; Takahama, Shokichi; Zhang, Guofeng; Tomarev, Stanislav I; Ye, Yihong

    2016-07-01

    To safeguard proteomic integrity, cells rely on the proteasome to degrade aberrant polypeptides, but it is unclear how cells remove defective proteins that have escaped degradation owing to proteasome insufficiency or dysfunction. Here we report a pathway termed misfolding-associated protein secretion, which uses the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated deubiquitylase USP19 to preferentially export aberrant cytosolic proteins. Intriguingly, the catalytic domain of USP19 possesses an unprecedented chaperone activity, allowing recruitment of misfolded proteins to the ER surface for deubiquitylation. Deubiquitylated cargos are encapsulated into ER-associated late endosomes and secreted to the cell exterior. USP19-deficient cells cannot efficiently secrete unwanted proteins, and grow more slowly than wild-type cells following exposure to a proteasome inhibitor. Together, our findings delineate a protein quality control (PQC) pathway that, unlike degradation-based PQC mechanisms, promotes protein homeostasis by exporting misfolded proteins through an unconventional protein secretion process. PMID:27295555

  15. Genome-wide promoter binding profiling of protein phosphatase-1 and its major nuclear targeting subunits

    PubMed Central

    Verheyen, Toon; Görnemann, Janina; Verbinnen, Iris; Boens, Shannah; Beullens, Monique; Van Eynde, Aleyde; Bollen, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) is a key regulator of transcription and is targeted to promoter regions via associated proteins. However, the chromatin binding sites of PP1 have never been studied in a systematic and genome-wide manner. Methylation-based DamID profiling in HeLa cells has enabled us to map hundreds of promoter binding sites of PP1 and three of its major nuclear interactors, i.e. RepoMan, NIPP1 and PNUTS. Our data reveal that the α, β and γ isoforms of PP1 largely bind to distinct subsets of promoters and can also be differentiated by their promoter binding pattern. PP1β emerged as the major promoter-associated isoform and shows an overlapping binding profile with PNUTS at dozens of active promoters. Surprisingly, most promoter binding sites of PP1 are not shared with RepoMan, NIPP1 or PNUTS, hinting at the existence of additional, largely unidentified chromatin-targeting subunits. We also found that PP1 is not required for the global chromatin targeting of RepoMan, NIPP1 and PNUTS, but alters the promoter binding specificity of NIPP1. Our data disclose an unexpected specificity and complexity in the promoter binding of PP1 isoforms and their chromatin-targeting subunits. PMID:25990731

  16. Mesoscopic model and free energy landscape for protein-DNA binding sites: analysis of cyanobacterial promoters.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Rojo, Rafael; Mazo, Juan José; Hernández, José Ángel; Peleato, María Luisa; Fillat, María F; Falo, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    The identification of protein binding sites in promoter sequences is a key problem to understand and control regulation in biochemistry and biotechnological processes. We use a computational method to analyze promoters from a given genome. Our approach is based on a physical model at the mesoscopic level of protein-DNA interaction based on the influence of DNA local conformation on the dynamics of a general particle along the chain. Following the proposed model, the joined dynamics of the protein particle and the DNA portion of interest, only characterized by its base pair sequence, is simulated. The simulation output is analyzed by generating and analyzing the Free Energy Landscape of the system. In order to prove the capacity of prediction of our computational method we have analyzed nine promoters of Anabaena PCC 7120. We are able to identify the transcription starting site of each of the promoters as the most populated macrostate in the dynamics. The developed procedure allows also to characterize promoter macrostates in terms of thermo-statistical magnitudes (free energy and entropy), with valuable biological implications. Our results agree with independent previous experimental results. Thus, our methods appear as a powerful complementary tool for identifying protein binding sites in promoter sequences. PMID:25275384

  17. Mesoscopic Model and Free Energy Landscape for Protein-DNA Binding Sites: Analysis of Cyanobacterial Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Rojo, Rafael; Mazo, Juan José; Hernández, José Ángel; Peleato, María Luisa; Fillat, María F.; Falo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The identification of protein binding sites in promoter sequences is a key problem to understand and control regulation in biochemistry and biotechnological processes. We use a computational method to analyze promoters from a given genome. Our approach is based on a physical model at the mesoscopic level of protein-DNA interaction based on the influence of DNA local conformation on the dynamics of a general particle along the chain. Following the proposed model, the joined dynamics of the protein particle and the DNA portion of interest, only characterized by its base pair sequence, is simulated. The simulation output is analyzed by generating and analyzing the Free Energy Landscape of the system. In order to prove the capacity of prediction of our computational method we have analyzed nine promoters of Anabaena PCC 7120. We are able to identify the transcription starting site of each of the promoters as the most populated macrostate in the dynamics. The developed procedure allows also to characterize promoter macrostates in terms of thermo-statistical magnitudes (free energy and entropy), with valuable biological implications. Our results agree with independent previous experimental results. Thus, our methods appear as a powerful complementary tool for identifying protein binding sites in promoter sequences. PMID:25275384

  18. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  19. Cold shock domain proteins repress transcription from the GM-CSF promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Coles, L S; Diamond, P; Occhiodoro, F; Vadas, M A; Shannon, M F

    1996-01-01

    The human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene promoter binds a sequence-specific single-strand DNA binding protein termed NF-GMb. We previously demonstrated that the NF-GMb binding sites were required for repression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induction of the proximal GM-CSF promoter sequences in fibroblasts. We now describe the isolation of two different cDNA clones that encode cold shock domain (CSD) proteins with NF-GMb binding characteristics. One is identical to the previously reported CSD protein dbpB and the other is a previously unreported variant of the dbpA CSD factor. This is the first report of CSD factors binding to a cytokine gene. Nuclear NF-GMb and expressed CSD proteins have the same binding specificity for the GM-CSF promoter and other CSD binding sites. We present evidence that CSD factors are components of the nuclear NF-GMb complex. We also demonstrate that overexpression of the CSD proteins leads to complete repression of the proximal GM-CSF promoter containing the NF-GMb/CSD binding sites. Surprisingly, we show that CSD overexpression can also directly repress a region of the promoter which apparently lacks NF-GMb/CSD binding sites. NF-GMb/CSD factors may hence be acting by two different mechanisms. We discuss the potential importance of CSD factors in maintaining strict regulation of the GM-CSF gene. PMID:8710501

  20. Engineering enhanced protein disaggregases for neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Jackrel, Meredith E; Shorter, James

    2015-01-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation underpin several fatal neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). There are no treatments that directly antagonize the protein-misfolding events that cause these disorders. Agents that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native form and function could simultaneously eliminate any deleterious loss-of-function or toxic gain-of-function caused by misfolded conformers. Moreover, a disruptive technology of this nature would eliminate self-templating conformers that spread pathology and catalyze formation of toxic, soluble oligomers. Here, we highlight our efforts to engineer Hsp104, a protein disaggregase from yeast, to more effectively disaggregate misfolded proteins connected with PD, ALS, and FTD. Remarkably subtle modifications of Hsp104 primary sequence yielded large gains in protective activity against deleterious α-synuclein, TDP-43, FUS, and TAF15 misfolding. Unusually, in many cases loss of amino acid identity at select positions in Hsp104 rather than specific mutation conferred a robust therapeutic gain-of-function. Nevertheless, the misfolding and toxicity of EWSR1, an RNA-binding protein with a prion-like domain linked to ALS and FTD, could not be buffered by potentiated Hsp104 variants, indicating that further amelioration of disaggregase activity or sharpening of substrate specificity is warranted. We suggest that neuroprotection is achievable for diverse neurodegenerative conditions via surprisingly subtle structural modifications of existing chaperones. PMID:25738979

  1. Engineering enhanced protein disaggregases for neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Jackrel, Meredith E; Shorter, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Protein misfolding and aggregation underpin several fatal neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). There are no treatments that directly antagonize the protein-misfolding events that cause these disorders. Agents that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native form and function could simultaneously eliminate any deleterious loss-of-function or toxic gain-of-function caused by misfolded conformers. Moreover, a disruptive technology of this nature would eliminate self-templating conformers that spread pathology and catalyze formation of toxic, soluble oligomers. Here, we highlight our efforts to engineer Hsp104, a protein disaggregase from yeast, to more effectively disaggregate misfolded proteins connected with PD, ALS, and FTD. Remarkably subtle modifications of Hsp104 primary sequence yielded large gains in protective activity against deleterious α-synuclein, TDP-43, FUS, and TAF15 misfolding. Unusually, in many cases loss of amino acid identity at select positions in Hsp104 rather than specific mutation conferred a robust therapeutic gain-of-function. Nevertheless, the misfolding and toxicity of EWSR1, an RNA-binding protein with a prion-like domain linked to ALS and FTD, could not be buffered by potentiated Hsp104 variants, indicating that further amelioration of disaggregase activity or sharpening of substrate specificity is warranted. We suggest that neuroprotection is achievable for diverse neurodegenerative conditions via surprisingly subtle structural modifications of existing chaperones. PMID:25738979

  2. Strong seed-specific protein expression from the Vigna radiata storage protein 8SGα promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo-Xian; Zheng, Shu-Xiao; Yang, Yue-Ning; Xu, Chao; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong; Chye, Mee-Len; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-03-20

    Vigna radiata (mung bean) is an important crop plant and is a major protein source in developing countries. Mung bean 8S globulins constitute nearly 90% of total seed storage protein and consist of three subunits designated as 8SGα, 8SGα' and 8SGβ. The 5'-flanking sequences of 8SGα' has been reported to confer high expression in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In this study, a 472-bp 5'-flanking sequence of 8SGα was identified by genome walking. Computational analysis subsequently revealed the presence of numerous putative seed-specific cis-elements within. The 8SGα promoter was then fused to the gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) to create a reporter construct for Arabidopsis thaliana transformation. The spatial and temporal expression of 8SGα∷GUS, as investigated using GUS histochemical assays, showed GUS expression exclusively in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Quantitative GUS assays revealed that the 8SGα promoter showed 2- to 4-fold higher activity than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. This study has identified a seed-specific promoter of high promoter strength, which is potentially useful for directing foreign protein expression in seed bioreactors. PMID:24503210

  3. Bacillus anthracis SlaQ Promotes S-Layer Protein Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Mau, Sao-Mai; Oh, So-Young; Schneewind, Daphne I.; Missiakas, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacillus anthracis vegetative forms assemble an S-layer comprised of two S-layer proteins, Sap and EA1. A hallmark of S-layer proteins are their C-terminal crystallization domains, which assemble into a crystalline lattice once these polypeptides are deposited on the bacterial surface via association between their N-terminal S-layer homology domains and the secondary cell wall polysaccharide. Here we show that slaQ, encoding a small cytoplasmic protein conserved among pathogenic bacilli elaborating S-layers, is required for the efficient secretion and assembly of Sap and EA1. S-layer protein precursors cosediment with SlaQ, and SlaQ appears to facilitate Sap assembly. Purified SlaQ polymerizes and when mixed with purified Sap promotes the in vitro formation of tubular S-layer structures. A model is discussed whereby SlaQ, in conjunction with S-layer secretion factors SecA2 and SlaP, promotes localized secretion and S-layer assembly in B. anthracis. IMPORTANCE S-layer proteins are endowed with the propensity for self-assembly into crystalline arrays. Factors promoting S-layer protein assembly have heretofore not been reported. We identified Bacillus anthracis SlaQ, a small cytoplasmic protein that facilitates S-layer protein assembly in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26216847

  4. Centriolar satellites assemble centrosomal microcephaly proteins to recruit CDK2 and promote centriole duplication.

    PubMed

    Kodani, Andrew; Yu, Timothy W; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Jayaraman, Divya; Johnson, Tasha L; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Sztriha, Lāszló; Partlow, Jennifer N; Kim, Hanjun; Krup, Alexis L; Dammermann, Alexander; Krogan, Nevan J; Walsh, Christopher A; Reiter, Jeremy F

    2015-01-01

    Primary microcephaly (MCPH) associated proteins CDK5RAP2, CEP152, WDR62 and CEP63 colocalize at the centrosome. We found that they interact to promote centriole duplication and form a hierarchy in which each is required to localize another to the centrosome, with CDK5RAP2 at the apex, and CEP152, WDR62 and CEP63 at sequentially lower positions. MCPH proteins interact with distinct centriolar satellite proteins; CDK5RAP2 interacts with SPAG5 and CEP72, CEP152 with CEP131, WDR62 with MOONRAKER, and CEP63 with CEP90 and CCDC14. These satellite proteins localize their cognate MCPH interactors to centrosomes and also promote centriole duplication. Consistent with a role for satellites in microcephaly, homozygous mutations in one satellite gene, CEP90, may cause MCPH. The satellite proteins, with the exception of CCDC14, and MCPH proteins promote centriole duplication by recruiting CDK2 to the centrosome. Thus, centriolar satellites build a MCPH complex critical for human neurodevelopment that promotes CDK2 centrosomal localization and centriole duplication. PMID:26297806

  5. Centriolar satellites assemble centrosomal microcephaly proteins to recruit CDK2 and promote centriole duplication

    PubMed Central

    Kodani, Andrew; Yu, Timothy W; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Jayaraman, Divya; Johnson, Tasha L; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Sztriha, Lāszló; Partlow, Jennifer N; Kim, Hanjun; Krup, Alexis L; Dammermann, Alexander; Krogan, Nevan J; Walsh, Christopher A; Reiter, Jeremy F

    2015-01-01

    Primary microcephaly (MCPH) associated proteins CDK5RAP2, CEP152, WDR62 and CEP63 colocalize at the centrosome. We found that they interact to promote centriole duplication and form a hierarchy in which each is required to localize another to the centrosome, with CDK5RAP2 at the apex, and CEP152, WDR62 and CEP63 at sequentially lower positions. MCPH proteins interact with distinct centriolar satellite proteins; CDK5RAP2 interacts with SPAG5 and CEP72, CEP152 with CEP131, WDR62 with MOONRAKER, and CEP63 with CEP90 and CCDC14. These satellite proteins localize their cognate MCPH interactors to centrosomes and also promote centriole duplication. Consistent with a role for satellites in microcephaly, homozygous mutations in one satellite gene, CEP90, may cause MCPH. The satellite proteins, with the exception of CCDC14, and MCPH proteins promote centriole duplication by recruiting CDK2 to the centrosome. Thus, centriolar satellites build a MCPH complex critical for human neurodevelopment that promotes CDK2 centrosomal localization and centriole duplication. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07519.001 PMID:26297806

  6. Heat Shock Proteins Promote Cancer: It's a Protection Racket.

    PubMed

    Calderwood, Stuart K; Gong, Jianlin

    2016-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSP) are expressed at high levels in cancer and form a fostering environment that is essential for tumor development. Here, we review the recent data in this area, concentrating mainly on Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90. The overriding role of HSPs in cancer is to stabilize the active functions of overexpressed and mutated cancer genes. Thus, elevated HSPs are required for many of the traits that underlie the morbidity of cancer, including increased growth, survival, and formation of secondary cancers. In addition, HSPs participate in the evolution of cancer treatment resistance. HSPs are also released from cancer cells and influence malignant properties by receptor-mediated signaling. Current data strongly support efforts to target HSPs in cancer treatment. PMID:26874923

  7. Cytomegalovirus immediate early proteins promote stemness properties in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Soroceanu, Liliana; Matlaf, Lisa; Khan, Sabeena; Akhavan, Armin; Singer, Eric; Bezrookove, Vladimir; Decker, Stacy; Ghanny, Saleena; Hadaczek, Piotr; Bengtsson, Henrik; Ohlfest, John; Luciani-Torres, Maria-Gloria; Harkins, Lualhati; Perry, Arie; Guo, Hong; Soteropoulos, Patricia; Cobbs, Charles S

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive human brain tumor. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early (IE) proteins that are endogenously expressed in GBM cells are strong viral transactivators with onconcogenic properties. Here, we show how HCMV IE are preferentially expressed in glioma stem-like cells (GSC), where they co-localize with the other GBM stemness markers, CD133, Nestin, and Sox2. In patient-derived GSC that are endogenously infected with HCMV, attenuating IE expression by an RNA-i-based strategy, was sufficient to inhibit tumorsphere formation, Sox2 expression, cell cycle progression, and cell survival. Conversely, HCMV infection of HMCV-negative GSC elicited robust self-renewal and proliferation of cells that could be partially reversed by IE attenuation. In HCMV-positive GSC, IE attenuation induced a molecular program characterized by enhanced expression of mesenchymal markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines, resembling the therapeutically-resistant GBM phenotype. Mechanistically, HCMV/IE regulation of Sox2 occurred via inhibition of miRNA-145, a negative regulator of Sox2 protein expression. In a spontaneous mouse model of glioma, ectopic expression of the IE1 gene (UL123) specifically increased Sox2 and Nestin levels in the IE1-positive tumors, upregulating stemness and proliferation markers in vivo. Similarly, human GSC infected with the HCMV strain Towne but not the IE1-deficient strain CR208 showed enhanced growth as tumorspheres and intracranial tumor xenografts, compared to mock-infected human GSC. Overall, our findings offer new mechanistic insights into how HCMV/IE control stemness properties in glioblastoma cells. PMID:26239477

  8. Over-represented localized sequence motifs in ribosomal protein gene promoters of basal metazoans.

    PubMed

    Perina, Drago; Korolija, Marina; Roller, Maša; Harcet, Matija; Jeličić, Branka; Mikoč, Andreja; Cetković, Helena

    2011-07-01

    Equimolecular presence of ribosomal proteins (RPs) in the cell is needed for ribosome assembly and is achieved by synchronized expression of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) with promoters of similar strengths. Over-represented motifs of RPG promoter regions are identified as targets for specific transcription factors. Unlike RPs, those motifs are not conserved between mammals, drosophila, and yeast. We analyzed RPGs proximal promoter regions of three basal metazoans with sequenced genomes: sponge, cnidarian, and placozoan and found common features, such as 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tracts and TATA-boxes. Furthermore, we identified over-represented motifs, some of which displayed the highest similarity to motifs abundant in human RPG promoters and not present in Drosophila or yeast. Our results indicate that humans over-represented motifs, as well as corresponding domains of transcription factors, were established very early in metazoan evolution. The fast evolving nature of RPGs regulatory network leads to formation of other, lineage specific, over-represented motifs. PMID:21457775

  9. The use of heterogeneous and epitaxial nucleants to promote the growth of protein crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherson, Alexander; Shlichta, P.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty different mineral samples were tested as potential heterogeneous or epitaxial nucleants for four commonly crystallized proteins. It was found, using conventional protein crystallization techniques, that for each protein there was a set of mineral substrates that promoted nucleation of crystals at lower critical levels of supersaturation than required for spontaneous growth. In at least one case, the growth of lysozyme on the mineral apophyllite, it was shown by lattice analysis and X-ray diffraction that the nucleation and growth of the protein crystal on the mineral was likely to be truly epitaxial.

  10. E6-AP promotes misfolded polyglutamine proteins for proteasomal degradation and suppresses polyglutamine protein aggregation and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amit; Dikshit, Priyanka; Purkayastha, Sudarshana; Sharma, Jaiprakash; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Jana, Nihar Ranjan

    2008-03-21

    The accumulation of intracellular protein deposits as inclusion bodies is the common pathological hallmark of most age-related neurodegenerative disorders including polyglutamine diseases. Appearance of aggregates of the misfolded mutant disease proteins suggest that cells are unable to efficiently degrade them, and failure of clearance leads to the severe disturbances of the cellular quality control system. Recently, the quality control ubiquitin ligase CHIP has been shown to suppress the polyglutamine protein aggregation and toxicity. Here we have identified another ubiquitin ligase, called E6-AP, which is able to promote the proteasomal degradation of misfolded polyglutamine proteins and suppress the polyglutamine protein aggregation and polyglutamine protein-induced cell death. E6-AP interacts with the soluble misfolded polyglutamine protein and associates with their aggregates in both cellular and transgenic mouse models. Partial knockdown of E6-AP enhances the rate of aggregate formation and cell death mediated by the polyglutamine protein. Finally, we have demonstrated the up-regulation of E6-AP in the expanded polyglutamine protein-expressing cells as well as cells exposed to proteasomal stress. These findings suggest that E6-AP is a critical mediator of the neuronal response to misfolded polyglutamine proteins and represents a potential therapeutic target in the polyglutamine diseases. PMID:18201976

  11. Dual-promoter lentiviral system allows inducible expression of noxious proteins in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hui; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Eruslanov, Evgeny; Kotton, Darrell N.

    2008-01-01

    In-depth studies of innate immunity require efficient genetic manipulation of macrophages, which is especially difficult in primary macrophages. We have developed a lentiviral system for inducible gene expression both in macrophage cell lines and in primary macrophages. A transgenic mouse strain C3H.TgN(SRA-rtTA) that expresses reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA) under the control of macrophage-specific promoter, a modified human scavenger receptor A (SR-A) promoter was generated. For gene delivery, we constructed a dual-promoter lentiviral vector, in which expression of a “gene-of-interest” is driven by a doxycycline-inducible promoter and the expression of a selectable surface marker is driven by an independent constitutive promoter UBC. This vector is used for transduction of bone marrow-derived macrophage precursors. The transduced cells can be enriched to 95–99% purity using marker-specific monoclonal antibodies, expanded and differentiated into mature macrophages or myeloid dendritic cells. We also successfully used this approach for inducible protein expression in hard to transfect macrophage cell lines. Because many proteins, which are expressed by activated or infected macrophages, possess cytotoxic, anti-proliferative or pro-apoptotic activities, generation of stable macrophage cell lines that constitutively express those proteins is impossible. Our method will be especially useful to study immunity-related macrophage proteins in their physiological context during macrophage activation or infection. PMID:17967462

  12. Targeting of a histone acetyltransferase domain to a promoter enhances protein expression levels in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kwaks, T H J; Sewalt, R G A B; van Blokland, R; Siersma, T J; Kasiem, M; Kelder, A; Otte, A P

    2005-01-12

    Silencing of transfected genes in mammalian cells is a fundamental problem that probably involves the (in)accessibility status of chromatin. A potential solution to this problem is to provide a cell with protein factors that make the chromatin of a promoter more open or accessible for transcription. We tested this by targeting such proteins to different promoters. We found that targeting the p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain to strong viral or cellular promoters is sufficient to result in higher expression levels of a reporter protein. In contrast, targeting the chromatin-remodeling factor Brahma does not result in stable, higher protein expression levels. The long-term effects of the targeted p300HAT domain on protein expression levels are positively reinforced, when also anti-repressor elements are applied to flank the reporter construct. These elements were previously shown to be potent blockers of chromatin-associated repressors. The simultaneous application of the targeted p300HAT domain and anti-repressor elements conveys long-term stability to protein expression. Whereas no copy number dependency is achieved by targeting of the p300HAT domain alone, copy number dependency is improved when anti-repressor elements are included. We conclude that targeting of protein domains such as HAT domains helps to facilitate expression of transfected genes in mammalian cells. However, the simultaneous application of other genomic elements such as the anti-repressor elements prevents silencing more efficiently. PMID:15607223

  13. Compensation for differences in gene copy number among yeast ribosomal proteins is encoded within their promoters

    PubMed Central

    Zeevi, Danny; Sharon, Eilon; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Lubling, Yaniv; Shipony, Zohar; Raveh-Sadka, Tali; Keren, Leeat; Levo, Michal; Weinberger, Adina; Segal, Eran

    2011-01-01

    Coordinate regulation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes is key for controlling cell growth. In yeast, it is unclear how this regulation achieves the required equimolar amounts of the different RP components, given that some RP genes exist in duplicate copies, while others have only one copy. Here, we tested whether the solution to this challenge is partly encoded within the DNA sequence of the RP promoters, by fusing 110 different RP promoters to a fluorescent gene reporter, allowing us to robustly detect differences in their promoter activities that are as small as ∼10%. We found that single-copy RP promoters have significantly higher activities, suggesting that proper RP stoichiometry is indeed partly encoded within the RP promoters. Notably, we also partially uncovered how this regulation is encoded by finding that RP promoters with higher activity have more nucleosome-disfavoring sequences and characteristic spatial organizations of these sequences and of binding sites for key RP regulators. Mutations in these elements result in a significant decrease of RP promoter activity. Thus, our results suggest that intrinsic (DNA-dependent) nucleosome organization may be a key mechanism by which genomes encode biologically meaningful promoter activities. Our approach can readily be applied to uncover how transcriptional programs of other promoters are encoded. PMID:22009988

  14. PPAR-β/δ activation promotes phospholipid transfer protein expression.

    PubMed

    Chehaibi, Khouloud; Cedó, Lídia; Metso, Jari; Palomer, Xavier; Santos, David; Quesada, Helena; Naceur Slimane, Mohamed; Wahli, Walter; Julve, Josep; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Jauhiainen, Matti; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles

    2015-03-15

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-β/δ has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for treating dyslipidemia, including beneficial effects on HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). In the current study, we determined the effects of the PPAR-β/δ agonist GW0742 on HDL composition and the expression of liver HDL-related genes in mice and cultured human cells. The experiments were carried out in C57BL/6 wild-type, LDL receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice and PPAR-β/δ-deficient mice treated with GW0742 (10mg/kg/day) or a vehicle solution for 14 days. GW0742 upregulated liver phospholipid transfer protein (Pltp) gene expression and increased serum PLTP activity in mice. When given to wild-type mice, GW0742 significantly increased serum HDL-C and HDL phospholipids; GW0742 also raised serum potential to generate preβ-HDL formation. The GW0742-mediated effects on liver Pltp expression and serum enzyme activity were completely abolished in PPAR-β/δ-deficient mice. GW0742 also stimulated PLTP mRNA expression in mouse J774 macrophages, differentiated human THP-1 macrophages and human hepatoma Huh7. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a common transcriptional upregulation by GW0742-activated PPAR-β/δ of Pltp expression in cultured cells and in mouse liver resulting in enhanced serum PLTP activity. Our results also indicate that PPAR-β/δ activation may modulate PLTP-mediated preβ-HDL formation and macrophage cholesterol efflux. PMID:25662586

  15. The inhibition of IGF-1 signaling promotes proteostasis by enhancing protein aggregation and deposition.

    PubMed

    Moll, Lorna; Ben-Gedalya, Tziona; Reuveni, Hadas; Cohen, Ehud

    2016-04-01

    The discovery that the alteration of aging by reducing the activity of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) cascade protects nematodes and mice from neurodegeneration-linked, toxic protein aggregation (proteotoxicity) raises the prospect that IIS inhibitors bear therapeutic potential to counter neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we reported that NT219, a highly efficient IGF-1 signaling inhibitor, protects model worms from the aggregation of amyloid β peptide and polyglutamine peptides that are linked to the manifestation of Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases, respectively. Here, we employed cultured cell systems to investigate whether NT219 promotes protein homeostasis (proteostasis) in mammalian cells and to explore its underlying mechanisms. We found that NT219 enhances the aggregation of misfolded prion protein and promotes its deposition in quality control compartments known as "aggresomes." NT219 also elevates the levels of certain molecular chaperones but, surprisingly, reduces proteasome activity and impairs autophagy. Our findings show that IGF-1 signaling inhibitors in general and NT219 in particular can promote proteostasis in mammalian cells by hyperaggregating hazardous proteins, thereby bearing the potential to postpone the onset and slow the progression of neurodegenerative illnesses in the elderly.-Moll, L., Ben-Gedalya, T., Reuveni, H., Cohen, E. The inhibition of IGF-1 signaling promotes proteostasis by enhancing protein aggregation and deposition. PMID:26722006

  16. Rep provides a second motor at the replisome to promote duplication of protein-bound DNA.

    PubMed

    Guy, Colin P; Atkinson, John; Gupta, Milind K; Mahdi, Akeel A; Gwynn, Emma J; Rudolph, Christian J; Moon, Peter B; van Knippenberg, Ingeborg C; Cadman, Chris J; Dillingham, Mark S; Lloyd, Robert G; McGlynn, Peter

    2009-11-25

    Nucleoprotein complexes present challenges to genome stability by acting as potent blocks to replication. One attractive model of how such conflicts are resolved is direct targeting of blocked forks by helicases with the ability to displace the blocking protein-DNA complex. We show that Rep and UvrD each promote movement of E. coli replisomes blocked by nucleoprotein complexes in vitro, that such an activity is required to clear protein blocks (primarily transcription complexes) in vivo, and that a polarity of translocation opposite that of the replicative helicase is critical for this activity. However, these two helicases are not equivalent. Rep but not UvrD interacts physically and functionally with the replicative helicase. In contrast, UvrD likely provides a general means of protein-DNA complex turnover during replication, repair, and recombination. Rep and UvrD therefore provide two contrasting solutions as to how organisms may promote replication of protein-bound DNA. PMID:19941825

  17. DNA damage promotes Herpes Simplex Virus-1 protein expression in a neuroblastoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Volcy, Ketna; Fraser, Nigel W.

    2013-01-01

    Although the induction of the cellular DNA damage response by Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection of epithelial cells in tissue culture promotes productive infection, there has been no experimental observation of the effect of the cellular DNA damage response on HSV-1 infection in vivo or in neuronal derived cell lines in tissue culture. Thus, it has been speculated that the lack of cellular DNA damage induction during infection of neurons may promote latency in these cells. This work examines the profile of HSV-1 promoter induction and protein expression, in the absence or presence of infection; using cellular DNA damage inducing topoisomerase inhibitors (Camptothecin and Etoposide) on a neuroblastoma cell line (C1300) in which HSV-1 infection fails to induce the DNA damage response. In the absence of infection, a plasmid expressing the immediate early ICP0 promoter was the most induced by the DNA damage drug treatments compared to the early (RR) and late (VP16) gene promoters. Similarly, drug treatment of C1300 cells infected with HSV-1 virus showed enhanced protein expression for ICP0, but not ICP4 and VP16 proteins. However, when the cells were infected with a HSV-1 virus defective in the immediate early gene trans-activator VP16 (in814) and treated with the DNA damaging drugs, there was enhanced expression of immediate early and late HSV-1 proteins. Although, viral infection of the neuroblastoma cell alone did not induce DNA damage, cellular DNA damage induced by drug treatments facilitated viral promoter induction and viral protein expression. This implicates a mechanism by which HSV-1 viral genes in a quiescent or latent state may become induced by cellular DNA damage in neuronal cells to facilitate productive infection. PMID:23354549

  18. Surface density of the Hendra G protein modulates Hendra F protein-promoted membrane fusion: Role for Hendra G protein trafficking and degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Whitman, Shannon D.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis . E-mail: rdutc2@uky.edu

    2007-07-05

    Hendra virus, like most paramyxoviruses, requires both a fusion (F) and attachment (G) protein for promotion of cell-cell fusion. Recent studies determined that Hendra F is proteolytically processed by the cellular protease cathepsin L after endocytosis. This unique cathepsin L processing results in a small percentage of Hendra F on the cell surface. To determine how the surface densities of the two Hendra glycoproteins affect fusion promotion, we performed experiments that varied the levels of glycoproteins expressed in transfected cells. Using two different fusion assays, we found a marked increase in fusion when expression of the Hendra G protein was increased, with a 1:1 molar ratio of Hendra F:G on the cell surface resulting in optimal membrane fusion. Our results also showed that Hendra G protein levels are modulated by both more rapid protein turnover and slower protein trafficking than is seen for Hendra F.

  19. The genomic sequence of the murine major vault protein and its promoter.

    PubMed

    Mossink, Marieke; van Zon, Arend; Fränzel-Luiten, Erna; Schoester, Martijn; Scheffer, George L; Scheper, Rik J; Sonneveld, Pieter; Wiemer, Erik A C

    2002-07-10

    Vaults are ribonucleoproteins of unknown function, consisting of three different proteins and multiple copies of small untranslated RNA molecules. One of the protein subunits has been identified as TEP1, a protein that is also associated with the telomerase complex. Another protein appears to contain a functional PARP domain and is hence called VPARP. The third protein, major vault protein (MVP), is believed to make up 70% of the total mass of the vault complex and to be responsible for the typical barrel-shaped structure of vaults. We have isolated the murine MVP cDNA and compared the amino acid sequence with MVP from other species. Over 90% of sequence identity was found between mouse, human and rat, and a considerable degree of identity between mouse and MVPs from lower eukaryotes. We also found that the genomic structure of the murine MVP gene closely resembles the organization of the human MVP gene, both consisting of 15 exons of which most have exactly the same size. Finally we have isolated a genomic region upstream (and partially overlapping) the first untranslated exon, that displayed promoter activity in a luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, we showed that the sequences from the first exon together with the 5'-end of the first intron enhance the promoter activity, implying the presence of essential promoter elements in this region. Alignment of the murine promoter region with the homologous sequences of the human gene revealed an identity of 58%. The apparent presence of conserved promoter elements suggests a similar regulation of human and murine MVP expression. PMID:12234684

  20. Bacteriophage PSP3 and phiR73 activator proteins: analysis of promoter specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Julien, B; Calendar, R

    1996-01-01

    Transcription from the late promoters of bacteriophage P2 and its satellite phage P4 is activated by a unique class of small, zinc-binding proteins. Using plasmid expression systems, we compared activators from two P2-like (helper) phages with those encoded by two satellite phages. The helper phage activators have more activity on the P4 phage sid promoter. In contrast, the satellite phage activators function better on the four late P2 promoters and on the P4 late leftward promoter. We purified one activator encoded by a P2-like phage and an activator from a satellite phage and determined their binding sites within the P2 and P4 late promoters. Differences in activity levels correlate with binding specificities; promoters that function best with the satellite phage activators have only one activator binding site centered at -55, while the P4 sid promoter, which has more activity with helper phage activators, has a second binding site centered at -18. Surprisingly, DNase I footprinting revealed only very minor differences in promoter binding by the two activators reported here and the P4 activator reported previously. Thus, the differences in transcriptional activity are probably due to interactions between the activators and RNA polymerase, rather than interactions between the activators and DNA. PMID:8824611

  1. A Chimeric Arabinogalactan Protein Promotes Somatic Embryogenesis in Cotton Cell Culture1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Simon; Heath, Robyn Louise; Clarke, Adrienne Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a family of extracellular plant proteoglycans implicated in many aspects of plant growth and development, including in vitro somatic embryogenesis (SE). We found that specific AGPs were produced by cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) calli undergoing SE and that when these AGPs were isolated and incorporated into tissue culture medium, cotton SE was promoted. When the AGPs were partly or fully deglycosylated, SE-promoting activity was not diminished. Testing of AGPs separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the SE-promoting activity resided in a hydrophobic fraction. We cloned a full-length complementary DNA (cotton PHYTOCYANIN-LIKE ARABINOGALACTAN-PROTEIN1 [GhPLA1]) that encoded the protein backbone of an AGP in the active fraction. It has a chimeric structure comprising an amino-terminal signal sequence, a phytocyanin-like domain, an AGP-like domain, and a hydrophobic carboxyl-terminal domain. Recombinant production of GhPLA1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells enabled us to purify and analyze a single glycosylated AGP and to demonstrate that this chimeric AGP promotes cotton SE. Furthermore, the nonglycosylated phytocyanin-like domain from GhPLA1, which was bacterially produced, also promoted SE, indicating that the glycosylated AGP domain was unnecessary for in vitro activity. PMID:22858635

  2. Integration of bacterial expansin-like proteins into cellulosome promotes the cellulose degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Cui, Zhenling; Song, Xiangfei; Liu, Ya-Jun; Cui, Qiu; Feng, Yingang

    2016-03-01

    Cellulosomes are multi-enzyme complexes assembled by cellulases and hemicellulases through dockerin-cohesin interactions, which are the most efficient system for the degradation of lignocellulosic resources in nature. Recent genomic analysis of a cellulosome-producing anaerobe Clostridium clariflavum DSM 19732 revealed that two expansin-like proteins, Clocl_1298 and Clocl_1862, contain a dockerin module, which suggests that they are components of the cellulosome. Bacterial expansin-like proteins do not have hydrolytic activities, but can facilitate the degradation of cellulosic biomass via synergistic effects with cellulases. In this study, the synergistic effect of the expansin-like proteins with both native and designer cellulosomes was investigated. The free expansin-like proteins, including expansin-like domains of Clocl_1298 and Clocl_1862, as well as a well-studied bacterial expansin-like protein BsEXLX1 from Bacillus subtilis, promoted the cellulose degradation by native cellulosomes, indicating the cellulosomal expansin-like proteins have the synergistic function. When they were integrated into a trivalent designer cellulosome, the synergistic effect was further amplified. The sequence and structure analyses indicated that these cellulosomal expansin-like proteins share the conserved functional mechanism with other bacterial expansin-like proteins. These results indicated that non-catalytic expansin-like proteins in the cellulosome can enhance the activity of the cellulosome in lignocellulose degradation. The involvement of functional expansin-like proteins in the cellulosome also implies new physiological functions of bacterial expansin-like proteins and cellulosomes. PMID:26521249

  3. Discovery of a super-strong promoter enables efficient production of heterologous proteins in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Haifeng; Meng, Hengkai; Zhu, Yan; Bao, Guanhui; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin; Ma, Yanhe

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes that play important roles in the global carbon cycle. Recently, engineered cyanobacteria capable of producing various small molecules from CO2 have been developed. However, cyanobacteria are seldom considered as factories for producing proteins, mainly because of the lack of efficient strong promoters. Here, we report the discovery and verification of a super-strong promoter P(cpc560), which contains two predicted promoters and 14 predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Using P(cpc560), functional proteins were produced at a level of up to 15% of total soluble protein in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. 6803, a level comparable to that produced in Escherichia coli. We demonstrated that the presence of multiple TFBSs in P(cpc560) is crucial for its promoter strength. Genetically transformable cyanobacteria neither have endotoxins nor form inclusion bodies; therefore, P(cpc560) opens the possibility to use cyanobacteria as alternative hosts for producing heterogeneous proteins from CO2 and inorganic nutrients. PMID:24675756

  4. Bacterial promoter repression by DNA looping without protein–protein binding competition

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Nicole A.; Greiner, Alexander M.; Peters, Justin P.; Maher, L. James

    2014-01-01

    The Escherichia coli lactose operon provides a paradigm for understanding gene control by DNA looping where the lac repressor (LacI) protein competes with RNA polymerase for DNA binding. Not all promoter loops involve direct competition between repressor and RNA polymerase. This raises the possibility that positioning a promoter within a tightly constrained DNA loop is repressive per se, an idea that has previously only been considered in vitro. Here, we engineer living E. coli bacteria to measure repression due to promoter positioning within such a tightly constrained DNA loop in the absence of protein–protein binding competition. We show that promoters held within such DNA loops are repressed ∼100-fold, with up to an additional ∼10-fold repression (∼1000-fold total) dependent on topological positioning of the promoter on the inner or outer face of the DNA loop. Chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggest that repression involves inhibition of both RNA polymerase initiation and elongation. These in vivo results show that gene repression can result from tightly looping promoter DNA even in the absence of direct competition between repressor and RNA polymerase binding. PMID:24598256

  5. Activated protein C prevents inflammation yet stimulates angiogenesis to promote cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Christopher J; Xue, Meilang; Thompson, Patrick; Davey, Ross A; Whitmont, Kaley; Smith, Susan; Buisson-Legendre, Nathalie; Sztynda, Tamara; Furphy, Louise J; Cooper, Alan; Sambrook, Philip; March, Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is a serine protease that plays a central role in physiological anticoagulation, and has more recently been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory mediator. Using cultured human cells, we show here that APC up-regulates the angiogenic promoters matrix metalloproteinase-2 in skin fibroblasts and umbilical vein endothelial cells, vascular endothelial growth factor in keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fibroblasts. In the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay, APC promoted the granulation/remodeling phases of wound healing by markedly stimulating angiogenesis as well as promoting reepithelialization. In a full-thickness rat skin-healing model, a single topical application of APC enhanced wound healing compared to saline control. APC-treated wounds had markedly more blood vessels on day 7 and a significantly lower infiltration of neutrophils at days 4 and 7. The broad spectrum matrix metallo-proteinase, GM6001, prevented the ability of APC to promote wound healing. In summary, our results show that APC promotes cutaneous wound healing via a complex mechanism involving stimulation of angiogenesis and inhibition of inflammation. These unique properties of APC make it an attractive therapeutic agent to promote the healing of chronic wounds. PMID:15953048

  6. Three fur homologues from Anabaena sp. PCC7120: exploring reciprocal protein-promoter recognition.

    PubMed

    Hernández, José A; López-Gomollón, Sara; Bes, M Teresa; Fillat, María F; Peleato, M Luisa

    2004-07-15

    DNA sequence analysis of the Anabaena sp. PCC7120 genome confirmed the presence of three open reading frames (all1691, all2473 and alr0957) containing the histidine-rich region characteristic of the Fur family. The genes coding for the three Fur proteins were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The overexpression products, called FurA, FurB and FurC are only distantly related. The ability of the three recombinant proteins to bind iron-boxes identified in the three fur promoter regions was tested by electrophoretical mobility shift assays. FurA binds the three fur promoters with increased affinity in presence of metal. FurB also binds the three fur promoters, and its affinity is increased with DTT. FurC does not bind to furA or furB promoter regions or to its own promoter. However, FurC affects the ability of FurB and FurA to bind their target promoters. PMID:15251208

  7. SecA Alone Can Promote Protein Translocation and Ion Channel Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ying-hsin; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Bor-ruei; Cui, Ningren; Na, Bing; Yang, Hsiuchin; Jiang, Chun; Sui, Sen-fang; Tai, Phang C.

    2011-01-01

    SecA is an essential component of the Sec-dependent protein translocation pathway across cytoplasmic membranes in bacteria. Escherichia coli SecA binds to cytoplasmic membranes at SecYEG high affinity sites and at phospholipid low affinity sites. It has been widely viewed that SecYEG functions as the essential protein-conducting channel through which precursors cross the membranes in bacterial Sec-dependent pathways, and that SecA functions as a motor to hydrolyze ATP in translocating precursors through SecYEG channels. We have now found that SecA alone can promote precursor translocation into phospholiposomes. Moreover, SecA-liposomes elicit ionic currents in Xenopus oocytes. Patch-clamp recordings further show that SecA alone promotes signal peptide- or precursor-dependent single channel activity. These activities were observed with the functional SecA at about 1–2 μm. The results show that SecA alone is sufficient to promote protein translocation into liposomes and to elicit ionic channel activity at the phospholipids low affinity binding sites, thus indicating that SecA is able to form the protein-conducting channels. Even so, such SecA-liposomes are less efficient than those with a full complement of Sec proteins, and lose the signal-peptide proofreading function, resembling the effects of PrlA mutations. Addition of purified SecYEG restores the signal peptide specificity and increases protein translocation and ion channel activities. These data show that SecA can promote protein translocation and ion channel activities both when it is bound to lipids at low affinity sites and when it is bound to SecYEG with high affinity. The latter of the two interactions confers high efficiency and specificity. PMID:22033925

  8. Enhanced green fluorescent protein expression in Pleurotus ostreatus for in vivo analysis of fungal laccase promoters.

    PubMed

    Amore, Antonella; Honda, Yoichi; Faraco, Vincenza

    2012-10-01

    The laccase family of Pleurotus ostreatus has been widely characterized, and studies of the genes coding for laccase isoenzymes in P. ostreatus have so far led to the identification of four different genes and the corresponding cDNAs, poxc, pox1, poxa1b and poxa3. Analyses of P. ostreatus laccase promoters poxc, pox1, poxa1b and poxa3 have allowed identification of several putative response elements, and sequences of metal-responsive elements involved in the formation of complexes with fungal proteins have been identified in poxc and poxa1b promoters. In this work, development of a system for in vivo analysis of P. ostreatus laccase promoter poxc by enhanced green fluorescent protein expression is performed, based on a poly ethylene glycol-mediated procedure for fungal transformation. A quantitative measurement of fluorescence expressed in P. ostreatus transformants is hereby reported for the first time for this fungus. PMID:22893518

  9. Construction of an effective protein expression system using the tpl promoter in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Takashi; Katayama, Takane; Hirao, Ai; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Kumagai, Hidehiko

    2005-09-01

    An effective protein expression system was constructed in Escherichia coli using the promoter of the tyrosine phenol-lyase (tpl) gene of Erwinia herbicola. This system involves a mutant form of the TyrR protein with an enhanced ability to activate tpl and the TutB protein with an ability to transport L-tyrosine (an inducer of Tpl). The highest expression level obtained for this system was more than twice that obtained for the tac system, although it was lower than the level obtained for the T7 system, as revealed with the lac-reporter assay and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:16215823

  10. Uniform accumulation of recombinant miraculin protein in transgenic tomato fruit using a fruit-ripening-specific E8 promoter.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kim, You-Wang; Kato, Kazuhisa; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    The E8 promoter, a tomato fruit-ripening-specific promoter, and the CaMV 35S promoter, a constitutive promoter, were used to express the miraculin gene encoding the taste-modifying protein in tomato. The accumulation of miraculin protein and mRNA was compared among transgenic tomatoes expressing the miraculin gene driven by these promoters. Recombinant miraculin protein predominantly accumulated in transgenic tomato lines using the E8 promoter (E8-MIR) only at the red fruit stage. The accumulations were almost uniform among all fruit tissues. When the 35S promoter (35S-MIR) was used, miraculin accumulation in the exocarp was much higher than in other tissues, indicating that the miraculin accumulation pattern can be regulated by using different types of promoters. We also discuss the potential of the E8-MIR lines for practical use. PMID:21359850

  11. Isolation and characterization of oil palm constitutive promoter derived from ubiquitin extension protein (uep1) gene.

    PubMed

    Masura, Subhi Siti; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2010-09-30

    The ubiquitin extension protein (uep1) gene was identified as a constitutively expressed gene in oil palm. We have isolated and characterized the 5' region of the oil palm uep1 gene, which contains an 828 bp sequence upstream of the uep1 translational start site. Construction of a pUEP1 transformation vector, which contains gusA reporter gene under the control of uep1 promoter, was carried out for functional analysis of the promoter through transient expression studies. It was found that the 5' region of uep1 functions as a constitutive promoter in oil palm and could drive GUS expression in all tissues tested, including embryogenic calli, embryoid, immature embryo, young leaflet from mature palm, green leaf, mesocarp and meristematic tissues (shoot tip). This promoter could also be used in dicot systems as it was demonstrated to be capable of driving gusA gene expression in tobacco. PMID:20123048

  12. Neural regeneration protein is a novel chemoattractive and neuronal survival-promoting factor

    SciTech Connect

    Gorba, Thorsten; Bradoo, Privahini; Antonic, Ana; Marvin, Keith; Liu, Dong-Xu; Lobie, Peter E.; Reymann, Klaus G.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Sieg, Frank . E-mail: fsieg@neurenpharma.com

    2006-10-01

    Neurogenesis and neuronal migration are the prerequisites for the development of the central nervous system. We have identified a novel rodent gene encoding for a neural regeneration protein (NRP) with an activity spectrum similar to the chemokine stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1, but with much greater potency. The Nrp gene is encoded as a forward frameshift to the hypothetical alkylated DNA repair protein AlkB. The predicted protein sequence of NRP contains domains with homology to survival-promoting peptide (SPP) and the trefoil protein TFF-1. The Nrp gene is first expressed in neural stem cells and expression continues in glial lineages. Recombinant NRP and NRP-derived peptides possess biological activities including induction of neural migration and proliferation, promotion of neuronal survival, enhancement of neurite outgrowth and promotion of neuronal differentiation from neural stem cells. NRP exerts its effect on neuronal survival by phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 and Akt kinases, whereas NRP stimulation of neural migration depends solely on p44/42 MAP kinase activity. Taken together, the expression profile of Nrp, the existence in its predicted protein structure of domains with similarities to known neuroprotective and migration-inducing factors and the high potency of NRP-derived synthetic peptides acting in femtomolar concentrations suggest it to be a novel gene of relevance in cellular and developmental neurobiology.

  13. The innate immune protein calprotectin promotes Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wakeman, Catherine A.; Moore, Jessica L.; Noto, Michael J.; Zhang, Yaofang; Singleton, Marc D.; Prentice, Boone M.; Gilston, Benjamin A.; Doster, Ryan S.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Chazin, Walter J.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms form biofilms containing differentiated cell populations. To determine factors driving differentiation, we herein visualize protein and metal distributions within Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using imaging mass spectrometry. These in vitro experiments reveal correlations between differential protein distribution and metal abundance. Notably, zinc- and manganese-depleted portions of the biofilm repress the production of anti-staphylococcal molecules. Exposure to calprotectin (a host protein known to sequester metal ions at infectious foci) recapitulates responses occurring within metal-deplete portions of the biofilm and promotes interaction between P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Consistent with these results, the presence of calprotectin promotes co-colonization of the murine lung, and polymicrobial communities are found to co-exist in calprotectin-enriched airspaces of a cystic fibrosis lung explant. These findings, which demonstrate that metal fluctuations are a driving force of microbial community structure, have clinical implications because of the frequent occurrence of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus co-infections. PMID:27301800

  14. The innate immune protein calprotectin promotes Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus interaction.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Catherine A; Moore, Jessica L; Noto, Michael J; Zhang, Yaofang; Singleton, Marc D; Prentice, Boone M; Gilston, Benjamin A; Doster, Ryan S; Gaddy, Jennifer A; Chazin, Walter J; Caprioli, Richard M; Skaar, Eric P

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms form biofilms containing differentiated cell populations. To determine factors driving differentiation, we herein visualize protein and metal distributions within Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using imaging mass spectrometry. These in vitro experiments reveal correlations between differential protein distribution and metal abundance. Notably, zinc- and manganese-depleted portions of the biofilm repress the production of anti-staphylococcal molecules. Exposure to calprotectin (a host protein known to sequester metal ions at infectious foci) recapitulates responses occurring within metal-deplete portions of the biofilm and promotes interaction between P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Consistent with these results, the presence of calprotectin promotes co-colonization of the murine lung, and polymicrobial communities are found to co-exist in calprotectin-enriched airspaces of a cystic fibrosis lung explant. These findings, which demonstrate that metal fluctuations are a driving force of microbial community structure, have clinical implications because of the frequent occurrence of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus co-infections. PMID:27301800

  15. Evaluation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 promoter for protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Michael; DaSilva, Nancy A

    2005-04-30

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 promoter (P(ADH2)) is repressed several hundred-fold in the presence of glucose; transcription is initiated once the glucose in the medium is exhausted. The promoter can thus be utilized for effective regulation of recombinant gene expression in S. cerevisiae without the addition of an inducer. To evaluate this promoter in the absence of plasmid copy number and stability variations, the P(ADH2)-lacZ cassette was integrated into the yeast chromosomes. The effects of medium composition, glucose concentration and cultivation time on promoter derepression and expression level were investigated. Maximum protein activity was obtained after 48 h of growth in complex YPD medium containing 1% glucose. The widely used S. cerevisiae GAL1 and CUP1 promoters both require the addition of an inducer [galactose and copper(II) ion, respectively] before regulated genes will be expressed. The strengths of these three different promoters were compared for cells containing one copy of an integrated lacZ gene under their control. The ADH2 promoter was superior for all induction strategies investigated. PMID:15849781

  16. Intramembrane proteolysis promotes trafficking of hepatitis C virus core protein to lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    McLauchlan, John; Lemberg, Marius K; Hope, Graham; Martoglio, Bruno

    2002-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major causative pathogen associated with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The virus has a positive-sense RNA genome encoding a single polyprotein with the virion components located in the N-terminal portion. During biosynthesis of the polyprotein, an internal signal sequence between the core protein and the envelope protein E1 targets the nascent polypeptide to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for translocation of E1 into the ER. Following membrane insertion, the signal sequence is cleaved from E1 by signal peptidase. Here we provide evidence that after cleavage by signal peptidase, the signal peptide is further processed by the intramembrane-cleaving protease SPP that promotes the release of core protein from the ER membrane. Core protein is then free for subsequent trafficking to lipid droplets. This study represents an example of a potential role for intramembrane proteolysis in the maturation of a viral protein. PMID:12145199

  17. Poxviruses Encode a Reticulon-Like Protein that Promotes Membrane Curvature

    PubMed Central

    Erlandson, Karl J.; Bisht, Himani; Weisberg, Andrea S.; Hyun, Seong-In; Hansen, Bryan T.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Hinshaw, Jenny E.; Moss, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Poxviruses are enveloped DNA viruses that replicate within the cytoplasm. The first viral structures are crescents and spherical particles with a lipoprotein membrane bilayer thought to be derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We determined that A17, a conserved viral transmembrane protein essential for crescent formation, forms homo-oligomers and shares topological features with cellular reticulon-like proteins, which promote membrane curvature and contribute to the tubular structure of the ER. When the purified A17 protein was incorporated into liposomes, 25 nm diameter vesicles and tubules formed at low and high A17 concentrations, respectively. In addition, intracellular expression of A17, in the absence of other viral structural proteins, transformed the ER into aggregated 3-dimensional tubular networks. We suggest that A17 is a viral reticulon-like protein that contributes to curvature during biogenesis of the poxvirus membrane. PMID:26923595

  18. High mobility group nucleosome-binding family proteins promote astrocyte differentiation of neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Motoshi; Lanjakornsiripan, Darin; Itoh, Yasuhiro; Kishi, Yusuke; Ogata, Toru; Gotoh, Yukiko

    2014-11-01

    Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the mammalian brain and are important for the functions of the central nervous system. Although previous studies have shown that the STAT signaling pathway or its regulators promote the generation of astrocytes from multipotent neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the developing mammalian brain, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the astrocytic fate decision have still remained largely unclear. Here, we show that the high mobility group nucleosome-binding (HMGN) family proteins, HMGN1, 2, and 3, promote astrocyte differentiation of NPCs during brain development. HMGN proteins were expressed in NPCs, Sox9(+) glial progenitors, and GFAP(+) astrocytes in perinatal and adult brains. Forced expression of either HMGN1, 2, or 3 in NPCs in cultures or in the late embryonic neocortex increased the generation of astrocytes at the expense of neurons. Conversely, knockdown of either HMGN1, 2, or 3 in NPCs suppressed astrocyte differentiation and promoted neuronal differentiation. Importantly, overexpression of HMGN proteins did not induce the phosphorylation of STAT3 or activate STAT reporter genes. In addition, HMGN family proteins did not enhance DNA demethylation and acetylation of histone H3 around the STAT-binding site of the gfap promoter. Moreover, knockdown of HMGN family proteins significantly reduced astrocyte differentiation induced by gliogenic signal ciliary neurotrophic factor, which activates the JAK-STAT pathway. Therefore, we propose that HMGN family proteins are novel chromatin regulatory factors that control astrocyte fate decision/differentiation in parallel with or downstream of the JAK-STAT pathway through modulation of the responsiveness to gliogenic signals. PMID:25069414

  19. Role of Ingested Amino Acids and Protein in the Promotion of Resistance Exercise-Induced Muscle Protein Anabolism.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Paul T; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this critical review is to comprehensively assess the evidence for the molecular, physiologic, and phenotypic skeletal muscle responses to resistance exercise (RE) combined with the nutritional intervention of protein and/or amino acid (AA) ingestion in young adults. We gathered the literature regarding the translational response in human skeletal muscle to acute exposure to RE and protein/AA supplements and the literature describing the phenotypic skeletal muscle adaptation to RE and nutritional interventions. Supplementation of protein/AAs with RE exhibited clear protein dose-dependent effects on translational regulation (protein synthesis) through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, which was most apparent through increases in p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation, compared with postexercise recovery in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. These acute findings were critically tested via long-term exposure to RE training (RET) and protein/AA supplementation, and it was determined that a diminishing protein/AA supplement effect occurs over a prolonged exposure stimulus after exercise training. Furthermore, we found that protein/AA supplements, combined with RET, produced a positive, albeit minor, effect on the promotion of lean mass growth (when assessed in >20 participants/treatment); a negligible effect on muscle mass; and a negligible to no additional effect on strength. A potential concern we discovered was that the majority of the exercise training studies were underpowered in their ability to discern effects of protein/AA supplementation. Regardless, even when using optimal methodology and large sample sizes, it is clear that the effect size for protein/AA supplementation is low and likely limited to a subset of individuals because the individual variability is high. With regard to nutritional intakes, total protein intake per day, rather than protein timing or quality, appears to be more of a factor on

  20. RecQ promotes toxic recombination in cells lacking recombination intermediate-removal proteins.

    PubMed

    Magner, Daniel B; Blankschien, Matthew D; Lee, Jennifer A; Pennington, Jeanine M; Lupski, James R; Rosenberg, Susan M

    2007-04-27

    The RecQ-helicase family is widespread, is highly conserved, and includes human orthologs that suppress genomic instability and cancer. In vivo, some RecQ homologs promote reduction of steady-state levels of bimolecular recombination intermediates (BRIs), which block chromosome segregation if not resolved. We find that, in vivo, E. coli RecQ can promote the opposite: the net accumulation of BRIs. We report that cells lacking Ruv and UvrD BRI-resolution and -prevention proteins die and display failed chromosome segregation attributable to accumulation of BRIs. Death and segregation failure require RecA and RecF strand exchange proteins. FISH data show that replication is completed during chromosome-segregation failure/death of ruv uvrD recA(Ts) cells. Surprisingly, RecQ (and RecJ) promotes this death. The data imply that RecQ promotes the net accumulation of BRIs in vivo, indicating a second paradigm for the in vivo effect of RecQ-like proteins. The E. coli RecQ paradigm may provide a useful model for some human RecQ homologs. PMID:17466628

  1. BAG2 promotes tumorigenesis through enhancing mutant p53 protein levels and function

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Xuetian; Zhao, Yuhan; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Cen; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Jiabei; Zheng, Tongsen; Liu, Lianxin; Li, Jun; Feng, Zhaohui; Hu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in tumors. Many mutant p53 (mutp53) proteins promote tumorigenesis through the gain-of-function (GOF) mechanism. Mutp53 proteins often accumulate to high levels in tumors, which is critical for mutp53 GOF. Its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we found that BAG2, a protein of Bcl-2 associated athanogene (BAG) family, promotes mutp53 accumulation and GOF in tumors. Mechanistically, BAG2 binds to mutp53 and translocates to the nucleus to inhibit the MDM2-mutp53 interaction, and MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of mutp53. Thus, BAG2 promotes mutp53 accumulation and GOF in tumor growth, metastasis and chemoresistance. BAG2 is frequently overexpressed in tumors. BAG2 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in patients and mutp53 accumulation in tumors. These findings revealed a novel and important mechanism for mutp53 accumulation and GOF in tumors, and also uncovered an important role of BAG2 in tumorigenesis through promoting mutp53 accumulation and GOF. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08401.001 PMID:26271008

  2. RecQ Promotes Toxic Recombination in Cells Lacking Recombination-Intermediate-Removal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Magner, Daniel B.; Blankschien, Matthew D.; Lee, Jennifer A.; Pennington, Jeanine M.; Lupski, James R.; Rosenberg, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The RecQ-helicase family is widespread, highly conserved, and includes human orthologues that suppress genomic instability and cancer. In vivo, some RecQ homologues promote reduction of steady-state levels of bimolecular recombination intermediates (BRIs), which block chromosome segregation if not resolved. We find that in vivo, E. coli RecQ can promote the opposite: the net accumulation of BRIs. We report that cells lacking Ruv and UvrD BRI-resolution and -prevention proteins die and display failed chromosome segregation attributable to accumulation of BRIs. Death and segregation failure require RecA and RecF strand-exchange proteins. FISH data show that replication is completed during chromosome-segregation failure/death of ruv uvrD recA(Ts) cells. Surprisingly, RecQ (and RecJ) promote this death. The data imply that RecQ promotes the net accumulation of BRIs in vivo, indicating a second paradigm for the in-vivo effect of RecQ-like proteins. The E. coli RecQ paradigm may provide a useful model for some human RecQ homologues. PMID:17466628

  3. A Novel Protein Isoform of the Multicopy Human NAIP Gene Derives from Intragenic Alu SINE Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Romanish, Mark T.; Nakamura, Hisae; Lai, C. Benjamin; Wang, Yuzhuo; Mager, Dixie L.

    2009-01-01

    The human neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene is no longer principally considered a member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family, as its domain structure and functions in innate immunity also warrant inclusion in the Nod-Like Receptor (NLR) superfamily. NAIP is located in a region of copy number variation, with one full length and four partly deleted copies in the reference human genome. We demonstrate that several of the NAIP paralogues are expressed, and that novel transcripts arise from both internal and upstream transcription start sites. Remarkably, two internal start sites initiate within Alu short interspersed element (SINE) retrotransposons, and a third novel transcription start site exists within the final intron of the GUSBP1 gene, upstream of only two NAIP copies. One Alu functions alone as a promoter in transient assays, while the other likely combines with upstream L1 sequences to form a composite promoter. The novel transcripts encode shortened open reading frames and we show that corresponding proteins are translated in a number of cell lines and primary tissues, in some cases above the level of full length NAIP. Interestingly, some NAIP isoforms lack their caspase-sequestering motifs, suggesting that they have novel functions. Moreover, given that human and mouse NAIP have previously been shown to employ endogenous retroviral long terminal repeats as promoters, exaptation of Alu repeats as additional promoters provides a fascinating illustration of regulatory innovations adopted by a single gene. PMID:19488400

  4. Two distinct promoter architectures centered on dynamic nucleosomes control ribosomal protein gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Knight, Britta; Kubik, Slawomir; Ghosh, Bhaswar; Bruzzone, Maria Jessica; Geertz, Marcel; Martin, Victoria; Dénervaud, Nicolas; Jacquet, Philippe; Ozkan, Burak; Rougemont, Jacques; Maerkl, Sebastian J; Naef, Félix; Shore, David

    2014-08-01

    In yeast, ribosome production is controlled transcriptionally by tight coregulation of the 138 ribosomal protein genes (RPGs). RPG promoters display limited sequence homology, and the molecular basis for their coregulation remains largely unknown. Here we identify two prevalent RPG promoter types, both characterized by upstream binding of the general transcription factor (TF) Rap1 followed by the RPG-specific Fhl1/Ifh1 pair, with one type also binding the HMG-B protein Hmo1. We show that the regulatory properties of the two promoter types are remarkably similar, suggesting that they are determined to a large extent by Rap1 and the Fhl1/Ifh1 pair. Rapid depletion experiments allowed us to define a hierarchy of TF binding in which Rap1 acts as a pioneer factor required for binding of all other TFs. We also uncovered unexpected features underlying recruitment of Fhl1, whose forkhead DNA-binding domain is not required for binding at most promoters, and Hmo1, whose binding is supported by repeated motifs. Finally, we describe unusually micrococcal nuclease (MNase)-sensitive nucleosomes at all RPG promoters, located between the canonical +1 and -1 nucleosomes, which coincide with sites of Fhl1/Ifh1 and Hmo1 binding. We speculate that these "fragile" nucleosomes play an important role in regulating RPG transcriptional output. PMID:25085421

  5. CPF1, a yeast protein which functions in centromeres and promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, J; Jiang, W; Funk, M; Rathjen, J; Barnes, C A; Hinz, T; Hegemann, J H; Philippsen, P

    1990-01-01

    Centromeres and several promoters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain a highly conserved octanucleotide, RTCACRTG, called CDEI. Using biochemical, genetic and structural analyses, we show that the same protein binds in vivo to CDEI sites in centromeres and in promoters. This protein, called CPF1 for centromere promoter factor, binds DNA as a dimer. Inactivation of the gene is not lethal but leads to a partial loss of the centromere function and to a Met- phenotype. Changes of the chromatin structure due to inactivation of CPF1 are seen at centromeres and at several CDEI-carrying promoters (e.g. MET25, TRP1, GAL2). However promoter activities are affected in diverse ways making it presently difficult to describe a function for CPF1 in gene expression. The sequence of the cloned gene reveals in the carboxy-terminal part two potential amphipathic helices preceded by a positively charged stretch of amino acids very similar to the helix-loop-helix domains recently identified in factors controlling tissue specific transcription in higher eukaryotes. Carboxy-terminal truncations of CPF1 lacking this domain no longer bind to CDEI. The amino-terminal half of CPF1 carries two clusters of negatively charged amino acid residues. Surprisingly, deletions of these clusters still render cells Met+ and lead only to a marginal decrease in centromere activity. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2249662

  6. Dual amyloid domains promote differential functioning of the chaplin proteins during Streptomyces aerial morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Capstick, David S.; Jomaa, Ahmad; Hanke, Chistopher; Ortega, Joaquin; Elliot, Marie A.

    2011-01-01

    The chaplin proteins are functional amyloids found in the filamentous Streptomyces bacteria. These secreted proteins are required for the aerial development of Streptomyces coelicolor, and contribute to an intricate rodlet ultrastructure that decorates the surfaces of aerial hyphae and spores. S. coelicolor encodes eight chaplin proteins. Previous studies have revealed that only three of these proteins (ChpC, ChpE, and ChpH) are necessary for promoting aerial development, and of these three, ChpH is the primary developmental determinant. Here, we show that the model chaplin, ChpH, contains two amyloidogenic domains: one in the N terminus and one in the C terminus of the mature protein. These domains have different polymerization properties as determined using fluorescence spectroscopy, secondary structure analyses, and electron microscopy. We coupled these in vitro assays with in vivo genetic studies to probe the connection between ChpH amyloidogenesis and its biological function. Using mutational analyses, we demonstrated that both N- and C-terminal amyloid domains of ChpH were required for promoting aerial hypha formation, while the N-terminal domain was dispensable for assembly of the rodlet ultrastructure. These results suggest that there is a functional differentiation of the dual amyloid domains in the chaplin proteins. PMID:21628577

  7. Effects of gene dosage, promoters, and substrates on unfolded protein stress of recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hohenblum, Hubertus; Gasser, Brigitte; Maurer, Michael; Borth, Nicole; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2004-02-20

    The expression of heterologous proteins may exert severe stress on the host cells at different levels. Depending on the specific features of the product, different steps may be rate-limiting. For the secretion of recombinant proteins from yeast cells, folding and disulfide bond formation were identified as rate-limiting in several cases and the induction of the chaperone BiP (binding protein) is described. During the development of Pichia pastoris strains secreting human trypsinogen, a severe limitation of the amount of secreted product was identified. Strains using either the AOX1 or the GAP promoter were compared at different gene copy numbers. With the constitutive GAP promoter, no effect on the expression level was observed, whereas with the inducible AOX1 promoter an increase of the copy number above two resulted in a decrease of expression. To identify whether part of the product remained in the cells, lysates were fractionated and significant amounts of the product were identified in the insoluble fraction containing the endoplasmic reticulum, while the soluble cytosolic fraction contained product only in clones using the GAP promoter. An increase of BiP was observed upon induction of expression, indicating that the intracellular product fraction exerts an unfolded protein response in the host cells. A strain using the GAP promoter was grown both on glucose and methanol and trypsinogen was identified in the insoluble fractions of both cultures, but only in the soluble fraction of the glucose grown cultures, indicating that the amounts and distribution of intracellularly retained product depends on the culture conditions, especially the carbon source. PMID:14755554

  8. Modulation of cellular and viral promoters by mutant human p53 proteins found in tumor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Deb, S; Jackson, C T; Subler, M A; Martin, D W

    1992-01-01

    Wild-type p53 has recently been shown to repress transcription from several cellular and viral promoters. Since p53 mutations are the most frequently reported genetic defects in human cancers, it becomes important to study the effects of mutations of p53 on promoter functions. We, therefore, have studied the effects of wild-type and mutant human p53 on the human proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) promoter and on several viral promoters, including the herpes simplex virus type 1 UL9 promoter, the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoter-enhancer, and the long terminal repeat promoters of Rous sarcoma virus and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. HeLa cells were cotransfected with a wild-type or mutant p53 expression vector and a plasmid containing a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene under viral (or cellular) promoter control. As expected, expression of the wild-type p53 inhibited promoter function. Expression of a p53 with a mutation at any one of the four amino acid positions 175, 248, 273, or 281, however, correlated with a significant increase of the PCNA promoter activity (2- to 11-fold). The viral promoters were also activated, although to a somewhat lesser extent. We also showed that activation by a mutant p53 requires a minimal promoter containing a lone TATA box. A more significant increase (25-fold) in activation occurs when the promoter contains a binding site for the activating transcription factor or cyclic AMP response element-binding protein. Using Saos-2 cells that do not express p53, we showed that activation by a mutant p53 was a direct enhancement. The mutant forms of p53 used in this study are found in various cancer cells. The activation of PCNA by mutant p53s may indicate a way to increase cell proliferation by the mutant p53s. Thus, our data indicate a possible functional role for the mutants of p53 found in cancer cells in activating several important loci, including PCNA. Images PMID:1356162

  9. The synaptonemal complex protein, Zip1, promotes the segregation of nonexchange chromosomes at meiosis I

    PubMed Central

    Newnham, Louise; Jordan, Philip; Rockmill, Beth; Roeder, G. Shirleen; Hoffmann, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Crossing over establishes connections between homologous chromosomes that promote their proper segregation at the first meiotic division. However, there exists a backup system to ensure the correct segregation of those chromosome pairs that fail to cross over. We have found that, in budding yeast, a mutation eliminating the synaptonemal complex protein, Zip1, increases the meiosis I nondisjunction rate of nonexchange chromosomes (NECs). The centromeres of NECs become tethered during meiotic prophase, and this tethering is disrupted by the zip1 mutation. Furthermore, the Zip1 protein often colocalizes to the centromeres of the tethered chromosomes, suggesting that Zip1 plays a direct role in holding NECs together. Zip3, a protein involved in the initiation of synaptonemal complex formation, is also important for NEC segregation. In the absence of Zip3, both the tethering of NECs and the localization of Zip1 to centromeres are impaired. A mutation in the MAD3 gene, which encodes a component of the spindle checkpoint, also increases the nondisjunction of NECs. Together, the zip1 and mad3 mutations have an additive effect, suggesting that these proteins act in parallel pathways to promote NEC segregation. We propose that Mad3 promotes the segregation of NECs that are not tethered by Zip1 at their centromeres. PMID:20080752

  10. Lamellipodin promotes actin assembly by clustering Ena/VASP proteins and tethering them to actin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Scott D; Mullins, R Dyche

    2015-01-01

    Enabled/Vasodilator (Ena/VASP) proteins promote actin filament assembly at multiple locations, including: leading edge membranes, focal adhesions, and the surface of intracellular pathogens. One important Ena/VASP regulator is the mig-10/Lamellipodin/RIAM family of adaptors that promote lamellipod formation in fibroblasts and drive neurite outgrowth and axon guidance in neurons. To better understand how MRL proteins promote actin network formation we studied the interactions between Lamellipodin (Lpd), actin, and VASP, both in vivo and in vitro. We find that Lpd binds directly to actin filaments and that this interaction regulates its subcellular localization and enhances its effect on VASP polymerase activity. We propose that Lpd delivers Ena/VASP proteins to growing barbed ends and increases their polymerase activity by tethering them to filaments. This interaction represents one more pathway by which growing actin filaments produce positive feedback to control localization and activity of proteins that regulate their assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06585.001 PMID:26295568

  11. Efficient expression of protein coding genes from the murine U1 small nuclear RNA promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, J S; Sethna, M; Ramamurthy, L; Gowen, S A; Samulski, R J; Marzluff, W F

    1996-01-01

    Few promoters are active at high levels in all cells. Of these, the majority encode structural RNAs transcribed by RNA polymerases I or III and are not accessible for the expression of proteins. An exception are the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) transcribed by RNA polymerase II. Although snRNA biosynthesis is unique and thought not to be compatible with synthesis of functional mRNA, we have tested these promoters for their ability to express functional mRNAs. We have used the murine U1a and U1b snRNA gene promoters to express the Escherichia coli lacZ gene and the human alpha-globin gene from either episomal or integrated templates by transfection, or infection into a variety of mammalian cell types. Equivalent expression of beta-galactosidase was obtained from < 250 nucleotides of 5'-flanking sequence containing the complete promoter of either U1 snRNA gene or from the 750-nt cytomegalovirus promoter and enhancer regions. The mRNA was accurately initiated at the U1 start site, efficiently spliced and polyadenylylated, and localized to polyribosomes. Recombinant adenovirus containing the U1b-lacZ chimeric gene transduced and expressed beta-galactosidase efficiently in human 293 cells and airway epithelial cells in culture. Viral vectors containing U1 snRNA promoters may be an attractive alternative to vectors containing viral promoters for persistent high-level expression of therapeutic genes or proteins. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8799116

  12. Conserved distal promoter of the agouti signaling protein (ASIP) gene controls sexual dichromatism in chickens.

    PubMed

    Oribe, Eri; Fukao, Ayaka; Yoshihara, Chihiro; Mendori, Misa; Rosal, Karen G; Takahashi, Sumio; Takeuchi, Sakae

    2012-06-01

    Brilliant plumage is typical of male birds, thus sexual plumage dichromatism is seen in many avian species; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this remains unclear. The agouti signaling protein (ASIP) is a paracrine factor that stimulates yellow/red pigment (pheomelanin) synthesis and inhibits black/brown pigment (eumelanin) synthesis in follicular melanocytes. In mammals, the distal promoter of the ASIP gene acts exclusively on the ventral side of the body to create a countershading pigmentation pattern by stimulating pheomelanin synthesis in the ventrum. Here, we examined the role of the distal ASIP promoter in controlling estrogen-dependent sexual dichromatism in chickens. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that ASIP class 1 mRNAs transcribed by the distal promoter were expressed exclusively on the ventral side of chicks and adult females displaying countershading. In showy adult males, the ASIP class 1 mRNAs were expressed in gold-colored ornamental feathers grown on the back. In the presence of estrogen, males molted into female-like plumage and ASIP class 1 mRNAs expression was altered to female patterns. These results suggest that the distal ASIP promoter produces countershading in chicks and adult females, similar to the ventral-specific ASIP promoter in mammals. In addition, the class 1 promoter plays an important role for creating sexual plumage dichromatism controlled by estrogen. This is the first evidence for a pigmentation gene having been modified in its expression during evolution to develop phenotypic diversity between individuals of different sexes. PMID:22554923

  13. Production and properties of health-promoting proteins and peptides from bovine colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, H J

    2013-01-01

    The high nutritive value and diverse functional properties of milk proteins are well known. Beyond these qualities, milk proteins have attracted growing scientific and commercial interest as a source of biologically active molecules. Such proteins are found in abundance in colostrum which is the initial milk secreted by mammalian species during late pregnancy and the first few days after birth of the offspring. The best characterized colostrum-based bioactive proteins include alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and growth factors. All of them can nowadays be enriched and purified on an industrial scale from bovine colostral whey or cheese whey. These native proteins exhibit a wide range of biological activities that are known to affect the digestive function, metabolic responses to absorbed nutrients, growth and development of organs and disease resistance. Also, some of these proteins may prove beneficial in reduction of the risks of chronic human diseases reflected by the metabolic syndrome. It is speculated that such potentially beneficial effects are partially attributed to bioactive peptides derived from intact proteins. These peptides can be liberated during gastrointestinal digestion or fermentation of milk by starter cultures. The efficacy of a few peptides has been established in animal and human studies and the number of commercial products supplemented with specific milk peptides is envisaged to increase on global markets. Bovine colostrum appears as a highly potential source of biologically active native proteins and peptide fractions for inclusion as health-promoting ingredients in various food applications. PMID:24200017

  14. The transcription factor ATF2 promotes melanoma metastasis by suppressing protein fucosylation

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Eric; Feng, Yongmei; Claps, Giuseppina; Fukuda, Michiko N.; Perlina, Ally; Donn, Dylan; Jilaveanu, Lucia; Kluger, Harriet; Freeze, Hudson H.; Ronai, Ze’ev A.

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most lethal skin cancers worldwide, primarily because of its propensity to metastasize. Thus, the elucidation of mechanisms that govern metastatic propensity is urgently needed. We found that protein kinase Cε (PKCε)–mediated activation of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) controls the migratory and invasive behaviors of melanoma cells. PKCε-dependent phosphorylation of ATF2 promoted its transcriptional repression of the gene encoding fucokinase (FUK), which mediates the fucose salvage pathway and thus global cellular protein fucosylation. In primary melanocytes and cell lines representing early-stage melanoma, the abundance of PKCε-phosphorylated ATF2 was low, thereby enabling the expression of FUK and cellular protein fucosylation, which promoted cellular adhesion and reduced motility. In contrast, increased expression of the gene encoding PKCε and abundance of phosphorylated, transcriptionally active ATF2 were observed in advanced-stage melanomas and correlated with decreased FUK expression, decreased cellular protein fucosylation, attenuated cell adhesion, and increased cell motility. Restoring fucosylation in mice either by dietary fucose supplementation or by genetic manipulation of murine Fuk expression attenuated primary melanoma growth, increased the number of intratumoral natural killer cells, and decreased distal metastasis in murine isograft models. Tumor microarray analysis of human melanoma specimens confirmed reduced fucosylation in metastatic tumors and a better prognosis for primary melanomas that had high abundance of fucosylation. Thus, inhibiting PKCε or ATF2 or increasing protein fucosylation in tumor cells may improve clinical outcome in melanoma patients. PMID:26645581

  15. Golgi protein 73 activation of MMP-13 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Wang, Yanan; Li, Li; Hu, Zhongdong; Zhou, Zhenzhen; Chang, Xiuli; Qu, Chunfeng; Zhang, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Golgi Protein 73 (GP73) is a serum biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), however its role in HCC is not clear. We report that GP73 promotes cell invasion, the hallmark of malignancy, through the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13). GP73 enhances MMP-13 expression through cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription activation. Levels of GP73 and MMP-13 are increased and positively correlated in human HCC tissues. Augmented MMP-13 potentiates HCC cell metastasis. Thus, the GP73-CREB-MMP-13 axis potentiates cancer cell invasion and may be a target for HCC treatment. PMID:26378022

  16. RNA-binding proteins ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 promote cell quiescence.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Alison; Saveliev, Alexander; Łukasiak, Sebastian; Hodson, Daniel J; Bolland, Daniel; Balmanno, Kathryn; Ahlfors, Helena; Monzón-Casanova, Elisa; Mannurita, Sara Ciullini; Bell, Lewis S; Andrews, Simon; Díaz-Muñoz, Manuel D; Cook, Simon J; Corcoran, Anne; Turner, Martin

    2016-04-22

    Progression through the stages of lymphocyte development requires coordination of the cell cycle. Such coordination ensures genomic integrity while cells somatically rearrange their antigen receptor genes [in a process called variable-diversity-joining (VDJ) recombination] and, upon successful rearrangement, expands the pools of progenitor lymphocytes. Here we show that in developing B lymphocytes, the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 are critical for maintaining quiescence before precursor B cell receptor (pre-BCR) expression and for reestablishing quiescence after pre-BCR-induced expansion. These RBPs suppress an evolutionarily conserved posttranscriptional regulon consisting of messenger RNAs whose protein products cooperatively promote transition into the S phase of the cell cycle. This mechanism promotes VDJ recombination and effective selection of cells expressing immunoglobulin-μ at the pre-BCR checkpoint. PMID:27102483

  17. An essential GT motif in the lamin A promoter mediates activation by CREB-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Janaki Ramaiah, M.; Parnaik, Veena K. . E-mail: veenap@ccmb.res.in

    2006-09-29

    Lamin A is an important component of nuclear architecture in mammalian cells. Mutations in the human lamin A gene lead to highly degenerative disorders that affect specific tissues. In studies directed towards understanding the mode of regulation of the lamin A promoter, we have identified an essential GT motif at -55 position by reporter gene assays and mutational analysis. Binding of this sequence to Sp transcription factors has been observed in electrophoretic mobility shift assays and by chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. Further functional analysis by co-expression of recombinant proteins and ChIP assays has shown an important regulatory role for CREB-binding protein in promoter activation, which is mediated by the GT motif.

  18. Translocation and activation of protein kinase C by the plasma cell tumor-promoting alkane pristane.

    PubMed

    Janz, S; Gawrisch, K; Lester, D S

    1995-02-01

    Pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) is a C19-isoalkane that promotes the development of plasmacytomas in genetically susceptible BALB/c mice. Similarities between the effects of pristane and protein kinase C (PKC)-activating phorbol esters suggested that the tumor promoting activity of pristane might involve the activation of PKC. Here we show that up to 5 mol% of pristane can be homogeneously incorporated into phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine bilayers. Membrane-incorporated pristane partially activated PKC and increased phorbol ester binding to the bilayer by more than 50%. Pristane (50 microM) delivered as an inclusion complex with beta-cyclodextrin to promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cells induced a partial long-term translocation of PKC to the cell membrane. This was accompanied by differentiation of HL-60 cells into macrophage-like cells. It is concluded that activation of PKC may comprise an important aspect of the tumor promoting potential of pristane. PMID:7834620

  19. Recombination-stable multimeric green fluorescent protein for characterization of weak promoter outputs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rugbjerg, Peter; Knuf, Christoph; Förster, Jochen; Sommer, Morten O A

    2015-12-01

    Green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) are widely used for visualization of proteins to track localization and expression dynamics. However, phenotypically important processes can operate at too low expression levels for routine detection, i.e. be overshadowed by autofluorescence noise. While GFP functions well in translational fusions, the use of tandem GFPs to amplify fluorescence signals is currently avoided in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and many other microorganisms due to the risk of loop-out by direct-repeat recombination. We increased GFP fluorescence by translationally fusing three different GFP variants, yeast-enhanced GFP, GFP+ and superfolder GFP to yield a sequence-diverged triple GFP molecule 3vGFP with 74-84% internal repeat identity. Unlike a single GFP, the brightness of 3vGFP allowed characterization of a weak promoter in S. cerevisiae. Utilizing 3vGFP, we further engineered a less leaky Cu(2+)-inducible promoter based on CUP1. The basal expression level of the new promoter was approximately 61% below the wild-type CUP1 promoter, thus expanding the absolute range of Cu(2+)-based gene control. The stability of 3vGFP towards direct-repeat recombination was assayed in S. cerevisiae cultured for 25 generations under strong and slightly toxic expression after which only limited reduction in fluorescence was detectable. Such non-recombinogenic GFPs can help quantify intracellular responses operating a low copy number in recombination-prone organisms. PMID:26392044

  20. The promoter of filamentation (POF1) protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ATPase involved in the protein quality control process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The gene YCL047C, which has been renamed promoter of filamentation gene (POF1), has recently been described as a cell component involved in yeast filamentous growth. The objective of this work is to understand the molecular and biological function of this gene. Results Here, we report that the protein encoded by the POF1 gene, Pof1p, is an ATPase that may be part of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein quality control pathway. According to the results, Δpof1 cells showed increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, heat shock and protein unfolding agents, such as dithiothreitol and tunicamycin. Besides, the overexpression of POF1 suppressed the sensitivity of Δpct1, a strain that lacks a gene that encodes a phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, to heat shock. In vitro analysis showed, however, that the purified Pof1p enzyme had no cytidylyltransferase activity but does have ATPase activity, with catalytic efficiency comparable to other ATPases involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of proteins (ERAD). Supporting these findings, co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed a physical interaction between Pof1p and Ubc7p (an ubiquitin conjugating enzyme) in vivo. Conclusions Taken together, the results strongly suggest that the biological function of Pof1p is related to the regulation of protein degradation. PMID:22204397

  1. Genomic structure, gene expression, and promoter analysis of human multidrug resistance-associated protein 7

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Hsin-Hsin; Chang, Ming-Shi; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Huang, Jin-Ding

    2002-03-15

    The multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) subfamily transporters associated with anticancer drug efflux are attributed to the multidrug-resistance of cancer cells. The genomic organization of human multidrug resistance-associated protein 7 (MRP7) was identified. The human MRP7 gene, consisting of 22 exons and 21 introns, greatly differs from other members of the human MRP subfamily. A splicing variant of human MRP7, MRP7A, expressed in most human tissues, was also characterized. The 1.93-kb promoter region of MRP7 was isolated and shown to support luciferase activity at a level 4- to 5-fold greater than that of the SV40 promoter. Basal MRP7 gene expression was regulated by 2 regions in the 5-flanking region at 1,780 1,287 bp, and at 611 to 208 bp. In Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, MRP7 promoter activity was increased by 226 percent by genotoxic 2-acetylaminofluorene and 347 percent by the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A. The protein was expressed in the membrane fraction of transfected MDCK cells.

  2. Identification of proteins sensitive to thermal stress in human neuroblastoma and glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guilian; Stevens, Stanley M; Kobeissy, Firas; Kobiessy, Firas; Brown, Hilda; McClung, Scott; Gold, Mark S; Borchelt, David R

    2012-01-01

    Heat-shock is an acute insult to the mammalian proteome. The sudden elevation in temperature has far-reaching effects on protein metabolism, leads to a rapid inhibition of most protein synthesis, and the induction of protein chaperones. Using heat-shock in cells of neuronal (SH-SY5Y) and glial (CCF-STTG1) lineage, in conjunction with detergent extraction and sedimentation followed by LC-MS/MS proteomic approaches, we sought to identify human proteins that lose solubility upon heat-shock. The two cell lines showed largely overlapping profiles of proteins detected by LC-MS/MS. We identified 58 proteins in detergent insoluble fractions as losing solubility in after heat shock; 10 were common between the 2 cell lines. A subset of the proteins identified by LC-MS/MS was validated by immunoblotting of similarly prepared fractions. Ultimately, we were able to definitively identify 3 proteins as putatively metastable neural proteins; FEN1, CDK1, and TDP-43. We also determined that after heat-shock these cells accumulate insoluble polyubiquitin chains largely linked via lysine 48 (K-48) residues. Collectively, this study identifies human neural proteins that lose solubility upon heat-shock. These proteins may represent components of the human proteome that are vulnerable to misfolding in settings of proteostasis stress. PMID:23145051

  3. Promoter-cDNA-directed heterologous protein expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Swick, A G; Janicot, M; Cheneval-Kastelic, T; McLenithan, J C; Lane, M D

    1992-01-01

    Heterologous proteins can be expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by cytoplasmic microinjection of mRNA. To circumvent limitations inherent in this approach we investigate direct nuclear injection of strong viral expression vectors to drive transcription and subsequent translation of cDNAs encoding cytoplasmic, secreted, and plasma membrane proteins. After several viral promoters had been tested, the pMT2 vector was found to be a superior expression vector for X. laevis oocytes capable of directing expression of high levels of functional heterologous proteins. Typically the amount of protein derived from transcription-translation of the microinjected cDNA accounts for approximately 1% of total non-yolk protein. Moreover, the inefficiency usually associated with nuclear injections was overcome by coinjection of pMT2 driving expression of a secreted alkaline phosphatase as an internal control to select positive-expressing oocytes. Using this method, we have successfully expressed high levels of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, the adipocyte-specific cytosolic 422(aP2) protein, and the membrane-associated glucose transporter GLUT1. The system described should be applicable to a wide variety of proteins for which cDNAs are available. Hence, the cumbersome and often inefficient in vitro synthesis of mRNA for studying ion channels, receptors, and transporters as well as for expression cloning in Xenopus oocytes should no longer be necessary. Images PMID:1542676

  4. Coxiella burnetii Effector Proteins That Localize to the Parasitophorous Vacuole Membrane Promote Intracellular Replication

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Charles L.; Beare, Paul A.; Voth, Daniel E.; Howe, Dale; Cockrell, Diane C.; Bastidas, Robert J.; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii directs biogenesis of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that acquires host endolysosomal components. Formation of a PV that supports C. burnetii replication requires a Dot/Icm type 4B secretion system (T4BSS) that delivers bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytosol. Thus, a subset of T4BSS effectors are presumed to direct PV biogenesis. Recently, the PV-localized effector protein CvpA was found to promote C. burnetii intracellular growth and PV expansion. We predict additional C. burnetii effectors localize to the PV membrane and regulate eukaryotic vesicle trafficking events that promote pathogen growth. To identify these vacuolar effector proteins, a list of predicted C. burnetii T4BSS substrates was compiled using bioinformatic criteria, such as the presence of eukaryote-like coiled-coil domains. Adenylate cyclase translocation assays revealed 13 proteins were secreted in a Dot/Icm-dependent fashion by C. burnetii during infection of human THP-1 macrophages. Four of the Dot/Icm substrates, termed Coxiella vacuolar protein B (CvpB), CvpC, CvpD, and CvpE, labeled the PV membrane and LAMP1-positive vesicles when ectopically expressed as fluorescently tagged fusion proteins. C. burnetii ΔcvpB, ΔcvpC, ΔcvpD, and ΔcvpE mutants exhibited significant defects in intracellular replication and PV formation. Genetic complementation of the ΔcvpD and ΔcvpE mutants rescued intracellular growth and PV generation, whereas the growth of C. burnetii ΔcvpB and ΔcvpC was rescued upon cohabitation with wild-type bacteria in a common PV. Collectively, these data indicate C. burnetii encodes multiple effector proteins that target the PV membrane and benefit pathogen replication in human macrophages. PMID:25422265

  5. Promoter and signal sequence from filamentous fungus can drive recombinant protein production in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Aravind; Sukumaran, Rajeev K

    2014-08-01

    Cross-recognition of promoters from filamentous fungi in yeast can have important consequences towards developing fungal expression systems, especially for the rapid evaluation of their efficacy. A truncated 510bp inducible Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I (cbh1) promoter was tested for the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in Kluyveromyces lactis after disrupting its native β-galactosidase (lac4) promoter. The efficiency of the CBH1 secretion signal was also evaluated by fusing it to the lac4 promoter of the yeast, which significantly increased the secretion of recombinant protein in K. lactis compared to the native α-mating factor secretion signal. The fungal promoter is demonstrated to have potential to drive heterologous protein production in K. lactis; and the small sized T. reesei cbh1 secretion signal can mediate the protein secretion in K. lactis with high efficiency. PMID:24661814

  6. Surfactant Protein-C Promoter Variants Associated with Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome Reduce Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Wambach, Jennifer A.; Yang, Ping; Wegner, Daniel J.; An, Ping; Hackett, Brian P.; Cole, F. S.; Hamvas, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Dominant mutations in coding regions of the surfactant protein-C gene (SFTPC) cause respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in infants. However, the contribution of variants in noncoding regions of SFTPC to pulmonary phenotypes is unknown. Using a case-control group of infants ≥34 weeks gestation (n=538), we used complete resequencing of SFTPC and its promoter, genotyping, and logistic regression to identify 80 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Three promoter SNPs were statistically associated with neonatal RDS among European descent infants. To assess the transcriptional effects of these three promoter SNPs, we selectively mutated the SFTPC promoter and performed transient transfection using MLE-15 cells and a firefly luciferase reporter vector. Each promoter SNP decreased SFTPC transcription. The combination of two variants in high linkage dysequilibrium also decreased SFTPC transcription. In silico evaluation of transcription factor binding demonstrated that the rare allele at g.-1167 disrupts a SOX (SRY-related high mobility group box) consensus motif and introduces a GATA-1 site, at g.-2385 removes a MZF-1 (myeloid zinc finger) binding site, and at g.-1647 removes a potential methylation site. This combined statistical, in vitro, and in silico approach suggests that reduced SFTPC transcription contributes to the genetic risk for neonatal RDS in developmentally susceptible infants. PMID:20539253

  7. Achieving efficient protein expression in Trichoderma reesei by using strong constitutive promoters

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds The fungus Trichoderma reesei is an important workhorse for expression of homologous or heterologous genes, and the inducible cbh1 promoter is generally used. However, constitutive expression is more preferable in some cases than inducible expression that leads to production of unwanted cellulase components. In this work, constitutive promoters of T. reesei were screened and successfully used for high level homologous expression of xylanase II. Results The transcriptional profiles of 13 key genes that participate in glucose metabolism in T. reesei were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The results indicated that the mRNA levels of pdc (encoding pyruvate decarboxylase) and eno (encoding enolase) genes were much higher than other genes under high glucose conditions. Recombinant T. reesei strains that homologously expressed xylanase II were constructed by using the promoters of the pdc and eno genes, and they respectively produced 9266 IU/ml and 8866 IU/ml of xylanase activities in the cultivation supernatant in a medium with high glucose concentration. The productivities of xylanase II were 1.61 g/L (with the pdc promoter) and 1.52 g/L (with the eno promoter), approximately accounted for 83% and 82% of the total protein secreted by T. reesei, respectively. Conclusions This work demonstrates the screening of constitutive promoters by using RT-qPCR in T. reesei, and has obtained the highest expression of recombinant xylanase II to date by using these promoters. PMID:22709462

  8. Sal-like protein 2 upregulates p16 expression through a proximal promoter element

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhenghua; Cheng, Kebin; Shi, Lidan; Li, Zheqi; Negi, Hema; Gao, Guangwei; Kamle, Suchitra; Li, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Sal-like protein 2 (Sall2), a homeotic transcription factor, is a putative tumor suppressor. We have previously shown that Sall2 activates the transcription of tumor suppressor gene p21 and suppresses tumorigenesis through cell cycle inhibition and induction of apoptosis. To investigate additional Sall2-regulated downstream genes, we analyzed the differences in mRNA expression profiles with and without exogenously expressed Sall2. We identified 1616 Sall2-responsive genes through gene expression arrays. Promoter-reporter assays of p16INK4A and several other tumor-related genes indicated that the Sall2 regulation of these promoters was not significantly different between the two major forms of Sall2 with alternative exon 1 or exon 1A. Additional analysis showed that Sall2-induced p16 promoter activation was Sall2 dose-dependent. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis of the p16 promoter identified a consensus Sall2 binding site (GGGTGGG) proximal to the p16 transcription start site and was critical for p16 promoter activation. Finally, to confirm the significance of Sall2-activated p16 expression in cell cycle regulation, we co-transfected the SKOV3 cells with a Sall2 expression construct and a p16 minigene and also co-transfected the ES-2 cells with a Sall2 expression construct and the siRNA against p16 for flow cytometry analysis. Our results showed that Sall2 enhanced the p16 minigene blocking of cell cycle progression and p16 knockdown with siRNA abolished most of the Sall2 inhibition of cell cycle progression. These findings indicate that Sall2 targets multiple cell cycle regulators, including p16, through their promoters, adding knowledge to the understanding of Sall2 and p16 gene regulation, and how Sall2 deregulation may promote cancer formation. PMID:25580951

  9. [Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and genetic mutations including progranulin gene].

    PubMed

    Arai, Tetsuaki; Hasegawa, Masato; Nishihara, Masugi; Nonaka, Takashi; Kametani, Fuyuki; Yoshida, Mari; Hashizume, Yoshio; Beach, Thomas G; Morita, Mitsuya; Nakano, Imaharu; Oda, Tatsuro; Tsuchiya, Kuniaki; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2008-11-01

    Research on familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) has led to the discovery of disease-causing genes: microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), progranulin (PGRN) and valosin-containing protein (VCP). TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been identified as a major component of tau-negative ubiquitin-positive inclusions in familial and sporadic FTLD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which are now referred to as TDP-43 proteinopathy. Recent findings of mutations in TDP-43 gene in familial and sporadic ALS cases confirm the pathogenetic role for TDP-43 in neurodegeneration. TDP-43 proteinopathies have been classified into 4 pathological subtypes. Type 1 is characterized by numerous dystrophic neurites (DNs), Type 2 has numerous neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), Type 3 has NCIs and DNs and Type 4 has neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs) and DNs. There is a close relationship between such pathological subtypes of TDP-43 proteinopathy and the immunoblot pattern of C-terminal fragments of accumulated TDP-43. These results parallel our earlier findings of differing C-terminal tau fragments in progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration, despite identical composition of tau isoforms. Taken together, these results suggest that elucidating the mechanism of C-terminal fragment origination may shed light on the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders involving TDP-43 proteinopathy and tauopathy. PMID:19198141

  10. Defined DNA sequences promote the assembly of a bacterial protein into distinct amyloid nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    RepA, the replication initiator protein of Pseudomonas pPS10 plasmid, is made of two winged-helix (WH) domains. RepA dimers undergo a structural transformation upon binding to origin DNA sequences (iterons), resulting in monomerization and α-helix into β-strand conversion. This affects the N-terminal domain (WH1) and generates a metastable intermediate. Here it is shown that the interaction of short dsDNA oligonucleotides, including iteron or operator RepA targets, with the isolated WH1 domain promotes the assembly of different nanostructures. These range from irregular aggregates to amyloid spheroids and fibers. Their intrinsic order inversely correlates with the extent of the transformation induced by each DNA sequence on RepA. However, DNA is not a constituent of the assembled fibers, in agreement with the protein-only principle for amyloid structure. Thus, the RepA-WH1 domain on DNA binding mimics the behavior of the mammalian prion protein. The stretch of amino acids responsible for WH1 aggregation has been identified, leading to the design of mutants with enhanced or reduced amyloidogenicity and the synthesis of a peptide that assembles into a cross-β structure. RepA amyloid assemblies could have a role in the negative regulation of plasmid replication. This article underlines the potential of specific nucleic acid sequences in promoting protein amyloidogenesis at nearly physiological conditions. PMID:17959784

  11. Heterologous protein expression in Trichoderma reesei using the cbhII promoter.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanju; Wei, Dongzhi; Wang, Wei

    2013-09-01

    To express homologous or heterologous proteins in fungi, a protein expression system using the promoter of cellobiohydrolase II gene (cbhII) was constructed by generating an expression vector called pWEIIF00. The obtained vector possesses the left and right borders, a hygromycin phosphotransferase B selective marker and a strong promoter and terminator of cbhII from Trichoderma reesei. It can easily undergo random recombination. The applicability of the vector was tested by red fluorescent protein gene (DsRed2) expression detection in T. reesei Rut C30. Using this system, a recombinant Cel5A variant, N342R (Qin et al., 2008), was then selected to express in Rut-C30. Compared to that of the parent strain, integration of the N342R gene resulted in 31.09% increased carboxymethyl-cellulose-degrading (CMCase) activity at pH 5.0 and 56.06% increased activity at pH 6.0. The increased CMCase activity of the recombinant strains would be beneficial for its application uses in multiple industries. The vector constructed in this study can used in fungi to produce industrial proteins. PMID:23701911

  12. Partial characterization of a human submandibular/sublingual salivary adhesion-promoting protein.

    PubMed

    Akintoye, S O; Dasso, M; Hay, D I; Ganeshkumar, N; Spielman, A I

    2002-05-01

    Human submandibular/sublingual saliva contains a protein that promotes adhesion of Streptococcus mutans JBP serotype-c to spheroidal hydroxyapatite in vitro. A high molecular-weight (250,000-300,000 Da) adhesion-promoting protein (APP) was purified by Trisacryl 2000 M gel-filtration chromatography and gel electroelution before it was partially characterized. Lectin blotting identified that the terminal carbohydrates include N-acetyl glucosamine-beta 1-4-N-acetylglucosamine, galactose and galactose-beta 1-3-N-acetyl galactosamine. Antibodies to APP demonstrated no difference in the immunoreactive pattern of APP from saliva of caries-active or caries-resistant individuals belonging to four different ethnic groups: Asian, African-American, Hispanic or Caucasian. No immunological similarities to salivary mucins or parotid agglutinins were detected by Western blotting using immuno-cross-reactivity as a criterion. APP appears to be a unique protein found in submandibular/sublingual saliva. Understanding such a protein could help prevent S. mutans attachment to the enamel surface. PMID:12015214

  13. Type II integral membrane protein, TM of J paramyxovirus promotes cell-to-cell fusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuo; Hung, Cher; Paterson, Reay G.; Michel, Frank; Fuentes, Sandra; Place, Ryan; Lin, Yuan; Hogan, Robert J.; Lamb, Robert A.; He, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses include many important animal and human pathogens. Most paramyxoviruses have two integral membrane proteins: fusion protein (F) and attachment proteins hemagglutinin, hemagglutinin–neuraminidase, or glycoprotein (G), which are critical for viral entry into cells. J paramyxovirus (JPV) encodes four integral membrane proteins: F, G, SH, and transmembrane (TM). The function of TM is not known. In this work, we have generated a viable JPV lacking TM (JPV∆TM). JPV∆TM formed opaque plaques compared with JPV. Quantitative syncytia assays showed that JPV∆TM was defective in promoting cell-to-cell fusion (i.e., syncytia formation) compared with JPV. Furthermore, cells separately expressing F, G, TM, or F plus G did not form syncytia whereas cells expressing F plus TM formed some syncytia. However, syncytia formation was much greater with coexpression of F, G, and TM. Biochemical analysis indicates that F, G, and TM interact with each other. A small hydrophobic region in the TM ectodomain from amino acid residues 118 to 132, the hydrophobic loop (HL), was important for syncytial promotion, suggesting that the TM HL region plays a critical role in cell-to-cell fusion. PMID:26392524

  14. The surface-anchored NanA protein promotes pneumococcal brain endothelial cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Satoshi; Carlin, Aaron F; Khosravi, Arya; Weiman, Shannon; Banerjee, Anirban; Quach, Darin; Hightower, George; Mitchell, Tim J; Doran, Kelly S; Nizet, Victor

    2009-08-31

    In humans, Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPN) is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, a disease with high attributable mortality and frequent permanent neurological sequelae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the central nervous system tropism of SPN are incompletely understood, but include a primary interaction of the pathogen with the blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium. All SPN strains possess a gene encoding the surface-anchored sialidase (neuraminidase) NanA, which cleaves sialic acid on host cells and proteins. Here, we use an isogenic SPN NanA-deficient mutant and heterologous expression of the protein to show that NanA is both necessary and sufficient to promote SPN adherence to and invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs). NanA-mediated hBMEC invasion depends only partially on sialidase activity, whereas the N-terminal lectinlike domain of the protein plays a critical role. NanA promotes SPN-BBB interaction in a murine infection model, identifying the protein as proximal mediator of CNS entry by the pathogen. PMID:19687228

  15. A liver stress-endocrine nexus promotes metabolic integrity during dietary protein dilution.

    PubMed

    Maida, Adriano; Zota, Annika; Sjøberg, Kim A; Schumacher, Jonas; Sijmonsma, Tjeerd P; Pfenninger, Anja; Christensen, Marie M; Gantert, Thomas; Fuhrmeister, Jessica; Rothermel, Ulrike; Schmoll, Dieter; Heikenwälder, Mathias; Iovanna, Juan L; Stemmer, Kerstin; Kiens, Bente; Herzig, Stephan; Rose, Adam J

    2016-09-01

    Dietary protein intake is linked to an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although dietary protein dilution (DPD) can slow the progression of some aging-related disorders, whether this strategy affects the development and risk for obesity-associated metabolic disease such as T2D is unclear. Here, we determined that DPD in mice and humans increases serum markers of metabolic health. In lean mice, DPD promoted metabolic inefficiency by increasing carbohydrate and fat oxidation. In nutritional and polygenic murine models of obesity, DPD prevented and curtailed the development of impaired glucose homeostasis independently of obesity and food intake. DPD-mediated metabolic inefficiency and improvement of glucose homeostasis were independent of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), but required expression of liver-derived fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in both lean and obese mice. FGF21 expression and secretion as well as the associated metabolic remodeling induced by DPD also required induction of liver-integrated stress response-driven nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1). Insufficiency of select nonessential amino acids (NEAAs) was necessary and adequate for NUPR1 and subsequent FGF21 induction and secretion in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that DPD promotes improved glucose homeostasis through an NEAA insufficiency-induced liver NUPR1/FGF21 axis. PMID:27548521

  16. The Arabidopsis PLAT domain protein1 promotes abiotic stress tolerance and growth in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Albacete, Alfonso; van der Graaff, Eric; Eom, Seung Hee; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Böhm, Hannah; Janschek, Ursula; Rim, Yeonggil; Ali, Walid Wahid; Kim, Soo Young; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Plant growth and consequently crop yield can be severely compromised by abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Transgenic approaches that resulted in increased tolerance against abiotic stresses often were typically accompanied by adverse effects on plant growth and fitness under optimal growing conditions. Proteins that belong to the PLAT-plant-stress protein family harbour a single PLAT (Polycystin, Lipoxygenase, Alpha-toxin and Triacylglycerol lipase) domain and are ubiquitously present in monocot and dicot plant species. Until now, only limited data is available for PLAT-plant-stress family members, which suggested that these proteins in general could promote tolerance towards stress responses. We studied the function of the Arabidopsis PLAT-plant-stress protein AtPLAT1 employing heterologous gain-of-function analysis in tobacco. AtPLAT1 conferred increased abiotic stress tolerance in tobacco, evident by improved tolerance towards cold, drought and salt stresses, and promoted growth, reflected by a faster development under non-stressed conditions. However, the overexpression of AtPLAT1 in tobacco reduced the tolerance towards biotic stress conditions and, therefore, could be involved in regulating the crosstalk between abiotic and biotic stress responses. Thus, we showed that heterologously expressed AtPLAT1 functions as positive regulator of abiotic stress tolerance and plant growth, which could be an important new asset for strategies to develop plants with improved abiotic stress tolerance, without growth and subsequent yield penalties under optimal growth conditions. PMID:25757741

  17. Potentiated Hsp104 variants suppress toxicity of diverse neurodegenerative disease-linked proteins.

    PubMed

    Jackrel, Meredith E; Shorter, James

    2014-10-01

    Protein misfolding is implicated in numerous lethal neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson disease (PD). There are no therapies that reverse these protein-misfolding events. We aim to apply Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ protein from yeast, to target misfolded conformers for reactivation. Hsp104 solubilizes disordered aggregates and amyloid, but has limited activity against human neurodegenerative disease proteins. Thus, we have previously engineered potentiated Hsp104 variants that suppress aggregation, proteotoxicity and restore proper protein localization of ALS and PD proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and mitigate neurodegeneration in an animal PD model. Here, we establish that potentiated Hsp104 variants possess broad substrate specificity and, in yeast, suppress toxicity and aggregation induced by wild-type TDP-43, FUS and α-synuclein, as well as missense mutant versions of these proteins that cause neurodegenerative disease. Potentiated Hsp104 variants also rescue toxicity and aggregation of TAF15 but not EWSR1, two RNA-binding proteins with a prion-like domain that are connected with the development of ALS and frontotemporal dementia. Thus, potentiated Hsp104 variants are not entirely non-specific. Indeed, they do not unfold just any natively folded protein. Rather, potentiated Hsp104 variants are finely tuned to unfold proteins bearing short unstructured tracts that are not recognized by wild-type Hsp104. Our studies establish the broad utility of potentiated Hsp104 variants. PMID:25062688

  18. Differential Regulation of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Promoter Activation and Protein Degradation by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Qing, Hua; Aono, Jun; Findeisen, Hannes M; Jones, Karrie L; Heywood, Elizabeth B; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) maintains telomeres and is rate limiting for replicative life span. While most somatic tissues silence TERT transcription resulting in telomere shortening, cells derived from cancer or cardiovascular diseases express TERT and activate telomerase. In the present study, we demonstrate that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition induces TERT transcription and promoter activation. At the protein level in contrast, HDAC inhibition decreases TERT protein abundance through enhanced degradation, which decreases telomerase activity and induces senescence. Finally, we demonstrate that HDAC inhibition decreases TERT expression during vascular remodeling in vivo. These data illustrate a differential regulation of TERT transcription and protein stability by HDAC inhibition and suggest that TERT may constitute an important target for the anti-proliferative efficacy of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:26505494

  19. RGS Proteins and Septins Cooperate to Promote Chemotropism by Regulating Polar Cap Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Joshua B; Dixit, Gauri; Sheetz, Joshua B; Venkatapurapu, Sai Phanindra; Elston, Timothy C; Dohlman, Henrik G

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Septins are well known to form a boundary between mother and daughter cells in mitosis, but their role in other morphogenic states is poorly understood. Results Using microfluidics and live cell microscopy, coupled with new computational methods for image analysis, we investigated septin function during pheromone-dependent chemotropic growth in yeast. We show that septins colocalize with the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) Sst2, a GTPase-activating protein that dampens pheromone receptor signaling. We show further that the septin structure surrounds the polar cap, ensuring that cell growth is directed toward the source of pheromone. When RGS activity is abrogated, septins are partially disorganized. Under these circumstances the polar cap travels toward septin structures and away from sites of exocytosis, resulting in a loss of gradient tracking. Conclusion Septin organization is dependent on RGS protein activity. When assembled correctly, septins promote turning of the polar cap and proper tracking of a pheromone gradient. PMID:25601550

  20. Promotion of beta-glucan synthase activity in corn microsomal membranes by calcium and protein phosphorylation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paliyath, G.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1988-01-01

    Regulation of the activity of beta-glucan synthase was studied using microsomal preparations from corn coleoptiles. The specific activity as measured by the incorporation of glucose from uridine diphospho-D-[U-14C]glucose varied between 5 to 15 pmol (mg protein)-1 min-1. Calcium promoted beta-glucan synthase activity and the promotion was observed at free calcium concentrations as low as 1 micromole. Kinetic analysis of substrate-velocity curve showed an apparent Km of 1.92 x 10(-4) M for UDPG. Calcium increased the Vmax from 5.88 x 10(-7) mol liter-1 min-1 in the absence of calcium to 9.52 x 10(-7) mol liter-1 min-1 and 1.66 x 10(-6) mol liter-1 min-1 in the presence of 0.5 mM and 1 mM calcium, respectively. The Km values remained the same under these conditions. Addition of ATP further increased the activity above the calcium-promoted level. Sodium fluoride, a phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor, promoted glucan synthase activity indicating that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are involved in the regulation of the enzyme activity. Increasing the concentration of sodium fluoride from 0.25 mM to 10 mM increased glucan synthase activity five-fold over the + calcium + ATP control. Phosphorylation of membrane proteins also showed a similar increase under these conditions. Calmodulin, in the presence of calcium and ATP stimulated glucan synthase activity substantially, indicating that calmodulin could be involved in the calcium-dependent phosphorylation and promotion of beta-glucan synthase activity. The role of calcium in mediating auxin action is discussed.

  1. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus envelope protein ion channel activity promotes virus fitness and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Torres, Jose L; DeDiego, Marta L; Verdiá-Báguena, Carmina; Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose M; Regla-Nava, Jose A; Fernandez-Delgado, Raul; Castaño-Rodriguez, Carlos; Alcaraz, Antonio; Torres, Jaume; Aguilella, Vicente M; Enjuanes, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Deletion of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) gene attenuates the virus. E gene encodes a small multifunctional protein that possesses ion channel (IC) activity, an important function in virus-host interaction. To test the contribution of E protein IC activity in virus pathogenesis, two recombinant mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs, each containing one single amino acid mutation that suppressed ion conductivity, were engineered. After serial infections, mutant viruses, in general, incorporated compensatory mutations within E gene that rendered active ion channels. Furthermore, IC activity conferred better fitness in competition assays, suggesting that ion conductivity represents an advantage for the virus. Interestingly, mice infected with viruses displaying E protein IC activity, either with the wild-type E protein sequence or with the revertants that restored ion transport, rapidly lost weight and died. In contrast, mice infected with mutants lacking IC activity, which did not incorporate mutations within E gene during the experiment, recovered from disease and most survived. Knocking down E protein IC activity did not significantly affect virus growth in infected mice but decreased edema accumulation, the major determinant of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) leading to death. Reduced edema correlated with lung epithelia integrity and proper localization of Na+/K+ ATPase, which participates in edema resolution. Levels of inflammasome-activated IL-1β were reduced in the lung airways of the animals infected with viruses lacking E protein IC activity, indicating that E protein IC function is required for inflammasome activation. Reduction of IL-1β was accompanied by diminished amounts of TNF and IL-6 in the absence of E protein ion conductivity. All these key cytokines promote the progression of lung damage and ARDS pathology. In conclusion, E protein IC activity represents a new determinant for SARS-CoV virulence. PMID:24788150

  2. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Envelope Protein Ion Channel Activity Promotes Virus Fitness and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Torres, Jose L.; DeDiego, Marta L.; Verdiá-Báguena, Carmina; Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose M.; Regla-Nava, Jose A.; Fernandez-Delgado, Raul; Castaño-Rodriguez, Carlos; Alcaraz, Antonio; Torres, Jaume; Aguilella, Vicente M.; Enjuanes, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Deletion of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) gene attenuates the virus. E gene encodes a small multifunctional protein that possesses ion channel (IC) activity, an important function in virus-host interaction. To test the contribution of E protein IC activity in virus pathogenesis, two recombinant mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs, each containing one single amino acid mutation that suppressed ion conductivity, were engineered. After serial infections, mutant viruses, in general, incorporated compensatory mutations within E gene that rendered active ion channels. Furthermore, IC activity conferred better fitness in competition assays, suggesting that ion conductivity represents an advantage for the virus. Interestingly, mice infected with viruses displaying E protein IC activity, either with the wild-type E protein sequence or with the revertants that restored ion transport, rapidly lost weight and died. In contrast, mice infected with mutants lacking IC activity, which did not incorporate mutations within E gene during the experiment, recovered from disease and most survived. Knocking down E protein IC activity did not significantly affect virus growth in infected mice but decreased edema accumulation, the major determinant of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) leading to death. Reduced edema correlated with lung epithelia integrity and proper localization of Na+/K+ ATPase, which participates in edema resolution. Levels of inflammasome-activated IL-1β were reduced in the lung airways of the animals infected with viruses lacking E protein IC activity, indicating that E protein IC function is required for inflammasome activation. Reduction of IL-1β was accompanied by diminished amounts of TNF and IL-6 in the absence of E protein ion conductivity. All these key cytokines promote the progression of lung damage and ARDS pathology. In conclusion, E protein IC activity represents a new determinant for SARS-CoV virulence. PMID:24788150

  3. Complex architecture of major histocompatibility complex class II promoters: reiterated motifs and conserved protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Jabrane-Ferrat, N; Fontes, J D; Boss, J M; Peterlin, B M

    1996-01-01

    The S box (also known as at the H, W, or Z box) is the 5'-most element of the conserved upstream sequences in promoters of major histocompatibility complex class II genes. It is important for their B-cell-specific and interferon gamma-inducible expression. In this study, we demonstrate that the S box represents a duplication of the downstream X box. First, RFX, which is composed of the RFX5-p36 heterodimer that binds to the X box, also binds to the S box and its 5'-flanking sequence. Second, NF-Y, which binds to the Y box and increases interactions between RFX and the X box, also increases the binding of RFX to the S box. Third, RFXs bound to S and X boxes interact with each other in a spatially constrained manner. Finally, we confirmed these protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions by expressing a hybrid RFX5-VP16 protein in cells. We conclude that RFX binds to S and X boxes and that complex interactions between RFX and NF-Y direct B-cell-specific and interferon gamma-inducible expression or major histocompatibility complex class II genes. PMID:8756625

  4. Gadd45a Protein Promotes Skeletal Muscle Atrophy by Forming a Complex with the Protein Kinase MEKK4.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Steven A; Seo, Seongjin; Schilling, Birgit; Dyle, Michael C; Dierdorff, Jason M; Ebert, Scott M; DeLau, Austin D; Gibson, Bradford W; Adams, Christopher M

    2016-08-19

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a serious and highly prevalent condition that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Previous work found that skeletal muscle atrophy involves an increase in skeletal muscle Gadd45a expression, which is necessary and sufficient for skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. However, the direct mechanism by which Gadd45a promotes skeletal muscle atrophy was unknown. To address this question, we biochemically isolated skeletal muscle proteins that associate with Gadd45a as it induces atrophy in mouse skeletal muscle fibers in vivo We found that Gadd45a interacts with multiple proteins in skeletal muscle fibers, including, most prominently, MEKK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that was not previously known to play a role in skeletal muscle atrophy. Furthermore, we found that, by forming a complex with MEKK4 in skeletal muscle fibers, Gadd45a increases MEKK4 protein kinase activity, which is both sufficient to induce skeletal muscle fiber atrophy and required for Gadd45a-mediated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. Together, these results identify a direct biochemical mechanism by which Gadd45a induces skeletal muscle atrophy and provide new insight into the way that skeletal muscle atrophy occurs at the molecular level. PMID:27358404

  5. DNA strand annealing is promoted by the yeast Rad52 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, U H; Bendixen, C; Sunjevaric, I; Rothstein, R

    1996-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD52 gene plays a pivotal role in genetic recombination. Here we demonstrate that yeast Rad52 is a DNA binding protein. To show that the interaction between Rad52 and DNA is direct and not mediated by other yeast proteins and to facilitate protein purification, a recombinant expression system was developed. The recombinant protein can bind both single- and double-stranded DNA and the addition of either Mg2+ or ATP does not enhance the binding of single-stranded DNA. Furthermore, a DNA binding domain was found in the evolutionary conserved N terminus of the protein. More importantly, we show that the protein stimulates DNA annealing even in the presence of a large excess of nonhomologous DNA. Rad52-promoted annealing follows second-order kinetics and the rate is 3500-fold faster than that of the spontaneous reaction. How this annealing activity relates to the genetic phenotype associated with rad52 mutant cells is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8855248

  6. Conserved interdomain linker promotes phase separation of the multivalent adaptor protein Nck

    PubMed Central

    Banjade, Sudeep; Wu, Qiong; Mittal, Anuradha; Peeples, William B.; Pappu, Rohit V.; Rosen, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    The organization of membranes, the cytosol, and the nucleus of eukaryotic cells can be controlled through phase separation of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Collective interactions of multivalent molecules mediated by modular binding domains can induce gelation and phase separation in several cytosolic and membrane-associated systems. The adaptor protein Nck has three SRC-homology 3 (SH3) domains that bind multiple proline-rich segments in the actin regulatory protein neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and an SH2 domain that binds to multiple phosphotyrosine sites in the adhesion protein nephrin, leading to phase separation. Here, we show that the 50-residue linker between the first two SH3 domains of Nck enhances phase separation of Nck/N-WASP/nephrin assemblies. Two linear motifs within this element, as well as its overall positively charged character, are important for this effect. The linker increases the driving force for self-assembly of Nck, likely through weak interactions with the second SH3 domain, and this effect appears to promote phase separation. The linker sequence is highly conserved, suggesting that the sequence determinants of the driving forces for phase separation may be generally important to Nck functions. Our studies demonstrate that linker regions between modular domains can contribute to the driving forces for self-assembly and phase separation of multivalent proteins. PMID:26553976

  7. HyCCAPP as a tool to characterize promoter DNA-protein interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Guillen-Ahlers, Hector; Rao, Prahlad K; Levenstein, Mark E; Kennedy-Darling, Julia; Perumalla, Danu S; Jadhav, Avinash Y L; Glenn, Jeremy P; Ludwig-Kubinski, Amy; Drigalenko, Eugene; Montoya, Maria J; Göring, Harald H; Anderson, Corianna D; Scalf, Mark; Gildersleeve, Heidi I S; Cole, Regina; Greene, Alexandra M; Oduro, Akua K; Lazarova, Katarina; Cesnik, Anthony J; Barfknecht, Jared; Cirillo, Lisa A; Gasch, Audrey P; Shortreed, Michael R; Smith, Lloyd M; Olivier, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Currently available methods f